LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE ...
LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-116). - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot Bridge, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA
Evaluating the performance of skewed prestressed concrete bridge after strengthening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naser, Ali Fadhil; Zonglin, Wang
2013-06-01
The objectives of this paper are to explain the application of repairing and strengthening methods on the damaged members of the bridge structure, to analyze the static and dynamic structural response under static and dynamic loads after strengthening, and to evaluate the structural performance after application of strengthening method. The repairing and strengthening methods which are used in this study include treatment of the cracks, thickening the web of box girder along the bridge length and adding internal pre-stressing tendons in the thickening web, and construct reinforced concrete cross beams (diaphragms) between two box girders. The results of theoretical analysis of static and dynamic structural responses after strengthening show that the tensile stresses are decreased and become less than the allowable limit values in the codes. The values of vertical deflection are decreased after strengthening. The values of natural frequencies after strengthening are increased, indicating that the strengthening method is effective to reduce the vibration of the bridge structure. Therefore, the strengthening methods are effective to improve the bearing capacity and elastic working state of the bridge structure and to increase the service life of the bridge structure.
Truck loading positions for maximum live load girder moment in skewed integral bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yalcin, O. Fatih
2015-12-01
In this study, the effect of the longitudinal and transverse truck positions on the distribution of live load moment among the girders of skewed integral abutment bridges (SIBs) is investigated. For this purpose, three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of several single-span SIBs are built and analyzed. In the analyses, bridges with various skew angles under all possible single and double truck loading positions both in longitudinal and transverse directions are considered. An automated analysis procedure managed by a visual basic program is developed to obtain the structural models and apply the wheel loads of trucks. The finite element analyses (FEA) results are then used to find the most critical loading cases of single truck and adjacent two trucks for the live load moment in the girders of SIBs. The results revealed that, the trucks should be placed nearby the midline of the bridge deck in a diagonal manner.
Construction engineering of steel tub-girder bridge systems for skew effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez Chong, Juan Manuel
Closed structural sections, such as those having circular, rectangular or trapezoidal shape, possess high rotational rigidity when compared to open sections such as I-girders. The high torsional rigidity of closed sections makes them ideal for use in highly curved bridges. In this case, the geometry of the bridge results in large torsional forces. Because of structural efficiency and economy reasons, most of these closed-section bridges consist of a trapezoidal cross-section, with a top concrete slab and bottom and side steel plates. The slab is cast after the steel is erected and thus a system of internal diaphragms and braces is necessary to stabilize the system during erection. During the steel erection and the early stages of the concrete deck placement, the section can be considered as quasi-closed as the top concrete flange has not been cast or is not yet effective. During steel erection, undetermined and/or large torsional forces and/or displacements may result in fit-up problems requiring large stresses to overcome. During concrete deck placement, the undetermined displacements can affect the control of the deck thickness and the final deck geometry, such as the alignment of deck joints and the matching of stages in phased constructions projects. Due to the interactions between their various components, the behavior of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges is significantly more complex than that of straight bridges. When skewed supports are used in tub-girders, the interaction of the girder bending rotations and the displacement constraints induced by the skewed support diaphragms causes twisting of the girders at the supports. These twist rotations introduce additional torques into the system. Both curvature and skew can cause design and construction difficulties, especially at the supports, where the corresponding steel dead load deflections and the large torsional stiffness of the girders may lead to large fit-up forces. Currently, the general understanding of the level of sophistication of analysis models required to properly predict forces and deformations of curved and/or skewed bridges during construction is limited. The development of guidelines regarding the sufficiency of simplified methods of structural analysis is the overall motivation and objective of this dissertation. This research addresses the construction load effects due to skew and due to combined skew and curvature and develops design recommendations and analytical tools for the construction engineering of tub-girder bridges. The effects of skew and curvature are studied by examining the results for different levels of analysis for 18 representative bridges. These bridges reflect the range of bridge curvature and skew used in current practice. By comparing the output from simplified analysis methods to validated refined 3D FEA solutions, general conclusions are developed as to when the simplified methods provide sufficient results. An important original contribution of this research is that the data generated constitutes the first systematic study on a large set of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges using consistent refined 3D FEA models to model construction forces and deformations. As such, the results of this research can serve as a benchmark for current and future improvements in methods of analysis and design for the construction engineering of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges. In the current research, this data has been used in both straight and curved tub-girder bridges to: • Develop a simplified 1D analysis method to account for the effect of skew on girder twist rotations and internal torques, • Evaluate the effect of skew on component forces, and propose improved simplified procedures to capture these effects, • Identify interactions between components and develop improved simplified analysis methods to account for these effects, • Establish limits for when the improved 1D and 2D simplified methods of analysis are sufficient for construction engineering analysis, and • Identify sources of steel erection fit-up problems, and to develop guidelines for estimation of the fit-up forces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghotbi, Abdoul R.
2014-09-01
The seismic behavior of skewed bridges has not been well studied compared to straight bridges. Skewed bridges have shown extensive damage, especially due to deck rotation, shear keys failure, abutment unseating and column-bent drift. This research, therefore, aims to study the behavior of skewed and straight highway overpass bridges both with and without taking into account the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) due to near-fault ground motions. Due to several sources of uncertainty associated with the ground motions, soil and structure, a probabilistic approach is needed. Thus, a probabilistic methodology similar to the one developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) has been utilized to assess the probability of damage due to various levels of shaking using appropriate intensity measures with minimum dispersions. The probabilistic analyses were performed for various bridge configurations and site conditions, including sand ranging from loose to dense and clay ranging from soft to stiff, in order to evaluate the effects. The results proved a considerable susceptibility of skewed bridges to deck rotation and shear keys displacement. It was also found that SSI had a decreasing effect on the damage probability for various demands compared to the fixed-base model without including SSI. However, deck rotation for all types of the soil and also abutment unseating for very loose sand and soft clay showed an increase in damage probability compared to the fixed-base model. The damage probability for various demands has also been found to decrease with an increase of soil strength for both sandy and clayey sites. With respect to the variations in the skew angle, an increase in skew angle has had an increasing effect on the amplitude of the seismic response for various demands. Deck rotation has been very sensitive to the increase in the skew angle; therefore, as the skew angle increased, the deck rotation responded accordingly. Furthermore, abutment unseating showed an increasing trend due to an increase in skew angle for both fixed-base and SSI models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosavi, Amir A.; Mitra, Mainak; van der Linden, Gwendolyn W.; Gordon, Tim; Sedarat, Hassan; Emami-Naeini, Abbas; Jacob, Vince; Krimotat, Alex; Gilbert, Mark; Lynch, Jerome
2012-04-01
Vehicle/structure interaction is extremely important in determining the structural performance of highway bridges. However, an accurate prediction of the generated vibrations and forces requires a high-fidelity nonlinear 3D model which is sufficiently representative of the actual vehicle and bridge structure. In spite of all the computational advancements, there are still many technical difficulties to obtain a converging solution from a coupled highly nonlinear and highly damped vehicle/structure models. This paper presents an iterative uncoupled approach to obtain an accurate estimation of the vehicle/structure interaction. The multi-axle vehicle is simulated using a nonlinear 3D multibody dynamics model. The bridge model also contains several nonlinear components to accurately model the bridge behavior. The vehicle/bridge interaction results are obtained through an iterative solution by exchanging the outputs of two uncoupled nonlinear models. A convergence criterion is selected to obtain a reliable solution after several of these iterations. Finally, a reduced-order model of the bridge is developed using a state-space model. The linear reduced-order model of the bridge is coupled with the nonlinear vehicle model to improve the solution time of the analysis. The results are in a very good agreement with the iterative uncoupled approach.
Peggs, S.; Dell, G.F.
1994-12-31
The on-momentum description of linear coupling between horizontal and vertical betatron motion is extended to include off-momentum particles, introducing a vector quantity called the ``skew chromaticity``. This vector tends to be long in large superconducting storage rings, where it restricts the available working space in the tune plane, and modifies collective effect stability criteria. Skew chromaticity measurements at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) and at the Fermilab Tevatron are reported, as well as tracking results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The observation of anomalous head-tail beam Iowa new the tune diagonal in the Tevatron are explained in terms of the extended theory, including modified criteria for headtail stability. These results are confirmed in head-tail simulations. Sources of skew chromaticity are investigated.
Bridges from top to bottom: Expressway Bridge, Liberty Memorial Bridge, Burlington Northern SantaFe Railway Bridge, and Interstate 94 Grant Marsh Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....
4. From Skew Span to portal on span 1 looking ...
4. From Skew Span to portal on span 1 looking up grade toward the south end. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Hot Metal Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA
Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.
2014-11-15
In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.
Skew mapping cataclysmic variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, R. C.; Vande Putte, D.
2002-01-01
The secondary in CVs is usually detected by correlation of the spectrum with that of a red dwarf template, to produce a radial velocity curve. This method has demonstrated its power, but has limits in case of noisy spectra, as in faint secondaries. To circumvent this difficulty, a method of co-adding spectra, called skew mapping, has been proposed in the past. This paper explores the capabilities of skew mapping in determining the amplitude of the radial velocity for faint secondaries. We record our appreciation to Dr T. R. Marsh for advice on his ``molly'' code. Thanks are due to the observers and data reducers (D. H. P. Jones, N. A. Hawkins, J. Thorstensen, and J. S. Martin).
12. Underside of Skew SpanHot Metal system on right, toward ...
12. Underside of Skew Span-Hot Metal system on right, toward Rocker Bent. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Hot Metal Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA
Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal
Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.
2001-01-01
A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.
Kinematic correction for roller skewing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savage, M.; Loewenthal, S. H.
1980-01-01
A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is developed for high-speed cylindrical roller bearings. This stabilization requires race and roller crowning to product changes in the rolling geometry as the roller shifts axially. These changes put a reverse skew in the rolling elements by changing the rolling taper. Twelve basic possible bearing modifications are identified in this paper. Four have single transverse convex curvature in the rollers while eight have rollers with compound transverse curvature composed of a central cylindrical band of constant radius surrounded by symmetric bands with both slope and transverse curvature.
Skew chromaticity in large accelerators
Peggs, S.; Dell, G.F.
1995-05-01
The 2-D ``skew chromaticity`` vector k is introduced when the standard on-momentum description of linear coupling is extended to include off-momentum particles. A lattice that is well decoupled on-momentum may be badly decoupled off-momentum, inside the natural momentum spread of the beam. There are two general areas of concern: (1) the free space in the tune plane is decreased; (2) collective phenomena may be destabilized. Two strong new criteria for head-tail stability in the presence of off-momentum coupling are derived, which are consistent with experimental and operational observations at the Tevatron, and with tracking data from RHIC.
Mixture of Skewed α-Stable Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shojaei, S. R. Hosseini; Nassiri, V.; Mohammadian, Gh. R.; Mohammadpour, A.
2011-03-01
Expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and the Bayesian techniques are two approaches for statistical inference of mixture models [3, 4]. By noting the advantages of the Bayesian methods, practitioners prefer them. However, implementing Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms can be very complicated for stable distributions, due to the non-analytic density or distribution function formulas. In this paper, we introduce a new class of mixture of heavy-tailed distributions, called mixture of skewed stable distributions. Skewed stable distributions belongs to the exponential family and they have analytic density representation. It is shown that skewed stable distributions dominate skew stable distribution functions and they can be used to model heavy-tailed data. The class of skewed stable distributions has an analytic representation for its density function and the Bayesian inference can be done similar to the exponential family of distributions. Finally, mixture of skewed stable distributions are compared to the mixture of stable distributions through a simulations study.
Roller skewing measurements in cylindrical roller bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nypan, L. J.
1981-01-01
Measurements of roller skewing in a 118 mm bore roller bearing operating at shaft speeds to 12,000 rpm are reported. High speed motion pictures of a modified roller were taken through a derotation prism to record skewing as the roller moved through loaded and unloaded regions of the bearing. Subsequent frame by frame measurement of the photographic film provided information on roller skewing. Radial and tangential skew amplitudes of 0.4 to 0.5 degrees were observed with 0.5 degree misalignment.
Portfolio optimization with skewness and kurtosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Weng Hoe; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Isa, Zaidi
2013-04-01
Mean and variance of return distributions are two important parameters of the mean-variance model in portfolio optimization. However, the mean-variance model will become inadequate if the returns of assets are not normally distributed. Therefore, higher moments such as skewness and kurtosis cannot be ignored. Risk averse investors prefer portfolios with high skewness and low kurtosis so that the probability of getting negative rates of return will be reduced. The objective of this study is to compare the portfolio compositions as well as performances between the mean-variance model and mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis model by using the polynomial goal programming approach. The results show that the incorporation of skewness and kurtosis will change the optimal portfolio compositions. The mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis model outperforms the mean-variance model because the mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis model takes skewness and kurtosis into consideration. Therefore, the mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis model is more appropriate for the investors of Malaysia in portfolio optimization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can
2016-05-01
We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.
Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker
Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D.
2002-01-01
Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or “transactional,” models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding, to predict reproductive partitioning in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). This species provides a key test case because only a few vertebrates exhibit polygynandry (multiple breeders of both sexes within a group). Contrary to the predictions of the models, joint-nesting females share reproduction more equitably than expected, apparently because egg destruction and the inability of females to defend their eggs from cobreeders eliminate any possibility for one female to control reproduction. For males, however, reproductive skew is high, with the most successful male siring over three times as many young as the next most successful male. Although this result is consistent with optimal skew models, other aspects of male behavior are not; in particular, the reproductively most successful male frequently switches between nests produced by the same set of cobreeders, and we were unable to detect any phenotypic correlate of success. These results are consistent with an alternative null model in which cobreeder males have equal chance of paternity, but paternity of offspring within broods is nonindependent as a consequence of female, rather than male, control. PMID:11997473
Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker.
Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D
2002-05-14
Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or "transactional," models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding, to predict reproductive partitioning in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). This species provides a key test case because only a few vertebrates exhibit polygynandry (multiple breeders of both sexes within a group). Contrary to the predictions of the models, joint-nesting females share reproduction more equitably than expected, apparently because egg destruction and the inability of females to defend their eggs from cobreeders eliminate any possibility for one female to control reproduction. For males, however, reproductive skew is high, with the most successful male siring over three times as many young as the next most successful male. Although this result is consistent with optimal skew models, other aspects of male behavior are not; in particular, the reproductively most successful male frequently switches between nests produced by the same set of cobreeders, and we were unable to detect any phenotypic correlate of success. These results are consistent with an alternative null model in which cobreeder males have equal chance of paternity, but paternity of offspring within broods is nonindependent as a consequence of female, rather than male, control. PMID:11997473
Skew deviation after intratympanic gentamicin therapy.
Ng, Diana; Fouladvand, Mohammad; Lalwani, Anil K
2011-03-01
Intratympanic gentamicin therapy for the treatment of episodic vertigo associated with Ménière's disease is generally well tolerated. Although auditory and vestibular symptoms following intratympanic gentamicin are well known, visual disturbance has not been previously described. In this report, we describe two patients with Ménière's disease who developed sudden onset of binocular vertical diplopia due to skew deviation after intratympanic gentamicin therapy. The skew deviation and diplopia resolved spontaneously and completely within 6 to 8 weeks without therapy. Development of diplopia due to skew deviation should be discussed as a potential complication in patients undergoing intratympanic gentamicin therapy. PMID:21344424
HOT METAL BRIDGE (NOTE: BUILDERS: JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CA. ...
HOT METAL BRIDGE (NOTE: BUILDERS: JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CA. 1890), SOUTH PORTAL. THREE PIN CONNECTED CAMELBACK TRUSS SPANS, ONE SKEWED THROUGH TRUSS SPAN ON NORTH SIDE TRUSS BRIDGE, EAST OF HOT METAL BRIDGE BUILT BY AMERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY CA. 1910. (RIVETED MULTI-SPAN TRUSS). - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA
On skew tau-functions in higher spin theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melnikov, D.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.
2016-05-01
Recent studies of higher spin theory in three dimensions concentrate on Wilson loops in Chern-Simons theory, which in the classical limit reduce to peculiar corner matrix elements between the highest and lowest weight states in a given representation of SL( N ). Despite these "skew" tau-functions can seem very different from conventional ones, which are the matrix elements between the two highest weight states, they also satisfy the Toda recursion between different fundamental representations. Moreover, in the most popular examples they possess simple representations in terms of matrix models and Schur functions. We provide a brief introduction to this new interesting field, which, after quantization, can serve as an additional bridge between knot and integrability theories.
Defining surfaces for skewed, highly variable data
Helsel, D.R.; Ryker, S.J.
2002-01-01
Skewness of environmental data is often caused by more than simply a handful of outliers in an otherwise normal distribution. Statistical procedures for such datasets must be sufficiently robust to deal with distributions that are strongly non-normal, containing both a large proportion of outliers and a skewed main body of data. In the field of water quality, skewness is commonly associated with large variation over short distances. Spatial analysis of such data generally requires either considerable effort at modeling or the use of robust procedures not strongly affected by skewness and local variability. Using a skewed dataset of 675 nitrate measurements in ground water, commonly used methods for defining a surface (least-squares regression and kriging) are compared to a more robust method (loess). Three choices are critical in defining a surface: (i) is the surface to be a central mean or median surface? (ii) is either a well-fitting transformation or a robust and scale-independent measure of center used? (iii) does local spatial autocorrelation assist in or detract from addressing objectives? Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Skew chicane based betatron eigenmode exchange module
Douglas, David
2010-12-28
A skewed chicane eigenmode exchange module (SCEEM) that combines in a single beamline segment the separate functionalities of a skew quad eigenmode exchange module and a magnetic chicane. This module allows the exchange of independent betatron eigenmodes, alters electron beam orbit geometry, and provides longitudinal parameter control with dispersion management in a single beamline segment with stable betatron behavior. It thus reduces the spatial requirements for multiple beam dynamic functions, reduces required component counts and thus reduces costs, and allows the use of more compact accelerator configurations than prior art design methods.
NORMALITY AND SKEWNESS OF GENETIC EVALUATIONS
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Linear models are used for evaluation of linear, normally distributed traits such as milk yield. Traits (e.g. somatic cell count) with skewed distributions are normalized through log or other simple transformation. Traits with nonlinear, non-normal distributions have gained importance, and alternati...
Cohomology of skew-holomorphic lie algebroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruzzo, U.; Rubtsov, V. N.
2010-12-01
We introduce the notion of a skew-holomorphic Lie algebroid on a complex manifold and explore some cohomology theories that can be associated with it. We present examples and applications of this notion in terms of different types of holomorphic Poisson structures.
Graf, Darin C.; Warpinski, Norman R.
1996-01-01
A system for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors.
Preference patterns for skewed gambles in rhesus monkeys.
Strait, Caleb E; Hayden, Benjamin Y
2013-01-01
While standard models of risky choice account for the first and second statistical moments of reward outcome distributions (mean and variance, respectively), they often ignore the third moment, skewness. Determining a decision-maker's attitude about skewness is useful because it can help constrain process models of the mental steps involved in risky choice. We measured three rhesus monkeys' preferences for gambles whose outcome distributions had almost identical means and variances but differed in skewness. We tested five distributions of skewness: strong negative, weak negative, normal, weak positive and strong positive. Monkeys preferred positively skewed gambles to negatively skewed ones and preferred strongly skewed and normal (i.e. unskewed) gambles to weakly skewed ones. This pattern of preferences cannot be explained solely by monotonic deformations of the utility curve or any other popular single account, but can be accounted for by multiple interacting factors. PMID:24335272
Preference patterns for skewed gambles in rhesus monkeys
Strait, Caleb E.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.
2013-01-01
While standard models of risky choice account for the first and second statistical moments of reward outcome distributions (mean and variance, respectively), they often ignore the third moment, skewness. Determining a decision-maker's attitude about skewness is useful because it can help constrain process models of the mental steps involved in risky choice. We measured three rhesus monkeys preferences for gambles whose outcome distributions had almost identical means and variances but differed in skewness. We tested five distributions of skewness: strong negative, weak negative, normal, weak positive and strong positive. Monkeys preferred positively skewed gambles to negatively skewed ones and preferred strongly skewed and normal (i.e. unskewed) gambles to weakly skewed ones. This pattern of preferences cannot be explained solely by monotonic deformations of the utility curve or any other popular single account, but can be accounted for by multiple interacting factors. PMID:24335272
Analysis of Parasite and Other Skewed Counts
Alexander, Neal
2012-01-01
Objective To review methods for the statistical analysis of parasite and other skewed count data. Methods Statistical methods for skewed count data are described and compared, with reference to those used over a ten year period of Tropical Medicine and International Health. Two parasitological datasets are used for illustration. Results Ninety papers were identified, 89 with descriptive and 60 with inferential analysis. A lack of clarity is noted in identifying measures of location, in particular the Williams and geometric mean. The different measures are compared, emphasizing the legitimacy of the arithmetic mean for skewed data. In the published papers, the t test and related methods were often used on untransformed data, which is likely to be invalid. Several approaches to inferential analysis are described, emphasizing 1) non-parametric methods, while noting that they are not simply comparisons of medians, and 2) generalized linear modelling, in particular with the negative binomial distribution. Additional methods, such as the bootstrap, with potential for greater use are described. Conclusions Clarity is recommended when describing transformations and measures of location. It is suggested that non-parametric methods and generalized linear models are likely to be sufficient for most analyses. PMID:22943299
Vibration suppression of a skew cantilever plate using PZT patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pai, Perngjin F.; Rommel, Bernd; Naser, Ahmad S.; Schulz, Mark J.
1998-07-01
We investigate the control of steady-state vibrations of a cantilevered skew isotropic plate by using nonlinear saturation phenomena and PZT (lead zirconate titanate) patches as sensors and actuators. Modal testing and finite- element analysis are performed to study the bending- torsional dynamic characteristics due to the non-rectangular plate geometry. The control method uses linear second-order controllers coupled to the plate via quadratic terms to establish energy bridges between the plate and controllers. Each linear second-order controller is designed to have a 1:2 internal resonance with one of the plate vibration modes and hence is able to exchange energy with the plate at or around the specific modal frequency. Because of quadratic nonlinearities and 1:2 internal resonances, saturation phenomena exist and are used to suppress modal vibrations. To test this control technique in an efficient and systematic way, we built a digital control system that consists of SIMULINK modeling software and a dSPACE DS1102 controller in a pentium computer. Both numerical and experimental results show that this nonlinear control method is robust in suppression steady-state resonant vibrations without significant spill-over effects.
Inferring climate variability from skewed proxy records
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emile-Geay, J.; Tingley, M.
2013-12-01
Many paleoclimate analyses assume a linear relationship between the proxy and the target climate variable, and that both the climate quantity and the errors follow normal distributions. An ever-increasing number of proxy records, however, are better modeled using distributions that are heavy-tailed, skewed, or otherwise non-normal, on account of the proxies reflecting non-normally distributed climate variables, or having non-linear relationships with a normally distributed climate variable. The analysis of such proxies requires a different set of tools, and this work serves as a cautionary tale on the danger of making conclusions about the underlying climate from applications of classic statistical procedures to heavily skewed proxy records. Inspired by runoff proxies, we consider an idealized proxy characterized by a nonlinear, thresholded relationship with climate, and describe three approaches to using such a record to infer past climate: (i) applying standard methods commonly used in the paleoclimate literature, without considering the non-linearities inherent to the proxy record; (ii) applying a power transform prior to using these standard methods; (iii) constructing a Bayesian model to invert the mechanistic relationship between the climate and the proxy. We find that neglecting the skewness in the proxy leads to erroneous conclusions and often exaggerates changes in climate variability between different time intervals. In contrast, an explicit treatment of the skewness, using either power transforms or a Bayesian inversion of the mechanistic model for the proxy, yields significantly better estimates of past climate variations. We apply these insights in two paleoclimate settings: (1) a classical sedimentary record from Laguna Pallcacocha, Ecuador (Moy et al., 2002). Our results agree with the qualitative aspects of previous analyses of this record, but quantitative departures are evident and hold implications for how such records are interpreted, and compared to other proxy records. (2) a multiproxy reconstruction of temperature over the Common Era (Mann et al., 2009), where we find that about one third of the records display significant departures from normality. Accordingly, accounting for skewness in proxy predictors has a notable influence on both reconstructed global mean and spatial patterns of temperature change. Inferring climate variability from skewed proxy records thus requires cares, but can be done with relatively simple tools. References - Mann, M. E., Z. Zhang, S. Rutherford, R. S. Bradley, M. K. Hughes, D. Shindell, C. Ammann, G. Faluvegi, and F. Ni (2009), Global signatures and dynamical origins of the little ice age and medieval climate anomaly, Science, 326(5957), 1256-1260, doi:10.1126/science.1177303. - Moy, C., G. Seltzer, D. Rodbell, and D. Anderson (2002), Variability of El Niño/Southern Oscillation activ- ity at millennial timescales during the Holocene epoch, Nature, 420(6912), 162-165.
Temperature-Compensated Clock Skew Adjustment
Castillo-Secilla, Jose María; Palomares, Jose Manuel; Olivares, Joaquín
2013-01-01
This work analyzes several drift compensation mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Temperature is an environmental factor that greatly affects oscillators shipped in every WSN mote. This behavior creates the need of improving drift compensation mechanisms in synchronization protocols. Using the Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP), this work demonstrates that crystal oscillators are affected by temperature variations. Thus, the influence of temperature provokes a low performance of FTSP in changing conditions of temperature. This article proposes an innovative correction factor that minimizes the impact of temperature in the clock skew. By means of this factor, two new mechanisms are proposed in this paper: the Adjusted Temperature (AT) and the Advanced Adjusted Temperature (A2T). These mechanisms have been combined with FTSP to produce AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP Both have been tested in a network of TelosB motes running TinyOS. Results show that both AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP improve the average synchronization errors compared to FTSP and other temperature-compensated protocols (Environment-Aware Clock Skew Estimation and Synchronization for WSN (EACS) and Temperature Compensated Time Synchronization (TCTS)). PMID:23966192
Root growth movements: waving and skewing.
Roy, Rahul; Bassham, Diane C
2014-05-01
Roots anchor a plant in the soil, acquire nutrition and respond to environmental cues. Roots perform these functions using intricate movements and a variety of pathways have been implicated in mediating their growth patterns. These include endogenous genetic factors, perception of multiple environmental stimuli, signaling pathways interacting with hormonal dynamics and cellular processes of rapid cell elongation. In this review we attempt to consolidate our understanding of two specific types of root movements, waving and skewing, that arise on the surface of growth media, and how they are regulated by various genes and factors. These include crucial factors that are part of a complex nexus of processes including polar auxin transport and cytoskeletal dynamics. This knowledge can be extrapolated in the future for engineering plants with root architecture better suited for different soil and growth conditions such as abiotic stresses or even extended spaceflight. Technological innovations and interdisciplinary approaches promise to allow the tracking of root movements on a much finer scale, thus helping to expedite the discovery of more nodes in the regulation of root waving and skewing and movement in general. PMID:24656334
Modelling Scalar Skewness in Cloudy Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, Dmitrii; Machulskaya, Ekaterina; Naumann, Ann Kristin; Seifert, Axel; Mellado, Juan Pedro
2015-04-01
Following the pioneering work of Sommeria and Deardorff (1977), statistical cloud schemes are widely used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models to parameterize the effect of shallow clouds on turbulent mixing and radiation fluxes. Statistical cloud schemes compute the cloud fraction, the amount of cloud condensate and the effect clouds on the buoyancy flux in a given atmospheric-model grid box. This is done with due regard for the sub-grid scale (SGS) fluctuations of temperature and humidity (and possibly the vertical velocity), thus providing an important coupling between cloudiness and the SGS mixing processes. The shape of the PDF of fluctuating fields is assumed, whereas the PDF moments should be provided to the cloud scheme as an input. For non-precipitation clouds, the mixing schemes are usually formulated in terms of quasi-conservative variable, e.g. the liquid (total) water potential temperature and the total water specific humidity. Then, the cloud schemes are conveniently cast in terms of the linearized saturation deficit, referred to as the "s" variable (Mellor 1977), that accounts for the combined effect of the two scalars. If a simple two-parameter single-Gaussian PDF is used, the only "turbulence" parameter to be provided to the cloud scheme is the variance of s. The single-Gaussian PDF ignores the skewed nature of SGS motions and fails to describe many important regimes, e.g. shallow cumuli. A number of more flexible skewed PDFs have been proposed to date. A three-parameter PDF, based on a double-Gaussian distribution and diagnostic relations between some PDF parameters derived from LES and observational data (Naumann et al. 2013), appears to be a good compromise between physical realism and computational economy. A crucial point is that the cloud schemes using non-Gaussian PDFs require the scalar skewness as an input. Using rather mild non-restrictive assumptions, we develop a transport equation for the s-variable triple correlation. That equation contains three terms that require closure. A simple relaxation approximation in terms of the turbulence time (length) scale is used for the dissipation term. The third-order and the fourth-order scalar-velocity correlations are parameterized using an advanced advection-diffusion formulation and a generalized Millionschikov hypothesis (Mironov et al. 1999, Gryanik et al. 2005). These formulations satisfy both the Gaussian limit and, importantly, the limit of strong skewness. The equation for the s triple correlation is coupled to the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) - scalar variance mixing scheme (Machulskaya and Mironov 2013), where not only the TKE but also the scalar variances and covariance are computed from the prognostic transport equations with due regard for the third-order transport. The coupled scheme is tested through single-column numerical experiments. Results compare favourably with large-eddy simulation data from well-documented shallow cloud cases. Some details of the implementation of the s-skewness formulation into NWP models are discussed.
Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.
1996-08-13
A system is described for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock which utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors. 8 figs.
Skew-gradient representation of generalized Birkhoffian system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Feng-Xiang; Wu, Hui-Bin
2015-10-01
The skew-gradient representation of a generalized Birkhoffian system is studied. A condition under which the generalized Birkhoffian system can be considered as a skew-gradient system is obtained. The properties of the skew-gradient system are used to study the properties, especially the stability, of the generalized Birkhoffian system. Some examples are given to illustrate the application of the result. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11272050).
Skew quadrupole errors in the RHIC IR triplets
Tepikian, S.; Peggs, S.
1993-12-31
From simulation studies of the RHIC lattice, we found that skew quadrupole errors and quadrupole roll misalignments in the IR triplets (where the {beta} function can be large) produce large vertical dispersions. A simple model, using only one triplet, is applied to obtain sensitivities of vertical dispersion to skew quadrupole errors. This study revealed that measuring the vertical dispersion in the triplets is a good tool for the diagnosis of local skew quadrupole correction.
Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lelale, F.
1982-01-01
A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.
Analysis of carbon dioxide concentration skewness at a rural site.
Pérez, Isidro A; Sánchez, M Luisa; García, M Ángeles; Ozores, Marta; Pardo, Nuria
2014-04-01
This paper provides evidence that symmetry of CO2 concentration distribution may indicate sources or dispersive processes. Skewness was calculated by different procedures with CO2 measured at a rural site using a Picarro G1301 analyser over a two-year period. The usual skewness coefficient was considered together with fourteen robust estimators. A noticeable contrast was obtained between day and night, and skewness decreased linearly with the logarithm of the height. One coefficient was selected from its satisfactory relationship with the median concentration in daily evolution. Three analyses based on the kernel smoothing method were conducted with this coefficient to investigate its response to yearly and daily evolutions, wind direction, and wind speed. Left-skewed distributions were linked to thermal turbulence during midday, especially in spring-summer, or with high wind speeds. Almost symmetric distributions were associated with sources, such as the Valladolid City plume reinforced with spring emissions and the lack of emissions in summer in the remaining directions. Finally, right-skewed distributions were related to low wind speeds and stable stratification at night, furthered by strong emissions in spring. Skewness intervals were proposed and their average median concentrations were calculated such that the relationship between skewness and concentration depends on the analysis performed. Since some skewness coefficients may also be negative, they provide better information about sources or dispersive processes than concentration. PMID:24463252
Learning a Novel Pattern through Balanced and Skewed Input
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel
2013-01-01
This study compared the effectiveness of balanced and skewed input at facilitating the acquisition of the transitive construction in Esperanto, characterized by the accusative suffix "-n" and variable word order (SVO, OVS). Thai university students (N = 98) listened to 24 sentences under skewed (one noun with high token frequency) or
Learning a Novel Pattern through Balanced and Skewed Input
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel
2013-01-01
This study compared the effectiveness of balanced and skewed input at facilitating the acquisition of the transitive construction in Esperanto, characterized by the accusative suffix "-n" and variable word order (SVO, OVS). Thai university students (N = 98) listened to 24 sentences under skewed (one noun with high token frequency) or…
Evolution of the derivative skewness for nonlinearly propagating waves.
Reichman, Brent O; Muhlestein, Michael B; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Thomas, Derek C
2016-03-01
The skewness of the first time derivative of a pressure waveform, or derivative skewness, has been used previously to describe the presence of shock-like content in jet and rocket noise. Despite its use, a quantitative understanding of derivative skewness values has been lacking. In this paper, the derivative skewness for nonlinearly propagating waves is investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental methods. Analytical expressions for the derivative skewness of an initially sinusoidal plane wave are developed and, along with numerical data, are used to describe its behavior in the preshock, sawtooth, and old-age regions. Analyses of common measurement issues show that the derivative skewness is relatively sensitive to the effects of a smaller sampling rate, but less sensitive to the presence of additive noise. In addition, the derivative skewness of nonlinearly propagating noise is found to reach greater values over a shorter length scale relative to sinusoidal signals. A minimum sampling rate is recommended for sinusoidal signals to accurately estimate derivative skewness values up to five, which serves as an approximate threshold indicating significant shock formation. PMID:27036276
Yuan, Shi-Min
2016-02-01
Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results. PMID:27074276
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tabor, Josh
2010-01-01
On the 2009 AP[c] Statistics Exam, students were asked to create a statistic to measure skewness in a distribution. This paper explores several of the most popular student responses and evaluates which statistic performs best when sampling from various skewed populations. (Contains 8 figures, 3 tables, and 4 footnotes.)
Interaction of a skewed Rankine vortex pair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayavel, S.; Patil, Pratish P.; Tiwari, Shaligram
2008-08-01
An analytical investigation is carried out to study the kinematics of a fluid particle in an interacting field of a skewed pair of fixed Rankine vortices. A general formulation governing the kinematics of a fluid particle has been presented based on the superposition of the velocity field due to each vortex in the pair. The kinematics of a Lagrangian fluid particle is found to be governed by a nonlinear dynamical system. The fixed or stationary points of the dynamical system have been identified analytically and their existence is confirmed by the nature of particle paths in the neighborhood of fixed points. The nature of the particle path and velocity signal is reported for general as well as special configurations of the vortex pair in the presence and absence of an external uniform flow. As a specific application of the proposed problem, superimposition of the translational velocity on a semi-infinite field of longitudinal vortices generated by vortex generators mounted on fin plates of heat exchangers has also been studied.
Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates
Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver
2008-01-01
Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
Safer bridges are among a number of spinoff benefits from NASA procedures for testing 'cfracture toughness" of a structural part, meaning its ability to -siscracktsh at might cause failure. The New River Bridge in West Virginia, shown under construction, is the world's largest single span bridge. U.S. Steel fracture toughness requirements for such bridges include NASA-developed test procedures. Bridge materials and other metal structures may develop flaws during their service lifetimes. Such flaws can affect the structural integrity of the part. Thus, it is important to know the "fracture toughness" of a structural part, or its ability to resist cracks. NASA has long experience in developing fracture toughness tests for aerospace hardware. Since 1960, NASA-Lewis has worked closely with the American Society for Testing & Materials. Lewis and NASA-funded industrial contractors have made many important contributions to test procedures, now recommended by ASTM, for measuring fracture toughness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiaoshi, Zhu; Chixiao, Chen; Jialiang, Xu; Fan, Ye; Junyan, Ren
2013-03-01
A sampling switch with an embedded digital-to-skew converter (DSC) is presented. The proposed switch eliminates time-interleaved ADCs' skews by adjusting the boosted voltage. A similar bridged capacitors' charge sharing structure is used to minimize the area. The circuit is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and achieves sub-1 ps resolution and 200 ps timing range at a rate of 100 MS/s. The power consumption is 430 μW at maximum. The measurement result also includes a 2-channel 14-bit 100 MS/s time-interleaved ADCs (TI-ADCs) with the proposed DSC switch's demonstration. This scheme is widely applicable for the clock skew and aperture error calibration demanded in TI-ADCs and SHA-less ADCs.
Although Relatively Few, "Doctor Shoppers" Skew Opioid Prescribing
... Opioid Prescribing Although Relatively Few, “Doctor Shoppers” Skew Opioid Prescribing Email Facebook Twitter May 27, 2014 One ... patterns and alert both physicians and pharmacies. Extreme Opioid Purchasers Figure 1. Prescriber Utilization Distinguishes Likely “Doctor ...
PRINCIPLE OF SKEW QUADRUPOLE MODULATION TO MEASURE BETATRON COUPLING.
LUO.Y.PILAT,F.ROSER,T.ET AL.
2004-07-05
The measurement of the residual betatron coupling via skew quadrupole modulation is a new diagnostics technique that has been developed and tested at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a very promising method for the linear decoupling on the ramp. By modulating the strengths of different skew quadrupole families the two eigentunes are precisely measured with the phase lock loop system. The projections of the residual coupling coefficient onto the skew quadrupole coupling modulation directions are determined. The residual linear coupling could be corrected according to the measurement. An analytical solution for skew quadrupole modulation based on Hamiltonian perturbation approximation is given, and simulation code using smooth accelerator model is also developed. Some issues concerning the practical applications of this technique are discussed.
Bicriterion seriation methods for skew-symmetric matrices.
Brusco, Michael J; Stahl, Stephanie
2005-11-01
The decomposition of an asymmetric proximity matrix into its symmetric and skew-symmetric components is a well-known principle in combinatorial data analysis. The seriation of the skew-symmetric component can emphasize information corresponding to the sign or absolute magnitude of the matrix elements, and the choice of objective criterion can have a profound impact on the ordering. In this research note, we propose a bicriterion approach for seriation of a skew-symmetric matrix incorporating both sign and magnitude information. Two numerical demonstrations reveal that the bicriterion procedure is an effective alternative to direct seriation of the skew-symmetric matrix, facilitating favourable trade-offs among sign and magnitude information. PMID:16293204
Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaister, P.
2008-01-01
The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.
Optimization of skewed omega for left-handed material characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, Asit K.; Sahu, Sudhakar; Mishra, Rabindra K.
2015-01-01
Artificial neural network and simulated annealing are applied to obtain optimized design parameters of skewed omega-shaped metamaterial unit cells for providing left-handed material (LHM) with a negative refractive index. The implemented numerical and experimental methods provide evidence for the validity and practicality of the technique. Simulation, with optimized parameters, using CST Microwave Studio, shows that skewed LHMs are low-loss materials.
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... Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden Cardiac Arrest Valve Disease Vulnerable Plaque ... Bridge | Share Related terms: myocardium, coronary arteries, myocardial ischemia Your heart is made of muscle, called the ...
Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary
1996-01-01
Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.
Extension of EMA to address regional skew and low outliers
Griffis, V.W.; Stedinger, J.R.; Cohn, T.A.
2003-01-01
The recently developed expected moments algorithm [EMA] (Cohn et al. 1997) does as well as MLEs at estimating LP3 flood quantiles using systematic and historical information. Needed extensions include use of a regional skewness estimator and its precision to be consistent with Bulletin 17B and to make use of such hydrologic information. Another issue addressed by Bulletin 17B is the treatment of low outliers. A Monte Carlo study illustrates the performance of an extended EMA estimator compared to estimators that employ the complete data set with and without use of regional skew, conditional probability adjustment from Bulletin 17B, and an estimator that uses probability plot regression to compute substitute values for low outliers. Estimators that use a regional skew all do better than estimators that fail to use an informative regional skewness estimator. For LP3 data, the low outlier rejection procedure results in no loss of overall accuracy, and the differences between the MSEs of the estimators that used an informative regional skew were generally negligible in the skew range of real interest.
Rényi entropy and complexity measure for skew-gaussian distributions and related families
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras-Reyes, Javier E.
2015-09-01
In this paper, we provide the Rényi entropy and complexity measure for a novel, flexible class of skew-gaussian distributions and their related families, as a characteristic form of the skew-gaussian Shannon entropy. We give closed expressions considering a more general class of closed skew-gaussian distributions and the weighted moments estimation method. In addition, closed expressions of Rényi entropy are presented for extended skew-gaussian and truncated skew-gaussian distributions. Finally, additional inequalities for skew-gaussian and extended skew-gaussian Rényi and Shannon entropies are reported.
Sample skewness as a statistical measurement of neuronal tuning sharpness.
Samonds, Jason M; Potetz, Brian R; Lee, Tai Sing
2014-05-01
We propose using the statistical measurement of the sample skewness of the distribution of mean firing rates of a tuning curve to quantify sharpness of tuning. For some features, like binocular disparity, tuning curves are best described by relatively complex and sometimes diverse functions, making it difficult to quantify sharpness with a single function and parameter. Skewness provides a robust nonparametric measure of tuning curve sharpness that is invariant with respect to the mean and variance of the tuning curve and is straightforward to apply to a wide range of tuning, including simple orientation tuning curves and complex object tuning curves that often cannot even be described parametrically. Because skewness does not depend on a specific model or function of tuning, it is especially appealing to cases of sharpening where recurrent interactions among neurons produce sharper tuning curves that deviate in a complex manner from the feedforward function of tuning. Since tuning curves for all neurons are not typically well described by a single parametric function, this model independence additionally allows skewness to be applied to all recorded neurons, maximizing the statistical power of a set of data. We also compare skewness with other nonparametric measures of tuning curve sharpness and selectivity. Compared to these other nonparametric measures tested, skewness is best used for capturing the sharpness of multimodal tuning curves defined by narrow peaks (maximum) and broad valleys (minima). Finally, we provide a more formal definition of sharpness using a shape-based information gain measure and derive and show that skewness is correlated with this definition. PMID:24555451
Modelling bounded health scores with censored skew-normal distributions.
Hutton, J L; Stanghellini, E
2011-02-20
Health care interventions that use quality of life or health scores often provide data which are skewed and bounded. The scores are typically formed by adding up numerical responses to a number of questions. Different questions might have different weights, but the scores will be bounded, and are often scaled to the range 0-100. If improvement in health over time is measured, scores will tend to cluster near the 'healthy' or 'good' boundary as time progresses, leading to a skew distribution. Further, some patients will drop-out as time progresses, hence the scores reflect a selected population.We fit models based on the skew-normal distribution to data from a randomized controlled trial of treatments for sprained ankles, in which scores were recorded at baseline and at 1, 3 and 9 months after injury. We consider the extent to which skewness in the data can be explained by clustering at the boundary via a comparison between a censored normal and a censored skew-normal model.As this analysis is based on the complete data only, a formula for the bias of the treatment effects due to informative drop-out is given. This allows us to assess under what conditions the conclusions drawn from the complete data might be either reinforced or reversed, when the informative drop-out process is taken into account. PMID:21058361
Determining collective barrier operation skew in a parallel computer
Faraj, Daniel A.
2015-11-24
Determining collective barrier operation skew in a parallel computer that includes a number of compute nodes organized into an operational group includes: for each of the nodes until each node has been selected as a delayed node: selecting one of the nodes as a delayed node; entering, by each node other than the delayed node, a collective barrier operation; entering, after a delay by the delayed node, the collective barrier operation; receiving an exit signal from a root of the collective barrier operation; and measuring, for the delayed node, a barrier completion time. The barrier operation skew is calculated by: identifying, from the compute nodes' barrier completion times, a maximum barrier completion time and a minimum barrier completion time and calculating the barrier operation skew as the difference of the maximum and the minimum barrier completion time.
Determining collective barrier operation skew in a parallel computer
Faraj, Daniel A.
2015-12-24
Determining collective barrier operation skew in a parallel computer that includes a number of compute nodes organized into an operational group includes: for each of the nodes until each node has been selected as a delayed node: selecting one of the nodes as a delayed node; entering, by each node other than the delayed node, a collective barrier operation; entering, after a delay by the delayed node, the collective barrier operation; receiving an exit signal from a root of the collective barrier operation; and measuring, for the delayed node, a barrier completion time. The barrier operation skew is calculated by: identifying, from the compute nodes' barrier completion times, a maximum barrier completion time and a minimum barrier completion time and calculating the barrier operation skew as the difference of the maximum and the minimum barrier completion time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
I-Bridge is a commercial version of software developed by I-Kinetics under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The software allows users of Windows applications to gain quick, easy access to databases, programs and files on UNIX services. Information goes directly onto spreadsheets and other applications; users need not manually locate, transfer and convert data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strunck, Ted
1995-01-01
A teacher at Upland Hills School (Royal Oaks, Michigan) describes how he and groups of seventh and eighth graders built a 175-foot bridge across a gully between the school and an outdoor environmental education area. Students received basic design and engineering instruction at a nearby university, and parents and community provided support and…
Power and Skew Aware Point Diffusion Clock Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Gunok; Kim, Chunghee; Chae, Kyoungkuk; Park, Giho; Park, Sung Bae
This letter presents point diffusion clock network (PDCN) with local clock tree synthesis (CTS) scheme. The clock network is implemented with ten times wider metal line space than typical mesh networks for low power and utilized to nine times smaller area CTS execution for minimized clock skew amount. The measurement results show that skew amount of PDCN with local CTS is reduced to 36% and latency is shrunk to 45% of the amount in a 4.81mm2 CortexA-8 core with 65nm Samsung process.
Skewness of steady-state current fluctuations in nonequilibrium systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Wong, Chun-Shang; Goree, John A.; Feng, Yan
2016-04-01
A skewness of the probability for instantaneous current fluctuations, in a nonequilibrium steady state, is observed experimentally in a dusty plasma. This skewness is attributed to the spatial asymmetry, which is imminent to the nonequilibrium systems due to the external hydrodynamic gradient. Using the modern framework of the large deviation theory, we extend the Onsager-Machlup ansatz for equilibrium fluctuations to systems with a preferred spatial direction, and provide a modulated Gaussian probability distribution, which is tested by simulations. This probability distribution is also of potential interest for other statistical disciplines. Connections with the principles of statistical mechanics, due to Boltzmann and Gibbs, are discussed as well.
Skew flap for staged below-knee amputation in sepsis.
Matthews, Christopher O; Williams, Ian M; Lewis, Peter; McLain, A David; Twine, Christopher P
2016-04-01
Skew flap amputation was first described in the 1980s but was never as popular as the long posterior flap amputation. This report describes a staged below-knee amputation in sepsis, with pus throughout the leg and a lack of skin coverage. One benefit of skew flaps never previously published is the fact that the suture line is not directly over the tibia. Therefore, an open wound or incomplete skin coverage is not as important as in long posterior flaps where it often leads to bone exposure and revision amputation. These benefits were utilized in this case leading to stump healing. PMID:26002782
Bridged graphite oxide materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.
Bridge Inspector's Training Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Bureau of Public Roads.
A guide for the instruction of bridge inspectors is provided in this manual as well as instructions for conducting and reporting on a bridge inspection. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary to become a bridge inspector. The subject areas covered are: The Bridge Inspector, Bridge Structures, Bridge Inspection Reporting System,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murfin, Brian
2000-01-01
Describes the famous swing bridge in Belize. Students build bridges from a variety of materials and answer the questions, What are different types of bridges?, How do bridges work?, How can you tell if a bridge design will be safe?, and What is the best way to build a bridge over a river while still allowing boat traffic? (SAH)
Thermocline Feedback Influence on Indian Ocean Dipole Skewness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, B.; Cai, W.; Walsh, K. J.
2014-12-01
A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. These impacts from positive IODs range from drought over Australia and Indonesia, to flooding over East Africa and India. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming.
Sum uncertainty relations based on Wigner-Yanase skew information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-03-01
We study sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary finite N quantum mechanical observables. Some uncertainty inequalities are presented by using skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase. These uncertainty inequalities are nontrivial as long as the observables are mutually noncommutative. The relations among these new and existing uncertainty inequalities have been investigated. Detailed examples are presented.
Skew flap technique in trans-tibial amputation.
Jain, S K
2005-12-01
The long posterior flap technique is an established technique for trans-tibial amputation in ischaemic limbs. Despite its success, it has a few drawbacks. It may be time-consuming and requires considerable planning, and at times the dog-ears cannot be avoided. The suture line passes over the distal end of the stump, which is usually a problem during prosthetic use. The skew flap technique retains the advantages of the long posterior flap technique and eliminates the difficulties of prosthetic fitting. The equal skin flaps are skewed so that the flaps become anteromedial and posterolateral, whereas the calf muscle flap remains long underneath the skewed skin flaps. The posterior muscles are brought anteriorly covering the cut ends of the bones and are buried in between the tibia and its anterior periosteum, by suturing their margins with the periosteum. The skew flap procedure was perceived in 1980 and was started at the Artificial Limb Centre, Pune in 1983 by the author. This procedure underwent many changes during the initial 5 years and by the end of April 1992, 85 trans-tibial amputations were performed using this technique. A 9-year follow-up of these patients, who had been using prostheses with ease and without any discomfort or problem, had been exceptionally good. Encouraged by the results, this technique is now being practised as routinely. By March 1998, a total of 125 such trans-tibial amputations had been performed in 119 patients, with excellent results. PMID:16466157
Arc voltage distribution skewness as an indicator of electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting
Williamson, Rodney L.; Zanner, Frank J.; Grose, Stephen M.
1998-01-01
The electrode gap of a VAR is monitored by determining the skewness of a distribution of gap voltage measurements. A decrease in skewness indicates an increase in gap and may be used to control the gap.
Arc voltage distribution skewness as an indicator of electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting
Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.; Grose, S.M.
1998-01-13
The electrode gap of a VAR is monitored by determining the skewness of a distribution of gap voltage measurements. A decrease in skewness indicates an increase in gap and may be used to control the gap. 4 figs.
Correcting Quadrupole Roll in Magnetic Lenses with Skew Quadrupoles
Walstrom, Peter Lowell
2014-11-10
Quadrupole rolls (i.e. rotation around the magnet axis) are known to be a significant source of image blurring in magnetic quadrupole lenses. These rolls may be caused by errors in mechanical mounting of quadrupoles, by uneven radiation-induced demagnetization of permanent-magnet quadrupoles, etc. Here a four-quadrupole ×10 lens with so-called ”Russian” or A -B B-A symmetry is used as a model problem. Existing SLAC 1/2 in. bore high-gradient quadrupoles are used in the design. The dominant quadrupole roll effect is changes in the first-order part of the transfer map (the R matrix) from the object to the image plane (Note effects on the R matrix can be of first order in rotation angle for some R-matrix elements and second order in rotation angle for other elements, as shown below). It is possible to correct roll-induced image blur by mechanically adjusting the roll angle of one or more of the quadrupoles. Usually, rotation of one quadrupole is sufficient to correct most of the combined effect of rolls in all four quadrupoles. There are drawbacks to this approach, however, since mechanical roll correction requires multiple entries into experimental area to make the adjustments, which are made according to their effect on images. An alternative is to use a single electromagnetic skew quadrupole corrector placed either between two of the quadrupoles or after the fourth quadrupole (so-called “non-local” correction). The basic feasibility of skew quadrupole correction of quadrupole roll effects is demonstrated here. Rolls of the third lens quadrupole of up to about 1 milliradian can be corrected with a 15 cm long skew quadrupole with a gradient of up to 1 T/m. Since the effect of rolls of the remaining three lens quadrupoles are lower, a weaker skew quadrupole can be used to correct them. Non-local correction of quadrupole roll effects by skew quadrupoles is shown to be about one-half as effective as local correction (i.e. rotating individual quadrupoles to zero roll angle or placing skew quadrupole correctors in the bores of main quadrupoles).
Skewed Brownian Fluctuations in Single-Molecule Magnetic Tweezers
Burnham, Daniel R.; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Henighan, Thomas; Dekker, Cees
2014-01-01
Measurements in magnetic tweezers rely upon precise determination of the position of a magnetic microsphere. Fluctuations in the position due to Brownian motion allows calculation of the applied force, enabling deduction of the force-extension response function for a single DNA molecule that is attached to the microsphere. The standard approach relies upon using the mean of position fluctuations, which is valid when the microsphere axial position fluctuations obey a normal distribution. However, here we demonstrate that nearby surfaces and the non-linear elasticity of DNA can skew the distribution. Through experiment and simulations, we show that such a skewing leads to inaccurate position measurements which significantly affect the extracted DNA extension and mechanical properties, leading to up to two-fold errors in measured DNA persistence length. We develop a simple, robust and easily implemented method to correct for such mismeasurements. PMID:25265383
Spin Hall Effect Induced by Resonant Skew Scattering in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rappoport, Tatiana; Ferreira, Aires; Cazalilla, Miguel; Castro Neto, Antonio
2014-03-01
The spin Hall effect is the appearance of a transverse spin current in a non-magnetic conductor by pure electrical control; it can originate from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of SOI. We consider a monolayer of graphene decorated by a small density of impurities generating a spin-orbit interaction in their surroundings. We show that large spin hall effect develops through skew scattering and it is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering. Our single impurity scattering calculations show that impurities with either intrinsic or Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a graphene sheet originate robust SHE. Also, the solution of the transport equations for a random distribution of impurities suggests that the spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.
Universal relation between skewness and kurtosis in complex dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristelli, Matthieu; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano
2012-06-01
We identify an important correlation between skewness and kurtosis for a broad class of complex dynamic systems and present a specific analysis of earthquake and financial time series. Two regimes of non-Gaussianity can be identified: a parabolic one, which is common in various fields of physics, and a power law one, with exponent 4/3, which at the moment appears to be specific of earthquakes and financial markets. For this property we propose a model and an interpretation in terms of very rare events dominating the statistics independently on the nature of the events considered. The predicted scaling relation between skewness and kurtosis matches very well the experimental pattern of the second regime. Regarding price fluctuations, this situation characterizes a universal stylized fact.
Skewed X Chromosome Inactivation and Trisomic Spontaneous Abortion: No Association
Warburton, Dorothy; Kline, Jennie; Kinney, Ann; Yu, Chih-yu; Levin, Bruce; Brown, Stephen
2009-01-01
Several studies suggest that highly skewed X chromosome inactivation (HSXI) is associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion. We hypothesized that this association reflects an increased rate of trisomic conceptions due to anomalies on the X chromosome that lead both to HSXI and to a diminished oocyte pool. We compared the distribution of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) skewing percentages (range: 50%–100%) among women with spontaneous abortions in four karyotype groups—trisomy (n = 154), chromosomally normal male (n = 43), chromosomally normal female (n = 38), nontrisomic chromosomally abnormal (n = 61)—to the distribution for age-matched controls with chromosomally normal births (n = 388). In secondary analyses, we subdivided the nontrisomic chromosomally abnormal group, divided trisomies by chromosome, and classified women by reproductive history. Our data support neither an association of HSXI with all trisomies nor an association of HSXI with chromosomally normal male spontaneous abortions. We also find no association between HSXI and recurrent abortion (n = 45). PMID:19646676
Newspaper Coverage of Intimate Partner Violence: Skewing Representations of Risk
Carlyle, Kellie E.; Slater, Michael D.; Chakroff, Jennifer L.
2011-01-01
How media portray intimate partner violence (IPV) has implications for public perceptions and social policy. Therefore, to better understand these portrayals, this study content analyzes a nationally representative sample of newspaper coverage of IPV over a two-year-period and compares this coverage to epidemiological data in order to examine the implications of the discrepancies between coverage and social reality. Stratified media outlets across the country were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas, resulting in 395 IPV-related articles. Results show that newspaper framing of IPV tends to be heavily skewed toward episodic framing. In addition, there are significant differences between our data and epidemiological estimates, particularly in the coverage of homicide and use of alcohol and illegal drugs, which may skew public perceptions of risk. Implications for public perceptions and social policy are discussed. PMID:21297889
Ivanoff, Michael A.; Weber, Matthew A.
1996-01-01
The Town Highway 29 crossing of Locust Creek is a 37-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 32-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 23, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 25 degrees. There was no observable scour protection measure at the site. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E.
MEASURING LOCAL GRADIENT AND SKEW QUADRUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC IRS.
CARDONA,J.; PEGGS,S.; PILAT,R.; PTITSYN,V.
2004-07-05
The measurement of local linear errors at RHIC interaction regions using an ''action and phase'' analysis of difference orbits has already been presented. This paper evaluates the accuracy of this technique using difference orbits that were taken when known gradient errors and skew quadrupole errors were intentionally introduced. It also presents action and phase analysis of simulated orbits when controlled errors are intentionally placed in a RHIC simulation model.
Symmetries of the Dirac operator with skew-symmetric torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houri, Tsuyoshi; Kubizňák, David; Warnick, Claude; Yasui, Yukinori
2010-09-01
In this paper, we consider the symmetries of the Dirac operator derived from a connection with skew-symmetric torsion, ∇T. We find that the generalized conformal Killing-Yano tensors give rise to symmetry operators of the massless Dirac equation, provided an explicitly given anomaly vanishes. We show that this gives rise to symmetries of the Dirac operator in the case of strong Kähler with torsion (KT) and strong hyper-Kähler with torsion (HKT) manifolds.
Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.
2013-01-01
The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.
Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal
Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh
1999-01-01
A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland.
Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal
Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.
1999-02-23
A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.
Quantifying correlations via the Wigner-Yanase skew information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Shunlong; Fu, Shuangshuang; Oh, Choo Hiap
2012-03-01
In order to quantify the information content of quantum states in the presence of conserved quantities, Wigner and Yanase introduced the notion of skew information [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.49.6.910 49, 910, (1963)], which was later identified as a paradigmatic version of quantum Fisher information. The skew information is quite different from, yet deeply connected with, the ubiquitous quantum entropies and has important applications in quantum theory. In this paper, pursuing further the original idea of Wigner and Yanase, we propose a measure for correlations in terms of the skew information, investigate its fundamental properties, and elucidate its characteristics. An appealing feature of this measure for correlations is that its evaluation does not involve any optimization, in sharp contrast to the entanglement and discord measures, and can be straightforwardly calculated. In particular, the algorithm and explicit formulas for general bipartite states are prescribed, and simple analytical expressions for some special states, including arbitrary bipartite pure states, the Bell-diagonal states, and some highly symmetric states such as the Werner states and the isotropic states, are obtained.
Validation of an Acoustic Impedance Prediction Model for Skewed Resonators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howerton, Brian M.; Parrott, Tony L.
2009-01-01
An impedance prediction model was validated experimentally to determine the composite impedance of a series of high-aspect ratio slot resonators incorporating channel skew and sharp bends. Such structures are useful for packaging acoustic liners into constrained spaces for turbofan noise control applications. A formulation of the Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line (ZKTL) model, incorporating the Richards correction for rectangular channels, is used to calculate the composite normalized impedance of a series of six multi-slot resonator arrays with constant channel length. Experimentally, acoustic data was acquired in the NASA Langley Normal Incidence Tube over the frequency range of 500 to 3500 Hz at 120 and 140 dB OASPL. Normalized impedance was reduced using the Two-Microphone Method for the various combinations of channel skew and sharp 90o and 180o bends. Results show that the presence of skew and/or sharp bends does not significantly alter the impedance of a slot resonator as compared to a straight resonator of the same total channel length. ZKTL predicts the impedance of such resonators very well over the frequency range of interest. The model can be used to design arrays of slot resonators that can be packaged into complex geometries heretofore unsuitable for effective acoustic treatment.
Genomic comparisons between paired bacterial strains with strong and weak GC skews.
Song, Tie-Jun; Wang, Yue; Shen, Jian-Gen; Pan, Jian-Ping; Huang, Jun
2014-02-01
A majority of known eubacterial genomes are characteristic of GC skew, i.e., the leading strand has exceeding number of G over C. The cause of this compositional bias is still not very clear. In this study, we chose five pairs of genomes from distantly related bacterial genera, i.e., Buchnera, Haemophilus, Mycoplasma, Mycobacterium, and Synechococcus, each containing one with strong GC skew and the other with weak GC skew. Through comparison of the orthologous genes in these genera, we found that neither chromosomal rearrangement nor CDS skew has direct relationship with GC skew. PMID:23457112
THE TRUSS BRIDGE SEGMENT OF THE TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND ...
THE TRUSS BRIDGE SEGMENT OF THE TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND AND THE HELL GATE BRIDGE IN THE BACKGROUND ADJACENT TO THE SUSPENSION SEGMENT OF THE TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE. - Triborough Bridge, Passing through Queens, Manhattan & the Bronx, Queens (subdivision), Queens County, NY
Wigner-Yanase skew information as tests for quantum entanglement
Chen Zeqian
2005-05-15
A Bell-type inequality is proposed in terms of Wigner-Yanase skew information, which is quadratic and involves only one local spin observable at each site. This inequality presents a hierarchic classification of all states of multipartite quantum systems from separable to fully entangled states, which is more powerful than the one presented by quadratic Bell inequalities from two-entangled to fully entangled states. In particular, it is proved that the inequality provides an exact test to distinguish entangled from nonentangled pure states of two qubits. Our inequality sheds considerable light on relationships between quantum entanglement and information theory.
Skew And Twist Resistant Hydrodynamic Rotary Shaft Seal
Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh
2000-03-14
A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. Compared to prior art, this invention provides a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear in abrasive environments and provides a significant increase in seal life.
Effect of Resonator Axis Skew on Normal Incidence Impedance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Homeijer, Brian
2003-01-01
High by-pass turbofan engines have fewer fan blades and lower rotation speeds than their predecessors. Consequently, the noise suppression at the low frequency end of the noise spectra has become an increasing concern. This has led to a renewed emphasis on improving noise suppression efficiency of passive, duct liner treatments at the lower frequencies. For a variety of reasons, passive liners are comprised of locally-reacting, resonant absorbers. One reason for this design choice is to satisfy operational and economic requirements. The simplest liner design consists of a single layer of honeycomb core sandwiched between a porous facesheet and an impervious backing plate. These resonant absorbing structures are integrated into the nacelle wall and are very ef- ficient over a limited bandwidth centered on their resonance frequency. Increased noise suppression bandwidth and greater suppression at lower frequencies is typically achieved for conventional liners by increasing the liner depth and incorporating thin porous septa into the honeycomb core. However, constraints on liner depth in modern high by-pass engine nacelles severely limit the suppression bandwidth extension to lower frequencies. Also, current honeycomb core liners may not be suitable for irregular geometric volumes heretofore not considered. It is of interest, therefore, to find ways to circumvent liner depth restrictions and resonator cavity shape constraints. One way to increase effective liner depth is to skew the honeycomb core axis relative to the porous facesheet surface. Other possibilities are to alter resonator cavity shape, e.g. high aspect ratio, narrow channels that possibly include right angle bends, 180. channel fold-backs, and splayed channel walls to conform to irregular geometric constraints. These possibilities constitute the practical motivation for expanding impedance modeling capability to include unconventional resonator orientations and shapes. The work reported in this paper is in the nature of a progress report and is limited to examining the implications of resonator axis skew on the composite normal incidence impedance of an array of resonator channels. Specifically, experimental results are compared with a modified impedance prediction model for highaspect- ratio, rectangular, resonator channels with varying amounts of skew relative to the incident particle velocity. It is shown that for resonator channel widths of 1 to 2 mm, aspect ratios of 25 to 50, and skew angles of zero to sixty degrees, the surface impedance of test models can be predicted with good accuracy. Predicted resistances and reactances are particularly well correlated through the first resonance and first anti-resonance for all six test models investigated. Beyond the first anti-resonance, the impedance prediction model loses the ability to predict details of resistance and reactance but still predicts the mean trends very well.
Generally astigmatic Gaussian beam representation and optimization using skew rays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colbourne, Paul D.
2014-12-01
Methods are presented of using skew rays to optimize a generally astigmatic optical system to obtain the desired Gaussian beam focus and minimize aberrations, and to calculate the propagating generally astigmatic Gaussian beam parameters at any point. The optimization method requires very little computation beyond that of a conventional ray optimization, and requires no explicit calculation of the properties of the propagating Gaussian beam. Unlike previous methods, the calculation of beam parameters does not require matrix calculations or the introduction of non-physical concepts such as imaginary rays.
Pattern formation of underwater sand ripples with a skewed drive.
Bundgaard, F; Ellegaard, C; Scheibye-Knudsen, K; Bohr, T; Sams, T
2004-12-01
In this paper we present an experimental study of the dynamics of underwater sand ripples when a regular pattern of ripples is subjected to a skewed oscillatory flow, i.e., one not perpendicular to the direction of the ripple crests. Striking patterns with new, superposed ripples on top of the original ones occur very quickly with a characteristic angle, which is, in general, not perpendicular to the flow. A slower, more complex transition then follows, leading to the final state where the ripples are again perpendicular to the flow. We investigate the variation of the superposed pattern as a function of the direction, amplitude, and frequency of the drive, and as a function of the viscosity (by changing the temperature). We quantify the dynamics of the entire transition process and finally study the grain motion around idealized (solid) skewed ripples. This leads to a characteristic mean path of a single particle. The path has a shape close to a parallelogram, with no apparent connection to the pattern of real, superposed ripples. On the other hand, a thin layer of sand sprinkled on the solid ripples leads to qualitatively similar patterns. PMID:15697484
Comparison of two treatments with skewed ordinal responses.
Lu, Tong-Yu; Poon, Wai-Yin; Cheung, Siu Hung
2016-01-30
In clinical studies, the proportional odds model is widely used to compare treatment efficacies when the responses are categorically ordered. However, this model has been shown to be inappropriate when the proportional odds assumption is invalid, mainly because it is unable to control the type I error rate in such circumstances. To remedy this problem, the latent normal model was recently promoted and has been demonstrated to be superior to the proportional odds model. However, the application of the latent normal model is limited to compare treatments with similar underlying distributions except possibly their means and variances. When the underlying distributions are very different in skewness, both of the aforementioned procedures suffer from the undesirable inflation of the type I error rate. To solve the problem for clinical studies with ordinal responses, we provide a viable solution that relies on the use of the latent Weibull distribution, which is a member of the log-location-scale family. The proposed model is able to control the type I error rate regardless of the degree of skewness of the treatment responses. In addition, the power of the test also outperforms that of the latent normal model. The testing procedure draws on newly developed theoretical results related to latent distributions from the location-scale family. The testing procedure is illustrated with two clinical examples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26289419
Tissue-specific patterns of allelically-skewed DNA methylation.
Marzi, Sarah J; Meaburn, Emma L; Dempster, Emma L; Lunnon, Katie; Paya-Cano, Jose L; Smith, Rebecca G; Volta, Manuela; Troakes, Claire; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Mill, Jonathan
2016-01-01
While DNA methylation is usually thought to be symmetrical across both alleles, there are some notable exceptions. Genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation are two well-studied sources of allele-specific methylation (ASM), but recent research has indicated a more complex pattern in which genotypic variation can be associated with allelically-skewed DNA methylation in cis. Given the known heterogeneity of DNA methylation across tissues and cell types we explored inter- and intra-individual variation in ASM across several regions of the human brain and whole blood from multiple individuals. Consistent with previous studies, we find widespread ASM with > 4% of the ∼220,000 loci interrogated showing evidence of allelically-skewed DNA methylation. We identify ASM flanking known imprinted regions, and show that ASM sites are enriched in DNase I hypersensitivity sites and often located in an extended genomic context of intermediate DNA methylation. We also detect examples of genotype-driven ASM, some of which are tissue-specific. These findings contribute to our understanding of the nature of differential DNA methylation across tissues and have important implications for genetic studies of complex disease. As a resource to the community, ASM patterns across each of the tissues studied are available in a searchable online database: http://epigenetics.essex.ac.uk/ASMBrainBlood . PMID:26786711
Crossover ensembles of random matrices and skew-orthogonal polynomials
Kumar, Santosh; Pandey, Akhilesh
2011-08-15
Highlights: > We study crossover ensembles of Jacobi family of random matrices. > We consider correlations for orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers. > We use the method of skew-orthogonal polynomials and quaternion determinants. > We prove universality of spectral correlations in crossover ensembles. > We discuss applications to quantum conductance and communication theory problems. - Abstract: In a recent paper (S. Kumar, A. Pandey, Phys. Rev. E, 79, 2009, p. 026211) we considered Jacobi family (including Laguerre and Gaussian cases) of random matrix ensembles and reported exact solutions of crossover problems involving time-reversal symmetry breaking. In the present paper we give details of the work. We start with Dyson's Brownian motion description of random matrix ensembles and obtain universal hierarchic relations among the unfolded correlation functions. For arbitrary dimensions we derive the joint probability density (jpd) of eigenvalues for all transitions leading to unitary ensembles as equilibrium ensembles. We focus on the orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers and give generic expressions for jpd of eigenvalues, two-point kernels and n-level correlation functions. This involves generalization of the theory of skew-orthogonal polynomials to crossover ensembles. We also consider crossovers in the circular ensembles to show the generality of our method. In the large dimensionality limit, correlations in spectra with arbitrary initial density are shown to be universal when expressed in terms of a rescaled symmetry breaking parameter. Applications of our crossover results to communication theory and quantum conductance problems are also briefly discussed.
Characterising Uncertainty in Expert Assessments: Encoding Heavily Skewed Judgements
O’Leary, Rebecca A.; Low-Choy, Samantha; Fisher, Rebecca; Mengersen, Kerrie; Caley, M. Julian
2015-01-01
When limited or no observed data are available, it is often useful to obtain expert knowledge about parameters of interest, including point estimates and the uncertainty around these values. However, it is vital to elicit this information appropriately in order to obtain valid estimates. This is particularly important when the experts’ uncertainty about these estimates is strongly skewed, for instance when their best estimate is the same as the lowest value they consider possible. Also this is important when interest is in the aggregation of elicited values. In this paper, we compare alternative distributions for describing such estimates. The distributions considered include the lognormal, mirror lognormal, Normal and scaled Beta. The case study presented here involves estimation of the number of species in coral reefs, which requires eliciting counts within broader taxonomic groups, with highly skewed uncertainty estimates. This paper shows substantial gain in using the scaled Beta distribution, compared with Normal or lognormal distributions. We demonstrate that, for this case study on counting species, applying the novel encoding methodology developed in this paper can facilitate the acquisition of more rigorous estimates of (hierarchical) count data and credible bounds. The approach can also be applied to the more general case of enumerating a sampling frame via elicitation. PMID:26517835
Tissue-specific patterns of allelically-skewed DNA methylation
Marzi, Sarah J.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Dempster, Emma L.; Lunnon, Katie; Paya-Cano, Jose L.; Smith, Rebecca G.; Volta, Manuela; Troakes, Claire; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Mill, Jonathan
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT While DNA methylation is usually thought to be symmetrical across both alleles, there are some notable exceptions. Genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation are two well-studied sources of allele-specific methylation (ASM), but recent research has indicated a more complex pattern in which genotypic variation can be associated with allelically-skewed DNA methylation in cis. Given the known heterogeneity of DNA methylation across tissues and cell types we explored inter- and intra-individual variation in ASM across several regions of the human brain and whole blood from multiple individuals. Consistent with previous studies, we find widespread ASM with > 4% of the ∼220,000 loci interrogated showing evidence of allelically-skewed DNA methylation. We identify ASM flanking known imprinted regions, and show that ASM sites are enriched in DNase I hypersensitivity sites and often located in an extended genomic context of intermediate DNA methylation. We also detect examples of genotype-driven ASM, some of which are tissue-specific. These findings contribute to our understanding of the nature of differential DNA methylation across tissues and have important implications for genetic studies of complex disease. As a resource to the community, ASM patterns across each of the tissues studied are available in a searchable online database: http://epigenetics.essex.ac.uk/ASMBrainBlood. PMID:26786711
Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself".
Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant
2013-06-01
Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India. PMID:23322380
Experimental and finite element studies on free vibration of skew plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasa, C. V.; Suresh, Y. J.; Prema Kumar, W. P.
2014-03-01
The present paper deals with the experimental and finite element studies carried out on free vibration of isotropic and laminated composite skew plates. The natural frequencies were determined using CQUAD8 finite element of MSC/NASTRAN and comparison made between the experimental values and the finite element solution. The effects of the skew angle and aspect ratio on the natural frequencies of isotropic skew plates were studied. The effects of skew angle, aspect ratio, fiber orientation angle and laminate stacking sequence (keeping total number of layers in the laminate constant) on the natural frequencies of antisymmetric laminated composite skew plates were also studied. The experimental values of the natural frequencies are in good agreement with the finite element solution. The natural frequencies generally increase with an increase in the skew angle for any given value of aspect ratio.
The Affective Impact of Financial Skewness on Neural Activity and Choice
Wu, Charlene C.; Bossaerts, Peter; Knutson, Brian
2011-01-01
Few finance theories consider the influence of “skewness” (or large and asymmetric but unlikely outcomes) on financial choice. We investigated the impact of skewed gambles on subjects' neural activity, self-reported affective responses, and subsequent preferences using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Neurally, skewed gambles elicited more anterior insula activation than symmetric gambles equated for expected value and variance, and positively skewed gambles also specifically elicited more nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation than negatively skewed gambles. Affectively, positively skewed gambles elicited more positive arousal and negatively skewed gambles elicited more negative arousal than symmetric gambles equated for expected value and variance. Subjects also preferred positively skewed gambles more, but negatively skewed gambles less than symmetric gambles of equal expected value. Individual differences in both NAcc activity and positive arousal predicted preferences for positively skewed gambles. These findings support an anticipatory affect account in which statistical properties of gambles—including skewness—can influence neural activity, affective responses, and ultimately, choice. PMID:21347239
Bridging consent: from toll bridges to lift bridges?
2011-01-01
Background The ability to share human biological samples, associated data and results across disease-specific and population-based human research biobanks is becoming increasingly important for research into disease development and translation. Although informed consent often does not anticipate such cross-domain sharing, it is important to examine its plausibility. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of bridging consent between disease-specific and population-based research. Comparative analyses of 1) current ethical and legal frameworks governing consent and 2) informed consent models found in disease-specific and population-based research were conducted. Discussion Ethical and legal frameworks governing consent dissuade cross-domain data sharing. Paradoxically, analysis of consent models for disease-specific and population-based research reveals such a high degree of similarity that bridging consent could be possible if additional information regarding bridging was incorporated into consent forms. We submit that bridging of consent could be supported if current trends endorsing a new interpretation of consent are adopted. To illustrate this we sketch potential bridging consent scenarios. Summary A bridging consent, respectful of the spirit of initial consent, is feasible and would require only small changes to the content of consents currently being used. Under a bridging consent approach, the initial data and samples collection can serve an identified research project as well as contribute to the creation of a resource for a range of other projects. PMID:21970509
Quantum uncertainty of mixed states based on skew information
Luo Shunlong
2006-02-15
The uncertainty of a mixed state has two quite different origins: classical mixing and quantum randomness. While the classical aspect (mixedness) is significantly quantified by the von Neumann entropy, it seems that we still do not have a well accepted measure of quantum uncertainty. In terms of the skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase in 1963 in the context of quantum measurements, we will propose an intrinsic measure for synthesizing quantum uncertainty of a mixed state and investigate its fundamental properties. We illustrate how it arises naturally from a naive hidden-variable approach to entanglement and how it exhibits a simple relation to the notion of negativity, which is an entanglement monotone introduced quite recently. We further show that it has a dramatic nonextensive feature resembling the probability law relating operations of two events. This measure of quantum uncertainty provides an alternative quantity complementary to the von Neumann entropy for studying mixedness and quantum correlations.
Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading. [Reissner theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delale, F.
1981-01-01
The general problem of a shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and anti-plane elasticity solutions. Results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform in-plane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The problem is formulated for specially orthostropic materials, therefore, the effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.
A low nasal bridge is a flattening of the top part of the nose. ... Decreased growth (hypoplasia) of the nasal bridge may due to infections or genetic diseases. A decrease in the height of the nasal bridge is best seen from a side ...
GC skew is a conserved property of unmethylated CpG island promoters across vertebrates.
Hartono, Stella R; Korf, Ian F; Chédin, Frédéric
2015-11-16
GC skew is a measure of the strand asymmetry in the distribution of guanines and cytosines. GC skew favors R-loops, a type of three stranded nucleic acid structures that form upon annealing of an RNA strand to one strand of DNA, creating a persistent RNA:DNA hybrid. Previous studies show that GC skew is prevalent at thousands of human CpG island (CGI) promoters and transcription termination regions, which correspond to hotspots of R-loop formation. Here, we investigated the conservation of GC skew patterns in 60 sequenced chordates genomes. We report that GC skew is a conserved sequence characteristic of the CGI promoter class in vertebrates. Furthermore, we reveal that promoter GC skew peaks at the exon 1/ intron1 junction and that it is highly correlated with gene age and CGI promoter strength. Our data also show that GC skew is predictive of unmethylated CGI promoters in a range of vertebrate species and that it imparts significant DNA hypomethylation for promoters with intermediate CpG densities. Finally, we observed that terminal GC skew is conserved for a subset of vertebrate genes that tend to be located significantly closer to their downstream neighbors, consistent with a role for R-loop formation in transcription termination. PMID:26253743
Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Lachos, Victor H.; Abanto-Valle, Carlos A.; Ghosh, Pulak
2010-01-01
Bivariate clustered (correlated) data often encountered in epidemiological and clinical research are routinely analyzed under a linear mixed model framework with underlying normality assumptions of the random effects and within-subject errors. However, such normality assumptions might be questionable if the data-set particularly exhibit skewness and heavy tails. Using a Bayesian paradigm, we use the skew-normal/independent (SNI) distribution as a tool for modeling clustered data with bivariate non-normal responses in a linear mixed model framework. The SNI distribution is an attractive class of asymmetric thick-tailed parametric structure which includes the skew-normal distribution as a special case. We assume that the random effects follows multivariate skew-normal/independent distributions and the random errors follow symmetric normal/independent distributions which provides substantial robustness over the symmetric normal process in a linear mixed model framework. Specific distributions obtained as special cases, viz. the skew-t, the skew-slash and the skew-contaminated normal distributions are compared, along with the default skew-normal density. The methodology is illustrated through an application to a real data which records the periodontal health status of an interesting population using periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). PMID:20740568
Queen-worker ratio affects reproductive skew in a socially polymorphic ant.
Walter, Bartosz; Heinze, Jürgen
2015-12-01
The partitioning of reproduction among individuals in communally breeding animals varies greatly among species, from the monopolization of reproduction (high reproductive skew) to similar contribution to the offspring in others (low skew). Reproductive skew models explain how relatedness or ecological constraints affect the magnitude of reproductive skew. They typically assume that individuals are capable of flexibly reacting to social and environmental changes. Most models predict a decrease of skew when benefits of staying in the group are reduced. In the ant Leptothorax acervorum, queens in colonies from marginal habitats form dominance hierarchies and only the top-ranking queen lays eggs ("functional monogyny"). In contrast, queens in colonies from extended coniferous forests throughout the Palaearctic rarely interact aggressively and all lay eggs ("polygyny"). An experimental increase of queen:worker ratios in colonies from low-skew populations elicits queen-queen aggression similar to that in functionally monogynous populations. Here, we show that this manipulation also results in increased reproductive inequalities among queens. Queens from natural overwintering colonies differed in the number of developing oocytes in their ovaries. These differences were greatly augmented in queens from colonies with increased queen:worker ratios relative to colonies with a low queen:worker ratio. As assumed by models of reproductive skew, L. acervorum colonies thus appear to be capable of flexibly adjusting reproductive skew to social conditions, yet in the opposite way than predicted by most models. PMID:27069610
No evidence that skewing of X chromosome inactivation patterns is transmitted to offspring in humans
Bolduc, Vronique; Chagnon, Pierre; Provost, Sylvie; Dub, Marie-Pierre; Belisle, Claude; Gingras, Marianne; Mollica, Luigina; Busque, Lambert
2007-01-01
Skewing of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) can occur in normal females and increases in tissues with age. The mechanisms underlying skewing in normal females, however, remain controversial. To better understand the phenomenon of XCI in nondisease states, we evaluated XCI patterns in epithelial and hematopoietic cells of over 500 healthy female mother-neonate pairs. The incidence of skewing observed in mothers was twice that observed in neonates, and in both cohorts, the incidence of XCI was lower in epithelial cells than hematopoietic cells. These results suggest that XCI incidence varies by tissue type and that age-dependent mechanisms can influence skewing in both epithelial and hematopoietic cells. In both cohorts, a correlation was identified in the direction of skewing in epithelial and hematopoietic cells, suggesting common underlying skewing mechanisms across tissues. However, there was no correlation between the XCI patterns of mothers and their respective neonates, and skewed mothers gave birth to skewed neonates at the same frequency as nonskewed mothers. Taken together, our data suggest that in humans, the XCI pattern observed at birth does not reflect a single heritable genetic locus, but rather corresponds to a complex trait determined, at least in part, by selection biases occurring after XCI. PMID:18097474
GC skew is a conserved property of unmethylated CpG island promoters across vertebrates
Hartono, Stella R.; Korf, Ian F.; Chédin, Frédéric
2015-01-01
GC skew is a measure of the strand asymmetry in the distribution of guanines and cytosines. GC skew favors R-loops, a type of three stranded nucleic acid structures that form upon annealing of an RNA strand to one strand of DNA, creating a persistent RNA:DNA hybrid. Previous studies show that GC skew is prevalent at thousands of human CpG island (CGI) promoters and transcription termination regions, which correspond to hotspots of R-loop formation. Here, we investigated the conservation of GC skew patterns in 60 sequenced chordates genomes. We report that GC skew is a conserved sequence characteristic of the CGI promoter class in vertebrates. Furthermore, we reveal that promoter GC skew peaks at the exon 1/ intron1 junction and that it is highly correlated with gene age and CGI promoter strength. Our data also show that GC skew is predictive of unmethylated CGI promoters in a range of vertebrate species and that it imparts significant DNA hypomethylation for promoters with intermediate CpG densities. Finally, we observed that terminal GC skew is conserved for a subset of vertebrate genes that tend to be located significantly closer to their downstream neighbors, consistent with a role for R-loop formation in transcription termination. PMID:26253743
A proof for Rhiel's range estimator of the coefficient of variation for skewed distributions.
Rhiel, G Steven
2007-02-01
In this research study is proof that the coefficient of variation (CV(high-low)) calculated from the highest and lowest values in a set of data is applicable to specific skewed distributions with varying means and standard deviations. Earlier Rhiel provided values for d(n), the standardized mean range, and a(n), an adjustment for bias in the range estimator of micro. These values are used in estimating the coefficient of variation from the range for skewed distributions. The d(n) and an values were specified for specific skewed distributions with a fixed mean and standard deviation. In this proof it is shown that the d(n) and an values are applicable for the specific skewed distributions when the mean and standard deviation can take on differing values. This will give the researcher confidence in using this statistic for skewed distributions regardless of the mean and standard deviation. PMID:17451028
Skew detection and correction of ancient Tamil documents using particle swarm optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sridevi, N.; Subashini, P.
2012-04-01
When a document is fed to a scanner either mechanically or by a human operator for digitization, it suffers from some degrees of skew or tilt. Skew detection is one of the first operations to be applied to scanned documents when converting data to a digital format. Its aim is to align an image before processing because text segmentation and recognition methods require properly aligned lines. This paper presents a new approach for skew detection and correction of documents. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used for solving skew optimization. A new objective function based on local maxima and minima of projection profile is formulated and PSO is used to find the best angle that maximizes the objective function. The proposed method is compared with existing methods like Hough transform, Fourier transform. Experimental results show that the proposed method corrects the skew with the maximum error rate of +/- 1° .
Optimization of a magnetic disk drive actuator with small skew actuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhimin; Ong, Eng Hong; Guo, Guoxiao
2002-05-01
Currently the utilization of the voice-coil motor for actuating read/write head elements in magnetic hard disk drives results in a skewed actuation, which necessitates an involved microjogging process and thus a complicated servo system. Furthermore, in perpendicular recording systems, a small skew actuation will relax the requirement on pole trimming. This article presents a magnetic hard disk drive actuator and suspension assembly with small skew actuation. In the present study, the distance from the actuator pivot to the read/write head is chosen so that the skew angle variation is minimized. After that, the suspension head is assembled to the actuator arm at a slant angle with respect to the actuator longitudinal direction to achieve an absolute small skew actuation. Finite element modeling and experimental measurements reveal that there are no significant changes of the actuator assembly dynamic performance with and without the slant angle.
Ishido, Naoko; Inoue, Naoya; Watanabe, Mikio; Hidaka, Yoh
2015-01-01
Background: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) predominantly develop in females. One of two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated by methylation in each female cell, but it has been reported that skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) may be associated with the development of autoimmune diseases. To clarify the significance of skewed XCI in the prognosis and development of AITD, we investigated the proportion of skewed XCI in female patients with AITD. Methods: We analyzed the degree of XCI skewing in 120 female patients with AITD (77 patients with Graves' disease [GD] and 43 patients with Hashimoto's disease [HD]) and 49 female controls in DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We performed XCI analysis by digesting inactive DNA with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme (HpaII) followed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the polymorphic CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene and electrophoresis of the PCR products. Results: The proportion of skewed XCI (≥65% skewing) was not significantly different between AITD patients and control subjects but was higher in patients with intractable GD (66.7%) than those with GD in remission (25.0%, p=0.0033) and control subjects (32.6%, p=0.0038). When the cutoff value for XCI skewing was relaxed, the proportion of skewed XCI (≥60% skewing) was higher in patients with severe HD (76.5%) than in those with mild HD (41.2%, p=0.0342). Conclusions: Skewed XCI is related to the prognosis of AITD, particularly the intractability of GD. PMID:25338305
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nypan, L. J.
1980-01-01
Measurements of roller skewing in a 118 mm bore roller bearing operating at shaft speeds to 12000 rpm are reported. High speed motion pictures of a modified roller were taken through a derotation prism to record skewing as the roller moved through loaded and unloaded regions of the bearing. Subsequent frame by frame measurement of the photographic film provided information on roller skewing. Radial and tangential skew amplitudes of .4 to .5 degrees were observed with .5 degree misalignment.
Regression for skewed biomarker outcomes subject to pooling.
Mitchell, Emily M; Lyles, Robert H; Manatunga, Amita K; Danaher, Michelle; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F
2014-03-01
Epidemiological studies involving biomarkers are often hindered by prohibitively expensive laboratory tests. Strategically pooling specimens prior to performing these lab assays has been shown to effectively reduce cost with minimal information loss in a logistic regression setting. When the goal is to perform regression with a continuous biomarker as the outcome, regression analysis of pooled specimens may not be straightforward, particularly if the outcome is right-skewed. In such cases, we demonstrate that a slight modification of a standard multiple linear regression model for poolwise data can provide valid and precise coefficient estimates when pools are formed by combining biospecimens from subjects with identical covariate values. When these x-homogeneous pools cannot be formed, we propose a Monte Carlo expectation maximization (MCEM) algorithm to compute maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs). Simulation studies demonstrate that these analytical methods provide essentially unbiased estimates of coefficient parameters as well as their standard errors when appropriate assumptions are met. Furthermore, we show how one can utilize the fully observed covariate data to inform the pooling strategy, yielding a high level of statistical efficiency at a fraction of the total lab cost. PMID:24521420
Regression for Skewed Biomarker Outcomes Subject to Pooling
Mitchell, Emily M.; Lyles, Robert H.; Manatunga, Amita K.; Danaher, Michelle; Perkins, Neil J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.
2014-01-01
Summary Epidemiological studies involving biomarkers are often hindered by prohibitively expensive laboratory tests. Strategically pooling specimens prior to performing these lab assays has been shown to effectively reduce cost with minimal information loss in a logistic regression setting. When the goal is to perform regression with a continuous biomarker as the outcome, regression analysis of pooled specimens may not be straightforward, particularly if the outcome is right-skewed. In such cases, we demonstrate that a slight modification of a standard multiple linear regression model for poolwise data can provide valid and precise coefficient estimates when pools are formed by combining biospecimens from subjects with identical covariate values. When these x-homogeneous pools cannot be formed, we propose a Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization (MCEM) algorithm to compute maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs). Simulation studies demonstrate that these analytical methods provide essentially unbiased estimates of coefficient parameters as well as their standard errors when appropriate assumptions are met. Furthermore, we show how one can utilize the fully observed covariate data to inform the pooling strategy, yielding a high level of statistical efficiency at a fraction of the total lab cost. PMID:24521420
Improvement in minority attack detection with skewness in network traffic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Ciza; Balakrishnan, N.
2008-03-01
The acceptability and usability of Intrusion Detection Systems get seriously affected with the data skewness in network traffic. A large number of false alarms mean a lot in terms of the acceptability of Intrusion Detection Systems. The reason for the increase in false alerts is that the normal traffic abound. Even with highly accurate Intrusion Detection Systems, the effective detection rate of the minority attack types will be unacceptably low and those attack types are often the most serious ones. Thus high accuracy is not necessarily an indicator of high model quality, and therein lies the accuracy paradox of predictive analytics. The cost of missing an attack is higher than the cost of false alarms. The data-dependent sensor fusion architecture presented in this paper learns from the data and then appropriately gives weighting to the decisions of various Intrusion Detection Systems. The fusion enriches these weighted decisions to provide a single decision, which is better than those of the existing Intrusion Detection Systems. This method reduces the false positive rate and improves the overall detection rate and also the detection rate of minority class types in particular.
Statistics on Cannabis Users Skew Perceptions of Cannabis Use
Burns, Rachel M.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Everingham, Susan S.; Kilmer, Beau
2013-01-01
Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight (1) differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; (2) how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and (3) the correlation between frequency of use in the past-month and average grams consumed per use-day. Key findings: focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanics. Further, data from a survey conducted in seven European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations. PMID:24223560
Skew redundant MEMS IMU calibration using a Kalman filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, M.; Sahebjameyan, M.; Moshiri, B.; Najafabadi, T. A.
2015-10-01
In this paper, a novel calibration procedure for skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMUs) based on micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is proposed. A general model of the SRIMU measurements is derived which contains the effects of bias, scale factor error and misalignments. For more accuracy, the effect of lever arms of the accelerometers to the center of the table are modeled and compensated in the calibration procedure. Two separate Kalman filters (KFs) are proposed to perform the estimation of error parameters for gyroscopes and accelerometers. The predictive error minimization (PEM) stochastic modeling method is used to simultaneously model the effect of bias instability and random walk noise on the calibration Kalman filters to diminish the biased estimations. The proposed procedure is simulated numerically and has expected experimental results. The calibration maneuvers are applied using a two-axis angle turntable in a way that the persistency of excitation (PE) condition for parameter estimation is met. For this purpose, a trapezoidal calibration profile is utilized to excite different deterministic error parameters of the accelerometers and a pulse profile is used for the gyroscopes. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed KF calibration method, a conventional least squares (LS) calibration procedure is derived for the SRIMUs and the simulation and experimental results compare the functionality of the two proposed methods with each other.
Measurement error, skewness, and risk analysis: coping with the long tail of the distribution.
Mumpower, Jeryl L; McClelland, Gary
2002-04-01
Probabilistic risk analyses often construct multistage chance trees to estimate the joint probability of compound events. If random measurement error is associated with some or all of the estimates, we show that resulting estimates of joint probability may be highly skewed. Joint probability estimates based on the analysis of multistage chance trees are more likely than not to be below the true probability of adverse events, but will sometimes substantially overestimate them. In contexts such as insurance markets for environmental risks, skewed distributions of risk estimates amplify the "winner's curse" so that the estimated risk premium for low-probability events is likely to be lower than the normative value. Skewness may result even in unbiased estimators of expected value from simple lotteries, if measurement error is associated with both the probability and pay-off terms. Further, skewness may occur even if the error associated with these two estimates is symmetrically distributed. Under certain circumstances, skewed estimates of expected value may result in risk-neutral decisionmakers exhibiting a tendency to choose a certainty equivalent over a lottery of equal expected value, or vice versa. We show that when distributions of estimates of expected value are, positively skewed, under certain circumstances it will be optimal to choose lotteries with nominal values lower than the value of apparently superior certainty equivalents. Extending the previous work of Goodman (1960), we provide an exact formula for the skewness of products. PMID:12022676
Modulation of Root Skewing in Arabidopsis by Apyrases and Extracellular ATP.
Yang, Xingyan; Wang, Bochu; Farris, Ben; Clark, Greg; Roux, Stanley J
2015-11-01
When plant primary roots grow along a tilted surface that is impenetrable, they can undergo a slanted deviation from the direction of gravity called skewing. Skewing is induced by touch stimuli which the roots experience as they grow along the surface. Touch stimuli also induce the release of extracellular ATP (eATP) into the plant's extracellular matrix, and two apyrases (NTPDases) in Arabidopsis, APY1 and APY2, can help regulate the concentration of eATP. The primary roots of seedlings overexpressing APY1 show less skewing than wild-type plants. Plants suppressed in their expression of APY1 show more skewing than wild-type plants. Correspondingly, chemical inhibition of apyrase activity increased skewing in mutants and wild-type roots. Exogenous application of ATP or ATPγS also increased skewing in wild-type roots, which could be blocked by co-incubation with a purinergic receptor antagonist. These results suggest a model in which gradients of eATP set up by differential touch stimuli along roots help direct skewing in roots growing along an impenetrable surface. PMID:26412783
Log Pearson type 3 quantile estimators with regional skew information and low outlier adjustments
Griffis, V.W.; Stedinger, J.R.; Cohn, T.A.
2004-01-01
[1] The recently developed expected moments algorithm (EMA) [Cohn et al., 1997] does as well as maximum likelihood estimations at estimating log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) flood quantiles using systematic and historical flood information. Needed extensions include use of a regional skewness estimator and its precision to be consistent with Bulletin 17B. Another issue addressed by Bulletin 17B is the treatment of low outliers. A Monte Carlo study compares the performance of Bulletin 17B using the entire sample with and without regional skew with estimators that use regional skew and censor low outliers, including an extended EMA estimator, the conditional probability adjustment (CPA) from Bulletin 17B, and an estimator that uses probability plot regression (PPR) to compute substitute values for low outliers. Estimators that neglect regional skew information do much worse than estimators that use an informative regional skewness estimator. For LP3 data the low outlier rejection procedure generally results in no loss of overall accuracy, and the differences between the MSEs of the estimators that used an informative regional skew are generally modest in the skewness range of real interest. Samples contaminated to model actual flood data demonstrate that estimators which give special treatment to low outliers significantly outperform estimators that make no such adjustment.
LOOKING WNW, CHEVROLET AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING FLINT RIVER. BRIDGE CONNECTED ...
LOOKING WNW, CHEVROLET AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING FLINT RIVER. BRIDGE CONNECTED NORTH AND SOUTH PORTIONS OF FACTORY COMPLEX. DANIEL LUTEN DESIGNED THE BRIDGE, AND ILLINOIS BRIDGE COMPANY BUILT IT IN 1918. THE BRIDGE WAS THE SITE OF THE BATTLE OF RUNNING BULLS IN THE 1936-1937 GM SIT DOWN STRIKE. - Delphi Flint West, 300 Chevrolet Avenue, Flint, Genesee County, MI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thierjung, Brianna; Jorge Moreno, Paul Torrey, Phil Hopkins
2016-01-01
We employ a suite of 75 simulations of galaxies in idealized major mergers to investigate the bridges formed by interactions. These simulations are based on the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al. 2011). Moreover, unlike past work, we have both the resolution and diversity in merging orbits to make statistically meaningful predictions. We find that very dense, star forming bridges can be characterized as strong bridges. In particular, prograde mergers with high eccentricities and high impact parameters produce the most mass of stars in the bridge.
Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator
Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.
1999-01-01
The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.
Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator
Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.
1999-01-19
The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.
Skew Cyclic Codes over mathbb{F}_{q}+vmathbb{F}_{q}+v(2}mathbb{F}_{q)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Minjia; Yao, Ting; Alahmadi, Adel; Solé, Patrick
In this article, we study skew cyclic codes over ring $R=\\mathbb{F}_{q}+v\\mathbb{F}_{q}+v^{2}\\mathbb{F}_{q}$, where $q=p^{m}$, $p$ is an odd prime and $v^{3}=v$. We describe generator polynomials of skew cyclic codes over this ring and investigate the structural properties of skew cyclic codes over $R$ by a decomposition theorem. We also describe the generator polynomials of the duals of skew cyclic codes. Moreover, the idempotent generators of skew cyclic codes over $\\mathbb{F}_{q}$ and $R$ are considered.
Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants.
Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Hildebrandt, Thomas B
2009-10-01
Sex allocation theories predict equal offspring number of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild. We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data on captive births (CB, n=487) and premature deaths (PD, <5 years of age; n=164) in Asian and African elephants in Europe and North America were compared with data on Myanmar timber (Asian) elephants (CB, n=3070; PD, n=738). Growth in CB was found in three of the captive populations. A significant excess of male births occurred in European Asian elephants (ratio: 0.61, P=0.044) and in births following artificial insemination (0.83, P=0.003), and a numerical inclination in North American African elephants (0.6). While juvenile mortality in European African and Myanmar populations was 21-23%, it was almost double (40-45%) in all other captive populations. In zoo populations, 68-91% of PD were within 1 month of birth with stillbirth and infanticide being major causes. In Myanmar, 62% of juvenile deaths were at >6 months with maternal insufficient milk production, natural hazards and accidents being the main causes. European Asian and Myanmar elephants PD was biased towards males (0.71, P=0.024 and 0.56, P<0.001, respectively). The skewed birth sex ratio and high juvenile mortality hinder efforts to help captive populations become self-sustaining. Efforts should be invested to identify the mechanism behind these trends and seek solutions for them. PMID:19058933
Genetic Architecture of Skewed X Inactivation in the Laboratory Mouse
Calaway, John D.; Lenarcic, Alan B.; Didion, John P.; Wang, Jeremy R.; Searle, Jeremy B.; McMillan, Leonard; Valdar, William; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando
2013-01-01
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the mammalian mechanism of dosage compensation that balances X-linked gene expression between the sexes. Early during female development, each cell of the embryo proper independently inactivates one of its two parental X-chromosomes. In mice, the choice of which X chromosome is inactivated is affected by the genotype of a cis-acting locus, the X-chromosome controlling element (Xce). Xce has been localized to a 1.9 Mb interval within the X-inactivation center (Xic), yet its molecular identity and mechanism of action remain unknown. We combined genotype and sequence data for mouse stocks with detailed phenotyping of ten inbred strains and with the development of a statistical model that incorporates phenotyping data from multiple sources to disentangle sources of XCI phenotypic variance in natural female populations on X inactivation. We have reduced the Xce candidate 10-fold to a 176 kb region located approximately 500 kb proximal to Xist. We propose that structural variation in this interval explains the presence of multiple functional Xce alleles in the genus Mus. We have identified a new allele, Xcee present in Mus musculus and a possible sixth functional allele in Mus spicilegus. We have also confirmed a parent-of-origin effect on X inactivation choice and provide evidence that maternal inheritance magnifies the skewing associated with strong Xce alleles. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 155 laboratory strains and wild mice we conclude that Xcea is either a derived allele that arose concurrently with the domestication of fancy mice but prior the derivation of most classical inbred strains or a rare allele in the wild. Furthermore, we have found that despite the presence of multiple haplotypes in the wild Mus musculus domesticus has only one functional Xce allele, Xceb. Lastly, we conclude that each mouse taxa examined has a different functional Xce allele. PMID:24098153
18. View of open bridge facing southeast looking at bridge ...
18. View of open bridge facing southeast looking at bridge piers beneath south tower. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA
APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...
APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI
APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...
APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI
GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...
GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY
Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...
Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA
3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge ...
3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge from north shore of Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID
4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...
4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shoreof Clark Fork River showing 4 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID
2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...
2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID
7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge ...
7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID
1. VIEW OF SWING BRIDGE FROM KEDZIE AVENUE BRIDGE, LOOKING ...
1. VIEW OF SWING BRIDGE FROM KEDZIE AVENUE BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. - Chicago, Madison & Northern Railroad, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, east of Kedzie Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL
A novel bridge scour monitoring and prediction system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valyrakis, Manousos; Michalis, Panagiotis; Zhang, Hanqing
2015-04-01
Earth's surface is continuously shaped due to the action of geophysical flows. Erosion due to the flow of water in river systems has been identified as a key problem in preserving ecological health but also a threat to our built environment and critical infrastructure, worldwide. As an example, it has been estimated that a major reason for bridge failure is due to scour. Even though the flow past bridge piers has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, and the mechanisms of scouring are relatively understood, there still lacks a tool that can offer fast and reliable predictions. Most of the existing formulas for prediction of bridge pier scour depth are empirical in nature, based on a limited range of data or for piers of specific shape. In this work, the use of a novel methodology is proposed for the prediction of bridge scour. Specifically, the use of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is proposed to estimate the scour depth around bridge piers. In particular, various complexity architectures are sequentially built, in order to identify the optimal for scour depth predictions, using appropriate training and validation subsets obtained from the USGS database (and pre-processed to remove incomplete records). The model has five variables, namely the effective pier width (b), the approach velocity (v), the approach depth (y), the mean grain diameter (D50) and the skew to flow. Simulations are conducted with data groups (bed material type, pier type and shape) and different number of input variables, to produce reduced complexity and easily interpretable models. Analysis and comparison of the results indicate that the developed ANFIS model has high accuracy and outstanding generalization ability for prediction of scour parameters. The effective pier width (as opposed to skew to flow) is amongst the most relevant input parameters for the estimation. Training of the system to new bridge geometries and flow conditions can be achieved by obtaining real time data, via novel electromagnetic sensors monitoring scour depth. Once the model is trained with data representative of the new system, bridge scour prediction can be performed for high/design flows or floods.
Wong, A M F
2015-02-01
The otolith organs consist of the utricle and saccule. The utricle mediates the utriculo-ocular reflex by detecting horizontal head translation and static head tilt. Skew deviation is a vertical strabismus caused by imbalance of the utriculo-ocular reflex pathway and is commonly caused by lesions in the brainstem or cerebellum. It is associated with abnormal utriculo-ocular reflexes including asymmetric reduction of the translational vestibulo-ocular and ocular counterroll responses. Skew deviation is also associated with head position-dependent changes in ocular torsion and vertical strabismus. The reduction in ocular torsion and vertical strabismus when changing from an upright to supine position in skew deviation allows us to devise a new bedside 'upright-supine test' to differentiate skew deviation from fourth nerve palsy and other causes of vertical strabismus. PMID:25323854
Oberg, Kevin A.; Mades, Dean M.
1987-01-01
Four techniques for estimating generalized skew in Illinois were evaluated: (1) a generalized skew map of the US; (2) an isoline map; (3) a prediction equation; and (4) a regional-mean skew. Peak-flow records at 730 gaging stations having 10 or more annual peaks were selected for computing station skews. Station skew values ranged from -3.55 to 2.95, with a mean of -0.11. Frequency curves computed for 30 gaging stations in Illinois using the variations of the regional-mean skew technique are similar to frequency curves computed using a skew map developed by the US Water Resources Council (WRC). Estimates of the 50-, 100-, and 500-yr floods computed for 29 of these gaging stations using the regional-mean skew techniques are within the 50% confidence limits of frequency curves computed using the WRC skew map. Although the three variations of the regional-mean skew technique were slightly more accurate than the WRC map, there is no appreciable difference between flood estimates computed using the variations of the regional-mean technique and flood estimates computed using the WRC skew map. (Peters-PTT)
Reproductive skew theory unified: the general bordered tug-of-war model.
Shen, Sheng-Feng; Kern Reeve, H
2010-03-01
Reproductive skew has been identified as a major dimension along which animal societies vary. Two major kinds of reproductive skew models are transactional models, which explain the distribution of reproduction within animal societies as the result of reproductive payments exchanged among group members with differential leverage, and tug-of-war models, in which the reproductive shares are determined by costly 'tugs-of-war'. These two models have recently been synthesized to yield the mutual-pay, bordered tug-of-war model. In this paper, we extend the latter, show its evolutionary stability, and demonstrate that the generalized model yields four sub-models, namely the mutual-pay, alpha-pay, beta-pay, and pure tug-of-war. The alpha-pay sub-model turns out to closely resemble the original "concessions" transactional skew model, and the beta-pay sub-model turns out to have properties similar to the "restraint" transactional skew model. Thus, the general model unifies the four major models of reproductive skew and is rich in its predictions, as each sub-model exhibits different qualitative and quantitative relationships between reproductive skew or intra-group conflict and the ecological and genetic factors that determine skew and conflict. The conditions favoring transitions among these sub-models also are precisely predicted by the general model. The general model accommodates data from acorn woodpeckers and primitively eusocial bees potentially can account for many of the highly varied empirical findings on reproductive skew. We suggest further research that focuses on (1) determining which model is suitable for certain species and (2) understanding why and how various social animals resolve their breeding conflict by different conflict resolution mechanisms. PMID:19932705
Beam distribution in the skew profile geometry for PIXE setup with a diffuser foil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaracz, P.; Mirowski, S.
1989-09-01
Two-dimensional numerical calculations of the beam distribution for a diffuser foil beam uniformation system in the "skew beam profile geometry" are presented. The calculations based on Meyer's theory of multiple scattering allow a prediction of the required "skewness" of the system. The calculated beam profiles and the transmittance of the system are compared with experiment. It is shown that the results do not depend on the distribution of the primary beam on the target.
Landfors, Mattias; Philip, Philge; Rydén, Patrik; Stenberg, Per
2011-01-01
Genome-wide analysis of gene expression or protein binding patterns using different array or sequencing based technologies is now routinely performed to compare different populations, such as treatment and reference groups. It is often necessary to normalize the data obtained to remove technical variation introduced in the course of conducting experimental work, but standard normalization techniques are not capable of eliminating technical bias in cases where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed, i.e. when a large fraction of the variables are either positively or negatively affected by the treatment. However, several experiments are likely to generate such skewed distributions, including ChIP-chip experiments for the study of chromatin, gene expression experiments for the study of apoptosis, and SNP-studies of copy number variation in normal and tumour tissues. A preliminary study using spike-in array data established that the capacity of an experiment to identify altered variables and generate unbiased estimates of the fold change decreases as the fraction of altered variables and the skewness increases. We propose the following work-flow for analyzing high-dimensional experiments with regions of altered variables: (1) Pre-process raw data using one of the standard normalization techniques. (2) Investigate if the distribution of the altered variables is skewed. (3) If the distribution is not believed to be skewed, no additional normalization is needed. Otherwise, re-normalize the data using a novel HMM-assisted normalization procedure. (4) Perform downstream analysis. Here, ChIP-chip data and simulated data were used to evaluate the performance of the work-flow. It was found that skewed distributions can be detected by using the novel DSE-test (Detection of Skewed Experiments). Furthermore, applying the HMM-assisted normalization to experiments where the distribution of the truly altered variables is skewed results in considerably higher sensitivity and lower bias than can be attained using standard and invariant normalization methods. PMID:22132175
Wessendorf, Kurt O.
2001-01-01
An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.
The Bryce Canyon Natural Bridge. Technically, this is not a natural bridge, which forms when running water erodes a tunnel into a rock formation. Instead, this is a natural arch, similar to the ones in nearby Arches National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is...
Virtual Bridge Design Challenge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitts, Charles R.
2013-01-01
This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…
Modelling a Suspension Bridge.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rawlins, Phil
1991-01-01
The quadratic function can be modeled in real life by a suspension bridge that supports a uniform weight. This activity uses concrete models and computer generated graphs to discover the mathematical model of the shape of the main cable of a suspension bridge. (MDH)
Virtual Bridge Design Challenge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitts, Charles R.
2013-01-01
This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant
Support column of bridge across Struve Slough, Highway 1. Enlargement of hole where support enters the ground is an effect of lateral shaking, which caused the concrete to break up where the column joined the bridge and was instrumental in the roadbed collapse....
Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wing, David J.
1994-01-01
The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated and the location of the sonic plane may be further stabilized.
2014-01-01
Background In insect societies, intracolonial genetic variation is predicted to affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. However, because the effects of genetic variation on these two colony characteristics have been tested independently, it remains unclear whether they are affected by genetic variation independently or in a related manner. Here we test the effect of genetic variation on colony efficiency and reproductive skew in a rhinotermitid termite, Reticulitermes speratus, a species in which female-female pairs can facultatively found colonies. We established colonies using two types of female-female pairs: colonies founded by sisters (i.e., sister-pair colonies) and those founded by females from different colonies (i.e., unrelated-pair colonies). Colony growth and reproductive skew were then compared between the two types of incipient colonies. Results At 15 months after colony foundation, unrelated-pair colonies were larger than sister-pair colonies, although the caste ratio between workers and nymphs, which were alternatively differentiated from young larvae, did not differ significantly. Microsatellite DNA analyses of both founders and their parthenogenetically produced offspring indicated that, in both sister-pair and unrelated-pair colonies, there was no significant skew in the production of eggs, larvae, workers and soldiers. Nymph production, however, was significantly more skewed in the sister-pair colonies than in unrelated-pair colonies. Because nymphs can develop into winged adults (alates) or nymphoid reproductives, they have a higher chance of direct reproduction than workers in this species. Conclusions Our results support the idea that higher genetic variation among colony members could provide an increase in colony productivity, as shown in hymenopteran social insects. Moreover, this study suggests that low genetic variation (high relatedness) between founding females increases reproductive skew via one female preferentially channeling her relatives along the reproductive track. This study thus demonstrated that, in social insects, intracolonial genetic variation can simultaneously affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. PMID:25123355
5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge ...
5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River-southernmost span. 1900-era Northern Pacific Railway Bridge in background. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID
VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE ...
VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. THE PAVEMENT OF THE NORTH APPROACH IS SEEN BURIED ON THE RIGHT. ROADWAY (CENTER) CROSSES THE USUALLY DRY CHANNEL OF THE SALT RIVER. A BALUSTRADE OF THE MILL AVENUE BRIDGE IS SEEN AT THE LOWER LEFT CORNER - Ash Avenue Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Foot of Ash Avenue, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leviatan, Talma
2008-09-01
There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes—aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics—is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a potential bridging programme, this paper aims at demonstrating that the gap can be bridged, by presenting an ongoing modular bridging programme especially designed for the diverse types of student populations in teachers training colleges. We also present here some innovative teaching and assessment methods that were judged essential for the success of these programmes—focusing mainly on the "Questionnaire Based Instruction Method". Finally we suggest directions of follow up and research.
Checa, Antonio G; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Willinger, Marc-Georg
2011-12-01
We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (>100nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (<60nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such. PMID:21982842
Modeling absolute differences in life expectancy with a censored skew-normal regression approach
Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Zwahlen, Marcel
2015-01-01
Parameter estimates from commonly used multivariable parametric survival regression models do not directly quantify differences in years of life expectancy. Gaussian linear regression models give results in terms of absolute mean differences, but are not appropriate in modeling life expectancy, because in many situations time to death has a negative skewed distribution. A regression approach using a skew-normal distribution would be an alternative to parametric survival models in the modeling of life expectancy, because parameter estimates can be interpreted in terms of survival time differences while allowing for skewness of the distribution. In this paper we show how to use the skew-normal regression so that censored and left-truncated observations are accounted for. With this we model differences in life expectancy using data from the Swiss National Cohort Study and from official life expectancy estimates and compare the results with those derived from commonly used survival regression models. We conclude that a censored skew-normal survival regression approach for left-truncated observations can be used to model differences in life expectancy across covariates of interest. PMID:26339544
Generalized Skew Coefficients of Annual Peak Flows for Rural, Unregulated Streams in West Virginia
Atkins, John T.; Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Paybins, Katherine S.
2009-01-01
Generalized skew was determined from analysis of records from 147 streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia. The analysis followed guidelines established by the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data described in Bulletin 17B, except that stations having 50 or more years of record were used instead of stations with the less restrictive recommendation of 25 or more years of record. The generalized-skew analysis included contouring, averaging, and regression of station skews. The best method was considered the one with the smallest mean square error (MSE). MSE is defined as the following quantity summed and divided by the number of peaks: the square of the difference of an individual logarithm (base 10) of peak flow less the mean of all individual logarithms of peak flow. Contouring of station skews was the best method for determining generalized skew for West Virginia, with a MSE of about 0.2174. This MSE is an improvement over the MSE of about 0.3025 for the national map presented in Bulletin 17B.
Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Otte, Tobias; Müller, Josef K
2008-01-01
Proximate mechanisms underlying reproductive skew are obscure in many animals that breed communally. Here, we address causes of reproductive skew in brood-parasitic associations of burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides). Male and female burying beetles feed and defend their larvae on buried carcasses. When several females locate the same small carcass, they engage in violent physical altercations. The subordinate then acts as an intraspecific brood parasite, laying eggs, but not providing care. The dominant female largely monopolizes access to the carcass; she alone provides parental care and her share of the brood is much larger than the subordinate's. On larger carcasses, subordinates have greater access to the carcass than on small ones, and reproductive skew is reduced. Differential fecundity, ovicide and larvicide have been suggested as causes of skew on small carcasses. Here, we report the results of the experiments pertaining to the first two of these potential mechanisms. Ovicide did not significantly contribute to reproductive skew on small carcasses, but differential fecundity did. Fecundity differences were due to dominance status, not body size per se. Fecundity differences disappeared when supplemental food was available, suggesting that reduced access to the carcass limits fecundity by causing nutritional deficiencies. Supplemental food prevented such nutritional deficiencies and allowed subordinates to produce as many eggs as dominants. Apparently, aggressive behaviour by dominants functions in the context of reproductive competition, limiting subordinate reproduction by preventing food intake on the carcass. PMID:18647719
Analysis of gamma-ray burst duration distribution using mixtures of skewed distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarnopolski, M.
2016-02-01
Two classes of GRBs have been confidently identified thus far and are prescribed to different physical scenarios - NS-NS or NS-BH mergers, and collapse of massive stars, for short and long GRBs, respectively. A third, intermediate in duration class, was suggested to be present in previous catalogs, such as BATSE and Swift, based on statistical tests regarding a mixture of two or three log-normal distributions of T90. However, this might possibly not be an adequate model. This paper investigates whether the distributions of log T90 from BATSE, Swift, and Fermi are described better by a mixture of skewed distributions rather than standard Gaussians. Mixtures of standard normal, skew-normal, sinh-arcsinh and alpha-skew-normal distributions are fitted using a maximum likelihood method. The preferred model is chosen based on the Akaike information criterion. It is found that mixtures of two skew-normal or two sinh-arcsinh distributions are more likely to describe the observed duration distribution of Fermi than a mixture of three standard Gaussians, and that mixtures of two sinh-arcsinh or two skew-normal distributions are models competing with the conventional three-Gaussian in the case of BATSE and Swift. Based on statistical reasoning, and it is shown that other phenomenological models may describe the observed Fermi, BATSE, and Swift duration distributions at least as well as a mixture of standard normal distributions, and the existence of a third (intermediate) class of GRBs in Fermi data is rejected.
Germ Cell Intercellular Bridges
Greenbaum, Michael P.; Iwamori, Tokuko; Buchold, Gregory M.; Matzuk, Martin M.
2011-01-01
Stable intercellular bridges are a conserved feature of gametogenesis in multicellular animals observed more than 100 years ago, but their function was unknown. Many of the components necessary for this structure have been identified through the study of cytokinesis in Drosophila; however, mammalian intercellular bridges have distinct properties from those of insects. Mammalian germ cell intercellular bridges are composed of general cytokinesis components with additional germ cell–specific factors including TEX14. TEX14 is an inactive kinase essential for the maintenance of stable intercellular bridges in gametes of both sexes but whose loss specifically impairs male meiosis. TEX14 acts to impede the terminal steps of abscission by competing for essential component CEP55, blocking its interaction in nongerm cells with ALIX and TSG101. Additionally, TEX14-interacting protein RBM44, whose localization in stabile intercellular bridges is limited to pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, may participate in processes such as RNA transport but is nonessential to the maintenance of intercellular bridge stability. PMID:21669984
Julià, Olga; Vidal-Mas, Jaume; Panikov, Nicolai S; Vives-Rego, Josep
2010-01-01
We report a skew-Laplace statistical analysis of both flow cytometry scatters and cell size from microbial strains primarily grown in batch cultures, others in chemostat cultures and bacterial aquatic populations. Cytometry scatters best fit the skew-Laplace distribution while cell size as assessed by an electronic particle analyzer exhibited a moderate fitting. Unlike the cultures, the aquatic bacterial communities clearly do not fit to a skew-Laplace distribution. Due to its versatile nature, the skew-Laplace distribution approach offers an easy, efficient, and powerful tool for distribution of frequency analysis in tandem with the flow cytometric cell sorting. PMID:20592754
Julià, Olga; Vidal-Mas, Jaume; Panikov, Nicolai S.; Vives-Rego, Josep
2010-01-01
We report a skew-Laplace statistical analysis of both flow cytometry scatters and cell size from microbial strains primarily grown in batch cultures, others in chemostat cultures and bacterial aquatic populations. Cytometry scatters best fit the skew-Laplace distribution while cell size as assessed by an electronic particle analyzer exhibited a moderate fitting. Unlike the cultures, the aquatic bacterial communities clearly do not fit to a skew-Laplace distribution. Due to its versatile nature, the skew-Laplace distribution approach offers an easy, efficient, and powerful tool for distribution of frequency analysis in tandem with the flow cytometric cell sorting. PMID:20592754
The log-dynamic brain: how skewed distributions affect network operations
Buzsáki, György; Mizuseki, Kenji
2014-01-01
We often assume that the variables of functional and structural brain parameters — such as synaptic weights, the firing rates of individual neurons, the synchronous discharge of neural populations, the number of synaptic contacts between neurons and the size of dendritic boutons — have a bell-shaped distribution. However, at many physiological and anatomical levels in the brain, the distribution of numerous parameters is in fact strongly skewed with a heavy tail, suggesting that skewed (typically lognormal) distributions are fundamental to structural and functional brain organization. This insight not only has implications for how we should collect and analyse data, it may also help us to understand how the different levels of skewed distributions — from synapses to cognition — are related to each other. PMID:24569488
A METHOD TO MEASURE THE SKEW QUADUPOLE STRENGTHS IN THE SIS-18 USING TWO BPMS.
FRANCHI,A.BEIER,T.KIRK,M.MORITZ,P.RUMOLO,G.TOMAS,R.
2004-07-05
In the GSI synchrotron SIS-18 a new set of skew quadrupoles has been installed to improve the multi-turn-injection. Anew method based on the measurement of the resonance driving terms (RDT) has been proposed to cross-check the nominal values and polarities of their gradients. Once a beam is transversely kicked, it experiences oscillations whose spectrum contains both the betatron tune line and secondary lines. The amplitude of each line is proportional to the strength of the multipoles, such as skew quadrupoles and sextupoles, present in the lattice. In this paper, a recursive algorithm to derive the magnet strength from the spectral lines and the application of this method to the eight skew quadrupoles in the SIS-18 are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watermann, J.; McNamara, A. G.; Sofko, G. J.; Koehler, J. A.
1989-06-01
Some 7700 radio aurora spectra obtained from a six link 50-MHz CW radar network set up on the Canadian prairies were analyzed with respect to the distributions of mean Doppler shift, spectral width and skewness. A comparison with recently published SABRE results obtained at 153 MHz (Schlegel et al., 1986) shows substantial differences in the distributions which are probably due to the different experimental and geophysical conditions. Our spectra are mostly broad with mean Doppler shifts close to zero (type II spectra). The typical groupings of type I and type III spectra are clearly identified. All types appear to be in general much more symmetric than those recorded with SABRE, and the skewness is only weakly dependent on the sign of the mean Doppler shift. Its distribution peaks near zero and shows a weak positive correlation with the type II Doppler shifts while the mostly positive type I Doppler shifts are slightly negatively correlated with the skewness.
Perceived quality of wood images influenced by the skewness of image histogram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsura, Shigehito; Mizokami, Yoko; Yaguchi, Hirohisa
2015-08-01
The shape of image luminance histograms is related to material perception. We investigated how the luminance histogram contributed to improvements in the perceived quality of wood images by examining various natural wood and adhesive vinyl sheets with printed wood grain. In the first experiment, we visually evaluated the perceived quality of wood samples. In addition, we measured the colorimetric parameters of the wood samples and calculated statistics of image luminance. The relationship between visual evaluation scores and image statistics suggested that skewness and kurtosis affected the perceived quality of wood. In the second experiment, we evaluated the perceived quality of wood images with altered luminance skewness and kurtosis using a paired comparison method. Our result suggests that wood images are more realistic if the skewness of the luminance histogram is slightly negative.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayuri Matsumoto,; Norihide Takeyama,; Takenobu Tsuchiya,; Nobuyuki Endoh,
2010-07-01
In the image formation performance of an underwater acoustic lens, the use of geometrical skew ray analysis for usually use in optical lens design field was examined. We measured acoustic pressure fields through a single lens, from which the acoustic energy distribution was obtained by using encircled energy. On the other hand, the analyzed acoustic energy distribution was evaluated by geometrical skew ray analysis under the measurement condition including the apodization of the source and effect of water temperature. We compared the measured and analyzed convergence positions, which the diameter of 80% of total amount of acoustic energy is the minimum. Then the both convergence positions correspond. As a result, it was shown that the image performance evaluation of a wide-view acoustic lens by geometrical skew ray analysis is useful.
Elevated Mortality among Birds in Chernobyl as Judged from Skewed Age and Sex Ratios
Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A.
2012-01-01
Background Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. Methodology/Principal Finding We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. Conclusions/Significance These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km2 in Chernobyl’s surroundings constitutes an ecological trap that causes dramatic excess mortality. PMID:22514722
Multivariate skew- t approach to the design of accumulation risk scenarios for the flooding hazard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Roth, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto
2010-10-01
The multivariate version of the skew- t distribution provides a powerful analytical description of the joint behavior of multivariate processes. It enjoys valuable properties: from the aptitude to model skewed as well as leptokurtic datasets to the availability of moments and likelihood analytical expressions. Moreover, it offers a wide range of extremal dependence strength, allowing for upper and lower tail dependence. The idea underneath this work is to employ the multivariate skew- t distribution to provide an estimation of the joint probability of flood events in a multi-site multi-basin approach. This constitutes the basis for the design and evaluation of flood hazard scenarios for large areas in terms of their intensity, extension and frequency, i.e. those information required by civil protection agencies to put in action mitigation strategies and by insurance companies to price the flooding risk and to evaluate portfolios. Performances of the skew- t distribution and the corresponding t copula function, introduced to represent the state of the art for multivariate simulations, are discussed with reference to the Tanaro Basin, North-western Italy. To enhance the characteristics of the correlation structure, three nested and non-nested gauging stations are selected with contributing areas from 1500 to 8000 km 2. A dataset of 76 trivariate flood events is extracted from a mean daily discharges database available for the time period from January 1995 to December 2003. Applications include the generation of multivariate skew- t and t copula samples and models' comparison through the principle of minimum cross-entropy, here revised for the application to multivariate samples. Copula and skew- t based scenario return period estimations are provided for the November 1994 flood event, i.e. the worst on record in the 1801-2001 period. Results are encouraging: the skew- t distribution seems able to describe the joint behavior, being close to the observations. Marginal distributions derived from the skew- t multivariate fit are comparable to the observed ones, and the model is also able to describe the tail behavior.
Skew-Tolerant Key Distribution for Load Balancing in MapReduce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Jihoon; Choi, Hyunsik; Chung, Yon Dohn
MapReduce is a parallel processing framework for large scale data. In the reduce phase, MapReduce employs the hash scheme in order to distribute data sharing the same key across cluster nodes. However, this approach is not robust for the skewed data distribution. In this paper, we propose a skew-tolerant key distribution method for MapReduce. The proposed method assigns keys to cluster nodes balancing their workloads. We implemented our proposed method on Hadoop. Through experiments, we evaluate the performance of the proposed method in comparison with the conventional method.
Multiscale model updating of a curved highway bridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mensah-Bonsu, Priscilla; Jang, Shinae
2012-04-01
Finite element model updating based on a multi-scale data is demonstrated on a skewed in-service highway bridge. The multi-scale data approach provides an evidence-based method to create a bound of model class to ensure that the optimum model retains physical connectivity to the real structure. The need for this hybrid approach to model selection comes from the challenges of applying model updating to online structural health monitoring (SHM) strategy based on output-only measurements of in-service highway bridges, which should consider various uncertainties. In vibration-based FE model updating methods, the optimum model is selected by minimizing the error between modal parameters of the model and the real structure. A major drawback of model selection is the probability that the optimum model has no physical connectivity with the real structure. This is because a large set of updating parameters is required to increase accuracy. In this paper, an evidence-based approach to model selection using temperature-induced tilts is implemented in which the cyclical static behavior of a bridge is used to create a bound of possible models. This approach has a strong potential to be applicable to large civil structures with sparse array of sensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whisler, Don E.
1995-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to give the reader a brief insight into the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Bridge Inspection Program. The State of Kansas has 25,580 bridge length structures within its boundaries used to carry vehicle traffic or pedestrians, excluding railroad. This total ranks third within the nation according to the November issue of 'Better Roads.' The total number of structures listed includes 20,453 structures owned by local governments, 340 structures owned by the Kansas Turnpike Authority, and 4,787 structures owned by the KDOT. This paper will deal specifically with the KDOT structures only.
4. VIEW OF SILVER BRIDGE (ST. MARY'S BRIDGE), CARRYING COUNTY ...
4. VIEW OF SILVER BRIDGE (ST. MARY'S BRIDGE), CARRYING COUNTY ROAD OVER SOURIS RIVER NEAR SOUTH END OF REFUGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND
Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and ...
Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and rails looking from Linden Lane - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
22. BRIDGE CREEK BRIDGE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY ...
22. BRIDGE CREEK BRIDGE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efremova, Lyudmila S.
2016-02-01
Properties of C 1 smooth skew products of maps of an interval with stable as a whole family of fibers maps are established. These results are applied to the proof of the criterion of Ω-stability of C 1-smooth skew products of maps of an interval (with respect to homeomorphisms of skew products class). The proper subspace of the space of C 1smooth skew products of maps of an interval is distinguished, where Ω-stable C 1smooth skew products are contained. It is proved that Ω- stable skew products are not dense in the distinguished subspace of C 1 -smooth maps.
Yue, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Lofland, Rob; O'Neil, Jason; Anderson, Jon
2016-03-21
Dual-polarization quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-QAM) is one of the feasible paths towards 100-Gb/s, 400-Gb/s and 1-Tb/s optical fiber communications systems. For DP-QAM transmitter, the time mismatch between the in-phase and quadrature (IQ) or x-polarized and y-polarized (XY) tributary channels is known as the IQ or XY skew. Large uncompensated IQ or XY skew can significantly degrade the optical fiber communications system performance. Sometimes, time-interleaved return-to-zero (RZ) DP signal is preferred with lower nonlinear polarization scattering induced penalty. In this work, detection and alignment of DP-QAM transmitter IQ and XY skews using reconfigurable interference is experimentally demonstrated. For IQ skew detection, a total dynamic range of 26.4 dB is achieved with ~1-dB power change for 0.5-ps skew from well alignment. For XY skew detection, it shows 23.2-dB dynamic range, and ~1.5-dB power change is achieved for 1-ps XY skew. Fast detection algorithm for arbitrary skew is also proposed and experimentally verified. The scheme is compatible with different modulation formats, flexible data sequences, and variable waveforms. PMID:27136859
Skew angle effects in shingled magnetic recording system with double/triple reader head array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elidrissi, Moulay Rachid; Sann Chan, Kheong; Greaves, Simon; Kanai, Yasushi; Muraoka, Hiroaki
2014-05-01
Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) is a scheme used to extend the life of the current perpendicular magnetic recording technology. SMR enables writing narrow tracks with a wide writer. Currently, SMR employs a single reader and will suffer inter-track interference (ITI) as the tracks become comparable in width to the reader. ITI can be mitigated by using narrower readers; however, narrower readers suffer from increased reader noise. Another approach to combat ITI is to process 2D readback and use ITI cancellation schemes to retrieve the data track. Multiple readbacks can be obtained either with a single reader and multiple revolutions or with a reader array. The former suffers from increased readback latency. In this work, we focus on the latter. When using a reader array, the skew angle poses major challenges. During writing, there is increased adjacent track erasure, and during readback the effective reader pitch varies and there is an increase in the 2D intersymbol interference caused by the rotated reader profile. In this work, we run micromagnetic simulations at different skew angles to train the grain flipping probability model, and then evaluate raw bit channel error rate performance at skew. In particular, we investigate the performance degradation caused by skewing of the 2 or 3 read head array for various read-head geometries.
Using social parasitism to test reproductive skew models in a primitively eusocial wasp.
Green, Jonathan P; Cant, Michael A; Field, Jeremy
2014-08-22
Remarkable variation exists in the distribution of reproduction (skew) among members of cooperatively breeding groups, both within and between species. Reproductive skew theory has provided an important framework for understanding this variation. In the primitively eusocial Hymenoptera, two models have been routinely tested: concessions models, which assume complete control of reproduction by a dominant individual, and tug-of-war models, which assume on-going competition among group members over reproduction. Current data provide little support for either model, but uncertainty about the ability of individuals to detect genetic relatedness and difficulties in identifying traits conferring competitive ability mean that the relative importance of concessions versus tug-of-war remains unresolved. Here, we suggest that the use of social parasitism to generate meaningful variation in key social variables represents a valuable opportunity to explore the mechanisms underpinning reproductive skew within the social Hymenoptera. We present a direct test of concessions and tug-of-war models in the paper wasp Polistes dominulus by exploiting pronounced changes in relatedness and power structures that occur following replacement of the dominant by a congeneric social parasite. Comparisons of skew in parasitized and unparasitized colonies are consistent with a tug-of-war over reproduction within P. dominulus groups, but provide no evidence for reproductive concessions. PMID:24990668
The Curious Anomaly of Skewed Judgment Distributions and Systematic Error in the Wisdom of Crowds
Nash, Ulrik W.
2014-01-01
Judgment distributions are often skewed and we know little about why. This paper explains the phenomenon of skewed judgment distributions by introducing the augmented quincunx (AQ) model of sequential and probabilistic cue categorization by neurons of judges. In the process of developing inferences about true values, when neurons categorize cues better than chance, and when the particular true value is extreme compared to what is typical and anchored upon, then populations of judges form skewed judgment distributions with high probability. Moreover, the collective error made by these people can be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates positively with collective error, thereby challenging what is commonly believed about how diversity and collective intelligence relate. Data from 3053 judgment surveys about US macroeconomic variables obtained from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Wall Street Journal provide strong support, and implications are discussed with reference to three central ideas on collective intelligence, these being Galton's conjecture on the distribution of judgments, Muth's rational expectations hypothesis, and Page's diversity prediction theorem. PMID:25406078
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mills, Candice M.; Grant, Meridith G.
2009-01-01
The current experiment examines if and when children consider the possibility of relationships skewing judgments when evaluating judgments in different contexts. Eighty-seven 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults heard stories about judges who made decisions matching or mismatching possible relationship biases (e.g. a judge choosing a…
Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger
Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando
2012-01-01
Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488
Skewness and Kurtosis as Applied to a Portfolio in the Korean Stock Market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Tae-Sung
2009-04-01
A well diversified portfolio is critical to prudent investment in a stock market. To lessen risk in a volatile market, portfolios should minimize dispersion. This paper analyzes skewness and kurtosis of businesses listed on Korean stock markets, e.g., KOSPI and KOSDAQ. It looks at distribution using the Gauss function, and examines how mean and variance can be applied in building a portfolio.
Longcope, D. W.; Bradshaw, S. J.
2010-08-01
In models of fast magnetic reconnection, flux transfer occurs within a small portion of a current sheet triggering stored magnetic energy to be thermalized by shocks. When the initial current sheet separates magnetic fields which are not perfectly anti-parallel, i.e., they are skewed, magnetic energy is first converted to bulk kinetic energy and then thermalized in slow magnetosonic shocks. We show that the latter resemble parallel shocks or hydrodynamic shocks for all skew angles except those very near the anti-parallel limit. As for parallel shocks, the structures of reconnection-driven slow shocks are best studied using two-fluid equations in which ions and electrons have independent temperature. Time-dependent solutions of these equations can be used to predict and understand the shocks from reconnection of skewed magnetic fields. The results differ from those found using a single-fluid model such as magnetohydrodynamics. In the two-fluid model, electrons are heated indirectly and thus carry a heat flux always well below the free-streaming limit. The viscous stress of the ions is, however, typically near the fluid-treatable limit. We find that for a wide range of skew angles and small plasma {beta} an electron conduction front extends ahead of the slow shock but remains within the outflow jet. In such cases, conduction will play a more limited role in driving chromospheric evaporation than has been predicted based on single-fluid, anti-parallel models.
Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.
Lambertucci, Sergio A; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando
2012-01-01
Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488
Tan, Kun; An, Lei; Miao, Kai; Ren, Likun; Hou, Zhuocheng; Tao, Li; Zhang, Zhenni; Wang, Xiaodong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Jinghao; Wang, Zhuqing; Xi, Guangyin; Gao, Shuai; Sui, Linlin; Zhu, De-Sheng; Wang, Shumin; Wu, Zhonghong; Bach, Ingolf; Chen, Dong-Bao; Tian, Jianhui
2016-03-22
Dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs during normal embryonic development at the preimplantation stage. Erroneous epigenetic modifications due to environmental perturbations such as manipulation and culture of embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) are linked to various short- or long-term consequences. Among these, the skewed sex ratio, an indicator of reproductive hazards, was reported in bovine and porcine embryos and even human IVF newborns. However, since the first case of sex skewing reported in 1991, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We reported herein that sex ratio is skewed in mouse IVF offspring, and this was a result of female-biased peri-implantation developmental defects that were originated from impaired imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) through reduced ring finger protein 12 (Rnf12)/X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) expression. Compensation of impaired iXCI by overexpression ofRnf12to up-regulateXistsignificantly rescued female-biased developmental defects and corrected sex ratio in IVF offspring. Moreover, supplementation of an epigenetic modulator retinoic acid in embryo culture medium up-regulatedRnf12/Xistexpression, improved iXCI, and successfully redeemed the skewed sex ratio to nearly 50% in mouse IVF offspring. Thus, our data show that iXCI is one of the major epigenetic barriers for the developmental competence of female embryos during preimplantation stage, and targeting erroneous epigenetic modifications may provide a potential approach for preventing IVF-associated complications. PMID:26951653
Saltzman, Wendy; Digby, Leslie J; Abbott, David H
2009-02-01
Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high reproductive skew: most subordinate females fail to reproduce, while others attempt to breed but produce very few surviving infants. An extensive dataset on the mechanisms limiting reproduction in laboratory-housed and free living subordinate females provides unique insights into the causes of reproductive skew. Non-breeding adult females undergo suppression of ovulation and inhibition of sexual behaviour; however, they receive little or no aggression or mating interference by dominants and do not exhibit behavioural or physiological signs of stress. Breeding subordinate females receive comparable amounts of aggression to non-breeding females but are able to conceive, gestate and lactate normally. In groups containing two breeding females,however, both dominant and subordinate breeders kill one another's infants. These findings suggest that preconception reproductive suppression is not imposed on subordinate females by dominants, at a proximate level, but is instead self-imposed by most subordinates, consistent with restraint models of reproductive skew. In contrast to restraint models, however, this self-suppression probably evolved not in response to the threat of eviction by dominant females but in response to the threat of infanticide. Thus,reproductive skew in this species appears to be generated predominantly by subordinate self-restraint, in a proximate sense, but ultimately by dominant control over subordinates' reproductive attempts. PMID:18945663
A Monte Carlo Study of Skewed Theta Distributions on DIF Indices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monaco, Malina
The effects of skewed theta distributions on indices of differential item functioning (DIF) were studied, comparing Mantel Haenszel (N. Mantel and W. Haenszel, 1959) and DFIT (N. S. Raju, W. J. van der Linden, and P. F. Fleer) (noncompensatory DIF). The significance of the study is that in educational and psychological data, the distributions one…
Saltzman, Wendy; Digby, Leslie J.; Abbott, David H.
2008-01-01
Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high reproductive skew: most subordinate females fail to reproduce, while others attempt to breed but produce very few surviving infants. An extensive dataset on the mechanisms limiting reproduction in laboratory-housed and free-living subordinate females provides unique insights into the causes of reproductive skew. Non-breeding adult females undergo suppression of ovulation and inhibition of sexual behaviour; however, they receive little or no aggression or mating interference by dominants and do not exhibit behavioural or physiological signs of stress. Breeding subordinate females receive comparable amounts of aggression to non-breeding females but are able to conceive, gestate and lactate normally. In groups containing two breeding females, however, both dominant and subordinate breeders kill one another's infants. These findings suggest that preconception reproductive suppression is not imposed on subordinate females by dominants, at a proximate level, but is instead self-imposed by most subordinates, consistent with restraint models of reproductive skew. In contrast to restraint models, however, this self-suppression probably evolved not in response to the threat of eviction by dominant females but in response to the threat of infanticide. Thus, reproductive skew in this species appears to be generated predominantly by subordinate self-restraint, in a proximate sense, but ultimately by dominant control over subordinates' reproductive attempts. PMID:18945663
West elevation of lift bridge, with Bollman Bridge in background. ...
West elevation of lift bridge, with Bollman Bridge in background. Note portion of R. Paul Smith Power Station in right background. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD
1. WESTERN VIEW OF BRIDGE PLAZA, SHOWING MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT ...
1. WESTERN VIEW OF BRIDGE PLAZA, SHOWING MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT LEFT AND THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP AT RIGHT. VIEW TAKEN FROM THE REAR OF THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Boundary Channel Extension, Spanning Mount Vernon Memorial Highway & Boundary Channel, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Bridge Types: Suspension Bridge Spans, Section AA; Cantilever Truss Spans, ...
Bridge Types: Suspension Bridge Spans, Section A-A; Cantilever Truss Spans, Section B-B; Through Truss Spans, Section C-C; Deck Truss Spans, Section D-D - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA
16. LOG AND PLANK BRIDGE ON ACCESS ROAD NEAR BRIDGE ...
16. LOG AND PLANK BRIDGE ON ACCESS ROAD NEAR BRIDGE SITE; SAME STRUCTURE AS SHOWN IN PHOTO #12. ZION NP NEGATIVE NO. 967 ZIO. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jang-Young; Jang, Seok-Myeong; Ko, Kyoung-Jin
2009-04-01
This paper deals with experimental verification and analytical approach to influence stator skew on electromagnetic performance of a permanent magnet generator (PMG) with multipole rotor. The analytical expressions for magnetic field distributions are due to permanent magnets and the two-dimensional permeance function considering skew effects are established. On the basis of these analytical solutions, the analytical solutions for cogging torque and back-emf considering skew effects are also derived. Then, by applying estimated electrical parameters to a simple equivalent circuit of one phase for the PMG, output performances of the PMG with/without a skewed stator are investigated. Finally, by confirming that all analytical results are validated extensively by nonlinear finite element calculations and measurements, the validity of analysis methods presented in this paper is verified, and the influence stator skew on cogging torque, back-emf, and output performances of the PMG is also clearly described.
Bryce Canyon's Natural Bridge is technically a natural arch, similar to those in the nearby Arches National Park. Bryce Canyon is a unique sandstone formation in southern Utah. It is home to a large number of hoodoos, which are oddly shaped pillars of rock that formed due to different erosion rates...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Mel; Cufaude, Jeffrey B.
1989-01-01
This document consists of two paired articles: the first, "Preparing Faculty Out of Class Experiences," by Mel Klein, and the second, "Help Advisers Be More Than Ghost Signatures," by Jeffrey B. Calfaude. Each article shares insights on how faculty advisers "bridge the gap" between students and faculty. When faculty members are asked to advise…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohnen, Elizabeth; Klie, Judy
This report describes BRIDGES, an employment equity special measures training program developed by the City of Toronto (Ontario, Canada). It was designed to help women employees move from their traditional jobs into trades, technical or operation (TTO) jobs within their own organization. The program is a combination of classroom sessions, shop
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohnen, Elizabeth; Klie, Judy
This report describes BRIDGES, an employment equity special measures training program developed by the City of Toronto (Ontario, Canada). It was designed to help women employees move from their traditional jobs into trades, technical or operation (TTO) jobs within their own organization. The program is a combination of classroom sessions, shop…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salter, Colin
2009-01-01
The political context of the conversion of the Historic Tramway Bridge, adjacent to Sandon Point in Bulli (NSW, Australia), and how this was exploited to serve predetermined ends, illustrates that technologies can be designed to have particular social (and political) effects. Through reflection on this relatively small engineering project, this…
Bridging Disciplinary Boundaries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mei, Linda
2009-01-01
Interdisciplinary education promotes the unity of knowledge by bridging the cultural divide between the social constructs of disciplines and encourages the development of knowledge to enhance society. As an inquiry-based and relevant approach that expands and advances knowledge, interdisciplinary education facilitates creativity and flexibility,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.
2007-01-01
The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leviatan, Talma
2008-01-01
There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kroto, Joseph J.
1988-01-01
Describes interdisciplinary activities with real-world applications ranging from science to mathematics to technology. Cites the study and construction of model bridges as a way for students to learn about engineering concepts and some of their relationships. States that the exercise enhanced teacher cooperation between the different fields. (RT)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bisogno, Janet; JeanPierre, Bobby
2008-01-01
The West Point Bridge Design (WPBD) building project engages students in project-based learning by giving them a real-life problem to solve. By using technology, students are able to become involved in solving problems that they normally would not encounter. Involvement with interactive websites, such as WPBD, assists students in using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lum, Lydia
2009-01-01
Since its inception in 2000, Pan-Asian American Community House's (PAACH's) education mission has bridged Asian-American studies to student life. PAACH initiatives have helped spread Asian-American diaspora to thousands of students at the University of Pennsylvania. They have also helped students determine for themselves what it means to be a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Teaching Science, 2015
2015-01-01
This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gohdes, William
1995-01-01
Although tech prep is still in its infancy in Georgia, increasing numbers of students are entering technical institutes after having completed the secondary-level component of tech prep programs. Georgia's technical institutes must begin the process of developing bridge programs to help adult students with no tech prep experience develop academic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Netzer, Greg
1995-01-01
Discusses a model water quality monitoring project, Project Bridge, established to train minority girls about to enter eighth grade in scientific procedures followed by hands-on experimentation. Students spent a week monitoring water in an urban stream and analyzing results. (LZ)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Susan Moore; Kardos, Susan M.
2005-01-01
The lack of instructional continuity in schools negates every effort of principals to provide an environment where all students would be successful. One solution could be to bridge the gap between the professional knowledge and skills of experienced teachers and the energy and fresh ideas of new recruits so that the latter are provided support…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed
2014-04-01
Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.
BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE
The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...
Analysis of gamma-ray burst duration distribution using mixtures of skewed distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarnopolski, M.
2016-05-01
Two classes of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been confidently identified thus far and are prescribed to different physical scenarios - neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers, and collapse of massive stars, for short and long GRBs, respectively. A third, intermediate in duration class, was suggested to be present in previous catalogues, such as Burst Alert and Transient Source Explorer (BATSE) and Swift, based on statistical tests regarding a mixture of two or three lognormal distributions of T90. However, this might possibly not be an adequate model. This paper investigates whether the distributions of log T90 from BATSE, Swift, and Fermi are described better by a mixture of skewed distributions rather than standard Gaussians. Mixtures of standard normal, skew-normal, sinh-arcsinh and alpha-skew-normal distributions are fitted using a maximum likelihood method. The preferred model is chosen based on the Akaike information criterion. It is found that mixtures of two skew-normal or two sinh-arcsinh distributions are more likely to describe the observed duration distribution of Fermi than a mixture of three standard Gaussians, and that mixtures of two sinh-arcsinh or two skew-normal distributions are models competing with the conventional three-Gaussian in the case of BATSE and Swift. Based on statistical reasoning, and it is shown that other phenomenological models may describe the observed Fermi, BATSE, and Swift duration distributions at least as well as a mixture of standard normal distributions, and the existence of a third (intermediate) class of GRBs in Fermi data is rejected.
This photograph shows Lowe's Bridge off ME-15 in Guilford, Maine, spanning the Piscataquis River. USGS gaging station 01031500 is located on the downstream side of the bridge. The original bridge, built in 1857, washed away in the flood of 1987, and was rebuilt on the original abutments in 1990....
Field observations of linear transition ripple migration and wave orbital velocity skewness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crawford, Anna Morwenna
A new laser illuminated underwater video system has been developed for simultaneously imaging sediment suspension and monitoring bedforms under waves in the nearshore. The system consists of a video camera and diode laser- generated light plane which illuminates suspended material in section and profiles the bed where it intersects the bottom. The system was deployed in the field along with acoustic devices for measurement of nearbed flow velocities and independent bedform observation at Queensland Beach, Nova Scotia. Observations were made in 3 to 4 m water depth of linear transition ripple geometry and migration using the laser- video system and acoustic scanning sensors during both the growth and decay phases of an autumn storm event. Linear transition ripples are long crested, low steepness bedforms in the anorbital ripple class. The transition ripples occurred under relatively high energy waves, just below the flatbed threshold, and had wavelengths of 8.5 +/- 0.5 cm and heights of 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm. The maximum observed migration rate was 0.7 cm/min. Migration was offshore during storm growth, and onshore during storm decay. The observed ripple migration rates were highly correlated with nearbed wave orbital velocity skewness (r2 > 0.7). During storm growth, the incident wave spectrum was bimodal and the orbital velocity skewness was negative. During storm decay, the wave spectrum was unimodal and the velocity skewness was positive. Bispectral analysis shows that the main contribution to negative velocity skewness during storm growth arose from a difference interaction between the two principal components (sea and swell) of the bimodal wave spectrum. Positive velocity skewness during storm decay was due to self-self interaction of the narrowband swell. These observations are shown to be consistent with a second-order wave theory. These observations support a skewness, or u3 , dependence of transition ripple migration on nearbed orbital velocity in a field setting and provide a demonstration of storm modulated off- and on-shore directed ripple migration, thus suggesting a mechanism for the reversible sediment transport cycle during storms.
Bridged ferrocenes. 10. Structural phenomena
Hillman, M.; Fujita, E.; Dauplaise, H.; Kvick, A.; Kerber, R.C.
1984-01-01
The structures of 1,1',2,2'-bis(tetramethylene)ferrocene, I, 1,1',2,2',4,4'-tris(tetramethylene)ferrocene, II, and 1,1',2,2',4,4'-tris(pentamethylene)ferrocene, III, are given and are compared to the previously determined structure of 1,1',2,2',4,4'-tris(trimethylene)ferrocene, IV. The iron-to-ring distances are consistent with the reported Moessbauer spectra and redox potentials. The cyclopentadienyl rings are eclipsed in the compounds with trimethylene and pentamethylene bridges but are staggered by 12-14 in the compounds with tetramethylene bridges. In compounds with tetra- and pentamethylene bridges the presence of staggering or eclipsing is attributed to the need to avoid eclipsing of the protons in the bridges. In the compound with three trimethylene bridges, the shortness of the bridges is of primary importance. The staggered conformation observed in I and II may be the source of the apparent anomalies observed in the ring-proton region of the NMR spectra of bridged ferrocenes. The bridge-proton region of the NMR spectra at 360 MHz are given for I and other bridged ferrocenes. Disorder of the bridge carbons observed in the crystals are correlated with the flipping of the bridges observed in the NMR spectra. 30 references, 8 tables.
Molecular engineering with bridged polysilsesquioxanes
LOY,DOUGLAS A.; SHEA,KENNETH J.
2000-05-09
Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials that permit molecular engineering of bulk properties including porosity. Prepared by sol-gel polymerization of monomers with two or more trialkoxysilyl groups, the materials are highly cross-linked amorphous polymers that are readily obtained as gels. The bridging configuration of the hydrocarbon group insures that network polymers are readily formed and that the organic functionality is homogeneously distributed throughout the polymeric scaffolding at the molecular level. This permits the bulk properties, including surface area, pore size, and dielectric constant to be engineered through the selection of the bridging organic group. Numerous bridging groups have been incorporated. This presentation will focus on the effects that the length, flexibility, and substitution geometry of the hydrocarbon bridging groups have on the properties of the resulting bridged polysilsesquioxanes. Details of the preparation, characterization, and some structure property relationships of these bridged polysilsesquioxanes will be given.
Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)
1993-01-01
This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.
Skew-Quad Parametric-Resonance Ionization Cooling: Theory and Modeling
Afanaciev, Andre; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Sy, Amy; Johnson, Rolland P.
2015-09-01
Muon beam ionization cooling is a key component for the next generation of high-luminosity muon colliders. To reach adequately high luminosity without excessively large muon intensities, it was proposed previously to combine ionization cooling with techniques using a parametric resonance (PIC). Practical implementation of PIC proposal is a subject of this report. We show that an addition of skew quadrupoles to a planar PIC channel gives enough flexibility in the design to avoid unwanted resonances, while meeting the requirements of radially-periodic beam focusing at ionization-cooling plates, large dynamic aperture and an oscillating dispersion needed for aberration corrections. Theoretical arguments are corroborated with models and a detailed numerical analysis, providing step-by-step guidance for the design of Skew-quad PIC (SPIC) beamline.
Olfactory learning skews mushroom body output pathways to steer behavioral choice in Drosophila.
Owald, David; Waddell, Scott
2015-12-01
Learning permits animals to attach meaning and context to sensory stimuli. How this information is coded in neural networks in the brain, and appropriately retrieved and utilized to guide behavior, is poorly understood. In the fruit fly olfactory memories of particular value are represented within sparse populations of odor-activated Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body ensemble. During learning reinforcing dopaminergic neurons skew the mushroom body network by driving zonally restricted plasticity at synaptic junctions between the KCs and subsets of the overall small collection of mushroom body output neurons. Reactivation of this skewed KC-output neuron network retrieves memory of odor valence and guides appropriate approach or avoidance behavior. PMID:26496148
Optimization Of Mean-Semivariance-Skewness Portfolio Selection Model In Fuzzy Random Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Amitava; Bhattacharyya, Rupak; Mukherjee, Supratim; Kar, Samarjit
2010-10-01
The purpose of the paper is to construct a mean-semivariance-skewness portfolio selection model in fuzzy random environment. The objective is to maximize the skewness with predefined maximum risk tolerance and minimum expected return. Here the security returns in the objectives and constraints are assumed to be fuzzy random variables in nature and then the vagueness of the fuzzy random variables in the objectives and constraints are transformed into fuzzy variables which are similar to trapezoidal numbers. The newly formed fuzzy model is then converted into a deterministic optimization model. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical example extracted from Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). The exact parameters of fuzzy membership function and probability density function are obtained through fuzzy random simulating the past dates.
Research on the Multi-variable Optimization of Forward-skewed Blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Bo; Gu, Chuan Gang
2011-12-01
This is a study of the multi-variable optimization of the forward-skewed blade by means of the Genetic Algorithms combined with an improved Hierarchical Fair Competition model. In this optimization scheme, the Bezier curves were used to describe the airfoil profiles, numerical simulations were adopted to estimate the aerodynamic performance of the axial-flow machine and a specific fitness function was put forwards to evaluate the fitness level of every individual. In order to testify the optimization algorithms and to study the effects of the forward-skewed blades on the fan performance, a series of comparative experiments and calculations were carried out to illustrate the performance difference between the optimized and the other three fans.
NGC 3124: A Resonance Ring Disk Galaxy with a Skewed Bar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treuthardt, P.; Seigar, M. S.; Salo, H.; Kennefick, D.; Kennefick, J.; Lacy, C. H. S.
2014-03-01
NGC 3124 is a highly regular SB(r)bc galaxy harboring a skewed bar that appears to be a very open spiral, counter-winding relative to the outer spiral arms. We investigate whether such bar morphology can be due to secular processes or if a more violent interaction is necessary. We find that the dust morphology observed in the bar region has the same sense of winding as the outer spiral arms. We also find that the gas kinematics are consistent across the galaxy. Finally, we attempt to recreate the observed stellar morphology by simulating the behavior of a large number of stellar test particles in a rigidly rotating gravitational potential. We are able to reproduce the skewed stellar bar but find that it is transient in nature. This evidence is a strong indication that secular processes are responsible for this unusual bar morphology.
Bauke, W.; Clark, D.A.; Trujillo, P.B.
1985-01-01
Optical Tooling evolved from traditional surveying, and both technologies are sometimes used interchangeably in large industrial installations, since the instruments and their specialized adapters and supports complement each other well. A unique marriage of both technologies was accomplished in a novel application at LAMPF, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. LAMPF consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, one of which had to be altered to accommodate a new beamline for a neutrino experiment. The new line was to be installed into a crowded beam tunnel and had to be skewed and tilted in compound angles to avoid existing equipment. In this paper we describe how Optical Tooling was used in conjunction with simple alignment and reference fixtures to set fiducials on the magnets and other mechanical components of the beamline, and how theodolites and sight levels were then adapted to align these components along the calculated skew planes. Design tolerances are compared with measured alignment results.
Commutative n-ary superalgebras with an invariant skew-symmetric form
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishnyakova, E. G.
2015-12-01
We study n-ary commutative superalgebras and L∞-algebras that possess a skew-symmetric invariant form, using the derived bracket formalism. This class of superalgebras includes for instance Lie algebras and their n-ary generalizations, commutative associative and Jordan algebras with an invariant form. We give a classification of anti-commutative m-dimensional (m - 3) -ary algebras with an invariant form, and a classification of real simple m-dimensional Lie (m - 3) -algebras with a positive definite invariant form up to isometry. Furthermore, we develop the Hodge Theory for L∞-algebras with a symmetric invariant form, and we describe quasi-Frobenius structures on skew-symmetric n-ary algebras.
Maneuver planning of a rigid spacecraft with two skew control moment gyros
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gui, Haichao; Jin, Lei; Xu, Shijie
2014-11-01
The attitude maneuver planning of a rigid spacecraft using two skew single-gimbal control moment gyros (CMGs) is investigated. First, two types of restrictions are enforced on the gimbal motions of two skew CMGs, with each restriction yielding continuous control torque along a principal axis of the spacecraft. Then, it is proved that any axis fixed to the spacecraft can be pointed along an arbitrary inertial direction by at most two sequent rotations around the two actuated axes. Given this fact, a two-step eigenaxis rotation strategy, executing by the two single-axis torques respectively, is designed to point a given body-fixed axis along a desired direction. Furthermore, a three-step eigenaxis rotation strategy is constructed to achieve an arbitrary rest-to-rest attitude maneuver. The rotation angles required for the single-axis pointing and arbitrary attitude maneuver schemes are all analytically solved. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Muon Tracking Studies in a Skew Parametric Resonance Ionization Cooling Channel
Sy, Amy; Afanaciev, Andre; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Johnson, Rolland; Morozov, Vasiliy
2015-09-01
Skew Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (SPIC) is an extension of the Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) framework that has previously been explored as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. The addition of skew quadrupoles to the PIC magnetic focusing channel induces coupled dynamic behavior of the beam that is radially periodic. The periodicity of the radial motion allows for the avoidance of unwanted resonances in the horizontal and vertical transverse planes, while still providing periodic locations at which ionization cooling components can be implemented. A first practical implementation of the magnetic field components required in the SPIC channel is modeled in MADX. Dynamic features of the coupled correlated optics with and without induced parametric resonance are presented and discussed.
Olfactory learning skews mushroom body output pathways to steer behavioral choice in Drosophila
Owald, David; Waddell, Scott
2015-01-01
Learning permits animals to attach meaning and context to sensory stimuli. How this information is coded in neural networks in the brain, and appropriately retrieved and utilized to guide behavior, is poorly understood. In the fruit fly olfactory memories of particular value are represented within sparse populations of odor-activated Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body ensemble. During learning reinforcing dopaminergic neurons skew the mushroom body network by driving zonally restricted plasticity at synaptic junctions between the KCs and subsets of the overall small collection of mushroom body output neurons. Reactivation of this skewed KC-output neuron network retrieves memory of odor valence and guides appropriate approach or avoidance behavior. PMID:26496148
Skewness-induced asymmetric modulation of small-scale turbulence by large-scale structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agostini, Lionel; Leschziner, Michael; Gaitonde, Datta
2016-01-01
Several recent studies discuss of role of skewness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in near-wall shear layers, in the context of quantifying the correlation between large-scale motions and amplitude variations of small-scale fluctuations—referred to as "modulation." The present study is based on the premise that the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations should be accounted for explicitly in the process of defining their envelope, which characterizes their amplitude variations. This leads to the notion of two envelopes, one for positive and the other for negative small-scale fluctuations, and hence also to two corresponding correlation coefficients. Justification for this concept is provided first by an examination of a high-frequency synthetic signal subjected to realistic skewness-inducing modulation. A new formalism is provided for deriving the two envelopes, and its fidelity is demonstrated for the synthetic test case. The method is then applied to a channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of 4200, for which direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are available. The large-scale and small-scale fields are separated by the empirical mode decomposition method, and the modulation of the small-scale fluctuations by the large scales is examined. Separate maps of the correlation coefficient and of two-point correlations, the latter linking the large-scale motions and the envelopes of the small-scale motions, are derived for the two envelopes pertaining to positive and negative small-scale fluctuations, and these demonstrate a significant sensitivity to the envelope-definition process, especially close to the wall where the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations is the dominant contributor to the total value.
Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry
Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E; Ustinov, V D
2014-08-31
An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ebner, R. E.; Howell, W. E.
1979-01-01
Requirements for a redundant strapdown inertial sensor complex applied to V/STOL aircraft as developed by NASA are presented. Flight test data of a redundant, skewed axis strapdown inertial system are given, demonstrating the feasibility of the primary design aspects. This data consisted of parity equation responses through various flight conditions, showing residual noise levels on redundant gyro and accelerometer comparisons as a measure of minimum failure-level detectability, plus failure isolation and navigation performance through several simulated instrument failures.
Reynolds, Pamela L.; Bruno, John F.
2012-01-01
Widespread overharvesting of top consumers of the world’s ecosystems has “skewed” food webs, in terms of biomass and species richness, towards a generally greater domination at lower trophic levels. This skewing is exacerbated in locations where exotic species are predominantly low-trophic level consumers such as benthic macrophytes, detritivores, and filter feeders. However, in some systems where numerous exotic predators have been added, sometimes purposefully as in many freshwater systems, food webs are skewed in the opposite direction toward consumer dominance. Little is known about how such modifications to food web topology, e.g., changes in the ratio of predator to prey species richness, affect ecosystem functioning. We experimentally measured the effects of trophic skew on production in an estuarine food web by manipulating ratios of species richness across three trophic levels in experimental mesocosms. After 24 days, increasing macroalgal richness promoted both plant biomass and grazer abundance, although the positive effect on plant biomass disappeared in the presence of grazers. The strongest trophic cascade on the experimentally stocked macroalgae emerged in communities with a greater ratio of prey to predator richness (bottom-rich food webs), while stronger cascades on the accumulation of naturally colonizing algae (primarily microalgae with some early successional macroalgae that recruited and grew in the mesocosms) generally emerged in communities with greater predator to prey richness (the more top-rich food webs). These results suggest that trophic skewing of species richness and overall changes in food web topology can influence marine community structure and food web dynamics in complex ways, emphasizing the need for multitrophic approaches to understand the consequences of marine extinctions and invasions. PMID:22693549
Permanent Magnet Skew Quadrupoles for the Low Emittance LER Lattice of PEP-II
Decker, F.-J.; Anderson, S.; Kharakh, D.; Sullivan, M.; /SLAC
2011-07-05
The vertical emittance of the low energy ring (LER) in the PEP-II B-Factory was reduced by using skew quadrupoles consisting of permanent magnet material. The advantages over electric quadrupoles or rotating existing normal quadrupoles are discussed. To assure a high field quality, a Biot-Savart calculation was used to cancel the natural 12-pole component by using different size poles over a few layers. A magnetic measurement confirmed the high quality of the magnets. After installation and adjusting the original electric 12 skew and 16 normal quadrupoles the emittance contribution from the region close to the interaction point, which was the biggest part in the original design, was considerably reduced. To strengthen the vertical behavior of the LER beam, a low emittance lattice was developed. It lowered the original vertical design emittance from 0.54 nm-rad to 0.034 nm-rad. In order to achieve this, additional skew quadrupoles were required to bring the coupling correction out of the arcs and closer to the detector solenoid in the straight (Fig. 1). It is important, together with low vertical dispersion, that the low vertical emittance is not coupled into the horizontal, which is what we get if the coupling correction continues into the arcs. Further details of the lattice work is described in another paper; here we concentrate on the development of the permanent skew (PSK) quadrupole solution. Besides the permanent magnets there are two other possibilities, using electric magnets or rotating normal quadrupoles. Electric magnets would have required much more additional equipment like magnets stands, power supply, and new vacuum chamber sections. Rotating existing quadrupoles was also not feasible since they are mostly mounted together with a bending magnet on the same support girder.
Huang, Yangxin; Dagne, Getachew A; Zhou, Shumin; Wang, Zhongjun
2015-12-01
Studies of human immunodeficiency virus dynamics in acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) research are very important in evaluating the effectiveness of antiretroviral (ARV) therapies. The potency of ARV agents in AIDS clinical trials can be assessed on the basis of a viral response such as viral decay rate or viral load change in plasma. Following ARV treatment, the profile of each subject's viral load tends to follow a 'broken stick'-like dynamic trajectory, indicating multiple phases of decline and increase in viral loads. Such multiple-phases (change-points) can be described by a random change-point model with random subject-specific parameters. One usually assumes a normal distribution for model error. However, this assumption may be unrealistic, obscuring important features of within- and among-subject variations. In this article, we propose piecewise linear mixed-effects models with skew-elliptical distributions to describe the time trend of a response variable under a Bayesian framework. This methodology can be widely applied to real problems for longitudinal studies. A real data analysis, using viral load data from an AIDS study, is carried out to illustrate the proposed method by comparing various candidate models. Biologically important findings are reported, and these findings also suggest that it is very important to assume a model with skew distribution in order to achieve reliable results, in particular, when the data exhibit skewness. PMID:22045781
Townsend, Andrea K; Clark, Anne B; McGowan, Kevin J; Lovette, Irby J
2009-02-01
Understanding the benefits of cooperative breeding for group members of different social and demographic classes requires knowledge of their reproductive partitioning and genetic relatedness. From 2004-2007, we examined parentage as a function of relatedness and social interactions among members of 21 American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) family groups. Paired female breeders monopolized maternity of all offspring in their broods, whereas paired male breeders sired 82.7% of offspring, within-group auxiliary males sired 6.9% of offspring, and extragroup males sired 10.4% of offspring. Although adult females had fewer opportunities for direct reproduction as auxiliaries than males, they appeared to have earlier opportunities for independent breeding. These different opportunities for direct reproduction probably contributed to the male biased adult auxiliary sex ratio. Patterns of reproductive partitioning and conflict among males were most consistent with a synthetic reproductive skew model, in which auxiliaries struggled with breeders for a limited reproductive share, beyond which breeders could evict them. Counter to a frequent assumption of reproductive skew models, female breeders appeared to influence paternity, although their interests might have agreed with the interests of their paired males. Unusual among cooperative breeders, close inbreeding and incest occurred in this population. Incest avoidance between potential breeders did not significantly affect reproductive skew. PMID:20126287
Joint Skewness and Its Application in Unsupervised Band Selection for Small Target Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao
2015-04-01
Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection.
Joint Skewness and Its Application in Unsupervised Band Selection for Small Target Detection
Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Tang, Hairong; Zhao, Yongchao
2015-01-01
Few band selection methods are specially designed for small target detection. It is well known that the information of small targets is most likely contained in non-Gaussian bands, where small targets are more easily separated from the background. On the other hand, correlation of band set also plays an important role in the small target detection. When the selected bands are highly correlated, it will be unbeneficial for the subsequent detection. However, the existing non-Gaussianity-based band selection methods have not taken the correlation of bands into account, which generally result in high correlation of obtained bands. In this paper, combining the third-order (third-order tensor) and second-order (correlation) statistics of bands, we define a new concept, named joint skewness, for multivariate data. Moreover, we also propose an easy-to-implement approach to estimate this index based on high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). Based on the definition of joint skewness, we present an unsupervised band selection for small target detection for hyperspectral data, named joint skewness band selection (JSBS). The evaluation results demonstrate that the bands selected by JSBS are very effective in terms of small target detection. PMID:25873018
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aminian, Manuchehr; Bernardi, Francesca; Camassa, Roberto; McLaughlin, Richard M.
2015-10-01
We study the role geometry plays in the emergence of asymmetries in diffusing passive scalars advected by pressure-driven flows in ducts and pipes of different aspect ratios. We uncover nonintuitive, multi-time-scale behavior gauged by a new statistic, which we term "geometric skewness" SG, which measures instantaneously forming asymmetries at short times due to flow geometry. This signature distinguishes elliptical pipes of any aspect ratio, for which SG=0 , from rectangular ducts whose SG is generically nonzero, and, interestingly, shows that a special duct of aspect ratio ≈0.533 35 behaves like a circular pipe as its geometric skewness vanishes. Using a combination of exact solutions, novel short-time asymptotics, and Monte Carlo simulations, we establish the relevant time scales for plateaus and extrema in the evolution of the skewness and kurtosis for our class of geometries. For ducts limiting to channel geometries, we present new exact, single-series formulas for the first four moments on slices used to benchmark Monte Carlo simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.
2015-10-01
Total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes are a widely applied group of monotonicity-preserving advection differencing schemes for partial differential equations in numerical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics. These schemes are typically designed for one-dimensional problems or multidimensional problems on structured equidistant quadrilateral meshes. Practical applications, however, often involve complex geometries that cannot be represented by Cartesian meshes and, therefore, necessitate the application of unstructured meshes, which require a more sophisticated discretisation to account for their additional topological complexity. In principle, TVD schemes are applicable to unstructured meshes, however, not all the data required for TVD differencing is readily available on unstructured meshes, and the solution suffers from considerable numerical diffusion as a result of mesh skewness. In this article we analyse TVD differencing on unstructured three-dimensional meshes, focusing on the non-linearity of TVD differencing and the extrapolation of the virtual upwind node. Furthermore, we propose a novel monotonicity-preserving correction method for TVD schemes that significantly reduces numerical diffusion caused by mesh skewness. The presented numerical experiments demonstrate the importance of accounting for the non-linearity introduced by TVD differencing and of imposing carefully chosen limits on the extrapolated virtual upwind node, as well as the efficacy of the proposed method to correct mesh skewness.
Altitude integration effects in the skewness of type-2 coherent echoes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kustov, A. V.; Uspensky, M. V.
1995-09-01
Possible effects of signal reception from different electrojet heights in a skewness of auroral coherent spectra are studied assuming that the inherent spectral line due to plasma turbulence is of type-2 and symmetrical. For reasonable ionospheric parameters, the altitude integrated spectra are expected to be skewed negatively for positive mean Doppler shift, in agreement with radar observations at small aspect angles. However, the spectra could be skewed positively if the turbulent layer or the electron density profile is shifted to high altitudes of ~120 km. This change of spectral shape will not be observed experimentally if, at the same time, either the electron collision frequency is enhanced or the inherent spectral width is increased. Observational results are discussed in view of the predictions given. Acknowledgements. I thank D. R. McDiarmid of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Canada, for important ideas and discussions during the development of this work. I thank the referees for useful comments which have improved the paper. I also thank E.M. Poulter of NIWA for helpful suggestions, and for reading the manuscript and making useful comments. The work was supported by contract CO1309 of the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Topical Editor C.-G. Fälthammar thanks K. Mursula and W. J. Hughes for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: W. Allan-->
Streambed stresses and flow around bridge piers
Parola, A.C.; Ruhl, K.J.; Hagerty, D.J.; Brown, B.M.; Ford, D.L.; Korves, A.A.
1996-01-01
Scour of streambed material around bridge foundations by floodwaters is the leading cause of catastrophic bridge failure in the United States. The potential for scour and the stability of riprap used to protect the streambed from scour during extreme flood events must be known to evaluate the likelihood of bridge failure. A parameter used in estimating the potential for scour and removal of riprap protection is the time-averaged shear stress on the streambed often referred to as boundary stress. Bridge components, such as bridge piers and abutments, obstruct flow and induce strong vortex systems that create streambed or boundary stresses significantly higher than those in unobstructed flow. These locally high stresses can erode the streambed around pier and abutment foundations to the extent that the foundation is undermined, resulting in settlement or collapse of bridge spans. The purpose of this study was to estimate streambed stresses at a bridge pier under full-scale flow conditions and to compare these stresses with those obtained previously in small-scale model studies. Two-dimensional velocity data were collected for three flow conditions around a bridge pier at the Kentucky State Highway 417 bridge over the Green River at Greensburg in Green County, Ky. Velocity vector plots and the horizontal component of streambed stress contour plots were developed from the velocity data. The streambed stress contours were developed using both a near-bed velocity and velocity gradient method. Maximum near-bed velocities measured at the pier for the three flow conditions were 1.5, 1.6, and 2.0 times the average near-bed velocities measured in the upstream approach flow. Maximum streambed stresses for the three flow conditions were determined to be 10, 15, and 36 times the streambed stresses of the upstream approach flow. Both the near-bed velocity measurements and approximate maximum streambed stresses at the full-scale pier were consistent with those observed in experiments using small-scale models in which similar data were collected, except for a single observation of the near-bed velocity data and the corresponding streambed stress determination. The location of the maximum streambed stress was immediately downstream of a 90 degree radial of the upstream cylinder (with the center of the upstream cylinder being the origin) for the three flow conditions. This location was close to the flow wake separation point at the upstream cylinder. Other researchers have observed the maximum streambed stress around circular cylinders at this location or at a location immediately upstream of the wake separation point. Although the magnitudes of the estimated streambed stresses measured at the full-scale pier were consistent with those measured in small-scale model studies, the stress distributions were significantly different than those measured in small-scale models. The most significant discrepancies between stress contours developed in this study and those developed in the small-scale studies for flow around cylindrical piers on a flat streambed were associated with the shape of the stress contours. The extent of the high stress region of the streambed around the full-scale pier was substantially larger than the diameter of the upstream cylinder, while small-scale models had small regions compared to the diameter of the model cylinders. In addition, considerable asymmetry in the stress contours was observed. The large region of high stress and asymmetry was attributed to several factors including (1) the geometry of the full-scale pier, (2) the non-planar topography of the streambed, (3) the 20 degree skew of the pier to the approaching flow, and (4) the non-uniformity of the approach flow. The extent of effect of the pier on streambed stresses was found to be larger for the full-scale site than for model studies. The results from the model studies indicated that the streambed stresses created by the obstruction of flow by the 3-foot wide pi
Wessendorf, K.O.
1998-07-01
This paper describes the Active-Bridge Oscillator (ABO), a new concept in high-stability oscillator design. The ABO is ab ridge-type oscillator design that is easly to design and overcomes many of the operational and design difficulties associated with standard bridge oscillator designs. The ABO will oscillate with a very stable output amplitude over a wide range of operating conditions without the use of an automatic-level-control (ALC). A standard bridge oscillator design requires an ALC to maintain the desired amplitude of oscillation. for this and other reasons, bridge oscilaltors are not used in mainstream designs. Bridge oscillators are generally relegated to relatively low-volume, high-performance applications. The Colpitts and Pierce designs are the most popular oscillators but are typically less stable than a bridge-type oscillator.
Foundation Depth for Bridge Piers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veerappadevaru, G.; Gangadharaiah, T.; Jagadeesh, T. R.
2013-09-01
The safety of bridge piers built in rivers having the bed is one of the prime aspects in the study of scouring process around bridge piers. The stability of bridge piers depends on the depth of foundation provided below maximum scour level. The stability analysis of bridge piers is carried based on moment of forces acting on the caisson pier when the pier slides and tilts slightly in downstream from its position. The experiments are conducted for three pier shapes on two sediment beds and for different flow conditions. The curves indicating the stability limits are compared with Lacey's recommendations which are used in present day practice in India. The analysis presented here indicates that the Lacey's recommendation for railway bridges is safe and for some cases of the road bridges depends on grip length, angle of tilt and weight of caisson.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Materna, K.; Herring, T.
2013-12-01
Error in modeling atmospheric delay is one of the limiting factors in the accuracy of GPS position determination. In regions with uneven topography, atmospheric delay phenomena can be especially complicated. Current delay models used in analyzing daily GPS data from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) are successful in achieving millimeter-level accuracy at most locations; however, at a subset of stations, the time-series for position estimates contain an unusually large number of outliers. In many cases these outliers are oriented in the same direction. The stations which exhibit asymmetric outliers occur in various places across the PBO network, but they are especially numerous in California's Mammoth Lakes region, which served as a case study for this presentation. The phenomenon was analyzed by removing secular trends and variations with periods longer than 75 days from the signal using a median filter. We subsequently calculated the skewness of the station position residuals in north, east and up directions. In the cases examined, typical position outliers are 5-15 mm. In extreme cases, skewed position residuals, not related to snow on antennas, can be as large as 20 mm. We examine the causes of the skewness through site-by-site comparisons with topographic data and numerical weather models. Analysis suggests that the direction of the skewness is generally parallel to the local topographic gradient at a scale of several kilometers, and that outlier data points occur when certain atmospheric conditions are met. The results suggest that a coupling between the atmosphere and local topography is responsible for the phenomenon of skewed residuals. In this presentation, we examine the characteristics of the sites that we have analyzed in detail. From these analyses, we postulate possible parameterizations of the atmospheric and topographic effects that could be incorporated into geodetic analysis programs, thus allowing the inhomogeneous atmospheric delays to be estimated in the same way that zenith and gradient atmospheric delay parameters are currently estimated. In addition to explicit estimation, we also explore the possibility of incorporating these effects in position error models, so that the uncertainties in the position estimates are reflective of these effects.
Coil Creep and Skew-Quadrupole Field Components in the Tevatron
Annala, G.; Harding, D.J.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab
2011-07-11
During the start-up of Run II of the Tevatron Collider program, several issues surfaced which were not present, or not seen as detrimental, during Run I. These included the repeated deterioration of the closed orbit requiring orbit smoothing every two weeks or so, the inability to correct the closed orbit to desired positions due to various correctors running at maximum limits, regions of systematically strong vertical dipole corrections, and the identification of very strong coupling between the two transverse degrees-of-freedom. It became apparent that many of the problems being experienced operationally were connected to a deterioration of the main dipole magnet alignment, and remedial actions were undertaken. However, the alignment alone was not enough to explain the corrector strengths required to handle transverse coupling. With one exception, strong coupling had generally not been an issue in the Tevatron during Run I. Based on experience with the Main Ring, the Tevatron was designed with a very strong skew quadrupole circuit to compensate any quadrupole alignment and skew quadrupole field errors that might present themselves. The circuit was composed of 48 correctors placed evenly throughout the arcs, 8 per sector, evenly placed in every other cell. Other smaller circuits were installed but not initially needed or commissioned. These smaller circuits were composed of individual skew quadrupole correctors on either side of the long straight sections. These circuits were tuned by first bringing the horizontal and vertical tunes near each other. The skew quadrupoles were then adjusted to minimize tune split, usually to less than 0.003. Initially, the main skew quad circuit (designated T:SQ) could accomplish this global decoupling with only 4% of its possible current, and the smaller circuits were not required at all. The start-up of Run Ib was complicated by what was later discovered to be a rolled triplet quadrupole magnet in one of the Interaction Regions. This led to a reduction in luminosity of nearly 50%, as well as operational confusion until it was uncovered. By the time Collider Run II began, the current needed on the main SQ circuit had increased to 60% of its maximum value. Some of the smaller circuits were also needed to fully decouple the tunes. With this history, several studies were performed early in Run II to search for strong local coupling sources like the triplet quadrupole, but without success. The strong corrector settings were indicative of a much larger problem than a single rolled magnet, and the locality of the error was hard to deduce from the setting of a global correction system. Several possible reasons for the increase in coupling were investigated.
A Thouless formula and Aubry duality for long-range Schrödinger skew-products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haro, Alex; Puig, Joaquim
2013-05-01
In this paper, we study the dynamical properties of a class of ergodic linear skew-products which includes the linear skew-products defined by quasi-periodic Schrödinger operators and their duals, in Aubry sense, when the potential is a trigonometric polynomial. Notably, these linear skew-products preserve an adapted complex-symplectic structure. We prove a Thouless formula relating the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents and the logarithmic potential associated with the density of states of the corresponding operator. In particular, for quasi-periodic Schrödinger operators and their duals, we prove an identity for the upper Lyapunov exponent of the skew-product and the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents of their dual, which generalizes the well-known formula for the Almost Mathieu. We illustrate these identities with some numerical illustrations.
Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin
2014-01-01
A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming. PMID:25112717
Using skew-logistic probability density function as a model for age-specific fertility rate pattern.
Asili, Sahar; Rezaei, Sadegh; Najjar, Lotfollah
2014-01-01
Fertility rate is one of the most important global indexes. Past researchers found models which fit to age-specific fertility rates. For example, mixture probability density functions have been proposed for situations with bi-modal fertility patterns. This model is less useful for unimodal age-specific fertility rate patterns, so a model based on skew-symmetric (skew-normal) pdf was proposed by Mazzuco and Scarpa (2011) which was flexible for unimodal and bimodal fertility patterns. In this paper, we introduce skew-logistic probability density function as a better model: its residuals are less than those of the skew-normal model and it can more precisely estimate the parameters of the model. PMID:24967404
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weick, Fred E; Harris, Thomas A
1934-01-01
This report covers the sixth of a series of investigations in which various lateral control devices are compared with particular reference to their effectiveness at high angles of attack. The present report deals with flap-type ailerons hinged about axes having an angle with respect to the leading and trailing edges of the wing. Tests were made on four different skewed ailerons, including two different angles of skew and two sizes of ailerons. At the high angles of attack, all the skewed ailerons tested were slightly inferior with respect to rolling and yawing moments to straight ailerons having the same span and average chord. Computations indicate that the skewed ailerons are also inferior with respect to hinge moments.
Prediction of Scour Depth around Bridge Piers using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valyrakis, Manousos; Zhang, Hanqing
2014-05-01
Earth's surface is continuously shaped due to the action of geophysical flows. Erosion due to the flow of water in river systems has been identified as a key problem in preserving ecological health of river systems but also a threat to our built environment and critical infrastructure, worldwide. As an example, it has been estimated that a major reason for bridge failure is due to scour. Even though the flow past bridge piers has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, and the mechanisms of scouring are relatively understood, there still lacks a tool that can offer fast and reliable predictions. Most of the existing formulas for prediction of bridge pier scour depth are empirical in nature, based on a limited range of data or for piers of specific shape. In this work, the application of a Machine Learning model that has been successfully employed in Water Engineering, namely an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is proposed to estimate the scour depth around bridge piers. In particular, various complexity architectures are sequentially built, in order to identify the optimal for scour depth predictions, using appropriate training and validation subsets obtained from the USGS database (and pre-processed to remove incomplete records). The model has five variables, namely the effective pier width (b), the approach velocity (v), the approach depth (y), the mean grain diameter (D50) and the skew to flow. Simulations are conducted with data groups (bed material type, pier type and shape) and different number of input variables, to produce reduced complexity and easily interpretable models. Analysis and comparison of the results indicate that the developed ANFIS model has high accuracy and outstanding generalization ability for prediction of scour parameters. The effective pier width (as opposed to skew to flow) is amongst the most relevant input parameters for the estimation.
Orstavik, K.H.; Orstavik, R.E.; Eiklid, K.; Tranebjaerg, L.
1996-07-12
A new X-linked recessive deafness syndrome was recently reported and mapped to Xq22 (Mohr-Tranebjaeerg syndrome). In addition to deafness, the patients had visual impairment, dystonia, fractures, and mental deterioration. The female carriers did not have any significant manifestations of the syndrome. We examined X chromosome inactivation in 8 obligate and 12 possible carriers by using a polymerase chain reaction analysis of the methylation-dependent amplification of the polymorphic triplet repeat at the androgen receptor locus. Seven of 8 obligate carriers and 1 of 5 carriers by linkage analysis had an extremely skewed pattern in blood DNA not found in 30 normal females. The X inactivation pattern in fibroblast DNA from 2 of the carriers with the extremely skewed pattern was also skewed but to a lesser degree than in blood DNA. One obligate carrier had a random X inactivation pattern in both blood and fibroblast DNA. A selection mechanism for the skewed pattern is therefore not likely. The extremely skewed X inactivation in 8 females of 3 generations in this family may be caused by a single gene that influences skewing of X chromosome inactivation. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Godler, David E; Inaba, Yoshimi; Schwartz, Charles E; Bui, Quang M; Shi, Elva Z; Li, Xin; Herlihy, Amy S; Skinner, Cindy; Hagerman, Randi J; Francis, David; Amor, David J; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Hopper, John L; Slater, Howard R
2015-01-01
Methylation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) exon 1/intron 1 boundary positioned fragile X related epigenetic element 2 (FREE2), reveals skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in fragile X syndrome full mutation (FM: CGG > 200) females. XCI skewing has been also linked to abnormal X-linked gene expression with the broader clinical impact for sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs). In this study, 10 FREE2 CpG sites were targeted using methylation specific quantitative melt analysis (MS-QMA), including 3 sites that could not be analysed with previously used EpiTYPER system. The method was applied for detection of skewed XCI in FM females and in different types of SCA. We tested venous blood and saliva DNA collected from 107 controls (CGG < 40), and 148 FM and 90 SCA individuals. MS-QMA identified: (i) most SCAs if combined with a Y chromosome test; (ii) locus-specific XCI skewing towards the hypomethylated state in FM females; and (iii) skewed XCI towards the hypermethylated state in SCA with 3 or more X chromosomes, and in 5% of the 47,XXY individuals. MS-QMA output also showed significant correlation with the EpiTYPER reference method in FM males and females (P < 0.0001) and SCAs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrate use of MS-QMA to quantify skewed XCI in two applications with diagnostic utility. PMID:26132880
20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. ...
20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY
16. Little Hell Gate Bridge with Big Hell Gate Bridge ...
16. Little Hell Gate Bridge with Big Hell Gate Bridge in background. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY
25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...
25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY
3. HONEYWELL STREET BRIDGE AND ELEVATED SUBWAY BRIDGE CROSSING SUNNYSIDE ...
3. HONEYWELL STREET BRIDGE AND ELEVATED SUBWAY BRIDGE CROSSING SUNNYSIDE YARDS. LONG ISLAND CITY, QUEENS CO., NY. Sec. 1411, MP 3.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY
33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...
33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...
33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...
33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...
33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...
47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must have on board a radio operator who holds a restricted radiotelephone operator permit...
47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must...
47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the...
47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must have on board a radio operator who holds a restricted radiotelephone operator permit...
47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must...
47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must...
47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the...
47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must have on board a radio operator who holds a restricted radiotelephone operator permit...
47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the...
47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must...
47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the...
47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must...
47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the...
47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must have on board a radio operator who holds a restricted radiotelephone operator permit...
47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must have on board a radio operator who holds a restricted radiotelephone operator permit...
Mathematics in Use: Suspension Bridges.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ginther, John L.
1992-01-01
Reviews the mathematics utilized in the design and construction of suspension bridges, in general, then illustrates these mathematical concepts by examining data associated with the Mackinac Bridge, which connects the two peninsulas of Michigan. Emphasizes the strong interest factor these gigantic structures have for students by attaching a sense…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, Joel S.
1990-01-01
Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.
Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with trips skewed to the flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.; Yeh, F. C.
1992-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. The experiments were conducted with a large scale, multi-pass, heat transfer model with both radially inward and outward flow. Trip strips, skewed at 45 deg to the flow direction, were machined on the leading and trailing surfaces of the radial coolant passages. An analysis of the governing flow equations showed that four parameters influence the heat transfer in rotating passages: coolant-to-wall temperature, rotation number, Reynolds number, and radius-to-passage hydraulic diameter ratio. The first three of these four parameters were varied over ranges which are typical of advanced gas turbine engine operating conditions. Results were correlated and compared to previous results from similar stationary and rotating models with smooth walls and with trip strips normal to the flow direction. The heat transfer coefficients on surfaces, where the heat transfer decreased with rotation and buoyancy, decreased to as low as 40 percent of the value without rotation. However, the maximum values of the heat transfer coefficients with high rotation were only slightly above the highest levels previously obtained with the smooth wall models. It was concluded that (1) both Coriolis and buoyancy effects must be considered in turbine blade cooling designs with trip strips, (2) the effects of rotation are markedly different depending upon the flow direction, and (3) the heat transfer with skewed trip strips is less sensitive to buoyancy than the heat transfer in models with either smooth or normal trips. Therefore, skewed trip strips rather than normal trip strips are recommended and geometry-specific tests are required for accurate design information.
Cascaded resonant bridge converters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.
Nanoparticle bridge DNA biosensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Hong-Wen
A new DNA sensing method is demonstrated in which DNA hybridization events lead to the formation of nanoparticle satellites that bridge two electrodes and are detected electrically. The hybridization events are exclusively carried out only on specific locations, the surfaces of C-ssDNA modified 50 nm GNPs. The uniqueness of this work is that only a small number of T-ccDNA molecules (<10) is required to form the nanoparticle satellites, allowing ultra-sensitive DNA sensing. The principle of this new DNA sensing technique has been demonstrated using target DNA and three-base-pair-mismatched DNA in 20nM concentrations. Three single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) system is used in our experiment which includes Capture-ssDNA (C-ssDNA), Target-ssDNA (T-ssDNA) and Probe-ssDNA (P-ssDNA). Both C-ssDNA and P-ssDNA are modified by a thiol group and can hybridize with different portions of T-ssDNA. T-ssDNA requires no modification in three ssDNA system, which is beneficial in many applications. C-ssDNA modified 50nm gold nanoparticle (C-50au) and P-ssDNA modified 30nm gold nanoparticle (P-30au) are prepared through the reaction of thiol-gold chemical bonding between thiolated ssDNA and gold nanoparticle (GNP) (C-ssDNA with 50nm GNP, P-ssDNA with 30nm GNP). We controllably place the C-50au only on the SiO2 band surface (˜ 90nm width) between two gold electrodes (source and drain electrodes) by forming positively- and negatively-charged self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on SiO2 and gold surface, respectively. DNA modified GNP is negatively charged due to ionization of phosphate group on DNA back bone. C-50au therefore is negatively charged and can only be attracted toward SiO2 area (repelled by negatively charged gold electrode surface). The amine group of positively-charged SAMs on SiO2 surface is then passivated by converting to non-polar methyl functional group after C-50au placement. P-30au is first hybridized with T-ssDNA in the solution phase (T-P- 30au formed) and is introduced into DNA detection device in which C-50au are immobilized on ˜90nm width SiO2 band (between two gold electrodes). The passivation step ensures every TP-30au are attached only to C-50au through hybridization (T-P-30au will not be attracted toward SiO2 surface or gold electrodes). GNP bridges are formed across the electrodes and provide an electrical path between two gold electrodes. We ensure that every T-P-30au only hybridizes on the surface of C-50au by (1) accurately controlling C-50au placement between two gold electrodes, (2) passivating positively-charged SAMs on SiO2 surface after C-50au immobilization. When T-P-30au hybridize with C-50au on ˜90nm wide SiO 2 surface, GNP bridges form and provide an electrical path between two gold electrodes even with only a few hybridization events. Experimental results show that even a few GNP bridges formed on SiO2 band can provide a significant conductance change from an open circuit to a conductive circuit (current = 0.5 uA at voltage = 0.1 V with four GNP bridge). We also used 3-base-pair-mismatched ssDNA (3mm-ssDNA) as a control experiment, which always resulted in an open circuit (no GNP bridge formed). Our detection device is compatible with current CMOS fabrication technology and can be manufactured on a wafer scale. The direct electrical output of this DNA detection technique provides a promising basis for high-throughput screening (can be fabricated on a wafer scale) with no expensive equipment required.
Measuring Skew in Average Surface Roughness as a Function of Surface Preparation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahl, Mark
2015-01-01
Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces polishing time, saves money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. This study characterized statistics of average surface roughness as a function of polishing time. Average surface roughness was measured at 81 locations using a Zygo white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set was fit to a normal and Largest Extreme Value (LEV) distribution; then tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the average data changes as a function of polishing time.
Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in female carriers of dyskeratosis congenita.
Devriendt, K; Matthijs, G; Legius, E; Schollen, E; Blockmans, D; van Geet, C; Degreef, H; Cassiman, J J; Fryns, J P
1997-01-01
In this study, we report on a family with X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Linkage analysis with markers in the factor VIII gene at Xq28 yielded a LOD score of 2 at a recombination of 0. Clinical manifestations of DC, such as skin lesions following the Blaschko lines, were present in two obligate carrier females. Highly skewed X inactivation was observed in white blood cells, cultured skin fibroblasts, and buccal mucosa from female carriers of DC in this family. This suggests a critical role for the DC gene in bone marrow-cell and fibroblast-cell proliferation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9042917
Structure-induced negatively skewed X-ray diffraction pattern of carbon onions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siklitskaya, Alexandra; Yastrebov, Sergey; Smith, Roger
2013-10-01
The idea is discussed that a gradual change of intershell separation in carbon onions may introduce a negative skewness into the most intense X-ray diffraction band. As an example, the experimental X-ray diffraction pattern of carbon onions is analysed using a weighted Lorentzian X-ray profile broadening model for each intershell separation contributing to the profile. The dependence of the mean radius for carbon onion shells on the intershell spacing between the adjacent shells is derived from the model analysis. Comparison with the internal distribution of atomic density in carbon onions measured with high resolution transmission electron microscopy is discussed.
Eigenvalue analysis of an irreversible random walk with skew detailed balance conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakai, Yuji; Hukushima, Koji
2016-04-01
An irreversible Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm with skew detailed balance conditions originally proposed by Turitsyn et al. is extended to general discrete systems on the basis of the Metropolis-Hastings scheme. To evaluate the efficiency of our proposed method, the relaxation dynamics of the slowest mode and the asymptotic variance are studied analytically in a random walk on one dimension. It is found that the performance in irreversible MCMC methods violating the detailed balance condition is improved by appropriately choosing parameters in the algorithm.
Autonomous fault-tolerant attitude reference system using DTGs in symmetrically skewed configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murugesan, S.; Goel, P. S.
1989-01-01
A novel symmetrically skewed configuration for an attitude reference system (ARS) using three dynamically tuned gyros (DTGs) is developed. Simple schemes for autonomous detection and identification of a faulty DTG in real time and subsequent reconfiguration of the attitude estimation algorithm are proposed. The performance of the present configuration is shown to be better than that of configurations proposed earlier, and it is shown to have better features. It tolerates all types of failures of DTG failures, requires very simple computations, and gives less error in attitude estimate than the other configurations.
Measuring Skew in Average Surface Roughness as a Function of Surface Preparation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahl, Mark T.
2015-01-01
Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces grinding saving both time and money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. In this study various materials are polished from a fine grind to a fine polish. Each sample's RMS surface roughness is measured at 81 locations in a 9x9 square grid using a Zygo white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set is fit with various standard distributions and tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the RMS data changes as a function of polishing time.
Measuring skew in average surface roughness as a function of surface preparation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stahl, Mark T.
2015-08-01
Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces polishing time, saves money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. This study characterized statistics of average surface roughness as a function of polishing time. Average surface roughness was measured at 81 locations using a Zygo® white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set was fit to a normal and Largest Extreme Value (LEV) distribution; then tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the average data changes as a function of polishing time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul
2011-11-01
Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.
Sardeshmukh, Prashant D.
2015-03-15
The probability distributions of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic variables are generally skewed and heavy-tailed. We argue that their distinctive departures from Gaussianity arise fundamentally from the fact that in a quadratically nonlinear system with a quadratic invariant, the coupling coefficients between system components are not constant but depend linearly on the system state in a distinctive way. In particular, the skewness arises from a tendency of the system trajectory to linger near states of weak coupling. We show that the salient features of the observed non-Gaussianity can be captured in the simplest such nonlinear 2-component system. If the system is stochastically forced and linearly damped, with one component damped much more strongly than the other, then the strongly damped fast component becomes effectively decoupled from the weakly damped slow component, and its impact on the slow component can be approximated as a stochastic noise forcing plus an augmented nonlinear damping. In the limit of large time-scale separation, the nonlinear augmentation of the damping becomes small, and the noise forcing can be approximated as an additive noise plus a correlated additive and multiplicative noise (CAM noise) forcing. Much of the diversity of observed large-scale atmospheric and oceanic probability distributions can be interpreted in this minimal framework.
Random sampling of skewed distributions implies Taylor’s power law of fluctuation scaling
Cohen, Joel E.; Xu, Meng
2015-01-01
Taylor’s law (TL), a widely verified quantitative pattern in ecology and other sciences, describes the variance in a species’ population density (or other nonnegative quantity) as a power-law function of the mean density (or other nonnegative quantity): Approximately, variance = a(mean)b, a > 0. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain and interpret TL. Here, we show analytically that observations randomly sampled in blocks from any skewed frequency distribution with four finite moments give rise to TL. We do not claim this is the only way TL arises. We give approximate formulae for the TL parameters and their uncertainty. In computer simulations and an empirical example using basal area densities of red oak trees from Black Rock Forest, our formulae agree with the estimates obtained by least-squares regression. Our results show that the correlated sampling variation of the mean and variance of skewed distributions is statistically sufficient to explain TL under random sampling, without the intervention of any biological or behavioral mechanisms. This finding connects TL with the underlying distribution of population density (or other nonnegative quantity) and provides a baseline against which more complex mechanisms of TL can be compared. PMID:25852144
Hölder properties of perturbed skew products and Fubini regained
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyashenko, Yu; Negut, A.
2012-08-01
In 2006, Gorodetski proved that central fibres of perturbed skew products are Hölder continuous with respect to the base point. In this paper, we give an explicit estimate of this Hölder exponent. Moreover, we extend Gorodetski's result from the case when the fibre maps are close to the identity to a much wider class of maps that satisfy the so-called modified dominated splitting condition. In many cases (for example, in the case of skew products over the solenoid or over linear Anosov diffeomorphisms of the torus), the Hölder exponent is close to 1. This allows one to overcome the so-called Fubini nightmare, in some sense. Namely, we prove that the union of central fibres that are strongly atypical from the point of view of ergodic theory, has Lebesgue measure zero despite the lack of absolute continuity of the holonomy map for the central foliation. This result is based on a new kind of ergodic theorem, which we call special. To prove our main result, we revisit the theory of Hirsch, Pugh and Shub, and estimate the contraction constant of the graph transform map.
Homoclinic snaking in plane Couette flow: bending, skewing and finite-size effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, J. F.; Schneider, T. M.
2016-05-01
Invariant solutions of shear flows have recently been extended from spatially periodic solutions in minimal flow units to spatially localized solutions on extended domains. One set of spanwise-localized solutions of plane Couette flow exhibits homoclinic snaking, a process by which steady-state solutions grow additional structure smoothly at their fronts when continued parametrically. Homoclinic snaking is well understood mathematically in the context of the one-dimensional Swift-Hohenberg equation. Consequently, the snaking solutions of plane Couette flow form a promising connection between the largely phenomenological study of laminar-turbulent patterns in viscous shear flows and the mathematically well-developed field of pattern-formation theory. In this paper we present a numerical study of the snaking solutions, generalizing beyond the fixed streamwise wavelength of previous studies. We find a number of new solution features, including bending, skewing, and finite-size effects. We show that the finite-size effects result from the shift-reflect symmetry of the traveling wave and establish the parameter regions over which snaking occurs. A new winding solution of plane Couette flow is derived from a strongly skewed localized equilibrium.
Diffuse holographic interferometric observation of shock wave reflection from a skewed wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Numata, D.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.
2009-06-01
The pattern of shock wave reflection over a wedge is, in general, either a regular reflection or a Mach reflection, depending on wedge angles, shock wave Mach numbers, and specific heat ratios of gases. However, regular and Mach reflections can coexist, in particular, over a three-dimensional wedge surface, whose inclination angles locally vary normal to the direction of shock propagation. This paper reports a result of diffuse double exposure holographic interferometric observations of shock wave reflections over a skewed wedge surface placed in a 100 × 180 mm shock tube. The wedge consists of a straight generating line whose local inclination angle varies continuously from 30° to 60°. Painting its surface with fluorescent spray paint and irradiating its surface with a collimated object beam at a time interval of a few microseconds, we succeeded in visualizing three-dimensional shock reflection over the skewed wedge surface. Experiments were performed at shock Mach numbers, 1.55, 2.02, and 2.53 in air. From reconstructed holographic images, we estimated critical transition angles at these shock wave Mach numbers and found that these were very close to those over straight wedges. This is attributable to the flow three-dimensionality.
Comment on "Universal relation between skewness and kurtosis in complex dynamics"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celikoglu, Ahmet; Tirnakli, Ugur
2015-12-01
In a recent paper [M. Cristelli, A. Zaccaria, and L. Pietronero, Phys. Rev. E 85, 066108 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.066108], the authors analyzed the relation between skewness and kurtosis for complex dynamical systems, and they identified two power-law regimes of non-Gaussianity, one of which scales with an exponent of 2 and the other with 4 /3 . They concluded that the observed relation is a universal fact in complex dynamical systems. In this Comment, we test the proposed universal relation between skewness and kurtosis with a large number of synthetic data, and we show that in fact it is not a universal relation and originates only due to the small number of data points in the datasets considered. The proposed relation is tested using a family of non-Gaussian distribution known as q -Gaussians. We show that this relation disappears for sufficiently large datasets provided that the fourth moment of the distribution is finite. We find that kurtosis saturates to a single value, which is of course different from the Gaussian case (K =3 ), as the number of data is increased, and this indicates that the kurtosis will converge to a finite single value if all moments of the distribution up to fourth are finite. The converged kurtosis value for the finite fourth-moment distributions and the number of data points needed to reach this value depend on the deviation of the original distribution from the Gaussian case.
Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with trips skewed to the flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.; Yeh, F. C.
1992-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. The experiments were conducted with a large scale, multi-pass heat transfer model with both radially inward and outward flow. An analysis of the governing flow equations showed that four parameters influence the heat transfer in rotating passages: coolant-to-wall temperature, rotation number, Reynolds number, and radius-to-passage hydraulic diameter ratio. Results were correlated and compared to previous results from similar stationary and rotating models with smooth walls and with trip strips normal to the flow direction. It was concluded that (1) both Coriolis and buoyancy must be considered in turbine blade cooling designs with trip strips, (2) the effects of rotation are markedly different depending upon the flow direction, and (3) the heat transfer with skewed trip strips is less sensitive to buoyancy than the heat transfer models with either smooth or normal trips. Therefore, skewed trip strips rather than normal trip strips are recommended and geometry-specific tests are required for accurate design.
Random sampling of skewed distributions implies Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling.
Cohen, Joel E; Xu, Meng
2015-06-23
Taylor's law (TL), a widely verified quantitative pattern in ecology and other sciences, describes the variance in a species' population density (or other nonnegative quantity) as a power-law function of the mean density (or other nonnegative quantity): Approximately, variance = a(mean)(b), a > 0. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain and interpret TL. Here, we show analytically that observations randomly sampled in blocks from any skewed frequency distribution with four finite moments give rise to TL. We do not claim this is the only way TL arises. We give approximate formulae for the TL parameters and their uncertainty. In computer simulations and an empirical example using basal area densities of red oak trees from Black Rock Forest, our formulae agree with the estimates obtained by least-squares regression. Our results show that the correlated sampling variation of the mean and variance of skewed distributions is statistically sufficient to explain TL under random sampling, without the intervention of any biological or behavioral mechanisms. This finding connects TL with the underlying distribution of population density (or other nonnegative quantity) and provides a baseline against which more complex mechanisms of TL can be compared. PMID:25852144
Using Skewness and the First-Digit Phenomenon to Identify Dynamical Transitions in Cardiac Models
Seenivasan, Pavithraa; Easwaran, Soumya; Sridhar, Seshan; Sinha, Sitabhra
2016-01-01
Disruptions in the normal rhythmic functioning of the heart, termed as arrhythmia, often result from qualitative changes in the excitation dynamics of the organ. The transitions between different types of arrhythmia are accompanied by alterations in the spatiotemporal pattern of electrical activity that can be measured by observing the time-intervals between successive excitations of different regions of the cardiac tissue. Using biophysically detailed models of cardiac activity we show that the distribution of these time-intervals exhibit a systematic change in their skewness during such dynamical transitions. Further, the leading digits of the normalized intervals appear to fit Benford's law better at these transition points. This raises the possibility of using these observations to design a clinical indicator for identifying changes in the nature of arrhythmia. More importantly, our results reveal an intriguing relation between the changing skewness of a distribution and its agreement with Benford's law, both of which have been independently proposed earlier as indicators of regime shift in dynamical systems. PMID:26793114
Changes of skewness and sharpness of partially coherent decentered annular beams on propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ting; Ji, Xiaoling; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Tao
2016-01-01
Changes of skewness and sharpness of partially coherent decentered annular beams (PCDA beams) on propagation both in free space and in oceanic turbulence are studied. Based on the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expressions for the skewness parameter A and the kurtosis parameter K of PCDA beams are derived. The analytical expression for the oceanic turbulence parameter T‧ related to K is also derived, and characteristics of T‧ are examined. It is found that the behaviors of A and K in oceanic turbulence are quite different from those in free space. In free space, the mass of the intensity distribution may move from one side of the centroid position axis yc to another side at a certain propagation distance z0, and z0 is independent of the correlation parameter τ. The mass of the intensity distribution is concentrated on one side of yc on propagation only for a poorly coherent beam in free space, but it is always this situation for different value of τ when oceanic turbulence is not weak. In free space, it takes a leptokurtic profile in the far field, and a Gaussian profile appears only for a poorly coherent beam. However, in oceanic turbulence it always reaches a Gaussian profile for different value of τ in the far field.
Comment on "Universal relation between skewness and kurtosis in complex dynamics".
Celikoglu, Ahmet; Tirnakli, Ugur
2015-12-01
In a recent paper [M. Cristelli, A. Zaccaria, and L. Pietronero, Phys. Rev. E 85, 066108 (2012)], the authors analyzed the relation between skewness and kurtosis for complex dynamical systems, and they identified two power-law regimes of non-Gaussianity, one of which scales with an exponent of 2 and the other with 4/3. They concluded that the observed relation is a universal fact in complex dynamical systems. In this Comment, we test the proposed universal relation between skewness and kurtosis with a large number of synthetic data, and we show that in fact it is not a universal relation and originates only due to the small number of data points in the datasets considered. The proposed relation is tested using a family of non-Gaussian distribution known as q-Gaussians. We show that this relation disappears for sufficiently large datasets provided that the fourth moment of the distribution is finite. We find that kurtosis saturates to a single value, which is of course different from the Gaussian case (K=3), as the number of data is increased, and this indicates that the kurtosis will converge to a finite single value if all moments of the distribution up to fourth are finite. The converged kurtosis value for the finite fourth-moment distributions and the number of data points needed to reach this value depend on the deviation of the original distribution from the Gaussian case. PMID:26764857
Maximum Parsimony and the Skewness Test: A Simulation Study of the Limits of Applicability
Määttä, Jussi; Roos, Teemu
2016-01-01
The maximum parsimony (MP) method for inferring phylogenies is widely used, but little is known about its limitations in non-asymptotic situations. This study employs large-scale computations with simulated phylogenetic data to estimate the probability that MP succeeds in finding the true phylogeny for up to twelve taxa and 256 characters. The set of candidate phylogenies are taken to be unrooted binary trees; for each simulated data set, the tree lengths of all (2n − 5)!! candidates are computed to evaluate quantities related to the performance of MP, such as the probability of finding the true phylogeny, the probability that the tree with the shortest length is unique, the probability that the true phylogeny has the shortest tree length, and the expected inverse of the number of trees sharing the shortest length. The tree length distributions are also used to evaluate and extend the skewness test of Hillis for distinguishing between random and phylogenetic data. The results indicate, for example, that the critical point after which MP achieves a success probability of at least 0.9 is roughly around 128 characters. The skewness test is found to perform well on simulated data and the study extends its scope to up to twelve taxa. PMID:27035667
Deconstructing risk: Separable encoding of variance and skewness in the brain
Symmonds, Mkael; Wright, Nicholas D.; Bach, Dominik R.; Dolan, Raymond J.
2011-01-01
Risky choice entails a need to appraise all possible outcomes and integrate this information with individual risk preference. Risk is frequently quantified solely by statistical variance of outcomes, but here we provide evidence that individuals’ choice behaviour is sensitive to both dispersion (variance) and asymmetry (skewness) of outcomes. Using a novel behavioural paradigm in humans, we independently manipulated these ‘summary statistics’ while scanning subjects with fMRI. We show that a behavioural sensitivity to variance and skewness is mirrored in neuroanatomically dissociable representations of these quantities, with parietal cortex showing sensitivity to the former and prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum to the latter. Furthermore, integration of these objective risk metrics with subjective risk preference is expressed in a subject-specific coupling between neural activity and choice behaviour in anterior insula. Our findings show that risk is neither monolithic from a behavioural nor neural perspective and its decomposition is evident both in distinct behavioural preferences and in segregated underlying brain representations. PMID:21763444
Vertical-velocity skewness in the marine stratus-topped boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Rotunno, Richard; Paluch, Ilga R.
1990-01-01
Vertical-velocity skewness, S(sub w), in a turbulent flow is important in several regards. S(sub w) is indicative of the structure of the motion when it is positive, updrafts are narrower and stronger than surrounding downdrafts, and vice versa. Aircraft measurements often suggest cool, narrow downdrafts at some distance below the stratus cloud top, indicating a negative S(sub w) (Nicholls and Leighton, 1986). This seems natural as the turbulence within the stratus-topped boundary layer (CTBL) is driven mainly by the radiative cooling at the cloud top (although sometimes surface heating can also play a major role). One expects intuitively (e.g., Nicolls, 1984) that, in the situations where cloud-top cooling and surface heating coexist, the turbulence statistics in the upper part of the CTBL are influenced more by the cloud-top cooling, while those in the lower part, more by the surface heating. Thus one expects negative S(sub w) in the upper part, and positive in the lower part, in this case. In contradistinction, large-eddy simulations (LES) of the CTBL show just the opposite: the S(sub w) is positive in the upper part and negative in the lower part of the layer. To understand the nature of vertical-velocity skewness, the simplest type of buoyancy-driven turbulence (turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection) is studied through direct numerical simulation.
Fuel cell plates with skewed process channels for uniform distribution of stack compression load
Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.
1989-01-01
An electrochemical fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, an electrolyte matrix sandwiched between electrodes, and a pair of plates above and below the electrodes. The plate above the electrodes has a lower surface with a first group of process gas flow channels formed thereon and the plate below the electrodes has an upper surface with a second group of process gas flow channels formed thereon. The channels of each group extend generally parallel to one another. The improvement comprises the process gas flow channels on the lower surface of the plate above the anode electrode and the process gas flow channels on the upper surface of the plate below the cathode electrode being skewed in opposite directions such that contact areas of the surfaces of the plates through the electrodes are formed in crisscross arrangements. Also, the plates have at least one groove in areas of the surfaces thereof where the channels are absent for holding process gas and increasing electrochemical activity of the fuel cell. The groove in each plate surface intersects with the process channels therein. Also, the opposite surfaces of a bipolar plate for a fuel cell contain first and second arrangements of process gas flow channels in the respective surfaces which are skewed the same amount in opposite directions relative to the longitudinal centerline of the plate.
Maximum Parsimony and the Skewness Test: A Simulation Study of the Limits of Applicability.
Määttä, Jussi; Roos, Teemu
2016-01-01
The maximum parsimony (MP) method for inferring phylogenies is widely used, but little is known about its limitations in non-asymptotic situations. This study employs large-scale computations with simulated phylogenetic data to estimate the probability that MP succeeds in finding the true phylogeny for up to twelve taxa and 256 characters. The set of candidate phylogenies are taken to be unrooted binary trees; for each simulated data set, the tree lengths of all (2n - 5)!! candidates are computed to evaluate quantities related to the performance of MP, such as the probability of finding the true phylogeny, the probability that the tree with the shortest length is unique, the probability that the true phylogeny has the shortest tree length, and the expected inverse of the number of trees sharing the shortest length. The tree length distributions are also used to evaluate and extend the skewness test of Hillis for distinguishing between random and phylogenetic data. The results indicate, for example, that the critical point after which MP achieves a success probability of at least 0.9 is roughly around 128 characters. The skewness test is found to perform well on simulated data and the study extends its scope to up to twelve taxa. PMID:27035667
Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Linn, Jennifer; Podlesek, Dino; Sitoci Ficici, Kerim Hakan; Kitzler, Hagen H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B; Rieger, Bernhard; Krex, Dietmar
2016-05-01
Objective To determine the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters for the prediction of individual survival in patients undergoing surgery for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in a retrospective cohort study. Methods Thirty-one patients who underwent surgery for first recurrence of a known GBM between 2008 and 2012 were included. The following parameters were collected: age, sex, enhancing tumor size, mean ADC, median ADC, ADC skewness, ADC kurtosis and fifth percentile of the ADC histogram, initial progression free survival (PFS), extent of second resection and further adjuvant treatment. The association of these parameters with survival and PFS after second surgery was analyzed using log-rank test and Cox regression. Results Using log-rank test, ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing tumor was significantly associated with both survival (p = 0.001) and PFS after second surgery (p = 0.005). Further parameters associated with prolonged survival after second surgery were: gross total resection at second surgery (p = 0.026), tumor size (0.040) and third surgery (p = 0.003). In the multivariate Cox analysis, ADC histogram skewness was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for survival after second surgery. Conclusion ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing lesion, enhancing lesion size, third surgery, as well as gross total resection have been shown to be associated with survival following the second surgery. ADC histogram skewness was an independent prognostic factor for survival in the multivariate analysis. PMID:26830088
Bridging the urological divide.
Roberts, Robin
2011-09-23
The advanced disease clinical presentations, higher morbidity and mortality rates and lack of available treatment options in prostate cancer care, attest to disparities in the delivery and outcomes of urological services in Black men of African lineage in both the Developed and Developing countries. This gap in health care and services in the global management of prostate cancer denotes the urological divide.Through the experience of a Developing country urologist with a comparative literature review, this presentation defines the determinants of the disparity through deficiencies in human, material and financial resources, as is most prevalent in Developing countries.Solutions to ending health care disparities must take into account the existing development phase of Third World countries and thus determine whether the Developed countries should export a total service delivery system or seek primarily to advance the competence and skills of the existing Developing country resources.Collaboration in prostate cancer research has the greatest promise and sustainability of bridging this urological divide and is of mutual benefit to both entities. PMID:21992183
Radio and Television Bridging Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaw, John H.
1971-01-01
Describes the multi-media extension program of the University of New South Wales, which provides radio and television courses which help to bridge the transition from secondary to tertiary studies. (AN)
Smits, Iris A M; Timmerman, Marieke E; Stegeman, Alwin
2016-05-01
Maximum likelihood estimation of the linear factor model for continuous items assumes normally distributed item scores. We consider deviations from normality by means of a skew-normally distributed factor model or a quadratic factor model. We show that the item distributions under a skew-normal factor are equivalent to those under a quadratic model up to third-order moments. The reverse only holds if the quadratic loadings are equal to each other and within certain bounds. We illustrate that observed data which follow any skew-normal factor model can be so well approximated with the quadratic factor model that the models are empirically indistinguishable, and that the reverse does not hold in general. The choice between the two models to account for deviations of normality is illustrated by an empirical example from clinical psychology. PMID:26566696
77 FR 16784 - General Bridge Regulation; Amendment
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-03-22
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 114, 116, 118 RIN 1625-AB36 General Bridge Regulation; Amendment AGENCY... rulemaking concerning amendments to the general bridge regulations. The rulemaking was initiated to clarify the statutory responsibilities of bridge owners to remove their bridges from navigable waterways...
Washed Out Bridge, Snake Creek Near Whitesburg
Tributary to Snake Creek, near Whitesburg, Georgia, showing a washed out bridge. When bridges such as this one collapse during a flood, it is rarely the pressure of the rushing water against the bridge that causes the bridge to fail. Rather, the rushing water erodes the ground underneath and surroun...
75 FR 41281 - Bridge Safety Standards
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-07-15
...FRA is establishing Federal safety requirements for railroad bridges. This final rule requires track owners to implement bridge management programs, which include annual inspections of railroad bridges, and to audit the programs. This final rule also requires track owners to know the safe load capacity of bridges and to conduct special inspections if the weather or other conditions warrant......
Bridging Anticoagulation: Primum Non Nocere.
Rechenmacher, Stephen J; Fang, James C
2015-09-22
Chronic oral anticoagulation frequently requires interruption for various reasons and durations. Whether or not to bridge with heparin or other anticoagulants is a common clinical dilemma. The evidence to inform decision making is limited, making current guidelines equivocal and imprecise. Moreover, indications for anticoagulation interruption may be unclear. New observational studies and a recent large randomized trial have noted significant perioperative or periprocedural bleeding rates without reduction in thromboembolism when bridging is employed. Such bleeding may also increase morbidity and mortality. In light of these findings, physician preferences for routine bridging anticoagulation during chronic anticoagulation interruptions may be too aggressive. More randomized trials, such as PERIOP2 (A Double Blind Randomized Control Trial of Post-Operative Low Molecular Weight Heparin Bridging Therapy Versus Placebo Bridging Therapy for Patients Who Are at High Risk for Arterial Thromboembolism), will help guide periprocedural management of anticoagulation for indications such as venous thromboembolism and mechanical heart valves. In the meantime, physicians should carefully consider both the need for oral anticoagulation interruption and the practice of routine bridging when anticoagulation interruption is indicated. PMID:26383727
Sacrificial bridges for MEMS fabrication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chao-Min; Chen, Yang-Che; Fong, Chien-Fu; Guu, Yunn-Horng; Chen, Rongshun; Yeh, J. Andrew; Hou, Max T.
2011-09-01
This study discusses sacrificial bridges that are used to release MEMS devices. Before being released, sacrificial bridges connect all the component structures into an integral structure. Solder bump bonding is used to mount the MEMS chip on another chip or a printed circuit board (PCB) and to maintain the alignment among all component structures after removal of the sacrificial bridges. Two types of sacrificial bridges were designed, analyzed and fabricated. The fabrication process—which used low resistivity single crystal silicon (SCS) wafers as the device material—was developed to implement the sacrificial bridges. Novel SCS through silicon vias (TSVs), which interconnect stacked chips, was made using the same process. An electrostatic comb drive actuator was fabricated and mounted onto a PCB. The fabricated actuator was tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the fabrication process, sacrificial bridges and SCS TSVs. The results show that the actuator worked well. Its maximum displacement and resonant frequency were 69.9 µm and 406 Hz, respectively. This method is promising for the delivery of a novel 3D system in package for MEMS devices.
Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.
Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae
2013-01-01
This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453
Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables
Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Jae
2013-01-01
This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453
Marks, Steve; Prestemon, Soren; Robin, David; Schlueter, Ross D.; Steier, Christoph; Wolski, Andrew; Jung, Jin-Young; Chubar, Oleg
2005-11-29
Three elliptically polarizing undulators (EPU) are installed and operational at the Advanced Light Source (ALS); the most recent was installed in April 2005. Operational experience has shown a variation in electron beam size which correlates with the EPU's magnetic quadrant shifts used to vary polarization. Storage ring electron dynamics studies pointed to the existence of a shift dependent skew quadrupole (SQ) component generated within the EPUs. Detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements demonstrated that the field errors were the result of systematic individual magnetic block displacements which vary with quadrant shift. This paper will discuss the results of electron dynamics studies, magnetic and mechanical measurements, design modifications planned for future EPUs to eliminate the SQ source, and the design and implementation of SQ compensation coils.
The Modified Concorde Position with an Intraoperative Skew Head Rotation: Technical Note
TAKASUNA, Hiroshi; TANAKA, Yuichiro
2015-01-01
The Concorde position was developed to approach pineal and cerebellar lesions with a midline suboccipital craniotomy. The neutral head position is needed to divide the occipital muscles symmetrically. The patient’s head is tilted to the right and the face is turned to the right for the microscopic procedure to keep the midline of the patient’s head axis straight in the surgical field for comfortable and accurate surgical manipulation. However, intraoperative repositioning of the patient’s head is somewhat difficult to release the holding arm of the Sugita head holder in the original method. We found that a skew head rotation by fixing the head asymmetrically in the Sugita head holder is very quick and convenient to obtain the optimal head position both for a craniotomy and a microscopic procedure. PMID:26226983
Singly reflected skew rays inside a hollow tube: an exact cardiold solution for incident rim rays.
Pike, J N
1991-08-01
Diffuse light entering a hollow cylindrical tube forms a manifold of concentric bright bands as a result of multiple internal reflections. A circular occulting stop, filling the entrance aperture except for a narrow rim annulus, converts these successive bands into sharply bounded rings, the first of which is produced solely by singly reflected skew and meridional rays. The exact geometrical optics of all rays emitted by any point on the rim are considered, and it is shown that after a single reflection all such rays appear to arise from a single cardioid curve. When rotated about the optic axis, this cardioid predicts the flaring ring intensity distribution observed. (Any departure of this first ring from concentricity around the direct image of the rim annulus provides a quantitative measure of nonstraightness of the tube.). PMID:20706383
Extrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Resonant Skew Scattering in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Aires; Rappoport, Tatiana G.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Castro Neto, A. H.
2015-03-01
We show that the extrinsic spin Hall effect can be engineered in monolayer graphene by decoration with small doses of adatoms, molecules, or nanoparticles originating local spin-orbit perturbations. The analysis of the single impurity scattering problem shows that intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit local couplings enhance the spin Hall effect via skew scattering of charge carriers in the resonant regime. The solution of the transport equations for a random ensemble of spin-orbit impurities reveals that giant spin Hall currents are within the reach of the current state of the art in device fabrication. The spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging. The author acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation-Competitive Research Programme through Grant No. R-144-000-295-281.
Skewed distribution of irradiance predicted by the second-order Rytov approximation.
Wheelon, A D
2001-11-01
The first-order Rytov approximation predicts that the probability-density function for intensity fluctuations in a random medium should be a log normal distribution. Here the corrections to this prediction that arise from the second term in the Rytov series are explored. The primary effect is to skew the distribution so as to favor values that are less than the average. This effect is controlled by the Rytov variance beta0(2) alone, and the predicted distribution contains no adjustable parameters. The theoretical result is compared with numerical simulations for weak scattering of plane and spherical waves. The agreement is quite good unless the intensity fluctuations are very large or very small relative to the mean irradiance. In those ranges, the predictions require additional terms in the Rytov expansion. PMID:11688869
Vargas-Madrazo, E; Lara-Ochoa, F; Jiménez-Montaño, M
1994-01-01
Antibody binding site are formed by six hypervariable regions or complementarity determining regions (CDRs). The CDRs, three from the heavy chain and three from the light chain, are known as hypervariable segments and provide a surface complementary to that of the epitope. In recent work it was found that the amino acids in these positions fulfill different functions: Some play a structural role and others are involved in the specificity-determining function. It is reported here that the frequency of amino acids at hypervariable sites is skewed. By means of an informational algorithm, key physicochemical attributes of the dominant residues were identified for some of those sites. The results for about 1,500 antibodies suggest that approximately 35% of sites involved in the recognition process require only general properties such as composition, volume, and bulk or hydrogen bonding which are satisfied by a small set of amino acids instead of any one particular complementary amino acid. PMID:8151710
Obliterable of graphics and correction of skew using Hough transform for mobile captured documents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chethan, H. K.; Kumar, G. Hemantha
2011-10-01
CBDA is an emerging field in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. In recent technology camera are incorporated to several electronic equipments and are very interesting and thus playing a vital role by replacing scanner with hand held imaging devices like Digital Cameras, Mobile phones and gaming devices attached with these camera. The goal of the work is to remove graphics from the document which plays a vital role in recognition of characters from the mobile captured documents. In this paper we have proposed a novel method for separating or removal of graphics like logos, animations other than the text from the document and method to reduce noise and finally textual content skew is estimated and corrected using Hough Transform. The experimental results show the efficacy compared to the result of well known existing methods.
A missing model in reproductive skew theory: the bordered tug-of-war.
Reeve, Hudson Kern; Shen, Sheng-Feng
2006-05-30
Models of reproductive skew can be classified into two groups: transactional models, in which group members yield shares of reproduction to each other in return for cooperation, and tug-of-war models, in which group members invest group resources in a tug-of-war over their respective reproductive shares. We synthesize these two models to yield a "bordered tug-of-war" model in which the internal tug-of-war is limited ("bordered") by the requirement that group members must achieve a certain amount of reproduction lest they pursue a noncooperative option leading to group breakup. Previous attempts to synthesize these two models did not allow for the fact that the tug-of-war will affect group output, which in turn feeds back on the reproductive payments required by group members to remain cooperative. The bordered tug-of-war model, which does not assume complete reproductive control by any individual and allows for conflict within groups, predicts that the degree of within-group selfishness will increase as the noncooperative options become less attractive, e.g., as ecological constraints on solitary breeding increase. When the noncooperative option involves fighting for the group resource (e.g., territory) and leaving if the fight is lost, the subordinate's overall share of reproduction is predicted to be independent of its relatedness to the dominant and to increase the greater its probability of winning the fight, the less the value of the territory, and the greater its personal payoff for leaving. The unique predictions of the bordered tug-of-war model may fit skew data from a number of species, including meerkats, lions, and wood mice. PMID:16717185
Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate
Strier, Karen B.; Chaves, Paulo B.; Mendes, Sérgio L.; Fagundes, Valéria; Di Fiore, Anthony
2011-01-01
Levels of reproductive skew vary in wild primates living in multimale groups depending on the degree to which high-ranking males monopolize access to females. Still, the factors affecting paternity in egalitarian societies remain unexplored. We combine unique behavioral, life history, and genetic data to evaluate the distribution of paternity in the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), a species known for its affiliative, nonhierarchical relationships. We genotyped 67 individuals (22 infants born over a 3-y period, their 21 mothers, and all 24 possible sires) at 17 microsatellite marker loci and assigned paternity to all infants. None of the 13 fathers were close maternal relatives of females with which they sired infants, and the most successful male sired a much lower percentage of infants (18%) than reported for the most successful males in other species. Our findings of inbreeding avoidance and low male reproductive skew are consistent with the muriqui's observed social and sexual behavior, but the long delay (≥2.08 y) between the onset of male sexual behavior and the age at which males first sire young is unexpected. The allocation of paternity implicates individual male life histories and access to maternal kin as key factors influencing variation in paternal—and grandmaternal—fitness. The apparent importance of lifelong maternal investment in coresident sons resonates with other recent examinations of maternal influences on offspring reproduction. This importance also extends the implications of the “grandmother hypothesis” in human evolution to include the possible influence of mothers and other maternal kin on male reproductive success in patrilocal societies. PMID:22065786
Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays: Composition, Early Air Shower Interactions, and Xmax Skewness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stapleton, James
The composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) is still not completely understood, and must be inferred from Extended Air Shower (EAS), particle cascades which they initiate upon entering the atmosphere. The atmospheric depth at which the shower contains the maximum number of particles ( Xmax) is the most composition-sensitive property of the air shower, but its interpretation is hindered by intrinsic statistical fluctuations in EAS development which cause distinct compositions to produce overlapping Xmax distributions as well as our limited knowledge at these energies of hadronic physics which strongly impacts the Xmax distribution's shape. These issues ultimately necessitate a variety of complementary approaches to interpreting UHECR composition from Xmax data. The current work advances these approaches by connecting X max skewness to the uncertainties above. The study of X max has historically focused only on the mean and standard deviation of its distribution, but skewness is shown here to be strongly related to both the statistical fluctuations in EAS development as well as the least-understood hadronic cross-sections in the air shower. This leads into a treatment of the Exponentially-Modified Gaussian (EMG) distribution, whose little-known properties make it very useful for Xmax analysis and for data analysis in general. A powerful method emerges which uses only descriptive statistics in a robust check for energy-dependent changes in UHECR mass or EAS development. The application of these analyses to X max data provides tantalizing clues concerning issues of critical importance, such as the relationship between Xmax and the 'ankle' break in the UHECR energy spectrum, or the inferred properties of the UHECR mass distribution and its strong dependence on hadronic model systematics.
Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques
Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya; Nakamura, Takashi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Sugita, Masahiko
2013-11-08
Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.
Does predation result in adult sex ratio skew in a sexually dimorphic insect genus?
Wehi, P M; Nakagawa, S; Trewick, S A; Morgan-Richards, M
2011-11-01
Theory proposes that sexually dimorphic, polygynous species are at particularly high risk of sex-biased predation, because conspicuous males are more often preyed upon compared to females. We tested the effects of predation on population sex ratio in a highly sexually dimorphic insect genus (Hemideina). In addition, introduction of a suite of novel mammalian predators to New Zealand during the last 800 years is likely to have modified selection pressures on native tree weta. We predicted that the balance between natural and sexual selection would be disrupted by the new predator species. We expected to see a sex ratio skew resulting from higher mortality in males with expensive secondary sexual weaponry; combat occurs outside refuge cavities between male tree weta. We took a meta-analytic approach using generalized linear mixed models to compare sex ratio variation in 58 populations for six of the seven species in Hemideina. We investigated adult sex ratio across these populations to determine how much variation in sex ratio can be attributed to sex-biased predation in populations with either low or high number of invasive mammalian predators. Surprisingly, we did not detect any significant deviation from 1 : 1 parity for adult sex ratio and found little difference between populations or species. We conclude that there is little evidence of sex-biased predation by either native or mammalian predators and observed sex ratio skew in individual populations of tree weta is probably an artefact of sampling error. We argue that sex-biased predation may be less prevalent in sexually dimorphic species than previously suspected and emphasize the usefulness of a meta-analytic approach to robustly analyse disparate and heterogeneous data. PMID:21848984
26. NEW STEEL BRIDGE COMPLETED ASSEMBLED. OLD BRIDGE BELOW. U.S.G.S. ...
26. NEW STEEL BRIDGE COMPLETED ASSEMBLED. OLD BRIDGE BELOW. U.S.G.S. GAGING STATION IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ
East elevation of lift bridge, with U.S. Rt. 11 bridge ...
East elevation of lift bridge, with U.S. Rt. 11 bridge in background. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD
BRIDGE BUILDER WILLIAM FLINNS CAMP & BRIDGE BUILDING OUTFIT. INTERIOR ...
BRIDGE BUILDER WILLIAM FLINNS CAMP & BRIDGE BUILDING OUTFIT. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING LABORERS AT MEAL TIME. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mejia-Ospino, E.; García, G.; Guerrero, A.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.
2005-01-01
The three-photon resonance four-photon ionization and dissociation spectra of dimethyl ether (DME) are presented in the wavelength range 450-550 nm at 1 nm intervals. The (3+1) REMPI spectra show three prominent bands corresponding to the \\tildeB \\leftarrow \\skew1\\tildeX, {\\skew1\\tildeC} \\leftarrow \\skew1\\tildeX and {\\skew1\\tildeC^{\\prime}} \\leftarrow \\skew1\\tildeX transitions with origins at 61 457 cm-1 (7.615 eV), 59 055 cm-1 (7.322 eV) and 58 010 cm-1 (7.194 eV), respectively. Several ionized species, CH3+, CHnO+ (n = 1-3) and CH3OCH3+, are observed in the region of wavelengths studied here. In order to compare the results, a shorter wavelength multiphoton dissociation and ionization of DME at 355 nm is also presented. At this wavelength, DME undergoes neutral dissociation to CH3 and CH3O and each fragment is then ionized by multiphoton absorption. The fragmentation at 355 nm is very intense and only small fragments such as CH3+, CHO+, CH2+, CH+ and C+ ions are observed. The measurement of photoelectron energy allows us to establish that the DME ionization potential is at least 9.55 ± 0.15 eV. The experiments were performed using a Nd:YAG-OPO (optical parametric oscillator) tunable laser system coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a hemispherical electron energy analyser.
Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz
2016-01-01
The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.
47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...
47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...
47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...
47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...
47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pipień, M.
2008-09-01
We present the results of an application of Bayesian inference in testing the relation between risk and return on the financial instruments. On the basis of the Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model, proposed by Merton we built a general sampling distribution suitable in analysing this relationship. The most important feature of our assumptions is that the skewness of the conditional distribution of returns is used as an alternative source of relation between risk and return. This general specification relates to Skewed Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic-in-Mean model. In order to make conditional distribution of financial returns skewed we considered the unified approach based on the inverse probability integral transformation. In particular, we applied hidden truncation mechanism, inverse scale factors, order statistics concept, Beta and Bernstein distribution transformations and also a constructive method. Based on the daily excess returns on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Index we checked the empirical importance of the conditional skewness assumption on the relation between risk and return on the Warsaw Stock Market. We present posterior probabilities of all competing specifications as well as the posterior analysis of the positive sign of the tested relationship.
Verkuil, Yvonne I; Juillet, Cedric; Lank, David B; Widemo, Fredrik; Piersma, Theunis
2014-09-01
Sex differences in skews of vertebrate lifetime reproductive success are difficult to measure directly. Evolutionary histories of differential skew should be detectable in the genome. For example, male-biased skew should reduce variation in the biparentally inherited genome relative to the maternally inherited genome. We tested this approach in lek-breeding ruff (Class Aves, Philomachus pugnax) by comparing genetic variation of nuclear microsatellites (θ n ; biparental) versus mitochondrial D-loop sequences (θ m ; maternal), and conversion to comparable nuclear (N e ) and female (N ef ) effective population size using published ranges of mutation rates for each marker (μ). We provide a Bayesian method to calculate N e (θ n = 4N e μ n ) and N ef (θ m = 2N ef μ m ) using 95% credible intervals (CI) of θ n and θ m as informative priors, and accounting for uncertainty in μ. In 96 male ruffs from one population, N e was 97% (79-100%) lower than expected under random mating in an ideal population, where N e :N ef = 2. This substantially lower autosomal variation represents the first genomic support of strong male reproductive skew in a lekking species. PMID:25478153
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooper, David
2015-01-01
The paper looks closely at student enrolment trends through a case study of South African "race" enrolment data, including some hypotheses about how student social class has influenced these trends. First, data on 1988-1998 enrolments showing a "skewed revolution" in student africanisation are summarised. Then, using 2000-2012…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooper, David
2015-01-01
The paper looks closely at student enrolment trends through a case study of South African "race" enrolment data, including some hypotheses about how student social class has influenced these trends. First, data on 1988-1998 enrolments showing a "skewed revolution" in student africanisation are summarised. Then, using 2000-2012
Verkuil, Yvonne I; Juillet, Cedric; Lank, David B; Widemo, Fredrik; Piersma, Theunis
2014-01-01
Sex differences in skews of vertebrate lifetime reproductive success are difficult to measure directly. Evolutionary histories of differential skew should be detectable in the genome. For example, male-biased skew should reduce variation in the biparentally inherited genome relative to the maternally inherited genome. We tested this approach in lek-breeding ruff (Class Aves, Philomachus pugnax) by comparing genetic variation of nuclear microsatellites (θn; biparental) versus mitochondrial D-loop sequences (θm; maternal), and conversion to comparable nuclear (Ne) and female (Nef) effective population size using published ranges of mutation rates for each marker (μ). We provide a Bayesian method to calculate Ne (θn = 4Neμn) and Nef (θm = 2Nefμm) using 95% credible intervals (CI) of θn and θm as informative priors, and accounting for uncertainty in μ. In 96 male ruffs from one population, Ne was 97% (79–100%) lower than expected under random mating in an ideal population, where Ne:Nef = 2. This substantially lower autosomal variation represents the first genomic support of strong male reproductive skew in a lekking species. PMID:25478153
Ibbotson, Paul
2013-01-01
We use the Google Ngram database, a corpus of 5,195,769 digitized books containing ~4% of all books ever published, to test three ideas that are hypothesized to account for linguistic generalizations: verbal semantics, pre-emption and skew. Using 828,813 tokens of un-forms as a test case for these mechanisms, we found verbal semantics was a good predictor of the frequency of un-forms in the English language over the past 200 years—both in terms of how the frequency changed over time and their frequency rank. We did not find strong evidence for the direct competition of un-forms and their top pre-emptors, however the skew of the un-construction competitors was inversely correlated with the acceptability of the un-form. We suggest a cognitive explanation for this, namely, that the more the set of relevant pre-emptors is skewed then the more easily it is retrieved from memory. This suggests that it is not just the frequency of pre-emptive forms that must be taken into account when trying to explain usage patterns but their skew as well. PMID:24399991
Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.
2010-01-01
The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground-motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case for the central United States), or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case for San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure recently was developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records, such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of 'true' median structural responses. The adjective 'accurate' refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective 'efficient' refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. Herein, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing 'ordinary standard' bridges typical of reinforced-concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi span bridge, curved-bridge, and skew-bridge. As compared to benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. Thus, the MPS procedure is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of 'ordinary standard' bridges.
Kalkan, E.; Kwong, N.
2012-01-01
The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case in the central United States) or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case in San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure was recently developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of “true” median structural responses. The adjective “accurate” refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective “efficient” refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. In this paper, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing Ordinary Standard bridges typical of reinforced concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi-span bridge, curved bridge, and skew bridge. As compared with benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the EDPs. Thus, it is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of Ordinary Standard bridges.
Ayotte, Joseph D.
1996-01-01
The town highway 31 crossing of Lilliesville Brook is a 41-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 39-foot steel-beam span with a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., August 24, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees. Scour protection measures in place at the site were type-1 stone fill (less than 12 inches diameter) at the downstream left wingwall, left abutment, and upstream and downstream sides of the left road embankment. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1993). Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. The scour analysis results are presented in tables 1 and 2 and a graph of the scour depths is presented in figure 8.
Veilleux, Andrea G.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Eash, David A.
2012-01-01
This paper summarizes methodological advances in regional log-space skewness analyses that support flood-frequency analysis with the log Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution. A Bayesian Weighted Least Squares/Generalized Least Squares (B-WLS/B-GLS) methodology that relates observed skewness coefficient estimators to basin characteristics in conjunction with diagnostic statistics represents an extension of the previously developed B-GLS methodology. B-WLS/B-GLS has been shown to be effective in two California studies. B-WLS/B-GLS uses B-WLS to generate stable estimators of model parameters and B-GLS to estimate the precision of those B-WLS regression parameters, as well as the precision of the model. The study described here employs this methodology to develop a regional skewness model for the State of Iowa. To provide cost effective peak-flow data for smaller drainage basins in Iowa, the U.S. Geological Survey operates a large network of crest stage gages (CSGs) that only record flow values above an identified recording threshold (thus producing a censored data record). CSGs are different from continuous-record gages, which record almost all flow values and have been used in previous B-GLS and B-WLS/B-GLS regional skewness studies. The complexity of analyzing a large CSG network is addressed by using the B-WLS/B-GLS framework along with the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA). Because EMA allows for the censoring of low outliers, as well as the use of estimated interval discharges for missing, censored, and historic data, it complicates the calculations of effective record length (and effective concurrent record length) used to describe the precision of sample estimators because the peak discharges are no longer solely represented by single values. Thus new record length calculations were developed. The regional skewness analysis for the State of Iowa illustrates the value of the new B-WLS/BGLS methodology with these new extensions.
1. Photocopied January 1973 from the Keystone Bridge Company Album, ...
1. Photocopied January 1973 from the Keystone Bridge Company Album, 1874. THE KEYSTONE BRIDGE COMPANY: LUCY FURNACE. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Parkersburg Bridge, Ohio River, Parkersburg, Wood County, WV
Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures
Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.
1999-02-08
This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.
Balanced bridge feedback control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.
Balanced bridge feedback control system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lurie, Boris J.
1990-03-01
In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.
Epicenter estimation using erroneous crustal model(s) and skew regional networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jih, Rong-Song
1999-06-01
A simple, hybrid procedure is proposed for seismic location at regional distances when (1) the crustal model is not known, (2) the seismic network is not calibrated, and (3) the azimuthal coverage of recording stations is poor. Among all parameters related to event location, the backazimuth estimated with a skew, large-aperture network appears to be the least sensitive to the model error—under these difficult yet realistic conditions. This observation leads to a hypothesis that epicenters could be better constrained through triangulation using backazimuths derived from two skew, large-aperture subnetworks or arrays. If two subnetworks can be found such that the corresponding backazimuths are sufficiently apart (say, they intersect at an angle of 20° or larger), the resulting absolute mislocation associated with the intersection point is often less than 18 km, which is the permissible location accuracy as quoted in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The origin time and source depth can then be obtained from a standard location procedure with the approximate epicenter held fixed. If the network cannot be partitioned to provide two `good' backazimuths, then the conventional location procedure (which feeds on the phase picks altogether) can still be used. The proposed algorithm is tested with three events: (1) U.S. explosion Salmon of Oct. 22, 1964, (2) Kola explosion of Sept. 29, 1996, and (3) Pakistani event of April 28, 1991. The absolute location error associated with this hybrid method is typically comparable to or, in many cases, better than that of the conventional method. Furthermore, this new approach also offers a measurable quantity which positively flags when the location is more likely to be good—even for regions that are not calibrated. These features could have important implications for the CTBT implementation as the proposed algorithm can readily be used in areas previously not well studied as an ad hoc procedure on problem events while the International Monitoring System (IMS) stations are being deployed and calibrated gradually. For local seismic network operators, this algorithm could be an attractive alternative or supplementary location procedure.
NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy
Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean
2012-07-15
Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many or fewer needles than the current HDR brachytherapy workflow. Combined with robot assisted brachytherapy, this system has the potential to reduce side effects associated with treatment. A physical trial should be done to test the implant feasibility of NPIP needle configurations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Richard
2008-01-01
Career and technical education (CTE) has a promising future at Darlington (WI) High School. In this article, the author describes how a class bridge project became a real-world, project-based learning opportunity involving higher-level thinking skills that are at the core of CTE at his school. It began when a local citizen approached him at the
Evaluation of Summer Bridge Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garcia, Lisa D.; Paz, Chiara C.
2009-01-01
Many colleges and universities in the United States offer summer programs for their incoming students. While programs are structured and administered in a variety of ways and target various student populations, the most common type of summer bridge program aims to serve historically underrepresented students and students of low socioeconomic…
Family Literacy in Bridge Housing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwill Industries of Pittsburgh, PA.
A project proposed to demonstrate an effective delivery system for providing family literacy services to homeless parents of young children by taking the "Read Me a Story" program directly into bridge housing sites where the families resided. The approach offered was the direct parent/indirect child model. The curriculum came from adaptations of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Richard
2008-01-01
Career and technical education (CTE) has a promising future at Darlington (WI) High School. In this article, the author describes how a class bridge project became a real-world, project-based learning opportunity involving higher-level thinking skills that are at the core of CTE at his school. It began when a local citizen approached him at the…
Instability of the capillary bridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pare, Gounseti; Hoepffner, Jerome
2014-11-01
Capillary adhesion is a physical mechanism that maintains two bodies in contact by capillarity through a liquid ligament. The capillary bridge is an idealization of this capillary adhesion. In this study we first focus on the classical case of the stability of the capillary bridge. Secondly we study a slightly more complex configuration, imagining a flow in the capillary bridge as in the case of the dynamics of the neck of a liquid ligament, in its withdrawal under the effect of capillarity. Inspired by the experiments on soap films of Plateau, the configuration analyzed consists of an initially axisymmetric, mass of fluid held by surface tension forces between two parallel, coaxial, solid pipes of the same diameter. The results presented are obtained by numerical simulations using the free software, Gerris Flow Solver. We first focus on the capillary Venturi. In the static configuration the stability diagram of the capillary bridge obtained is in perfect agreement with the results of Lev A. Slobozhanin. In the dynamic case we develop a matlab code based on the one dimensional equations of Eggers and Dupont. The comparison of the bifurcation diagram obtained and the numerical simulations shows a good agreement.
Bridging Traditional and Authentic Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cole, Donna J.
With the education reform movement came dissonance over testing as an indicator of classroom learning. This paper examines both formal and informal assessment and relates one institution's attempt to provide a bridge between authentic and traditional assessment. Authentic assessment is defined as a belief that student evaluation should measure…
Bridging: Locating Critical Connectors in a Network
Valente, Thomas W.; Fujimoto, Kayo
2010-01-01
This paper proposes several measures for bridging in networks derived from Granovetter's (1973) insight that links which reduce distances in a network are important structural bridges. Bridging is calculated by systematically deleting links and calculating the resultant changes in network cohesion (measured as the inverse average path length). The average change for each node's links provides an individual level measure of bridging. We also present a normalized version which controls for network size and a network level bridging index. Bridging properties are demonstrated on hypothetical networks, empirical networks, and a set of 100 randomly generated networks to show how the bridging measure correlates with existing network measures such as degree, personal network density, constraint, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and vitality. Bridging and the accompanying methodology provide a family of new network measures useful for studying network structure, network dynamics, and network effects on substantive behavioral phenomenon. PMID:20582157
Structural Bridges through Fold Space
Edwards, Hannah; Deane, Charlotte M.
2015-01-01
Several protein structure classification schemes exist that partition the protein universe into structural units called folds. Yet these schemes do not discuss how these units sit relative to each other in a global structure space. In this paper we construct networks that describe such global relationships between folds in the form of structural bridges. We generate these networks using four different structural alignment methods across multiple score thresholds. The networks constructed using the different methods remain a similar distance apart regardless of the probability threshold defining a structural bridge. This suggests that at least some structural bridges are method specific and that any attempt to build a picture of structural space should not be reliant on a single structural superposition method. Despite these differences all representations agree on an organisation of fold space into five principal community structures: all-α, all-β sandwiches, all-β barrels, α/β and α + β. We project estimated fold ages onto the networks and find that not only are the pairings of unconnected folds associated with higher age differences than bridged folds, but this difference increases with the number of networks displaying an edge. We also examine different centrality measures for folds within the networks and how these relate to fold age. While these measures interpret the central core of fold space in varied ways they all identify the disposition of ancestral folds to fall within this core and that of the more recently evolved structures to provide the peripheral landscape. These findings suggest that evolutionary information is encoded along these structural bridges. Finally, we identify four highly central pivotal folds representing dominant topological features which act as key attractors within our landscapes. PMID:26372166
Structural Bridges through Fold Space.
Edwards, Hannah; Deane, Charlotte M
2015-09-01
Several protein structure classification schemes exist that partition the protein universe into structural units called folds. Yet these schemes do not discuss how these units sit relative to each other in a global structure space. In this paper we construct networks that describe such global relationships between folds in the form of structural bridges. We generate these networks using four different structural alignment methods across multiple score thresholds. The networks constructed using the different methods remain a similar distance apart regardless of the probability threshold defining a structural bridge. This suggests that at least some structural bridges are method specific and that any attempt to build a picture of structural space should not be reliant on a single structural superposition method. Despite these differences all representations agree on an organisation of fold space into five principal community structures: all-α, all-β sandwiches, all-β barrels, α/β and α + β. We project estimated fold ages onto the networks and find that not only are the pairings of unconnected folds associated with higher age differences than bridged folds, but this difference increases with the number of networks displaying an edge. We also examine different centrality measures for folds within the networks and how these relate to fold age. While these measures interpret the central core of fold space in varied ways they all identify the disposition of ancestral folds to fall within this core and that of the more recently evolved structures to provide the peripheral landscape. These findings suggest that evolutionary information is encoded along these structural bridges. Finally, we identify four highly central pivotal folds representing dominant topological features which act as key attractors within our landscapes. PMID:26372166
Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe E-mail: plaurent@cea.fr
2009-08-01
We perform the analysis of the iron K{sub {alpha}} lines detected in three sources representing three types of accreting compact sources: cataclysmic variable (CV) GK Per, neutron star (NS) Serpens X-1, and black hole (BH) GX 339-4. We find, using data from Epic-PN Camera onboard XMM-Newton observatory, that the iron K{sub {alpha}} emission line in GK Per has a noticeable red-skewed profile. We compare the GK Per asymmetric line with the red-skewed lines observed by XMM-Newton in Serpens X-1 and GX 339-4. The observation of the K{sub {alpha}} emission with red-skewed features in CV GK Per cannot be related to the redshift effects of General Relativity (GR). Therefore, if the mechanism of the K{sub {alpha}}-line formation is the same in CVs, NSs, and BHs then it is evident that the GR effects would be ruled out as a cause of red skewness of K{sub {alpha}} line. The line reprocessing in an outflowing wind has been recently suggested as an alternative model for a broad red-shifted iron line formation. In the framework of the outflow scenario the red-skewed iron line is formed in the strong extended wind due to its illumination by the radiation emanating from the innermost part of the accreting material. The outflow is a common phenomenon for CVs, NSs, and BHs. In this paper, we demonstrate that the asymmetric shapes of the lines detected from these CV, NS, and BH sources are well described with the wind (outflow) model. Furthermore we find by analyzing Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer(RXTE) observations that when the strong red-skewed iron line is observed in GX 339-4 the high-frequency variability is strongly suppressed. While this fact is hard to reconcile with the relativistic models, it is consistent with the outflowing gas washing out high-frequency modulations of the radiation presumably originated in the innermost part of the source.
76 FR 55160 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-09-06
... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge... Secretary of Transportation to publish in the Federal Register a report describing construction materials used in new Federal-aid bridge construction and bridge rehabilitation projects. As part of the...
77 FR 53251 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-08-31
... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge... Secretary of Transportation to publish in the Federal Register a report describing construction materials used in new Federal-aid bridge construction and bridge rehabilitation projects. As part of the...
75 FR 62181 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-07
... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge... the Secretary of Transportation to publish in the Federal Register a report describing construction materials used in new Federal-aid bridge construction and bridge rehabilitation projects. As part of...
Bridge Programs in Illinois: Results of the 2010 Illinois Bridge Status Survey
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, J. L.; Harmon, T.
2010-01-01
This report provides a summary of major results of the Illinois Bridge Status Survey, administered online between April and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand the extent to which bridge programs are being implemented in Illinois, as well as to build an online directory of bridge programs. Bridge programs are an emerging…
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...
A Participatory Public Art Project: Community Bridge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephens, Pam
2005-01-01
This article introduces Community Bridge, a participatory public art project that brought together artists and residents to address aesthetic needs of an urban environment. The Community Bridge is an exemplary work of art by American artist William Cochran. In addition to creating a natural gathering place for residents of all ages, the bridge is…
Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Complete College America, 2012
2012-01-01
The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will not reach…
Building Bridges One Line at a Time
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grigsby, Cathy Murray
2012-01-01
In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…
12. View of bridge seat at north abutment with expansion ...
12. View of bridge seat at north abutment with expansion bearing, under bridge at northwest corner of bridge, looking from the east - Bridge No. 4900, Spanning Root River at Trunk Highway 16, Rushford, Fillmore County, MN
1. NORTH HAMMA HAMMA BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH THROUGH PORTALS OF ...
1. NORTH HAMMA HAMMA BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH THROUGH PORTALS OF BOTH THE NORTH AND SOUTH BRIDGES - North Hamma Hamma River Bridge, Spanning Hamma Hamma River Bridge at U.S. Route 101, Eldon, Mason County, WA
21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...
21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID
28. Under ninth bridge, view to concrete dam and eighth ...
28. Under ninth bridge, view to concrete dam and eighth bridge in background during heavy rain, view to the SW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS
Net-proton-number kurtosis and skewness in nuclear collisions: Influence of deuteron formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecková, Zuzana; Steinheimer, Jan; Tomášik, Boris; Bleicher, Marcus
2015-12-01
We explore the influence of deuteron formation in the late stage of nucleus-nucleus reactions on the fluctuations observed in the final net-proton yields around midrapidity. At each investigated energy, the produced (anti)proton yield at chemical freeze-out is assumed to fluctuate according to a Poisson distribution and in each event the probability for deuteron formation by coalescence is proportional to (dNproton/d y ) 2. The protons that are then clustered in deuterons are usually not included in the experimental measurement of the net-proton fluctuations, therefore, we subtract these clustered protons from the final state proton number for the calculation of the net-proton fluctuations (the same is done in the antiproton sector). Due to the nonlinear deuteron formation probability the resulting distribution is not a Skellam distribution, but shows the interesting feature of a decrease in the kurtosis κ σ2 and a local maximum in the skewness S σ observables as the collision energy decreases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alfarano, S.; Lux, T.; Wagner, F.
2007-01-01
The present paper expands on recent attempts at estimating the parameters of simple interacting-agent models of financial markets [S. Alfarano, T. Lux, F. Wagner, Computational Economics 26, 19 (2005); S. Alfarano, T. Lux, F. Wagner, in Funktionsfähigkeit und Stabilität von Finanzmärkten, edited by W. Franz, H. Ramser, M. Stadler (Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2005), pp. 241 254]. Here we provide additional evidence by (i) investigating a large sample of individual stocks from the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and (ii) comparing results from the baseline noise trader/fundamentalist model of [S. Alfarano, T. Lux, F. Wagner, Computational Economics 26, 19 (2005)] with those obtained from an even simpler version with a preponderance of noise trader behaviour. As it turns out, this somewhat more parsimonious “maximally skewed” variant is often not rejected in favor of the more complex version. We also find that all stocks are dominated by noise trader behaviour irrespective of whether the data prefer the skewed or the baseline version of our model.
A Timing Estimation Method Based-on Skewness Analysis in Vehicular Wireless Networks
Cui, Xuerong; Li, Juan; Wu, Chunlei; Liu, Jian-Hang
2015-01-01
Vehicle positioning technology has drawn more and more attention in vehicular wireless networks to reduce transportation time and traffic accidents. Nowadays, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used in land vehicle positioning, but most of them are lack precision and reliability in situations where their signals are blocked. Positioning systems base-on short range wireless communication are another effective way that can be used in vehicle positioning or vehicle ranging. IEEE 802.11p is a new real-time short range wireless communication standard for vehicles, so a new method is proposed to estimate the time delay or ranges between vehicles based on the IEEE 802.11p standard which includes three main steps: cross-correlation between the received signal and the short preamble, summing up the correlated results in groups, and finding the maximum peak using a dynamic threshold based on the skewness analysis. With the range between each vehicle or road-side infrastructure, the position of neighboring vehicles can be estimated correctly. Simulation results were presented in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) vehicular multipath channel, which show that the proposed method provides better precision than some well-known timing estimation techniques, especially in low signal to noise ratio (SNR) environments. PMID:26580628
Turbine blade tip clearance measurements using skewed dual optical beams of tip timing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, De-chao; Duan, Fa-jie; Guo, Hao-tian; Li, Yangzong; Wang, Kai
2011-12-01
Optimization and active control of the clearance between turbine blades and case of the engine is identified, especially in aerospace community, as a key technology to increase engine efficiency, reduce fuel consumption and emissions and increase service life .However, the tip clearance varies during different operating conditions. Thus a reliable non-contact and online detection system is essential and ultimately used to close the tip clearance control loop. This paper described a fiber optical clearance measuring system applying skewed dual optical beams to detect the traverse time of passing blades. Two beams were specially designed with an outward angle of 18 degree and the beam spot diameters are less than 100μm within 0-4mm working range to achieve high signal-to-noise and high sensitivity. It could be theoretically analyzed that the measuring accuracy is not compromised by degradation of signal intensity caused by any number of environmental conditions such as light source instability, contamination and blade tip imperfection. Experimental tests were undertaken to achieve a high resolution of 10µm in the rotational speed range 2000-18000RPM and a measurement accuracy of 15μm, indicating that the system is capable of providing accurate and reliable data for active clearance control (ACC).
Bacterial clearance reverses a skewed T-cell repertoire induced by Salmonella infection
Leyva-Rangel, Jessica P; de los Angeles Hernández-Cueto, Maria; Galan-Enriquez, Carlos-Samuel; López-Medina, Marcela; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney
2015-01-01
Salmonella typhimurium invades the spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes and has recently been detected in the bone marrow and thymus, resulting in a reduced thymic size and a decline in the total number of thymic cells. A specific deletion of the double-positive cell subset has been characterized, yet the export of mature T cells to the periphery remains normal. We analyzed Salmonella pathogenesis regarding thymic structure and the T-cell maturation process. We demonstrate that, despite alterations in the thymic structure, T-cell development is maintained during Salmonella infection, allowing the selection of single-positive T-cell clones expressing particular T-cell receptor beta chains (TCR-Vβ). Moreover, the treatment of infected mice with an antibiotic restored the normal thymic architecture and thymocyte subset distribution. Additionally, the frequency of TCR-Vβ usage after treatment was comparable to that in non-infected mice. However, bacteria were still recovered from the thymus after 1 month of treatment. Our data reveal that a skewed T-cell developmental process is present in the Salmonella-infected thymus that alters the TCR-Vβ usage frequency. Likewise, the post-treatment persistence of Salmonella reveals a novel function of the thymus as a potential reservoir for this infectious agent. PMID:26417438
Dynamics of ferromagnetic spin glass: randomly canted ferromagnet versus skewed spin glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janutka, Andrzej
2003-12-01
A ferromagnetic spin glass (FSG) is one of the three isotropic and homogeneous phases of the long-range partially ordered magnets with spin and atomic disorder which are selected by symmetry (Andreev 1978 Sov. Phys.—JETP 47 411) (the others are genuine and antiferromagnetic spin glasses). The linear dynamical response to a magnetic field of two sub-phases of a FSG with drastically different dynamics, a randomly canted ferromagnet, in which the component spins create an acute angle with the summary magnetic moment, and a less-ordered skewed spin glass is analysed in the spin-wave approximation in the framework of phenomenological theory. The spin-wave damping coefficients and frequency shifts due to a magnon-magnon interaction are evaluated as functions of temperature and wavevector as well as the spectral-weight functions of the linear response to a magnetic field and the neutron scattering cross section which provides the possibility for experimental verification of the results. Substantial differences in the spin-wave characteristics of the FSG compared to those of the Heisenberg spin glass and the Heisenberg ferromagnet are found to be due to non-linear anisotropy effects in a FSG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishio, Ryoichi; Watari, Taizan
2014-12-01
The traditional idea of the Pomeron/Reggeon description for hadron scattering is now being given theoretical foundation in gravity dual descriptions, where Pomeron corresponds to an exchange of spin-j ∈2 Z states in the graviton trajectory. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is essentially a two-to-two scattering process of a hadron and a photon, and hence one should be able to study nonperturbative aspects (the generalized parton distribution [GPD]) of this process by the Pomeron/Reggeon process in gravity dual. We find, however, that even one of the most developed formulations of gravity dual, Pomeron [Brower-Polchinski-Strassler-Tan (BPST), 2006], is not able to capture skewness dependence of GPD properly. Therefore, we compute Reggeon wave functions on AdS5 so that the formalism of BPST can be generalized. These wave functions are used to determine the DVCS amplitude, bring it to the form of conformal operator product expansion/collinear factorization, and extract a holographic model of GPD, which naturally fits into the framework known as "dual parametrization," or the "(conformal) collinear factorization approach."
GC skew defines distinct RNA polymerase pause sites in CpG island promoters
Kellner, Wendy A.; Bell, Joshua S.K.; Vertino, Paula M.
2015-01-01
CpG islands (CGIs) are associated with over half of human gene promoters and are characterized by a unique chromatin environment and high levels of bidirectional transcriptional activity relative to surrounding genomic regions, suggesting that RNA polymerase (Pol II) progression past the CGI boundaries is restricted. Here we describe a novel transcriptional regulatory step wherein Pol II encounters an additional barrier to elongation distinct from the promoter-proximal pause and occurring at the downstream boundary of the CGI domain. For most CGI-associated promoters, Pol II exhibits a dominant pause at either the promoter-proximal or this distal site that correlates, both in position and in intensity, with local regions of high GC skew, a sequence feature known to form unique secondary structures. Upon signal-induced gene activation, long-range enhancer contacts at the dominant pause site are selectively enhanced, suggesting a new role for enhancers at the downstream pause. These data point to an additional level of control over transcriptional output at a subset of CGI-associated genes that is linked to DNA sequence and the integrity of the CGI domain. PMID:26275623
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirotsuka, Isao; Tsuboi, Kazuo
The capacitor motor (CRM) is widely used to drive industrial equipments and electric home appliances. Recently, the reduction in the vibration and noise of the CRM has become increasingly important from the standpoint of environmental improvement. However, the electromagnetic vibration of the CRM under load has not been analyzed sufficiently. Therefore, we have studied the electromagnetic vibration of CRM for the purpose of reducing it. In a previous paper, the relationships for a backward magnetic field, the equivalent circuit current, and the vibration of the CRM were clarified. The present paper theoretically and experimentally discusses the effect of the slot combination and skewed slot on the electromagnetic vibration of CRM under load. The primary conclusions are as follows: (1) In the case of 4-pole and 6-pole CRMs, the dominant electromagnetic vibration of CRMs was theoretically attributed to three types of electromagnetic force waves. Two types of electromagnetic force waves are generated: one wave is generated by the interaction of two forward magnetic fluxes, such as those of a three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor, and the other wave is generated under the influence of a backward magnetic flux. (2) The characteristics of dominant electromagnetic vibration depending on load and running capacitor were classified theoretically and experimentally into three types based on the characteristics of the electromagnetic force wave and equivalent circuit current. (3) The influences of magnetic saturation in dominant electromagnetic vibration were verified experimentally and their causes were clarified theoretically in relation to electromagnetic force waves.
Allele-Skewed DNA Modification in the Brain: Relevance to a Schizophrenia GWAS.
Gagliano, Sarah A; Ptak, Carolyn; Mak, Denise Y F; Shamsi, Mehrdad; Oh, Gabriel; Knight, Joanne; Boutros, Paul C; Petronis, Arturas
2016-05-01
Numerous recent studies have suggested that phenotypic effects of DNA sequence variants can be mediated or modulated by their epigenetic marks, such as allele-skewed DNA modification (ASM). Using Affymetrix SNP microarrays, we performed a comprehensive search of ASM effects in human post-mortem brain and sperm samples (total n = 256) from individuals with major psychosis and control individuals. Depending on the phenotypic category of the brain samples, 1.4%-7.5% of interrogated SNPs exhibited ASM effects. Next, we investigated ASM in the context of genetic studies of schizophrenia and detected that brain ASM SNPs were significantly overrepresented among sub-threshold SNPs from a schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS). Brain ASM SNPs showed a much stronger enrichment in a schizophrenia GWAS than in 17 large GWASs of non-psychiatric diseases and traits, arguing that ASM effects are at least partially tissue specific. Studies of germline and control brain ASM SNPs supported a causal association between ASM and schizophrenia. Finally, significantly higher proportions of ASM SNPs than of non-ASM SNPs were detected at loci exhibiting epigenetic signatures of enhancers and promoters, and they were overrepresented within transcription factor binding regions and DNase I hypersensitive sites. All of these findings collectively indicate that ASM SNPs should be prioritized in follow-up GWASs. PMID:27087318
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siebra, Hélio; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Garduño, Edgar
2015-01-01
Digital image segmentation is the process of assigning distinct labels to different objects in a digital image, and clustering techniques can be used to achieve such segmentations. However, many traditional segmentation algorithm fail to segment objects that are characterized by textures whose patterns cannot be successfully described by simple statistics computed over a very restricted area. In this paper we present a fuzzy clustering algorithm that achieves the segmentation of images with color textures by employing a distance function based on the Skew Divergence, that is based on the well-known Kullback-Leibler Divergence. In order for such a distance to produce good results when applied to color images, we reduced the dimensionality of the image's histogram, thus eliminating the sparsity of the color histogram and speeding up the execution of the algorithm. We performed experiments on thin rock sections and compared our results to the segmentations obtained by the Fuzzy C-Means and by another fuzzy segmentation technique, showing the superiority of our approach.
Properties of the Subantarctic Front and Polar Front from the skewness of sea level anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Andrew E.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mecking, Sabine; Thompson, LuAnne
2015-07-01
The region of the Southern Ocean that encompasses the Subantarctic Front (SAF) to the north and the Polar Front (PF) to the south contains most of the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Here skewness of sea level anomaly (SLA) from 1992 to 2013 is coupled with a meandering Gaussian jetw model to estimate the mean position, meridional width, and the percent variance that each front contributes to total SLA variability. The SAF and PF have comparable widths (85 km) in the circumpolar average, but their widths differ significantly in the East Pacific Basin (85 and 60 km, respectively). Interannual variability in the positions of the SAF and PF are also estimated using annual subsets of the SLA data from 1993 to 2012. The PF position has enhanced variability near strong topographic features such as the Kerguelen Plateau, the Campbell Plateau east of New Zealand, and downstream of Drake Passage. Neither the SAF nor the PF showed a robust meridional trend over the 20 year period. The Southern Annular Mode was significantly correlated with basin-averaged SAF and PF positions in the East Pacific and with the PF south of Australia. A correlation between the PF and the basin-scale wind stress curl anomaly was also found in the western extratropical Pacific but not in other basins.
A Timing Estimation Method Based-on Skewness Analysis in Vehicular Wireless Networks.
Cui, Xuerong; Li, Juan; Wu, Chunlei; Liu, Jian-Hang
2015-01-01
Vehicle positioning technology has drawn more and more attention in vehicular wireless networks to reduce transportation time and traffic accidents. Nowadays, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used in land vehicle positioning, but most of them are lack precision and reliability in situations where their signals are blocked. Positioning systems base-on short range wireless communication are another effective way that can be used in vehicle positioning or vehicle ranging. IEEE 802.11p is a new real-time short range wireless communication standard for vehicles, so a new method is proposed to estimate the time delay or ranges between vehicles based on the IEEE 802.11p standard which includes three main steps: cross-correlation between the received signal and the short preamble, summing up the correlated results in groups, and finding the maximum peak using a dynamic threshold based on the skewness analysis. With the range between each vehicle or road-side infrastructure, the position of neighboring vehicles can be estimated correctly. Simulation results were presented in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) vehicular multipath channel, which show that the proposed method provides better precision than some well-known timing estimation techniques, especially in low signal to noise ratio (SNR) environments. PMID:26580628
GC skew defines distinct RNA polymerase pause sites in CpG island promoters.
Kellner, Wendy A; Bell, Joshua S K; Vertino, Paula M
2015-11-01
CpG islands (CGIs) are associated with over half of human gene promoters and are characterized by a unique chromatin environment and high levels of bidirectional transcriptional activity relative to surrounding genomic regions, suggesting that RNA polymerase (Pol II) progression past the CGI boundaries is restricted. Here we describe a novel transcriptional regulatory step wherein Pol II encounters an additional barrier to elongation distinct from the promoter-proximal pause and occurring at the downstream boundary of the CGI domain. For most CGI-associated promoters, Pol II exhibits a dominant pause at either the promoter-proximal or this distal site that correlates, both in position and in intensity, with local regions of high GC skew, a sequence feature known to form unique secondary structures. Upon signal-induced gene activation, long-range enhancer contacts at the dominant pause site are selectively enhanced, suggesting a new role for enhancers at the downstream pause. These data point to an additional level of control over transcriptional output at a subset of CGI-associated genes that is linked to DNA sequence and the integrity of the CGI domain. PMID:26275623
SIU-based modification in Kelley's measure of skewness to achieve gains in efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habibullah, Saleha Naghmi; Shan-E-Fatima, Syeda
2015-02-01
The importance of accurate modeling of life-lengths of components and systems cannot be over-emphasized. Some well-known distributions such as the Birnbaum Saunders distribution extensively used in Reliability Theory are known to fulfill the self-inversion property, the term `Self-Inverse at Unity' (`SIU') implying that, for a random variable X, the distribution of 1/ X is identical to the distribution of X. Very recently, it has been demonstrated the advantage that can be drawn from the SIU property by proposing a modification to the well-known formula of the empirical cumulative distribution function to obtain an estimator of the cumulative distribution function that is more efficient than the empirical cumulative distribution function in situations where the parent population can be assumed to be SIU. Subsequently, a number of papers have appeared proposing SIU-based modifications to the formulae of well-known estimators of central tendency, dispersion and kurtosis that are likely to yield gains in efficiency on account of an approach very similar to the one adopted for the modification of the formula of the empirical cumulative distribution function. In this paper, we propose SIU-based modification to Kelley's Measure of Skewness and, through a simulation study, demonstrate the potential of the proposed formula in improving the efficiency of the estimation process which, obviously, has important implications for accurate modeling of life-data encountered in various branches of engineering.
Dodla, Ramana; Wilson, Charles J.
2013-01-01
We investigate why electrically coupled neuronal oscillators synchronize or fail to synchronize using the theory of weakly coupled oscillators. Stability of synchrony and antisynchrony is predicted analytically and verified using numerical bifurcation diagrams. The shape of the phase response curve (PRC), the shape of the voltage time course, and the frequency of spiking are freely varied to map out regions of parameter spaces that hold stable solutions. We find that type-1 and type-2 PRCs can both hold synchronous and antisynchronous solutions, but the shape of the PRC and the voltage determine the extent of their stability. This is achieved by introducing a five-piecewise linear model to the PRC, and a three-piecewise linear model to the voltage time course, and then analyzing the resultant eigenvalue equations that determine the stability of the phase-locked solutions. A single time parameter defines the skewness of the PRC, and another single time parameter defines the spike width and frequency. Our approach gives a comprehensive picture of the relation between the PRC shape, voltage time course and the stability of the resultant synchronous and antisynchronous solutions. PMID:23777519
Compressive VOF method with skewness correction to capture sharp interfaces on arbitrary meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.
2014-12-01
The accurate and efficient modelling of two-phase flows is at present mostly limited to structured, unskewed meshes, due to the additional topological and numerical complexity of arbitrary, unstructured meshes. Compressive VOF methods which discretize the interface advection with algebraic differencing schemes are computationally efficient and inherently applicable to arbitrary meshes. However, compressive VOF methods evidently suffer severely from numerical diffusion on meshes with topological skewness. In this paper we present a compressive VOF method using a state-of-the-art donor-acceptor advection scheme which includes novel modifications to substantially reduce numerical diffusion on arbitrary meshes without adding computational complexity. The new methodology accurately captures evolving interfaces on any arbitrary, non-overlapping mesh and conserves mass within the limits of the applied solver tolerance. A thorough validation of the presented methods is conducted, examining the pure advection of the interface indicator function as well as the application to evolving interfaces with surface tension. Crucially, the results on equidistant Cartesian and arbitrary tetrahedral meshes are shown to be comparable and accurate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberlein, A. J.; Lahm, T. G.
1976-01-01
The degree to which flight-critical failures in a strapdown laser gyro tetrad sensor assembly can be isolated in short-haul aircraft after a failure occurrence has been detected by the skewed sensor failure-detection voting logic is investigated along with the degree to which a failure in the tetrad computer can be detected and isolated at the computer level, assuming a dual-redundant computer configuration. The tetrad system was mechanized with two two-axis inertial navigation channels (INCs), each containing two gyro/accelerometer axes, computer, control circuitry, and input/output circuitry. Gyro/accelerometer data is crossfed between the two INCs to enable each computer to independently perform the navigation task. Computer calculations are synchronized between the computers so that calculated quantities are identical and may be compared. Fail-safe performance (identification of the first failure) is accomplished with a probability approaching 100 percent of the time, while fail-operational performance (identification and isolation of the first failure) is achieved 93 to 96 percent of the time.
Mutation skew in genes identified by genome-wide association study of hypertriglyceridemia
Johansen, Christopher T.; Wang, Jian; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Cao, Henian; McIntyre, Adam D.; Ban, Matthew R.; Martins, Rebecca A.; Kennedy, Brooke A.; Hassell, Reina G.; Visser, Maartje E.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Elosua, Roberto; Salomaa, Veikko; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Anand, Sonia S.; Yusuf, Salim; Huff, Murray W.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hegele, Robert A.
2010-01-01
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have replicably identified multiple loci associated with population-based plasma lipid concentrations1-5. Common genetic variants at these loci together explain <10% of the total variation of each lipid trait4,5. Rare variants of individually large effect may contribute additionally to the missing heritability of lipid traits6,7, however it remains to be shown to what extent rare variants will affect lipid phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate a significant accumulation of rare variants in GWAS-identified genes in patients with an extreme phenotype of abnormal plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism. A GWAS of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) patients revealed that common variants in APOA5, GCKR, LPL and APOB genes were associated with the HTG phenotype at genome-wide significance. We subsequently resequenced protein coding regions of these genes and found a significant burden of 154 rare missense or nonsense variants in 438 HTG patients, in contrast to 53 variants in 327 controls (P=6.2X10-8); this corresponds to a carrier frequency of 28.1% of HTG patients and 15.3% of controls (P=2.6X10-5). Many rare variants were predicted in silico to have compromised function; additionally some had previously demonstrated dysfunctionality in vitro. Rare variants in these 4 genes explained 1.1% of total variation in HTG diagnoses. Our study demonstrates a marked mutation skew that likely contributes to disease pathophysiology in patients with HTG. PMID:20657596
White, Jonah
2011-01-01
Objectives. Few studies have considered the sociohistorical intersection of environmental injustice and gentrification; a gap addressed by this case study of Seattle, Washington. This study explored the advantages of integrating air toxic risk screening with gentrification research to enhance proximity and health equity analysis methodologies. It was hypothesized that Seattle's industrial air toxic exposure risk was unevenly dispersed, that gentrification stratified the city's neighborhoods, and that the inequities of both converged. Methods. Spatial characterizations of air toxic pollution risk exposures from 1990 to 2007 were combined with longitudinal cluster analysis of census block groups in Seattle, Washington, from 1990 to 2000. Results. A cluster of air toxic exposure inequality and socioeconomic inequity converged in 1 area of south central Seattle. Minority and working class residents were more concentrated in the same neighborhoods near Seattle's worst industrial pollution risks. Conclusions. Not all pollution was distributed equally in a dynamic urban landscape. Using techniques to examine skewed riskscapes and socioeconomic urban geographies provided a foundation for future research on the connections among environmental health hazard sources, socially vulnerable neighborhoods, and health inequity. PMID:21836115
Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.
2014-12-01
Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of users and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, W. J.; Ma, L.; Zhou, S. M.
2015-03-01
Tuning effects of the band filling and impurity distribution on the anomalous Hall effect are demonstrated in epitaxial face centered cubic NixCo1-x (002) films through the alloy composition. The anomalous Hall resistivity obeys the conventional scaling law, i.e. {ρ\\text{AH}}=a{ρxx}+bρ xx2 . It is interesting to find that in addition to the scattering independent parameter b, the skew parameter a also changes sign from negative to positive near the same Ni atomic concentration (x = 0.80) due to the band filling effects. The magnitude of the skew scattering parameter a shows a similar variation trend for the residual resistivity because of effects of the impurity distribution. This work might provide a clue to design and fabrication of high sensitivity Hall sensor.
49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports. 237.111... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports. Bridge inspection reports shall be reviewed by railroad bridge supervisors and...
33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...
49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports. 237.111... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports. Bridge inspection reports shall be reviewed by railroad bridge supervisors and...
33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...
49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports. 237.111... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports. Bridge inspection reports shall be reviewed by railroad bridge supervisors and...
33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...
49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports. 237.111... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports. Bridge inspection reports shall be reviewed by railroad bridge supervisors and...
49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports. 237.111... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports. Bridge inspection reports shall be reviewed by railroad bridge supervisors and...
33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...
31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after ...
31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after the 1888-1889 and 1899-1900 reconstructions; also shows profile of bridge before 1888 (Martin Sigvart Grytbak, Wabasha St. Bridge, Formerly St. Paul Bridge, 1919); profile of Wabasha street bridge - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN
Theory of water and charged liquid bridges.
Morawetz, K
2012-08-01
The phenomenon of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A solution of a charged catenary is presented, which allows one to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length, as well as the shape of the bridge are calculated showing an asymmetric profile, in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity, which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges. PMID:23005849
Performance analysis of LAN bridges and routers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hajare, Ankur R.
1991-01-01
Bridges and routers are used to interconnect Local Area Networks (LANs). The performance of these devices is important since they can become bottlenecks in large multi-segment networks. Performance metrics and test methodology for bridges and routers were not standardized. Performance data reported by vendors is not applicable to the actual scenarios encountered in an operational network. However, vendor-provided data can be used to calibrate models of bridges and routers that, along with other models, yield performance data for a network. Several tools are available for modeling bridges and routers - Network II.5 was used. The results of the analysis of some bridges and routers are presented.
Problems associated with nondestructive evaluation of bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prine, David W.
1995-05-01
The US has 542,000 bridges that consume billions of dollars per year in construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance funds and which are the lifelines of US commerce. The 1992 ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) mandates the implementation of a quantitative computerized bridge management system by 1996. A prime need of such a system are quantitative bridge inspection methods to feed accurate reliable condition information to the huge database of bridges. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will fill a critical need in the implementation of effective bridge management. However, many serious barriers exist to the widespread routine application of this technology to bridges. This paper provides an overview of the typical problems associated with applying NDE to bridges.
Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr
2012-06-01
Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.
Huang, Yangxin; Dagne, Getachew
2012-09-01
It is a common practice to analyze complex longitudinal data using semiparametric nonlinear mixed-effects (SNLME) models with a normal distribution. Normality assumption of model errors may unrealistically obscure important features of subject variations. To partially explain between- and within-subject variations, covariates are usually introduced in such models, but some covariates may often be measured with substantial errors. Moreover, the responses may be missing and the missingness may be nonignorable. Inferential procedures can be complicated dramatically when data with skewness, missing values, and measurement error are observed. In the literature, there has been considerable interest in accommodating either skewness, incompleteness or covariate measurement error in such models, but there has been relatively little study concerning all three features simultaneously. In this article, our objective is to address the simultaneous impact of skewness, missingness, and covariate measurement error by jointly modeling the response and covariate processes based on a flexible Bayesian SNLME model. The method is illustrated using a real AIDS data set to compare potential models with various scenarios and different distribution specifications. PMID:22150787
Juang, K W; Lee, D Y; Ellsworth, T R
2001-01-01
The spatial distribution of a pollutant in contaminated soils is usually highly skewed. As a result, the sample variogram often differs considerably from its regional counterpart and the geostatistical interpolation is hindered. In this study, rank-order geostatistics with standardized rank transformation was used for the spatial interpolation of pollutants with a highly skewed distribution in contaminated soils when commonly used nonlinear methods, such as logarithmic and normal-scored transformations, are not suitable. A real data set of soil Cd concentrations with great variation and high skewness in a contaminated site of Taiwan was used for illustration. The spatial dependence of ranks transformed from Cd concentrations was identified and kriging estimation was readily performed in the standardized-rank space. The estimated standardized rank was back-transformed into the concentration space using the middle point model within a standardized-rank interval of the empirical distribution function (EDF). The spatial distribution of Cd concentrations was then obtained. The probability of Cd concentration being higher than a given cutoff value also can be estimated by using the estimated distribution of standardized ranks. The contour maps of Cd concentrations and the probabilities of Cd concentrations being higher than the cutoff value can be simultaneously used for delineation of hazardous areas of contaminated soils. PMID:11401278
Ouyang, Qiufang; Huang, Ziyang; Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiaoqing; Ni, Jingqin; Lin, Ling
2014-01-01
We investigated the protective role of chloroquine against pristane-induced macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and Th1/Th2 skewness in C57BL/6J mice. Those mice were treated with pristane alone or combined with chloroquine. Hematological and biochemical parameters, macrophage phagocytic function, the oxidant/antioxidant index, cytokine for IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6, and the isotypes of IgG2a and IgG1 were determined. And the expression of T-bet/GATA-3 and IL-12/IL-10 mRNA in spleen were analyzed by real-time PCR. We found that pristane treatment for a period of 12 or 24 weeks triggered macrophage activation syndrome, characterized by hemophagocytosis in spleen and peripheral blood, enhanced lipid phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages in vitro, erythropenia and leucopenia, increased anti-Smith, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and ferritin, as well as hypercytokinemia of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and catalase activity, as well as a skewed Th1/Th2 balance in spleen, were observed. However, chloroquine supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that pristane administration induces macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and Th1/Th2 skewness, which can be attenuated by chloroquine. PMID:25136646
Li, Ji; He, Siyuan; Yu, Dingfeng; Deng, Fangshun; Yin, Hongcheng; Zhu, Guoqiang
2011-11-21
a numerical matching method (NMM) based on the framework of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) is proposed to build the spectral functions for computing the diffraction field by anisotropic impedance wedge at an arbitrary skew incidence. The NMM starts from the coupled integral equations before they are converted into the coupled difference equations as the classic Maliuzhinets methods. Then, the spectral function in the Sommerfeld integral representation of the longitudinal components of the EM field is expanded by a series about the spectrum and the skew incident angle with unknown coefficients. With respect to the oblique incident angle based on normal to the edge incidence or grazing to the edge incidence, the spectral function is derived numerically by solving a system of algebraic equations constructed from the coupled integral equations, after choosing the numerical matching regions on the wedge faces and setting a Sommerfeld numerical integration path. On the basis of the sampled incidences, the asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) technique is employed to deduce the spectral function at any other skew incidence in the whole angle space (0-90) rapidly. Finally, the UTD solutions are provided far beyond the applicability of the perturbation approach and the numerical examples provide a uniform behavior of the field with respect to the observation angle. PMID:22109401
Řlepokura, Katarzyna Anna
2016-02-01
β-NH4[(MeO)2cDHAP] (where cDHAP is cyclic dihydroxyacetone phosphate) has been investigated by X-ray crystallography in the temperature range 350-100 K. Three reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal phase transitions have been examined and four phases (high-, room-, medium- and low-temperature phase, HTP, RTP, MTP and LTP, respectively) have been structurally determined: HTP (at 350 K, P21/a, Z = 24), RTP (290 K, P \\overline{1}, Z = 12), MTP (205 K, P21/a, Z = 4) and LTP (100 K, P \\overline{1}, Z = 24). Various puckering modes of the 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane ring of the organic cyclic phosphate anion have been revealed in the crystal: chair and skew. The chair ↔ skew ring flipping, which has been shown to take place during the phase transitions, results in various populations of skew and chair conformers in different phases. The flexibility in the coordination geometry of ammonium cations is considered to assist in the conformational flexibility of the dioxaphosphorinane ring. PMID:26830803
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryk, A.; Best, J. L.; Abad, J. D.; Garcia, M. H.
2012-12-01
Natural meandering alluvial channels contain macroscale bed roughness that introduces a form-drag component to frictional energy losses. Accelerating flow around a meander bend often generates asymmetric roughness elements that are skewed downstream with respect to the channel cross-section. These bedforms can have a significant influence on secondary flow in the bend, which may be important for sediment routing and residence time within and between meander bends. This paper examines the influence of bedform planform skewness (obliquity) on the dynamics of flow within meandering channels, using high resolution ADV acoustic data collected in the University of Illinois Kinoshita experimental meandering channel. Stacked velocity measurements were taken using a Nortek Vectrino-II Profiling Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (PADV) at 0.05m intervals across 12 channel cross-sections (minimum of 830 ADV points per cross-section). Individual profiles were sampled over three fixed bed morphologies for 5 minutes with a user-defined acoustic pulse frequency: fR = 50Hz. Initial results show the marked influence of channel-skewed bedforms on both the location of the maximum velocity filament (MVF) and the strength of secondary flow within the channel. Channel-wide, bend generated, secondary circulation is significantly dampened downstream of obliquely-oriented dunes and the MVF is forced against the outer bank. Disruption of the main secondary circulation cell and deflection of the MVF due to oblique bedforms will likely alter depositional patterns of sedimentary facies on the point-bar.
Paczolt, Kimberly A; Passow, Courtney N; Delclos, Pablo J; Kindsvater, Holly K; Jones, Adam G; Rosenthal, Gil G
2015-01-01
Just as mating patterns can promote speciation or hybridization, the presence of hybridization can shape mating patterns within a population. In this study, we characterized patterns of multiple mating and reproductive skew in a naturally hybridizing swordtail fish species, Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantified multiple mating using microsatellite markers to genotype embryos from 43 females collected from 2 wild populations. We also used a suite of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to categorize females and their inferred mates as either parental X. birchmanni or as introgressed individuals, which carried alleles from a sister species, X. malinche. We found that parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females mated multiply with both parental and introgressed males. We found no difference in mating patterns or reproductive skew between parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females. However, nonintrogressed X. birchmanni males mated more often with large, fecund females. These females also had the greatest levels of skew in fertilization success of males. Thus, our results show that X. birchmanni has a polygynandrous mating system and that introgression of X. malinche alleles has only subtle effects on mating patterns in this species. PMID:25433083
Passow, Courtney N.; Delclos, Pablo J.; Kindsvater, Holly K.; Jones, Adam G.; Rosenthal, Gil G.
2015-01-01
Just as mating patterns can promote speciation or hybridization, the presence of hybridization can shape mating patterns within a population. In this study, we characterized patterns of multiple mating and reproductive skew in a naturally hybridizing swordtail fish species, Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantified multiple mating using microsatellite markers to genotype embryos from 43 females collected from 2 wild populations. We also used a suite of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to categorize females and their inferred mates as either parental X. birchmanni or as introgressed individuals, which carried alleles from a sister species, X. malinche. We found that parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females mated multiply with both parental and introgressed males. We found no difference in mating patterns or reproductive skew between parental and introgressed X. birchmanni females. However, nonintrogressed X. birchmanni males mated more often with large, fecund females. These females also had the greatest levels of skew in fertilization success of males. Thus, our results show that X. birchmanni has a polygynandrous mating system and that introgression of X. malinche alleles has only subtle effects on mating patterns in this species. PMID:25433083
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hannaman, David J.; Lieneweg, Udo; Buehler, Martin G.; Mantalas, Linda
1991-01-01
Integrated-circuit conductive test pattern intended to provide data on effects of design widths and design spacings upon actual widths of conductive lines. Provides for electrical measurements both on lines of unknown width and on features having known dimensions. Data from measurements on five bridges used to determine four parameters of mathematical model describing system. In principle, pattern determines effects of width and spacing and interaction between them.
Molecular bridging of silicon nanogaps.
Ashwell, Geoffrey J; Phillips, Laurie J; Robinson, Benjamin J; Urasinska-Wojcik, Barbara; Lambert, Colin J; Grace, Iain M; Bryce, Martin R; Jitchati, Rukkiat; Tavasli, Mustafa; Cox, Timothy I; Sage, Ian C; Tuffin, Rachel P; Ray, Shona
2010-12-28
The highly doped electrodes of a vertical silicon nanogap device have been bridged by a 5.85 nm long molecular wire, which was synthesized in situ by grafting 4-ethynylbenzaldehyde via C-Si links to the top and bottom electrodes and thereafter by coupling an amino-terminated fluorene unit to the aldehyde groups of the activated electrode surfaces. The number of bridging molecules is constrained by relying on surface roughness to match the 5.85 nm length with an electrode gap that is nominally 1 nm wider and may be controlled by varying the reaction time: the device current increases from ≤1 pA at 1 V following the initial grafting step to 10-100 nA at 1 V when reacted for 5-15 min with the amino-terminated linker and 10 μA when reacted for 16-53 h. It is the first time that both ends of a molecular wire have been directly grafted to silicon electrodes, and these molecule-induced changes are reversible. The bridges detach when the device is rinsed with dilute acid solution, which breaks the imine links of the in situ formed wire and causes the current to revert to the subpicoampere leakage value of the 4-ethynylbenzaldehyde-grafted nanogap structure. PMID:21082817
Halliburton Composite Bridge Plug Assembly
Starbuck, J.M.; Luttrell, C.R.; Aramayo, G.
2005-01-15
The overall objectives of this CRADA were to assist Halliburton in analyzing a composite bridge plug and to determine why their original design was failing in the field. In Phase 1, finite element analyses were done on the original composite slip design and several alternative designs. The composite slip was the component in the bridge plug that was failing. The finite element code ABAQUS was used for these calculations and I-DEAS was used as the pre- and post-processor in the analyses. Several different designs and materials were analyzed and recommendations were made towards improving the design. In Phase 2, the objective was to develop finite element models that would accurately represent the deformations in the entire all-composite 4-1/2' diameter bridge plug assembly. The finite element code LS-DYNA was used and the results from this effort were intended to expand Halliburton's composite design and analysis capabilities with regard to developing future composite components for downhole tools. In addition to the finite element modeling, this effort involved the utilization of micromechanics to determine the necessary composite material properties that were needed as input for finite element codes.
Desai, V; Donsante, A; Swoboda, K J; Martensen, M; Thompson, J; Kaler, S G
2011-02-01
Classical Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ATP7A, which is located at Xq13.1-q21. ATP7A encodes a copper-transporting P-type ATPase and plays a critical role in development of the central nervous system. With rare exceptions involving sex chromosome aneuploidy or X-autosome translocations, female carriers of ATP7A mutations are asymptomatic except for subtle hair and skin abnormalities, although the mechanism for this neurological sparing has not been reported. We studied a three-generation family in which a severe ATP7A mutation, a 5.5-kb genomic deletion spanning exons 13 and 14, segregated. The deletion junction fragment was amplified from the proband by long-range polymerase chain reaction and sequenced to characterize the breakpoints. We screened at-risk females in the family for this junction fragment and analyzed their X-inactivation patterns using the human androgen-receptor (HUMARA) gene methylation assay. We detected the junction fragment in the proband, two obligate heterozygotes, and four of six at-risk females. Skewed inactivation of the X chromosome harboring the deletion was noted in all female carriers of the deletion (n = 6), whereas random X-inactivation was observed in all non-carriers (n = 2). Our results formally document one mechanism for neurological sparing in female carriers of ATP7A mutations. Based on review of X-inactivation patterns in female carriers of other X-linked recessive diseases, our findings imply that substantial expression of a mutant ATP7A at the expense of the normal allele could be associated with neurologic symptoms in female carriers of Menkes disease and its allelic variants, occipital horn syndrome, and ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy. PMID:20497190
Desai, V; Donsante, A; Swoboda, KJ; Martensen, M; Thompson, J; Kaler, SG
2010-01-01
Classical Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ATP7A, which is located at Xq13.1-q21. ATP7A encodes a copper-transporting P-type ATPase and plays a critical role in development of the central nervous system. With rare exceptions involving sex chromosome aneuploidy or X-autosome translocations, female carriers of ATP7A mutations are asymptomatic except for subtle hair and skin abnormalities, although the mechanism for this neurological sparing has not been reported. We studied a three-generation family in which a severe ATP7A mutation, a 5.5-kb genomic deletion spanning exons 13 and 14, segregated. The deletion junction fragment was amplified from the proband by long-range polymerase chain reaction and sequenced to characterize the breakpoints. We screened at-risk females in the family for this junction fragment and analyzed their X-inactivation patterns using the human androgen-receptor (HUMARA) gene methylation assay. We detected the junction fragment in the proband, two obligate heterozygotes, and four of six at-risk females. Skewed inactivation of the X chromosome harboring the deletion was noted in all female carriers of the deletion (n = 6), whereas random X-inactivation was observed in all non-carriers (n = 2). Our results formally document one mechanism for neurological sparing in female carriers of ATP7A mutations. Based on review of X-inactivation patterns in female carriers of other X-linked recessive diseases, our findings imply that substantial expression of a mutant ATP7A at the expense of the normal allele could be associated with neurologic symptoms in female carriers of Menkes disease and its allelic variants, occipital horn syndrome, and ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy. PMID:20497190
Beever, C. L.; Stephenson, M. D.; Peñaherrera, M. S.; Jiang, R. H.; Kalousek, D. K.; Hayden, M.; Field, L.; Brown, C. J.; Robinson, W. P.
2003-01-01
An increase in extremely skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) (⩾90%) among women who experienced recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) has been previously reported. To further delineate the etiology of this association, we have evaluated XCI status in 207 women who experience RSA. A significant excess of trisomic losses was observed among the women who had RSA with skewed XCI versus those without skewed XCI (P=.02). There was also a significant excess of boys among live births in this group (P=.04), which is contrary to expectations if the cause of skewed XCI was only that these women carried X-linked lethal mutations. To confirm the association between skewed XCI and the risk of trisomy, an independent group of 53 women, ascertained on the basis of a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy mosaicism, were investigated. Only cases for which the trisomy was shown to be of maternal meiotic origin were included. The results show a significantly higher level of extreme skewing (⩾90%) in women whose pregnancies involved placental trisomy mosaicism (17%) than in either of two separate control populations (n=102 and 99) (P=.02 compared with total control subjects). An additional 11 cases were ascertained on the basis of one or more trisomic-pregnancy losses. When all women in the present study with a trisomic pregnancy (n=103) were considered together, skewed XCI was identified in 18%, as compared with 7% in all controls (n=201) (P=.005). This difference was more pronounced when a cutoff of extreme skewing of 95% was used (10% vs. 1.5% skewed; P=.002). Maternal age was not associated with skewing in either the patient or control populations and therefore cannot account for the association with trisomy. Previous studies have shown that a reduced ovarian reserve is associated with increased risk of trisomic pregnancies. We hypothesize that the association between skewed XCI and trisomic pregnancies is produced by a common mechanism that underlies both and that involves a reduction of the size of the follicular pool. PMID:12497247
Scour assessment at bridges from Flag Point to Million Dollar Bridge, Copper River Highway, Alaska
Brabets, T.P.
1994-01-01
Twelve bridges are located along the Copper River Highway from Flag Point (Mile 27) to lhe Million Dollar Bridge (Mile 48). These bridges cross all or parts of the Copper River. Channel scour at these bridges was assessed by collecting and analyzing discharge and sediment data, analyzing aerial photography for eight different years, surveying and comparing cross sections, and utilizing scour equations. Between 1968 and 1992, scour occurring at Bridge 331 has formed two distinct channels at the bridge. The channel at Bridge 1187 has remained relatively unchanged between 1968 and 1992. During this same time period, the channel at Bridge 332 appears to have gradually filled. However, during the 1992 runoff season, the channel at this bridge scoured significantly, probably because of its unstable nature. The most significant scour has occurred at Bridge 342. A high-water period in 1981 probably shifted much of the flow of the Copper River through this bridge. As a result, severe contraction scour occurred which required major repairs to the bridge. During 1991 and 1992, the approach channel to Bridge 342 has been migrating, causing scour in the left side of the channel. Bed material at the Million Dollar Bridge consists of hard unweathered boulders nested in dense gravel. Because of this type of erosion-resistant material, no significant scour has occurred at this site. Contraction scour equations overestimated the mean depth of flow at Bridge 331 by 2.6 to 5.0 ft, but were within 1.0 ft of the mean depth of flow for Bridge 1187. The local scour equations generally overestimated local scour at both Bridge 331 and Bridge 1187. The accuracy of some equations was probably affected because water velocities could not be obtained upstream from the piers.
Vehicle bridge interaction dynamics and potential applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Y. B.; Lin, C. W.
2005-06-01
The dynamic interaction between a moving vehicle and the sustaining bridge is studied. By the method of modal superposition, closed-form solutions are obtained for the vertical responses of both the bridge and moving vehicle, assuming the vehicle/bridge mass ratio to be small. For both the bridge and vehicle responses, it is confirmed that rather accurate solutions can be obtained by considering only the first mode. The displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the bridge are governed at different extents by two sets of frequencies, i.e., the driving frequency of the vehicle and natural frequencies of the bridge. From the spectrum for the bridge displacement, the vehicle speeds can be shown to be associated with some low-frequency pikes. On the other hand, the vehicle responses are governed by five distinct frequencies that appear as driving frequencies, vehicle frequency, and bridge frequencies with shift. From the vehicle's acceleration spectrum, the first bridge frequency (with shift) is shown to have rather high visibility and can be easily identified. The effects of damping of the vehicle and bridge are evaluated in the numerical studies. Potential applications of the present results, as well as further researches required, are also indicated in the paper.
Dwivedi, Yogendra S.; Sharma, Anuj K.; Gupta, Banshi D
2007-07-20
We have theoretically analyzed the influence of skew rays on the performance of a fiber-optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance. The performance of the sensor has been evaluated in terms of its sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The theoretical model for skewness dependence includes the material dispersion in fiber cores and metal layers, simultaneous excitation of skew rays, and meridional rays in the fiber core along with all guided rays launching from a collimated light source. The effect of skew rays on the SNR and the sensitivity of the sensor with two different metals has been compared. The same comparison is carried out for the different values of design parameters such as numerical aperture, fiber core diameter, and the length of the surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR)active sensing region. This detailed analysis for the effect of skewness on the SNR and the sensitivity of the sensor leads us to achieve the best possible performance from a fiber-optic SPR sensor against the skewness in the optical fiber.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kuttner, Donna Holberg, Ed.
This publication presents papers and reprints of articles aimed at family members of persons with mental illnesses. After an introductory chapter, the second chapter reviews definitions of mental illness, and discusses what is known about medicating such conditions as well as the relationship of substance abuse to mental illness. The next chapter…
Design and analysis of inertial navigation systems with skew redundant inertial sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuksel, Yigiter
The performance of current MEMS based inertial units is usually insufficient to be used in applications for which high accuracy is required. For such applications, if the size and power constraints do not allow the use of traditional high-end inertial sensors, an alternative solution is strongly required. In this study such an alternative INS design method using redundant low cost inertial sensors is described. In the first part of this study the solution of the optimum inertial sensor fusion problem is derived. In the skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMU), the redundancy of the sensors generates additional observations which can be used to estimate the sensor errors without requiring any external aid. In this study, it is proved that the projection of raw sensor outputs to the left null space of the sensor configuration matrix can be used to define these redundancy observations. Based on these observations, the computation of best acceleration and rotation rate which can be used to execute the standard INS equations in an SRIMU based navigation system is explained. In the second part, the optimum navigation solution for the SRIMU based INSs is defined. In general, such optimum configurations are hard to implement due to the structure of the navigation filters. Therefore, in this study, alternative suboptimal SRIMU based INS configurations are introduced and the conditions for which these alternative configurations become optimal are described. These configurations can be conveniently implemented in the existing navigation software/libraries without requiring any significant modification. Finally, the comparison of SRIMU based single-INS configurations with the multi-INS configurations is presented. In the existing literature, the multi inertial sensor navigation problems are usually handled within multi-INS approaches. However, such multi-INS approaches i) are numerically very problematic, ii) require extensive modification in the existing navigation libraries and iii) cannot be used when sensors are arbitrarily oriented. In this study it is shown that the proposed single-INS configurations for SRIMU systems are theoretically equivalent to the multi-INS configurations and hence can be implemented instead of any multi-INS configuration without dealing with any of the aforementioned problems.
Subquantum conductive-bridge memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jameson, John R.; Kamalanathan, Deepak
2016-02-01
Resistive memory devices suffer from a tradeoff between operating current and data retention. The key parameter governing this tradeoff is shown to be the 1-atom conductance of the filament material. High 1-atom conductances, comparable to the quantum G 0 = 2 e 2 / h , are shown to make metal filaments unsuitable for low-power applications. Instead by using filaments containing Te, a semiconductor whose 1-atom conductance is deduced to be just 0.03 G 0 , it is shown that operating currents can be reduced by an order of magnitude compared to metals. Such "subquantum" conductive-bridge memory cells are broadly applicable to low-power applications.
HERO resistant semiconductor bridge igniter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bickes, R. W., Jr.; Greenway, D.; Grubelich, M. C.; Meyer, W. J.; Hartman, J. K.; McCampbell, C. B.
1992-10-01
The problem of accidental ignition of explosive components when exposed to radio frequency (RF) environments or radiation from other electromagnetic sources is commonly referred to as Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO). One illustration of such a HERO problem is the MK 149 Phalanx ammunition, which is sensitive to RF energy over a broad range of frequencies. We have demonstrated that a potential solution to the Phalanx HERO problem consists of a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that incorporates microcircuitry to protect the SCB from the RF environment. Direct RF injection and ground plane tests have demonstrated the resistance of our designs to severe RF environments.
Boundary Stability of a Nematic Liquid Bridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, William; Santangelo, Chris
2014-03-01
We consider a nematic liquid crystal droplet in air confined between two parallel plates with homeotropic boundary conditions. The boundary conditions at the nematic-plate and nematic-air interfaces induce either a hedgehog or planar ring disclination within the nematic bridge, depending on the plate separation and bridge radius. We study the stability of the liquid crystal-air boundary of a nearly cylindrical nematic bridge by minimizing the Frank elastic energy.
Measurement of Deflection Line on Bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urban, Rudolf; Štroner, Martin
2013-12-01
Prestressed concrete bridges are very sensitive to the increase in long-term deflections. Reliable forecasts of deflections of bridge structures during construction and durability are crucial for achieving good durability. The main results of measurements are the changes of the deflection line of the bridge structures, which places special demands on the measurement procedure. Results from measurements are very useful for the improvement of mathematical prediction methods of behaviour of long span prestressed concrete structures.
A data management infrastructure for bridge monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Seongwoon; Byun, Jaewook; Kim, Daeyoung; Sohn, Hoon; Bae, In Hwan; Law, Kincho H.
2015-04-01
This paper discusses a data management infrastructure framework for bridge monitoring applications. As sensor technologies mature and become economically affordable, their deployment for bridge monitoring will continue to grow. Data management becomes a critical issue not only for storing the sensor data but also for integrating with the bridge model to support other functions, such as management, maintenance and inspection. The focus of this study is on the effective data management of bridge information and sensor data, which is crucial to structural health monitoring and life cycle management of bridge structures. We review the state-of-the-art of bridge information modeling and sensor data management, and propose a data management framework for bridge monitoring based on NoSQL database technologies that have been shown useful in handling high volume, time-series data and to flexibly deal with unstructured data schema. Specifically, Apache Cassandra and Mongo DB are deployed for the prototype implementation of the framework. This paper describes the database design for an XML-based Bridge Information Modeling (BrIM) schema, and the representation of sensor data using Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The proposed prototype data management framework is validated using data collected from the Yeongjong Bridge in Incheon, Korea.
Olson, Scott A.; Weber, Matthew A.
1996-01-01
bridge consisting of four concrete spans. The maximum span length is 57 ft. (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., July 29, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments and three concrete piers. The toe of the left abutment is at the channel edge. The toe of the right abutment is set back on the right over-bank. The roadway centerline on the structure has a slight horizontal curve; however, the main channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the bridge. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1993). Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. The scour analysis results are presented in tables 1 and 2 and a graph of the scour depths is presented in figure 8.
Bridges to sustainable tropical health
Singer, Burton H.; de Castro, Marcia Caldas
2007-01-01
Ensuring sustainable health in the tropics will require bridge building between communities that currently have a limited track record of interaction. It will also require new organizational innovation if much of the negative health consequences of large-scale economic development projects are to be equitably mitigated, if not prevented. We focus attention on three specific contexts: (i) forging linkages between the engineering and health communities to implement clean water and sanitation on a broad scale to prevent reworming, after the current deworming-only programs, of people by diverse intestinal parasites; (ii) building integrated human and animal disease surveillance infrastructure and technical capacity in tropical countries on the reporting and scientific evidence requirements of the sanitary and phytosanitary agreement under the World Trade Organization; and (iii) developing an independent and equitable organizational structure for health impact assessments as well as monitoring and mitigation of health consequences of economic development projects. Effective global disease surveillance and timely early warning of new outbreaks will require a far closer integration of veterinary and human medicine than heretofore. Many of the necessary surveillance components exist within separate animal- and human-oriented organizations. The challenge is to build the necessary bridges between them. PMID:17913894
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lantz, Juliette M.; Feindt, Jenny E.; Lewellyn, Eric P. B.; Walczak, Mary M.
1999-12-01
The Bridge of Mandolin County is a case designed to teach the general chemistry principles of molar mass, ions and aqueous reactions, solubility rules, and inorganic nomenclature. Through the instructor-facilitated class discussion, students consider the options before the Mandolin Town Council regarding deicing the newly constructed bridge connecting Mandolin with a large nearby city. The students must decipher contradictory claims made on behalf of sodium chloride, the traditional deicer, and calcium magnesium acetate, a new environmentally friendly deicer, to arrive at the most cost-effective and environmentally appropriate deicing product. As they work through the analysis they raise questions that can be addressed in a laboratory setting. Four optional role-playing experiments are included, which can be used by the students to gather information helpful to resolution of the case. The case is intended to be used over two class periods, with a laboratory period in between, though suggestions for other models are provided. Laboratory procedures include an EDTA titration for Ca2+ and Mg2+, a gravimetric analysis, a qualitative examination of ions and solubility, an introduction to freezing point depression and measurement, and an experimental design activity. This case can also successfully be used without alteration in non-majors chemistry or environmental chemistry courses, or upper-level analytical or environmental chemistry courses.
Bridges to sustainable tropical health.
Singer, Burton H; de Castro, Marcia Caldas
2007-10-01
Ensuring sustainable health in the tropics will require bridge building between communities that currently have a limited track record of interaction. It will also require new organizational innovation if much of the negative health consequences of large-scale economic development projects are to be equitably mitigated, if not prevented. We focus attention on three specific contexts: (i) forging linkages between the engineering and health communities to implement clean water and sanitation on a broad scale to prevent reworming, after the current deworming-only programs, of people by diverse intestinal parasites; (ii) building integrated human and animal disease surveillance infrastructure and technical capacity in tropical countries on the reporting and scientific evidence requirements of the sanitary and phytosanitary agreement under the World Trade Organization; and (iii) developing an independent and equitable organizational structure for health impact assessments as well as monitoring and mitigation of health consequences of economic development projects. Effective global disease surveillance and timely early warning of new outbreaks will require a far closer integration of veterinary and human medicine than heretofore. Many of the necessary surveillance components exist within separate animal- and human-oriented organizations. The challenge is to build the necessary bridges between them. PMID:17913894
Parrett, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea; Stedinger, J.R.; Barth, N.A.; Knifong, Donna L.; Ferris, J.C.
2011-01-01
Improved flood-frequency information is important throughout California in general and in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin in particular, because of an extensive network of flood-control levees and the risk of catastrophic flooding. A key first step in updating flood-frequency information is determining regional skew. A Bayesian generalized least squares (GLS) regression method was used to derive a regional-skew model based on annual peak-discharge data for 158 long-term (30 or more years of record) stations throughout most of California. The desert areas in southeastern California had too few long-term stations to reliably determine regional skew for that hydrologically distinct region; therefore, the desert areas were excluded from the regional skew analysis for California. Of the 158 long-term stations used to determine regional skew, 145 have minimally regulated annual-peak discharges, and 13 stations are dam sites for which unregulated peak discharges were estimated from unregulated daily maximum discharge data furnished by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using an expected moments algorithm (EMA) program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual peak-discharge data. The Bayesian GLS regression method previously developed was modified because of the large cross correlations among concurrent recorded peak discharges in California and the use of censored data and historical flood information with the new expected moments algorithm. In particular, to properly account for these cross-correlation problems and develop a suitable regression model and regression diagnostics, a combination of Bayesian weighted least squares and generalized least squares regression was adopted. This new methodology identified a nonlinear function relating regional skew to mean basin elevation. The regional skew values ranged from -0.62 for a mean basin elevation of zero to 0.61 for a mean basin elevation of 11,000 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow with rain, which increases with increased elevation. The equivalent record length for the new regional skew ranges from 52 to 65 years of record, depending upon mean basin elevation. The old regional skew map in Bulletin 17B, published by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data (1982), reported an equivalent record length of only 17 years. The newly developed regional skew relation for California was used to update flood frequency for the 158 sites used in the regional skew analysis as well as 206 selected sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin. For these sites, annual-peak discharges having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years were determined on the basis of data through water year 2006. The expected moments algorithm was used for determining the magnitude and frequency of floods at gaged sites by using regional skew values and using the basic approach outlined in Bulletin
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...
Bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge) ...
Bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge) looking north-northeast across traffic level - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA
Bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge) ...
Bridge over little Pine Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002 bridge) looking west across traffic level - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA
6. VIEW OF GDOT BRIDGE NO. 02700268X00678N BRIDGE PLATE IDENTIFYING ...
6. VIEW OF GDOT BRIDGE NO. 027-00268X-00678N BRIDGE PLATE IDENTIFYING COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AT THE TIME OF CONSTRUCTION. - GDOT Bridge No. 027-00268X-00678N, County Road 268-Empress Road span Piscola Creek, Quitman, Brooks County, GA
49 CFR 237.107 - Conduct of bridge inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of bridge inspections. 237.107 Section 237... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.107 Conduct of bridge inspections. Bridge inspections shall be conducted under the direct supervision of a...
33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...
49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management programs. Each bridge management program adopted in compliance with this...
23 CFR 650.307 - Bridge inspection organization.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bridge inspection organization. 650.307 Section 650.307... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.307 Bridge inspection... bridges located on public roads that are fully or partially located within the State's boundaries,...
49 CFR 237.107 - Conduct of bridge inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of bridge inspections. 237.107 Section 237... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.107 Conduct of bridge inspections. Bridge inspections shall be conducted under the direct supervision of a...
49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section 237... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge management program shall specify the procedure to be used...
33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...
49 CFR 237.107 - Conduct of bridge inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of bridge inspections. 237.107 Section 237... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.107 Conduct of bridge inspections. Bridge inspections shall be conducted under the direct supervision of a...
49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling...
49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management programs. Each bridge management program adopted in compliance with this...
33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....
33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...
33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....
33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....
49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling...
33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...
33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...
23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...
49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program...
49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section 237... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge management program shall specify the procedure to be used...
49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section 237... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge management program shall specify the procedure to be used...
23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...
23 CFR 650.307 - Bridge inspection organization.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bridge inspection organization. 650.307 Section 650.307... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.307 Bridge inspection... bridges located on public roads that are fully or partially located within the State's boundaries,...
33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...
49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling...
23 CFR 650.307 - Bridge inspection organization.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bridge inspection organization. 650.307 Section 650.307... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.307 Bridge inspection... bridges located on public roads that are fully or partially located within the State's boundaries,...
49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management programs. Each bridge management program adopted in compliance with this...
23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...
49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section 237... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge management program shall specify the procedure to be used...
49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program...
33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....
33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...
33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...
49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling...
33 CFR 115.50 - Application for bridge permits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for bridge permits... BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.50 Application for bridge permits. (a) Approval of plans. An application for authorization to construct a bridge across navigable...
23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...
49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management programs. Each bridge management program adopted in compliance with this...
23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...
49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management programs. Each bridge management program adopted in compliance with this...