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Sample records for skin blood flowmotions

  1. Optical multichannel sensing of skin blood pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Kukulis, Indulis; Ozols, Maris; Prieditis, Karlis

    2004-09-01

    Time resolved detection and analysis of the skin back-scattered optical signals (reflection photoplethysmography or PPG) provide information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for cardiovascular assessment. The multi-channel PPG concept has been developed and clinically verified in this study. Portable two- and four-channel PPG monitoring devices have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The multi-channel devices were successfully applied for cardiovascular fitness tests and for early detection of arterial occlusions in extremities. The optically measured heartbeat pulse wave propagation made possible to estimate relative arterial resistances for numerous patients and healthy volunteers.

  2. Optical noninvasive monitoring of skin blood pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis

    2005-04-01

    Time-resolved detection and analysis of skin backscattered optical signals (remission photoplethysmography or PPG) provide rich information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for reliable cardiovascular assessment. Single- and multiple-channel PPG concepts are discussed. Simultaneous data flow from several locations on the human body allows us to study heartbeat pulse-wave propagation in real time and to evaluate vascular resistance. Portable single-, dual-, and four-channel PPG monitoring devices with special software have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The prototype devices have been clinically studied, and their potential for monitoring heart arrhythmias, drug-efficiency tests, steady-state cardiovascular assessment, body fitness control, and express diagnostics of the arterial occlusions has been confirmed.

  3. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  4. Immune cells control skin lymphatic electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Helge; Schröder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Jantsch, Jonathan; Kopp, Christoph; Karlsen, Tine V; Boschmann, Michael; Goss, Jennifer; Bry, Maija; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Brenner, Sven; Tenstad, Olav; Nurmi, Harri; Mervaala, Eero; Wagner, Hubertus; Beck, Franz-Xaver; Müller, Dominik N; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Luft, Friedrich C; Harrison, David G; Alitalo, Kari; Titze, Jens

    2013-07-01

    The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which enhances electrolyte clearance via cutaneous lymph vessels and increases eNOS expression in blood vessels. It is unclear whether this local MPS response to osmotic stress is important to systemic blood pressure control. Herein, we show that deletion of TonEBP in mouse MPS cells prevents the VEGFC response to a high-salt diet (HSD) and increases blood pressure. Additionally, an antibody that blocks the lymph-endothelial VEGFC receptor, VEGFR3, selectively inhibited MPS-driven increases in cutaneous lymphatic capillary density, led to skin Cl- accumulation, and induced salt-sensitive hypertension. Mice overexpressing soluble VEGFR3 in epidermal keratinocytes exhibited hypoplastic cutaneous lymph capillaries and increased Na+, Cl-, and water retention in skin and salt-sensitive hypertension. Further, we found that HSD elevated skin osmolality above plasma levels. These results suggest that the skin contains a hypertonic interstitial fluid compartment in which MPS cells exert homeostatic and blood pressure-regulatory control by local organization of interstitial electrolyte clearance via TONEBP and VEGFC/VEGFR3-mediated modification of cutaneous lymphatic capillary function. PMID:23722907

  5. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  6. Attenuated skin blood flow response to hyperthermia in paraplegic men.

    PubMed

    Freund, P R; Brengelmann, G L; Rowell, L B; Halar, E

    1984-04-01

    To clarify how skin and internal temperatures interact in control of skin blood flow, five male paraplegic subjects (lesions at the level of thoracic vertebrae 1-11) (29-47 yr old) were heated in water-perfused suits to elevate oral temperature (To) 1-1.5 degrees C. In part I only the insensate skin was heated; sensate skin was kept at 32-34 degrees C. No appreciable elevation of forearm blood flow (FBF) or sweating occurred, even with To at 38 degrees C. In part II the suit was applied to the whole body so that skin temperature was 40 degrees C, except for one arm that remained at 32-34 degrees C for FBF measurement. Sweating was noted above the lesion in all but one subject. FBF increased in all subjects but was far below levels previously reported for hyperthermic normal men; also, thresholds appeared elevated. To the extent that effector connections are intact, attenuated FBF response implies that either 1) some vasoconstrictor bias associated with cardiovascular regulation is active or 2) thermoregulatory effector outflow is diminished. If the latter is true, it follows that the effector outflow reduction relates to diminished afferent input. But the component of the effector outflow contributed by peripheral thermoreception is small; thus these findings may indicate that what is lacking in the afferent input is central thermoreception from below the lesion, possibly from the spinal cord itself. PMID:6725058

  7. Optical multichannel monitoring of skin blood pulsations for cardiovascular assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Ozols, Maris

    2004-07-01

    Time resolved detection and analysis of the skin back-scattered optical signals (reflection photoplethysmography or PPG) provide rich information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for cardiovascular assessment. The multichannel PPG concept has been developed and clinically verified in this work. Simultaneous data flow from several body locations allows to study the heartbeat pulse wave propagation in real time and to evaluate the vascular resistance. Portable two- and four-channel PPG monitoring devices and special software have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The multi-channel devices were successfully applied for cardiovascular fitness tests and for early detection of arterial occlusions.

  8. Epidural Blood Patch Using Manometry for Sinking Skin Flap Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, James D; Farmer, Justin L; Dobson, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    We describe here a 55-year-old male patient with a medical history significant for chronic back pain and substance abuse with cocaine who sustained a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage after a fall from a roof while acutely intoxicated on cocaine requiring decompressive hemicraniectomy and cranioplasty that was complicated by an epidural abscess requiring a repeat craniectomy. He was diagnosed with sinking skin flap syndrome consistent with altered mental status and a sunken skin flap with increased midline shift. Despite treatment with Trendelenburg positioning and appropriate fluid management, the patient continued to decline, and an epidural blood patch was requested for treatment. After placement of the epidural blood patch using manometry in the epidural space, the patient's neurologic status improved allowing him to ultimately receive a cranioplasty. The patient is now able to perform several of his activities of daily living and communicate effectively. PMID:27075425

  9. Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2004-01-01

    scoring on day 1 only, while it contributes significantly to what is clinically perceived as skin tanning on days 7 and 14. Application of pressure below the diastolic level increased deoxy-hemoglobin concentration as measured by DRS. This increase corresponded to a decrease of a "pigmentation" parameter (based on the L(*)a(*)b(*) scale) in a similar fashion that has been documented for increases in melanin concentration. Topical H(2)O(2) application reduced deoxy-hemoglobin levels as measured by DRS. This reduction coincided kinetically with a visible skin blanching. Application of pressure or H(2)O(2) did not significantly alter the levels of oxy-hemoglobin or melanin. In this report we present compelling evidence that deoxy-hemoglobin significantly contributes to the skin color appearance. Blood pooling, expressed as increased deoxy-hemoglobin, can contribute to what is visually perceived as pigmentation. Furthermore, we present that measurement of its contribution to the skin color appearance can only be accomplished with DRS. PMID:15065897

  10. Optical non-invasive monitoring of skin blood pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spīgulis, Jānis

    2005-08-01

    Time resolved detection and analysis of the skin backscattered optical signals (remission photoplethysmography or PPG) provide rich information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for reliable cardiovascular assessment. The single- and multi-channel PPG concepts are discussed in this work. Simultaneous data flow from several body locations allows one to study the heartbeat pulse wave propagation in real time and evaluate the vascular resistance. Portable single-, dual- and four-channel PPG monitoring devices with special software have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The clinical studies confirmed their potential in the monitoring of heart arrhythmias, drug tests, steady-state cardiovascular assessment, body fitness control, and express diagnostics of the arterial occlusions.

  11. Simultaneous imaging of blood flow and hemoglobin concentration change in skin tissue using NIR speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizu, Yoshihisa; Hirata, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Nishidate, Izumi; Yokoi, Naomichi

    2009-07-01

    We propose a method for imaging simultaneously blood flow and hemoglobin concentration change in skin tissue using speckle patterns acquired at two wavelengths of 780 and 830 nm. Experimental results demonstrate that the method is useful for time-varying analysis of blood circulation in human forearm skin tissue from one set of sequential speckle images.

  12. Skin Tone, Racism, Locus of Control, Hostility, and Blood Pressure in Hispanic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Brandy; Ernst, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    There is some evidence that blood pressure is higher in persons with darker skin tone but the reasons for this remain unclear. When seen in minorities, the positive relationship between darkness of skin and blood pressure invites hypotheses about potential mediators of the relationship. We investigated the relationship in Hispanics of primarily…

  13. Basic Taste Stimuli Elicit Unique Responses in Facial Skin Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Facial expression changes characteristically with the emotions induced by basic tastes in humans. We tested the hypothesis that the five basic tastes also elicit unique responses in facial skin blood flow. Facial skin blood flow was measured using laser speckle flowgraphy in 16 healthy subjects before and during the application of basic taste stimuli in the oral cavity for 20 s. The skin blood flow in the eyelid increased in response to sweet and umami taste stimuli, while that in the nose decreased in response to a bitter stimulus. There was a significant correlation between the subjective hedonic scores accompanying these taste stimuli and the above changes in skin blood flow. These results demonstrate that sweet, umami, and bitter tastes induce unique changes in facial skin blood flow that reflect subjective hedonic scores. PMID:22145032

  14. Hydrogen clearance: Assessment of technique for measurement of skin-flap blood flow in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.G.; Kerrigan, C.L. )

    1991-10-01

    The hydrogen clearance technique has been used for many years by investigators to determine brain blood flow and has been partially validated in this setting using other methods of blood flow measurement. The method has been modified to allow blood flow measurements in skin, but the accuracy of H2 clearance for measuring skin blood flow has not been determined. Multiple blood flow measurements were performed using H2 clearance and radioactive microspheres on skin flaps and control skin in pigs. On 12 pigs, a total of 117 flap and 42 control skin measurements were available for analysis. There was no significant difference between the two techniques in measuring mean control skin blood flow. In skin flaps, H2 clearance was significantly correlated to microsphere-measured blood flow, but it consistently gave an overestimate. Sources of error may include injury to the tissues by insertion of electrodes, consumption of H2 by the electrodes, or diffusion of H2 from the relatively ischemic flap to its well-vascularized bed. Further studies are necessary to determine the cause of this error and to measure the technique's accuracy in skeletal muscle and other flaps.

  15. Spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masaru; Sato, Shun; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    To realize the non-invasive blood glucose measurement, it will be effective to acquire the spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for eliminating other biological-component's disturbances. Our proposed imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopic imaging can limit the measuring depth into focal plane with high light detection sensitivity. Thus, the proposed method will be suitable for measuring only near the skin surface with detecting weak reflected light from inner biomembrane. But reflectance of skin surface is more than 1000 times larger than inner skin's reflectance. Paying attention on Fresnel reflection, fingers what were illuminated by p-polarized beam from Brewster's angle were observed with crossed-Nicol dark field optics. We successfully acquired spectroscopic characteristics of hemoglobin at vein area near the skin surface.

  16. Effect of Acupuncture Manipulations at LI4 or LI11 on Blood Flow and Skin Temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture induces physiological changes, and patients have reported warm or cool sensations with "Burning Fire" (BF) or "Penetrating Cool" (PC) manipulations. This study aimed to evaluate whether these techniques had distinct effects on skin temperature and blood flow and to examine whether skin temperature correlated with blood flow. The participants were 25 healthy volunteers, each receiving acupuncture manipulations on points LI4 and LI11 bilaterally. Skin temperatures and blood flow were recorded continuously on both arms. The study found that acupuncture significantly increased skin temperature on the needling arm by 0.3514°C on average, but decreased it on the contralateral arm by 0.2201°C on average. Blood flow decreased significantly in both arms during needling (-3.4% and -5.97% for the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides, respectively), but the changes in skin temperature did not correlate with the changes in blood flow. Furthermore, these changes were not significantly different between acupuncture techniques and acupuncture points. In conclusion, acupuncture changes local skin temperature and blood flow independent of the manipulation technique. Moreover, blood flow may not be affected by the increased temperature on the needling arm. These results help to verify traditional Chinese medicine concepts and may help in establishing standards for acupuncture treatments. PMID:27342886

  17. Enhancement of topical delivery of drugs via direct penetration by reducing blood flow rate in skin.

    PubMed

    Higaki, K; Nakayama, K; Suyama, T; Amnuaikit, Chomchan; Ogawara, K; Kimura, T

    2005-01-20

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of blood flow in the skin on the direct penetration of topically applied drugs into the muscular layer, and to show that the skin blood flow could also be one of the important factors determining the direct penetration of drugs to the muscular layer. In vivo percutaneous absorption study was performed for antipyrine, salicylic acid or diclofenac by using rats with tape-stripped skin. Phenylephrine, which is well known to reduce the local blood flow by vasoconstrictor action, was topically applied to decrease the local blood flow in the skin. The concentrations of drugs in viable skin and muscle, and the local blood flow in the skin under the applied and the contralateral sites were determined to evaluate the effect of the local blood flow on the delivery of topically applied drugs into the muscular layer. Dose dependency for the effect of phenylephrine was, first of all, investigated for antipyrine in the range from 0.4 to 10 micromol. The distribution of antipyrine into the viable skin and muscular layer 2 h after topical application significantly increased, but the effect of phenylephrine was saturated around 2 micromol and the dose-dependent profiles for both tissues were almost superimposed. On the other hand, the fraction dose absorbed, plasma concentration and concentrations in viable skin and muscular layer under the contralateral site showed the decreasing tendency and the saturation of the effect around 2 micromol. To confirm the effect of phenylephrine on the local blood flow in the skin, the skin blood flow was measured 2 h after topical application of 2 micromol phenylephrine, and the significant decrease in the blood flow was recognized. In vivo percutaneous absorption studies were performed for salicylic acid and diclofenac, too. Extensive enhancement of penetration into the viable skin and muscular layer was observed for both drugs, although total absorption from the donor cell showed the

  18. Average depth of blood vessels in skin and lesions deduced by optical fiber spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Saidi, Iyad S.; Tittel, Frank K.

    1994-09-01

    The average depth of blood vessels in a cutaneous site, either normal or diseased, can be specified by a simple rapid noninvasive optical measurement. An optical fiber spectrophotometer delivers white light via optical fibers to a skin site. The light reflected by tissue scattering and successfully collected by optical fibers is carried to a diode array spectrophotometer for spectral analysis. The reflectance spectrum is analyzed to specify the component of the optical density (OD) spectrum which is attributed to the cutaneous blood. Then the ratio of the OD420 nm/OD585 nm provides a quantitative indication of the average depth of the blood in the skin site. The purple light (420 nm) less easily penetrates the skin to sample the cutaneous blood content than does the yellow light (585 nm). The calibration of the measurement was accomplished by Monte Carlo simulations of measurements on skin with a layer of blood at various depths. In a study of 47 neonates, the amount of blood content ranged from 4 - 12 mg hemoglobin/g tissue (equivalent to 0.8 - 2.4% of the skin volume being whole blood), and the average depth of blood ranged from 250 - 425 micrometers .

  19. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  20. Elevated Skin Blood Flow Influences Near Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements During Supine Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows determination of tissue oxygenation/blood flow based on spectrophotometric quantitation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin present within a tissue. This technique has gained acceptance as a means of detecting and quantifying changes in tissue blood flow due to physiological perturbation, such as that which is elicited in skeletal muscle during exercise. Since the NIRS technique requires light to penetrate the skin and subcutaneous fat in order to reach the muscle of interest, changes in skin blood flow may alter the NIRS signal in a fashion unrelated to blood flow in the muscle of interest. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of skin blood flow to the NIRS signal obtained from resting vastus lateralis muscle of the thigh.

  1. Imaging dermal blood flow through the intact rat skin with an optical clearing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Jing; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wen, Xiang; Luo, Qingming

    2010-03-01

    Noninvasive detection of skin microcirculation is very significant for clinical diagnosis and therapy of peripheral vascular disease. In this study, an optical clearing method enables a laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique to image dermal blood flow through intact rat skin. The optical clearing effect of rat skin in vitro caused by a mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone is evaluated by a commercially available spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. A LSCI system is applied to image the dermal blood flow of in vivo rat skin after topical treatment of the agents. The results show that the reduced scattering coefficient (630 nm) is down to 60% of the initial value after 40 min of topical treatment of the mixture on skin in vitro. In vivo experimental results show that a 12-min treatment of the mixture on the epidermis can make the skin transparent and dermal vessels can be observed, while treatment with pure PEG-400 cannot. The process of skin optical clearing lasts, and the skin can be recovered by treatment of saline solution. Because optical clearing decreases the temporal contrast, dermal blood flow can be obtained by the laser speckle contrast imaging technique.

  2. Assessment of microsphere technique for measurement of capillary blood flow in random skin flaps in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, C.Y.; Neligan, P.; Nakatsuka, T.

    1984-10-01

    In this technical paper, we reviewed the theory and methodology of the radioactive microsphere technique for determination of cardiac output and regional blood flow. Furthermore, we described two experiments conducted to assess this technique for measurement of capillary blood flow in skin-flap research. Our experimental data thus far indicated that the radioactive microsphere technique provided highly reproducible measurements for determination of capillary blood flow in 4 X 10 cm acute and delayed random skin flaps constructed in pigs. The advantages and disadvantages of this laboratory technique were also discussed.

  3. Skin blood flow in psoriasis during Goeckerman or beech tar therapy.

    PubMed

    Staberg, B; Klemp, P

    1984-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) was measured by the laser Doppler technique in lesional and clinically normal skin of 8 patients with psoriasis vulgaris during Goeckerman or beech tar therapy. The SBF measurements were performed before therapy and 1, 2, and 3-4 weeks after treatment was initiated. The results were compared to a clinical psoriasis index based on the objective assessment of infiltration, erythema, and scaling of the psoriatic plaques. The pre-treatment value of SBF in lesional skin was about 9 times higher than that of clinically normal skin. During therapy SBF of involved skin decreased rapidly approaching that of uninvolved skin after 3-4 weeks. Furthermore, there was a significant linear correlation between the SBF values and the clinical psoriasis index. It is concluded that SBF in psoriatic lesions decreases significantly during Goeckerman or beech tar therapy, and that this variable might be used to obtain a quantitative measure of the disease activity. PMID:6209892

  4. Enhanced Phase Synchronization of Blood Flow Oscillations between Heated and Adjacent Non-heated Sacral Skin

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2012-01-01

    The study of skin microcirculation may be used to assess risk for pressure ulcers. It is observed that local heating not only causes an increase in blood flow of the heated skin but also in the adjacent non-heated skin. The underlying physiological mechanism of this indirect vasodilation of the non-heated skin remains unclear. We hypothesized that blood flow oscillations (BFO) in the adjacent non-heated skin area synchronize with BFO in the heated skin, thus inducing a vasodilatory response. We investigated BFO in the heated and adjacent non-heated skin (12.1±1.2 cm distance) on the sacrum in 12 healthy participants. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was used to decompose blood flow signals into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and the IMFs with power spectra over the frequency range of 0.0095–0.02 Hz, 0.02–0.05 Hz, and 0.05–0.15 Hz were chosen as the characteristic components corresponding to metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic regulations, respectively. Then, the instantaneous phase of the characteristic components was calculated using the Hilbert transform. From the time series of phase difference between a pair of characteristic components, the epochs of phase synchronization were detected. The results showed that myogenic and neurogenic BFO exhibit self-phase synchronization during the slower vasodilation of the heated skin. In the non-heated skin, the degree of synchronization of BFO is associated with the changes in blood flow. PMID:22936012

  5. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K; Matthew Brothers, R; Diller, Kenneth R

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P < 0.001) that persisted throughout the duration of the rewarming period. In addition, there was a hysteresis effect between CVC and skin temperature during the cooling and subsequent rewarming cycle (P < 0.01). Mixed model regression (MMR) showed a significant difference in the slopes of the CVC-skin temperature curves during cooling and rewarming (P < 0.001). Piecewise regression was used to investigate the temperature thresholds for acceleration of CVC during the cooling and rewarming periods. The two thresholds were shown to be significantly different (P = 0.003). The results show that localized cooling causes significant vasoconstriction that continues beyond the active cooling period despite skin temperatures returning toward baseline values. The significant and persistent reduction in skin perfusion may contribute to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) associated with cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  6. INFLUENCE OF BLOOD FLOW AND MILLIMETER WAVE EXPOSURE ON SKIN TEMPERATURE IN DIFFERENT THERMAL MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, S.I.; Ziskin, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recently we showed that the Pennes bioheat transfer equation was not adequate to quantify mm wave heating of the skin at high blood flow rates. To do so, it is necessary to incorporate an “effective” thermal conductivity to obtain a hybrid bioheat equation (HBHE). The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between non-specific tissue blood flow in a homogeneous unilayer model and dermal blood flow in multilayer models providing that the skin surface temperatures before and following mm wave exposure were the same. This knowledge could be used to develop multilayer models based on the fitting parameters obtained with the homogeneous tissue models. We tested four tissue models consisting of 1 to 4 layers and applied the one-dimensional steady-state HBHE. To understand the role of the epidermis in skin models we added to the one- and three-layer models an external thin epidermal layer with no blood flow. Only the combination of models containing the epidermal layer was appropriate for determination of the relationship between non-specific tissue and dermal blood flows giving the same skin surface temperatures. In this case we obtained a linear relationship between non-specific tissue and dermal blood flows. The presence of the fat layer resulted in the appearance of a significant temperature gradient between the dermis and muscle layer which increased with the fat layer thickness. PMID:18780297

  7. Peripheral mechanisms of thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow in aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2010-01-01

    Human skin blood flow is controlled via dual innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction and vasodilation are both impaired with primary aging, rendering the aged more vulnerable to hypothermia and cardiovascular complications from heat-related illness. Age-related alterations in the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow occur at multiple points along the efferent arm of the reflex, including 1) diminished sympathetic outflow, 2) altered presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis, 3) reduced vascular responsiveness, and 4) impairments in downstream (endothelial and vascular smooth muscle) second-messenger signaling. This mechanistic review highlights some of the recent findings in the area of aging and the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. PMID:20413421

  8. Diffusing wave spectroscopy and its application for monitoring of skin blood microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, Igor V.

    2003-10-01

    Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) is a novel modern technique uniquely suited for the non-invasive measurements of the particles size and their motion within the randomly inhomogeneous highly scattering and absorbing media, including biological tissues as a human skin. The technique is based on the illuminating the media (tissues) with a coherent laser light, and analyzing the loss of coherence of the scattered field arises from motion of the scattering particles with respect to each other. Both theoretical and experimental results has shown the potentialities and viability of DWS application for the express non-invasive quantitative monitoring and functional diagnostics of skin blood microcirculation, with down to 1 μm/sec resolution. This is likely lead to quantitative monitoring in general diagnostics, diabetes studies, pharmacological intervention for the failing surgical skin flaps or replants, blood microcirculation monitoring during sepsis, assess burn depth, diagnose atherosclerotic disease, and investigate mechanisms of photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment. In frame of current report we describe the recent developments of DWS further to the point that skin blood micro-flow can be routinely and accurately obtained in a separate skin vascular bed on normal skin tissues.

  9. Development of Blood and Lymphatic Endothelial Cells in Embryonic and Fetal Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher; Mildner, Michael; Botta, Albert; Nemec, Lucas; Rogojanu, Radu; Beer, Lucian; Fiala, Christian; Eppel, Wolfgang; Bauer, Wolfgang; Petzelbauer, Peter; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2015-09-01

    Blood and lymphatic vessels provide nutrients for the skin and fulfill important homeostatic functions, such as the regulation of immunologic processes. In this study, we investigated the development of blood and lymphatic endothelial cells in prenatal human skin in situ using multicolor immunofluorescence and analyzed angiogenic molecules by protein arrays of lysates and cell culture supernatants. We found that at 8 to 10 weeks of estimated gestational age, CD144(+) vessels predominantly express the venous endothelial cell marker PAL-E, whereas CD144(+)PAL-E(-) vessels compatible with arteries only appear at the end of the first trimester. Lymphatic progenitor cells at 8 weeks of estimated gestational age express CD31, CD144, Prox1, and temporary PAL-E. At that developmental stage not all lymphatic progenitor cells express podoplanin or Lyve-1, which are acquired with advancing gestational age in a stepwise fashion. Already in second-trimester human skin, the phenotype of blood and lymphatic vessels roughly resembles the one in adult skin. The expression pattern of angiogenic molecules in lysates and cell culture supernatants of prenatal skin did not reveal the expected bent to proangiogenic molecules, indicating a complex regulation of angiogenesis during ontogeny. In summary, this study provides enticing new insights into the development and phenotypic characteristics of the vascular system in human prenatal skin. PMID:26188132

  10. Detection of apparent skin motion using optical flow analysis: Blood pulsation signal obtained from optical flow sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kazuki; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    1997-02-01

    A skin motion imaging system with two modes of operation, diffusive and specular reflections, was developed. The system consists of image capturing and processing elements. Using optical flow analyses of skin motion at the wrist, we have detected successfully a blood pulsation signal that concurs with the electrocardiogram. The signal provides information not only about blood pulsation, but also about blood circulation and the biomechanical properties of the skin. This system may have other applications in the future, such as noncontact blood pulsation detection and evaluation of the biomechanical properties of skin, for example.

  11. Do Haematophagous Bugs Assess Skin Surface Temperature to Detect Blood Vessels?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Raquel A.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.; Pereira, Marcos H.

    2007-01-01

    Background It is known that some blood-sucking insects have the ability to reach vessels under the host skin with their mouthparts to feed blood from inside them. However, the process by which they locate these vessels remains largely unknown. Less than 5% of the skin is occupied by blood vessels and thus, it is not likely that insects rely on a “random search strategy”, since it would increase the probability of being killed by their hosts. Indeed, heterogeneities along the skin surface might offer exploitable information for guiding insect's bites. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether the bug Rhodnius prolixus can evaluate temperature discontinuities along the body surface in order to locate vessels before piercing the host skin. When placed over a rabbit ear, the bug's first bites were mostly directed towards the main vessels. When insects were confronted to artificial linear heat sources presenting a temperature gradient against the background, most bites were directly addressed to the warmer linear source, notwithstanding the temperature of both, the source and the background. Finally, tests performed using uni- and bilaterally antennectomized insects revealed that the bilateral integration of thermal inputs from both antennae is necessary for precisely directing bites. Conclusions/Significance R. prolixus may be able to exploit the temperature differences observed over the skin surface to locate blood vessles. Bugs bite the warmest targets regardless of the target/background temperatures, suggesting that they do not bite choosing a preferred temperature, but select temperature discontinuities along the skin. This strategy seems to be an efficient one for finding blood vessels within a wide temperature range, allowing finding them on different hosts, as well as on different areas of the host body. Our study also adds new insight about the use of antennal thermal inputs by blood sucking bugs. PMID:17895973

  12. BOLD Response Selective to Flow-Motion in Very Young Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tosetti, Michela; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    In adults, motion perception is mediated by an extensive network of occipital, parietal, temporal, and insular cortical areas. Little is known about the neural substrate of visual motion in infants, although behavioural studies suggest that motion perception is rudimentary at birth and matures steadily over the first few years. Here, by measuring Blood Oxygenated Level Dependent (BOLD) responses to flow versus random-motion stimuli, we demonstrate that the major cortical areas serving motion processing in adults are operative by 7 wk of age. Resting-state correlations demonstrate adult-like functional connectivity between the motion-selective associative areas, but not between primary cortex and temporo-occipital and posterior-insular cortices. Taken together, the results suggest that the development of motion perception may be limited by slow maturation of the subcortical input and of the cortico-cortical connections. In addition they support the existence of independent input to primary (V1) and temporo-occipital (V5/MT+) cortices very early in life. PMID:26418729

  13. Simultaneous recording of skin blood pulsations at different vascular depths by multiwavelength photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Gailite, Lasma; Lihachev, Alexey; Erts, Renars

    2007-04-01

    A new technique for parallel recording of reflection photoplethysmography (PPG) signals in a broad spectral band (violet to near-infrared) has been developed, and its potential for assessment of blood microcirculation at various depths from the skin surface is discussed. PPG signals have been simultaneously detected at cw laser wavelength sets comprising 405, 532, 645, 807, and 1064 nm. Various signal baseline responses to breath holding and different shapes of the PPG pulses originated from the same heartbeat but recorded at different wavelengths have been observed, indicating a depth variety of the skin blood pulsation dynamics.

  14. Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Magnussen, Björn; Lademann, Juergen; Köcher, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the important tasks to investigate the skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy are the most frequently used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy (MSRRS) was introduced. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the ‘gold standard’ resonance Raman spectroscopy method and showed strong correlations for the total carotenoid concentration (R  =  0.83) as well as for lycopene (R  =  0.80). The measurement stability was confirmed to be better than 10% within the total temperature range from 5 °C to  +  30 °C and pressure contact between the skin and the MSRRS sensor from 800 Pa to 18 000 Pa. In addition, blood samples taken from the subjects were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated on the blood carotenoid concentrations resulting in being able to predict with a correlation of R  =  0.79. On the basis of blood carotenoids it could be demonstrated that the MSRRS cutaneous measurements are not influenced by Fitzpatrick skin types I–VI. The MSRRS sensor is commercially available under the brand name biozoom.

  15. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  16. Switchable skin window induced by optical clearing method for dermal blood flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Rui; Zhu, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Optical imaging techniques have shown tremendous potential for assessing cutaneous microcirculation, but the imaging depth and contrast is limited by the strong scattering of skin. Current skin windows have to be fulfilled by surgical operation and suffer from some side effects. In this study, a switchable skin window was developed by topical application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) and saline on rat skin in vivo. The validity of the skin window was evaluated by the laser speckle contrast imaging technique, and the safety of OCA to the body was tested through histologic examinations. The results indicated that administration of OCA or saline on rat skin in vivo can open or close the window of skin repeatedly for three days. With the repair effect of hyaluronic acid and Vaseline, it is able to repeatedly visualize the dermal blood vessels and flow distribution. Long-term observation shows that there is no abnormal reflection in micro-structure, body weight, organ coefficients, histopathologic lesions, or toxic reactions compared with a control group. This switchable window will provide an effective tool not only for cutaneous microcirculation with laser speckle contrast imaging, but also for diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, including tumor research with various optical imaging techniques. PMID:23154794

  17. Switchable skin window induced by optical clearing method for dermal blood flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Rui; Zhu, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Optical imaging techniques have shown tremendous potential for assessing cutaneous microcirculation, but the imaging depth and contrast is limited by the strong scattering of skin. Current skin windows have to be fulfilled by surgical operation and suffer from some side effects. In this study, a switchable skin window was developed by topical application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) and saline on rat skin in vivo. The validity of the skin window was evaluated by the laser speckle contrast imaging technique, and the safety of OCA to the body was tested through histologic examinations. The results indicated that administration of OCA or saline on rat skin in vivo can open or close the window of skin repeatedly for three days. With the repair effect of hyaluronic acid and Vaseline, it is able to repeatedly visualize the dermal blood vessels and flow distribution. Long-term observation shows that there is no abnormal reflection in micro-structure, body weight, organ coefficients, histopathologic lesions, or toxic reactions compared with a control group. This switchable window will provide an effective tool not only for cutaneous microcirculation with laser speckle contrast imaging, but also for diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, including tumor research with various optical imaging techniques.

  18. The effect of the moisture content of a local heat source on the blood flow response of the skin.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Bains, Gurinder; Raju, Chinna; Lohman, Everett; Berk, Lee; Prowse, Michelle; Gunda, Shashi; Madani, Piyush; Batt, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of local and global heating of the body on skin blood flow. However, the effect of the moisture content of the heat source on the skin blood flow response has not been examined. Thirty-three subjects, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, between the ages of 22 and 32 were examined to determine the relationship between the effects of dry vs. moist heat applied for the same length of time and with the skin clamped at the same skin temperature on the blood flow response of the skin. The skin, heated with an infrared heat lamp (skin temperature monitored with a thermocouple) to 40 degrees C for 15 min, was either kept moist with wet towels or, in a separate experiment, kept dry with Drierite (a desiccant) between the towels to remove any moisture. Before and after heat exposure of the forearm, blood pressure, heart rate, skin moisture content, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were recorded. The results of the experiment showed that there was no change in skin moisture after 15 min exposure to dry heat at 40 degrees C. However, with moist heat, skin moisture increased by 43.7%, a significant increase (P < 0.05). With dry heat, blood flow increased from the resting value by 282.3% whereas with moist heat, blood flow increased by 386% over rest, a significant increase over dry heat (P < 0.05). Thus, with a set increase in skin temperature, moist heat was a better heating modality than dry heat. The reason may be linked to moisture sensitivity in calcium channels in the vascular endothelial cell. PMID:19415313

  19. Visualizing depth and thickness of a local blood region in skin tissue using diffuse reflectance images.

    PubMed

    Nishidate, Izumi; Maeda, Takaaki; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for visualizing the depth and thickness distribution of a local blood region in skin tissue using diffuse reflectance images at three isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin: 420, 585, and 800 nm. Monte Carlo simulation of light transport specifies a relation among optical densities, depth, and thickness of the region under given concentrations of melanin in epidermis and blood in dermis. Experiments with tissue-like agar gel phantoms indicate that a simple circular blood region embedded in scattering media can be visualized with errors of 6% for the depth and 22% for the thickness to the given values. In-vivo measurements on human veins demonstrate that results from the proposed method agree within errors of 30 and 19% for the depth and thickness, respectively, with values obtained from the same veins by the conventional ultrasound technique. Numerical investigation with the Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in the skin tissue is also performed to discuss effects of deviation in scattering coefficients of skin tissue and absorption coefficients of the local blood region from the typical values of the results. The depth of the local blood region is over- or underestimated as the scattering coefficients of epidermis and dermis decrease or increase, respectively, while the thickness of the region agrees well with the given values below 1.2 mm. Decreases or increases of hematocrit value give over- or underestimation of the thickness, but they have almost no influence on the depth. PMID:17994894

  20. Oral contraceptives alter circadian rhythm parameters of cortisol, melatonin, blood pressure, heart rate, skin blood flow, transepidermal water loss, and skin amino acids of healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Reinberg, A E; Touitou, Y; Soudant, E; Bernard, D; Bazin, R; Mechkouri, M

    1996-08-01

    Sixteen healthy women users and nonusers of oral contraceptives (OC) volunteered to document a set of circadian rhythms. Nine were taking OC providing ethynyl estradiol (0.03-0.05 mg/24h, 21 days/month) combined with DL- or L-norgestrel or norethisterone. There was no group difference (p > 0.05) in median age (22 years), weight (57 kg), and height (162) cm). Data were obtained at fixed hours, 5 times/24h, during a 48-h span, in November. (Day activity from approximately 08:00 to approximately 23:00 h and night rest). Environmental conditions were controlled, using air-conditioned rooms of constant temperature (26 degrees +/- 0.5) and relative humidity 45% +/- 1. Both cosinor and ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. All circadian rhythms were validated with one exception: that of salivary melatonin was not detected in OC users. The 24h mean (M) exhibited group differences for certain variables: M was greater in OC than non-OC users for systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), heart rate (p < 0.01), skin blood flow (p < 0.04), and transepidermal water loss (p < 0.02). M was lower in OC than non-OC users in salivary cortisol (p < 0.04) and skin amino acids (p < 0.003). No group difference was detected in any other documented rhythms: diastolic blood pressure, grip strength of both hands, oral temperature, self-rated fatigue, and the skin variables of urea, lactate, triglycerides, and acid phosphatase activity. PMID:8874983

  1. Skin cooling maintains cerebral blood flow velocity and orthostatic tolerance during tilting in heated humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Rong; Witkowski, Sarah; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is reduced in the heat-stressed human. The purpose of this project was to identify whether skin-surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance. Nine subjects were exposed to 10 min of 60 degrees head-up tilting in each of four conditions: normothermia (NT-tilt), heat stress (HT-tilt), normothermia plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (NT-tilt(cool)), and heat stress plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (HT-tilt(cool)). Heating and cooling were accomplished by perfusing 46 and 15 degrees C water, respectively, though a tube-lined suit worn by each subject. During HT-tilt, four of nine subjects developed presyncopal symptoms resulting in the termination of the tilt test. In contrast, no subject experienced presyncopal symptoms during NT-tilt, NT-tilt(cool), or HT-tilt(cool). During the HT-tilt procedure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) decreased. However, during HT-tilt(cool), MAP, total peripheral resistance, and CBFV were significantly greater relative to HT-tilt (all P < 0.01). No differences were observed in calculated cerebral vascular resistance between the four conditions. These data suggest that skin-surface cooling prevents the fall in CBFV during upright tilting and improves orthostatic tolerance, presumably via maintenance of MAP. Hence, skin-surface cooling may be a potent countermeasure to protect against orthostatic intolerance observed in heat-stressed humans.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of niacinamide in blood and skin of hairless guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Bongiovannieier, R.; Koplovitz, I.; Shulz, S.; Lieb, J.; Railer, R.

    1993-05-13

    Niacinamide (NA) has been reported to be effective in reducing the development of microblisters caused by sulfur mustard (HD) vapor exposure in the Hairless guinea pig when given as a single bolus pretreatment 30 min prior to HD vapor exposure (Yourick et al.). The purpose of these experiments was to establish the pharmacokinetics of NA in the hairless guinea pig to optimize the evaluation of NA against HD cutaneous injury. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the quantitation of NA in blood and skin. The method was linear (corr coeff r = 0.998) and sensitive with a working range from 50 microns/ml to 2000 microns/ml. The NA Tl/2 was measured after a bolus injection of 750 and 375 mg/kg via IP and IV routes, respectively. The Tl/2 was 2.8 + or - 0.3 hr for both routes. Drug concentrations in blood, during multiple dosing (5 IP) of a fixed dose (375 mg/kg, i.p.) given every 2.8 hr, were within 15% of the theoretical values calculated using a computer model (Principle of Superposition). NA serum levels ranged from 325 microns/mL to 1404 microns/mL (n = 12). The corresponding skin levels were within 93% of the blood levels. The elimination of NA from the skin paralleled its elimination from the blood. The results of these studies will aid in the future evaluation of NA as a pretreatment/treatment for HD injury.

  3. A study of the pharmacologic control of blood flow to acute skin flaps using xenon washout. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, P.M.; Lilien, D.L.; Buncke, H.J.

    1983-03-01

    This study was undertaken to understand the control mechanisms differentiating circulation to normal skin and acute skin flaps. The approach was to compare the effects of systemic vasoactive drugs on skin blood flow in rats in acute skin flaps and identical areas of control skin. With this model it was felt that systemic changes would affect both areas equally and any difference in response would be due to vascular control mechanisms unique to the flap. Xenon washout by percutaneous injection was chosen to measure blood flow. The results of over 8000 observations in these studies were: 1. Vasodilation enhances blood flow and flap survival. 2. Vasoconstriction decreases blood flow. 3. Depletion of sympathetic nerve terminals enhances blood flow and flap survival. 4. The acute flap is less sensitive to systemic alpha-agonists than control skin. 5. The acute flap is less sensitive to vasodilators acting at the receptor-site level than control skin. 6. Total sympathetic denervation does not occur. 7. Biologic increases in area of flap survival did occur in drug dose ranges predicted by xenon washout measurements in this model. These findings indicate that the vessels in an acutely raised skin flap have a greater vasospastic tone than is optimal for maximum nutrient blood flow. One explanation consistent with these findings is offered in which the mechanism responsible for this tone is the release of catecholamines from the sympathetic nerve terminals after the flap has been raised.

  4. Evaluation of contact status between probe and skin for noninvasive blood sensing with NIR reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Qingjun; Xu, Kexin; Jiang, Jingying; Chen, Wen Liang

    2004-07-01

    In non-invasive blood sensing with near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy, optical probe usually directly contacts skin to eliminate specular reflection. Due to the direct contact, changes in contact pressure can lead to changes in internal structure and components distribution of the measured site, and thus introduces great interference into the final results. In this paper, we use self-made AOTF spectrophotometer to investigate the changes of reflectance spectrum with changing contact status for tissues in vitro (fresh porcine skin) and in vivo (two volunteers' left palms) at wavelengths ranging from 1100 nm to 1700 nm. The results show that with increasing degree of contact, energy of reflectance spectrum gradually decreases and the trend goes stable with time. However, the decreasing degree is related to wavelengths, which potentially suggests an indirect relevance with changes of components in tissues. Meanwhile, the results provide a practical solution to determining the optimum contact status between probe and skin.

  5. Wounding alters blood chemistry parameters and skin mineralocorticoid receptors in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Lattin, Christine R; DuRant, Sarah E; Romero, L Michael

    2015-06-01

    Because skin is an important physical barrier against pathogens, the ability to quickly and effectively heal wounds directly impacts an animal's health. The hormone corticosterone (CORT) has many complex effects on immune function and can slow wound healing. It has been suggested that CORT's role during wound healing may be to act as a "brake" on inflammation and cell proliferation. This project aimed to clarify the role of CORT in the healing process by quantifying concentrations of its two intracellular receptors, glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), in the skin of wounded (n = 9) or unwounded (n = 8) house sparrows (Passer domesticus) using radioligand binding assays. We also quantified GR and MR in liver, spleen and pectoralis muscle, as well as several blood chemistry parameters, hypothesizing that wounding would alter whole-body energy use. One day post-wounding, wounded birds had higher blood glucose and lower aspartate aminotransferase (a marker indicating muscle damage or catabolism) compared to controls, which may be related to animals' changing metabolic needs in response to lymphocyte and macrophage recruitment at the wound site. Birds had significantly decreased MR, but not GR, in the skin of wounded legs compared to the skin of unwounded legs. There was also a trend towards lower MR in wounded skin compared to unwounded birds. Receptors in the three other tissues did not differ between groups. This study suggests that decreasing the skin's sensitivity to CORT immediately after wounding may be a necessary part of the normal healing process in wild birds. PMID:25802121

  6. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  7. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  8. Wavelet analysis of skin blood flow in dermatosurgery using primary closure with tension.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Hans-Martin; Bräuer, Kurt; Kneilling, Manfred; Moehrle, Matthias; Breuninger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Primary closure in dermatologic surgery is state of the art in small lesions at the head, but also in larger lesions at the trunk or the extremities. Microcirculatory effects on the skin blood flow near to the wound edges affected by primary closure. Forty three patients were investigated. Before and after surgery, skin blood flow was measured using Laser Doppler Fluxmetry (LDF). During primary closure, tension in the suture was measured and the tension on the wound edges was calculated. Times series were analyzed using continuous wavelet analyses, before, after 2 h and 24 h after surgery. After three months, the cosmetic results were requested. Median horizontal diameter was 22 mm (quartiles 20/48 mm), median vertical diameter was 44 mm (quartiles 26/60 mm). Mean string force was 12.0 SD 10.2 N. During the whole course of investigation, we found no change of microcirculatory parameters such as mean LDF or any scaling level following wavelet analysis caused by primary closure. Average of the cosmetic result was 1.8. It is a relative small number of patients and the defects are located in different areas. Skin blood flow and the microcirculatory pattern is not affected in the area by the tension on wound edges and provides therefore a fast healing process without any vegetatively induced complications even if the string force is high. In dermatosurgery, wounds can be closed directly without changing the microcirculatory pattern in the direct area of the wound margins. PMID:21339630

  9. Laser-induced capillary leakage for blood biomarker detection and vaccine delivery via the skin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jeffrey H; Li, Bo; Wu, Mei X

    2016-07-01

    Circulation system is the center for coordination and communication of all organs in our body. Examination of any change in its analytes or delivery of therapeutic drugs into the system consists of important medical practice in today's medicine. Two recent studies prove that brief illumination of skin with a low powered laser, at wavelengths preferentially absorbed by hemoglobin, increases the amount of circulating biomarkers in the epidermis and upper dermis by more than 1,000-fold. When probe-coated microneedle arrays are applied into laser-treated skin, plasma blood biomarkers can be reliably, accurately, and sufficiently quantified in 15∼30 min assays, with a maximal detection in one hr in a manner independent of penetration depth or a molecular mass of the biomarker. Moreover, the laser treatment permits a high efficient delivery of radiation-attenuated malarial sporozoites (RAS) into the circulation, leading to robust immunity against malaria infections, whereas similar immunization at sham-treated skin elicits poor immune responses. Thus this technology can potentially instruct designs of small, portable devices for onsite, in mobile clinics, or at home for point-of-care diagnosis and drug/vaccine delivery via the skin. Laser-induced capillary leakage (a) to induce extravasation of circualing molecules only (b) or facilitate entry of attenuated malaria sporozoites into the capillary (c). Skin illumination with a laser preferably absorbed by hemoglobin causes dilation of the capillary beneath the skin. The extravasated molecules can be sufficiently measured in the skin or guide sporozoites to enter the vessel. PMID:26776718

  10. Wavelet analysis of the Laser Doppler signal to assess skin perfusion.

    PubMed

    Bagno, Andrea; Martini, Romeo

    2015-08-01

    The hemodynamics of skin microcirculation can be clinically assessed by means of Laser Doppler Fluxmetry. Laser Doppler signals show periodic oscillations because of fluctuations of microvascular perfusion (flowmotion), which are sustained by contractions and relaxations of arteriolar walls rhythmically changing vessels diameter (vasomotion). The wavelet analysis applied to Laser Doppler signals displays six characteristic frequency intervals, from 0.005 to 2 Hz. Each interval is assigned to a specific structure of the cardiovascular system: heart, respiration, vascular myocites, sympathetic terminations, and endothelial cells (dependent and independent on nitric oxide). Therefore, mechanisms of skin perfusion can be investigated through wavelet analysis. In the present work, examples of methods and results of wavelet analysis applied to Laser Doppler signals are reported. Laser Doppler signals were acquired in two groups of patients to check possible changes in vascular activities, before and after occlusive reactive hyperaemia, and before and after revascularization. PMID:26737995

  11. Effects of skin blood flow and temperature on skin--electrode impedance and offset potential: measurements at low alternating current density.

    PubMed

    Smith, D C

    1992-01-01

    Skin--electrode impedance was determined at 100 Hz and 1 kHz between two disposable electrodes, 5 cm apart, at current densities < 65 microA.cm-2. Measurements were made on the volar skin of the forearm during cooling on cardiopulmonary bypass, and on the dorsum of the foot in the absence of skin blood flow during aortic aneurysm repair. Both the resistive and reactive components of the skin-electrode impedence showed an inverse linear relationship to temperature between 26 and 36 degrees C. The magnitude of the impedance change was different for each patient studied; resistance changes ranged from 0.03 to 23.2 k omega. Degrees C-1 at 100 Hz and from 0.03 to 2.7 k omega. Degrees C-1 at 1 kHz, while reactance changes ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 k omega. Degrees C-1 at 100 Hz and from 0.04 to 0.18 k omega. Degrees C-1 at 1 kHz. Changes in skin-electrode impedance were not due to changes in skin blood flow. There was no consistent change in offset potential with temperature. Although the skin-electrode impedance increases as temperature falls, it is concluded that temperature effects at the skin-electrode interface are not responsible for the observed failure of evoked electromyography during clinical monitoring of neuromuscular function. PMID:1404312

  12. The influence of oral magnesium sulfate on skin microvasculature blood flow in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Heidarianpour, Ali; Sadeghian, Efat; Gorzi, Ali; Nazem, Farzad

    2011-10-01

    Microvascular disease is a major feature of type1 diabetes and results from long-standing structural and functional changes especially in the skin microvasculature. Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has recently been proposed as a novel factor implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications such as vascular disturbance, but its mechanism of action is not completely elucidated. The present study was designed to determine whether chronic magnesium sulfate administration could control streptozocin-induced diabetes and improve endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent dilatation, and identify its probable mechanism in the skin microvasculature of diabetic rats. Fifty male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) were divided into two diabetic and one control groups. One subgroup of diabetic received magnesium sulfate (10 g/l) in their drinking water, while two other groups had only tap water. Laser Doppler flow meter with iontophoresis was used to measure the relative changes in skin blood flow. We used acetylcholine (Ach), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and N (w)-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA; NO synthase inhibitor) with magnesium sulfate (0.1 M) in control and experimental animal by microsyringe pump microinjection. SNP- and Ach-induced cutaneous perfusion increased significantly by Mg treatment in the diabetic groups, and local microinjection of magnesium sulfate (0.1 M) increased cutaneous blood flow in all groups (p < 0.01). However, the administration of LNNA prior to magnesium sulfate attenuated (p < 0.05) but not abolished the increase in cutaneous blood flow in diabetic and normal rats. From the results of this study, it may be concluded that Mg could improve skin microvasculature of diabetic rats with potentiation of nitric oxide pathway. PMID:20857343

  13. Regional variations of skin blood flow response to histamine: evaluation by spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, Ethel; Aviram, Guy; Zeltser, D.; Brenner, Sarah; Maibach, Howard I.

    1996-01-01

    To study inherent differences in skin function related to regional variation, we tested the hypothesis that different reactivities of small blood vessels via their direct and indirect activation by histamine play an important role in the observed regional variation of processes. Histamine was administered to three cutaneous regions in 20 volunteers, and the induced response was quantified utilizing spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry. The back exhibited the greatest response, followed by the forearm and ankle in decreasing order of responsiveness. We suggest that the intensity of the wheal and flare response may partly be related to the local reactivity of the blood vessels once the histamine actually reached them, and to their indirect dilatation via the axonal reflex. These blood vessel response observations may provide initial insight into inherent functional differences influencing cutaneous manifestations of endogenous and exogenous diseases.

  14. The effect of oral uptake of nicotine in snus on peripheral skin blood circulation evaluated by thermography

    PubMed Central

    Høiland, Ina Isabella; de Weerd, Louis; Mercer, James B

    2014-01-01

    While health risks from smoking cigarettes are well known, little is known about the health risks of using smokeless tobacco (ST). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that ST in the form of oral use of snus with nicotine and snus without nicotine has on peripheral skin blood circulation. 21 young habitual users of snus with nicotine participated in this study. Under controlled conditions the subjects were exposed to a 30 minute period of oral use of snus with nicotine (SN+) and snus without nicotine (SN-). The peripheral skin blood circulation was indirectly monitored on the hands by measuring skin temperature using infrared thermography. The skin blood circulation in the hands showed a statistical significant decrease in the SN+ experiments, while skin blood circulation was hardly effected in the SN- experiments. It is concluded that the use of smokeless tobacco in the form of oral use of snus containing nicotine causes a decrease in peripheral skin blood circulation while such an effect is not seen in snus without nicotine. This knowledge may be of use when treating patients that require adequate peripheral skin circulation or in the military when soldiers are exposed cold conditions.

  15. Supine exercise restores arterial blood pressure and skin blood flow despite dehydration and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Coyle, E F

    1999-08-01

    We determined whether the deleterious effects of dehydration and hyperthermia on cardiovascular function during upright exercise were attenuated by elevating central blood volume with supine exercise. Seven trained men [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)) 4.7 +/- 0. 4 l/min (mean +/- SE)] cycled for 30 min in the heat (35 degrees C) in the upright and in the supine positions (VO(2) 2.93 +/- 0.27 l/min) while maintaining euhydration by fluid ingestion or while being dehydrated by 5% of body weight after 2 h of upright exercise. When subjects were euhydrated, esophageal temperature (T(es)) was 37. 8-38.0 degrees C in both body postures. Dehydration caused equal hyperthermia during both upright and supine exercise (T(es) = 38. 7-38.8 degrees C). During upright exercise, dehydration lowered stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cutaneous vascular conductance and increased heart rate and plasma catecholamines [30 +/- 6 ml, 3.0 +/- 0.7 l/min, 6 +/- 2 mmHg, 22 +/- 8%, 14 +/- 2 beats/min, and 50-96%, respectively; all P < 0. 05]. In contrast, during supine exercise, dehydration did not cause significant alterations in MAP, cutaneous vascular conductance, or plasma catecholamines. Furthermore, supine versus upright exercise attenuated the increases in heart rate (7 +/- 2 vs. 9 +/- 1%) and the reductions in SV (13 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 3%) and cardiac output (8 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 3%) (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that the decline in cutaneous vascular conductance and the increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration, independent of hyperthermia, are associated with a reduction in central blood volume and a lower arterial blood pressure. PMID:10444482

  16. The effect on skin blood flow of short-term venous hypertension in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, T R; Chittenden, S J; Coleridge Smith, P D; Scurr, J H

    1991-02-01

    Plugging of skin capillaries by activated white blood cells is one of the proposed mechanisms by which skin damage may be initiated in chronic venous insufficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether a microcirculatory deficit was induced in the skin by raising the venous pressure proximally for thirty minutes. Seventeen subjects with no evidence of venous or arterial disease had laser Doppler velocimetry performed in the goiter region of the leg; 8 different subjects had the measurement done on the dorsum of the hand. Peak hyperemic response following three minutes of ischemia was measured before and after a thirty-minute period of sustained venous hypertension applied by a proximal tourniquet inflated to 80 mm Hg. A decrease in the peak flow: baseline flow ratio (median ratio 2.25 before, 1.70 after, p less than 0.02) and an increase in the time taken to reach maximal hyperemia (median time ten seconds before, twenty seconds after, p less than 0.01) were observed after the period of venous hypertension in the lower limb. The second parameter, but not the first, was significantly affected in the upper limb. The authors conclude that a microvascular deficit in the skin is demonstrable after a short period of venous hypertension. This is consistent with the white-cell-trapping theory, but other possible explanations are discussed. PMID:1826074

  17. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Enhances Effectiveness of Skin Antiseptics and Reduces Contamination Rates of Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    LaSala, Paul R.; Han, Xiang-Yang; Rolston, Kenneth V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Effective skin antisepsis is of central importance in the prevention of wound infections, colonization of medical devices, and nosocomial transmission of microorganisms. Current antiseptics have a suboptimal efficacy resulting in substantial infectious morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Here, we introduce an in vitro method for antiseptic testing and a novel alcohol-based antiseptic containing 4 to 5% of the polar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The DMSO-containing antiseptic resulted in a 1- to 2-log enhanced killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and other microbes in vitro compared to the same antiseptic without DMSO. In a prospective clinical validation, blood culture contamination rates were reduced from 3.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine (control antiseptic) to 1.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine–5% DMSO (P < 0.01). Our results predict that improved skin antisepsis is possible using new formulations of antiseptics containing strongly polarized but nonionizing (polar aprotic) solvents. PMID:22378911

  18. Estimating skin blood saturation by selecting a subset of hyperspectral imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Salerud, E. Göran; Strömberg, Tomas; Larsson, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    Skin blood haemoglobin saturation (?b) can be estimated with hyperspectral imaging using the wavelength (λ) range of 450-700 nm where haemoglobin absorption displays distinct spectral characteristics. Depending on the image size and photon transport algorithm, computations may be demanding. Therefore, this work aims to evaluate subsets with a reduced number of wavelengths for ?b estimation. White Monte Carlo simulations are performed using a two-layered tissue model with discrete values for epidermal thickness (?epi) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's ), mimicking an imaging setup. A detected intensity look-up table is calculated for a range of model parameter values relevant to human skin, adding absorption effects in the post-processing. Skin model parameters, including absorbers, are; μ's (λ), ?epi, haemoglobin saturation (?b), tissue fraction blood (?b) and tissue fraction melanin (?mel). The skin model paired with the look-up table allow spectra to be calculated swiftly. Three inverse models with varying number of free parameters are evaluated: A(?b, ?b), B(?b, ?b, ?mel) and C(all parameters free). Fourteen wavelength candidates are selected by analysing the maximal spectral sensitivity to ?b and minimizing the sensitivity to ?b. All possible combinations of these candidates with three, four and 14 wavelengths, as well as the full spectral range, are evaluated for estimating ?b for 1000 randomly generated evaluation spectra. The results show that the simplified models A and B estimated ?b accurately using four wavelengths (mean error 2.2% for model B). If the number of wavelengths increased, the model complexity needed to be increased to avoid poor estimations.

  19. Photoacoustic blood glucose and skin measurement based on optical scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllyla, Risto A.

    2002-07-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose determination has been investigated by more than 100 research groups in the world during the past fifteen years. The commonly optical methods are based on the capacity of near-IR light to penetrate a few hundreds micrometers or a few millimeters into human tissue where it interacts with glucose. A change of glucose concentration may modify the optical parameters in tissue, with the result that its glucose concentration can be extracted by analyzing the received optical signals. This paper demonstrates that glucose affects on the scattering coefficient of human blood, by applying the streak camera and pulsed photoacoustic techniques; and drinking water seems also affecting on PA signal from skin surface.

  20. DNA methylation dynamics during in vivo differentiation of blood and skin stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Christoph; Beerman, Isabel; Lien, Wen-Hui; Smith, Zachary D.; Gu, Hongcang; Boyle, Patrick; Gnirke, Andreas; Fuchs, Elaine; Rossi, Derrick J.; Meissner, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a mechanism of epigenetic regulation that is common to all vertebrates. Functional studies underscore its relevance for tissue homeostasis, but the global dynamics of DNA methylation during in vivo differentiation remain underexplored. Here we report high-resolution DNA methylation maps of adult stem cell differentiation in mouse, focusing on 19 purified cell populations of the blood and skin lineages. DNA methylation changes were locus-specific and relatively modest in magnitude. They frequently overlapped with lineage-associated transcription factors and their binding sites, suggesting that DNA methylation may protect cells from aberrant transcription factor activation. DNA methylation and gene expression provided complementary information, and combining the two enabled us to infer the cellular differentiation hierarchy of the blood lineage directly from genomic data. In summary, these results demonstrate that in vivo differentiation of adult stem cells is associated with small but informative changes in the genomic distribution of DNA methylation. PMID:22841485

  1. Decreased interleukin-21 expression in skin and blood in advanced mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Kabasawa, Miyoko; Sugaya, Makoto; Oka, Tomonori; Takahashi, Naomi; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Suga, Hiraku; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Takahashi, Takehiro; Shibata, Sayaka; Fujita, Hideki; Asano, Yoshihide; Tada, Yayoi; Kadono, Takafumi; Okochi, Hitoshi; Sato, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is regarded as a potent antitumor agent, which increases the cytotoxicity of both natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-21 in mycosis fungoides (MF). IL-21 mRNA expression levels in patch and plaque MF were significantly higher than those in normal skin. IL-21 mRNA expression levels in tumor MF were significantly decreased compared with those in patch and plaque MF. Interestingly, mRNA expression levels of IL-21 in MF lesional skin significantly correlated with those of T-helper type-1 cytokines/chemokines such as CXCL10, CXCL11 and γ-interferon. Immunohistochemistry showed that IL-21 was expressed by keratinocytes in patch and plaque MF. Furthermore, serum IL-21 levels in patients with tumor MF were significantly lower than those of healthy controls and plaque MF. Thus, IL-21 expression was significantly downregulated in skin and blood of patients with tumor MF, which may contribute to progression of MF. Our study suggests that recombinant IL-21 would be a promising therapy for MF. PMID:26825047

  2. Effect of local cooling on skin temperature and blood flow of men in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, M.; Sachdeva, U.

    1993-12-01

    Alterations to the finger skin temperature (Tsk) and blood flow (FBF) before and after cold immersion on exposure to an Antarctic environment for 8 weeks were studied in 64 subjects. There was a significant fall in Tsk and increase in finger blood flow after 1 week of Antarctic exposure. The Tsk did not further change even after 8 weeks of stay in Antarctica but a significant increase in FBF was obtained after 8 weeks. The cold immersion test was performed at non-Antarctic and Antarctic conditions by immersing the hand for 2 min in 0 4° C cold water. In the non-Antarctic environment the Tsk and FBF dropped significantly ( P < 0.001) indicating a vasoconstriction response. Interestingly after 8 weeks of stay in Antarctic conditions, the skin temperature dropped ( P < 0.001) but the cold induced fall in FBF was inhibited. Based on these observations it may be hypothesized that continuous cold exposure in Antarctica results in vasodilatation, which overrides the stronger vasoactive response of acute cold exposure and thus prevents cold injuries.

  3. Multifractal analysis of nonlinear complexity of sacral skin blood flow oscillations in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Struck, Bryan D.; MacRobert, Margo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous vasodilatory function and nonlinear complexity of blood flow oscillations (BFO) in older people. A non-painful fast local heating protocol was applied to the sacral skin in 20 older subjects with various vasodilatory functions. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure skin blood oscillations. The complexity of the characteristic frequencies (i.e., metabolic (0.0095–0.02 Hz), neurogenic (0.02–0.05 Hz), myogenic (0.05–0.15 Hz), respiratory (0.15–0.4 Hz), and cardiac (0.4–2 Hz)) of BFO was quantified using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Compared with the 65–75 years group, the complexity of metabolic BFO in the 75–85 years group was significantly lower at the baseline (P < 0.05) and the second peak (P < 0.001). Compared with baseline BFO, subjects in the 65–75 years group had a significant increase in the complexity of metabolic BFO (P < 0.01) in response to local heating; while subjects in the 75–85 years group did not. Our findings support the use of multifractal analysis to assess aging-related microvascular dysfunction. PMID:21487818

  4. Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: effect of changes in facial skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Taiki; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Subudhi, Andrew W; Sugawara, Jun; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2012-01-01

    Facial cooling (FC) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBF(face)) toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA V(mean)) at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 years) underwent 3 min of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4°C) at rest and during steady-state exercise [heart rate (HR) of 120 bpm]. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBF(face), MCA V(mean), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBF(face) at rest (-32 ± 4%) and to a greater extent during exercise (-64 ± 10%, P = 0.012). Although MCA V(mean) was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s), the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA V(mean) at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA V(mean) with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBF(face) (r = 0.095, P = 0.709). MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg). These findings suggest that the FC-induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBF(face). PMID:22934059

  5. Accurate measurement of blood vessel depth in port wine stained human skin in vivo using pulsed photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Bincheng; Majaron, Boris; Viator, John A; Milner, Thomas E; Chen, Zhongping; Zhao, Yonghua; Ren, Hongwu; Nelson, J Stuart

    2004-01-01

    We report on application of pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) to determine the depth of port wine stain (PWS) blood vessels in human skin. When blood vessels are deep in the PWS skin (>100 microm), conventional PPTR depth profiling can be used to determine PWS depth with sufficient accuracy. When blood vessels are close or partially overlap the epidermal melanin layer, a modified PPTR technique using two-wavelength (585 and 600 nm) excitation is a superior method to determine PWS depth. A direct difference approach in which PWS depth is determined from a weighted difference of temperature profiles reconstructed independently from two-wavelength excitation is demonstrated to be appropriate for a wider range of PWS patients with various blood volume fractions, blood vessel sizes, and depth distribution. The most superficial PWS depths determined in vivo by PPTR are in good agreement with those measured using optical Doppler tomography (ODT). PMID:15447017

  6. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M

    2014-03-28

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  7. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body.

  8. Chemosensory function of amphibian skin: integrating epithelial transport, capillary blood flow and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hillyard, S D; Willumsen, N J

    2011-07-01

    Terrestrial anuran amphibians absorb water across specialized regions of skin on the posterioventral region of their bodies. Rapid water absorption is mediated by the insertion of aquaporins into the apical membrane of the outermost cell layer. Water moves out of the epithelium via aquaglyceroporins in the basolateral membrane and into the circulation in conjunction with increased capillary blood flow to the skin and aquaporins in the capillary endothelial cells. These physiological responses are activated by intrinsic stimuli relating to the animals' hydration status and extrinsic stimuli relating to the detection of osmotically available water. The integration of these processes has been studied using behavioural observations in conjunction with neurophysiological recordings and studies of epithelial transport. These studies have identified plasma volume and urinary bladder stores as intrinsic stimuli that activate the formation of angiotensin II (AII) to stimulate water absorption behaviour. The coordinated increase in water permeability and capillary blood flow appears to be mediated primarily by sympathetic stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors, although the neurohypopyseal hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) may also play a role. Extrinsic stimuli relate primarily to the ionic and osmotic properties of hydration sources. Toads avoid NaCl solutions that have been shown to be harmful in acute exposure, approx. 200-250 mm. The avoidance is partially attenuated by amiloride raising the hypothesis that the mechanism for salt detection by toads resembles that for salt taste in mammals that take in water by mouth. In this model, depolarization of the basolateral membrane of taste cells is coupled to afferent neural stimulation. In toad skin we have identified innervation of skin epithelial cells by branches of spinal nerves and measured neural responses to NaCl solutions that elicit behavioural avoidance. These same concentrations produce depolarization of the

  9. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. PMID:27282078

  10. Study on the Effect of Thermal and Magnetic Stimulation by Measuring of the Peripheral Blood Flow and Skin Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Kouhei; Nuruki, Atsuo; Tamari, Youzou; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    Recently, the stiff shoulder accompanying the muscle fatigue becomes an issue of public concern. Therefore, we paid attention to the effect of the thermal and magnetic stimulation for the muscle fatigue. The maximum voluntary contraction has recovered significantly, and also peripheral blood flow has increased by stimulation. In order to evaluate if the thermal and magnetic stimulation has any effects, three parameters was measured, which are the maximum voluntary contraction, peripheral blood flow and skin temperature. The skin temperature, however, did not changed significantly.

  11. Dynamic markers based on blood perfusion fluctuations for selecting skin melanocytic lesions for biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Gemma; Stefanovska, Aneta; Pesce, Margherita; Marco Vezzoni, Gian; Loggini, Barbara; Pingitore, Raffaele; Ghiara, Fabrizio; Barachini, Paolo; Cervadoro, Gregorio; Romanelli, Marco; Rossi, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Skin malignant melanoma is a highly angiogenic cancer, necessitating early diagnosis for positive prognosis. The current diagnostic standard of biopsy and histological examination inevitably leads to many unnecessary invasive excisions. Here, we propose a non-invasive method of identification of melanoma based on blood flow dynamics. We consider a wide frequency range from 0.005-2 Hz associated with both local vascular regulation and effects of cardiac pulsation. Combining uniquely the power of oscillations associated with individual physiological processes we obtain a marker which distinguishes between melanoma and atypical nevi with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90.9%. The method reveals valuable functional information about the melanoma microenvironment. It also provides the means for simple, accurate, in vivo distinction between malignant melanoma and atypical nevi, and may lead to a substantial reduction in the number of biopsies currently undertaken.

  12. Modeling of skin cooling, blood flow, and optical properties in wounds created by electrical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Jordan, Marion H.; Jeng, James C.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-02-01

    High voltage electrical injuries may lead to irreversible tissue damage or even death. Research on tissue injury following high voltage shock is needed and may yield stage-appropriate therapy to reduce amputation rate. One of the mechanisms by which electricity damages tissue is through Joule heating, with subsequent protein denaturation. Previous studies have shown that blood flow had a significant effect on the cooling rate of heated subcutaneous tissue. To assess the thermal damage in tissue, this study focused on monitoring changes of temperature and optical properties of skin next to high voltage wounds. The burns were created between left fore limb and right hind limb extremities of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by a 1000VDC delivery shock system. A thermal camera was utilized to record temperature variation during the exposure. The experimental results were then validated using a thermal-electric finite element model (FEM).

  13. Equivalent sphere approximations for skin, eye, and blood-forming organs

    SciTech Connect

    Maxson, W.L.; Townsend, L.W.; Bier, S.G.

    1996-12-31

    Throughout the manned spaceflight program, protecting astronauts from space radiation has been the subject of intense study. For interplanetary crews, two main sources of radiation hazards are solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic rays. For nearly three decades, crew doses and related shielding requirements have been assessed using the assumption that body organ exposures are well approximated by exposures at the center of tissue-equivalent spheres. For the skin and for blood-forming organs (BFOs), these spheres have radii of 0 and 5 cm, respectively. Recent studies indicate that significant overestimation of organ doses occurs if these models are used instead of realistic human geometry models. The use of the latter, however, requires much longer computational times. In this work, the authors propose preliminary revisions to these equivalent sphere approximations that yield more realistic dose estimates.

  14. Causative Agent of Pogosta Disease Isolated from Blood and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Tytti; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2004-01-01

    Pogosta disease is a mosquito-borne viral disease in Finland, which is clinically manifested by rash and arthritis; larger outbreaks occur in 7-year intervals. The causative agent of the disease has been suspected of being closely related to Sindbis virus (SINV). We isolated SINV from five patients with acute Pogosta disease during an outbreak in fall 2002 in Finland. One virus strain was recovered from a whole blood sample and four other strains from skin lesions. The etiology of Pogosta disease was confirmed by these first Finnish SINV strains, which also represent the first human SINV isolates from Europe. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Finnish SINV strains are closely related to the viral agents isolated from mosquitoes and that cause clinically similar diseases in nearby geographic areas. PMID:15200824

  15. An upgraded camera-based imaging system for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiao; Qiu, Lina; Leotta, Daniel F.

    2016-07-01

    A camera-based imaging system was previously developed for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin. However, several limitations were realized in later applications, which could lead to either significant bias in the estimated oxygen saturation value or poor spatial resolution in the map of the oxygen saturation. To overcome these issues, an upgraded system was developed using improved modeling and image processing algorithms. In the modeling, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was used to verify the effectiveness of the ratio-to-ratio method for semi-infinite and two-layer skin models, and then the relationship between the venous oxygen saturation and the ratio-to-ratio was determined. The improved image processing algorithms included surface curvature correction and motion compensation. The curvature correction is necessary when the imaged skin surface is uneven. The motion compensation is critical for the imaging system because surface motion is inevitable when the venous volume alteration is induced by cuff inflation. In addition to the modeling and image processing algorithms in the upgraded system, a ring light guide was used to achieve perpendicular and uniform incidence of light. Cross-polarization detection was also adopted to suppress surface specular reflection. The upgraded system was applied to mapping of venous oxygen saturation in the palm, opisthenar and forearm of human subjects. The spatial resolution of the oxygenation map achieved is much better than that of the original system. In addition, the mean values of the venous oxygen saturation for the three locations were verified with a commercial near-infrared spectroscopy system and were consistent with previously published data.

  16. Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    BUSSAU, L. J.; VO, L. T.; DELANEY, P. M.; PAPWORTH, G. D.; BARKLA, D. H.; KING, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) enabled subsurface fluorescence microscopy of the skin of hairless mice in vivo. Application of acridine orange enabled imaging of the layers of the epidermis. The corneocytes of the stratum corneum, the keratinocytes in the basal layers and redundant hair follicles were visualised at depths greater than 100 μm. Cellular and nuclear membranes of keratinocytes of the skin were visualised by the use of acridine orange and DIOC5(3). Imaging of the skin after injection of FITC-dextran revealed an extensive network of blood vessels with a size range up to 20 μm. Blood cells could be seen moving through dermal vessels and the blood circulation through the dermal vascular bed was video-taped. The fluorescent dye 4-di-2-ASP showed the presence of nerves fibres around the hair follicles and subsurface blood vessels. Comparison was made between images obtained in vivo using FOCI and in vitro scanning electron microscopy and conventional histology. FOCI offers the potential to study dynamic events in vivo, such as blood flow, skin growth, nerve regeneration and many pathological processes, in ways which have not previously been possible. PMID:9643419

  17. Endogenous angiotensins and catecholamines do not reduce skin blood flow or prevent hypotension in preterm piglets

    PubMed Central

    Eiby, Yvonne A.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Staunton, Michael P.; Wright, Layne L.; Colditz, Paul B.; Wright, Ian M.R.; Lingwood, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endocrine control of cardiovascular function is probably immature in the preterm infant; thus, it may contribute to the relative ineffectiveness of current adrenergic treatments for preterm cardiovascular compromise. This study aimed to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal responses to stress in the preterm piglet. Piglets were delivered by cesarean section either preterm (97 of 115 days) or at term (113 days). An additional group of preterm piglets received maternal glucocorticoids as used clinically. Piglets were sedated and underwent hypoxia (4% FiO2 for 20 min) to stimulate a cardiovascular response. Arterial blood pressure, skin blood flow, heart rate and plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin‐(1–7) (Ang‐(1‐7)), and cortisol were measured. Term piglets responded to hypoxia with vasoconstriction; preterm piglets had a lesser response. Preterm piglets had lower blood pressures throughout, with a delayed blood pressure response to the hypoxic stress compared with term piglets. This immature response occurred despite similar high levels of circulating catecholamines, and higher levels of Ang II compared with term animals. Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids increased the ratio of Ang‐(1‐7):Ang II. Preterm piglets, in contrast to term piglets, had no increase in cortisol levels in response to hypoxia. Preterm piglets have immature physiological responses to a hypoxic stress but no deficit of circulating catecholamines. Reduced vasoconstriction in preterm piglets could result from vasodilator actions of Ang II. In glucocorticoid exposed preterm piglets, further inhibition of vasoconstriction may occur because of an increased conversion of Ang II to Ang‐(1‐7). PMID:25538149

  18. Age‐related differences in postsynaptic increases in sweating and skin blood flow postexercise

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jill M.; Fujii, Naoto; McGinn, Ryan; McDonald, Katherine; Kenny, Glen P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The influence of peripheral factors on the control of heat loss responses (i.e., sweating and skin blood flow) in the postexercise period remains unknown in young and older adults. Therefore, in eight young (22 ± 3 years) and eight older (65 ± 3 years) males, we examined dose‐dependent responses to the administration of acetylcholine (ACh) and methacholine (MCh) for sweating (ventilated capsule), as well as to ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser‐Doppler flowmetry, % of max). In order to assess if peripheral factors are involved in the modulation of thermoeffector activity postexercise, pharmacological agonists were perfused via intradermal microdialysis on two separate days: (1) at rest (DOSE) and (2) following a 30‐min bout of exercise (Ex+DOSE). No differences in sweat rate between the DOSE and Ex+DOSE conditions at either ACh or MCh were observed for the young (ACh: P =0.992 and MCh: P =0.710) or older (ACh: P =0.775 and MCh: P =0.738) adults. Similarly, CVC was not different between the DOSE and Ex+DOSE conditions for the young (ACh: P =0.123 and SNP: P =0.893) or older (ACh: P =0.113 and SNP: P =0.068) adults. Older adults had a lower sweating response for both the DOSE (ACh: P =0.049 and MCh: P =0.006) and Ex+DOSE (ACh: P =0.050 and MCh: P =0.029) conditions compared to their younger counterparts. These findings suggest that peripheral factors do not modulate postexercise sweating and skin blood flow in both young and older adults. Additionally, sweat gland function is impaired in older adults, albeit the impairments were not exacerbated during postexercise recovery. PMID:25347861

  19. Assessing Skin Blood Flow Dynamics in Older Adults Using a Modified Sample Entropy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    The aging process may result in attenuated microvascular reactivity in response to environmental stimuli, which can be evaluated by analyzing skin blood flow (SBF) signals. Among various methods for analyzing physiological signals, sample entropy (SE) is commonly used to quantify the degree of regularity of time series. However, we found that for temporally correlated data, SE value depends on the sampling rate. When data are oversampled, SE may give misleading results. To address this problem, we propose to modify the definition of SE by using time-lagged vectors in the calculation of the conditional probability that any two vectors of successive data points are within a tolerance r for m points remain within the tolerance at the next point. The lag could be chosen as the first minimum of the auto mutual information function. We tested the performance of modified SE using simulated signals and SBF data. The results showed that modified SE is able to quantify the degree of regularity of the signals regardless of sampling rate. Using this approach, we observed a more regular behavior of blood flow oscillations (BFO) during local heating-induced maximal vasodilation period compared to the baseline in young and older adults and a more regular behavior of BFO in older adults compared to young adults. These results suggest that modified SE may be useful in the study of SBF dynamics. PMID:25570060

  20. Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

  1. 3-D volume reconstruction of skin lesions for melanin and blood volume estimation and lesion severity analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Brian; Dhawan, Atam P

    2012-11-01

    Subsurface information about skin lesions, such as the blood volume beneath the lesion, is important for the analysis of lesion severity towards early detection of skin cancer such as malignant melanoma. Depth information can be obtained from diffuse reflectance based multispectral transillumination images of the skin. An inverse volume reconstruction method is presented which uses a genetic algorithm optimization procedure with a novel population initialization routine and nudge operator based on the multispectral images to reconstruct the melanin and blood layer volume components. Forward model evaluation for fitness calculation is performed using a parallel processing voxel-based Monte Carlo simulation of light in skin. Reconstruction results for simulated lesions show excellent volume accuracy. Preliminary validation is also done using a set of 14 clinical lesions, categorized into lesion severity by an expert dermatologist. Using two features, the average blood layer thickness and the ratio of blood volume to total lesion volume, the lesions can be classified into mild and moderate/severe classes with 100% accuracy. The method therefore has excellent potential for detection and analysis of pre-malignant lesions. PMID:22829392

  2. Effects of Gloves, Temperature and Their Interaction on Finger, Hand, and Arm Blood Flow and Skin Temperature: A Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallbech, M. Susan

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cold only, commercially available gloves only, and the combination of gloves and cold on the blood flow and surface (skin) temperature of the medial and proximal phalanxes of digit 3, the metacarpal region of the hand, and the forearm.

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygenation with eliminated skin blood flow in young males.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Ai; Kaneko, Takahito; Tanaka, Naoki; Funane, Tsukasa; Kiguchi, Masashi; Sørensen, Henrik; Secher, Niels H; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2016-04-01

    We estimated cerebral oxygenation during handgrip exercise and a cognitive task using an algorithm that eliminates the influence of skin blood flow (SkBF) on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal. The algorithm involves a subtraction method to develop a correction factor for each subject. For twelve male volunteers (age 21 ± 1 yrs) +80 mmHg pressure was applied over the left temporal artery for 30 s by a custom-made headband cuff to calculate an individual correction factor. From the NIRS-determined ipsilateral cerebral oxyhemoglobin concentration (O2Hb) at two source-detector distances (15 and 30 mm) with the algorithm using the individual correction factor, we expressed cerebral oxygenation without influence from scalp and scull blood flow. Validity of the estimated cerebral oxygenation was verified during cerebral neural activation (handgrip exercise and cognitive task). With the use of both source-detector distances, handgrip exercise and a cognitive task increased O2Hb (P < 0.01) but O2Hb was reduced when SkBF became eliminated by pressure on the temporal artery for 5 s. However, when the estimation of cerebral oxygenation was based on the algorithm developed when pressure was applied to the temporal artery, estimated O2Hb was not affected by elimination of SkBF during handgrip exercise (P = 0.666) or the cognitive task (P = 0.105). These findings suggest that the algorithm with the individual correction factor allows for evaluation of changes in an accurate cerebral oxygenation without influence of extracranial blood flow by NIRS applied to the forehead. PMID:26018458

  4. Transdermally administered nitric oxide by application of acidified nitrite increases blood flow in rat epigastric island skin flaps.

    PubMed

    Gribbe, Orjan; Gustafsson, Lars E; Wiklund, N Peter

    2008-01-01

    Surgical flaps are commonly used in the reconstruction of tissue defects after tumour surgery and trauma. Flap failure continues to be a clinical problem and the underlying causes are not fully understood. In the present study a system that generates nitric oxide (NO) in a non-enzymatic fashion was created through the acidification with vitamin C of a cream containing increasing concentrations (0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.25% and 2.5%) of nitrite (NO(2)(-)). The cream was applied for 30 min to a modified epigastric island skin flap in the rat. Blood flow in the supplying artery was measured by transit-time ultrasound flowmetry throughout the experiment and superficial skin blood flow was measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging before and after treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure was also monitored. NO and the gas nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), which is formed when NO reacts with atmospheric oxygen, were measured above the cream using chemiluminescence. In flaps treated with the NO generating cream, a concentration-dependent increase in blood flow in the supplying artery and flap skin of up to 130% was observed. Cream base alone or cream base acidified with vitamin C had no effect on blood flow. Also, concentration-dependent formation of both NO and NO(2) was seen. NO increases both supplying artery blood flow and superficial cutaneous blood flow in an epigastric island skin flap model in the rat indicating that NO is of importance in flap physiology and possibly also for flap survival. PMID:17976572

  5. Combined education and skin antisepsis intervention for persistently high blood-culture contamination rates in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C; Philip, R K; Powell, J; Slevin, B; Quinn, C; Power, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-05-01

    Contaminated blood cultures represent challenges regarding diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, antimicrobial use, pharmacy and laboratory costs. Facing problematic neonatal blood culture contamination (3.8%), we instigated a successful intervention combining skin antisepsis using sterile applicators with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropanol prior to phlebotomy (replacing 70% isopropanol) and staff education. In the six months prior to intervention, 364 neonatal peripheral blood samples were collected. Fourteen (3.8%) were contaminated. In the post-intervention six months, 314 samples were collected. Three (0.96%) were contaminated, representing significant improvement (Fisher's exact test: P = 0.0259). No dermatological sequelae were observed. The improvement has been sustained. PMID:26944902

  6. New Locus for Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence in Type 1 Diabetes Also Associated With Blood and Skin Glycated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Delnaz; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; van der Klauw, Melanie M; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Atzmon, Gil; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Crandall, Jill P; Barzilai, Nir; Bull, Shelley B; Canty, Angelo J; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Hiraki, Linda T; Maynard, John; Sell, David R; Monnier, Vincent M; Cleary, Patricia A; Braffett, Barbara H; Paterson, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Skin fluorescence (SF) noninvasively measures advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin and is a risk indicator for diabetes complications. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is the only known locus influencing SF. We aimed to identify additional genetic loci influencing SF in type 1 diabetes (T1D) through a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (N = 1,359) including Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) and Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR). A locus on chromosome 1, rs7533564 (P = 1.9 × 10(-9)), was associated with skin intrinsic fluorescence measured by SCOUT DS (excitation 375 nm, emission 435-655 nm), which remained significant after adjustment for time-weighted HbA1c (P = 1.7 × 10(-8)). rs7533564 was associated with mean HbA1c in meta-analysis (P = 0.0225), mean glycated albumin (P = 0.0029), and glyoxal hydroimidazolones (P = 0.049), an AGE measured in skin biopsy collagen, in DCCT. rs7533564 was not associated with diabetes complications in DCCT/EDIC or with SF in subjects without diabetes (nondiabetic [ND]) (N = 8,721). In conclusion, we identified a new locus associated with SF in T1D subjects that did not show similar effect in ND subjects, suggesting a diabetes-specific effect. This association needs to be investigated in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27207532

  7. Osmoreceptors do not exhibit a sex‐dependent modulation of forearm skin blood flow and sweating

    PubMed Central

    Barrera‐Ramirez, Juliana; McGinn, Ryan; Carter, Michael R.; Franco‐Lopez, Hernan; Kenny, Glen P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Studies show that increases in plasma osmolality result in a delayed onset threshold of thermoeffector responses. However, it remains unclear if there are sex‐related differences in the osmotically induced changes in both sweating and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Nine young men and nine young women were passively heated (water‐perfused suit) to 1.5°C above baseline esophageal temperature while in an isosmotic (0.9% NaCl saline infusion) (ISO) and hyperosmotic (3% NaCl saline infusion) (HYP) state. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule), skin blood flow (laser‐Doppler), esophageal temperature and skin temperature were continuously recorded. Sweat gland output (SGO) on the forearm was calculated from the number of heat activated sweat glands (modified iodine‐paper technique) at the end of heating. The onset threshold and thermosensitivity of sweating and CVC were determined using the linear portion of each response plotted against mean body temperature and analyzed using segmented regression analysis. We show that the osmotically induced delay in the onset threshold of sweating and CVC is similar between males and females. Although the thermosensitivity of CVC was similar between sexes (P = 0.601), the thermosensitivity of sweating was consistently lower in females compared to males (P = 0.018). The lower thermosensitivity in sudomotor response of females was accompanied by a lower SGO (P = 0.003), albeit similar sweat gland activation to males (P = 0.644). We conclude that sex‐related differences in thermoeffector activity are independent of osmoreceptor activation. Therefore, osmoreceptors do not exhibit sex‐related differences in the modulation of CVC and sweating responses during heat stress. PMID:24744895

  8. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  9. Detection of blood oxygen level by noninvasive passive spectral imaging of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2008-02-01

    A compact optical hyperspectral imager that can detect both spectral and polarization signatures was used for passive noninvasive imaging of human skin. This vibration-insensitive imager uses an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as a spectral selection element and an electronically tunable liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) as a polarization device. Such an imager is ideally suited to provide both agile spectral and polarization signatures and can be readily used for real time in vivo medical imaging applications. Operation of this imager and image acquisition is fully computer controlled. This imager covers visible to near-infrared (VNIR) region from 400 to 800 nm with a 10 nm spectral resolution at 600 nm and uses a TeO II AOTF with a 15×15 mm2 linear aperture and a 4.2° angular aperture. At each wavelength 640×480 images with two orthogonal polarization are captured and a total of 41 spectral images are collected to form an image cube. A commercial Si CCD camera was used along with off-the-shelf lenses, mirrors and irises. We carried out experiments with a human subject and controlled the blood perfusion in the individual arm and finger by using a pressure cuff and a rubber band, respectively. Images were captured by illuminating the subject with a white light lamp source and imaging it from a distance. When the hyperspectral image analysis was performed we could observe the effects of skin deoxygenation. In this paper we will described our instrument, the experimental setup, the images obtained and the analysis results.

  10. Effects of skin blood flow and temperature on bioelectric impedance after exercise.

    PubMed

    Liang, M T; Norris, S

    1993-11-01

    To examine the effects of increased skin blood flow (BFsk) and skin temperature (Tsk) on bioelectric impedance (BIA), 30 young males participated as subjects. All subjects underwent the following measurements: 1) BFsk and Tsk for the chest, biceps, thigh, and calf; 2) body composition using the BIA prediction equations and underwater weighting (UW); and 3) triceps skinfold (SFtri) thickness. After the baseline studies (M1) the subjects exercised for 30 min at approximately 83% of maximal heart rate. The above measurements were repeated immediately after exercise (M2), and at 1-h recovery from exercise (M3). Repeated measures ANOVA showed that mean Tsk and BFsk, and for the four measured sites were significantly increased from M1 to M2 (P < 0.05) and decreased from M2 to M3 (P < 0.05). These changes did not affect BIA measurement for resistance (R) and reactance between M1 and M2 (P > 0.05), and between M2 and M3 (P > 0.05). With regression analysis the following independent variables were identified as strong contributing factors for predicting fat-free mass (FFM): 1) SFtri and total body water for M1 and M3; and 2) WT, SFtri, and Tsk of the chest for M2. Two FFM equations have little multicolinearity (M1 and M2), e.g., they have low root mean square errors (< or = 2.6 kg), very high values for R2 (> or = 0.94), and relatively low values for coefficient of variations (< or = 5.65%). Differences (P < 0.05) were observed between the UW method and the Lukasi equation for estimating FFM for M1 and M3, but not for M2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8289609

  11. Age-related changes in skin blood flow at four anatomic sites of the body in males studied by xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Y.

    1990-04-01

    The normal skin blood flow in healthy subjects consisting of 28 males whose ages ranged from 20 to 72 years was measured by the xenon-133 clearance method at four different sites of the body to determine the presence of any age-related changes. The following results were obtained: Significant age-related changes were observed in the skin blood flow of the deltoid region, anterior chest, dorsum of the hand, and dorsum of the foot. Normal skin blood flow was demonstrated to be highly dependent on age and to significantly decrease with age. Average skin blood flow at these four regions of those 70 years of age decreased by 30 to 40 percent when compared to that of those 20 years of age. The skin blood flow at the deltoid region of healthy subjects was higher by 6.3 ml/100 gm per minute than that of patients in poor condition with cancer of the head and neck.

  12. Divergent roles of plasma osmolality and the baroreflex on sweating and skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Aaron G; Gagnon, Daniel; Binder, Konrad; Boushel, Robert C; Kenny, Glen P

    2012-03-01

    Plasma hyperosmolality and baroreceptor unloading have been shown to independently influence the heat loss responses of sweating and cutaneous vasodilation. However, their combined effects remain unresolved. On four separate occasions, eight males were passively heated with a liquid-conditioned suit to 1.0°C above baseline core temperature during a resting isosmotic state (infusion of 0.9% NaCl saline) with (LBNP) and without (CON) application of lower-body negative pressure (-40 cmH2O) and during a hyperosmotic state (infusion of 3.0% NaCl saline) with (LBNP + HYP) and without (HYP) application of lower-body negative pressure. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler), as well as core (esophageal) and mean skin temperatures, were measured continuously. Plasma osmolality increased by ∼10 mosmol/kgH2O during HYP and HYP + LBNP conditions, whereas it remained unchanged during CON and LBNP (P ≤ 0.05). The change in mean body temperature (0.8 × core temperature + 0.2 × mean skin temperature) at the onset threshold for increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was significantly greater during LBNP (0.56 ± 0.24°C) and HYP (0.69 ± 0.36°C) conditions compared with CON (0.28 ± 0.23°C, P ≤ 0.05). Additionally, the onset threshold for CVC during LBNP + HYP (0.88 ± 0.33°C) was significantly greater than CON and LBNP conditions (P ≤ 0.05). In contrast, onset thresholds for sweating were not different during LBNP (0.50 ± 0.18°C) compared with CON (0.46 ± 0.26°C, P = 0.950) but were elevated (P ≤ 0.05) similarly during HYP (0.91 ± 0.37°C) and LBNP + HYP (0.94 ± 0.40°C). Our findings show an additive effect of hyperosmolality and baroreceptor unloading on the onset threshold for increases in CVC during whole body heat stress. In contrast, the onset threshold for sweating during heat stress was only elevated by hyperosmolality with no effect of the baroreflex. PMID:22170619

  13. Continuous imaging of the blood vessels in tumor mouse dorsal skin window chamber model by using SD-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiao; Yang, Shaozhuang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Qi; Lin, Danying; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Peiqi; Ma, Yiqun; Qu, Junle; Niu, Hanben

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been widely applied into microstructure imaging of tissues or blood vessels with a series of advantages, including non-destructiveness, real-time imaging, high resolution and high sensitivity. In this study, a Spectral Domain OCT (SD-OCT) system with higher sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was built up, which was used to observe the blood vessel distribution and blood flow in the dorsal skin window chamber of the nude mouse tumor model. In order to obtain comparable data, the distribution images of blood vessels were collected from the same mouse before and after tumor injection. In conclusion, in vivo blood vessel distribution images of the tumor mouse model have been continuously obtained during around two weeks.

  14. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths II: Studies on a further 3 adult Calyptra [Calpe] sp. (Lepid., Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Bänziger, H

    1979-03-01

    1. Of the scarce Calyptra minuticornis, C. orthograpta and C. labilis, 51, 24, and 7 adults, respectively, were observed during some 600 night inspections at over 100 sites in 1965--1967 and 1971--1977. 2. Hitherto biologically completely unknown, and not recorded before in S.E. Asia, the latter two species flew in or near tropical monsoon forests in hilly regions (300--600 m) of N. Thailand (C. orthograpta also N. Laos). C. minuticornis was found in these and in tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests of S. Thailand and N.W. Malaysia. 3. In N. Thailand the three species were more common at the end of the cool season/start of the hot season and at the start of the rainy season. They were active mainly during the first half of the night 4. Flight and piercing behaviour, alighting, resting, enemies, and the lack of females, were similar to virtually identical with the "classical" skin-piercing blood-sucking C. eustrigata. 5. C. labilis was seen attacking elephant, C. orthograpta also water buffalo and sambar, C. minuticornis also zebu and tapir but not sambar. C. minuticornis settled on man also but did not pierce. 6. Through no piercing of hosts' skin has actually been seen in nature, indirect evidence suggests that the 3 moths are likely to be occasional blood-suckers. They pierced and sucked blood from the author's skin in experiments. 7. Reasons for lack of direct evidence may be: less developed hematophagy, less favoured hosts, lack of easy-to-pierce injured skin (which also trigger the piercing response), different climatic and phytoecological environment, fewer specimens than in the case of C. eustrigata. 8. Field observations and experiments indicate that the closely related, fruit-piercing Oraesia emarginata is not skin-piercing blood-sucking--a habit likely to be exhibited mainly in humid equatorial regions by a few Calyptra only. PMID:35931

  15. The human thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones: Thermal comfort in your own skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J

    2014-01-01

    Human thermoregulation is achieved via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses involve 2 synchronous ‘components’. One counteracts large thermal perturbations, eliciting robust heat loss or gain (i.e., sweating or shivering). The other fends off smaller insults, relying solely on changes in sensible heat exchange (i.e., skin blood flow). This sensible component occurs within the thermoneutral zone [i.e., the ambient temperature range in which temperature regulation is achieved only by sensible heat transfer, without regulatory increases in metabolic heat production (e.g., shivering) or evaporative heat loss (e.g., sweating)].1 The combination of behavior and sensible heat exchange permits a range of conditions that are deemed thermally comfortable, which is defined as the thermal comfort zone.1 Notably, we spend the majority of our lives within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones. It is only when we are unable to stay within these zones that deleterious health and safety outcomes can occur (i.e., hypo- or hyperthermia). Oddly, although the thermoneutral zone and thermal preference (a concept similar to the thermal comfort zone) has been extensively studied in non-human animals, our understanding of human thermoregulation within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones remains rather crude. PMID:27226992

  16. Individual variability analysis of fluorescence parameters measured in skin with different levels of nutritive blood flow.

    PubMed

    Dunaev, Andrey V; Dremin, Victor V; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A; Rafailov, Ilya E; Litvinova, Karina S; Palmer, Scott G; Stewart, Neil A; Sokolovski, Sergei G; Rafailov, Edik U

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has recently become more common in clinical medicine. However, there are still many unresolved issues related to the methodology and implementation of instruments with this technology. In this study, we aimed to assess individual variability of fluorescence parameters of endogenous markers (NADH, FAD, etc.) measured by fluorescent spectroscopy (FS) in situ and to analyse the factors that lead to a significant scatter of results. Most studied fluorophores have an acceptable scatter of values (mostly up to 30%) for diagnostic purposes. Here we provide evidence that the level of blood volume in tissue impacts FS data with a significant inverse correlation. The distribution function of the fluorescence intensity and the fluorescent contrast coefficient values are a function of the normal distribution for most of the studied fluorophores and the redox ratio. The effects of various physiological (different content of skin melanin) and technical (characteristics of optical filters) factors on the measurement results were additionally studied. The data on the variability of the measurement results in FS should be considered when interpreting the diagnostic parameters, as well as when developing new algorithms for data processing and FS devices. PMID:25922293

  17. A comparison of peripheral skin blood flow and temperature during endoscopic thoracic sympathotomy.

    PubMed

    Eisenach, John H; Pike, Tasha L; Wick, Diane E; Dietz, Niki M; Fealey, Robert D; Atkinson, John L D; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of sympathetic denervation to the upper extremities during surgery for hyperhidrosis is essential in predicting postoperative outcome, particularly for endoscopic thoracic chain sympathotomy, a recently described, minimally destructive technique that minimizes postoperative compensatory hyperhidrosis. To test the hypothesis that skin blood flow (SkBF; laser Doppler flowmetry) provides a faster and more reliable indication of denervation than temperature (temp), we prospectively compared palmar SkBF and fingertip temp in 10 patients undergoing endoscopic thoracic chain sympathotomy for essential hyperhidrosis. From baseline to peak values, palmar SkBF (mean +/- SEM) increased 273.3 +/- 24.7 arbitrary units and 252.4 +/- 30.1 arbitrary units, whereas temp increased 0.9 degrees C +/- 0.3 degrees C and 1.5 degrees C +/- 0.6 degrees C on the right and left, respectively. Upon effective sympathotomy of the right thoracic chain, the time to peak SkBF was 43 +/- 13 s, whereas the time to peak temp was 277 +/- 53 s (P <0.001). On the left, the time to peak SkBF was 81 +/- 14 s, and time to peak temp was 305 +/- 34 s (P <0.001). All patients considered the sympathotomy successful. We conclude that laser Doppler SkBF is superior to temp in temporal resolution for assessment of denervation during sympathotomy and that it provides a superior qualitative and quantitative adjunct to monitoring denervation. PMID:15616090

  18. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (SecPBMC), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-SecPBMC), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-SecPBMC had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-SecPBMC had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-SecPBMC significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting. PMID:27125302

  19. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (Sec(PBMC)), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-Sec(PBMC)), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-Sec(PBMC) significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting. PMID:27125302

  20. Skin antiseptics in venous puncture-site disinfection for prevention of blood culture contamination: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, D; David, C; Sampaio, C

    2011-03-01

    Blood cultures drawn by venous puncture are common clinical procedures for the detection of bacteraemia. Blood culture contamination (BCC) can lead to clinical misinterpretation and unnecessary expenses. We aimed to systematically review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with skin antiseptics for prevention of contamination in venous-puncture drawn blood cultures. We conducted database search using CENTRAL (Cochrane Library issue April 2010), MEDLINE, EMBASE and mRCT, in June 2010. All RCTs testing skin antiseptics in venous-puncture drawn blood cultures were retrieved. Relative risk (RR) of the BCC outcome was analysed by random effects method using confidence interval (CI) of 95%. Studies were assessed by one review author and checked by another. Six studies were identified. Single-trial comparisons showed that alcoholic iodine tincture was better than non-alcoholic povidone-iodine, and isopropyl/acetone/povidone-iodine showed superiority against isopropyl/povidone-iodine. Meta-analysis demonstrated that alcoholic chlorhexidine was better than non-alcoholic povidone-iodine (RR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.24-0.46) in 4757 blood cultures from two trials. Alcoholic solutions were better than non-alcoholic products (0.53; 0.31-0.90) in 21,300 blood cultures from four studies. Two trials with 13,418 blood cultures showed that iodine tincture was not superior to povidone-iodine in BCC prevention (0.79; 0.54-1.18). Alcoholic iodine was not different from non-alcoholic iodine (0.79; 0.53-1.17). Comparison of chlorhexidine vs iodine compounds was not conclusive. Alcohol alone was not inferior to iodinated products for prevention of contamination in venous-puncture drawn blood cultures. The association of alcohol and povidone-iodine did not seem to be useful. Alcoholic chlorhexidine solutions reduced blood culture false positives compared with aqueous povidone-iodine. PMID:21194791

  1. Skin blood flow differentially affects near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume at rest and during dynamic leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Ruddock, Alan D; Saxton, John M

    2010-11-01

    The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy males. The protocol was repeated four times: twice without thigh heating for reliability, and twice with different grades of thigh heating for assessing the impact of cutaneous vasodilation on SmO(2) and Δ[tHb]. The reliability of our SmO(2) and [tHb] measurements was good. Thigh heating at 37 and 42°C caused marked increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during rest and exercise (P < 0.001 between each condition), and small increases in SmO(2) during rest (from 69 ± 8% to 71 ± 7% and 73 ± 6%, respectively; P < 0.05 between each condition), but not during exercise (e.g. 1 min exercise: 51 ± 11% vs. 51 ± 11% and 52 ± 11%, respectively; P > 0.05 at all time points). In contrast, heating-induced increases in %CVC(peak) were accompanied by increases in [tHb] at rest and during exercise and a decrease in Δ[tHb] during exercise (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that NIRS-derived measures of SmO(2) and blood volume are differentially affected by skin blood flow at rest and during exercise. The findings from this study should be considered in NIRS experiments where skin blood flow can change markedly (e.g. high-intensity and/or prolonged exercise). PMID:20700602

  2. Investigating the roles of core and local temperature on forearm skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Matthew M; Hodges, Gary J; McGarr, Gregory W; Gabriel, David A; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-07-01

    We sought to isolate the contributions of core and local temperature on forearm skin blood flow (SkBF), and to examine the interaction between local- and reflexive-mechanisms of SkBF control. Forearm SkBF was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry in eight males and eight females during normothermia and hyperthermia (+1.2°C rectal temperature). Mean experimental forearm temperature was manipulated in four, 5min blocks between neutral (A: 33.0°C) and warm (B: 38.5°C) in an A-B-A-B fashion during normothermia, and B-A-B-A during hyperthermia. Mean control forearm skin temperature was maintained at ~33°C. Finally, local heating to 44°C was performed on both forearms to elicit maximal SkBF. Data are presented as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), calculated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial pressure. No sex differences were observed in any CVC measures (P>0.05). During normothermia, increasing experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C elevated CVC by 42±8%max (d=3.1, P<0.001). Subsequently decreasing experimental forearm temperature back down to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 36±7%max (d=2.5, P<0.001). Finally, the second increase in experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C increased CVC by 25±6%max (d=1.9, P<0.0001). During hyperthermia, decreasing experimental forearm temperature to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 6±1%max (d=0.5, P<0.001). Increasing experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C increased CVC by 4±2%max (d=0.4, P<0.001). Finally, decreasing experimental forearm temperature to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 8±2%max (d=0.7, P<0.001). Compared to normothermia, CVC responses to local temperature changes during hyperthermia were almost abolished (normothermia: d=1.9-3.1; hyperthermia: d=0.4-0.7). These data indicate that local temperature drives SkBF during normothermia, while reflexive mechanisms regulate SkBF during hyperthermia. PMID:27072118

  3. Accessing to arteriovenous blood flow dynamics response using combined laser speckle contrast imaging and skin optical clearing

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rui; Chen, Min; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zhu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) shows a great potential for monitoring blood flow, but the spatial resolution suffers from the scattering of tissue. Here, we demonstrate the capability of a combination method of LSCI and skin optical clearing to describe in detail the dynamic response of cutaneous vasculature to vasoactive noradrenaline injection. Moreover, the superior resolution, contrast and sensitivity make it possible to rebuild arteries-veins separation and quantitatively assess the blood flow dynamical changes in terms of flow velocity and vascular diameter at single artery or vein level. PMID:26114023

  4. UVA irradiation of human skin vasodilates arterial vasculature and lowers blood pressure independently of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donald; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Hamilton, Alistair; Lang, Ninian N; Gallagher, Julie M C; Newby, David E; Feelisch, Martin; Weller, Richard B

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) correlates with latitude and rises in winter. The molecular basis for this remains obscure. As nitric oxide (NO) metabolites are abundant in human skin, we hypothesized that exposure to UVA may mobilize NO bioactivity into the circulation to exert beneficial cardiovascular effects independently of vitamin D. In 24 healthy volunteers, irradiation of the skin with two standard erythemal doses of UVA lowered blood pressure (BP), with concomitant decreases in circulating nitrate and rises in nitrite concentrations. Unexpectedly, acute dietary intervention aimed at modulating systemic nitrate availability had no effect on UV-induced hemodynamic changes, indicating that cardiovascular effects were not mediated via direct utilization of circulating nitrate. UVA irradiation of the forearm caused increased blood flow independently of NO synthase (NOS) activity, suggesting involvement of pre-formed cutaneous NO stores. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies of human skin pre-labeled with the NO-imaging probe diaminofluorescein 2 diacetate revealed that UVA-induced NO release occurs in a NOS-independent, dose-dependent manner, with the majority of the light-sensitive NO pool in the upper epidermis. Collectively, our data provide mechanistic insights into an important function of the skin in modulating systemic NO bioavailability, which may account for the latitudinal and seasonal variations of BP and CVD. PMID:24445737

  5. Role of skin blood flow and sweating rate in exercise thermoregulation after bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2002-01-01

    Two potential mechanisms, reduced skin blood flow (SBF) and sweating rate (SR), may be responsible for elevated intestinal temperature (T(in)) during exercise after bed rest and spaceflight. Seven men underwent 13 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Pre- and post-bed rest, subjects completed supine submaximal cycle ergometry (20 min at 40% and 20 min at 65% of pre-bed rest supine peak exercise capacity) in a thermoneutral room. After bed rest, T(in) was elevated at rest (+0.31 +/- 0.12 degrees C) and at the end of exercise (+0.33 +/- 0.07 degrees C). Percent increase in SBF during exercise was less after bed rest (211 +/- 53 vs. 96 +/- 31%; P < or = 0.05), SBF/T(in) threshold was greater (37.09 +/- 0.16 vs. 37.33 +/- 0.13 degrees C; P < or = 0.05), and slope of SBF/T(in) tended to be reduced (536 +/- 184 vs. 201 +/- 46%/ degrees C; P = 0.08). SR/T(in) threshold was delayed (37.06 +/- 0.11 vs. 37.34 +/- 0.06 degrees C; P < or = 0.05), but the slope of SR/T(in) (3.45 +/- 1.22 vs. 2.58 +/- 0.71 mg x min-1 x cm-2 x degrees C-1) and total sweat loss (0.42 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.08 kg) were not changed. The higher resting and exercise T(in) and delayed onset of SBF and SR suggest a centrally mediated elevation in the thermoregulatory set point during bed rest exposure.

  6. An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival. PMID:24244770

  7. Immune Evasion and Recognition of the Syphilis Spirochete in Blood and Skin of Secondary Syphilis Patients: Two Immunologically Distinct Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Adriana R.; Ramirez, Lady G.; Zuluaga, Ana V.; Pillay, Allan; Abreu, Christine; Valencia, Carlos A.; La Vake, Carson; Cervantes, Jorge L.; Dunham-Ems, Star; Cartun, Richard; Mavilio, Domenico; Radolf, Justin D.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical syndrome associated with secondary syphilis (SS) reflects the propensity of Treponema pallidum (Tp) to escape immune recognition while simultaneously inducing inflammation. Methods To better understand the duality of immune evasion and immune recognition in human syphilis, herein we used a combination of flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and transcriptional profiling to study the immune response in the blood and skin of 27 HIV(-) SS patients in relation to spirochetal burdens. Ex vivo opsonophagocytosis assays using human syphilitic sera (HSS) were performed to model spirochete-monocyte/macrophage interactions in vivo. Results Despite the presence of low-level spirochetemia, as well as immunophenotypic changes suggestive of monocyte activation, we did not detect systemic cytokine production. SS subjects had substantial decreases in circulating DCs and in IFNγ-producing and cytotoxic NK-cells, along with an emergent CD56−/CD16+ NK-cell subset in blood. Skin lesions, which had visible Tp by IHC and substantial amounts of Tp-DNA, had large numbers of macrophages (CD68+), a relative increase in CD8+ T-cells over CD4+ T-cells and were enriched for CD56+ NK-cells. Skin lesions contained transcripts for cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α), chemokines (CCL2, CXCL10), macrophage and DC activation markers (CD40, CD86), Fc-mediated phagocytosis receptors (FcγRI, FcγR3), IFN-β and effector molecules associated with CD8 and NK-cell cytotoxic responses. While HSS promoted uptake of Tp in conjunction with monocyte activation, most spirochetes were not internalized. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of macrophage driven opsonophagocytosis and cell mediated immunity in treponemal clearance, while suggesting that the balance between phagocytic uptake and evasion is influenced by the relative burdens of bacteria in blood and skin and the presence of Tp subpopulations with differential capacities for binding opsonic antibodies. They also

  8. The role of non-thermal factors in the control of skin blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B

    1986-01-01

    Arguments in favor of the importance of non-thermal factors in the control of skin circulation are presented. Such factors include exercise, posture, water and electrolyte balance, state of training, and acclimatization. The first three factors probably elicit their effects via high- and low-pressure baroreceptors, while the mechanisms involved for the remainder are unknown. PMID:3529655

  9. Responses to hyperthermia. Optimizing heat dissipation by convection and evaporation: Neural control of skin blood flow and sweating in humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline J; Johnson, John M

    2016-04-01

    Under normothermic, resting conditions, humans dissipate heat from the body at a rate approximately equal to heat production. Small discrepancies between heat production and heat elimination would, over time, lead to significant changes in heat storage and body temperature. When heat production or environmental temperature is high the challenge of maintaining heat balance is much greater. This matching of heat elimination with heat production is a function of the skin circulation facilitating heat transport to the body surface and sweating, enabling evaporative heat loss. These processes are manifestations of the autonomic control of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor functions and form the basis of this review. We focus on these systems in the responses to hyperthermia. In particular, the cutaneous vascular responses to heat stress and the current understanding of the neurovascular mechanisms involved. The available research regarding cutaneous active vasodilation and vasoconstriction is highlighted, with emphasis on active vasodilation as a major responder to heat stress. Involvement of the vasoconstrictor and active vasodilator controls of the skin circulation in the context of heat stress and nonthermoregulatory reflexes (blood pressure, exercise) are also considered. Autonomic involvement in the cutaneous vascular responses to direct heating and cooling of the skin are also discussed. We examine the autonomic control of sweating, including cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms, the local control of sweating, thermoregulatory and nonthermoregulatory reflex control and the possible relationship between sudomotor and cutaneous vasodilator function. Finally, we comment on the clinical relevance of these control schemes in conditions of autonomic dysfunction. PMID:26830064

  10. Radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging to assess skin ulcer healing prognosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Lawrence, P.F.; Syverud, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Several non-invasive diagnostic techniques including segmental limb blood pressures, skin fluoresence, and photo plethysmography, have been evaluated as predictors of skin ulcer healing in patients with peripheral vascular disease, but none are widely used. Using 20mCi of Tc-99m phosphate compounds, four phase bone scans were obtained, including (1) radionuclide angiogram (2) blood pool image (3) 2 hour and 4-6 hour static images and (4) 24 hour static delayed images. The first two phases were used to assess vacularity to the region of distal extremity ulceration; the last two phases evaluated presence or absence of osteomyelitis. Studies were performed in 30 patients with non-healing ulcers of the lower extremities. Perfusion to the regions of ulceration on images was graded as normal, increased, or reduced with respect to the opposite (presumed normal) limb or some other normal reference area. Hypervascular response was interpreted as good prognosis for healing unless osteomyelitis was present. Clinicians followed patients for 14 days to assess limb healing with optimum care. If there was no improvement, angiography and/or surgery (reconstructive surgery, sympathectomy, or amputation) was done. Results showed: sensitivity for predicting ulcer healing was 94%, specificity 89%. Patients who failed to heal their ulcers showed reduced perfusion, no hypervascular response, or osteomyelitis. Microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing appear predictable by this technique.

  11. The effect of high- and low-frequency H-wave therapy upon skin blood perfusion: evidence of frequency-specific effects.

    PubMed

    McDowell, B C; McElduff, C; Lowe, A S; Walsh, D M; Baxter, G D

    1999-11-01

    The current study was designed to assess the putative physiological effects of H-wave therapy (HWT, a mode of therapeutic electro-stimulation) on skin blood flow in humans and to determine the relevance of frequency to any such effects. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to record changes in blood perfusion on the dominant forearm of healthy human volunteers (n=36), who were each assigned, under randomized double blind conditions, to one of three experimental groups: placebo or HWT at 2 or 60 Hz. HWT stimulation was applied for 20 min, during which time concomitant skin temperature was recorded using three surface skin thermistors. Statistical analysis of perfusion measurement and skin temperature changes pre-, during and for up to 18 min post-HWT stimulation showed a highly significant increase in skin blood flow in the 2 Hz group when compared to placebo and 60 Hz (Pskin temperature during the period of stimulation (Pblood flow, a finding relevant for clinicians working in the field of tissue repair. PMID:10583337

  12. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  13. Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2010-06-23

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis. (laser methods in medicine)

  14. LASER METHODS IN MEDICINE: Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-06-01

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis.

  15. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  16. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p<0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r=0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  17. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  18. Development of full-thickness human skin equivalents with blood and lymph-like capillary networks by cell coating technology.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Fujimoto, Kumiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Koji; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    We developed a human skin equivalent (HSE) containing blood and lymph-like capillary networks using a cell coating technique, which is a rapid fabrication technology of three-dimensional cellular constructs by cell surface coating using layer-by-layer assembled nanofilms of extracellular matrices. The thickness of dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts was easily controlled from approximately 5 to 100 µm by altering the seeded cell number. Keratinocytes as a major cell population showed homogeneous differentiation on the surface of the dermis by lifting to air-liquid interface. Histological analysis revealed four distinct layers such as basal layer, spinous layer, granular layer, and cornified cell layer in the epidermis. Interestingly, the measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) indicated prolongation of the attainment time for maximum value by increasing the number of the dermal fibroblasts, and the HSEs with six layers of dermis revealed the longest period maintaining over 500 Ω cm(2) of TEER. The co-sandwich culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells within eight-layered dermis showed in vitro co-network formation of individual blood and lymph-like capillaries inside the dermis. This is the report for homogeneous full-thickness HSEs with blood and lymph capillary networks, which will be useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25850823

  19. Single skin exposure to visible polarized light induces rapid modification of entire circulating blood: II. Appearance of soluble factors restoring proliferation and chromosome structure in X-damag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilova, Kira A.; Zubanova, O. I.; Snopov, S. A.; Mukhuradze, N. A.; Mikhelson, V. M.

    1998-12-01

    Exposure of a small skin area (400 cm2) of volunteers to visible incoherent polarized (VIP) light (400 - 2000 nm) in therapeutic doses is accompanied by rapid appearance in the circulating blood of soluble factors able to restore proliferation of X-ray-damaged autologous lymphocytes and to decrease frequency of chromosome breaks. The appearance of a such activity in blood can also be induced without skin irradiation, by in vitro modeling of mixing in the circulation of a small amount of transcutaneously VIP- irradiated blood with the intact blood (one volume of the directly VIP-irradiated blood was added to 10 volumes of the intact blood). Hence, the blood (not the skin) is a major source of the active factors. The data obtained indicate a possibility of release of them from photomodified platelets; moreover, the activity restoring chromosome structure in X- damaged cells has been found in the platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor (which are known to be associated with platelets) when they were added to physiological concentrations to the culture medium. We assume that activation of cell proliferation based on the effective repair of DNA damaged in situ by endogenous and exogenous factors could be one of the mechanisms of photostimulation of wound healing.

  20. Longitudinal 3-week tracking of blood glucose concentration from thermo-optical response measurements on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-jen; Kantor, Stan; Hanna, Charles; Shain, Eric; Hohs, Ronald; Khalil, Omar S.

    2006-08-01

    We designed a dual-sensor instrument for measuring optical signals from the arms of human volunteers. The instrument had two temperature-controlled localized reflectance optical probes. Each probe had one illumination fiber and four detection fibers at different source-detector distances. The two probes were maintained at 30 °C. Thirty seconds after contact with the skin one was heated and the other was cooled at the same rate. The effect of heating and cooling on the signal was measured and correlated with blood glucose concentration. The measurements were performed 3 to 5 times a day for each volunteer over the span of three weeks. The data points from the first two weeks were used to establish a calibration model for each volunteer, which was used to predict glucose values from the third week optical data. Successftil calibration was possible for two of the three volunteers.

  1. Assessment of skin ulcer healing capability by technetium-99m phosphate angiogram and blood-pool images

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Morton, K.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.

    1985-06-01

    The accuracy of radionuclide angiography and blood-pool imaging using (/sup 99m/Tc)-phosphate to assess skin ulcer perfusion as an indicator of healing capacity was determined in 50 studies performed on 45 patients with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities. Two nuclear medicine physicians without clinical bias, graded the perfusion of the ulcer on the images as normal, increased or reduced with respect to the opposite limb. Patients were followed closely with aggressive local wound care for at least 14 days. Of the 31 ulcers which healed, the radionuclide study correctly predicted 30; of the 19 ulcers which did not heal, 14 were correctly predicted. Eight patients had osteomyelitis; four of those healed and four did not. The radionuclide study predicted healing in seven. This technique is a simple, reliable way to predict the microcirculatory adequacy for ulcer healing. Specificity is diminished in the presence of osteomyelitis.

  2. Multi-wavelength photoplethysmography for simultaneous recording of skin blood pulsations at different vascular depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Gailite, Lasma; Lihachev, Alexey

    2007-02-01

    Parallel recording of reflection photoplethysmography (PPG) signals in broad spectral band has been performed, and potential of this approach for assessment of blood microcirculation at various vascular depths is discussed. PPG signals have been simultaneously detected at cw laser wavelengths sets comprising 405 nm, 532 nm, 645 nm, 807 nm and 1064 nm. Different signal baseline responses to breath holding at different wavelengths have been observed, as well as different shapes of the PPG pulses originated from the same heartbeat.

  3. Evaluation of the usefulness of skin blood flow measurements by laser speckle flowgraphy in pressure-induced ischemic wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Sari, Yunita; Nagase, Takashi; Iizaka, Shinji; Ohta, Yasunori; Sanada, Hiromi

    2010-03-01

    Assessment of blood circulation in pressure ulcers can be beneficial for predicting the severity of tissue damage and making the prognosis. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) for assessing skin blood flow in pressure-induced ischemic wounds in rats in comparison with skin temperature measurements by thermography, which is commonly used in clinical settings. The blood flow was assessed in 3 groups (control, 1 kg loading, and 10 kg loading for 3 hours), before, immediately after, and on days 1, 2, and 3 after loading. The 10 kg loading induced more severe tissue damage but did not show any distinguishable gross manifestations immediately after releasing the indenter. LSFG detected a significantly reduced blood flow velocity after 10 kg loading compared with 1 kg loading, whereas thermography did not. These results indicate the usefulness of LSFG measurements for assessing tissue circulation in an early phase after tissue damage onset. PMID:20179489

  4. Vibrations and spatial patterns in biomimetic surfaces: using the shark-skin effect to control blood clotting.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy L; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We study the effect of small-amplitude fast vibrations and small-amplitude spatial patterns on various systems involving wetting and liquid flow, such as superhydrophobic surfaces, membranes and flow pipes. First, we introduce a mathematical method of averaging the effect of small spatial and temporal patterns and substituting them with an effective force. Such an effective force can change the equilibrium state of a system as well as a phase state, leading to surface texture-induced and vibration-induced phase control. Vibration and patterns can effectively jam holes in vessels with liquid, separate multi-phase flow, change membrane properties, result in propulsion and locomotion and lead to many other multi-scale, nonlinear effects including the shark-skin effect. We discuss the application of such effects to blood flow for novel biomedical 'haemophobic' applications which can prevent blood clotting and thrombosis by controlling the surface pattern at a wall of a vessel (e.g. a catheter or stent).This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354733

  5. Transitions in skin blood flow fractal scaling: the importance of fluctuation amplitude in microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Esen, Hamza; Ata, Necmi; Esen, Ferhan

    2015-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) time series from volar skin reveals three scaling regions: cardiac, cardio-respiratory and local. Scaling exponents, slopes (αC, αCR and αL) of the straight lines, in these regions indicate correlation properties of LDF signal. Transitions from uncorrelated to positive in cardiac (αC) and positive to negative correlations in the cardio-respiratory (αCR) exponent have been observed for vasodilatation signals in response to local heating. However, positive correlation in local region (αL) did not change with vasodilatation. We studied whether the transitions in scaling exponents are correlated with the increase in peak to peak fluctuation amplitude (AF) of LDF signal. LDF signals were normalized to unity using average values of their pulsatile parts: baseline and saturation signals. If AF of normalized LDF signal is ≥0.5, we observed transitions in αC and in αCR but not in αL, in healthy subjects. It is suggested that the transition from positive to negative correlation in αCR with increasing amplitude may be explained by intact arteriolar myogenic activity in healthy young (Y) and middle aged (MA) subjects. In contrast, we did not observe transition in αCR suggesting impaired myogenic activity in patients with essential hypertension (EHT). PMID:25241251

  6. Induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, Cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    el-Mofty, M.M.; Sakr, S.A.; Younis, M.W. )

    1989-11-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. This significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. It is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. Because bed bugs play a significant role in the transmission of virus, it is also speculated that there is a virus in the saliva of bugs; this virus may be activated by gamma radiation and causes the development of papillomas in the skin.

  7. Induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, Cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays.

    PubMed

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A; Younis, M W

    1989-11-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. This significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. It is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. Because bed bugs play a significant role in the transmission of virus, it is also speculated that there is a virus in the saliva of bugs; this virus may be activated by gamma radiation and causes the development of papillomas in the skin. PMID:2794550

  8. Comparison of histamine release from human blood monocytes, lymphocytes, adenoidal and skin mast cells.

    PubMed

    Schmutzler, W; Bolsmann, K; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, G

    1995-01-01

    Monocytes and lymphocytes from human blood contain 0.043 +/- 0.007 and 0.053 +/- 0.014 pg histamine/cell, respectively, which can be released by a number of stimulants (A 23187, C5a, substance P, specific allergen). The release process takes 60-120 min to reach its end point, in contrast to tissue mast cells which complete the release within 1-3 min. Both, ketotifen (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) and disodium cromoglycate (10(-5) - 10(-3) M) inhibited histamine release dose dependently up to 40-45%, which might be particularly relevant during the later stages of acute allergic or pseudoallergic reactions. PMID:7542070

  9. Aspirin and Clopidogrel Alter Core Temperature and Skin Blood Flow during Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Rebecca S.; Dahmus, Jessica D.; Kenney, W. Larry; Holowatz, Lacy A.

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy with oral aspirin or clopidogrel (PlavixR) is associated with an attenuated skin vasodilator response and a greater rate of rise in core temperature in healthy, middle-aged individuals during passive heating in a water perfused suit. Purpose The present double-blind, crossover study examined the functional consequences of 7 days of low-dose aspirin (ASA, 81 mg/day) vs. clopidogrel (CLO, 75 mg/day) treatment in 14 healthy, middle-aged (50–65 yrs) men and women during passive heating in air (40 min at 30°C, 40% rh) followed by exercise (60% V̇O2peak). Methods Oral temperature (Tor) was measured in the antechamber (23.0 ± 0.1°C) before entering a warm environmental chamber. After 40 minutes of rest subjects cycled on a recumbent cycle ergometer for up to 120 minutes. Esophageal temperature (Tes) and laser Doppler flux were measured continuously, and the latter was normalized to maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (%CVCmax). Results Prior to entry into the environmental chamber there were no differences in Tor among treatments; however, after 40 minutes of rest in the heat, Tes was significantly higher for ASA and CLO vs. placebo (37.2±0.1°C, 37.3±0.1°C, vs. 37.0±0.1°C, both P<0.001), a difference that persisted throughout exercise (P<0.001 vs. placebo). The mean body temperature thresholds for the onset of cutaneous vasodilation were shifted to the right for both ASA and CLO during exercise (P<0.05). Conclusion ASA and CLO resulted in elevated core temperatures during passive heat stress and shifted the onset of peripheral thermoeffector mechanisms toward higher body temperatures during exercise heat stress. PMID:23135368

  10. Influence of Nigella sativa fixed oil on some blood parameters and histopathology of skin in staphylococcal-infected BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-Al-Basal, Mariam A

    2011-12-01

    Nigella sativa has been used for a long time in Jordanian folk medicine to treat skin diseases like microbial infections and inflammation. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the healing efficacy of petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa seeds (fixed oil) on staphylococcal-infected skin. Male BALB/c mice were infected with 100 microL of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) suspension at a dose of 10(8) colony forming unit/mouse into shaved mild dorsal skin. Application of treatments for each group (100 microL sterile saline, 100 microL chloramphenicol (10 microg/mouse) and Nigella sativa fixed oil at a dose of 50, 100 or 150 microL/mouse) was performed at the site of infection twice a day for two consecutive days after 3 h of infection. At day 3 and 5 after infection, total White Blood Cells (WBCs) count; differential and absolute differential WBC counts and the number of viable bacteria present in the skin area were measured. At day 5 after infection, the animals were sacrificed and the histology of skin was examined. Results indicated that fixed oil of Nigella sativa seeds enhance healing of staphylococcal-infected skin by reducing total and absolute differential WBC counts, local infection and inflammation, bacterial expansion and tissue impairment. These effects provide scientific basis for the use of Nigella sativa in traditional medicine to treat skin infections and inflammations. PMID:22590837

  11. Near-infrared noninvasive blood glucose prediction without using multivariate analyses: introduction of imaginary spectra due to scattering change in the skin.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Yukio

    2015-04-01

    A noninvasive measurement method is proposed and examined to continuously predict blood glucose contents using near-infrared diffuse reflection difference spectra measured at the skin tissue without using multivariate analyses. Using the modified Beer’s law, the difference spectra are assumed to be synthesized from four major components in the human skin (water, protein, glucose, and fat) and a scattering equivalent component called baseline. As a result, one of the origins of the errors in blood glucose prediction using near-infrared is found to be the similarity of the shapes of the absorption spectrum between glucose and baseline. After separating the glucose contributions from the difference spectra at the characteristic wavelengths of baseline and fat, an imaginary component combining baseline and fat is introduced by considering that both the change in the fat contribution and the generation of baseline originate from the change in scattering in the skin. The imaginary component enables us to reduce the errors in blood glucose prediction. In contrast to the methods using multivariate analyses, the calculation process of the blood glucose contents from the measured reflection spectra is clear in this method, thus, it is easy to estimate the origins of the changes and contributions of the components in the measured difference spectra. The proposed method may become a useful tool for realization of noninvasive blood glucose prediction using near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:25859836

  12. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10−7-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P < 0.0001) and was greater on the back versus other sites (P < 0.05), but LDF was similar between sites (P = 0.343). RSR and SkBF showed a strong relation during initial (arm: r = 0.77 ± 0.09, thigh: r = 0.81 ± 0.08, abdomen: r = 0.89 ± 0.04, back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF. PMID:23389110

  13. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  14. Local variation in cutaneous and subcutaneous blood flow measured by CdTe(C1) minidetectors in normal and psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Klemp, P.; Bojsen, J.

    1986-02-01

    The accuracy of the /sup 133/Xe washout method and the validity of newly developed cadmium telluride CdTe(Cl) minisemiconductor detectors were estimated by performing comparative, simultaneous measurements of both cutaneous (CBF) and subcutaneous (SBF) blood flow using 2 conventional scintillation sodium iodide NaI(Tl) and CdTe(Cl) detectors over the same radioactive depot in each of 10 individuals. The accuracy of the /sup 133/Xe washout method was found to be 13-15% (C.V.) for the CBF measurements and 9-12% (C.V.) for the SBF measurements. The CdTe(Cl) detectors, which have a weight of 20 g and were attached directly over the radioactive depot, may replace stationary NaI(Tl) detectors placed 20 cm from the depot for measurements of both CBF and SBF. Two CdTe(Cl) detectors were used for estimations of the local variation in CBF and SBF within a distance of 5 cm in normal skin of 10 individuals. The C.V. was 7% for the CBF measurements and 18% for the SBF measurements. Measurements of CBF and SBF were performed in 6 psoriatic patients who developed typical Woronoff rings. The local CBF differed significantly from the center of psoriatic plaques to the margin, in the Woronoff ring, and in nonlesional skin. In contrast, SBF was remarkably equal within the plaque and in the Woronoff ring. Cutaneous blood flow in chronic stable, lesional psoriatic skin was significantly lower than previously published values for active lesional psoriatic skin, but significantly higher than CBF in normal individuals. Measurements of CBF in tetrahydrofurfuryl nicotinic acid (Trafuril)-treated skin showed higher values than measurements of CBF in the postischemic hyperemia period both in normal and in lesional psoriatic skin. Trafuril induced a significant increase of CBF in both lesional and nonlesional skin.

  15. Simultaneous recording of fingertip skin blood flow changes by multiprobe laser Doppler flowmetry and frequency-corrected thermal clearance.

    PubMed

    Raamat, Rein; Jagomägi, Kersti; Kingisepp, Peet

    2002-09-01

    We compared the results of skin blood flow (SBF) measurements, obtained simultaneously in adjacent fingertips by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and thermal clearance (TC) probes, having approximately the same spatial and temporal characteristics. Experiments were performed in nine healthy volunteers during rest at room temperature (26-28 degrees C). A time resolution equal to about a second was achieved by speeding up the response of the thermal measurement circuit by applying the computer simulation software of the MATLAB package. The comparison revealed that the frequency-corrected TC signal correlated well with the multiprobe LDF signal (median correlation coefficient = 0.90, range = 0.84 to 0.96). At the same time the individual slope values of the regression equation ranged from 0.58 to 1.61, revealing the difficulties encountered in obtaining the invariant scaling factor between the TC and LDF measurements. The relationship between the frequency-corrected TC signal and the multiprobe LDF signal was found to be linear in the range of SBF changes of about three- to fourfold. In the case of larger fluctuations in SBF, excessive acceleration at high SBF rates was noted. PMID:12204645

  16. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  17. Effects of a topically applied counterirritant (Eucalyptamint) on cutaneous blood flow and on skin and muscle temperatures. A placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hong, C Z; Shellock, F G

    1991-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of a new product of counterirritant, Eucalyptamint, on the cutaneous circulation and on skin and muscle temperatures. Ten normal subjects (six males and four females, with an average age of 34 +/- 6 yr) were involved in this study. Eucalyptamint was applied to the anterior forearm skin of one side, and placebo was applied to the contralateral forearm. The subjective feelings, cutaneous blood flow, and skin temperature were measured before and periodically (5-min intervals) after the application of the compound. Muscle temperature was measured before and 30 min after the application of the Eucalyptamint. There was no significant effect on the subjective sensation. However, there were statistically significant (P less than 0.05) increases in cutaneous blood flow (up to 4 times base-line) and skin temperatures (up to 0.8 degrees C higher than base-line) after the application of Eucalyptamint with the effects lasting up to 45 min after the application. The muscle temperature was also increased (0.4 degrees C) significantly (P less than 0.05) 30 min after application of the Eucalyptamint. There were no significant changes in the placebo application. The results of this study suggested that the new product of counterirritant, Eucalyptamint, produced significant physiologic responses that may be beneficial for pain relief and/or useful to athletes as a passive form of warm-up. PMID:1994967

  18. Influence of temporal noise on the skin blood flow measurements performed by cooled thermal imaging camera: limit possibilities within each physiological frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaidachnyi, A. A.; Volkov, I. U.; Fomin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes limit possibilities of modern cooled thermal imaging cameras as a tool for estimation of blood flow oscillations at the surface of living body. Skin temperature oscillations, as we assumed, are a consequence of the blood flow oscillations. We considered the temperature sensitivity 0.01-0.02 °C as a typical for the most of modern cooled long wave thermal imaging cameras. Fourier filter used to investigate the temperature signal separately within endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges. The level of temporal noise has been estimated during measurements of no living body with stabilized temperature ~ 24°C. The level of temperature oscillations has been calculated for the group of healthy subjects within each frequency range. Thus, we were able to determine signal-to-noise ratio within frequency band [0.001, 1] Hz. As a result, we determine that skin temperature oscillations measured by thermal imaging camera with sensitivity 0.02°C have the upper frequency limit ~ 0.2 Hz. In other words, within the respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges of blood flow oscillations the noise level exceeds signal one, and temperature measurements at the skin surface are practically useless. The endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic components of the temperature oscillations contain ~98% of the total spectral power of the signal. We have plot the empirical extrapolated curve of sensitivity of thermal imaging camera vs. frequency of the temperature oscillations. The data analysis shows that measurements of skin temperature oscillations within respiratory and cardiac ranges require the temperature sensitivity at least ~ 0.01°C and 0.001°C, respectively.

  19. Single skin exposure to visible polarized light induces rapid modification of entire circulating blood: I. Improvement of rheologic and immune parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilova, Kira A.; Obolenskaya, K. D.; Vologdina, A. V.; Snopov, S. A.; Shevchenko, E. V.

    1998-12-01

    We have found that exposure of a small skin area (400 cm2) of healthy volunteers to visible (400 - 2000 nm) incoherent polarized (VIP) light (degree of polarization > 95%) in therapeutic doses (4.8 - 9.6 J/cm2) induces a rapid structural-functional modification of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and some plasma components in the whole circulating volume of blood. We have recorded changes in: lipid peroxidation (LPO) produce content in erythrocyte membranes, deformability and viscosity of erythrocytes, phagocytotic activity of monocytes, cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells against target malignant cells, release of bactericidal proteins by granulocytes, plasma content of LPO-produces and pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukine-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total anti-oxidant activity of plasma. Most of these effects were of regulative character, as their direction and extent depended on the initial level of the studied parameters: the initially low indices increased, while the initially high ones decreased or remained unaffected. In 24 h the changes were still detectable in 33 - 62% of volunteers. We have shown a great similarity of the blood changes induced by the skin exposure and by the direct irradiation of blood in vitro. Moreover, we obtained an evidence that the light-induced rapid modification of the entire circulating blood resulted from the direct effect upon it of transcutaneously irradiated blood, rather than of other systems of organism. Since many pathological conditions are characterized by an increase in LPO processes, by disturbances in blood rheology, by decrease in natural resistance and immunity, correction of their parameters with the VIP light might be a key mechanism of its therapeutic efficacy.

  20. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  1. γ-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and artificial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon, Christophe E.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Bonner, William M.; Sedelnikova, Olga A.

    2009-04-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable in our modern society and can lead to a variety of deleterious effects including cancer and birth defects. A reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of exposure to IR and the individual response to that exposure would provide much needed information for the optimal treatment of each donor examined. We have developed a diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of the phosphorylated form of variant histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The cell responds to a nascent DSB through the phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules flanking the damaged site. This highly amplified response can be visualized as a γ-H2AX focus in the chromatin that can be detected in situ with the appropriate antibody. Here we assess the usability of γ-H2AX focus formation as a possible biodosimeter for human exposure to IR using peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated ex vivo and three-dimensional artificial models of human skin biopsies. In both systems, the tissues were exposed to 0.2-5 Gy, doses of IR that might be realistically encountered in various scenarios such as cancer radiotherapies or accidental exposure to radiation. Since the γ-H2AX response is maximal 30 min after exposure and declines over a period of hours as the cells repair the damage, we examined the time limitations of the useful detectability of γ-H2AX foci. We report that a linear response proportional to the initial radiation dose was obtained 48 and 24 h after exposure in blood samples and skin cells respectively. Thus, detection of γ-H2AX formation to monitor DNA damage in minimally invasive blood and skin tests could be useful tools to determine radiation dose exposure and analyze its effects on humans.

  2. Skin blood flow during histamine flare using the clearance of epicutaneous applied Xenon-133 in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, K.J.; Overton, T.R.; Biltek, K.B.; Nixon, R.; Williams, H.T.

    1983-04-01

    The increase in skin blood flow produced by both reactive hyperemia and histamine was examined in 8 normal, 8 diabetic and 3 cancer patients using the epicutaneous Xenon-133 clearance method. The histamine flare response in both diabetic and cancer groups was reduced compared to that in the normal group. There was no significant difference in the reactive hyperemia responses. It is concluded that the reduction in the histamine flare response is due to a defect in the sensory nerves mediating the axon reflex and not due to a change in the vascular response.

  3. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  4. Precautions for breast cancer-related lymphoedema: risk from air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Asdourian, Maria S; Skolny, Melissa N; Brunelle, Cheryl; Seward, Cara E; Salama, Laura; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2016-09-01

    Precautionary recommendations conveyed to survivors of cancer by health-care practitioners to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema are indispensable aspects of clinical care, yet remain unsubstantiated by high-level scientific evidence. By reviewing the literature, we identified 31 original research articles that examined whether lifestyle-associated risk factors (air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and skin infections-eg, cellulitis) increase the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Among the few studies that lend support to precautionary guidelines, most provide low-level (levels 3-5) or inconclusive evidence of an association between lymphoedema and these risk factors, and only four level 2 studies show a significant association. Skin infections and previous infection or inflammation on the ipsilateral arm were among the most clearly defined and well established risk factors for lymphoedema. The paucity of high-level evidence and the conflicting nature of the existing literature make it difficult to establish definitive predictive factors for breast cancer-related lymphoedema, which could be a considerable source of patient distress and anxiety. Along with further research into these risk factors, continued discussion regarding modification of the guidelines and adoption of a risk-adjusted approach is needed. PMID:27599144

  5. Influence of skin blood flow and source-detector distance on near-infrared spectroscopy-determined cerebral oxygenation in humans.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Ai; Yanagisawa, Shintaro; Tanaka, Naoki; Funane, Tsukasa; Kiguchi, Masashi; Sørensen, Henrik; Secher, Niels H; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2015-05-01

    Most near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) apparatus fails to isolate cerebral oxygenation from an extracranial contribution although they use different source-detector distances. Nevertheless, the effect of different source-detector distances and change in extracranial blood flow on the NIRS signal has not been identified in humans. This study evaluated the extracranial contribution, as indicated by forehead skin blood flow (SkBF) to changes in the NIRS-determined cerebral oxyhaemoglobin concentration (O2 Hb) by use of a custom-made multidistance probe. Seven males (age 21 ± 1 year) were in a semi-recumbent position, while extracranial blood flow was restricted by application of four different pressures (+20 to +80 mmHg) to the left temporal artery. The O2 Hb was measured at the forehead via a multidistance probe (source-detector distance; 15, 22·5 and 30 mm), and SkBF was determined by laser Doppler. Heart rate and blood pressure were unaffected by application of pressure to the temporal artery, while SkBF gradually decreased (P<0·001), indicating that extracranial blood flow was manipulated without haemodynamic changes. Also, O2 Hb gradually decreased with increasing applied pressure (P<0·05), and the decrease was related to that in SkBF (r = 0·737, P<0·01) independent of the NIRS source to detector distance. These findings suggest that the NIRS-determined cerebral oxyhaemoglobin is affected by change in extracranial blood flow independent of the source-detector distance from 15 to 30 mm. Therefore, new algorithms need to be developed for unbiased NIRS detection of cerebral oxygenation. PMID:24750947

  6. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  7. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  8. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  9. Cell-Based Regenerative Strategies for Treatment of Diabetic Skin Wounds, a Comparative Study between Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Mononuclear Cells and Calves' Blood Haemodialysate

    PubMed Central

    El-Mesallamy, Hala O.; Diab, Mohamed R.; Hamdy, Nadia M.; Dardir, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes-related foot problems are bound to increase. However, medical therapies for wound care are limited; therefore, the need for development of new treatment modalities to improve wound healing in diabetic patients is essential and constitutes an emerging field of investigation. Methods Animals were randomly divided into 8 groups (I–VIII) (32 rats/group), all were streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetics except groups III and VIII were non-diabetic controls. The study comprised two experiments; the first included 3 groups. Group I injected with mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB), group II a diabetic control group (PBS i.v). The second experiment included 5 groups, groups IV, V, and VI received topical HUCB-haemodialysate (HD), calves' blood HD, and solcoseryl, respectively. Group VII was the diabetic control group (topical saline). Standard circular wounds were created on the back of rats. A sample of each type of HD was analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) system. Wound area measurement and photography were carried out every 4 days. Plasma glucose, catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and platelets count were assessed. Wound samples were excised for hydroxyproline (HP) and histopathological study. Results Treatment with HUCB MNCs or HUCB-HD resulted in wound contraction, increased CAT, NO, platelets count, body weights, and HP content, and decreased MDA and glucose. Conclusion Systemic administration of HUCB MNCs and topical application of the newly prepared HUCB-HD or calves' blood HD significantly accelerated the rate of diabetic wound healing and would open the possibility of their future use in regenerative medicine. PMID:24643010

  10. Gamma-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in targeted and bystander human artificial skin models and peripheral blood lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon, Christophe; Dickey, Jennifer; Bonner, William; Sedelnikova, Olga

    Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable. In addition to exposure from cosmic rays, the sun and radioactive substances, modern society has created new sources of radiation exposure such as space and high altitude journeys, X-ray diagnostics, radiological treatments and the increasing threat of radiobiological terrorism. For these reasons, a reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of dose and time exposure to IR is essential. We developed a minimally invasive diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of a phosphorylated variant of histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules forms a gamma-H2AX focus in the chromatin flanking the DSB site that can be detected in situ. We analyzed gamma- H2AX focus formation in both directly irradiated cells as well as in un-irradiated "bystanders" in close contact with irradiated cells. In order to insure minimal invasiveness, we examined commercially available artificial skin models as a surrogate for human skin biopsies as well as peripheral blood lymphocytes. In human skin models, cells in a thin plane were microbeamirradiated and gamma-H2AX formation was measured both in irradiated and in distal bystander cells over time. In irradiated cells DSB formation reached a maximum at 15-30 minutes post- IR and then declined within several hours; all cells were affected. In marked contrast, the incidence of DSBs in bystander cells reached a maximum by 12-48 hours post-irradiation, gradually decreasing over the 7 day time course. At the maxima, 40-60% of bystander cells were affected. Similarly, we analyzed blood samples exposed to IR ex vivo at doses ranging from 0.02 to 3 Gy. The amount of DNA damage was linear in respect to radiation dose and independent of the age or sex of the blood donor. The method is highly reproducible and highly sensitive. In directly irradiated cells, the number of gamma-H2AX foci peaked

  11. Optical coherence tomography angiography offers comprehensive evaluation of skin optical clearing in vivo by quantifying optical properties and blood flow imaging simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Dan; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Tissue optical clearing (TOC) is helpful for reducing scattering and enhancing the penetration depth of light, and shows promising potential in optimizing optical imaging performances. A mixture of fructose with PEG-400 and thiazone (FPT) is used as an optical clearing agent in mouse dorsal skin and evaluated with OCT angiography (Angio-OCT) by quantifying optical properties and blood flow imaging simultaneously. It is observed that FPT leads to an improved imaging performance for the deeper tissues. The imaging performance improvement is most likely caused by the FPT-induced dehydration of skin, and the reduction of scattering coefficient (more than ∼ 40.5%) and refractive-index mismatching (more than ∼ 25.3%) in the superficial (epidermal, dermal, and hypodermal) layers. A high correlation (up to ∼ 90%) between the relative changes in refractive-index mismatching and Angio-OCT signal strength is measured. The optical clearing rate is ∼ 5.83 × 10(-5) cm/s. In addition, Angio-OCT demonstrates enhanced performance in imaging cutaneous hemodynamics with satisfactory spatiotemporal resolution and contrast when combined with TOC, which exhibits a powerful practical application in studying microcirculation. PMID:26950927

  12. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  13. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  14. A low frequency, high amplitude rhythmic fluctuation of laser-Doppler skin blood flow after subarachnoid phenol block.

    PubMed

    Kano, T; Shimoda, O; Gotou, K; Morioka, T

    1993-07-01

    A 51-year-old male with a huge chondrosarcoma received subarachnoid dorsal root blocks with 10% phenol in glycerine to treat severe pain along the left leg. The dermatomes below the Th9 lost all somatic sensation on the left side after the nerve blocks, but the patient was not completely relieved from the pain. Laser-Doppler flowmetry on the toe of the left foot disclosed an increased blood flow and an abnormal fluctuation of the cutaneous capillary blood flow, i.e. a high amplitude rhythmic (HAR) wave with 2.5 to 3 cycles.min-1. The low frequency HAR wave persisted for the subsequent 3 months until a tingling sensation returned to the left leg. It would seem that some travelling roots of the sympathetic nerve were preserved from the chemical neurolysis and the remaining efferent and afferent nerve fibers were responsible for the persisting low frequency HAR wave and pain in the left leg. PMID:8409217

  15. A study of the pharmacologic control of blood flow to delayed skin flaps using xenon washout. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, P.M.; Lilien, D.L.; Buncke, H.J.

    1983-03-01

    These experiments indicate that there are two components to the delay phenomenon. The first component is passive vasodilation owing to loss in the acute flaps originating from the sympathetic nerve terminals. The second component is active vasodilation not involving loss of a second vasoconstrictor mechanism or sensitization of the beta-receptors. Overall, the increase in blood flow associated with the delay phenomenon was seen to begin near the base of the flap and proceed distally. While the second component could not be identified, its characteristics suggest that its site of action is directly at the smooth-muscle or vascular-architecture level without involving the beta-receptors for vasodilation.

  16. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematomas ) may form after even a minor injury. Pressure ulcers can be caused by skin changes, loss of ... up to 4 times slower. This contributes to pressure ulcers and infections. Diabetes , blood vessel changes, lowered immunity, ...

  17. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hair Small blood vessels in the skin Tattoos CRYOTHERAPY Cryotherapy is a method of super-freezing tissue in ... warts, actinic keratoses, solar keratoses, and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has ...

  18. CD19+ B cell subsets in the peripheral blood and skin lesions of psoriasis patients and their correlations with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Ding, Y; Yi, X; Zheng, J

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocytes are important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and increasing evidence indicates that B cells also play an important role. The mechanisms of action, however, remain unclear. We evaluated the ratios of CD19+ B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 157 patients with psoriasis (65 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 32 patients with erythrodermic psoriasis, 30 patients with arthropathic psoriasis, and 30 patients with pustular psoriasis) and 35 healthy controls (HCs). Ratios of CD19+ B cells in skin lesions were compared with non-lesions in 7 erythrodermic psoriasis patients. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to measure disease severity. CD19+ B cell ratios in PBMCs from psoriasis vulgaris (at both the active and stationary stage) and arthropathic psoriasis patients were higher compared with HCs (P<0.01), but ratios were lower in erythrodermic and pustular psoriasis patients (P<0.01). CD19+ B cell ratios in erythrodermic psoriasis skin lesions were higher than in non-lesion areas (P<0.001). Different subsets of CD19+CD40+, CD19+CD44+, CD19+CD80+, CD19+CD86+, CD19+CD11b+, and CD19+HLA-DR+ B cells in PBMCs were observed in different psoriasis clinical subtypes. PASI scores were positively correlated with CD19+ B cell ratios in psoriasis vulgaris and arthropathic psoriasis cases (r=0.871 and r=0.692, respectively, P<0.01), but were negatively correlated in pustular psoriasis (r=-0.569, P<0.01). The results indicated that similar to T cells, B cells activation may also play important roles in different pathological stages of psoriasis. PMID:27532281

  19. CD19+ B cell subsets in the peripheral blood and skin lesions of psoriasis patients and their correlations with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J.; Ding, Y.; Yi, X.; Zheng, J.

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocytes are important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and increasing evidence indicates that B cells also play an important role. The mechanisms of action, however, remain unclear. We evaluated the ratios of CD19+ B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 157 patients with psoriasis (65 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 32 patients with erythrodermic psoriasis, 30 patients with arthropathic psoriasis, and 30 patients with pustular psoriasis) and 35 healthy controls (HCs). Ratios of CD19+ B cells in skin lesions were compared with non-lesions in 7 erythrodermic psoriasis patients. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to measure disease severity. CD19+ B cell ratios in PBMCs from psoriasis vulgaris (at both the active and stationary stage) and arthropathic psoriasis patients were higher compared with HCs (P<0.01), but ratios were lower in erythrodermic and pustular psoriasis patients (P<0.01). CD19+ B cell ratios in erythrodermic psoriasis skin lesions were higher than in non-lesion areas (P<0.001). Different subsets of CD19+CD40+, CD19+CD44+, CD19+CD80+, CD19+CD86+, CD19+CD11b+, and CD19+HLA-DR+ B cells in PBMCs were observed in different psoriasis clinical subtypes. PASI scores were positively correlated with CD19+ B cell ratios in psoriasis vulgaris and arthropathic psoriasis cases (r=0.871 and r=0.692, respectively, P<0.01), but were negatively correlated in pustular psoriasis (r=-0.569, P<0.01). The results indicated that similar to T cells, B cells activation may also play important roles in different pathological stages of psoriasis. PMID:27532281

  20. Tissue blood flow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    The operating principles of Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) for visualization of the tissue blood perfusion are explained. Using this emerging technology skin perfusion has been investigated in healthy volunteers and in patients with various conditions that affect skin blood flow. LDPI is anticipated to be particularly useful in evaluation of peripheral circulation in diabetics, as an objective tool in irritancy patch testing, assessment of burnt skin and visualization of spot-wise hyperperfusion in breast skin in association with carcinoma.

  1. Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Willard, K.E.; Anderson, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with /sup 125/I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture.

  2. Betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase--a new assay for the liver enzyme and its absence from human skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, J A; Dudman, N P; Lynch, J; Wilcken, D E

    1991-12-31

    Chronic elevation of plasma homocysteine is associated with increased atherogenesis and thrombosis, and can be lowered by betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) treatment which is thought to stimulate activity of the enzyme betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase. We have developed a new assay for this enzyme, in which the products of the enzyme-catalysed reaction between betaine and homocysteine are oxidised by performic acid before being separated and quantified by amino acid analysis. This assay confirmed that human liver contains abundant betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (33.4 nmol/h/mg protein at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4). Chicken and lamb livers also contain the enzyme, with respective activities of 50.4 and 6.2 nmol/h/mg protein. However, phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured human skin fibroblasts contained no detectable betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (less than 1.4 nmol/h/mg protein), even after cells were pre-cultured in media designed to stimulate production of the enzyme. The results emphasize the importance of the liver in mediating the lowering of elevated circulating homocysteine by betaine. PMID:1819467

  3. Direct infusion of a variant of insulin-like growth factor-I into the skin of sheep and effects on local blood flow, amino acid utilization and cell replication.

    PubMed

    Harris, P M; McBride, B W; Gurnsey, M P; Sinclair, B R; Lee, J

    1993-12-01

    In vivo effects of local infusion of a variant of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), long-R3-IGF-I, into the skin were investigated using six conscious sheep with food available ad libitum. An artery and vein on the abdominal flank of each animal, as well as the saphenous artery, were catheterized so that infusion of isotopically labelled amino acids, with or without IGF-I, could be used to determine amino acid uptake by arteriovenous difference in combination with blood flow determined by dye dilution. Measurements were made on each animal prior to IGF-I infusion, at hourly intervals for the 4 h of IGF-I infusion into the skin artery, then 2 and 4 h after IGF-I infusion ceased. Numbers of cells replicating in the bulbs of wool follicles in the IGF-I-infused area and in the skin on the contralateral side of each animal were measured after labelling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. IGF-I caused a significant increase in the skin blood flow (P < 0.05), utilization of oxygen (P < 0.05), uptake of cysteine (P < 0.05) and phenylalanine (P < 0.001), and the rate of utilization of cysteine (P < 0.05) for protein synthesis. IGF-I increased amino acid uptake regardless of whether the skin was in negative or positive amino acid balance prior to infusion. During the recovery period amino acid utilization by skin returned towards preinfusion levels. No effects of IGF-I were found on replicating cell numbers in the bulbs of wool follicles. PMID:8133213

  4. Assessment of immune response in periparturient dairy cows using ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay with lipopolysaccharides and carrageenan skin test.

    PubMed

    Jahan, N; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2015-06-15

    The transition period is known to be the most critical phase in the life of high yielding dairy cow. Changes in the immune functions have been observed during the transition period which may account for the onset of clinical and subclinical (e.g. inflammatory response) problems at calving or at the beginning of lactation however this relationship has not yet been adequately investigated. Thus, to establish the potential of the periparturient dairy cow's immune system to respond to stimuli, two challenges [an ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay (WBA) with lipopolysaccharides and a carrageenan skin test (CST)] were performed in addition to characterizing the metabolic and inflammatory profile. The WBA was performed using 0, 0.01 and 5 μg LPS/mL on whole blood and CST was administered by subcutaneous injection of 0.7 mL solution containing 4.2mg of carrageenan to the shoulder region of the cows. These tests were performed on 10 Holstein-Friesian cows at -45 ± 2, -20 ± 2, -3, 3, 7, 28 ± 2 days from parturition (DFP). Cows were also monitored for health status, body condition score, milk yield. The results demonstrate a higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 from leukocytes after LPS stimulation around calving (from -3 to 3 DFP) compared to -45 DFP (P < 0.05). Moreover, IL-6 (but not IL-1β) was able to reach close to the maximum response at the lower stimulus intensity (0.01 μg LPS/mL), maintaining a higher response over a longer time in early lactation. The release of higher levels of IL-6 in the transition period, with low LPS dose, suggests its crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response around calving. The response of cows to CST decreased a few days before calving (-3 DFP) compared with response at -45 and 28 DFP (P<0.05), and remained low in the first week of lactation. This result suggests the reduction of the functionality of some vascular factors, which decreases diapedesis. Overall, the WBA and CST tests confirm changes in immunocompetence

  5. Thermal damage assessment of blood vessels in a hamster skin flap model by fluorescence measurement of a liposome-dye system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Desmettre, Thomas; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie

    1997-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of thermal damage assessment of blood vessels by using laser-induced release of liposome-encapsulated dye. Experiments were performed in a hamster skin flap model. Laser irradiation was achieved with a 300micrometers fiber connected to a 805nm diode laser after potentiation using a specific indocyanine green (ICG) formulation. Liposomes- encapsulated carboxyfluorescein were prepared by the sonication procedure. Carboxyfluorescein was loaded at high concentration in order to quench its fluorescence. The measurements were performed after i.v. injection of DSPC liposomes and lasted 40 minutes. Fluorescence emission was measured with an ultra high sensitivity intensified camera. Three different shapes of fluorescent spots were identified depending on target and energy deposition in tissue: (i) intravascular fluorescence, (ii) transient low fluorescence circular spot and (iii) persistent high intense fluorescence spot. These images are correlated with histological data. The advantages of this liposome-dye system are (1) direct measurements can be obtained, (2) several repeated readings can be made from one injection, (3) continuous monitoring of the fluorescence can be made, (4) temperature-sensitive range can be adapted using different liposomes compositions, (5) circulation times of several hours can be achieved using DSPC liposomes (6) the tissue microcirculation and the vessel macrocirculation can be investigated simultaneously, therefore changes in response to a treatment regimen and/or ICG formulations can be detected. One main constraint exists: the fluorescent dye encapsulated into the liposomes has to be carefully chosen in order to avoid any direct absorption by the dye itself. In conclusion, one of the most significant applications of this experimental technique is the evaluation of various degrees of tissue thermal damage. It could be possible to consider the application of this technique in

  6. Labeling of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes with indium-111: a new method for the quantitation of in-vivo accumulation of PMNLs in rabbit skin

    SciTech Connect

    Wahba, A.V.; Barnes, B.; Lazarus, G.S.

    1984-02-01

    A precise method for quantitation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation in skin in vivo, has been developed so that the proinflammatory effects of various agents can be compared. This method can also be used to evaluate the effect of therapeutic agents on PMNL accumulation in vivo. Rabbit PMNLs were purified from heparinized blood by dextran sedimentation, hypotonic lysis, and separation on Ficoll-Hypaque. The PMNLs were labeled with 3-5 microCi per 10(6) cells of /sup 111/In oxine and reinfused coincidentally with different concentrations of different chemotactic and proinflammatory materials injected intradermally into the back. In some experiments, varying concentrations of acetic acid were applied topically. Four to 18 hours later, the rabbits were sacrificed. Eight-millimeter punch biopsies were obtained from the injection sites and counted in a gamma counter. The number of PMNLs infiltrating the dermis was also quantitated in histologic sections. A significant correlation was found between the percent increase in radioactivity and the percent increase in PMNL accumulation morphologically. Dose-response curves were generated using such proinflammatory materials as formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide, activated serum, trypsin, glycogen, and acetic acid. These curves were highly reproducible from animal to animal. Using this assay, we found that as little as 1 microgram of trypsin induced detectable PMNL accumulation. This is 2-3 logs more sensitive than injecting mice intraperitoneally with trypsin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inactivation of trypsin inhibited PMNL accumulation. This sensitive and quantitative bioassay of PMNL accumulation permits evaluation of multiple agents in the same animal, which decreases animal to animal variation.

  7. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  8. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  9. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  10. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  11. [Effect of proteflazid on TLRs expression by mononuclear leukocytes of peripheral blood and epithelial cells of mucous membranes and skin in patients with herpes-associated erythema multiforme and erythema annulare centrifugum].

    PubMed

    Sorokina, E V; Akhmatova, N K; Skhodova, S A

    2014-01-01

    The article reports survey data on 23 patients with erythemas, including 19 patients with herpes-associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) and 4 patients with Darier's erythema annulare centrifugum (DEAC). Patients in the initial state (baseline) and after two weeks of therapy with proteflazid were characterized by measuring the levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in epithelial cells of the throat and the skin. The TLR expression in PBMC and skin was assessed by flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies (ICA) (Caltag Laboratories, USA; Hycult Biotech, Netherlands) against relevant antigens. In addition, patients were also characterized by the content of subpopulations of lymphocytes expressing surface markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD21, CD23, CD72, CD25, and HLA-DR in the peripheral blood, which was measured by flow cytometry. The therapy with proteflazid in patients with both HAEM and DEAC led to normalization of the level of both T-cell and B-cell immunity, which was manifested by an increase in the total number of lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD21+, and CD72+. Measurements of the dynamics of TLR expression in the course of immunotherapy showed an increase in the number of TLR 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 9 in PBMC (which was especially pronounced for TLR2) and in epithelium of the pharyngeal mucosa and skin (increased expression of TLR3, 7, and 9). PMID:24800523

  12. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  13. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  14. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  15. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  16. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  17. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  18. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments. PMID:27535246

  19. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  20. Chemokines and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

  1. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  2. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Verena; Burak, Constanze; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Wolffram, Siegfried; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius; Langguth, Peter; Alteheld, Birgit; Fimmers, Rolf; Naaf, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stehle, Peter; Egert, Sarah

    2015-10-28

    The polyphenol quercetin may prevent CVD due to its antihypertensive and vasorelaxant properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin after regular intake on blood pressure (BP) in overweight-to-obese patients with pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension. In addition, the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypothesised effect of quercetin on BP were explored. Subjects (n 70) were randomised to receive 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract powder or placebo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 6-week washout period. Before and after the intervention, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP were measured; urine and blood samples were collected; and endothelial function was measured by EndoPAT technology. In the total group, quercetin did not significantly affect 24 h ABP parameters and office BP. In the subgroup of hypertensives, quercetin decreased 24 h systolic BP by -3·6 mmHg (P=0·022) when compared with placebo (mean treatment difference, -3·9 mmHg; P=0·049). In addition, quercetin significantly decreased day-time and night-time systolic BP in hypertensives, but without a significant effect in inter-group comparison. In the total group and also in the subgroup of hypertensives, vasoactive biomarkers including endothelin-1, soluble endothelial-derived adhesion molecules, asymmetric dimethylarginine, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, endothelial function, parameters of oxidation, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by quercetin. In conclusion, supplementation with 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract lowers ABP in patients with hypertension, suggesting a cardioprotective effect of quercetin. The mechanisms responsible for the BP-lowering effect remain unclear. PMID:26328470

  3. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  4. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  5. Studies of DNA and chromosome damage in skin fibroblasts and blood lymphocytes from psoriasis patients treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bredberg, A.; Lambert, B.; Lindblad, A.; Swanbeck, G.; Wennersten, G.

    1983-08-01

    Exposure of human lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts in vitro to a single, clinically used dose of PUVA, i.e., 0.1 micrograms/ml of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus 0.9-4 J/cm2 of longwave ultraviolet radiation (UVA), lead to the formation of DNA damage as determined by alkaline elution, and to chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). When lymphocyte-enriched plasma was obtained from psoriasis patients 2 h after oral intake of 8-MOP and then UVA irradiated (1.8-3.6 J/cm2) in vitro, an increased frequency of chromosome aberrations and SCE was observed. Normal levels of chromosome aberrations and SCE were found in lymphocytes of psoriasis patients after 3-30 weeks of PUVA treatment in vivo. A small but statistically significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in the lymphocytes of psoriasis patients treated for 1-6 years with PUVA (mean 18.0 SCE/cell) as compared with before PUVA (mean 15.8, p less than 0.05). Skin fibroblasts of psoriasis patients analyzed 5 years after the start of PUVA treatment showed a normal number of SCE but a high fraction of filter-retained DNA in the alkaline elution assay, suggesting the presence of cross-linked DNA.

  6. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  7. Seminoma in a postmenopausal woman with a Y;15 translocation in peripheral blood lymphocytes and a t(Y;15)/45,X Turner mosaic pattern in skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, N; Fujita, M; Mikuni, M; Fujino, T; Okuyama, K; Handa, Y; Yamada, H; Sagawa, T; Hareyama, H; Nakahori, Y; Fujieda, K; Kant, J A; Nagashima, K; Fujimoto, S

    1998-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a 55 year old Japanese woman with a seminoma but relatively normal menses. The patient was a phenotypic female with late onset menarche (18 years of age), who was amenorrhoeic for the first year, followed by menses of one to three days' slight flow with dysmenorrhoea, but an otherwise normal menstrual history. A typical seminoma was removed from the left adnexal region and an immature testis was identified separately as an associated right adnexal mass. Repeated karyotypic studies on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures showed only 46,X,-Y,t(Y;15)(q12;p13). Cytogenetic examination of the patient's younger brother, who had fathered three healthy children, showed an identical karyotype. Mosaicism of 46,X,-Y,t(Y;15)(q12;p13)/45,X cell lines was found in skin samples from the patient's elbow and genital regions, although there were no clinical stigmata of Turner syndrome. An androgen receptor binding assay of cultured genital skin fibroblasts was negative. Molecular analysis using Southern blot hybridisation, PCR, and direct DNA sequencing showed that neither the patient nor her brother had a detectable deletion or other abnormalities of Y chromosome sequences, including the SRY (sex determining region of the Y chromosome) gene sequence. These findings suggest that Turner mosaicism of the 45,X cell line may have contributed to this atypical presentation in an XY female, although we cannot exclude abnormalities of other genes related to sex differentiation. Images PMID:9783712

  8. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  9. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  10. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  11. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  12. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  14. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  15. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  16. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  17. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  18. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  19. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  20. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  1. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  2. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers. PMID:23722495

  3. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  4. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  5. Depigmented Skin and Phantom Color Measurements for Realistic Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

  6. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  7. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  9. Portable hyperspectral imager for assessment of skin disorders: preliminary measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Lanoue, Mark A.; Brabham, Kori; Khoobehi, Bahram

    2005-04-01

    Oxygenation of the facial skin was evaluated in rosacea using a hyperspectral camera. A portable imaging system utilizing crossed-polarization optics for illumination and recording is described. Relative oxygen saturation was determined from rosacea features and compared with normal skin. Saturation maps and light absorption spectra showed a significant increase in the oxygen saturation of the blood in rosacea-affected skin.

  10. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  11. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure) Home Care Home care depends on what is causing the ... Possible drug abuse Shortness of breath Signs of shock (such as confusion, lower level of ... The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask ...

  12. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  13. Heart and Blood Vessels in Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lungs Teeth Skin Current Research Heart and Blood Vessels Problems with the heart and blood vessels are common – and can be very serious – in ... these problems affects the aorta, the main blood vessel carrying blood from the heart to the rest ...

  14. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  15. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink a certain amount of glucose ( oral glucose tolerance test ) How the Test will Feel When the ... a fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test , or glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test ...

  16. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  17. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  18. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  19. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  20. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  1. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  2. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  3. Spectral reflectance of human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Andersen, P H; Bjerring, P

    1990-02-01

    A newly developed skin reflectance spectrophotometer was evaluated for measurements of both melanin pigmentation and erythema. Physiological changes in blood flow and blood content in normal humans were induced by compression with an arm cuff during recording of skin reflectance spectra. Reflectance spectra of UV-induced erythema were also recorded and compared with laser-Doppler flow measurements. Spectral reflectance measurements were found to be highly sensitive in determining minimal erythema, which was not clinically detectable. The measurements of erythema using reflectance spectroscopy and UV irradiation were very highly correlated (r = 0.996). It was possible to calculate the in vivo absorbance of oxygenized haemoglobin. The melanin pigmentation following UV irradiation was quantified by reflectance spectroscopy and correlates highly with the dose of UV irradiation (r = 0.995). Furthermore, regional variations in skin melanin and haemoglobin were analysed for fair Caucasian skin. PMID:2196543

  4. Biological Rhythms in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mary S.; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism’s rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional–translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism’s sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  5. Biological Rhythms in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mary S; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism's rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional-translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism's sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  6. An assessment of sex chromosome copy number in a phenotypic female patient with hypergonadtropic hypogonadism, primary amenorrhea and growth retardation by GTG-banding and FISH in peripheral blood and skin tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, I.M.D.; DeMoranville, B.; Grollino, M.G.

    1994-09-01

    The present report describes studies performed on an 18-year-old phenotypic female referred because of primary amenorrhea, hypergonadotropic hypoganadism and growth retardation. The clinical features raised the possibility of a gonadal dysgenesis. The ovaries were not identified on either side. Her testosterone was significantly elevated, with serum level at 48 ng/dl, and her free testosterone at 7 pg/ml. A GTG-banding analysis of 33 peripheral blood leukocytes revealed the modal number of chromosomes to be 46 per cell with a male sex constitution and normal appearing banding patterns (46,XY). In view of the clinical findings, additional cells were scored to rule out low percentage mosaicism. Out of 35 additional GTG-banded cells scored for the sex chromosomes, 4 cells (11.5%) were found to contain only one copy of the X chromosome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using dual color biotinylated X and Y probes (Imagenetics) was subsequently performed. Out of approximately 500 cells scored, 87% were found to be XY and 9% were found to be positive for the X signal only, versus 7% and 3% X signal only for 2 XY controls, aged 61 and 46, respectively. As loss of the Y chromosome has been reported in elderly males as well as certain males with leukemia, the age of the controls was important to note. To unequivocally establish the presence of mosaicism, a skin biopsy was obtained for fibroblast culture. Out of 388 total cells scored, 286 (74%) were found to be XY and 46 (12%) were found to be X, versus 99% XY and <1% X in controls. GTG-banding analysis of the same fibroblast culture is currently in progress. Preliminary data on this specimen thus far corroborate results of the FISH study. The presence of XY cells, along with an increased testosterone level, raises the distinct possibility of a gonadoblastoma. In view of this increased risk, arrangements are being made for the patient to have a laparoscopy and surgical removal of her presumptive streak gonads.

  7. Breaching the skin barrier through temperature modulations.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Yasser; Louw, Ruaan; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-03-28

    The impermeability of the stratum corneum often hinders the transport of molecules across the skin. Temperature modulations in the skin and the application of local heat both have the potential of circumventing this problem temporarily and reversibly and when applied, may aid in enhancing drug diffusion through the skin. A controlled and precise application of heat has the ability to create a cascade of events in the skin and thus aids in facilitating a faster movement of molecules into and across the skin. Possible mechanisms of enhancing drug permeation include: a) increase in drug diffusivity in the vehicle and/or in the skin, b) increase in partitioning and diffusion, c) disturbance in the lipid structure of the stratum corneum, and d) increased local blood flow. These mechanisms may operate individually or concurrently. The creation of micropores or channels in response to exposure to very high heat energy for a fraction of time is another technique that can facilitate the transport, known as thermal ablation. These micropores then serve as channels from where drug molecules can escape from formulations into the skin at a much faster rate than through passive diffusion. This review, therefore, summarises the effects that temperature modulations may have on the permeability of the skin. Physical techniques of heat induced skin ablation, such as chemical heating, thermoporation, radiofrequency induced thermal ablation, and laser induced thermal ablation are also presented in this review. PMID:25616160

  8. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  9. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  10. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  11. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both ...

  12. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may include deep layers of skin and fat. The area is closed with stitches to place the skin back together. If a large area is biopsied, the surgeon may use a skin graft or flap to replace the skin that was ...

  13. Stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  14. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  15. Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy: Application for Blood Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, Igor; Tuchin, Valery V.

    This chapter describes the application of diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) for noninvasive characterization of skin blood flow and skin blood microcirculation in vivo. The DWS is a simple but ingenious approach, utilizing the loss of correlation of scattered laser light to observe the structural changes and displacement of scattering particles, such as red blood cells (RBC) within the biological tissues. This approach has the potential to be so specific that it can revolutionize the currently developed techniques for blood flow monitoring. Developments in DWS are likely to lead it to be used for characterization of skin blood microcirculation, to assess burn depth, to diagnose atherosclerotic disease, and investigate mechanisms of photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment, as well as to monitor pharmacological intervention for failing surgical skin flaps or replants.

  16. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  17. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can give blood every 56 days. Before Donating Blood donation starts before you walk in the door of ... regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets ...

  18. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  19. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the way you normally talk or behave Fainting spells Seizures (for the first time) SCREENING FOR ... drawn are slight, but may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the ...

  20. Skin Reduction Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Jill; Fedele, Greg

    2015-10-01

    Nipple-sparing mastectomy has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for many patients with early stage breast cancer. Large-breasted women who are gene positive or who have early breast cancer are not traditionally candidates for nipple-sparing mastectomy. The blood supply to the nipple is via the breast tissue and also the dermis, both of which would be severed if standard skin reduction were combined with mastectomy. This video shows how a nipple-sparing mastectomy can be combined with skin reduction while preserving the blood supply to the nipple. The excess skin is deepithelialized to preserve the dermal vessels. After mastectomy, the excess skin is imbricated to reduce the skin envelope. The deepithelialized lower flap "autoderm" can be sewn to the pectoralis muscle for coverage of the tissue expander. This technique allows large-breasted and ptotic patients to undergo mastectomy with preservation of their nipple-areolar complex as well as skin reduction to yield an improved cosmetic result. PMID:26271393

  1. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  2. 2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through hatches, seen on rear wall, and washed of blood and flesh in redwood tanks, with wooden grates to hold skins down in water. Superstructure and screening on tanks are a later alteration, unrelated to this process. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  3. Expected skin complaints of the geriatric patient.

    PubMed

    Walther, R R; Harber, L C

    1984-12-01

    Increased exposure to systemic medications in older patients makes drug reactions a likely cause of skin eruptions. Efforts to increase return of venous blood to the heart is the primary therapeutic and preventive measure in stasis dermatitis. If there is a suggestion of infection, antibiotics are indicated. The dermatitis can be treated with standard therapies. PMID:6238868

  4. Cutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Klemp, P.; Staberg, B.

    1983-12-01

    The disappearance rate of /sup 133/Xe was studied in 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, using an epicutaneous labeling technique in involved skin lesions or normal-appearing skin of the proximal extensor site of the forearm. Control experiments were performed in 10 normal subjects. Calculations of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF) in psoriatic skin lesions were performed using a tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for /sup 133/Xe, lambda c,pso, of 1.2 ml/100 g/min. lambda c,pso was estimated after the relative content of water, lipids, and proteins had been analyzed in psoriatic skin biopsies of 6 patients with untreated psoriasis. The mean relative content of water was markedly reduced to 23.5 +/- 1.5% (SEM), and lipids and proteins were markedly increased to 2.5 +/- 0.7% and 74.0 +/- 2.2, respectively, compared to previously published data for normal skin (water 72.5%, lipids 1%, proteins 26.5%). Mean CBF in untreated psoriatic skin was 63.5 +/- 9.0 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than the mean CBF in 10 normal subjects, 6.3 +/- 0.5 ml/100 g/min (p much less than 0.0001). Mean CBF in normal-appearing skin in patients with psoriasis was 11.0 +/- 1.3 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than CBF in normal subjects (p less than 0.0002).

  5. Scaly Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should improve by restoring moisture (hydration) to the skin. Creams and ointments are better moisturizers than lotions, and ... Physician May Prescribe To treat the dry, scaly skin of ichthyosis ... cream or lotion containing the following: Prescription-strength alpha- ...

  6. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  7. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  9. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  10. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  11. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure ... example, lighter-skinned people are more sensitive to sun exposure and damage, which raises the risk of skin ...

  12. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  13. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer. PMID:15685954

  14. Friction induced skin tags.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  15. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases. PMID:27282344

  17. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. PMID:24838227

  18. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  19. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  20. Noncontacting diffuse VIS-NIR spectroscopy of human skin for evaluation of skin type and time-dependent microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Fassler, Dieter; Zimmermann, Gabi; Liebold, Kristin; Wollina, Uwe

    2000-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the VIS-NIR range allow the objective determination of pigmentation, blood microcirculation and water content of human skin. Non- contacting in vivo measurements of the human skin of 50 volunteers reflect the clinical skin type well. Our correlation analysis yields that the red/infrared spectral range can be used for a determination of skin type. The observed strong spectral variations within the same group of skin type are likely based on the high biological variability of human skin and subjective clinically observed skin type. Therefore it can be useful to measure the full spectral range and to calculate a non-observed skin score with multivariate spectral methods. By multivariate analysis a correct classification of remittance spectra can be obtained. Time- depending spectral variations of dermal microcirculation can be measured at defined locations of the body, for instance the dynamics of oxygenation or blood volume in the skin of the fingertip. The cardial, pulmonal and vasomotoric waves of the micro- and macrocirculation are clearly visible at different wavelengths. The spectroscopic informations are important as an objective measure for the skin type evaluation, the penetration behavior of pharmaca, laser surgery, and therapy.

  1. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  2. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  3. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... typing. The liquid part of your blood without cells (serum) is mixed with blood that is known to be type ... ABO typing: If your blood cells stick together when mixed with: Anti-A serum, you have type A blood Anti-B serum, you have type B blood Both anti-A and ...

  4. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  6. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  9. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  10. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  11. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  12. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  13. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ... your body cannot make enough blood A blood transfusion is a safe and common procedure during which ...

  14. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether or not there are certain proteins, called antigens, on your red blood cells. Blood is often ... There are many antigens besides the major ones (A, B, and Rh). Many minor ones are not routinely detected during blood typing. If ...

  15. Online Monte Carlo based calculator of human skin spectra and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, A.; Meglinski, I.

    2011-10-01

    We present an object oriented GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo tool for the online simulation of reflectance spectra and color of the human skin in visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral region. Human skin is represented as multi-layered medium. The variations in spatial distribution of blood, pheomelanin, eumelanin, index of blood oxygen saturation, hematocrit, and volume fraction of water are taken into account. The optical properties of skin tissues and the results of simulation of skin reflectance spectra and corresponding skin colors are presented.

  16. Online Monte Carlo based calculator of human skin spectra and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, A.; Meglinski, I.

    2012-03-01

    We present an object oriented GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo tool for the online simulation of reflectance spectra and color of the human skin in visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral region. Human skin is represented as multi-layered medium. The variations in spatial distribution of blood, pheomelanin, eumelanin, index of blood oxygen saturation, hematocrit, and volume fraction of water are taken into account. The optical properties of skin tissues and the results of simulation of skin reflectance spectra and corresponding skin colors are presented.

  17. The skin as an immune organ.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, J K; Armstrong, C A; Ansel, J C

    1994-01-01

    As a protective interface between internal organs and the environment, the skin encounters a host of toxins, pathogenic organisms, and physical stresses. To combat these attacks on the cutaneous microenvironment, the skin functions as more than a physical barrier: it is an active immune organ. Immune responses in the skin involve an armamentarium of immune-competent cells and soluble biologic response modifiers including cytokines. Traversed by a network of lymphatic and blood vessels, the dermis contains most of the lymphocytes in the skin, other migrant leukocytes, mast cells, and tissue macrophages. Although the epidermis has no direct access to the blood or lymphatic circulation, it is equipped with immune-competent cells: Langerhans cells, the macrophage-like antigen-presenting cells of the epidermis; keratinocytes, epithelial cells with immune properties; dendritic epidermal T lymphocytes, resident cells that may serve as a primitive T-cell immune surveillance system; epidermotropic lymphocytes, migrants from vessels in the dermis; and melanocytes, epidermal pigment cells with immune properties. Although the components of the epidermis and dermis work in concert to execute immune responses in the skin, for purposes of this review, we focus on the cells and cytokines of the epidermal immunologic unit, the frontline of immune protection against environmental toxins and microbes. PMID:8160465

  18. Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L; Baba, Yoshichika; Gerling, Gregory J; Lumpkin, Ellen A

    2013-01-01

    The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus). These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6-10 weeks) and intermediate (13-19 weeks) adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26-34 weeks). Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given location maintains a

  19. Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L.; Baba, Yoshichika; Gerling, Gregory J.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus). These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6–10 weeks) and intermediate (13–19 weeks) adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26–34 weeks). Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given location

  20. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) and block blood flow or break loose ( ...

  1. Monte Carlo Method in optical diagnostics of skin and skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, Igor V.

    2003-12-01

    A novel Monte Carlo (MC) technique for photon migration through 3D media with the spatially varying optical properties is presented. The employed MC technique combines the statistical weighting variance reduction and real photon paths tracing schemes. The overview of the results of applications of the developed MC technique in optical/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, OCT, Doppler flowmetry and Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) are presented. In frame of the model skin represents as a complex inhomogeneous multi-layered medium, where the spatial distribution of blood and chromophores are variable within the depth. Taking into account variability of cells structure we represent the interfaces of skin layers as a quasi-random periodic wavy surfaces. The rough boundaries between the layers of different refractive indices play a significant role in the distribution of photons within the medium. The absorption properties of skin tissues in visible and NIR spectral region are estimated by taking into account the anatomical structure of skin as determined from histology, including the spatial distribution of blood vessels, water and melanin content. Model takes into account spatial distribution of fluorophores following the collagen fibers packing, whereas in epidermis and stratum corneum the distribution of fluorophores assumed to be homogeneous. Reasonable estimations for skin blood oxygen saturation and haematocrit are also included. The model is validated against analytic solution of the photon diffusion equation for semi-infinite homogeneous highly scattering medium. The results demonstrate that matching of the refractive index of the medium significantly improves the contrast and spatial resolution of the spatial photon sensitivity profile. It is also demonstrated that when model supplied with reasonable physical and structural parameters of biological tissues the results of skin reflectance spectra simulation

  2. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  3. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  4. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  5. Material Properties of Hagfish Skin, with Insights into Knotting Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew J; Crawford, Callie H; King, Brooke D; Demas, Andrew M; Uyeno, Theodore A

    2016-06-01

    Hagfishes (Myxinidae) often integrate whole-body knotting movements with jawless biting motions when reducing large marine carcasses to ingestible items. Adaptations for these behaviors include complex arrangements of axial muscles and flexible, elongate bodies without vertebrae. Between the axial muscles and the hagfish skin is a large, blood-filled subcutaneous sinus devoid of the intricate, myoseptal tendon networks characteristic of the taut skins of other fishes. We propose that the loose-fitting skin of the hagfish facilitates the formation and manipulation of body knots, even if it is of little functional significance to steady swimming. Hagfish skin is a relatively thick, anisotropic, multilayered composite material comprising a superficial, thin, and slimy epidermis, a middle dermal layer densely packed with fibrous tissues, and a deep subdermal layer comprised of adipose tissue. Hagfish skin is stiffer when pulled longitudinally than circumferentially. Stress-strain data from uniaxial tensile tests show that hagfish skins are comparable in tensile strength and stiffness to the taut skins of elongate fishes that do not engage in knotting behaviors (e.g., sea lamprey and penpoint gunnel). Sheath-core-constructed ropes, which serve as more accurate models for hagfish bodies, demonstrate that loose skin (extra sheathing) enhances flexibility of the body (rope). Along with a loose-fitting skin, the morphologies of hagfish skin parallel those of moray eels, which are also known for generating and manipulating figure-eight-style body knots when struggling with prey. PMID:27365419

  6. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  7. Shark skin: function in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S A; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, J H

    1978-11-17

    Hydrostatic pressure under the skin of sharks varies with swimming speed. Stress in the skin varies with the internal pressure, and the skin stress controls skin stiffness. Locomotory muscles attach to the skin which is thus a whole-body exotendon whose mechanical advantage in transmitting muscular contraction is greater than that of the endoskeleton. PMID:17807247

  8. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nevi Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Facts & Statistics Ask the Experts Early Detection ... About Us | Store The Skin Cancer ... prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of the world’s most common cancer. Take your ...

  9. Skin Problems in Construction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Keep skin clean Wash with soap and clean water if your skin comes in contact with hazardous ... caustics like wet cement. DO NOT use the water in the bucket used to clean your tools. DO NOT use hand sanitizers. Wash ...

  10. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  11. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

  12. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  13. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  14. Biofeedback With Implanted Blood-Pressure Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Additional uses found for equipment described in "Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device" (GSC-13042). Implanted with device electronic circuitry that measures, interprets, and transmits data via inductive link through patient's skin to external receiver. Receiver includes audible alarm generator activated when patient's blood pressure exceeds predetermined threshold. Also included in receiver a blood-pressure display, recorder, or both, for use by patient or physician.

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  16. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You know what blood is — it's that red stuff that oozes out if you get a paper ... ingredients. It makes them. Bone marrow — that goopy stuff inside your bones — makes the red blood cells, ...

  17. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  18. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  19. Objective biophysical findings in patients with sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Roussaki-Schulze, A V; Zafiriou, E; Nikoulis, D; Klimi, E; Rallis, E; Zintzaras, E

    2005-01-01

    The term sensitive skin has been used to describe a clinical phenomenon of hyperreactivity of the human skin, which develops exaggerated reactions when exposed to external factors. The aim of this study was to determine objective biophysical findings in patients with sensitive skin compared to those individuals with nonsensitive skin. Thirty-two patients with sensitive skin and 30 healthy volunteers with nonsensitive skin were studied. The testing methods included in vivo and in vitro tests: epicutaneous testing (Patch tests); measurement of sebum and hydration of the skin; alkali resistance test; stinging test with lactic acid; reaction to aqueous solution of methyl nicotinate 0.5%, 1.4% and acetyl-b-methylcholine chloride 1:1000; pH measurement; dermographism; and measurement of total and specific IgE. Significant results were observed in the measurement of sebum (p < 0.01) and hydration (p < 0.05) of the skin, in the alkali resistance test (p < 0.05), in the vascular reaction to methyl nicotinate (p < 0.01) and to acetyl-b-methylcholine chloride (p < 0.01) and in the skin response to allergens of the European standard (p < 0.01) and cosmetic series (p < 0.05). In addition, the subjective findings of stinging test produced significant results (p < 0.001) as was anticipated. Patients with sensitive skin possess very dry skin with low fatness, which leads to a disturbance of the protective skin barrier function. They also present a hyperreaction of the skin blood vessels, increased transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals, enhanced immune responsiveness, significant decrease of alkali resistance and a heightened neurosensory stimulation. PMID:16444908

  20. Comparison of three skin-stretching devices for closing skin defects on the limbs of dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsioli, Vassiliki; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Psalla, Dimitra; Savvas, Ioannis; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Karayannopoulpou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of skin-stretching devices for closing defects on the extremities of dogs. Antebrachial skin defects were created on the limbs of 24 dogs randomly divided into three groups. Skin stretchers included staples and sutures passing through them (group A), sutures and hypodermic needles (group B), and Pavletic device (group C). Wounds on the left were further undermined in all groups. Tension and blood perfusion were assessed. After removing the stretchers on day 3, the defects were sutured and wound healing was clinically scored. Histological variables evaluated were cellular infiltration, edema, collagen orientation, and thickness of epidermis. Significant differences in tension were found among groups (p 0.0005) and between measurement times for undermined (p = 0.001) or non-undermined (p < 0.0005) wounds. In contrast, blood perfusion values did not differ significantly. Clinical scores for group B seemed to be better than those for groups A and C, but differences were not significant. Primary wound closure using the Pavletic device was not feasible. No significant differences in histological variables were found between groups. Skin stretching with staples or hypodermic needles resulted in successful wound management with minor side effects on skin histology and circulation. PMID:25269717

  1. Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Link to Heart Attack Risk in Patients with Psoriasis Scientists now report a new way to assess ... increased heart attack risk observed in patients with psoriasis, a common inflammatory skin disease. The new technique ...

  2. The optics of human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.R.; Parrish, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    An integrated review of the transfer of optical radiation into human skin is presented, aimed at developing useful models for photomedicine. The component chromophores of epidermis and stratum corneum in general determine the attenuation of radiation in these layers, moreso than does optical scattering. Epidermal thickness and melanization are important factors for UV wavelengths less than 300 nm, whereas the attenuation of UVA (320-400 nm) and visible radiation is primarily via melanin. The selective penetration of all optical wavelengths into psoriatic skin can be maximized by application of clear lipophilic liquids, which decrease regular reflectance by a refractive-index matching mechanism. Sensitivity to wavelengths less than 320 nm can be enhanced by prolonged aqueous bathing, which extracts urocanic acid and other diffusible epidermal chromophores. Optical properties of the dermis are modelled using the Kubelka-Munk approach, and calculations of scattering and absorption coefficients are presented. This simple approach allows estimates of the penetration of radiation in vivo using noninvasive measurements of cutaneous spectral remittance (diffuse reflectance). Although the blood chromophores Hb, HbO/sup 2/, and bilirubin determine dermal absorption of wavelengths longer than 320 nm, scattering by collagen fibers largely determines the depths to which these wavelengths penetrate the dermis, and profoundly modifies skin colors. An optical ''window'' exists between 600 and 1300 nm, which offers the possibility of treating large tissue volumes with certain long-wavelength photosensitizers. Moreover, whenever photosensitized action spectra extend across the near UV and/or visible spectrum, judicious choice of wavelengths allows some selection of the tissue layers directly affected.

  3. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... of other blood components, such as platelets and plasma , may take less time. After the transfusion, you ...

  4. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  5. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  6. Reproducibility of the vascular response to heating in human skin.

    PubMed

    Savage, M V; Brengelmann, G L

    1994-04-01

    Blood flow in human skin increases enormously in response to direct heating. If local skin temperature is held above 42 degrees C, blood flow eventually stabilizes at a level beyond which other influences, barring change in blood pressure, can produce no further increase. If this maximal level is a reproducible characteristic of an individual's cutaneous vasculature, it could be useful in comparing individuals; for example, in their response to hyperthermia. Our experiments were carried out to discover whether the maximal response of the vasculature of the skin of the forearm can be reproduced within reasonable limits and, also, to clarify the time course of the response. We used water sprayed over the surface of the forearms of 10 subjects to hold skin temperature above 42 degrees C for 60 min. During the last 10 min of heating, forearm blood flow (via venous occlusion plethysmography) was stable, at a level ranging from 16 to 38 ml.min-1.100 ml-1. This level, normalized to a blood pressure of 100 mmHg, was reproduced in a given individual on four or five occasions, with an average coefficient of variation of 10%. The response was 77 +/- 11% (SD) complete after 20 min of heating. Elapsed time at 90% of the final value was 35 +/- 9 (SD) min. We conclude that the maximal forearm blood flow response to local heating is a reproducible characteristic of the cutaneous vasculature with potential utility in the scaling of responses between and within individuals. PMID:8045857

  7. Environment and the skin.

    PubMed

    Suskind, R R

    1977-10-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  8. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  9. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  10. Skin disorders at sea.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  11. Systemic Loxoscelism Confirmation by Bite-Site Skin Surface ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Gary S.; Calcara, David A.; Green, Jonathan A.; Stoecker, William V.; Larkin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We report here a case of systemic loxoscelism, confirmed by bite-site skin surface swab. Features of systemic loxoscelism present in this case included debilitating symptoms, a classic local bite-site reaction, hemolysis causing loss of approximately 15% of the blood volume within 72 hours, and a symptomatic exanthem. A skin surface ELISA test was used to confirm the presence of venom. This test enables confirmation of cases of loxoscelism for which no spider is found. PMID:20063514

  12. Laser surgery - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

  13. Treated-skin temperature regularities revealed by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2001-03-01

    Experimental results disclosing temperature change of human skin affected by various unnatural factors are presented in detail. Thermograms are obtained with the IR thermograph containing high performance InAs CID FPA-based photosensitive unit. Using logarithmic scale of time, evolution of skin temperature after moistening, spirit sponging, and olive oil lubrication is investigated. A comparative analysis of the resulting effects of treatments including alpha-hydroxy acid, cosmetic regenerating cream, spirit, and water, is made. Quantitative distinctions between skin regions characterized by ordinary, and depleted blood supply, including areas located directly above surface main vessels, are revealed. Strongly logarithmic time- dependence of a skin temperature is discovered when the skin is cooled down after its preliminary heating with a hot wax. Non-monotonic change of a local temperature during electrically active procedure is described. Low level light therapy equipment is also applied. A special role of the temperature of nose is discussed.

  14. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    PubMed

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration. PMID:22622279

  15. Human Skin Hypoxia Modulates Cerebrovascular and Autonomic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Olivia; Qualls, Clifford; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Balaban, Dahlia Y.; Fisher, Joe A.; Duffin, Jim; Appenzeller, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen) or skin normoxia (with air). The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor. PMID:23056597

  16. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Olivia; Qualls, Clifford; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Balaban, Dahlia Y; Fisher, Joe A; Duffin, Jim; Appenzeller, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen) or skin normoxia (with air). The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor. PMID:23056597

  17. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... red, peel, or itch. You should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. ... When you have radiation treatment, a health care provider draws ... they come off, do not redraw them. Tell your provider instead. ...

  18. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  19. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy? • What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? • What is prurigo of pregnancy? • ... itchy skin. What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? In this condition, small, red ...

  20. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...

  1. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help diagnose CSD. The test is no longer used today. ... LN, Welch DF, Koehler JE. Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  2. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control ...

  3. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  4. An elastic second skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017

  5. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... perpendicular to the long axis). How Are TST Reactions Interpreted? Skin test interpretation depends on two factors: ... among high-risk groups. What Are False-Positive Reactions? Some persons may react to the TST even ...

  6. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  7. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  8. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  9. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  10. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  11. Regionalisation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jeanette A; Headon, Denis J

    2014-01-01

    The skin displays marked anatomical variation in thickness, colour and in the appendages that it carries. These regional distinctions arise in the embryo, likely founded on a combinatorial positional code of transcription factor expression. Throughout adult life, the skin's distinct anatomy is maintained through both cell autonomous epigenetic processes and by mesenchymal-epithelial induction. Despite the readily apparent anatomical differences in skin characteristics across the body, several fundamental questions regarding how such regional differences first arise and then persist are unresolved. However, it is clear that the skin's positional code is at the molecular level far more detailed than that discernible at the phenotypic level. This provides a latent reservoir of anatomical complexity ready to surface if perturbed by mutation, hormonal changes, ageing or experiment. PMID:24361971

  12. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. ... derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  13. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  14. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  15. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  16. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...

  17. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Tinea corporis Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  18. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  19. Lepromin skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin up. The lump indicates that the antigen has been injected at the correct depth. The ... When the antigen is injected, there may be a slight stinging or burning. There may also be mild itching at the ...

  20. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  1. The interface between probe and skin in noninvasive glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kexin; Qiu, Qingjun; Wang, Wenbo; Jiang, Jingying

    2003-10-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose sensing often employs contact measurement, that is, the optical probe directly contacts the skin to reduce specular reflection. The contact pressure and the variation of skin temperature therefore contribute much to interference incurred by the internal structure and composition change of the detecting part. In this paper, we are going to discuss the influence of contact pressure between fiberoptic probe and skin as well as heat transfer on spectral measurement. A through investigation is made on approaches to eliminate these factors for both contact and non-contact measurement.

  2. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  3. Ballistic skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Leppäniemi, Ari; Paronen, Mikael; Kulomäki, Erkki

    2005-05-28

    Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10-20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials when assessing the injury potential of not only high energy bullets, but also especially that of non-penetrating "less lethal" kinetic impact ammunition and relatively low energy ricochet fragments. A skin simulant also permits the simulation and assessment of exit wounds. The mechanical and ballistic properties of human skin and target simulant were established on the basis of results found in the literature. Some errors in these were found. The corrected values are included in this paper for comparison. The target values of the mechanical properties of the skin simulant were the following: threshold velocity v(th)=94+/-4 m/s, tensile strength 18+/-2 N/mm2 and elongation at break 65+/-5%. A selection of synthetic and natural materials was evaluated as skin simulants by analysing their mechanical and ballistic properties. The results were compared to literature values obtained with human cadavers. The tests showed that the best skin simulant of the ones evaluated was semi-finished chrome tanned upholstery "crust" cowhide of 0.9-1.1 mm nominal thickness. Its threshold velocity was 90.7 m/s, tensile strength 20.89+/-4.11 MPa and elongation at break 61+/-9%. These values are the same as the average values of human skin. Of the synthetic materials evaluated, 1mm thick natural rubber can be used on impact side as a threshold velocity filter with some reservations although its theoretical threshold velocity is only 82.9 m/s. PMID:15837009

  4. [Improvement of skin moisture and skin texture with urea therapy].

    PubMed

    Puschmann, M; Gogoll, K

    1989-01-01

    A significant increase in skin moisture and an improvement in skin smoothness after application of a urea-containing cream was noticed in a large number of volunteers with healthy skin and in neurodermitis patients compared with untreated skin and with vehicle. The effect was shown after one application (short-term test) as well as after repeated application (long-term test). Regular application of preparation containing urea increases the moisture of a the skin and improves the skin's smoothness compared with its previous condition, with untreated skin, and with placebo preparations. PMID:2807927

  5. Skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E

    2013-04-15

    The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

  6. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  7. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2011-11-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  8. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-03-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  9. The role of perfusion in the oxygen extraction capability of skin and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Clare E; Shore, Angela C

    2016-05-15

    Oxygen extraction (OE) by all cells is dependent on an adequate supply of oxygen in proximal blood vessels and the cell's need and ability to uptake that oxygen. Here the role of blood flow in regulating OE in skin and skeletal muscle was investigated in lean and obese men. OE was derived by two optical reflectance spectroscopy techniques: 1) from the rate of fall in mean blood saturation during a 4 min below knee arterial occlusion, and thus no blood flow, in calf skin and skeletal muscle and 2) in perfused, unperturbed skin, using the spontaneous falls in mean blood saturation induced by vasomotion in calf and forearm skin of 24 subjects, 12 lean and 12 obese. OE in perfused skin was significantly higher in lean compared with obese subjects in forearm (Mann-Whitney, P < 0.004) and calf (P < 0.001) and did not correlate with OE in unperfused skin (ρ = -0.01, P = 0.48). With arterial occlusion and thus no blood flow, skin OE in lean and obese subjects no longer differed (P = 0.23, not significant). In contrast in skeletal muscle with arterial occlusion and no blood flow, the difference in OE between lean and obese subjects occurred, with obese subjects exhibiting significantly higher OE (P < 0.012). The classic model of metabolic blood flow regulation to support oxygen extraction is evident in perfused skin; OE is perturbed without blood flow and reduced in obesity. In resting skeletal muscle other mechanism(s), independent of blood flow, are implicated in oxygen extraction. PMID:27016577

  10. Tail docking and the rearing of heavy pigs: the role played by gender and the presence of straw in the control of tail biting. Blood parameters, behaviour and skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Annalisa; Di Martino, Guido; Bonfanti, Lebana; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Schiavon, Eliana; Marangon, Stefano; Gottardo, Flaviana

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated whether the specific heavy pig rearing context allowed the fattening of undocked pigs without an outbreak of tail biting. At the same time, gender and straw availability (small amounts) were considered to understand their possible interactions with tail presence in the display of tail biting. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design was adopted to test the effects of these factors on blood parameters, behaviour and tail/ear lesions. Few interactions among factors were detected. Undocked pigs showed lower cortisol (P<0.02), lying behaviour (P<0.001), and higher risk of tail/ear biting (weeks 3 and 9), but lower risk of tail lesions (week 14). Straw increased the motivation for exploring (P<0.001), reduced serum haptoglobin (P<0.001) and the risk for tail biting (weeks 3, 9, 18) and ear biting (weeks 3, 9). Results highlight the importance of straw as an environmental enrichment and seem to indicate that fattening undocked heavy pigs is possible. PMID:23876332

  11. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    SciTech Connect

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-05-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as greater than or equal to 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was less than or equal to 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of greater than or equal to 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions.

  12. Measurement of the thermal inertia of the skin using successive thermograms taken at a stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Togawa, T

    1995-11-01

    Skin thermal properties are difficult to measure in vivo in the steady state because there is a constant temperature gradient across the skin surface. However, measurement of skin thermal properties is postulated in quantitative evaluation for thermographic observation. In this study, imaging of the thermal inertia of the skin was attempted by thermographic measurements at a stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature achieved by quickly switching two hoods maintained at different temperatures. Using this technique, a total of 65 thermograms were sequentially recorded at intervals of 0.5 s beginning 2 s before the stepwise change. The image of skin thermal inertia was estimated by applying statistical curve fitting at each pixel of the thermograms. In addition, the emissivity and true temperature of the skin were also determined, together with thermal inertia, in a single measurement. Measurements were made at different sites on 10 subjects. The average values of thermal inertia of normal skin were scattered throughout a range from 1.4 x 10(3) to 2.1 x 10(3) W s1/2 m-2 K-1. Investigations of the relationship between skin blood flow and thermal inertia were also made by imaging thermal inertia when skin blood flow was changed by applying a vasodilator or vasoconstrictor on the skin surface. In a comparison with the data measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, the average slope of skin blood flow versus thermal inertia was 2.88 x 10(-4) V per W s1/2 m-2 K-1, and the thermal inertia of the skin with no blood flow was 1.03 x 10(3) W s1/2 m-2 K-1. The results also show an almost linear correlation between skin blood flow and thermal inertia in each individual, but inter-individual differences were also observed. The results suggest that skin blood flow distribution can be estimated by non-contact imaging of thermal inertia. PMID:8599689

  13. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  14. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePlus

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... to check the levels of certain immunoglobulins (or antibodies) associated with multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. This ...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...

  16. Thermoregulatory control of finger blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1975-01-01

    In the present experiment, exercise was used to vary internal temperature and ambient air heat control was used to vary skin temperature. Finger temperature was fixed at about 35.7 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at different skin sites. Finger blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. An equation in these quantities is given which accounts for the data garnered.

  17. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  18. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  19. Designing skin response meter for psycho galvanic reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhokalia, Dhruv M.; Atreya, Parul; Kumar, Arun

    2011-12-01

    Human skin offers some resistance to current and voltage. This resistance changes with the emotional state of the body. The circuit proposed here measures changes in our skin resistance following changes in our mental state. In the relaxed state, the resistance offered by the skin is as high as 2 mega-ohms or more, which reduces to 500 kilo-ohms or less when the emotional stress is too high. The reduction in skin resistance is related to increased blood flow and permeability followed by the physiological changes during high stress. This increases the electrical conductivity of the skin. This circuit is useful to monitor the skin's response to relaxation techniques. It is very sensitive and shows response during a sudden moment of stress. Even a deep sigh will give response in the circuit. The circuit uses a sensitive amplifier to sense variations in the skin resistance. IC CA3140 is designed as a resistance- to-voltage converter that outputs varying voltage based on the skin's conductivity.

  20. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H2O2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  1. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

  2. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... you'd like to help, learn more about blood donation . It's one way to be an everyday superhero and save lives! Reviewed by: Maureen F. Edelson, MD Date reviewed: June 2014 previous ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Health Care: What Do ...

  3. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the ... oxygen (PaO2): 75 - 100 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2): 38 - 42 mmHg Arterial blood pH: 7. ...

  4. Skin physiology and textiles - consideration of basic interactions.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Abdel-Naser, M B; Verma, S

    2006-01-01

    The skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of the skin, thermoregulation, antimicrobial defence and the skin-associated immune system are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. The stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. Mechanical properties like roughness of fabric surface are responsible for non-specific skin reactions like wool intolerance or keratosis follicularis. Thermoregulation, which is mediated by local blood flow and evaporation of sweat, is an important subject for textile-skin interactions. There are age-, gender- and activity-related differences in thermoregulation of skin that should be considered for the development of specifically designed fabrics. The skin is an important immune organ with non-specific and specific activities. Antimicrobial textiles may interfere with non-specific defence mechanisms like antimicrobial peptides of skin or the resident microflora. The use of antibacterial compounds like silver, copper or triclosan is a matter of debate despite their use for a very long period. Macromolecules with antimicrobial activity like chitosan that can be incorporated into textiles or inert material like carbon fibres or activated charcoal seem to be promising agents. Interaction of textiles with the specific immune system of skin is a rare event but may lead to allergic contact dermatitis. Electronic textiles and other smart textiles offer new areas of usage in health care and risk management but bear their own risks for allergies. PMID:16766877

  5. Vitamin D in the skin physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Żmijewski, Michał A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D plays important, pleiotropic role in the maintenance of global homeostasis. Its influence goes far beyond the regulation of calcium and phosphorus balance, as diverse activities of vitamin D and its natural metabolites assure proper functioning of major human organs, including skin. Recently, we reviewed the current understanding of vitamin D impact on human health from historical perspective (Wierzbicka et al. (2014) The renaissance of vitamin D. Acta Biochim Pol 61: 679-686). This article focuses on its functions in the skin. The skin and its appendages, creates a platform connecting and protecting internal organs against, usually harmful, external environment. It uppermost layer - epidermis in order to maintain a protective barrier undergoes a constant exchange of cornified keratinocytes layer. Its disturbance leads to development of serious skin disorders including psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis and skin cancer. All of those dermatopathologies have a huge impact on modern societies, affecting not only the physical, but also mental state of patients as well as their social status. Furthermore, multiple human systemic diseases (autoimmune, blood and digestive diseases) have skin manifestation, thus "condition of the skin" often reflects the condition and pathological changes within the internal organs. In humans, the skin is the natural source of vitamin D, which is produced locally from 7-dehydrocholesterol in photoreaction induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from the sun. It is also well established, that the process of proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes is tightly regulated by calcium and the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). Thus, the skin physiology is inseparably connected with vitamin D production and activity. Unfortunately, UVB, which is required for vitamin D production, is also known as the main cause of a skin cancer, including melanoma. Here, we are going to review benefits of vitamin D and its analogues

  6. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  7. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  8. Epidermal skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  9. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  10. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  11. Development of different human skin colors: a review highlighting photobiological and photobiophysical aspects.

    PubMed

    Juzeniene, Asta; Setlow, Richard; Porojnicu, Alina; Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Moan, Johan

    2009-08-01

    Skin color has changed during human evolution. These changes may result from adaptations to solar ultraviolet radiation (protection of sweat glands, sunburn, skin cancer, vitamin D deficiency, defence against microorganisms, etc.), and/or sexual selection. Migration to areas with high levels of UV is associated with skin darkening, while migration to areas with low levels has led to skin lightening. However, other factors may have played roles. Temperature and food have probably been secondary determinants: heat exchange with the environment is dependent on ambient temperature, and a high intake of food rich in vitamin D allows a dark skin color to persist even at latitudes of low UV levels, as exemplified by Inuit's living at high latitudes. Future studies of human migration will show if skin lightening is a faster process and has a higher evolutionary impact than skin darkening. Maybe due to that some American Indians have kept a relatively light skin although they live under the equator. The following hypotheses for skin darkening are reviewed: shielding of sweat glands and blood vessels in the skin, protection against skin cancer and overproduction of vitamin D, camouflage, adaptation to different ambient temperatures, defense against microorganisms, protection against folate photodestruction. Hypotheses for skin lightening are: sexual selection, adaptation to cold climates, enhancement of vitamin D photoproduction, and changing food habits leading to lower intake of vitamin D. The genetical processes behind some of the changes of skin color will be also briefly reviewed. PMID:19481954

  12. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  13. Neck skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Duplechain, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

  14. Skin disorders during menopause.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gleison V; Trigo, Ana Cm; Paim de Oliveira, Mária de Fátima

    2016-02-01

    Menopause is the cessation of menstrual periods due to the loss of ovarian function. Among the various phases of a woman's life, menopause has the greatest impact on health and has been one of the most neglected areas of research. Hormonal changes caused by menopause can lead to problems in the skin and its annexes, and despite the high frequency of dermatologic signs and symptoms, studies on this topic are limited. In this article, we review the skin disorders that result from the hormonal changes of menopause and other common dermatoses observed during this period and assess possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:26919507

  15. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  16. Investigation of Blood Flow and the Effect of Vasoactive Substances in Cutaneous Blood Vessels of "Xenopus Laevis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Škorjanc, Aleš; Belušic, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized "Xenopus," a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB…

  17. Clinical applications of skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nyame, Theodore T; Chiang, H Abraham; Orgill, Dennis P

    2014-08-01

    A unique understanding of the components of mammalian skin has led to the development of numerous skin substitutes. These skin substitutes attempt to compensate for functional and physiologic deficits present in damaged tissue. Skin substitutes, when appropriately applied in optimized settings, offer a promising solution to difficult wound management. The body of literature on skin substitutes increases as the understanding of tissue engineering and molecular biology expands. Given the high cost of these products, future randomized large prospective studies are needed to guide the clinical applications of skin substitutes. PMID:25085091

  18. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  19. Point-of-care instrument for monitoring tissue health during skin graft repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, R. S.; Seetamraju, M.; Zhang, J.; Feinberg, S. E.; Wolf, D. E.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed the necessary theoretical framework and the basic instrumental design parameters to enable mapping of subsurface blood dynamics and tissue oxygenation for patients undergoing skin graft procedures. This analysis forms the basis for developing a simple patch geometry, which can be used to map by diffuse optical techniques blood flow velocity and tissue oxygenation as a function of depth in subsurface tissue.skin graft, diffuse correlation analysis, oxygen saturation.

  20. NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

  1. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  2. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  3. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by the kidneys that stimulates red cell production {{ Immunoglobulins, antibodies made by plasma cells in response ... used for chemotherapy cause temporarily impaired blood cell production in the marrow and depressed immune system functions. ...

  4. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body’s tissues and ... returns to the heart from the lungs, which pumps it throughout the body.

  5. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  6. Tissue Engineered Skin Substitutes Created by Laser-Assisted Bioprinting Form Skin-Like Structures in the Dorsal Skin Fold Chamber in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Stefanie; Sorg, Heiko; Peck, Claas-Tido; Koch, Lothar; Deiwick, Andrea; Chichkov, Boris; Vogt, Peter M.; Reimers, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering plays an important role in the production of skin equivalents for the therapy of chronic and especially burn wounds. Actually, there exists no (cellularized) skin equivalent which might be able to satisfactorily mimic native skin. Here, we utilized a laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP) technique to create a fully cellularized skin substitute. The unique feature of LaBP is the possibility to position different cell types in an exact three-dimensional (3D) spatial pattern. For the creation of the skin substitutes, we positioned fibroblasts and keratinocytes on top of a stabilizing matrix (Matriderm®). These skin constructs were subsequently tested in vivo, employing the dorsal skin fold chamber in nude mice. The transplants were placed into full-thickness skin wounds and were fully connected to the surrounding tissue when explanted after 11 days. The printed keratinocytes formed a multi-layered epidermis with beginning differentiation and stratum corneum. Proliferation of the keratinocytes was mainly detected in the suprabasal layers. In vitro controls, which were cultivated at the air-liquid-interface, also exhibited proliferative cells, but they were rather located in the whole epidermis. E-cadherin as a hint for adherens junctions and therefore tissue formation could be found in the epidermis in vivo as well as in vitro. In both conditions, the printed fibroblasts partly stayed on top of the underlying Matriderm® where they produced collagen, while part of them migrated into the Matriderm®. In the mice, some blood vessels could be found to grow from the wound bed and the wound edges in direction of the printed cells. In conclusion, we could show the successful 3D printing of a cell construct via LaBP and the subsequent tissue formation in vivo. These findings represent the prerequisite for the creation of a complex tissue like skin, consisting of different cell types in an intricate 3D pattern. PMID:23469227

  7. Moving blood.

    PubMed

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  8. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinote, I.; Fleming, R.; Silva, R.; Filipe, P.; Silva, J. N.; Veríssimo, A.; Napoleão, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  9. UV doses and skin effects during psoriasis climate therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Hernandez-Palacios, Julio; Lilleeng, Mila; Nilsen, Lill Tove; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common autoimmune disease with inflammatory symptoms affecting skin and joints. One way of dealing with psoriasis is by controlled solar UV exposure treatment. However, this treatment should be optimized to get the best possible treatment effect and to limit negative side effects such as erythema and an increased risk of skin cancer. In this study 24 patients at Valle Marina Treatment Center in Gran Canaria were monitored throughout a treatment period of three weeks starting at the beginning of November. The total UV dose to the location was monitored by UV-meters placed on the roof of the treatment centere, and the patients wore individual film dosimeters throughout the treatment period. Skin parameters were accessed by reflection spectroscopy (400-850nm). This paper presents preliminary findings from the skin measurements in the visible part of the spectrum, such as blood oxygenation, erythema and melanin indexes. Reflection spectroscopy was found to be a good tool for such treatment monitoring.

  10. Catecholamine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  11. Cord Blood and Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to give How your gift saves lives Donate cord blood Cord blood is changing lives Federal cord blood ... Cord blood options Sibling directed donation How to donate cord blood Participating hospitals Cord blood FAQs Learn if you ...

  12. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  13. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  14. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of donor blood. Many communities have a blood bank where healthy people can donate blood. This blood ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  15. Endocrinology of the skin: intradermal neuroimmune network, a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Caraffa, Al; Spinas, E; Kritas, S K; Lessiani, G; Ronconi, G; Saggini, A; Antinolfi, P; Pizzicannella, J; Toniato, E; Theoharides, T C; Conti, P

    2016-01-01

    Endocrinology systems exert an important effect on vascular function and have direct actions on blood vessels. Estrogens provoke an increase in skin elasticity, epidermal hydration, skin thickness, reduce skin wrinkles and augment the content of collagen and the level of vascularisation. Therefore, there is an intricate cross-talk between skin conditions and stress. In stress, β2--adrenoreceptor (β2AR) pathway, cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine increase DNA damage and interfere with the regulation of the cell cycle, contributing to aging and skin diseases. Substance P is a neuropeptide released in the skin from the peripheral nerve and is related to stress and inflammation. SP provokes infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin and induces a variety of cytokines/chemokines. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), produced by mast cells, is a neuropeptide also expressed in skin and responds to stress. CRH initiates diverse intracellular signaling pathways, including cAMP, protein kinase C, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Under stress, CRH, glucocorticoids, epinephrine and cytokines are generated. Moreover, the release of ACTH binds the receptor MC2-R and stimulates the generation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone and cortisol, which interact with the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB. In skin keratinocytes, ACTH promotes the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which enhances T-cell activity. Cortisol is immunosuppressive by inhibiting Th1 and Th2 cell response, antigen presentation, antibody and cytokine/chemokine production. However, glucocorticoids are certainly helpful in Th1-mediated autoimmune disorders. On the other hand, cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1 and IL-6, stimulate the generation of CRH and activate HPA axis in inflammatory states. Here, we describe for the first time a cross-talk between endocrinology and skin, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurogenic inflammatory pathways. PMID:27358119

  16. Eosinophilic Skin Diseases: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Long, Hai; Zhang, Guiying; Wang, Ling; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic skin diseases, commonly termed as eosinophilic dermatoses, refer to a broad spectrum of skin diseases characterized by eosinophil infiltration and/or degranulation in skin lesions, with or without blood eosinophilia. The majority of eosinophilic dermatoses lie in the allergy-related group, including allergic drug eruption, urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema. Parasitic infestations, arthropod bites, and autoimmune blistering skin diseases such as bullous pemphigoid, are also common. Besides these, there are several rare types of eosinophilic dermatoses with unknown origin, in which eosinophil infiltration is a central component and affects specific tissue layers or adnexal structures of the skin, such as the dermis, subcutaneous fat, fascia, follicles, and cutaneous vessels. Some typical examples are eosinophilic cellulitis, granuloma faciale, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, recurrent cutaneous eosinophilic vasculitis, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Although tissue eosinophilia is a common feature shared by these disorders, their clinical and pathological properties differ dramatically. Among these rare entities, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or malignancies, and some other diseases, like eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilic cellulitis, may be associated with an underlying hematological disorder, while others are considered idiopathic. However, for most of these rare eosinophilic dermatoses, the causes and the pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown, and systemic, high-quality clinical investigations are needed for advances in better strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and management of these rare entities, with an emphasis on recent advances and current consensus. PMID:25876839

  17. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin longer, even if it gets wet. Reapply water-resistant sunscreens as instructed on the label back ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer ... in skin cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Basal Cell Carcinoma Aldara (Imiquimod) Efudex ( ...

  19. Methodologies in creating skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-09-01

    The creation of skin substitutes has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality of skin wounds. Although there are still a number of disadvantages of currently available skin substitutes, there has been a significant decline in research advances over the past several years in improving these skin substitutes. Clinically most skin substitutes used are acellular and do not use growth factors to assist wound healing, key areas of potential in this field of research. This article discusses the five necessary attributes of an ideal skin substitute. It comprehensively discusses the three major basic components of currently available skin substitutes: scaffold materials, growth factors, and cells, comparing and contrasting what has been used so far. It then examines a variety of techniques in how to incorporate these basic components together to act as a guide for further research in the field to create cellular skin substitutes with better clinical results. PMID:27154041

  20. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cancers of the feet are: Basal Cell Carcinoma : Basal cell carcinoma frequently is seen on sun-exposed skin surfaces. ... damage but only rarely spreads beyond the skin. Basal cell cancers may appear as pearly white bumps or patches ...

  1. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... or showers frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and ... apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. ...

  2. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can become melanoma. They make a brown pigment called melanin , which gives the skin its tan ... to the sun, melanocytes make more of the pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma ...

  3. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  4. Laser system for optical biopsy and in-vivo study of the human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of noninvasive laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for human skin in vivo. The autofluorescence characterization of tissue relies on different spectral properties of tissue. It was demonstrated a differentiation between normal skin and skin with vitaligo. In our experimental investigation of the autofluorescence spectrum of human skin in vivo a nitrogen laser with excitation wavelength 337 nm was used. Two fluorescence bands were observed at 440 and 490 nm, these were attributed to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and collagen. The intensity of the NADH emission band was markedly reduced in the skin with vitaligo compared with the normal skin, which could indicate different redox conditions in skin with vitaligo. The autofluorescence spectrum of human skin depends on the main internal absorbers, which are blood and melanin. In this study was described the effect caused by melanin content on the shape of the autofluorescence spectrum of human skin. Human skin fluorescence spectrum might provide dermatologists with important information and such investigations are successfully used now in skin disease diagnostics, in investigation of the environmental factor impact or for evaluation of treatment efficiency. The goal of this work is optimization of detection and diagnosis of hollow organs and skin.

  5. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

  6. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... doesn't matter whether you consider your skin light, dark, or somewhere in between. You are at risk for skin cancer. Being in the sun can damage your skin. Sunlight causes damage through ultraviolet, or UV rays, (they make up just one part of ...

  7. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  8. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  9. Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue.

  10. Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera.

    PubMed

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue. PMID:21895324

  11. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. PMID:24488638

  12. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  13. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  14. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  15. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Types Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  16. Note: Flow mediated skin fluorescence—A novel technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, L.; Urbaniak, M.; Jedrzejczak, B.; Marcinek, A.; Gebicki, J.

    2016-03-01

    This note describes a newly developed technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation. The technique called Flow Mediated Skin Fluorescence (FMSF) is based on monitoring of NADH fluorescence intensity emitted from the skin tissue cells of a forearm. The changes in fluorescence intensity as a function of time in response to blocking and releasing of blood flow in a forearm are used as a measure of oxygen transport with blood to the tissue, which directly correlates with the skin microcirculation status. Preliminary results collected for healthy volunteers and patients experiencing serious cardiovascular problems indicated a usefulness of FMSF technique for evaluation of health related perturbations in cutaneous microcirculation.

  17. Skin care in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Cole, Patrick D; Hatef, Daniel A; Taylor, Susan; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Use of over-the-counter cosmetics, approaches to hygiene, and many basic dermatologic principles differ between individuals with Caucasian skin and ethnic skin. Still, comparatively few publications highlight these variations or discuss appropriate management. Among many ethnic patients, issues related to skin hydration, restoration of even pigmentation, hair removal, and acne care remain problematic yet not fully addressed. As well, there are some dermatologic conditions that may be rare in Caucasian skin but are much more common in the ethnic patient. Here, we discuss various aspects of skin hydration, dyschromia, sunscreen use, and chemical depilatories in the ethnic population. PMID:20676310

  18. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  19. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives. PMID:20883261

  20. The use of infrared thermography to detect the skin temperature response to physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, G.

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity has a noticeable effect on skin blood flow and temperature. The thermal regulatory and hemodynamic processes during physical activity are controlled by two conflicting mechanisms: the skin vasoconstriction induced by the blood flow demand to active muscles and the skin vasodilation required by thermoregulation to increase warm blood flow and heat conduction to the skin. The time-evolution of skin temperature during exercise can give useful information about the adaptation of the subject as a function of specific type, intensity and duration of exercise. In this paper, infrared thermography is used to investigate the thermal response of skin temperature during running exercise on treadmill for a group of seven healthy and trained runners. Two different treadmill exercises are considered: a graded load exercise and a constant load exercise; for both exercises the duration was 30 minutes. Within the limits due to the relatively small size of the sample group, results typically indicate a fall in skin temperature during the initial stage of running exercise. As the exercise progresses, the dynamics of the skin temperature response depends on the type of exercise (graded versus constant load) and probably on the level of training of the subject.

  1. Four energy levels device for skin punching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastru, D.; Ristici, Esofina; Mustata, Marina; Miclos, S.; Rusu, M. I.; Radu, C.; Savu, V.

    2007-03-01

    Generally, the beam distribution in the tissue in interaction with a pulsed laser is defined by optical properties (effective scattering and absorption coefficient). In 2900 nm range, the effective scattering coefficient is much smaller than the absorption coefficient. An Er:YAG skin puncher is presented. Thermal action of a laser beam can be described as one of three types: hyperthermia, coagulation and volatilization, depending on the degree and the duration of tissue heating. We are interested in the volatilization process that means a loss of material. The various constituents of the tissue disappear in smoke at above 100 0C in a relatively short time of around one tenth of a second. At the edges of the volatilization zone there is a region of coagulation necrosis. In presented case of an Er:YAG laser operating in a free generation mode, the mechanical effects can result from explosive vaporization. When the exposure time of the laser is lower than the characteristic time of the thermal diffusion in the tissue, it produces a thermal containment with an accumulation of heat without diffusion and an explosive vaporization of the target. The Er:YAG laser device has the pulse length of about 160 microseconds and four emitted energy levels. This device is used to punch the skin for blood sampling for different kinds of analysis. The front panel of the device has four keys to select the desired energy according to the skin type.

  2. Bacterial skin infections in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Laube, Simone; Farrell, Anne M

    2002-01-01

    systemic diseases should be excluded with the aid of appropriate investigations, such as blood tests and skin biopsy. Staphylococcus aureus and beta-haemolytic streptococci are the most common causative organisms of cutaneous infections. PMID:12093320

  3. Histogram flow mapping with optical coherence tomography for in vivo skin angiography of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kyle H. Y.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Vuong, Barry; Luk, Timothy W. H.; Ramjist, Joel; Curtis, Anne; Jakubovic, Henry; Kertes, Peter; Letarte, Michelle; Faughnan, Marie E.; HHT Investigator Group, Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Speckle statistics of flowing scatterers have been well documented in the literature. Speckle variance optical coherence tomography exploits the large variance values of intensity changes in time caused mainly by the random backscattering of light resulting from translational activity of red blood cells to map out the microvascular networks. A method to map out the microvasculature malformation of skin based on the time-domain histograms of individual pixels is presented with results obtained from both normal skin and skin containing vascular malformation. Results demonstrated that this method can potentially map out deeper blood vessels and enhance the visualization of microvasculature in low signal regions, while being resistant against motion (e.g., patient tremor or internal reflex movements). The overall results are manifested as more uniform en face projection maps of microvessels. Potential applications include clinical imaging of skin vascular abnormalities and wide-field skin angiography for the study of complex vascular networks. PMID:25140883

  4. [The notion of occupational skin disease. Medical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P; Schliemann, S

    2015-03-01

    The different definitions of skin disease in medicine and in law are frequently confusing for dermatologists. While a skin disease may be defined medically referring to the definition of health by the WHO as a pathological condition of the skin leading to a disruption of the physical, mental and social well-being of the individual, legal definitions vary depending on the field of insurance law that is referred to. In the law of private health insurance, a skin disease is defined as an anomalous condition of the skin requiring medical treatment that exists independently of the subjective judgement of the insured person and needs to be objectively confirmed by a medical evaluation. In contrast, in the law of the social health insurance, the Federal Court of Social Justice defines disease as irregular physical or mental condition, deviating from the perception of a healthy human being that requires medical treatment or leads to inability to work. Substantial bodily disfigurement may be regarded as an irregular physical condition. In the law of the statutory accident insurance, occupational skin diseases are defined under clause 5101 of the occupational disease regulation as serious or repeatedly relapsing skin diseases that have forced a person to refrain from any work activities causal for the development, the aggravation or the recurrence of the disease. The Federal Court of Social Justice interprets the term "skin disease" from the protective purpose of the law, i.e. the protection against the economic and health consequences of the exposure to harmful agents and a thereby forced change of profession. This broad interpretation of the term "skin disease" leads to the recognition of diseases of the conjunctiva of the eye or diseases of the blood vessels of the skin due to cold damage as skin diseases according to clause 5101. For the correct treatment and possibly notification of occupational skin diseases in collaboration with various insurance carriers

  5. The back diffusion of glucose across human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pellett, M A; Hadgraft, J; Roberts, M S

    1999-12-20

    For diabetic patients, blood glucose monitoring is an important part in the management of their disease, however the acquisition of blood requires the use of invasive and often painful methods, and the development of a technique that removes these problems would represent a major advance. The uppermost membrane of the skin, the stratum corneum, has been shown to be the main barrier to percutaneous absorption, but there have been claims that polar water-soluble compounds diffuse across it via aqueous pathways. In this study, skin diffusion cells were used to investigate the back diffusion of tritiated water and the convective transport of 3H-glucose across full thickness human skin after the application of a number of different materials to the stratum corneum. Significant amounts of 3H-glucose back diffused only after complete removal of the stratum corneum by tape stripping, and it is likely that any future attempts to monitor blood glucose levels using non-physical techniques will require a certain degree of damage to the stratum corneum. The extraction through the skin of tritiated water and 3H-glucose after the application of solutions with different osmotic pressures were consistent with the theory that solutions with high osmotic pressures dehydrate the stratum corneum which suggests that passive transport of these radiolabelled molecules through porous pathways was insignificant. PMID:10581419

  6. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the groin Brachial artery in the arm The health care provider may test circulation to the hand before taking a sample ... must remain constant for 20 minutes before the test. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any blood-thinning ...

  7. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells: Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma) Group B – has only the B antigen on ...

  8. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body's tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

  9. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Gary J.; Johnson, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography. Data were expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure). Pharmacological agents were administered via intradermal microdialysis. We prepared four skin sites: one site was maintained at a thermoneutral temperature of 34°C (32 ± 10%CVCmax) one site was heated to 39°C (38 ± 11%CVCmax); and two sites were cooled, one to 29°C (22 ± 7%CVCmax) and the other 24°C (16 ± 4%CVCmax). After 20 min at these temperatures to allow stabilization of skin blood flow, isoproterenol was perfused in concentrations of 10, 30, 100, and 300 μM. Each concentration was perfused for 15 min. Relative to the CVC responses to isoproterenol at the thermoneutral skin temperature (34°C) (+21 ± 10%max), low skin temperatures reduced (at 29°C) (+17 ± 6%max) or abolished (at 24°C) (+1 ± 5%max) the vasodilator response, and warm (39°C) skin temperatures enhanced the vasodilator response (+40 ± 9%max) to isoproterenol. These data indicate that β-adrenergic function was influenced by local skin temperature. This finding raises the possibility that a part of the vasoconstrictor response to direct skin cooling could include reduced background β-receptor mediated vasodilation. PMID:25701007

  10. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  11. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cross chapter closest to you. Can't Donate Blood? A financial donation can also help save lives. Donate Now Find ... Donation Student Donors Donation Process Eligibility Blood FAQs Blood Donor Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics ...

  12. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  13. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  14. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  15. Blood Pressure Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  16. Segmentation of hyper-pigmented spots in human skin using automated cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossage, Kirk W.; Weissman, Jesse; Velthuizen, Robert

    2009-02-01

    The appearance and color distribution of skin are important characteristics that affect the human perception of health and vitality. Dermatologists and other skin researchers often use color and appearance to diagnose skin conditions and monitor the efficacy of procedures and treatments. Historically, most skin color and chromophore measurements have been performed using reflectance spectrometers and colorimeters. These devices acquire a single measurement over an integrated area defined by an aperture, and are therefore poorly suited to measure the color of pigmented lesions or other blemishes. Measurements of spots smaller than the aperture will be washed out with background, and spots that are larger may not be adequately sampled unless the blemish is homogenous. Recently, multispectral imaging devices have become available for skin imaging. These devices are designed to image regions of skin and provide information about the levels of endogenous chromophores present in the image field of view. This data is presented as four images at each measurement site including RGB color, melanin, collagen, and blood images. We developed a robust segmentation technique that can segment skin blemishes in these images and provide more precise values of melanin, blood, and collagen by only analyzing the segmented region of interest. Results from hundreds of skin images show this to be a robust automated segmentation technique over a range of skin tones and shades.

  17. Development of blood vessel searching system using near-infrared light stereo method for clinical blood sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-10-01

    We developed an accurate three-dimensional blood vessel search (3D BVS) system using NIR light for the clinical blood sampling. In the previous study, the 3D BVS system, which used near-infrared (NIR) light imaging and the stereo method to locate blood vessel accurately in three dimensions has been developed(1). However, as NIR lights could not transmit the human arm, this system could not be used for the subcutaneous blood vessel detection. In this study, we developed a BVS by using the reflecting NIR light for blood sampling assist. The light scattering in human tissue will cause blur of blood vessel edge in image, that makes the diameter of blood vessel became uncertain. In this study, a light propagation simulation and a multilayer phantom were adopted to estimate the measurement error of blood vessel diameter in our BSV system. In the simulation, the optical properties of scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, and refractive index were set similar with human skin. Next, we fabricated a multilayer phantom, which has the similar structure and optical properties with the human skin to confirm availability of the simulation. Also, the optical properties of our phantom are adjustable in our phantom to imitate the different color of skin. We established the estimation algorithm to detect the blood vessel accurately. Finally, we confirm the availability of our BVS for the blood sampling assist system.

  18. Local Skin Warming Enhances Color Duplex Imaging of Cutaneous Perforators.

    PubMed

    Li, Haizhou; Du, Zijing; Xie, Feng; Zan, Tao; Li, QingFeng

    2015-07-01

    The perforator flap is one of the most useful techniques in reconstructive surgery. The operative procedure for these flaps will be greatly simplified if accurate localization of the course of the perforator can be preoperatively confirmed. However, small vessels with diameters less than 0.5 mm cannot be readily traced with conventional imaging techniques. Local skin warming temporarily increases cutaneous blood flow and vasodilation. In this study, we established a local skin warming procedure, and performed this before color duplex imaging to improve preoperative perforator mapping and enable precise flap design. PMID:23903089

  19. New aspects of CO2 laser ablation in skin photosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, Ioan; Nedelcu, Dana M.; Dumitras, Dan C.; Dutu, Constantin A.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the latest developments in CO2, ancillary equipment, and advanced surgical techniques used in treating a variety of different dermatologic disorders. To improve our knowledge on the laser treatment of several cutaneous lesions, we have performed a study on 871 cases, of which 690 are benign skin tumors and 181 are malignant skin tumors. Based on this large number of cases, information on post-operative course, recovery time, the quality of scars and aesthetic results, recurrences and hemostasis of blood vessels is given. This study presents indications for performing laser surgery and describes how to avoid complications and limit the potential risks associated with lasers.

  20. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  1. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  2. [Clinical application of skin sympathetic nerve activity].

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi

    2009-03-01

    Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is microneurographically recorded from the skin nerve fascicle in the peripheral nerves. It is characterized by the following features: 1) irregular, pulse asynchronous, burst activity with respiratory variation, 2) burst activity followed by vasoconstriction and/or sweating, 3) elicited by mental stress and arousal stimuli, e.g., sound, pain, electric stimulation, 4) burst with longer duration as compared with sympathetic outflow to muscles, and 5) burst activity following sudden inspiratory action. It comprises vasoconstrictor (VC) and sudomotor(SM) activity, as well as vasodilator (VD) activity. VC and SM discharge independently, whereas VD is the same activity with different neurotransmission. The VC and SM are differentiated by effector response, e.g., laser Doppler flowmetry and skin potential changes. SSNA function in thermoregulation in the human body; however it is also elicited by mental stress. SSNA is the lowest at thermoneutral ambient temperature (approximately 27 degrees C), and is enhanced in the pressence of ambient warm and cool air. The burst amplitude is well-correlated to both skin blood flow reduction rate or sweat rate change. The clinical application of SSNA comprises the following: 1) clarification of sweating phenomenon, 2) clarification and diagnosis of anhidrosis, 3) clarification and diagnosis of hyperhidrosis, 4) clarification of thermoregulatory function and diagnosis of thermoregulatory disorder, 5) clarification of pathophysiology and diagnosis of vascular diseases, e.g., Raynaud and Buerger diseases. 6) clarification of the relation between cognitive function and SSNA and 7) determination of pharmacological effect attributable to change in neuroeffector responses. PMID:19301594

  3. Alkalis and Skin.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John E; Tan, Jin Lin; Ming, Justin Choong Tzen; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to provide an overview of the chemical interactions occurring in the skin of our patients on contact with alkaline agents. Strongly basic alkali is highly aggressive and will readily hydrolyze (or cleave) key biological molecules such as lipids and proteins. This phenomenon is known as saponification in the case of lipids and liquefactive denaturation for peptides and proteins. A short section on current first-aid concepts is included. A better understanding of the basic science behind alkali burns will make us better teachers and provide an insight into the urgency needed in treating these common and dangerous chemical injuries. PMID:26182072

  4. Skin disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Soutou, Boutros; Aractingi, Sélim

    2015-07-01

    Skin manifestations during pregnancy are common and diversified. This review will focus on the most important entities to be recognized by obstetricians. These are, on the one hand, physiological changes, where unnecessary investigations should be avoided, and on the other, the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. These develop electively in pregnancy, and they are currently grouped into three disorders: polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Arguments for recognition of these are presented including detection of anti-BP180 antibodies. Follow-up and treatment depend on the precise diagnosis. Risks in fetal prognosis may occur in rare pemphigoid gestationis cases. PMID:25862358

  5. [Skin problems in joggers].

    PubMed

    Itin, P; Rufli, T

    1986-08-30

    Reports on skin problems in joggers are rare in medical literature. Jogger dermatoses are caused by repeated trauma, mechanic overuse, thermic effects, allergic-toxic reactions and infectious processes. Most common are bullosis mechanica, piezogenic papules, hyperkeratosis haemorrhagica and subungual haematomas. Contact allergies and infections such as athlete's foot, pitted keratolysis and pyoderma are well-known complications in joggers. Frostbite and actinic damage, abrasions of the nipples, collisions with vehicles and injuries by buzzards are further possible incidents to be reckoned with occasionally. In most cases, prophylaxis is possible by training adaptation and use of adequate footwear. Jogger dermatoses usually clear after a suitable jogging-free interval. PMID:3764389

  6. Memristance in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.; Lütken, C. A.; Johnsen, G. K.

    2010-04-01

    The memristor is basically a resistor with memory, so that the resistance is dependent on the net amount of charge having passed through the device. It is the regarded the fourth fundamental component, in addition to the resistor, capacitor and inductor, that can be deduced from the four basic circuit variables; current, voltage, charge and magnetic flux. We show that memristors can be used for modelling electrical properties of human skin. In particular is electro-osmosis in human sweat ducts of memristive nature.

  7. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  8. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  9. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  10. Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, Randall B

    2008-04-01

    While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724

  11. Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724

  12. Bioavailability of polyphenols from peanut skin extract associated with plasma lipid lowering function.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Hurley, Steven; Hanner, Tracy; Baxter, Sarah A Schwatrz; Johnston, Thomas A; Su, Mingming; Holmes, Bryce M; Yu, Jianmei; Williams, Leonard L

    2014-04-01

    Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols including procyanidins and is shown to have hypolipidemic properties. This study investigated the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols using a rat model. First, the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols in rat plasma was evaluated. Our results showed procyanidin A2 levels in plasma peaked within 30 min of ingestion. The results of a second study show that peanut skin extract supplemented in addition to oil gavage resulted in significant decrease in plasma triglyceride and VLDL within 5h. In the third study, rats were given a Western type diet for 5 weeks with peanut skin extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The main effects observed were lowering of total blood lipid and reduction of the plasma fatty acids profile. Our results suggest that procyanidin A may impart a key role of hypolipidemic effect seen in peanut skin polyphenols. PMID:24262521

  13. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  14. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  15. Naloxone increases blood flow in the human hand.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, A G; Benroubi, M; Pyke, D A; Wiles, P G

    1985-01-01

    Intravenous injection of 2 mg naloxone produced a rapid and pronounced rise of blood flow (6.3 +/- 5.0 to 67.0 +/- 15.1 ml min-1 100 ml-1) and skin temperature (28.3 +/- 3.0 to 32.4 +/- 1.2 degrees C) in the finger and hand of seven of ten normal volunteers. In the other three there was only a small response. Skin temperature did not change in either the face or the foot. Three responding subjects who were retested with 0.4 mg naloxone showed a smaller and briefer response. To exclude a local effect of naloxone on skin blood flow due to release of histamine, responders and non-responders were tested with naloxone and morphine pricked into the skin of the hand and forearm. All showed a weal and flare reaction to morphine which was not abolished by mixture with naloxone; none showed any reaction to naloxone alone. These results suggest that, in some subjects at least, skin blood flow in the hand may be under endogenous opioid control and they raise the possibility that opioid antagonists might have value in the treatment of disorders of skin blood flow such as Raynaud's disease. PMID:4020703

  16. Cutaneous microcirculation and blood rheology following cardiopulmonary bypass. Laser Doppler flowmetric and blood cell rheologic studies.

    PubMed

    al-Khaja, N; Belboul, A; Bergman, P; Roberts, D; William-Olsson, G

    1988-01-01

    In 23 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, measurements of cutaneous blood flow were made with laser doppler flowmetry. Simultaneously blood was sampled for measurement of red cell filtration rate (RFR) and plasma-white cell filtration rate (P-WFR). The cutaneous blood flow showed significant overall reduction postoperatively. When the saphenous vein or internal mammary artery was used as bypass graft, the reduction in skin blood flow at the sites from which the vessels were taken was significantly greater than in contralateral, undisturbed sites. RFR and P-WFR were also significantly reduced postoperatively, and these changes showed significant concomitance with the fall in laser doppler flow (LDF%). On postoperative day 6 there was some improvement in LDF% and RFR but further slight deterioration in P-WFR. The study indicated that surgical trauma locally reduces cutaneous blood flow and that trauma to blood cells following cardiopulmonary bypass can contribute to this reduction. PMID:2970114

  17. [Caring for perilesional skin or skin having a lesion risk].

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gómez T; Javares, Curto T; Barahona, M; Verdú, Soriano J

    2007-10-01

    In order to increase the clinical and scientific evidence of the Hyperoxygenated Fatty Acids (HFA) in emulsion preparation for skin care, this study considers to evaluate prospectively how it influences in the state of the periwound skin (when there are active lesions) or in which it presents a high risk of lesion production. PMID:18274396

  18. Possible Risks of Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... transfusions are done Possible risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To ... Topic How blood transfusions are done Next Topic Alternatives to blood transfusions Possible risks of blood transfusions Although blood transfusions ...

  19. [Bathing in bed accelerates the recovery of skin temperature after ethanol-loading].

    PubMed

    Okumura, Y; Asakawa, K; Ogasahara, Y; Muramatu, A; Wada, S; Tamaru, S; Nagai, M

    1994-01-01

    Bathing in bed (BB) is an essential nursing technique applied to patients with restricted physical abilities. The aim of this technique is to keep the functions of the skin as an external barrier and to prevent the patients from infection and decubitus. However, the effect of BB on the blood circulation of the skin has not yet been identified, and the data observed are controversial. We have evaluated the effects of BB on the blood circulation of the skin by use of thermography. BB was applied on the right side of the back (RB) in 6 healthy female subjects who exposed both sides of their back (RB and LB) at room temperature. Ethanol was applied on the 5 x 5 cm area of RB and LB after BB, and recovery of the skin temperature was observed. After BB, the average temperature of RB was significantly lower than that of LB. This shows that BB decreases temperature of the skin exposed in the air probably due to the supply of water by washcloth. Recovery of the skin temperature after the ethanol-loading was accelerated on RB. This indicates that BB facilitates the response of the blood vessels in the skin. PMID:8129834

  20. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  1. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) Plan ...

  2. Skin equivalents: skin from reconstructions as models to study skin development and diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Hosseini, M; Vainio, S; Taïeb, A; Cario-André, M; Rezvani, H R

    2015-08-01

    While skin is readily available for sampling and direct studies of its constituents, an important intermediate step is to design in vitro and/or in vivo models to address scientific or medical questions in dermatology and skin biology. Pioneered more than 30 years ago, human skin equivalents (HSEs) have been refined with better cell culture techniques and media, together with sophisticated cell biology tools including genetic engineering and cell reprogramming. HSEs mimic key elements of human skin biology and have been instrumental in demonstrating the importance of cell-cell interactions in skin homeostasis and the role of a complex cellular microenvironment to coordinate epidermal proliferation, differentiation and pigmentation. HSEs have a wide field of applications from cell biology to dermocosmetics, modelling diseases, drug development, skin ageing, pathophysiology and regenerative medicine. In this article we critically review the major current approaches used to reconstruct organotypic skin models and their application with a particular emphasis on skin biology and pathophysiology of skin disorders. PMID:25939812

  3. [Obtention of human skin sheets by means of tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Pérez, Pedro; Cotte, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this "in vitro" study was to develop a new system for keratinocyte culture on a dermal equivalent that enables treatment of different skin injuries. The keratinocyte where obtained from primary cell cultures derived from skin biopsies, seeded over a fibrin matrix enhanced with live human fibroblast. Cells growing over the dermal equivalent, rapidly confluences and a stratified epithelium was obtained within 20-25 days culture. Detachment of composite culture from flask is a simple and quick procedure with no need for chemical or enzyme treatments. The method described provides a number of advantages which include the large expansion of keratinocyte from the primary cell cultures without the need of a feeder layer, the availability of plasma from blood banks, and the versatile and safe manipulation of composite obtained "in vitro". All these facts allow to assure that this system could result very efficient for the treatment of all type of skin injuries. PMID:15916167

  4. Skin burns after laser exposure: histological analysis and predictive simulation.

    PubMed

    Museux, Nathanaëlle; Perez, Laetitia; Autrique, Laurent; Agay, Diane

    2012-08-01

    Thermal effects of laser irradiation on skin are investigated in this paper. The main purpose is to determine the damage level induced by a laser exposure. Potential burns induced by two lasers (wavelength 808nm and 1940nm) are studied and animal experimentations are performed. Several exposure durations and laser powers are tested. Based on previous works, a mathematical model dedicated to temperature prediction is proposed and finite-element method is implemented. This numerical predictive tool based on the bioheat equation takes into account heat losses due to the convection on skin surface, blood circulatory and also evaporation. Thermal behavior of each skin layer is also described considering distinct thermal and optical properties. Since the mathematical model is able to estimate damage levels, histological analyses were also carried through. It is confirmed that the mathematical model is an efficient predictive tool for estimation of damage caused by lasers and that thermal effects sharply depend on laser wavelength. PMID:22237052

  5. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  6. Keratins and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Knöbel, Maria; O'Toole, Edel A; Smith, Frances J D

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in keratin genes cause a diverse spectrum of skin, hair and mucosal disorders. Cutaneous disorders include epidermolysis bullosa simplex, palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic ichthyosis and pachyonychia congenita. Both clinical and laboratory observations confirm a major role for keratins in maintaining epidermal cell-cell adhesion. When normal tissue homeostasis is disturbed, for example, during wound healing and cancer, keratins play an important non-mechanical role. Post-translational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation of keratins play an important role in protection of epithelial cells from injury. Keratins also play a role in modulation of the immune response. A current focus in the area of keratins and disease is the development of new treatments including small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to mutant keratins and small molecules to modulate keratin expression. PMID:25620412

  7. [Travel and skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Stüttgen, G

    1992-02-20

    The problem "travelling and dermatological diseases" is presented as a temporary change of place with associated changes in ecological conditions. Latent dermatoses may be provoked--but full-blown dermatoses may also improve with no specific treatment (climatic therapy of neurodermatitis). Physiological changes at the surface of the skin brought about by, for example, temperature or the effects of solar radiation, may allow fungal, bacterial or viral infections to develop. Direct contact with the living environment on land or in the water, in particular in the tropics, can lead to the development of diseases. Some dermatoses have a lengthy latency and develop only later at home. Recommendations for general and specific prophylaxis and treatment are made. PMID:1544613

  8. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin is usually the first step in skin cancer treatment and may have already occurred in the process ... Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early / NIH Research ...

  9. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin accelerates skin wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Akira T; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Tanaka, Rica

    2012-02-01

    Effects of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin with high O₂ affinity (m-LEH, P₅₀O₂ = 17 mm Hg) on skin wound healing in mice were examined. Two full-thickness dorsal wounds 6 mm in diameter encompassed by silicone stents were created in Balb/c mice. Two days later (day 2), the animals randomly received intravenous m-LEH (2 mL/kg, n = 12), homologous blood transfusion (red blood cell [RBC], n = 11), or saline (n = 12). The same treatment was repeated 4 days after wounding (day 4), and the sizes of the skin defects and ulcers were monitored on days 0, 2, 4, and 7, when all animals were euthanized for morphological studies. While the size of the skin defect in relation to the stent ring remained the same in all groups, the size of the ulcer compared with the skin defect (or silicone stent) became significantly reduced on days 4 and 7 in mice treated with m-LEH (46 ± 10% of pretreatment size, P < 0.01) compared with mice treated with RBC transfusion (73 ± 6%) or saline (76 ± 7%). m-LEH treatment significantly accelerated granulation, increased epithelial thickness, suppressed early granulocyte infiltration, and increased Ki67 expression in accordance with the ulcer size reduction, while there was no difference in surface blood flow or CD31 expression among the groups. The results suggest that m-LEH (2 mL/kg) may accelerate skin wound healing in Balb/c mice via mechanism(s) involving reduced inflammation and increased metabolism, but not by improved hemodynamics or endothelial regeneration. PMID:22339725

  10. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  11. Skin Diseases in the Tropics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Antoine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

  12. Skin grafting of the horse.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, J; Hanselka, D V

    1989-12-01

    Free autogenous skin grafting of the horse is indicated for wounds too large to heal by contraction and epithelization. Techniques of pinch, punch, tunnel, and sheet grafting are described. Allografting and storage of skin for delayed grafting are discussed. PMID:2691033

  13. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  14. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  15. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  16. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  17. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  18. Decreased neutrophil skin infiltration after UVB exposure in patients with polymorphous light eruption.

    PubMed

    Schornagel, Ines J; Sigurdsson, Vigfús; Nijhuis, Evert H J; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Knol, Edward F

    2004-07-01

    UV radiation, in particular UVB, suppresses the skin immune response. In patients with polymorphous light eruption (PLE) the skin immune response seems activated after UV exposure. Typical PLE skin lesions can occur as early as several hours after UV exposure. In healthy volunteers, neutrophils infiltrate the skin shortly after UV exposure. The kinetics and mechanisms of neutrophil infiltration in the skin of PLE patients after UVB exposure was studied. Skin biopsies at 0, 3, 6, and 18 h were taken from five PLE patients and six healthy controls after irradiation with three minimal erythema dose UVB. Furthermore, neutrophils were isolated from blood of five PLE patients and six healthy controls to test their chemotactic activity. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant decreased neutrophil infiltration in PLE skin after UVB irradiation compared with healthy controls (p<0.05). In both healthy controls and PLE patients, after UVB irradiation, ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression on endothelial cells increased at 6 h after irradiation. Blood neutrophil chemotactic response towards IL-8 and C5a, as well as the expression of cell surface markers involved in adhesion and chemotaxis, was not different between PLE patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, PLE is marked by a decreased skin infiltration of neutrophils after UVB irradiation, possibly leading to a diminished neutrophil-induced suppression. PMID:15191561

  19. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis. PMID:17263216

  20. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  1. Skin temperature oscillation model for assessing vasomotion of microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuan-Liang; He, Ying; Shao, Hong-Wei; Mizeva, Irina

    2015-02-01

    It has been proved that there exists a certain correlation between fingertip temperature oscillations and blood flow oscillations. In this work, a porous media model of human hand is presented to investigate how the blood flow oscillation in the endothelial frequency band influences fingertip skin temperature oscillations. The porosity which represents the density of micro vessels is assumed to vary periodically and is a function of the skin temperature. Finite element analysis of skin temperature for a contra lateral hand under a cooling test was conducted. Subsequently, wavelet analysis was carried out to extract the temperature oscillations of the data through the numerical analysis and experimental measurements. Furthermore, the oscillations extracted from both numerical analyses and experiments were statistically analyzed to compare the amplitude. The simulation and experimental results show that for the subjects in cardiovascular health, the skin temperature fluctuations in endothelial frequency decrease during the cooling test and increase gradually after cooling, implying that the assumed porosity variation can represent the vasomotion in the endothelial frequency band.

  2. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

  3. Evaluation of skin vasomotor reflexes by using laser Doppler velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Low, P A; Neumann, C; Dyck, P J; Fealey, R D; Tuck, R R

    1983-09-01

    We used a laser Doppler velocimeter for measurement of skin blood flow in 63 healthy control subjects and in patients with dysautonomias. We measured vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp, standing, Valsalva maneuver, and cold stimulus. An abnormal profile was defined in terms of the percentage of abnormal test results, the results of individual tests, and the alterations in the shape of the recorded response. These measurements of vasomotor function may permit the diagnosis of focal abnormalities of peripheral nerve sympathetic failure. PMID:6310277

  4. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  5. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  6. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  7. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  8. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Low Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 30,2016 To know if you ... to learn more about blood pressure . If my blood pressure stays around 85/55, do I have a ...

  9. Where to Donate Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... code using the Blood Bank Locator below: Blood Bank Locator City: State/Province: ZIP Code: Country: Show ... and care. The Association sets standards for blood banks and transfusion services, and accredits member blood banks ...

  10. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Donation Information > Blood Donation Process Blood Donation Process Page Content Donating blood is a safe, simple, ... this test, as well as during the donation process, is sterile, used only once and then disposed. ...

  11. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...

  12. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  13. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  14. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin. PMID:20548087

  15. Responses in acral and non-acral skin vasomotion and temperature during lowering of ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Maja; Vanggaard, Leif; Lossius, Astrid H; Walløe, Lars; Bergersen, Tone Kristin

    2014-10-01

    Arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA) in acral skin (palms and soles) have a huge capacity to shunt blood directly from the arteries to the superficial venous plexus of the extremities. We hypothesized that acral skin, which supplies blood to the superficial venous plexus, has a stronger influence on blood flow adjustments during cooling in thermoneutral subjects than does non-acral skin. Thirteen healthy subjects were exposed to stepwise cooling from 32 °C to 25 °C and 17 °C in a climate chamber. Laser Doppler flux and skin temperature were measured simultaneously from the left and right third finger pulp and bilateral upper arm skin. Coherence and correlation analyses were performed of short-term fluctuations at each temperature interval. The flux from finger pulps showed the synchronous spontaneous fluctuations characteristic of skin areas containing AVAs. Fluctuation frequency, amplitude and synchronicity were all higher at 25 °C than at 32 °C and 17 °C (p<0.02). Bilateral flux from the upper arm skin showed an irregular, asynchronous vasomotor pattern with small amplitudes which were independent of ambient temperature. At 32 °C, ipsilateral median flux values from the right arm (95% confidence intervals) were 492 arbitrary units (au) (417, 537) in finger pulp and 43 au (35, 60) in upper arm skin. Flux values gradually decreased in finger pulp to 246 au (109, 363) at 25 °C, before an abrupt fall occurred at a median room temperature of 24 °C, resulting in a flux value of 79 au (31, 116) at 17 °C. In the upper arm skin a gradual fall throughout the cooling period to 21 au (13, 27) at 17 °C was observed. The fact that the response of blood flow to ambient cooling is stronger in acral skin than in non-acral skin suggests that AVAs have a greater capacity to adjust blood flow in thermoneutral zone than arterioles in non-acral skin. PMID:25436967

  16. Integral skin electrode for electrocardiography is expendable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Inexpensive, expendable skin electrode for use in electrocardiography combines an electrical contact, conductive paste, and a skin-attachment adhesive. Application of the electrode requires only degreasing of the skin area.

  17. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  18. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  19. The cutaneous vascular system in chronic skin inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Huggenberger, Reto; Detmar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The blood and lymphatic vasculature play an important role in skin homeostasis. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis – the growth of new vessels from existing ones - have received tremendous interest because of their role in promoting cancer spread. However, there is increasing evidence that both vessel types also play a major role in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Vessels change their phenotype in inflammation (vascular remodeling). In inflamed skin, vascular remodeling consists of a hyperpermeable, enlarged network of vessels with increased blood flow, and influx of inflammatory cells. During chronic inflammation, the activated endothelium expresses adhesion molecules, cytokines, and other molecules that lead to leukocyte rolling, attachment and migration into the skin. Recent studies reveal that inhibition of blood vessel activation exerts potent anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, anti-angiogenic drugs might be used to treat inflammatory conditions. In particular, topical application of anti-angiogenic drugs might be ideally suited to circumvent the adverse effects of systemic therapy with angiogenesis inhibitors. Our recent results indicate that stimulation of lymphatic vessel growth and function unexpectedly represents a novel approach for treating chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:22076324

  20. America's Blood Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 people entering the hospital will use blood. 1 PINT Blood cannot be artificially made. The only way to have enough blood to save lives is through your blood donations. 3 LIVES Every pint of blood can be split into platelets, plasma, and red blood cells, which can save 3 ...