Science.gov

Sample records for skin

  1. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  2. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  3. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  4. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  5. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  7. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  8. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  9. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  10. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  11. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  12. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  13. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  14. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  15. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  16. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  17. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  18. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  19. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  20. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  1. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  2. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  3. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  4. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  7. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  8. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  9. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  10. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  11. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  12. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  13. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  14. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  15. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  16. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  17. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  18. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  19. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  20. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  1. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  2. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  3. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  4. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  5. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  6. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  7. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  8. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may include deep layers of skin and fat. The area is closed with stitches to place the skin back together. If a large area is biopsied, the surgeon may use a skin graft or flap to replace the skin that was ...

  9. Stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  10. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  11. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  12. Scaly Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should improve by restoring moisture (hydration) to the skin. Creams and ointments are better moisturizers than lotions, and ... Physician May Prescribe To treat the dry, scaly skin of ichthyosis ... cream or lotion containing the following: Prescription-strength alpha- ...

  13. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  14. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  15. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  16. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  17. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  18. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure ... example, lighter-skinned people are more sensitive to sun exposure and damage, which raises the risk of skin ...

  19. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  20. Friction induced skin tags.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  1. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  2. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases. PMID:27282344

  3. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. PMID:24838227

  4. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  5. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  6. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  7. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  8. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  9. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  10. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  11. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  12. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  13. Shark skin: function in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S A; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, J H

    1978-11-17

    Hydrostatic pressure under the skin of sharks varies with swimming speed. Stress in the skin varies with the internal pressure, and the skin stress controls skin stiffness. Locomotory muscles attach to the skin which is thus a whole-body exotendon whose mechanical advantage in transmitting muscular contraction is greater than that of the endoskeleton. PMID:17807247

  14. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nevi Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Facts & Statistics Ask the Experts Early Detection ... About Us | Store The Skin Cancer ... prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of the world’s most common cancer. Take your ...

  15. Skin Problems in Construction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Keep skin clean Wash with soap and clean water if your skin comes in contact with hazardous ... caustics like wet cement. DO NOT use the water in the bucket used to clean your tools. DO NOT use hand sanitizers. Wash ...

  16. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  17. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

  18. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  19. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  1. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  2. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  3. Environment and the skin.

    PubMed

    Suskind, R R

    1977-10-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  4. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  5. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  6. Skin disorders at sea.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  7. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... red, peel, or itch. You should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. ... When you have radiation treatment, a health care provider draws ... they come off, do not redraw them. Tell your provider instead. ...

  8. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  9. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy? • What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? • What is prurigo of pregnancy? • ... itchy skin. What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? In this condition, small, red ...

  10. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...

  11. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help diagnose CSD. The test is no longer used today. ... LN, Welch DF, Koehler JE. Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  12. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control ...

  13. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  14. An elastic second skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017

  15. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... perpendicular to the long axis). How Are TST Reactions Interpreted? Skin test interpretation depends on two factors: ... among high-risk groups. What Are False-Positive Reactions? Some persons may react to the TST even ...

  16. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematomas ) may form after even a minor injury. Pressure ulcers can be caused by skin changes, loss of ... up to 4 times slower. This contributes to pressure ulcers and infections. Diabetes , blood vessel changes, lowered immunity, ...

  17. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  18. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  19. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  20. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  1. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  2. Regionalisation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jeanette A; Headon, Denis J

    2014-01-01

    The skin displays marked anatomical variation in thickness, colour and in the appendages that it carries. These regional distinctions arise in the embryo, likely founded on a combinatorial positional code of transcription factor expression. Throughout adult life, the skin's distinct anatomy is maintained through both cell autonomous epigenetic processes and by mesenchymal-epithelial induction. Despite the readily apparent anatomical differences in skin characteristics across the body, several fundamental questions regarding how such regional differences first arise and then persist are unresolved. However, it is clear that the skin's positional code is at the molecular level far more detailed than that discernible at the phenotypic level. This provides a latent reservoir of anatomical complexity ready to surface if perturbed by mutation, hormonal changes, ageing or experiment. PMID:24361971

  3. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hair Small blood vessels in the skin Tattoos CRYOTHERAPY Cryotherapy is a method of super-freezing tissue in ... warts, actinic keratoses, solar keratoses, and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has ...

  4. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. ... derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  5. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  6. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  7. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  8. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...

  9. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Tinea corporis Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  10. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  11. Lepromin skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin up. The lump indicates that the antigen has been injected at the correct depth. The ... When the antigen is injected, there may be a slight stinging or burning. There may also be mild itching at the ...

  12. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  13. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  14. Ballistic skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Leppäniemi, Ari; Paronen, Mikael; Kulomäki, Erkki

    2005-05-28

    Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10-20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials when assessing the injury potential of not only high energy bullets, but also especially that of non-penetrating "less lethal" kinetic impact ammunition and relatively low energy ricochet fragments. A skin simulant also permits the simulation and assessment of exit wounds. The mechanical and ballistic properties of human skin and target simulant were established on the basis of results found in the literature. Some errors in these were found. The corrected values are included in this paper for comparison. The target values of the mechanical properties of the skin simulant were the following: threshold velocity v(th)=94+/-4 m/s, tensile strength 18+/-2 N/mm2 and elongation at break 65+/-5%. A selection of synthetic and natural materials was evaluated as skin simulants by analysing their mechanical and ballistic properties. The results were compared to literature values obtained with human cadavers. The tests showed that the best skin simulant of the ones evaluated was semi-finished chrome tanned upholstery "crust" cowhide of 0.9-1.1 mm nominal thickness. Its threshold velocity was 90.7 m/s, tensile strength 20.89+/-4.11 MPa and elongation at break 61+/-9%. These values are the same as the average values of human skin. Of the synthetic materials evaluated, 1mm thick natural rubber can be used on impact side as a threshold velocity filter with some reservations although its theoretical threshold velocity is only 82.9 m/s. PMID:15837009

  15. [Improvement of skin moisture and skin texture with urea therapy].

    PubMed

    Puschmann, M; Gogoll, K

    1989-01-01

    A significant increase in skin moisture and an improvement in skin smoothness after application of a urea-containing cream was noticed in a large number of volunteers with healthy skin and in neurodermitis patients compared with untreated skin and with vehicle. The effect was shown after one application (short-term test) as well as after repeated application (long-term test). Regular application of preparation containing urea increases the moisture of a the skin and improves the skin's smoothness compared with its previous condition, with untreated skin, and with placebo preparations. PMID:2807927

  16. Skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E

    2013-04-15

    The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

  17. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  18. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  19. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  20. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  1. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

  2. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  3. Epidermal skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  4. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  5. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  6. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  7. Neck skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Duplechain, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

  8. Skin disorders during menopause.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gleison V; Trigo, Ana Cm; Paim de Oliveira, Mária de Fátima

    2016-02-01

    Menopause is the cessation of menstrual periods due to the loss of ovarian function. Among the various phases of a woman's life, menopause has the greatest impact on health and has been one of the most neglected areas of research. Hormonal changes caused by menopause can lead to problems in the skin and its annexes, and despite the high frequency of dermatologic signs and symptoms, studies on this topic are limited. In this article, we review the skin disorders that result from the hormonal changes of menopause and other common dermatoses observed during this period and assess possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:26919507

  9. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  10. Clinical applications of skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nyame, Theodore T; Chiang, H Abraham; Orgill, Dennis P

    2014-08-01

    A unique understanding of the components of mammalian skin has led to the development of numerous skin substitutes. These skin substitutes attempt to compensate for functional and physiologic deficits present in damaged tissue. Skin substitutes, when appropriately applied in optimized settings, offer a promising solution to difficult wound management. The body of literature on skin substitutes increases as the understanding of tissue engineering and molecular biology expands. Given the high cost of these products, future randomized large prospective studies are needed to guide the clinical applications of skin substitutes. PMID:25085091

  11. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  12. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  13. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  14. Chemokines and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

  15. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin longer, even if it gets wet. Reapply water-resistant sunscreens as instructed on the label back ...

  16. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer ... in skin cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Basal Cell Carcinoma Aldara (Imiquimod) Efudex ( ...

  17. Methodologies in creating skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-09-01

    The creation of skin substitutes has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality of skin wounds. Although there are still a number of disadvantages of currently available skin substitutes, there has been a significant decline in research advances over the past several years in improving these skin substitutes. Clinically most skin substitutes used are acellular and do not use growth factors to assist wound healing, key areas of potential in this field of research. This article discusses the five necessary attributes of an ideal skin substitute. It comprehensively discusses the three major basic components of currently available skin substitutes: scaffold materials, growth factors, and cells, comparing and contrasting what has been used so far. It then examines a variety of techniques in how to incorporate these basic components together to act as a guide for further research in the field to create cellular skin substitutes with better clinical results. PMID:27154041

  18. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cancers of the feet are: Basal Cell Carcinoma : Basal cell carcinoma frequently is seen on sun-exposed skin surfaces. ... damage but only rarely spreads beyond the skin. Basal cell cancers may appear as pearly white bumps or patches ...

  19. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... or showers frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and ... apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. ...

  20. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can become melanoma. They make a brown pigment called melanin , which gives the skin its tan ... to the sun, melanocytes make more of the pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma ...

  1. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  2. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

  3. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... doesn't matter whether you consider your skin light, dark, or somewhere in between. You are at risk for skin cancer. Being in the sun can damage your skin. Sunlight causes damage through ultraviolet, or UV rays, (they make up just one part of ...

  4. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  5. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  6. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. PMID:24488638

  7. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  8. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  9. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  10. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Types Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  11. Skin care in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Cole, Patrick D; Hatef, Daniel A; Taylor, Susan; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Use of over-the-counter cosmetics, approaches to hygiene, and many basic dermatologic principles differ between individuals with Caucasian skin and ethnic skin. Still, comparatively few publications highlight these variations or discuss appropriate management. Among many ethnic patients, issues related to skin hydration, restoration of even pigmentation, hair removal, and acne care remain problematic yet not fully addressed. As well, there are some dermatologic conditions that may be rare in Caucasian skin but are much more common in the ethnic patient. Here, we discuss various aspects of skin hydration, dyschromia, sunscreen use, and chemical depilatories in the ethnic population. PMID:20676310

  12. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives. PMID:20883261

  13. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  14. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  15. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  16. Alkalis and Skin.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John E; Tan, Jin Lin; Ming, Justin Choong Tzen; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to provide an overview of the chemical interactions occurring in the skin of our patients on contact with alkaline agents. Strongly basic alkali is highly aggressive and will readily hydrolyze (or cleave) key biological molecules such as lipids and proteins. This phenomenon is known as saponification in the case of lipids and liquefactive denaturation for peptides and proteins. A short section on current first-aid concepts is included. A better understanding of the basic science behind alkali burns will make us better teachers and provide an insight into the urgency needed in treating these common and dangerous chemical injuries. PMID:26182072

  17. Skin disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Soutou, Boutros; Aractingi, Sélim

    2015-07-01

    Skin manifestations during pregnancy are common and diversified. This review will focus on the most important entities to be recognized by obstetricians. These are, on the one hand, physiological changes, where unnecessary investigations should be avoided, and on the other, the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. These develop electively in pregnancy, and they are currently grouped into three disorders: polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Arguments for recognition of these are presented including detection of anti-BP180 antibodies. Follow-up and treatment depend on the precise diagnosis. Risks in fetal prognosis may occur in rare pemphigoid gestationis cases. PMID:25862358

  18. [Skin problems in joggers].

    PubMed

    Itin, P; Rufli, T

    1986-08-30

    Reports on skin problems in joggers are rare in medical literature. Jogger dermatoses are caused by repeated trauma, mechanic overuse, thermic effects, allergic-toxic reactions and infectious processes. Most common are bullosis mechanica, piezogenic papules, hyperkeratosis haemorrhagica and subungual haematomas. Contact allergies and infections such as athlete's foot, pitted keratolysis and pyoderma are well-known complications in joggers. Frostbite and actinic damage, abrasions of the nipples, collisions with vehicles and injuries by buzzards are further possible incidents to be reckoned with occasionally. In most cases, prophylaxis is possible by training adaptation and use of adequate footwear. Jogger dermatoses usually clear after a suitable jogging-free interval. PMID:3764389

  19. Memristance in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.; Lütken, C. A.; Johnsen, G. K.

    2010-04-01

    The memristor is basically a resistor with memory, so that the resistance is dependent on the net amount of charge having passed through the device. It is the regarded the fourth fundamental component, in addition to the resistor, capacitor and inductor, that can be deduced from the four basic circuit variables; current, voltage, charge and magnetic flux. We show that memristors can be used for modelling electrical properties of human skin. In particular is electro-osmosis in human sweat ducts of memristive nature.

  20. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  1. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  2. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  3. Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, Randall B

    2008-04-01

    While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724

  4. Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724

  5. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  6. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  7. [Caring for perilesional skin or skin having a lesion risk].

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gómez T; Javares, Curto T; Barahona, M; Verdú, Soriano J

    2007-10-01

    In order to increase the clinical and scientific evidence of the Hyperoxygenated Fatty Acids (HFA) in emulsion preparation for skin care, this study considers to evaluate prospectively how it influences in the state of the periwound skin (when there are active lesions) or in which it presents a high risk of lesion production. PMID:18274396

  8. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  9. Skin equivalents: skin from reconstructions as models to study skin development and diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Hosseini, M; Vainio, S; Taïeb, A; Cario-André, M; Rezvani, H R

    2015-08-01

    While skin is readily available for sampling and direct studies of its constituents, an important intermediate step is to design in vitro and/or in vivo models to address scientific or medical questions in dermatology and skin biology. Pioneered more than 30 years ago, human skin equivalents (HSEs) have been refined with better cell culture techniques and media, together with sophisticated cell biology tools including genetic engineering and cell reprogramming. HSEs mimic key elements of human skin biology and have been instrumental in demonstrating the importance of cell-cell interactions in skin homeostasis and the role of a complex cellular microenvironment to coordinate epidermal proliferation, differentiation and pigmentation. HSEs have a wide field of applications from cell biology to dermocosmetics, modelling diseases, drug development, skin ageing, pathophysiology and regenerative medicine. In this article we critically review the major current approaches used to reconstruct organotypic skin models and their application with a particular emphasis on skin biology and pathophysiology of skin disorders. PMID:25939812

  10. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  11. Keratins and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Knöbel, Maria; O'Toole, Edel A; Smith, Frances J D

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in keratin genes cause a diverse spectrum of skin, hair and mucosal disorders. Cutaneous disorders include epidermolysis bullosa simplex, palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic ichthyosis and pachyonychia congenita. Both clinical and laboratory observations confirm a major role for keratins in maintaining epidermal cell-cell adhesion. When normal tissue homeostasis is disturbed, for example, during wound healing and cancer, keratins play an important non-mechanical role. Post-translational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation of keratins play an important role in protection of epithelial cells from injury. Keratins also play a role in modulation of the immune response. A current focus in the area of keratins and disease is the development of new treatments including small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to mutant keratins and small molecules to modulate keratin expression. PMID:25620412

  12. [Travel and skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Stüttgen, G

    1992-02-20

    The problem "travelling and dermatological diseases" is presented as a temporary change of place with associated changes in ecological conditions. Latent dermatoses may be provoked--but full-blown dermatoses may also improve with no specific treatment (climatic therapy of neurodermatitis). Physiological changes at the surface of the skin brought about by, for example, temperature or the effects of solar radiation, may allow fungal, bacterial or viral infections to develop. Direct contact with the living environment on land or in the water, in particular in the tropics, can lead to the development of diseases. Some dermatoses have a lengthy latency and develop only later at home. Recommendations for general and specific prophylaxis and treatment are made. PMID:1544613

  13. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin is usually the first step in skin cancer treatment and may have already occurred in the process ... Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early / NIH Research ...

  14. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  15. Skin Diseases in the Tropics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Antoine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

  16. Skin grafting of the horse.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, J; Hanselka, D V

    1989-12-01

    Free autogenous skin grafting of the horse is indicated for wounds too large to heal by contraction and epithelization. Techniques of pinch, punch, tunnel, and sheet grafting are described. Allografting and storage of skin for delayed grafting are discussed. PMID:2691033

  17. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  18. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  19. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  20. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  1. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis. PMID:17263216

  2. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  3. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

  4. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  5. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin. PMID:20548087

  6. Integral skin electrode for electrocardiography is expendable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Inexpensive, expendable skin electrode for use in electrocardiography combines an electrical contact, conductive paste, and a skin-attachment adhesive. Application of the electrode requires only degreasing of the skin area.

  7. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  8. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  9. Applications of skin grafting in large animals.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D G

    1990-09-01

    Injuries involving full-thickness skin wounds are common in large animals. Skin grafting can shorten the healing time and improve the cosmetic result. Techniques that have been used successfully in the management of full-thickness skin wounds include full-thickness skin grafts, split-thickness skin grafts, tunnel grafts, pinch/punch grafts, and immediate split-thickness skin grafts. The technical aspects of each of these procedures are detailed and representative cases are presented. PMID:2134606

  10. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

  11. Skin cancer prevention and screening.

    PubMed

    Holm, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common and recognizable of all cancers. The human dermis can turn malignant due to excessive solar exposure and chronic injury, with the influence of genetic risk and inherited pigmentation. Basal cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in lighter pigmented individuals, spreads locally, and usually appears pearly and often ulcerative. Squamous cell carcinoma, the most common skin cancer in darker pigmented people, metastasizes to lymph nodes 2-5 percent of the time, appears often scaly, smooth, nodular, ulcerative, or even pigmented. Malignant melanoma accounts for 2 percent of skin cancers, but for the vast majority of skin cancer deaths. All three can mimic each other. Solar or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure is the most common carcinogen; however, any chronic irritant can increase the risk, and efforts to avoid such exposure is apropos. Though not yet absolutely proven, skin cancer research strongly supports the following statements: sunscreen is protective, tanning devices are causative, and the routine screening of high-risk individuals is preventative. Authorities strongly recommend avoiding excess sun and UV light, using sunscreen, and keeping a watchful eye for unusual skin lesions. PMID:25985614

  12. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  13. Development of prosthetic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  14. [Smoking and the skin].

    PubMed

    Just-Sarobé, M

    2008-04-01

    Smoking is the main modifiable cause of disease and death in the developed world. Tobacco consumption is directly linked to cardiovascular disease, chronic bronchitis, and many malignant diseases. Tobacco also has many cutaneous effects, most of which are harmful. Smoking is closely associated with several dermatologic diseases such as psoriasis, pustulosis palmoplantaris, hidrosadenitis suppurativa, and systemic and discoid lupus erythematosus, as well as cancers such as those of the lip, oral cavity, and anogenital region. A more debatable relationship exists with melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, and acne. In contrast, smoking seems to protect against mouth sores, rosacea, labial herpes simplex, pemphigus vulgaris, and dermatitis herpetiformis. In addition to the influence of smoking on dermatologic diseases, tobacco consumption is also directly responsible for certain dermatoses such as nicotine stomatitis, black hairy tongue, periodontal disease, and some types of urticaria and contact dermatitis. Furthermore, we should not forget that smoking has cosmetic repercussions such as yellow fingers and fingernails, changes in tooth color, taste and smell disorders, halitosis and hypersalivation, and early development of facial wrinkles. PMID:18358192

  15. Skin-sparing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rancati, Alberto O.

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of breast cancer has evolved rapidly in recent decades. Conservative treatment was adopted in the late 1970s, with rates above 70%, and this was followed by a period during which the indications for surgical intervention were expanded to those patients at high risk for BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations, and also due to new staging standards and use of nuclear magnetic resonance. This increase in the indications for mastectomy coincided with the availability of immediate breast reconstruction as an oncologically safe and important surgical procedure for prevention of sequelae. Immediate reconstruction was first aimed at correcting the consequences of treatment, and almost immediately, the challenge of the technique became the achievement of a satisfactory breast appearance and shape, as well as normal consistency. The skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) in conservation first and nipple-areola complex (NAC) later was a result of this shift that occurred from the early 1990s to the present. The objective of this review is to present all these developments specifically in relation to SSM and analyze our personal experience as well as the experience of surgeons worldwide with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects, indications, surgical technique, complications, oncological safety, and cosmetic results of this procedure. PMID:26645008

  16. Skin spiradenocarcinoma - case presentation.

    PubMed

    Rebegea, Laura Florentina; Firescu, Dorel; Dumitru, Mihaela; Pătraşcu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Malignant eccrine spiradenoma is an extremely rare skin tumor of sweat gland origin. The available literature data indicates that spiradenocarcinoma nearly uniformly arises from a benign preexisting spiradenoma. Etiology is unknown but previous trauma is believed being an implicated factor. The article presents the clinical observation of a 34-year-old female patient, diagnosed with cutaneous spiradenocarcinoma of the left thigh, treated multidisciplinary: surgery and chemoradiotherapy. The presentation includes clinical, histopathological and therapeutic diagnosis aspects, arisen difficulties of histological diagnosis and literature data regarding treatment options for this type of tumor. In this case, surgery followed by second surgery intervention was performed due to the continuing development of local disease. After surgery, the patient performed external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to tumoral bed (total dose of 50 Gy) and inguinal lymph nodes (total dose of 50 Gy), followed by six cycles of chemotherapy (CMT) (Carboplatin + Paclitaxel) with complete response. At the moment, the patient shows no evidence of recurrence or metastatic disease during the follow-up. PMID:27151731

  17. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAMS) has a wide range of topics under study and through funding of research outside NIAMS. These include disorders such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other chronic inflammatory skin disorders, acne, and many others. Fall 2008 Issue: Volume 3 ...

  18. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    PubMed Central

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles. PMID:25551064

  19. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  20. Eldercare at Home: Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... still leave the skin moist. Then apply a lotion, body oil, or moisturizer that is high in ... itching Try colloidal oatmeal (AveenoTM) baths. Use calamine lotion or cortisone creams on the itchy areas. Let ...

  1. Taking Care of Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... using the product whenever redness or irritation happens. Screening Your Skin From Damage There is one product ... of your parents about whether to use an antibiotic (say: an-tie-bye-AH-tik) cream or ...

  2. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and psoriasis Certain ... Avoid rough fabrics like wool. Wash clothes with detergents that are free of dyes or fragrances. Drink ...

  3. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endocrine diseases such as Addison disease Hemochromatosis (iron overload) Sun exposure Pregnancy Causes of hypopigmentation include: Skin ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  4. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... and nutrients from flowing to the body tissues. Edema , or swelling caused by fluid collecting in the ... feet, legs and hands). Skin over areas of edema becomes thin and pale and injures easily because ...

  5. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  6. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  7. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Intertrigo and secondary skin infections.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Monica G; Higgins, Kim E; Kinney, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Intertrigo is a superficial inflammatory dermatitis occurring on two closely opposed skin surfaces as a result of moisture, friction, and lack of ventilation. Bodily secretions, including perspiration, urine, and feces, often exacerbate skin inflammation. Physical examination of skin folds reveals regions of erythema with peripheral scaling. Excessive friction and inflammation can cause skin breakdown and create an entry point for secondary fungal and bacterial infections, such as Candida, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Candidal intertrigo is commonly diagnosed clinically, based on the characteristic appearance of satellite lesions. Diagnosis may be confirmed using a potassium hydroxide preparation. Resistant cases require oral fluconazole therapy. Bacterial superinfections may be identified with bacterial culture or Wood lamp examination. Fungal lesions are treated with topical nystatin, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, oxiconazole, or econazole. Secondary streptococcal infections are treated with topical mupirocin or oral penicillin. Corynebacterium infections are treated with oral erythromycin. PMID:24695603

  9. Skin smoothing surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dermabrasion may be offered to patients with: Facial scars from acne, accidents, and previous surgery Fine facial ... is used to gently and carefully "sand" the scar tissue off down to normal, healthy skin. The ...

  10. Skin penetration of silica microparticles.

    PubMed

    Boonen, J; Baert, B; Lambert, J; De Spiegeleer, B

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge about skin penetration of nano- and microparticles is essential for the development of particle-core drug delivery systems and toxicology. A large number of studies have been devoted to metallic particle penetration. However, little work has been published about the importance of chemical material properties of the particles and the skin penetration effect of the applied formulation. Here, we investigated the penetration of 3 microm silica particles in water and in a 65% ethanolic plant extract on ex vivo human skin using scanning electron microscopy. Contrary to most other microsphere skin studies, we observed for the first time that 3 microm silica particles can penetrate the living epidermis. Moreover, when formulated in the ethanolic medium, particles even reach the dermis. The deviating chemical properties of silica compared to previously investigated microparticles (titanium dioxide, zinc oxide) and confounding effect of the formulation in which the silica microparticles are presented, is thus demonstrated. PMID:21699089

  11. Common Skin Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Taradash, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Six common pediatric skin problems are discussed through the use of case histories. Problems of differential diagnosis are outlined, and the various steps and pitfalls in therapy itemized. PMID:21308018

  12. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  13. Noninfectious skin diseases of cattle.

    PubMed

    Manning, T O

    1984-03-01

    The noninfectious bovine skin disorders can best be summarized by four factors: environmental, nutritional, congenital, and neoplastic. This article has attempted to address the etiology, treatment, and prevention of most of these noninfectious diseases. PMID:6740876

  14. Scaly-skinned Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Parkinson's disease and the skin.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Ralph; Miller, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The concept that the skin is a mirror of Parkinson's disease dates to the start of the last century. Despite dermatological disorders being recognised as a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, they are often overlooked. This article reviews the various skin disorders seen in Parkinson's disease and addresses the other dermatological questions that are frequently raised by those attending Parkinson's disease clinics. PMID:25862733

  16. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    PubMed

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  17. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  18. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  19. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  20. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  1. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  2. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  3. [Skin and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Raffaella; Mancini, Elena; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Kidneys and skin are seldom considered associated, but their relationship is more closer than generally believed. In some immunological diseases (SLE...) and genetic syndromes (tuberous sclerosis, Fabrys disease...) the cutaneous manifestations are integral parts of the clinical picture. In advanced uremia, besides the well-known itching skin lesions, calciphylaxis may appear, a typical example of cutaneous involvement secondary to the metabolic complications (calcium-phosphate imbalance) of the renal disease. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis appears only in patients with renal failure and it has a very severe prognosis due to the systemic organ involvement. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases, with renal involvement, that may be accompanied by skin lesions, either related to the disease itself or to its complications (diabetes mellitus, porphyrias). In systemic amyloidosis, fibrils may deposit even in dermis leading to different skin lesions. In some heroin abusers, in the presence of suppurative lesions in the sites of needle insertion, renal amyloidosis should be suspected, secondary to the chronic inflammation. Atheroembolic disease is nowadays frequently observed, as a consequence of the increasing number of invasive intravascular manoeuvres. Skin manifestations like livedo reticularis or the blue toe syndrome are the most typical signs, but often renal dysfunction is also present. In all these conditions, the skin lesion may be a first sign, a warning, that should arouse the suspicion of a more complex pathology, even with renal involvement. Being aware of this relationship is fundamental to accelerate the diagnostic process. PMID:25315722

  4. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  5. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. PMID:27021875

  6. Concepts in skin care maintenance.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2005-12-01

    The correct use of moisturizers and cleansers is an integral component of the skin care regimen for any patient with dermatologic disease. As discussed in this article, moisturizers that contain certain ingredients, including occlusives and humectants, offer the most complete benefits with regard to repair of the damaged stratum corneum. When used appropriately, these products not only improve skin hydration by reducing transepidermal water loss (TEWL) but also help to restore the skin barrier and improve the aesthetic appearance of the skin, which is an important concern from the patient's perspective. The use of skin cleansers also is a central consideration in patients with dermatologic disease, but these agents vary widely and must be selected carefully on the basis of the patient's clinical presentation. In most cases, syndets, combars, and lipid-free cleansers offer clear advantages over true soaps. In addition, a variety of cleansing implements such as mesh sponges, particulate abrasive scrubs, and woven face cloths are available, though most are not well suited for use by patients with barrier damage. Because improper skin care can worsen the condition or impede the treatment outcome, proper moisturizing and cleansing are essential components of an overall treatment plan to ensure a satisfactory therapeutic outcome in patients with any barrier defect. PMID:16869178

  7. How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  11. Skin transcriptome profiles associated with skin color in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  12. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  13. Novel living skin replacement biotherapy approach for wounded skin tissues.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, M L; Armstrong, D W

    1999-04-01

    A novel living skin replacement (LSR) biotherapy concept, addressing the challenging problems related to tissue regeneration and wound healing, is presented for the treatment of skin burns, traumatic injuries and ulcerations. LSR combines elements of cell therapy along with those of tissue engineering to allow for the regeneration of wounded skin. It takes advantage of biodegradable microspheres onto which donor skin epidermal and dermal cells can be attached and expanded in vitro for subsequent direct application down to the deepest recesses of the wound bed. The key element of the biotherapy is the ability of the skin cells to migrate freely from the microspheres into the wound for regeneration of the tissues. The large surface to volume ratio of the microspheres allows for the delivery of appropriate cell numbers while minimizing the amount of biomaterial to be resorbed. This novel approach presents a number of advantages over existing therapies including facilitated cell manipulations, ease of storage and transportation, rapid clinical intervention due to the elimination of any surgical suturing or stapling, and a more natural three-dimensional tissue remodeling and anatomical compliance. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo evidence of the LSR functionality and its potential benefits is presented. PMID:10358222

  14. Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Runeman, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

  15. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-01-23

    In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. PMID:24063883

  16. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  17. Human Skin Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Bickers, David R.; Kappas, Attallah

    1978-01-01

    Coal tar products, which are widely used in treating dermatologic disease, contain numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including 3,4-benzo[a]pyrene (BP). BP is among the most potent environmental chemical carcinogens and is known to evoke tumors in the skin of experimental animals and perhaps also of man. In this study the effect of cutaneous application of coal tar solution (U. S. Pharmacopeia) on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in the skin of patients usually treated with this drug was investigated. AHH, a cytochrome P-450 dependent carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme appears to play an important role in the activation of polycyclic hydrocarbons into reactive moieties that can bind to DNA and that may directly induce cancer. Application of coal tar solution to human skin caused a two to five-fold induction of cutaneous AHH in nine subjects. In further studies, the incubation of human skin with coal tar solution in vitro also caused variable induction of cutaneous AHH. Maximum responses in both systems occurred after 24 h and enzyme activity in vitro was time- and tissue- and substrate-concentration dependent. Studies in experimental animals showed that topical application of coal tar solution caused induction of AHH in skin and, after percutaneous absorption, in liver as well. Assay of several defined constituents of coal tar for AHH induction showed that BP was the most potent inducer of AHH tested. These studies indicate that topical application of coal tar solution in doses ordinarily used in treating dermatologic disease causes induction of AHH in human skin and suggest that such induced enzymatic activity could relate to carcinogenic responses to this agent in skin or, after percutaneous absorption, in other tissues as well. PMID:711851

  18. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  19. Skin Cancer in the Crosshairs

    PubMed Central

    Sinnya, Sudipta; Zwald, Fiona O.; Colegio, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC) is an organization comprising of physicians; transplant surgeons and basic science research scientists dedicated in providing optimal care and ongoing research advancements in solid organ transplant recipients to improve patient outcome and quality of life. As medical advances occur, it is anticipated that the sheer number of solid organ transplantations occurring worldwide will continue to increase. The long-term medication associated immunosuppression improves graft survival, but as a consequence, these individuals become increasingly susceptible to various cutaneous malignancies, lymphoproliferative disorders and infections. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequently encountered skin cancer and increases 65- to 250-fold [Jensen et al., Skin cancer in kidney and heart transplant recipients and different long-term immunosuppressive therapy regimens. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;40:177-186; Lindelöf et al., Incidence of skin cancer in 5356 patients following organ transplantation. Br J Dermatol. 2000; 143:513-519]. However, the rates of basal cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma also increase in organ transplant recipients leading to significant morbidity as well as mortality [Berg and Otley. Skin cancer in organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002; 47:1-20]. In October 2014, the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative and its equivalent European counterpart, Skin Care in Organ Transplant Recipients Europe held its 10th biennial meeting in Essex, MA to discuss the clinical conundrums and the evolving research pertinent to the field. This meeting report provides a synthesis of all the clinical and research data presented at the 4-day meeting.

  20. Removing bonded skin from a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Metal skin is peeled off like sardine-can cover with key. Method is useful in removing bonded skins from any substrate where substrate is strong enough not to buckle or tear when bonded skin is rolled free. Also, it is useful for removing sections of damaged skin where bladders of other equipment below substrate might be damaged if saw or router were used to cut completely through skin.

  1. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  2. Biological Rhythms in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mary S.; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism’s rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional–translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism’s sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  3. Smart Skin Patterns Protect Springtails

    PubMed Central

    Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics. PMID:21980383

  4. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  5. Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2006-02-01

    Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the bruise. Hyperspectral imaging combines the power of imaging and spectroscopy, and can provide both spectroscopic and spatial information. In this study a hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS was used to measure the temporal development of bruised skin in a human volunteer. The bruises were inflicted by paintball bullets. The wavelength ranges used were 400 - 1000 nm (VNIR) and 900 - 1700 nm (SWIR), and the spectral sampling intervals were 3.7 and 5 nm, respectively. Preliminary results show good spatial discrimination of the bruised areas compared to normal skin. Development of a white spot can be seen in the central zone of the bruises. This central white zone was found to resemble the shape of the object hitting the skin, and is believed to develop in areas where the impact caused vessel damage. These results show that hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique to evaluate the temporal and spatial development of bruises on human skin.

  6. Biological Rhythms in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mary S; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism's rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional-translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism's sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  7. Skin problems in sugar artists.

    PubMed

    Bangha, E; Elsner, P

    1996-11-01

    Sugar artistry is a growing profession amongst bakers and confectioners and an increasingly common hobby in amateur cooks. The main work consists of manual manipulation of sugar which is formed into figures and objects for table and food decoration. The sugar must be warmed up to 50 degrees C in order to be liquid and malleable and so the artists suffer from diverse thermally induced skin problems on their hands. Such changes have not to date been reported in the dermatological literature. In this study we report our experience in 50 Swiss sugar artists who have suffered from skin problems. The study took the form of a questionnaire survey. The response rate was 30 out of 50. Twenty-six reported no chronic skin disorder. Four suffered from a palmar vesicular relapsing type of chronic eczema. The main skin problems on the hands during work with hot sugar were increased sweating, seen in 20 out of 30 (67%), and burning with erythema and blistering, seen in 12 out of 30 (40%). Most participants (83%) were highly irritated by the skin problems during their work, and applied a protective cream before working with sugar, or wore rubber gloves. Topical therapy with a preparation containing 10% aluminium chloride hexahydrate, used once daily for 3 weeks, evaluated in 14 participants, decreased sweating in 10 (71%) and reduced the thermally induced erythema in one (7%). PMID:8977679

  8. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C.R; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M; Tyler, M.J

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical application on mice. The secretions provided protection against host-seeking Culex annulirostris mosquitoes. Olfactometer tests using aqueous washes of skin secretions from L. caerulea and four other frog species were conducted to determine whether volatile components were responsible for repellency. Volatiles from Litoria rubella and Uperoleia mjobergi secretions were repellent to C. annulirostris, albeit not as repellent as a DEET control. The demonstration of endogenous insect repellents in amphibians is novel, and demonstrates that many aspects of frog chemical ecology remain unexplored. PMID:17148373

  9. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  10. Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin irritation. Contact with acids, alkalis or heavy metals can cause painful burns. Skin Allergies. Contact with even small amounts of some substances can cause skin allergies. Common causes of work- ...

  11. [Skin cancers and environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Autier, P

    1998-09-01

    In the fair skinned populations of the industrialised nations, the number of cutaneous melanoma doubles every ten to twenty years. Currently, each year in Belgium, about 1,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and 15 to 20,000 basal cell or spinal cell epitheliomas are diagnosed. In Europe and in North America, the increase is essentially attributable to the considerable changes in sun exposure habits that took place after World War II. The type of ultraviolet radiation implicated in skin cancers is not known yet, but both the ultraviolet A and the ultraviolet B radiation could be involved in their occurrence. The impact of the stratospheric ozone depletion on skin cancer incidence remains uncertain. The impact of the stratospheric ozone depletion on skin cancer incidence remains uncertain. The sunbed tanning fashion represents another potential source of hazards for skin cancers. Their use must be discouraged. Some European countries have now adopted regulations about their commercialisation and utilisation. Current sun protection messages insist on the physical sun protection (wearing of clothes, staying in the shade), rather than on the use of a sunscreen. In fact, nearly all epidemiological studies done so far have found sunscreen use to be associated with a higher risk of melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer. Because of their ability to delay sunburns, sunscreens could encourage excessive sun exposure. Sunscreen users should be told to voluntarily limit their sun exposure. New sun protection methods include the measurement of the individual exposure to ultraviolet radiation, with the emission of a signal when a critical level of exposure has been reached. PMID:9805971

  12. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016. PMID:27347898

  13. Tropical Skin Infections Among Israeli Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Michal; Benenson, Shmuel; Baum, Sharon; Schwartz, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Infectious skin disorders are common dermatologic illnesses in travelers. Knowledge of post-travel–related infectious skin disorders will allow for effective pre- and post-travel counseling. All cases of returning travelers seen in our center seeking care for infectious skin diseases were included in this study. For a comparison, data on returned travelers with non-infectious skin diseases and healthy travelers who had pre-travel consultations in our institution were also analyzed. Altogether, skin-related diagnosis was reported in 540 ill travelers, and among them, 286 (53%) had infectious skin diseases. Tropical skin infection was diagnosed in 64% of the infectious cases. Travelers returning from Latin America were significantly more ill with tropical skin infections than those traveling to Asia and Africa, The most common diagnoses were cutaneous leishmaniasis, myiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans. In conclusion, tropical skin infections are common among Israeli travelers, especially among those who visited Latin America. PMID:22049040

  14. Biopolymeric agents for skin wrinkle treatment.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2016-10-01

    Skin aging is caused by several factors capable of deteriorating dermal matrix and is visibly noticed in skin color and skin contour deformities. In addition to the prevention of skin aging by application of antioxidants and sunscreens, treatment of skin wrinkles with those of dermal fillers is also recommended. Dermal filler products with enhanced injectability and longer duration are being developed continuously. Biodegradable polymers such as skin elastic fibers and dermal matrix mimetic used for treatment of skin wrinkle are summarized in this article. Additionally, the importance of amino acids, enzymes, and proteins in aesthetic of skin is addressed. Thus, elective agents are proposed for the dermatologists, cosmetic formulators, and the individuals facing skin aging problems. The candidate natural peptides from marine sources are additionally presented for widening the choice of actives application for treating aging. PMID:26963365

  15. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  16. Sexual hormones in human skin.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R

    2007-02-01

    The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving

  17. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  18. Rare emerging malignant skin tumours.

    PubMed

    Rongioletti, F; Ferreli, C; Pinna, A L; Atzori, L

    2015-08-01

    As clinical skills improve and innovative diagnostic techniques become available in the field of dermatology and dermatopathology, new types or additional variants of malignant skin tumors are described. This article reviews the current nomenclature, clinico-pathological features, differential diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic implications of some new dermato(patho)logical rare emerging skin tumors, including epithelial tumors (squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia), adnexal tumors (endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma), soft tissue tumors of vascular differentiation (pseudolymphomatous cutaneous angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma), hematopoietic tumors (blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm) and mixed epithelial/melanocytic tumor (squamomelanocytic tumor). PMID:26086411

  19. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  20. [Skin and soft tissue infections].

    PubMed

    Piso, R J; Bassetti, S

    2012-03-14

    Skin- and Soft tissue infections are a frequent problem in hospital as well as in ambulatory care. Diagnostic procedures and treatment principles have to include the most frequent pathogens. While the acute forms of skin and soft tissue infections, with, necrotising fasciitis as important exception, rarely cause diagnostic or therapeutic problem, the treatment of patients with recurrent furunculosis, chronic wounds and diabetic feet is often difficult and frustration for patients and physicians. This article gives an overview of the most important problems and treatment strategies. PMID:22419138

  1. Zebrafish for modeling skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Cline, Abigail; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The experimental advantages of zebrafish make this model system highly amenable to the field of dermatology. Zebrafish skin development is similar to humans and its genome is ~70% orthologous to the human genome. Its external developmental process allows for genetic manipulation and analysis of embryogenesis within a short time frame with all important internal organs and skin compartments formed within 6 days. Zebrafish models of cutaneous human diseases offer insight into pathogenesis and a unique platform for testing of potential therapies. This review details the specific advantages of zebrafish and highlights its use in dermatological research. PMID:27617951

  2. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in human skin and SkinEthic reconstructed human skin models.

    PubMed

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Arbey, Eric; Daronnat, Edwige; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Skin metabolism is becoming a major consideration in the development of new cosmetic ingredients, skin being the first organ exposed to them. In order to replace limited samples of Excised human skin (EHS), in vitro engineered human skins have been developed. 3D models are daily used to develop and evaluate new cosmetic ingredients and have to be characterized and compared with EHS in terms of metabolic capabilities. This work presents the determination of apparent catalytic parameters (apparent Vmax, Km and the ratio Vmax/Km) in 3D models compared with EHS for cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase isoforms involved in drug metabolism, esterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyl transferases, uridinyl diphosphate glucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases. Results show that all these enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics are expressed and functional in the EHS and 3D models. Also, the Vmax/Km ratios (estimating the intrinsic metabolic clearances) show that the metabolic abilities are the most often comparable between the skin models and EHS. These results indicate that the 3D models can substitute themselves for EHS to select cosmetic ingredients on the basis of their metabolism, efficacy or/and safety. PMID:25808006

  3. Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagong, Woong; Choi, Sangho; Kim, Chulkyu; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2007-11-01

    The shape of shark skin - riblet - reduces the skin friction up to 8% in a turbulent boundary layer, as compared to a smooth surface. The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110km/h. On the sailfish skin, we observe a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream. So, we investigate the possibility of skin-friction reduction using this shape. We perform an extensive parametric study by varying the width and height of V-shaped protrusion, the spanwise and streamwise spacings between adjacent ones, and the overall distribution pattern (parallel, staggered and random), respectively. For all the cases considered, drag is either increased or unchanged. Each surface protrusion generates a pair of streamwise vortices, producing low and high shear stresses at the center and side of the protrusion, respectively, but total skin friction is nearly same as or higher than that of a smooth surface. Since this shape is very similar to but opposite in direction to that used in Sirovich & Karlsson (Nature 1997), we perform another experiment on the V-shaped protrusions pointing upstream following their study. Unlike their result, we do not obtain any drag reduction even with random distribution of these V-shaped protrusions.

  4. Low skin temperatures produced by new skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Strick, R A; Moy, R L

    1985-12-01

    Temperatures produced by Cryosthesia -30 degrees C, Cryosthesia -60 degrees C, and Frigiderm were measured in minipigs. Cryosthesia -60 degrees C and Cryosthesia -30 degrees C were both found to rapidly lower skin temperatures to levels that have been shown to cause cell injury, necrosis, and loss of melanocytes. Use of these agents requires extreme caution in dermabrasion. PMID:3905895

  5. Skin Prick Test in Patients with Chronic Allergic Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Pooja; Dogra, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aims and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%), insects (17.07%), fungus (12.20%), and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM) (7.32%). The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%). Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD. PMID:25814704

  6. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research. PMID:26743051

  7. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  8. Climate change and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Leun, Jan C; de Gruijl, Frank R

    2002-05-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer and climate change by the increasing greenhouse effect are distinctly different processes. It is becoming quite clear, however, that the two global environmental problems are interlinked in several ways [D. L. Albritton, P. J Aucamp, G. Mégie, R. T. Watson, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, 1998, World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 44 (WMO, Geneva, 1998)]. In the present analysis we deal with the possibility of such an interlinkage within one effect on human health, namely, skin cancer. The increase in the incidence of skin cancer is one of the most extensively studied effects of increasing ultraviolet radiation by ozone depletion (F. R. de Gruijl, Skin cancer and solar radiation, Eur. J Cancer, 1999, 35, 2003-2009). We wondered if this impact could also be influenced by increasing environmental temperatures. Here we show that it is likely that such an influence will occur. For the same reason, it is likely that the baseline incidence of skin cancer will be augmented by rising temperatures, which may become significant in magnitude. PMID:12653470

  9. Moon Technology for Skin Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Estee Lauder uses digital image analyzer and software based on NASA lunar research in evaluation of cosmetic products for skincare. Digital image processing brings out subtleties otherwise undetectable, and allows better determination of product's effectiveness. Technique allows Estee Lauder to quantify changes in skin surface form and structure caused by application of cosmetic preparations.

  10. Nothing but skin and bone

    PubMed Central

    Ross, F. Patrick; Christiano, Angela M.

    2006-01-01

    Skin and bone — what comes to mind at hearing this phrase? While certainly a metaphor for disease, it also defines two very different tissues, one a flexible and contiguous outer covering, the other a morphologically diverse hard tissue distributed at over 200 sites in the body. As the accompanying series of Reviews highlights, these tissues are indeed diverse, but there are also surprising similarities. Skin is the interface between the internal organs and the environment, and as such plays a crucial role in the body’s defense mechanism. The skin and its many appendages are responsible for functions as diverse as epidermal barrier and defense, immune surveillance, UV protection, thermoregulation, sweating, lubrication, pigmentation, the sensations of pain and touch, and, importantly, the protection of various stem cell niches in the skin. Bone serves a number of purposes: it provides protection for vital organs, a lever for locomotion, a reservoir for calcium, and the site of adult hematopoiesis. The tissue is composed of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and their individual precursors plus a complex mixture of mesenchymal, myeloid, and lymphoid cells in the marrow space. Finally, the endothelial microenvironment provides nutrition and is a conduit for the influx and emigration of cells that impact bone biology in several important ways. This Review series guides the reader through these various facets of 2 diverse, yet interdependent, tissues. PMID:16670754

  11. Skin Failure: An Emerging Concept.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Skin failure is an emerging concept that clarifies trends in clinical practice. Its recognition provides common nomenclature, opens research directions, and questions assumptions regarding pressure ulcers as a quality measure. Adoption of the term is a step toward uniform terminology in compliance with a value based payment system. PMID:27161850

  12. Quantitative assessment of skin aging.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, J L

    2001-11-01

    Noninvasive methods have allowed physicians to give an objective description of aged skin in terms of functional and esthetic properties. The relative influence of environment (mainly sun) on the true aging process can be assessed through the obtained data. It is also possible to measure the efficacy of topical preparations (cosmetics or drugs) designed for treating the various cutaneous aging marks. PMID:11535423

  13. Vitamin D and the skin.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mona; Kerr, Philip E; Slade, Karren; Grant-Kels, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient that humans obtain through the diet and by synthesis in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B. Vitamin D is then converted by the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, its major circulating form. This form is the best indicator of vitamin D nutritional status and is easily measured. Under the influence of parathyroid hormone, the kidney then converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the biologically active, hormonal form of the nutrient that is important in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and is critical in building and maintaining healthy bones. Many cell types outside of the skeletal system, including various cells in the skin, also express the vitamin D receptor. In addition, many cell types convert circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for local use. This metabolite has been shown to exert potent effects on cellular differentiation, cellular proliferation, and immune regulation. It is theorized that by these mechanisms vitamin D and its analogues are effective treatment options for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Insufficient vitamin D nutritional status has been associated with a host of other diseases, most notably cancer. There is evidence that supplementation with vitamin D reduces the overall incidence of cancer, although current evidence is insufficient to prove a causative effect. Sunscreen use blocks the ability of the skin to photosynthesize vitamin D, although the effect this has on the vitamin D status of the general population is unclear. PMID:21034990

  14. Breast skin and nipple changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... WITH LARGE PORES This is called peau d'orange because the skin looks like an orange peel. An infection in the breast or inflammatory ... provider will talk to you about your medical history and recent changes you have noticed in your ...

  15. Breastfeeding - skin and nipple changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... with large pores . This is called peau d'orange because the skin looks like an orange peel. This can be caused by an infection ... provider will talk to you about your medical history and the recent changes you have noticed in ...

  16. Chronic Inflammation in Skin Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked to the development and progression of multiple cancers, including those of the lung, stomach, liver, colon, breast and skin. Inflammation not only drives the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells under the stress of chronic infection and autoimmune diseases, but also promotes the growth, progression and metastatic spread of cancers. Tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells are comprised of a diverse population of myeloid and immune cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and others. Different myeloid and lymphoid cells within tumor microenvironment exert diverse, often contradicting, effects during skin cancer development and progression. The nature of tumor-immune interaction determines the rate of cancer progression and the outcome of cancer treatment. Inflammatory environment within skin tumor also inhibits naturally occurring anti-tumor immunity and limits the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. In this article we aim to give an overview on the mechanism by which inflammation interferes with the development and therapeutic intervention of cancers, especially those of the skin.

  17. Langerhans Cells in Porcine Skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are resident dendritic cells (DCs) of the skin possessing intracellular Birbeck granules (BGs). Langerin, a surface protein unique to LCs, can be internalized resulting in BG formation. The standard for characterizing DCs as Langerhans cells is expression of the protein, lange...

  18. TRP channels in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as ‘polymodal cellular sensors’ on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24372189

  19. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, PMID:27161351

  20. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v) CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO) and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin) was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The 2% (w/v) CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v) EO in combination with 2% (w/v) CHG in 70% (v/v) IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis. PMID:20860796

  1. Mechanisms of imiquimod skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Pescina, Silvia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Nicoli, Sara

    2016-09-10

    Imiquimod (IMQ) ia an immunostimulating drug used for the treatment of neoplastic skin diseases, such as actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and as adjuvant for vaccination. Imiquimod formulation and skin delivery is highly challenging because of its very low solubility in most pharmaceutical excipients and poor penetration properties. Objectives of the work were: (1) to evaluate IMQ solubility in different solvents and pharmaceutical excipients; (2) to evaluate IMQ skin retention after the application of simple saturated solutions; (3) to evaluate the role of stratum corneum and solvent uptake on IMQ skin retention and (4) to formulate IMQ in microemulsions - prepared using previously investigated components - and compare them with the commercial formulation. The results show that IMQ solubility is not related to the solubility parameter of the solvents considered. The highest solubility was found with oleic acid (74mg/ml); in the case of PEGs, the solubility increased linearly with MW (PEG 200: 1.9mg/ml; PEG 400 7.3mg/ml, PEG 600 12.8mg/ml). Imiquimod skin retention from saturated solutions (Tween 80, oleic acid, propylene glycol, PEG 200, PEG 400, PEG 600, Transcutol, 2-pyrrolidone, DMSO) resulted relatively similar, being 1.6μg/cm(2) in case of oleic acid (solubility 74mg/ml) and 0.18μg/cm(2) in case of propylene glycol (solubility 0.60mg/ml). Permeation experiments on stripped skin (no stratum corneum) and isolated dermis as well as uptake experiments on isolated stratum corneum sheets demonstrated that IMQ accumulation is related to skin solvent uptake. Finally, microemulsions (MEs) prepared with the above-studied components demonstrated a very good performance. In particular, a ME composed of 10% oleic acid, 35% Transcutol, 35% Tween 80 and 20% water is able to accumulate the same amount of drug as the commercial formulation but with far more efficiency, since its concentration was 12 times lower. PMID:27452419

  2. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  3. Sun’s effect on skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be very detrimental. Within the skin's epidermal (outer) layer ...

  4. Fighting Back, Bedbugs Grow a Thicker Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grow a Thicker Skin It helps protect against pesticides and may explain why population is growing worldwide, ... developing thicker "skins" that help them resist common pesticides, a new study suggests. This might explain why ...

  5. Sunscreens, Skin Cancer, and Your Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Terence M.; Wolfe, Dana P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of sunlight on skin are described. The principal types of sunscreens and their properties are discussed. The three types of skin tumors, their cure rates, and treatment methods are examined. (Author/MT)

  6. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a dermatologist What causes our skin to age? Many things cause our skin to age. Some ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2016 American Academy ...

  7. Skin Bioprinting: Impending Reality or Fantasy?

    PubMed

    Ng, Wei Long; Wang, Shuai; Yeong, Wai Yee; Naing, May Win

    2016-09-01

    Bioprinting provides a fully automated and advanced platform that facilitates the simultaneous and highly specific deposition of multiple types of skin cells and biomaterials, a process that is lacking in conventional skin tissue-engineering approaches. Here, we provide a realistic, current overview of skin bioprinting, distinguishing facts from myths. We present an in-depth analysis of both current skin bioprinting works and the cellular and matrix components of native human skin. We also highlight current limitations and achievements, followed by design considerations and a future outlook for skin bioprinting. The potential of bioprinting with converging opportunities in biology, material, and computational design will eventually facilitate the fabrication of improved tissue-engineered (TE) skin constructs, making bioprinting skin an impending reality. PMID:27167724

  8. Sun’s effect on skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... to age prematurely. Suntanning occurs because exposure to sunlight causes the skin to produce more melanin and ...

  9. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal After mastectomy or amputation Donor sites for grafts and flaps are chosen ... surgery than the wound due to newly exposed nerve endings.

  10. For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159632.html For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up Melanoma survivors benefited when ... out: Getting a partner trained to spot potential skin cancers can be a lifesaver for melanoma survivors, ...

  11. 'Sunscreen' Gene May Guard Against Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158935.html 'Sunscreen' Gene May Guard Against Skin Cancer Researchers hope ... Scientists say they've identified a so-called "sunscreen" gene that may help protect against skin cancer. ...

  12. X-ray microanalysis of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Grundin, T.G.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.; Lindberg, M.; Werner, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Electron probe x-ray microanalysis was used to study elemental distribution in uninvolved and involved skin from patients with psoriasis, and in skin from healthy controls. Significant differences were found between the involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. In the involved skin, the concentrations of Mg, P, and K were higher in the stratum germinativum, spinosum, and granulosum, compared to the corresponding strata in uninvolved skin. Neither involved nor uninvolved psoriatic stratum germinativum differed markedly from nonpsoriatic control stratum germinativum. In uninvolved psoriatic skin only a lower level of K was noted. In comparison to uninvolved psoriatic skin, the elemental composition of the various strata of involved psoriatic skin shows a pattern typical for highly proliferative, nonneoplastic cells.

  13. Achieving skin to skin contact in theatre for healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The evidence base is supportive of early skin to skin contact (SSC) for optimal newborn-physiological adaptation, bonding and breastfeeding, and national guidelines encourage SSC as soon as possible, regardless of mode of birth. With an ever-rising caesarean (CS) rate, implementing SSC in theatre stands to benefit an increasing number of mothers and babies. While it may be best practice, in reality there is a lot of variation from trust to trust, and many hospitals do not facilitate it, citing numerous reasons as to why it is not possible. Midwives may feel that they should focus on norma birth, but it is our role to provide holistic care and normalise birth in all settings. This article looks at current evidence and the role of the midwife around facilitating SSC in theatre with an example from practice of how change has been implemented so that mothers and babies get the best start in life. PMID:26320329

  14. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin. PMID:11917305

  15. Color structured light imaging of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin; Reichenberg, Jason; Sacks, Michael; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-05-01

    We illustrate wide-field imaging of skin using a structured light (SL) approach that highlights the contrast from superficial tissue scattering. Setting the spatial frequency of the SL in a regime that limits the penetration depth effectively gates the image for photons that originate from the skin surface. Further, rendering the SL images in a color format provides an intuitive format for viewing skin pathologies. We demonstrate this approach in skin pathologies using a custom-built handheld SL imaging system.

  16. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  17. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R(2)=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q(2)ext=0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  18. Skin contact electrodes for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Eggins, B R

    1993-04-01

    Skin contact electrodes require electrolyte gels between the skin and the electrode in order to ensure good electrical contact. The effect of different types of electrolyte gel on skin impedance was studied. The main types of gels used were wet gels, karaya-gum based hydrogels and synthetic copolymer-based hydrogels [2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) copolymers]. The effect of variation in gel composition on the impedance of the skin was investigated. PMID:8388179

  19. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  20. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers. PMID:27605912

  1. Protecting Our Children from Skin Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Skin cancer in the United States is epidemic. About 90% of skin cancers are caused by sun exposure. The age of patients developing melanoma is dropping dramatically. Parents must protect their children from the sun during all outdoor activities year round. The article presents recommendations for preventing skin cancer. (SM)

  2. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of...

  4. Review - Skin cancer: Etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy. PMID:27166545

  5. Evaluation of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The skins from peanuts are a low-value material from peanut processing and literature suggests it is an excellent source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have any significant uses other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high anti...

  6. Teaching Nursing Students about Skin Cancer Using a Skin Analyzer Machine.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Victoria; Stone, Alicia; George, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are in an excellent position to perform skin assessments and teach the public about skin cancer prevention. Knowledgeable nurses can help reduce the incidence of skin cancer. Determining the best method to teach nursing students about skin cancer is thus important. PMID:27323471

  7. Tissue engineering of cultured skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Horch, Raymund E; Kopp, Jürgen; Kneser, Ulrich; Beier, Justus; Bach, Alexander D

    2005-01-01

    Skin replacement has been a challenging task for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts by Reverdin in 1871. Recently, skin grafting has evolved from the initial autograft and allograft preparations to biosynthetic and tissue-engineered living skin replacements. This has been fostered by the dramatically improved survival rates of major burns where the availability of autologous normal skin for grafting has become one of the limiting factors. The ideal properties of a temporary and a permanent skin substitute have been well defined. Tissue-engineered skin replacements: cultured autologous keratinocyte grafts, cultured allogeneic keratinocyte grafts, autologous/allogeneic composites, acellular biological matrices, and cellular matrices including such biological substances as fibrin sealant and various types of collagen, hyaluronic acid etc. have opened new horizons to deal with such massive skin loss. In extensive burns it has been shown that skin substitution with cultured grafts can be a life-saving measure where few alternatives exist. Future research will aim to create skin substitutes with cultured epidermis that under appropriate circumstances may provide a wound cover that could be just as durable and esthetically acceptable as conventional split-thickness skin grafts. Genetic manipulation may in addition enhance the performance of such cultured skin substitutes. If cell science, molecular biology, genetic engineering, material science and clinical expertise join their efforts to develop optimized cell culture techniques and synthetic or biological matrices then further technical advances might well lead to the production of almost skin like new tissue-engineered human skin products resembling natural human skin. PMID:16202208

  8. Hedgehog signaling in skin cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengxin; Chi, Sumin; Xie, Jingwu

    2011-01-01

    An increasing progress on the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling for carcinogenesis has been achieved since the link of Hh pathway to human cancer was firstly established. In particular, the critical role of Hh signaling in the development of Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been convincingly demonstrated by genetic mutation analyses, mouse models of BCCs, and successful clinical trials of BCCs using Hh signaling inhibitors. In addition, the Hh pathway activity is also reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), melanoma and Merkel Cell Carcinoma. These findings have significant new paradigm on Hh signaling transduction, its mechanisms in skin cancer and even therapeutic approaches for BCC. In this review, we will summarize the major advances in the understanding of Hh signaling transduction, the roles of Hh signaling in skin cancer development, and the current implications of “mechanism-based” therapeutic strategies. PMID:21397013

  9. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  10. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  11. [Genodermatoses with malignant skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hübinger, L; Frank, J

    2014-06-01

    Cutaneous malignancies can manifest as isolated and sporadic tumors as well as multiple and disseminated tumors. In the latter case they often point to a genetic disease, which either can be restricted to the skin exclusively or also involve extracutaneous organs in the context of a hereditary tumor syndrome. Such hereditary tumor syndromes are clinically and genetically very heterogeneous. Therefore, the prevailing specific skin tumors play an important diagnostic role in the case of complex symptom constellations. Elucidation of the genetic basis of rare monogenetically inherited disorders and syndromes can contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of frequently occurring cutaneous malignancies because the mutated genes often encode proteins, which have a key position in metabolic signaling pathways that are of high significance for the development of targeted therapies. Here we provide an overview of genodermatoses, which are associated with basal cell carcinomas, sebaceous carcinomas, keratoacanthomas, squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas. PMID:24898507

  12. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  13. Essentials of skin laceration repair.

    PubMed

    Forsch, Randall T

    2008-10-15

    Skin laceration repair is an important skill in family medicine. Sutures, tissue adhesives, staples, and skin-closure tapes are options in the outpatient setting. Physicians should be familiar with various suturing techniques, including simple, running, and half-buried mattress (corner) sutures. Although suturing is the preferred method for laceration repair, tissue adhesives are similar in patient satisfaction, infection rates, and scarring risk in low skin-tension areas and may be more cost-effective. The tissue adhesive hair apposition technique also is effective in repairing scalp lacerations. The sting of local anesthesia injections can be lessened by using smaller gauge needles, administering the injection slowly, and warming or buffering the solution. Studies have shown that tap water is safe to use for irrigation, that white petrolatum ointment is as effective as antibiotic ointment in postprocedure care, and that wetting the wound as early as 12 hours after repair does not increase the risk of infection. Patient education and appropriate procedural coding are important after the repair. PMID:18953970

  14. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  15. Common Skin Rashes in Children.

    PubMed

    Allmon, Amanda; Deane, Kristen; Martin, Kari L

    2015-08-01

    Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated symptoms, such as pruritus or fever. A fever is likely to occur with roseola, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), and scarlet fever. Pruritus sometimes occurs with atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, erythema infectiosum, molluscum contagiosum, and tinea infection. The key feature of roseola is a rash presenting after resolution of a high fever, whereas the distinguishing features in pityriasis rosea are a herald patch and a bilateral and symmetric rash in a Christmas tree pattern. The rash associated with scarlet fever usually develops on the upper trunk, then spreads throughout the body, sparing the palms and soles. Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection that most commonly affects the face and extremities of children. Erythema infectiosum is characterized by a viral prodrome followed by the "slapped cheek" facial rash. Flesh-colored or pearly white papules with central umbilication occur with molluscum contagiosum, a highly contagious viral infection that usually resolves without intervention. Tinea is a common fungal skin infection in children that affects the scalp, body, groin, feet, hands, or nails. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that may present with a variety of skin changes. PMID:26280141

  16. [Positive skin test and age

    PubMed

    Forte, W C; Júnior, F F; Filho, W D; Shibata, E; Henriques, L S; Mastroti, R A; Guedes, M da S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: We observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool). We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11 months; Group III: 4 to 8 years and 11 months; and Group IV: 9 to 15 years. We used the chi-square test for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The total significant differences between these groups were: I to II = 5; II to III = 5; II to IV = 5; III to IV = 6; I to III = 10; and I to IV = 10. CONCLUSION: Skin test reactivity is acquired progressively with age, and can be observed as early as at 12 months. Reactivity is significantly more positive from the age of 4 on. PMID:14647601

  17. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  18. Proteoglycans in Normal and Healing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret Mary; Melrose, James

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Proteoglycans have a distinct spatial localization in normal skin and are essential for the correct structural development, organization, hydration, and functional properties of this tissue. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is no longer considered to be just an inert supportive material but is a source of directive, spatial and temporal, contextual information to the cells via components such as the proteoglycans. There is a pressing need to improve our understanding of how these important molecules functionally interact with other matrix structures, cells and cellular mediators in normal skin and during wound healing. Recent Advances: New antibodies to glycosaminoglycan side chain components of skin proteoglycans have facilitated the elucidation of detailed localization patterns within skin. Other studies have revealed important proliferative activities of proteinase-generated fragments of proteoglycans and other ECM components (matricryptins). Knockout mice have further established the functional importance of skin proteoglycans in the assembly and homeostasis of the normal skin ECM. Critical Issues: Our comprehension of the molecular and structural complexity of skin as a complex, dynamic, constantly renewing, layered connective tissue is incomplete. The impact of changes in proteoglycans on skin pathology and the wound healing process is recognized as an important area of pathobiology and is an area of intense investigation. Future Directions: Advanced technology is allowing the development of new artificial skins. Recent knowledge on skin proteoglycans can be used to incorporate these molecules into useful adjunct therapies for wound healing and for maintenance of optimal tissue homeostasis in aging skin. PMID:25785238

  19. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers. PMID:23722495

  20. Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2007-01-01

    Skin lightening preparations are widely used in dermatology by persons of all Fitzpatrick skin types. Fitzpatrick skin types I-III require local pigment lightening for the treatment of hormonally induced melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation caused by acne and trauma. Fitzpatrick skin types IV and darker have an even greater need for skin lightening for social reasons, as well as pigmentary changes that occur around the eyes, in the intertriginous areas, following dermatitis, or with acne and trauma. The gold standard dermatologic agent for skin lightening was hydroquinone, until regulatory agencies in Japan, Europe, and most recently in the United States questioned the safety of this substance. This has encouraged research into alternative agents to inhibit skin pigmentation such as retinoids, mequinol, azelaic acid, arbutin, kojic acid, aleosin, licorice extract, ascorbic acid, soy proteins, and N-acetyl glucosamine. The efficacy and safety of each of these ingredients is examined as possible topical alternatives to hydroquinone. PMID:18045355

  1. Multimodal device for assessment of skin malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekina, A.; Garancis, V.; Rubins, U.; Spigulis, J.; Valeine, L.; Berzina, A.

    2013-11-01

    A variety of multi-spectral imaging devices is commercially available and used for skin diagnostics and monitoring; however, an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analysis of skin. A compact multimodal device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. A polarized LED light source illuminates the skin surface at four different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (545 nm), red (660 nm) and infrared (940 nm). Spectra of reflected light from the 25 mm wide skin spot are imaged by a CMOS sensor. Four spectral images are obtained for mapping of the main skin chromophores. The specific chromophore distribution differences between different skin malformations were analyzed and information of subcutaneous structures was consecutively extracted.

  2. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  3. Skin and wound infections: an overview.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, M L

    1998-05-15

    Skin infections are common and may be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses. Breaks in the skin integrity, particularly those that inoculate pathogens into the dermis, frequently cause or exacerbate skin infections. Bacterial skin infections caused by corynebacteria include erythrasma, trichomycosis axillaris and pitted keratolysis. Staphylococci may cause impetigo, ecthyma and folliculitis. Streptococcal skin infections include impetigo and erysipelas. Human papillomavirus skin infections present as several different types of warts, depending on the surface infected and its relative moisture, and the patterns of pressure. The many dermatomycoses (skin infections caused by fungi or yeasts) include tinea capitis, tinea barbae, tinea cruris, tinea manus, tinea pedis and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). Candidal infections occur in moist areas, such as the vulva, mouth, penis, skinfolds and diaper area. Wounds caused by wood splinters or thorns may result in sporotrichosis. Animal bites may result in complex, serious infections, requiring tetanus and, possibly, rabies prophylaxis in addition to appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:9614412

  4. Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagong, Woong; Kim, Chulkyu; Choi, Sangho; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2008-10-01

    The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110 km/h. On its skin, a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream exist. Thus, in the present study, the possibility of reducing the skin friction using its shape is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer. We perform a parametric study by varying the height and width of the protrusion, the spanwise and streamwise spacings between adjacent ones, and their overall distribution pattern, respectively. Each protrusion induces a pair of streamwise vortices, producing low and high shear stresses at its center and side locations, respectively. These vortices also interact with those induced from adjacent protrusions. As a result, the drag is either increased or unchanged for most of the cases considered. Some of these cases show that the skin friction itself is reduced but the total drag including the form drag on the protrusion is larger than that of a smooth surface. In a few cases, the drag is decreased only slightly (˜1%) but this amount is within the experimental uncertainty. Since the shape of present protrusions is similar to that used by Sirovich and Karlsson [Nature (London) 388, 753 (1997)] where V-shaped protrusions pointing upstream were considered, we perform another set of experiments following their study. However, we do not obtain any drag reduction even with random distribution of those V-shaped protrusions.

  5. [Study on objectively evaluating skin aging according to areas of skin texture].

    PubMed

    Shan, Gaixin; Gan, Ping; He, Ling; Sun, Lu; Li, Qiannan; Jiang, Zheng; He, Xiangqian

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging principles play important roles in skin disease diagnosis, the evaluation of skin cosmetic effect, forensic identification and age identification in sports competition, etc. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate the skin aging objectively and quantitatively by skin texture area. Firstly, the enlarged skin image was acquired. Then, the skin texture image was segmented by using the iterative threshold method, and the skin ridge image was extracted according to the watershed algorithm. Finally, the skin ridge areas of the skin texture were extracted. The experiment data showed that the average areas of skin ridges, of both men and women, had a good correlation with age (the correlation coefficient r of male was 0.938, and the correlation coefficient r of female was 0.922), and skin texture area and age regression curve showed that the skin texture area increased with age. Therefore, it is effective to evaluate skin aging objectively by the new method presented in this paper. PMID:25997282

  6. Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Skin Health.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Chang Y; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-10-25

    Human skin is the first defense barrier against the external environment, especially microbial pathogens and physical stimulation. Many studies on skin health with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been published for many years, including prevention of skin disease and improvement of skin conditions. LAB, a major group of gram-positive bacteria, are known to be beneficial to human health by acting as probiotics. Recent studies have shown that LAB and their extracts have beneficial effects on maintenance and improvement of skin health. Oral administration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii inhibits the development of atopic disease. In addition, LAB and LAB extracts are known to have beneficial effects on intestinal diseases, with Lactobacillus plantarum having been shown to attenuate IL-10 deficient colitis. In addition to intestinal health, L. plantarum also has beneficial effects on skin. pLTA, which is lipoteichoic acid isolated from L. plantarum, has anti-photoaging effects on human skin cells by regulating the expression matrix meralloprotionase-1 (MMP-1) expression. While several studies have proposed a relationship between diseases of the skin and small intestines, there are currently no published reviews of the effects of LAB for skin health through regulation of intestinal conditions and the immune system. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the effects of LAB on skin health and its potential applications in beauty foods. PMID:26287529

  7. Adaptive immunity to murine skin commensals

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Hixon, Julie A.; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Belkaid, Yasmine; Dzutzev, Amiran; Durum, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive immune system provides critical defense against pathogenic bacteria. Commensal bacteria have begun to receive much attention in recent years, especially in the gut where there is growing evidence of complex interactions with the adaptive immune system. In the present study, we observed that commensal skin bacteria are recognized by major populations of T cells in skin-draining lymph nodes of mice. Recombination activating gene 1 (Rag1)−/− mice, which lack adaptive immune cells, contained living skin-derived bacteria and bacterial sequences, especially mycobacteria, in their skin-draining lymph nodes. T cells from skin-draining lymph nodes of normal mice were shown, in vitro, to specifically recognize bacteria of several species that were grown from Rag1−/− lymph nodes. T cells from skin-draining lymph nodes, transferred into Rag1−/− mice proliferated in skin-draining lymph nodes, expressed a restricted T-cell receptor spectrotype and produced cytokines. Transfer of T cells into Rag1−/− mice had the effect of reducing bacterial sequences in skin-draining lymph nodes and in skin itself. Antibacterial effects of transferred T cells were dependent on IFNγ and IL-17A. These studies suggest a previously unrecognized role for T cells in controlling skin commensal bacteria and provide a mechanism to account for cutaneous infections and mycobacterial infections in T-cell–deficient patients. PMID:25002505

  8. Glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Oh, Jang-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are abundant structural components of the extracellular matrix in addition to collagen fibers. Hyaluronic acid (HA), one of GAGs, forms proteoglycan aggregates, which are large complexes of HA and HA-binding PGs. Their crosslinking to other matrix proteins such as the collagen network results in the formation of supermolecular structures and functions to increase tissue stiffness. Skin aging can be classified as intrinsic aging and photoaging based on the phenotypes and putative mechanism. While intrinsic aging is characterized by a thinned epidermis and fine wrinkles caused by advancing age, photoaging is characterized by deep wrinkles, skin laxity, telangiectasias, and appearance of lentigines and is mainly caused by chronic sun exposure. The major molecular mechanism governing skin aging processes has been attributed to the loss of mature collagen and increased matrix metalloproteinase expression. However, various strategies focusing on collagen turnover remain unsatisfactory for the reversal or prevention of skin aging. Although the expression of GAGs and PGs in the skin and their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood, we and others have elucidated various changes in GAGs and PGs in aged skin, suggesting that these molecules are important contributors to skin aging. In this review, we focus on skin-abundant GAGs and PGs and their changes in human skin during the skin aging process. PMID:27378089

  9. Bacterial diseases of the skin.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    When considering common bacterial diseases of the skin, rather distinct clinical responses to a variety of bacterial infections have been identified. In these cases, it is the specific site of infection and the attendant inflammatory responses that provide the characteristic clinical picture. When the pyoderma extends just below the stratum corneum, it is called impetigo. Nonbullous impetigo is the most common pediatric skin infection. It usually starts in a traumatized area. The typical lesion begins as an erythematous papule, after which it becomes a unilocular vesicle. When the subcorneal vesicle becomes pustular, it ruptures and eventually becomes a yellow, golden crust that is a hallmark of the disease process. Bullous impetigo is a less common form of impetigo, accounting for fewer than 30% of all impetigo cases. It occurs in infants and is characterized by rapid progression of vesicles to the formation of bullae measuring larger than 5 mm in diameter in previously untraumatized skin. Treatment of nonbullous impetigo must include intervention against the pathogen as well as improvements in the hygiene and living conditions of the patient. A fundamental tenet is to debride the crust (scab) from the wound surface using poloxamer 188. If the lesions are not widespread, topical mupirocin is the treatment of choice. Treatment of bullous impetigo is similar, except that the local cleansing and topical antibiotic must be complemented by systemic antibiotics if there is evidence of disseminating infections. Ecthyma is usually a consequence of failure to treat effectively impetigo. The untreated infection extends deep into the tissue in shallow ulcerations that often heal without scar. Treatment for ecthyma usually requires systemic antibiotics against either staphylococcus or streptococcus. Folliculitis is a pyoderma located within a hair follicle, secondary to follicular occlusion by keratin, overhydration, or either bacterial or fungal infection. Folliculitis may

  10. Skin conditions: emerging drug-resistant skin infections and infestations.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections are increasingly common. Automated microbiology systems are now available to detect MRSA and to determine antibiotic resistance patterns. Abscesses should be drained and antibiotics administered, with systemic antibiotics used to manage more severe infections. Until sensitivities are known and depending on local resistance rates, clindamycin is an option for empiric management of stable patients without bacteremia. For patients who are more ill, linezolid and vancomycin are alternatives, the latter being first-line treatment for children hospitalized with MRSA skin infections. Drug resistance also occurs in head lice management. Although topical permethrin is still the first-line drug management, its effectiveness has decreased due to permethrin-resistant strains. Patients who do not benefit from 2 applications of permethrin can be treated with topical malathion or topical ivermectin. Though not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating head lice, oral ivermectin is sometimes used for difficult-to-treat cases. Permethrin is also the first-line management for scabies, though there is a concern that permethrin-resistant scabies may soon occur. For patients with scabies who do not benefit from topical treatment, oral ivermectin is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, although it is not approved by the FDA for this purpose. PMID:23600335

  11. Moxifloxacin in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Guay, David RP

    2006-01-01

    Moxifloxacin is a recent addition to the fluoroquinolone class, differing from ciprofloxacin and other older agents in having much better in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobes while retaining potent activity against Gram-negative aerobes. It is also active against the pathogens of human and animal bite wounds and those species of atypical mycobacteria associated with dermatologic infections. Its activity against anaerobes is quite variable. Moxifloxacin penetrates well into inflammatory blister fluid and muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Moxifloxacin should thus be a reasonable option for the treatment of skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs). In 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), oral moxifloxacin was as effective as cephalexin in the treatment of uncomplicated SSSIs in adults while in 2 RCTs, intravenous/oral moxifloxacin was as effective as intravenous/oral β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor therapy in the treatment of complicated SSSIs in adults. Moxifloxacin does not inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes and thus interact with warfarin or methylxanthines. However, multivalent cations can reduce its oral bioavailability substantially. Dosage adjustment is not required in the presence of renal or hepatic impairment. The clinical relevance of its electrophysiologic effects (QTc prolongation) remains unresolved. PMID:18360653

  12. Oritavancin for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Julia A.; Fowler, Vance G.; Corey, G. Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inpatient treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) exerts a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. Oritavancin is a concentration-dependent, rapidly bactericidal agent approved for the treatment of ABSSSI. Its prolonged half-life with one-time intravenous (IV) dosing offers a potential solution to this burden. In addition, oritavancin represents an alternative therapy for Streptococci and multidrug resistant gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Animal models have also shown promising results with oritavancin for other disease states including those that require long courses of IV therapy. Areas covered This review covers oritavancin’s basic chemistry, spectrum of activity, pharmacodynamics/ pharmacokinetics, efficacy in clinical trials, and provides expert opinion on future directions. To compose this review, a search of PubMed was performed, and articles written in the English language were selected based on full text availability. Expert Opinion If oritavancin is proven to be a cost-effective strategy for outpatient treatment and prevents complications of prolonged IV therapy, it will be sought as an alternative antibiotic therapy for ABSSSI. In addition, further clinical data demonstrating efficacy in gram-positive infections requiring prolonged therapy such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis could support oritavancin’s success in the current market. PMID:25803197

  13. The optics of human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.R.; Parrish, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    An integrated review of the transfer of optical radiation into human skin is presented, aimed at developing useful models for photomedicine. The component chromophores of epidermis and stratum corneum in general determine the attenuation of radiation in these layers, moreso than does optical scattering. Epidermal thickness and melanization are important factors for UV wavelengths less than 300 nm, whereas the attenuation of UVA (320-400 nm) and visible radiation is primarily via melanin. The selective penetration of all optical wavelengths into psoriatic skin can be maximized by application of clear lipophilic liquids, which decrease regular reflectance by a refractive-index matching mechanism. Sensitivity to wavelengths less than 320 nm can be enhanced by prolonged aqueous bathing, which extracts urocanic acid and other diffusible epidermal chromophores. Optical properties of the dermis are modelled using the Kubelka-Munk approach, and calculations of scattering and absorption coefficients are presented. This simple approach allows estimates of the penetration of radiation in vivo using noninvasive measurements of cutaneous spectral remittance (diffuse reflectance). Although the blood chromophores Hb, HbO/sup 2/, and bilirubin determine dermal absorption of wavelengths longer than 320 nm, scattering by collagen fibers largely determines the depths to which these wavelengths penetrate the dermis, and profoundly modifies skin colors. An optical ''window'' exists between 600 and 1300 nm, which offers the possibility of treating large tissue volumes with certain long-wavelength photosensitizers. Moreover, whenever photosensitized action spectra extend across the near UV and/or visible spectrum, judicious choice of wavelengths allows some selection of the tissue layers directly affected.

  14. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  15. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  16. Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Jason C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1989-10-01

    A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body; a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid; water, with the surface of the body; and the hull of the marine vehicle.

  17. Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body, e.g., a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid, e.g., water, with the surface of the body, e.g., the hull of the marine vehicle.

  18. Skin ulceration due to cement.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S M; Tachakra, S S

    1992-09-01

    Despite legislation that requires manufacturers to inform the public about the dangers of contact with cement, severe ulceration from cement contact still occurs. We present a retrospective study of seven patients presenting to this department over a 2-year period. All were male and employed in the building trade, their injuries being sustained whilst at work. The injuries were to the lower limb, often multiple and required a median of seven visits before healing was complete. One required hospital admission and skin grafting. PMID:1449582

  19. BLACK LESIONS OF THE SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Becker, S. William

    1958-01-01

    Benign melanocytic lesions include lentigo, ephelid (freckle), pigmented nevus, sacral spot, blue nevus, and combined nevus and blue nevus. Malignant melanocytic lesions are melanomas, which arise from melanocytes at the epidermodermal junction, or, rarely, from blue nevi. They usually originate in brown plaques known as lentigo maligna, in pigmented nevi, or in normal skin. Melanoma is diagnosed clinically in less than 50 per cent of instances. Biopsy is therefore of great importance, since practically all melanoma can be cured by adequate early resection. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:13511215

  20. HSP27 as a biomarker for predicting skin irritation in human skin and reconstructed organotypic skin model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Li, Shuhua; Meng, Tian; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Taoli; Xiang, Qi; Su, Zhijian; Zhang, Qihao; Huang, Yadong

    2014-04-21

    In vitro alternative tests aiming at replacing the traditional animal test for predicting the irritant potential of chemicals have been developed, but the assessing parameters or endpoints are still not sufficient. To discover novel endpoints for skin irritation responses, 2DE-based proteomics was used to analyze the protein expression in human skin exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) following the test protocol of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) in the present study. HSP27 was up-regulated most significantly among the eight identified proteins, consistent with our previous reports. Acid and basic chemicals were applied on human skin for further validation and results showed that the up-regulated expression of HSP27 was induced in 24h after the exposure. Skin-equivalent constructed with fibroblasts, basement membrane and keratinocytes was used to investigate the potential of HSP27 as a biomarker or additional endpoint for the hazard assessment of skin irritation. Our skin-equivalent (Reconstructed Organotypic Skin Model, ROSM) had excellent epidermal differentiation and was suitable for the skin irritation test. HSP27 also displayed an up-regulated expression in the ROSM in 24h after the irritants exposure for 15min. All these results suggest that HSP27 may represent a potential marker or additional endpoint for the hazard assessment of skin irritation caused by chemical products. PMID:24503015

  1. Adaptive skin detection based on online training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.

  2. Frog skin epithelium: electrolyte transport and chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Craig R; Voyles, Jamie; Cook, David I; Dinudom, Anuwat

    2012-03-01

    One unique physiological characteristic of frogs is that their main route for intake of water is across the skin. In these animals, the skin acts in concert with the kidney and urinary bladder to maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Water absorption across the skin is driven by the osmotic gradient that develops as a consequence of solute transport. Our recent study demonstrated that chytridiomycosis, an infection of amphibian skin by the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, inhibits epithelial Na(+) channels, attenuating Na(+) absorption through the skin. In frogs that become severely affected by this fungus, systemic depletion of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) is thought to cause deterioration of cardiac electrical function, leading to cardiac arrest. Here we review the ion transport mechanisms of frog skin, and discuss the effect of chytridiomycosis on these mechanisms. PMID:22182598

  3. Flexible Skins Containing Integrated Sensors and Circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang

    2007-01-01

    Artificial sensor skins modeled partly in imitation of biological sensor skins are undergoing development. These sensor skins comprise flexible polymer substrates that contain and/or support dense one- and two-dimensional arrays of microscopic sensors and associated microelectronic circuits. They afford multiple tactile sensing modalities for measuring physical phenomena that can include contact forces; hardnesses, temperatures, and thermal conductivities of objects with which they are in contact; and pressures, shear stresses, and flow velocities in fluids. The sensor skins are mechanically robust, and, because of their flexibility, they can be readily attached to curved and possibly moving and flexing surfaces of robots, wind-tunnel models, and other objects that one might seek to equip for tactile sensing. Because of the diversity of actual and potential sensor-skin design criteria and designs and the complexity of the fabrication processes needed to realize the designs, it is not possible to describe the sensor-skin concept in detail within this article.

  4. The genetics of human skin disease.

    PubMed

    DeStefano, Gina M; Christiano, Angela M

    2014-10-01

    The skin is composed of a variety of cell types expressing specific molecules and possessing different properties that facilitate the complex interactions and intercellular communication essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the skin. Importantly, a single mutation in one of these molecules can disrupt the entire organization and function of these essential networks, leading to cell separation, blistering, and other striking phenotypes observed in inherited skin diseases. Over the past several decades, the genetic basis of many monogenic skin diseases has been elucidated using classical genetic techniques. Importantly, the findings from these studies has shed light onto the many classes of molecules and essential genetic as well as molecular interactions that lend the skin its rigid, yet flexible properties. With the advent of the human genome project, next-generation sequencing techniques, as well as several other recently developed methods, tremendous progress has been made in dissecting the genetic architecture of complex, non-Mendelian skin diseases. PMID:25274756

  5. Frog skin epithelium: electrolyte transport and chytridiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Craig R.; Voyles, Jamie; Cook, David I.; Dinudom, Anuwat

    2012-01-01

    One unique physiological characteristic of frogs is that their main route for intake of water is across the skin. In these animals, the skin acts in concert with the kidney and urinary bladder to maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Water absorption across the skin is driven by the osmotic gradient that develops as a consequence of solute transport. Our recent study demonstrated that chytridiomycosis, an infection of amphibian skin by the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, inhibits epithelial Na+ channels, attenuating Na+ absorption through the skin. In frogs that become severely affected by this fungus, systemic depletion of Na+, K+ and Cl− is thought to cause deterioration of cardiac electrical function, leading to cardiac arrest. Here we review the ion transport mechanisms of frog skin, and discuss the effect of chytridiomycosis on these mechanisms. PMID:22182598

  6. [Skin diseases associated with obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Lau, K; Höger, P H

    2013-04-01

    While the impact of obesity on diabetes, cardiovascular disease and carcinoma development has been studied extensively, only little attention has been paid to its influence on the skin. Obesity alters the skin barrier, can induce skin manifestations, and worsens existing skin diseases like psoriasis. Cutaneous manifestations of obesity may be pseudoacanthosis nigricans, fibroma pendulans (skin tags, fibroepithelial polyps) and striae distensae. Obesity is also associated with hyperandrogenism in women and girls, promoting acne vulgaris, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. In addition, there is a pathogenic association between obesity and psoriasis: the release of pro-inflammatory factors from fat tissue results in the worsening of psoriasis; an association between the severity of psoriasis and the body mass index has been shown. Obesity promotes skin infections like erysipelas and intertrigo. PMID:23529600

  7. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOEpatents

    James, Allister W.

    2012-08-14

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  8. Skin signs in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. AN is associated with severe medical and psychological consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Skin signs are almost always detectable in severe AN and awareness of them may help in the early diagnosis of hidden AN. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and of the psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugo-like body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrhoeic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell’s sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions by drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the “hidden” signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:20808514

  9. Skin signs in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Strumia, Renata

    2009-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. AN is associated with severe medical and psychological consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Skin signs are almost always detectable in severe AN and awareness of them may help in the early diagnosis of hidden AN. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and of the psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugo-like body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrhoeic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, acral coldness.The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell's sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions by drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:20808514

  10. Skin substitutes and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Auger, F A; Lacroix, D; Germain, L

    2009-01-01

    Medical science has vastly improved on the means and methods available for the treatment of wounds in the clinic. The production and use of various types of skin substitutes has led to dramatic improvements in the odds of survival for severely burned patients, but they have also shown promise for many other applications, including cases involving chronic wounds that are not life threatening. Nowadays, more than 20 products are commercially available, more are undergoing clinical trials and a large number of new models are being investigated in various research laboratories worldwide. Many of the current products do not contain any living cells and vary in their capacity to harness the innate capacity of the body to heal itself. Others include living cells, of allogeneic or autologous origin, and are often referred to as 'cellular therapy' or 'tissue-engineered' products. Modifications and improvements are currently investigated that aim at improving the healing potential of those products through the use of recombinant growth factors and additional features such as microvascularization. Fundamental research into wound healing and scar-free regeneration raises the hope that we will eventually be able to restore almost completely the appearance and function of skin after the healing of wounds. PMID:19188757

  11. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms. PMID:26371732

  12. Penetration through the Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates. During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous penetration. Finally, a short discussion of the advantages and challenges of each method is provided, which will hopefully allow the reader to improve decision making and treatment planning, as well as the evaluation of experimental studies of percutaneous penetration of chemicals. PMID:26844902

  13. Skin manifestations of drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947

  14. Suicide risk in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Angelo; Lega, Ilaria; Tarolla, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Suicide accounts for about 1,000,000 deaths worldwide every year and is among the leading causes of death in young adults. Reports of high prevalence of suicidal ideation and increased suicide risk in several skin diseases raised concerns about deliberate self-harm in dermatological patients. The literature consistently points to an increased suicide risk in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and acne, with higher risk in patients in whom the skin condition is associated with clinically significant emotional distress, changes in body image, difficulties in close relationships, and impaired daily activities. Other risk factors for suicide include a history of suicide attempts, severe mental or physical disorders, alcoholism, unemployment, bereavement or divorce, and access to firearms or other lethal means. Dermatologists may play an important role in recognizing suicidal ideation and preventing fatal self-harm in their patients. Increasing dermatologists' awareness of the issue of suicide and developing mental health consultation-liaison services within dermatology settings would be instrumental in contributing to suicide prevention in this population. PMID:23245973

  15. Skin Microbiome: Looking Back to Move Forward

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    Trillions of bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea and small arthropods colonize the skin surface, collectively comprising the skin microbiome. Generations of researchers have classified these microbes as transient versus resident, beneficial versus pathogenic, collaborators versus adversaries. Culturing and direct sequencing of microbial inhabitants identified distinct populations present at skin surface sites. Herein, we explore the history of this field, describe findings from the current molecular sequencing era, and consider the future of investigating how microbes and antimicrobial therapy contribute to human health. PMID:22189793

  16. Athletic skin injuries: combating pressure and friction.

    PubMed

    Basler, Rodney S W; Hunzeker, Christopher M; Garcia, Michael A

    2004-05-01

    Because the skin is the athlete's first line of defense, it is exposed to friction and pressure in nearly every athletic setting. Whether applied acutely or chronically, friction and pressure often cause skin trauma, such as abrasions, chafing, calluses, blisters, talon noir (black heel), and acne mechanica. Sports medicine clinicians, who regularly see skin injuries, can speed healing by making a timely diagnosis, recommending effective treatment, and discussing prevention strategies. PMID:20086411

  17. The skin sensitization potential of four alkylalkanolamines.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Blaszcak, D L

    1998-04-01

    The skin sensitization potential of 4 alkylalkanolamines (N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine and N,N-diethylethanolamine), was evaluated in a guinea pig maximation procedure by the method of Magnusson and Kligman. While all 4 alkylalkanolamines tested were irritating to the guinea pig skin, only N-methylethanolamine showed potential to induce allergic contact dermatitis. None of the remaining 3 alkylalkanolamines exhibited clear skin responses suggestive of sensitization. PMID:9554055

  18. Axial pattern skin flaps in cats.

    PubMed

    Remedios, A M; Bauer, M S; Bowen, C V; Fowler, J D

    1991-01-01

    The major direct cutaneous vessels identified in the cat include the omocervical, thoracodorsal, deep circumflex iliac, and caudal superficial epigastric arteries. Axial pattern skin flaps based on the thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric arteries have been developed in cats. Rotation of these flaps as islands allows skin coverage to the carpus and metatarsus, respectively. The thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric flaps provide a practical, one-step option in the reconstruction of large skin defects involving the distal extremities of cats. PMID:2011063

  19. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  20. Removal of skin staples in an emergency.

    PubMed

    Teoh, M K; Burd, D A; Bucknall, T E

    1987-09-01

    We have highlighted this problem as there are situations where skin staples have to be removed rapidly, for example where bleeding and subsequent respiratory distress develop following neck surgery. A survey of junior hospital staff showed that many doctors had never removed skin staples nor were aware how best to remove them in the event of an emergency. Using skin simulation we compared the time to remove sutures and staples, and found it takes 55% longer to remove skin staples. Where the standard staple remover is not immediately available, an artery forceps, correctly applied, is just as quick. PMID:3314634

  1. Breaching the skin barrier through temperature modulations.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Yasser; Louw, Ruaan; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-03-28

    The impermeability of the stratum corneum often hinders the transport of molecules across the skin. Temperature modulations in the skin and the application of local heat both have the potential of circumventing this problem temporarily and reversibly and when applied, may aid in enhancing drug diffusion through the skin. A controlled and precise application of heat has the ability to create a cascade of events in the skin and thus aids in facilitating a faster movement of molecules into and across the skin. Possible mechanisms of enhancing drug permeation include: a) increase in drug diffusivity in the vehicle and/or in the skin, b) increase in partitioning and diffusion, c) disturbance in the lipid structure of the stratum corneum, and d) increased local blood flow. These mechanisms may operate individually or concurrently. The creation of micropores or channels in response to exposure to very high heat energy for a fraction of time is another technique that can facilitate the transport, known as thermal ablation. These micropores then serve as channels from where drug molecules can escape from formulations into the skin at a much faster rate than through passive diffusion. This review, therefore, summarises the effects that temperature modulations may have on the permeability of the skin. Physical techniques of heat induced skin ablation, such as chemical heating, thermoporation, radiofrequency induced thermal ablation, and laser induced thermal ablation are also presented in this review. PMID:25616160

  2. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes. PMID:25889127

  3. Cosmetic procedures in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Alexis, A F

    2011-08-01

    An increasing proportion of patients undergoing aesthetic procedures are individuals with skin of color (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI). Racial or ethnic differences exist in perceptions of beauty, the prevalence of specific cosmetic concerns, as well as optimal approaches to treatment. Most important, is the need to avoid treatment-associated pigmentary alterations and keloid scarring, of which there is a greater risk in patients with skin of color. Here we review leading esthetic concerns in the darker skinned patient and discuss approaches to treatment. PMID:21785392

  4. Classification of infrared spectra from skin tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Crowson, A. Neil; Toole, John W. P.; Mantsch, Henry H.; Jackson, Michael

    2000-05-01

    The clinical differential diagnosis of skin tumors is an often-challenging task, to which the probing of skin with mid- and near-infrared (IR) light may be contributory. The development of objective methods for the analysis of IR spectra remains a major hurdle to developing clinically useful applications. The authors highlight different processing methods for IR spectra from skin biopsies and in-vivo skin tumors. Spectroscopic maps of biopsies of basal cell, squamous cell and melanocytic neoplasms were objectively grouped into distinct clusters that corresponded with tumor, epidermis, dermis, follicle and fat. Normal and abnormal skin components were located within maps using a search engine based upon linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In all instances, areas of tumor were distinct from normal tissue in biopsies. In-vivo, near-IR spectroscopy and LDA allowed discrimination between benign and malignant skin lesions with a high degree of accuracy. We conclude that IR spectroscopy has significant diagnostic promise in the skin cancer arena. The analytical methods described can now be used to create a powerful classification scheme in which to detect skin tumor cells within biopsied and living skin.

  5. UV signaling pathways within the skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongxiang; Weng, Qing Yu; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of UVR on the skin include tanning, carcinogenesis, immunomodulation, and synthesis of vitamin D, among others. Melanocortin 1 receptor polymorphisms correlate with skin pigmentation, UV sensitivity, and skin cancer risk. This article reviews pathways through which UVR induces cutaneous stress and the pigmentation response. Modulators of the UV tanning pathway include sunscreen agents, MC1R activators, adenylate cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase 4D3 inhibitors, T oligos, and MITF regulators such as histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitors. UVR, as one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens, represents both a challenge and enormous opportunity in skin cancer prevention. PMID:24759085

  6. Fast skin color detector for face extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lihui; Grecos, Christos

    2005-02-01

    Face detection is the first step for an automatic face recognition system. For color images, skin color filter is considered as an important method for removing non-face pixels. In the paper, we will propose a novel and efficient detector for skin color regions for face extraction. The detector processes the image in four steps: lighting compensation, skin color filter and mask refinement and fast patch identification. Experimental results show that our detector is more robust and efficient than other skin color filters.

  7. Vulvar Skin Atrophy Induced by Topical Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elisabeth; Groben, Pamela; Eanes, Alisa; Iyer, Priya; Ugoeke, Joseph; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2011-01-01

    Steroid induced skin atrophy is the most frequent and perhaps most important cutaneous side effect of topical glucocorticoid therapy. To date, it has not been described in vulvar skin. We describe a patient with significant vulvar skin atrophy following prolonged steroid application to treat vulvar dermatitis. The extensive atrophy in the perineum resulted in secondary ‘webbing’ and partial obstruction of genital hiatus and superimposed dyspareunia. Prolonged topical steroids may result in atrophic changes in vulvar skin. Therefore, further research in clinical correlates of steroid-induced atrophy in the vulvar region is warranted. PMID:22594868

  8. Molecular histology in skin appendage morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, R B; Jiang, T X; Noveen, A; Ting-Berreth, S A; Yin, E; Jung, H S; Chuong, C M

    1997-08-15

    Classical histological studies have demonstrated the cellular organization of skin appendages and helped us appreciate the intricate structures and function of skin appendages. At this juncture, questions can be directed to determine how these cellular organizations are achieved. How do cells rearrange themselves to form the complex cyto-architecture of skin appendages? What are the molecular bases of the morphogenesis and histogenesis of skin appendages? Recently, many new molecules expressed in a spatial and temporal specific manner during the formation of skin appendages were identified by molecular biological approaches. In this review, novel molecular techniques that are useful in skin appendage research are discussed. The distribution of exemplary molecules from different categories including growth factors, intracellular signaling molecules, homeobox genes, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules are summarized in a diagram using feather and hair as models. We hope that these results will serve as the ground work for completing the molecular mapping of skin appendages which will refine and re-define our understanding of the developmental process beyond relying on morphological criteria. We also hope that the listed protocols will help those who are interested in this venture. This new molecular histology of skin appendages is the foundation for forming new hypotheses on how molecules are mechanistically involved in skin appendage development and for designing experiments to test them. This may also lead to the modulation of healing and regeneration processes in future treatment modalities. PMID:9297695

  9. Dialogue between skin microbiota and immunity.

    PubMed

    Belkaid, Yasmine; Segre, Julia A

    2014-11-21

    Human skin, the body's largest organ, functions as a physical barrier to bar the entry of foreign pathogens, while concomitantly providing a home to myriad commensals. Over a human's life span, keratinized skin cells, immune cells, and microbes all interact to integrate the processes of maintaining skin's physical and immune barrier under homeostatic healthy conditions and also under multiple stresses, such as wounding or infection. In this Review, we explore the intricate interactions of microbes and immune cells on the skin surface and within associated appendages to regulate this orchestrated maturation in the context of both host physiological changes and environmental challenges. PMID:25414304

  10. Skin resurfacing procedures: new and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Loesch, Mathew M; Somani, Ally-Khan; Kingsley, Melanie M; Travers, Jeffrey B; Spandau, Dan F

    2014-01-01

    The demand for skin resurfacing and rejuvenating procedures has progressively increased in the last decade and has sparked several advances within the skin resurfacing field that promote faster healing while minimizing downtime and side effects for patients. Several technological and procedural skin resurfacing developments are being integrated into clinical practices today allowing clinicians to treat a broader range of patients’ skin types and pathologies than in years past, with noteworthy outcomes. This article will discuss some emerging and developing resurfacing therapies and treatments that are present today and soon to be available. PMID:25210469

  11. MicroRNAs in skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kyle J; Brown, David A; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Ramchal, Talisha D; Levinson, Howard

    2015-07-01

    35.2 million annual cases in the U.S. require clinical intervention for major skin loss. To meet this demand, the field of skin tissue engineering has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. Traditionally, skin tissue engineering relies on the "cell-scaffold-signal" approach, whereby isolated cells are formulated into a three-dimensional substrate matrix, or scaffold, and exposed to the proper molecular, physical, and/or electrical signals to encourage growth and differentiation. However, clinically available bioengineered skin equivalents (BSEs) suffer from a number of drawbacks, including time required to generate autologous BSEs, poor allogeneic BSE survival, and physical limitations such as mass transfer issues. Additionally, different types of skin wounds require different BSE designs. MicroRNA has recently emerged as a new and exciting field of RNA interference that can overcome the barriers of BSE design. MicroRNA can regulate cellular behavior, change the bioactive milieu of the skin, and be delivered to skin tissue in a number of ways. While it is still in its infancy, the use of microRNAs in skin tissue engineering offers the opportunity to both enhance and expand a field for which there is still a vast unmet clinical need. Here we give a review of skin tissue engineering, focusing on the important cellular processes, bioactive mediators, and scaffolds. We further discuss potential microRNA targets for each individual component, and we conclude with possible future applications. PMID:25953499

  12. Tactile perception of skin and skin cream by friction induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Skin cream smooths, softens, and moistens skin by altering surface roughness and tribological properties of skin. Sliding generates vibrations that activate mechanoreceptors located in skin. The brain interprets tactile information to identify skin feel. Understanding the tactile sensing mechanisms of skin with and without cream treatment is important to numerous applications including cosmetics, textiles, and robotics sensors. In this study, frequency spectra of friction force and friction induced vibration signals were carried out to investigate tactile perception by an artificial finger sliding on skin. The influence of normal load, velocity, and cream treatment time were studied. Coherence between friction force and vibration signals were found. The amplitude of vibration decreased after cream treatment, leading to smoother perception. Increasing normal load or velocity between contacting surfaces generated a smoother perception with cream treatment, but rougher perception without treatment. As cream treatment time increases, skin becomes smoother. The related mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27474814

  13. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A.; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F.; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J.; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H.; Randolph, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  14. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts.

    PubMed

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H; Randolph, Mark A; Huang, Christene A; Bollenbach, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  15. Skin-to-Skin Contact: A Comforting Place With Comfort Food.

    PubMed

    Ludington-Hoe, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Birth and the newborn environment are stressful, especially for preterm infants who have to contend with medical conditions while adapting to the extrauterine world. Therefore, preterm newborns are excellent candidates for comforting measures. Skin-to-skin contact is the best way to provide comfort in several of the realms of Kolcaba's Comfort Theory. Evidence suggests that skin-to-skin contact between the mother and newborn changes the discomforting newborn environment into one that is profoundly comforting. Skin-to-skin contact promotes infant physiologic stability and warmth, helps in organizing infant sleep, reduces stress and pain, and makes breast milk readily available. Comfort to the newborn can be effectively accomplished by skin-to-skin contact. PMID:26280947

  16. Skin chromphore mapping by means of a modified video-microscope for skin malformation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekina, Amina; Rubins, Uldis; Lihacova, Ilze; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-09-01

    Many spectral imaging devices are commercially available and used to detect certain skin pathology; however an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analisys of skin. Multispectral device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. Possibilities to map skin chromophores using a modified low-cost digital video-microscope is discussed. It was adapted for an advanced skin microscopy and used for detailed spectral analysis of skin. The device comprises CMOS digital imaging sensor, four-colour LED illumination system and image acquisition optics. The main goal is to obtain a set of spectral images of the skin area of interest for further conversion into maps of the main skin chromophores.

  17. Objective determination of Fitzpatrick skin type.

    PubMed

    Ravnbak, Mette Henriksen

    2010-08-01

    The overall aim of this Ph.D. project was to clarify what the subjective Fitzpatrick skin type represents with regard to the skin's reaction to UVR. Fitzpatrick skin type is used as an expression of the constitutive UV-sensitivity. It has been used for guiding dose-levels in phototherapy and is an important risk factor for skin cancer. The subjective Fitzpatrick skin type and the measured skin type PPF (pigment protection factor, calculated based on a skin reflectance measurement, predicts the UV-dose (SED) to give 1 MED) were investigated parallelly in relation to the clinically determined dose to erythema (MED) and/or pigmentation (MMD) to determine which one related best. PPF is an established method for assessing UV-sensitivity by predicting SED to MED. UV-dose to MED and/or MMD was determined after single UV-exposure to Solar Simulator on nates (n= 84) and after single and multiple (5, 6 or 12) UV-exposures (n = 24-62) on the back to four UV-sources (nUVB, Solar, bUVA and UVA1). SED to MMD was also related to wavelength. MED was only determined after a single and four UV-exposures to narrowband UVB (nUVB) and Solar Simulator (Solar). Volunteers with a broad range of constitutive pigmentation (skin types I-V) were included. Equal MMD doses (predetermined after a single UV-exposure) were used at the multiple exposures. The absolute increase in pigmentation after 6 and 12 UV-exposures, where steady-state pigmentation was reached, was independent of skin type and therefore could not enter into the calculations. But it proved that the MMD determinations after single exposure were correct and could be used at multiple UV-exposures. In contrary to what we expected, our results indicate that people may refer to the constitutive pigmentation, when they reply to the question of Fitzpatrick skin type. This applied to both erythema and pigmentation response as both dose to MED and MMD showed a better correlation to nates than to the back. As expected, our results from the

  18. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided. PMID:23377393

  19. Adhesion, friction and wear characterization of skin and skin cream using atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-03-01

    Skin cream is commonly used to improve skin health and create a smooth, soft, and moist perception by altering the surface roughness, friction, and adhesion of skin surface. In this study, a systematic characterization of the friction and adhesion properties of skin and skin cream was carried out, which is essential to develop better skin care products and advance biological, dermatology, and cosmetic science. Since cream rheology is expected to be a function of its thickness as well as the velocity and normal load during its application, friction and adhesion experiments were performed at a range of cream film thickness, velocity, and normal load in order to study their effect on virgin skin and cream treated skin. Since environmental dependence of skin and skin cream is of importance, the effect of relative humidity and temperature on the coefficient of friction and adhesive force was also studied. Durability of the virgin skin and cream treated skin was studied by repeated cycling tests. These experiments were performed by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a macroscale friction test apparatus in order to study the scale effects. Friction and wear mechanisms under various operating conditions are discussed. PMID:19879737

  20. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Skin Cancer: An Assessment of Patient Risk Factors, Knowledge, and Skin Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Jessica N.; Taft, Tiffany H.; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk from skin cancer. Aims include assessing IBD patients' risk factors and knowledge of skin cancer and current skin protection practices to identify gaps in patient education regarding skin cancer prevention in IBD. Methods. IBD patients ≥ 18 years were recruited to complete an online survey. Results. 164 patients (mean age 43.5 years, 63% female) with IBD (67% Crohn's disease, 31% ulcerative colitis, and 2% indeterminate colitis) were included. 12% (n = 19) of patients had a personal history and 34% (n = 55) had a family history of skin cancer. Females scored better on skin protection (16.94/32 versus 14.53/32, P ≤ 0.03) and awareness (35.16/40 versus 32.98/40, P ≤ 0.03). Patients over 40 years old scored better on prevention (17.45/28 versus 15.35/28, P = 0.03). Patients with skin cancer scored better on prevention (20.56/28 versus 15.75/28, P ≤ 0.001) and skin protection (21.47/32 versus 15.33/32, P ≤ 0.001). 61% of patients recognized the link between skin cancer and IBD. Conclusions. The majority of IBD patients are aware of the link between skin cancer and IBD; however, skin protection practices are suboptimal. This emphasizes the role of healthcare professionals in providing further education for skin cancer prevention in the IBD population. PMID:27034838

  1. Dental infection simulating skin lesion.

    PubMed

    Abuabara, Allan; Schramm, Celso Alfredo; Zielak, João César; Baratto-Filho, Flares

    2012-01-01

    Orocutaneous fistulas or cutaneous sinus, a tract of dental origin, is an uncommon but well-documented condition that usually requires emergency treatment. Such condition may be misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists and may sometimes be confused with bone and skin tumor, osteomyelitis, congenital fistula, salivary gland fistula, pyogenic granuloma, infected cyst, deep mycotic infection, and other pathologies. A case of facial sinus tract that was initially misdiagnosed by a physician as a nonodontogenic lesion is presented. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy was the treatment of choice for this case. Facial cutaneous sinus tracts must be considered of dental origin. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment minimize patient discomfort and esthetic problems, reducing the possibility of further complications such as sepsis and osteomyelitis. PMID:22892779

  2. Acne: more than skin deep

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, J; Burrows, N

    2006-01-01

    Acne is one of the most prevalent skin conditions affecting teenagers. It is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Blockage of sebaceous glands and colonisation with Proionobacterium acnes leads to acne. Grading the severity of acne helps to determine the appropriate treatment. Treatment of acne should be started as early as possible to minimise the risk of scarring and adverse psychological effects. It should be tailored to the individual patient, the type of acne, its severity, the patient's ability to use the treatment, and the psychological state. Topical agents are the mainstay for treatment of mild acne. Moderate acne is treated with oral antibiotics. Resistance to antibiotics may be reduced by subsequent use of non‐antibiotic topical medications. Severe acne is treated with isotretinoin, and this can lead to permanent remission. With better education and care given by medical profession, acne treatment could be significantly improved. PMID:16891439

  3. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  4. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1965-01-01

    New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208

  5. Non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Liezel L; Ali, Faisal Rehman; Lear, John T

    2016-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) comprises basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma, together with a host of rare tumours. NMSC is the commonest malignancy among Caucasians and its incidence continues to rise annually. Exposure to UV radiation initiates approximately 90% of NMSC, causing malignant transformation of keratinocytes and suppression of the inflammatory response. Risk factors include sun exposure and immunosuppression. There are several subtypes of BCC, although histological overlap is common. Surgery has traditionally been regarded as the 'gold-standard' treatment, offering excellent cure rates and cosmetic results. Other treatment modalities include physical destruction (radiotherapy, curettage and cautery, and cryotherapy), chemical destruction (photodynamic therapy and topical 5-flurouracil) and immunomodulatory therapy (topical imiquimod). The recent development of novel hedgehog pathway inhibitors for high-risk BCC (including oral vismodegib and sonidegib) may represent a paradigm shift towards medical management of NMSC. PMID:26833519

  6. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:15928624

  7. Carcinoma of skin of penis.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, W I

    1985-08-01

    Like the Jews, the Ibos or Igbos of Nigeria ritually circumcise males on the eighth day of birth. A retrospective review of approximately 15,000 surgical specimens collected from this ethnic group over a period of 13 years revealed 32 cases of carcinoma of the prostate but only 4 cases of penile carcinoma. One tumour arose on the glans penis. This localisation pattern suggests that, in circumcised males, smegma-induced squamous carcinoma of the glans can be abolished but not the ordinary squamous carcinoma that can develop by chance on the rest of the penis as well as on the glans. International urology would benefit from careful documentation of squamous carcinoma affecting various parts of the neonatally circumcised penile skin. PMID:4027519

  8. Nutrition and bullous skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Fedeles, Flavia; Murphy, Michael; Rothe, Marti J; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune and nonautoimmune bullous diseases can both be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of these diseases has increased tremendously, there is still much to learn about the various factors affecting their onset, course, and therapy. In recent years, increasing information has been published about the effect of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients on bullous skin diseases. Some factors are believed to be inducers (thiol and phenol-containing foods in pemphigus), whereas others are believed to be protective (antioxidants in cutaneous porphyrias). This contribution reviews the evidence in the literature of the role of various dietary factors in bullous diseases, including the nonautoimmune and the deficiency dermatoses. Additional studies and new investigations are needed to provide a better understanding of the specific associations of dietary factors with bullous diseases and better management for patients affected by these conditions. PMID:21034987

  9. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  10. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  11. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  12. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  13. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  14. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd. Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing. PMID:21321652

  15. Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

  16. The role of the skin bank.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts,, M.

    1976-01-01

    The use of a skin bank is discussed and various indications for the use of viable homografts and lyophilized skin as a temporary biological cover for open wounds are described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:769648

  17. Photodamaged skin. Update on therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Goldhar, J N; Yong, P Y

    1993-02-01

    With baby boomers aging, the medical community is ushered into a new era of patient care, that of cosmetic maintenance and rejuvenation. The authors critically review pharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating photodamaged skin. Issues concerning sunscreens, tretinoin, silicone tissue augmentation, fat transplantation, collagen replacement therapy, and chemical exfoliation of the skin are addressed. PMID:8495125

  18. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  19. [A baby with an unexplained skin rash].

    PubMed

    Krom, Hilde; van Gasselt, Marion W; Weijer, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A 2-month-old infant presented with papules and pustules. Since the patient's mother and brother also had an unexplained--itchy--skin rash, it was thought that the skin rash was due to scabies. This diagnosis was confirmed by dermatoscopy and direct microscopic examination. PMID:26860747

  20. Parasitic Skin Infections for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Dadabhoy, Irfan; Butts, Jessica F

    2015-12-01

    The 2 epidermal parasitic skin infections most commonly encountered by primary care physicians in developed countries are scabies and pediculosis. Pediculosis can be further subdivided into pediculosis capitis, corporis, and pubis. This article presents a summary of information and a review of the literature on clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of these commonly encountered parasitic skin infestations. PMID:26612378

  1. Skin Temperature Biofeedback in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Steve; Loughry-Machado, Glenna

    1981-01-01

    Skin temperature biofeedback performance was studied in 38 6- to 10-year-old children and 38 of their parents across two sessions of audio biofeedback segments in which participants alternately attempted hand-warming and hand-cooling. Children were superior to adults in controlling skin temperature in the presence of biofeedback. (Author/DB)

  2. Skin rejuvenation with intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Elisabeth A; Babilas, Philipp; Landthaler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Skin rejuvenation has developed into one of the most popular indications for laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment in dermatology. During the past few years, nonablative skin rejuvenation with infrared lasers has become ever more popular. The results for hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias and erythema are very good, whereas the results in treating wrinkles are not as good as with ablative therapy. PMID:20887700

  3. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. Balloon fabrics made of Goldbeater's skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chollet, L

    1922-01-01

    Goldbeater's skin, which is the prepared outside membrane of the large intestine of an ox, is examined as a balloon fabric and details of how goldbeater's skin is prepared for use are provided. The construction techniques employed by Germany, France, and England are all discussed.

  5. Integrated Decision Strategies for Skin Sensitization Hazard

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the top priorities of the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is the identification and evaluation of non-animal alternatives for skin sensitization testing. Although skin sensitization is a complex process, the key biologi...

  6. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants. PMID:15025702

  7. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well. PMID:20664556

  8. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within...

  14. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within...

  15. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within...

  16. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within the Preserve....

  17. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within...

  18. Skin Conductance Measurement in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, R. Irwin

    1985-01-01

    Describes skin conductance measurement as a physiological procedure to obtain information on onset, duration, intensity, and completion of private physiological responses to parts of films or media products. The mechanics of the technique, how measurements are recorded and analyzed, and types of skin conductance research literature are discussed.…

  19. [Skin metastases revealing a bronchial adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zemmez, Youssef; Zegmout, Adil; Hamama, Jalal; Bouhamidi, Ahmed; El Amraoui, Mohammed; El Azhari, Jaouad; Boui, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of bronchial carcinoma revealed by metastatic skin nodules on the scalp. This fairly common mode of discovery is often associated with poor prognosis. This study aims to underline the importance of directing the search for a primary lung cancer in cases of secondary skin involvement. PMID:27583066

  20. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity. PMID:27010713

  1. Stretchable E-Skin Apexcardiogram Sensor.

    PubMed

    You, Insang; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Jaeyoon; Koh, Kunsuk; Shin, Sangbaie; Jung, Sungjune; Jeong, Unyong

    2016-08-01

    A new strategy to measure the apex cardiogram with electronic skin technology is presented. An electronic skin apexcardiogram sensor, which can compensate the conventional electrocardiogram for cardiac diagnosis, is demonstrated through a highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensor with gold-nanoparticle composites. PMID:27168420

  2. Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, James J.; Andrews, Samantha N.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    To introduce students to an application of chemical engineering directly related to human health, we developed an experiment for the unit operations laboratory at Georgia Tech examining diffusion across cadaver skin in the context of transdermal drug delivery. In this laboratory module, students prepare mouse skin samples, set up diffusion cells…

  3. Skin care: Historical and contemporary views

    PubMed Central

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; AlHomoudi, Fahad A.; Khurram, Huma

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention, specifically skin care, is an important principle in Islamic theology just as it is emphasized in contemporary medicine. Many skin diseases can be prevented by a proactive approach to skin care, such as proper hygiene and routine inspections, principles that are constantly highlighted in the Islamic literature. Islam promotes primary prevention of disease, including recommendations for skin care practices. The recommendations for skin care practices in Islamic teachings are analogous to current medical guidelines. Sun avoidance, which is recommended by Islam, is mandatory for diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, melasma and skin cancers. Skin care and hygiene practices are recommended in Islam and it is considered an important mechanism for reducing the transmission of infections in modern medicine. The body creases and hair are ideal sites for malicious infestations to grow. The practice of “Wudu” includes washing the hands, feet, and hair with clean water. It is an indispensible part of daily prayers which is mandatory for every Muslim. Oral hygiene is also an integral part of both preventive medicine and Islamic teachings. Genital hygiene, particularly after urination and defecation, is recommended in Islamic teachings and is known to prevent urinary and vaginal infections in contemporary medicine. Male circumcision is an Islamic practice. Recently, it was proven that circumcised men are less likely to have sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. This paper reviews skin care from an Islamic perspective and its relevance to contemporary medicine by translating the simple self care principles into practical guidelines in everyday use. PMID:25061400

  4. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  5. Early relationship environments: physiology of skin-to-skin contact for parents and their preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Browne, Joy V

    2004-06-01

    Skin-to-skin care involves the mother placing her diaper-clad infant upright between her breasts in direct skin contact. The practice has evolved worldwide to be an intervention strategy in neonatal intensive care units for premature infants and their mothers. Few adverse outcomes have been noted in thermoregulation, cardiovascular changes, or behavioral organization. Findings have been positively related to better infant physiologic and neurobehavioral outcomes, maternal breastfeeding success, and positive attachment relationships. The early, intimate, and physiologically stabilizing benefits of skin-to-skin care provide for a new conceptualization of the optimal environment for preterm infants in intensive care. PMID:15289033

  6. Plants used to treat skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Nahida; Hamdani, Mariya

    2014-01-01

    Skin diseases are numerous and a frequently occurring health problem affecting all ages from the neonates to the elderly and cause harm in number of ways. Maintaining healthy skin is important for a healthy body. Many people may develop skin diseases that affect the skin, including cancer, herpes and cellulitis. Some wild plants and their parts are frequently used to treat these diseases. The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural treatment is cheap and claimed to be safe. It is also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. A review of some plants for the treatment of skin diseases is provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements that have taken place in this area during the past 17 years. PMID:24600196

  7. Enabling skin vaccination using new delivery technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The skin is known to be a highly immunogenic site for vaccination, but few vaccines in clinical use target skin largely because conventional intradermal injection is difficult and unreliable to perform. Now, a number of new or newly adapted delivery technologies have been shown to administer vaccine to the skin either by non-invasive or minimally invasive methods. Non-invasive methods include high-velocity powder and liquid jet injection, as well as diffusion-based patches in combination with skin abrasion, thermal ablation, ultrasound, electroporation, and chemical enhancers. Minimally invasive methods are generally based on small needles, including solid microneedle patches, hollow microneedle injections and tattoo guns. The introduction of these advanced delivery technologies can make the skin a site for simple, reliable vaccination that increases vaccine immunogenicity and offers logistical advantages to improve the speed and coverage of vaccination. PMID:21472533

  8. Skin cancer - an overview for dentists.

    PubMed

    Steel, B J

    2014-05-01

    Skin cancer is common and an increasing problem in the UK. It frequently occurs on the head and neck skin. A significant proportion of the adult population in the UK visits the dentist each year, thus making dental practitioners ideally placed to identify suspicious lesions, which could be skin cancer, as part of their routine extra-oral examination. These patients can then be referred on to hospital or their GP for further management. The dentist can also give advice on risk factors and self-monitoring to patients. This paper aims to describe the risk factors, pathology, presentation and treatments for the three most common forms of skin cancer - basal and squamous cell carcinomas, and malignant melanoma, to give the dental practitioner the knowledge and confidence to examine for and identify these skin cancers. PMID:24852988

  9. Autoinflammatory Skin Disorders: The Inflammasomme in Focus.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-07-01

    Autoinflammatory skin disorders are a group of heterogeneous diseases that include diseases such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Therapeutic strategies targeting IL-1 cytokines have proved helpful in ameliorating some of these diseases. While inflammasomes are the major regulators of IL-1 cytokines, inflammasome-independent complexes can also process IL-1 cytokines. Herein, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of how IL-1 cytokines, stemming from inflammasome-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in the regulation of skin conditions. Importantly, we discuss several mouse models of skin inflammation generated to help elucidate the basic cellular and molecular effects and modulation of IL-1 in the skin. Such models offer perspectives on how these signaling pathways could be targeted to improve therapeutic approaches in the treatment of these rare and debilitating inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27267764

  10. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. PMID:24098904

  11. Impaired skin integrity related to radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratliff, C.

    1990-09-01

    Skin reactions associated with radiation therapy require frequent nursing assessment and intervention. Preventive interventions and early management can minimize the severity of the skin reaction. With the understanding of the pathogenesis of radiation skin reactions, the ET nurse can determine who is at risk and then implement preventive measures. Because radiation treatment is fractionated, skin reactions do not usually occur until midway through the course of therapy and will subside within a few weeks after completion of radiation. Many patients and their families still fear that radiation causes severe burns. Teaching and anticipatory guidance by the ET nurse is needed to assist patients and their families to overcome this fear, and to educate them on preventive skin care regimens.

  12. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin*

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  13. A Review of Acne in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common conditions for which all patients, including those with skin of color (Fitzpatrick skin types IV–VI), seek dermatological care. The multifactorial pathogenesis of acne appears to be the same in ethnic patients as in Caucasians. However, there is controversy over whether certain skin biology characteristics, such as sebum production, differ in ethnic patients. Clinically, acne lesions can appear the same as those seen in Caucasians; however, histologically, all types of acne lesions in African Americans can be associated with intense inflammation including comedones, which can also have some degree of inflammation. It is the sequelae of the disease that are the distinguishing characteristics of acne in skin of color, namely postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and keloidal or hypertrophic scarring. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne in skin of color. PMID:20725545

  14. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    PubMed Central

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as “adipocyte-myofibroblast transition” (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  15. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    PubMed

    Kruglikov, Ilja L; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-07-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as "adipocyte-myofibroblast transition" (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  16. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  17. Multilayer model of photon diffusion in skin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.M.; Zhou, G.X.; Walker, E.C.; Wall, R.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A diffusion model describing the propagation of photon flux in the epidermal, dermal, and subcutaneous tissue layers of the skin is presented. Assuming that the skin is illuminated by a collimated, finite-aperture source, we develop expressions relating photon flux density within the skin and intensities re-emitted from the skin surface to the optical properties of the individual layers. Model simulations show that the rate at which re-emitted intensities diminish with radial distance away from the source can provide information about absorption and scattering in underlying tissues. Re-emitted intensities measured from homogeneous and two-layer tissue phantoms compare favorably with model predictions. We demonstrate potential applications of the model by estimating the absorption (sigma a) and transport-corrected scattering (sigma's) coefficients of dermis and subcutis from intensities measured from intact skin and by predicting the magnitude of the optical-density variations measured by a photoplethysmograph.

  18. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

  19. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labouta, Hagar I.; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λex=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  20. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data.

    PubMed

    Labouta, Hagar I; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λ(ex)=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship. PMID:23203297

  1. Fractional Skin Harvesting: Autologous Skin Grafting without Donor-site Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Farinelli, William A.; Jiménez-Lozano, Joel; Franco, Walfre; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Cheung, Evelyn J.; Purschke, Martin; Doukas, Apostolos G.; Anderson, R. Rox

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conventional autologous skin grafts are associated with significant donor-site morbidity. This study was conducted to determine feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a new strategy for skin grafting based on harvesting small columns of full-thickness skin with minimal donor-site morbidity. Methods: The swine model was used for this study. Hundreds of full-thickness columns of skin tissue (~700 µm diameter) were harvested using a custom-made harvesting device, and then applied directly to excisional skin wounds. Healing in donor and graft sites was evaluated over 3 months by digital photographic measurement of wound size and blinded, computer-aided evaluation of histological features and compared with control wounds that healed by secondary intention or with conventional split-thickness skin grafts (STSG). Results: After harvesting hundreds of skin columns, the donor sites healed rapidly without scarring. These sites reepithelialized within days and were grossly and histologically indistinguishable from normal skin within 7 weeks. By contrast, STSG donor sites required 2 weeks for reepithelialization and retained scar-like characteristics in epidermal and dermal architecture throughout the experiment. Wounds grafted with skin columns resulted in accelerated reepithelialization compared with ungrafted wounds while avoiding the “fish-net” patterning caused by STSG. Conclusion: Full-thickness columns of skin can be harvested in large quantities with negligible long-term donor-site morbidity, and these columns can be applied directly to skin wounds to enhance wound healing. PMID:25289241

  2. Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Understand Staphylococcus aureus Skin Colonization and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Lauren; Kovalski, Joanna; Grandi, Guido; Bagnoli, Fabio; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is both a major bacterial pathogen as well as a common member of the human skin microbiota. Due to its widespread prevalence as an asymptomatic skin colonizer and its importance as a source of skin and soft tissue infections, an improved understanding of how S. aureus attaches to, grows within, and breaches the stratified layers of the epidermis is of critical importance. Three-dimensional organotypic human skin culture models are informative and tractable experimental systems for future investigations of the interactions between S. aureus and the multi-faceted skin tissue. We propose that S. aureus virulence factors, primarily appreciated for their role in pathogenesis of invasive infections, play alternative roles in promoting asymptomatic bacterial growth within the skin. Experimental manipulations of these cultures will provide insight into the many poorly understood molecular interactions occurring at the interface between S. aureus and stratified human skin tissue. PMID:24567733

  3. Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Understand Staphylococcus aureus Skin Colonization and Infection.

    PubMed

    Popov, Lauren; Kovalski, Joanna; Grandi, Guido; Bagnoli, Fabio; Amieva, Manuel R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is both a major bacterial pathogen as well as a common member of the human skin microbiota. Due to its widespread prevalence as an asymptomatic skin colonizer and its importance as a source of skin and soft tissue infections, an improved understanding of how S. aureus attaches to, grows within, and breaches the stratified layers of the epidermis is of critical importance. Three-dimensional organotypic human skin culture models are informative and tractable experimental systems for future investigations of the interactions between S. aureus and the multi-faceted skin tissue. We propose that S. aureus virulence factors, primarily appreciated for their role in pathogenesis of invasive infections, play alternative roles in promoting asymptomatic bacterial growth within the skin. Experimental manipulations of these cultures will provide insight into the many poorly understood molecular interactions occurring at the interface between S. aureus and stratified human skin tissue. PMID:24567733

  4. Skin conditions: new drugs for managing skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    New drugs are available for managing several common skin disorders. For psoriasis, topical corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy, but topical vitamin D3 analogs, such as calcipotriene, now have a role. They are as effective as medium-potency topical steroids but without steroid side effects, though they can induce hypercalcemia if the dose exceeds 100 g/week. For more severe cases, methotrexate has been widely used, but other drugs now also are prescribed. They include calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine, and more recently, biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. For children and pregnant women, in whom the previously discussed drugs are not appropriate, narrowband UV-B light often is the first-line treatment. For eczema, patients requiring steroid-sparing topical drugs can be treated with calcineurin inhibitors (ie, pimecrolimus or tacrolimus); between the 2, tacrolimus is the first choice for adults and children older than 2 years. When systemic management is needed, oral calcineurin inhibitors (eg, cyclosporine) are appropriate, though oral steroids often are needed for severe cases. The need for systemic management can sometimes be delayed with use of diluted bleach baths. For acne vulgaris, standard treatments with topical benzoyl peroxide and topical or systemic antibiotics are used widely, as are oral contraceptives, but oral isotretinoin is the most effective treatment. PMID:23600334

  5. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for melanoma skin cancer What’s new in melanoma skin cancer research? Research into the ... Melanoma Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Skin Cancer - Melanoma Research? Other Resources and ...

  6. Keep Your Skin Healthy: Protecting Your Outer Self

    MedlinePlus

    ... A yellow tint might indicate liver disease. And dark or unusual moles might be a warning sign ... Household Burns Your Microbes and You Healthy Skin Matters Skin Care and Aging Skin Cancer (Including Melanoma) ...

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to ... human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes Protect your skin from ...

  8. Skin Diseases: Questions for Your Health Care Provider

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Questions for Your Health Care Provider Past ... dermatitis worse? What are the most common irritants? Skin cancer What type of skin cancer do I ...

  9. Skin Exposure to Isocyanates: Reasons for Concern

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Dhimiter; Herrick, Christina A.; Smith, Thomas J.; Woskie, Susan R.; Streicher, Robert P.; Cullen, Mark R.; Liu, Youcheng; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Isocyanates (di- and poly-), important chemicals used worldwide to produce polyurethane products, are a leading cause of occupational asthma. Respiratory exposures have been reduced through improved hygiene controls and the use of less-volatile isocyanates. Yet isocyanate asthma continues to occur, not uncommonly in settings with minimal inhalation exposure but opportunity for skin exposure. In this review we evaluate the potential role of skin exposure in the development of isocyanate asthma. Data sources We reviewed the published animal and human literature on isocyanate skin-exposure methods, workplace skin exposure, skin absorption, and the role of skin exposure in isocyanate sensitization and asthma. Data extraction We selected relevant articles from computerized searches on Medline, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and Google databases using the keywords “isocyanate,” “asthma,” “skin,” “sensitization,” and other synonymous terms, and our own extensive collection of isocyanate publications. Data synthesis Isocyanate production and use continues to increase as the polyurethane industry expands. There is substantial opportunity for isocyanate skin exposure in many work settings, but such exposure is challenging to quantify and continues to be underappreciated. Isocyanate skin exposure can occur at work, even with the use of personal protective equipment, and may also occur with consumer use of certain isocyanate products. In animals, isocyanate skin exposure is an efficient route to induce sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge resulting in asthma-like responses. Several lines of evidence support a similar role for human isocyanate skin exposure, namely, that such exposure occurs and can contribute to the development of isocyanate asthma in certain settings, presumably by inducing systemic sensitization. Conclusions

  10. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. PMID:22913441

  11. Electric dipole polarizability and the neutral skin

    SciTech Connect

    Piechaczek, A.; Nazarewicz, Witold; Reinhard, P.-G.; Agrawal, Bijay K; Colo, Gianluca; Paar, Nils; Roca-Maza, X; Vretenar, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The recent high-resolution measurement of the electric dipole (E1) polarizability {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb [A. Tamii et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 062502 (2011)] provides a unique constraint on the neutron-skin thickness of this nucleus. The neutron-skin thickness r{sub skin} of {sup 208}Pb is a quantity of critical importance for our understanding of a variety of nuclear and astrophysical phenomena. To assess the model dependence of the correlation between {alpha}{sub D} and r{sub skin}, we carry out systematic calculations for {sup 208}Pb, {sup 132}Sn, and {sup 48}Ca based on the nuclear density functional theory using both nonrelativistic and relativistic energy density functionals. Our analysis indicates that whereas individual models exhibit a linear dependence between {alpha}{sub D} and r{sub skin}, this correlation is not universal when one combines predictions from a host of different models. By averaging over these model predictions, we provide estimates with associated systematic errors for r{sub skin} and {alpha}{sub D} for the nuclei under consideration. We conclude that precise measurements of r{sub skin} in both {sup 48}Ca and {sup 208}Pb - combined with the recent measurement of {alpha}{sub D} - should significantly constrain the isovector sector of the nuclear energy density functional.

  12. Precise microinjection into skin using hollow microneedles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping M; Cornwell, Megan; Hill, James; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2006-05-01

    Hollow needles of micron dimensions have previously been fabricated and envisioned for use with transdermal patches or infusion pumps to achieve painless delivery of drugs to the skin for local and systemic effects without the need for hypodermic needles. However, little work has been carried out to identify methods to effectively use hollow microneedles for drug delivery. To address this need, we inserted hollow, glass microneedles into hairless rat skin in vivo and human cadaver skin in vitro and then imaged infusion of dye molecules, insulin, polymer microparticles, and cells into the skin by brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. The depth of needle penetration into skin was controlled by inserting needles with a rotary drilling device, which enabled localized injection within the epidermis or dermis with +/-60 microm resolution. Although small quantities of fluid could be injected after needle insertion into skin, partial retraction of the needle by withdrawing back 100-300 microm or vibrating the microneedle array dramatically increased infusion flow rate. We conclude that hollow microneedles can be used for precise microinjection into skin, especially when a single needle is inserted by rotary drilling and then retracted part way before infusion or a microneedle array is inserted by mechanical vibration. PMID:16484988

  13. Biaxial mechanical characterization of bat wing skin.

    PubMed

    Skulborstad, A J; Swartz, S M; Goulbourne, N C

    2015-06-01

    The highly flexible and stretchable wing skin of bats, together with the skeletal structure and musculature, enables large changes in wing shape during flight. Such compliance distinguishes bat wings from those of all other flying animals. Although several studies have investigated the aerodynamics and kinematics of bats, few have examined the complex histology and mechanical response of the wing skin. This work presents the first biaxial characterization of the local deformation, mechanical properties, and fiber kinematics of bat wing skin. Analysis of these data has provided insight into the relationships among the structural morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of wing skin. Large spatial variations in tissue deformation and non-negligible fiber strains in the cross-fiber direction for both chordwise and spanwise fibers indicate fibers should be modeled as two-dimensional elements. The macroscopic constitutive behavior was anisotropic and nonlinear, with very low spanwise and chordwise stiffness (hundreds of kilopascals) in the toe region of the stress-strain curve. The structural arrangement of the fibers and matrix facilitates a low energy mechanism for wing deployment and extension, and we fabricate examples of skins capturing this mechanism. We propose a comprehensive deformation map for the entire loading regime. The results of this work underscore the importance of biaxial field approaches for soft heterogeneous tissue, and provide a foundation for development of bio-inspired skins to probe the effects of the wing skin properties on aerodynamic performance. PMID:25895436

  14. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  15. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  16. [Precocious skin-to-skin contact between mother and child: meanings to mothers and contributions for nursing].

    PubMed

    Matos, Thaís Alves; de Souza, Morgana Stefani; dos Santos, Evanguelia Kotzias Atherino; Velho, Manuela Beatriz; Seibert, Eli Rodrigues Camargo; Martins, Nezi Maria

    2010-01-01

    That was a convergent-care study, carried out in a maternity ward in the Southern Region of Brazil from April to May 2009, with the purpose to comprehend the meanings of premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact and relevant nursing contributions. Data were collected through participant observation and interviews involving nine mothers. Four categories were identified: a) predelivery orientation surrounding premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact; b) establishing premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact; c) meanings of premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact for the mother; and d) nursing contributions in establishing premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact. It was concluded that the meanings of premature mother-child skin-to-skin contact attributed by these mothers is positive, and that nursing's contribution in establishing such contact is significant. PMID:21308235

  17. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm(2)) and determination of their respective sizes in mm(2). Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having "enlarged pores" like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore's morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  18. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans. PMID:22070679

  19. Polyphenols: Skin Photoprotection and Inhibition of Photocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Afaq, Farrukh; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans. PMID:22070679

  20. Skin cell proliferation stimulated by microneedles.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Horst; Kloth, Luther C

    2012-03-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7-14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimulated followed by the activation of the remodeling (maturation) phase. The latter phase can last as long as 1 year or more, and the final healed state is represented by a scar tissue, a cross-linked collagen formation that usually aligns collagen fibers in a single direction. One may assume that skin microneedling that involves the use of dozens or as many as 200 needles that limit penetration to 1.5 mm over 1 cm(2) of skin would cause trauma and bleeding followed by the classical HIPR. However, this is not the case or at least the HIPR phases are significantly curtailed and healing never ends in a scar formation. Conversely dermabrasion used in aesthetic medicine for improving skin quality is based on "ablation" (destruction or wounding of superficial skin layers), which requires several weeks for healing that involves formation of new skin layers. Such procedures provoke an acute inflammatory response. We believe that a less intense inflammatory response occurs following microneedle perforation of the skin. However, the mechanism of action of microneedling appears to be different. Here we review the potential mechanisms by which microneedling of the skin facilitates skin repair without scarring after the treatment of superficial burns, acne, hyperpigmentation, and the non-advancing periwound skin surrounding the chronic ulcerations of the integument. PMID:24527373

  1. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  2. Percutaneous absorption in diseased skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Audris; Tudela, Emilie; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-08-01

    The stratum corneum's (SC) functions include protection from external hazardous environments, prevention of water loss and regulation of body temperature. While intact skin absorption studies are abundant, studies on compromised skin permeability are less common, although products are often used to treat affected skin. We reviewed literature on percutaneous absorption through abnormal skin models. Tape stripping is used to disrupt water barrier function. Studies demonstrated that physicochemical properties influence the stripping effect: water-soluble drugs are more affected. Abrasion did not affect absorption as much. Freezing is commonly used to preserve skin. It does not seem to modify water absorption, but still increases the penetration of compounds. Comparatively, heating the skin consistently increased percutaneous absorption. Removing SC lipids may increase percutaneous absorption of drugs. Many organic solvents are employed to delipidize. Delipidization with chloroform-methanol increased hydrophilic compound permeability, but not lipophilic. Acetone pre-treatment enhanced hydrophilic compound penetration. More data is needed to determine influence on highly lipophilic compound penetration. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) induces irritant dermatitis and is frequently used as a model. Studies revealed that SLS increases hydrophilic compound absorption, but not lipophilic. However, skin irritation with other chemicals increases lipophilic penetration as much as hydrophilic. Animal studies show that UV exposure increases percutaneous absorption whereas human studies do not. Human studies show increased penetration in psoriatic and atopic dermatitis skin. The data summarized here begin to characterize flux alteration associated with damaged skin. Understanding the degree of alteration requires interpretation of involved conditions and the enlarging of our database to a more complete physicochemical spectrum. PMID:22912973

  3. Skin Cell Proliferation Stimulated by Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Horst; Kloth, Luther C.

    2012-01-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7–14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimulated followed by the activation of the remodeling (maturation) phase. The latter phase can last as long as 1 year or more, and the final healed state is represented by a scar tissue, a cross-linked collagen formation that usually aligns collagen fibers in a single direction. One may assume that skin microneedling that involves the use of dozens or as many as 200 needles that limit penetration to 1.5 mm over 1 cm2 of skin would cause trauma and bleeding followed by the classical HIPR. However, this is not the case or at least the HIPR phases are significantly curtailed and healing never ends in a scar formation. Conversely dermabrasion used in aesthetic medicine for improving skin quality is based on “ablation” (destruction or wounding of superficial skin layers), which requires several weeks for healing that involves formation of new skin layers. Such procedures provoke an acute inflammatory response. We believe that a less intense inflammatory response occurs following microneedle perforation of the skin. However, the mechanism of action of microneedling appears to be different. Here we review the potential mechanisms by which microneedling of the skin facilitates skin repair without scarring after the treatment of superficial burns, acne, hyperpigmentation, and the non-advancing periwound skin surrounding the chronic ulcerations of the integument. PMID:24527373

  4. Depigmented Skin and Phantom Color Measurements for Realistic Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

  5. Lymphoproliferative lesions of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Cerroni, L

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders is one of the most difficult areas in dermatopathology, and biopsies are often taken to rule out a cutaneous lymphoma in patients with “unclear” or “therapy‐resistant” skin lesions. Histopathological features alone often enable a given case to be classified to a diagnostic group (eg, epidermotropic lymphomas), but seldom allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Performing several biopsies from morphologically different lesions is suggested, especially in patients with suspicion of mycosis fungoides. Immunohistochemistry is often crucial for proper classification of the cases, but in some instances is not helpful (eg, early lesions of mycosis fungoides). Although molecular techniques provide new, powerful tools for diagnosing cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders, results of molecular methods should always be interpreted with the clinicopathological features, keeping in mind the possibility of false positivity and false negativity. In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made only on careful correlation of the clinical with the histopathological, immunophenotypical and molecular features. PMID:16873563

  6. Eating disorders and the skin.

    PubMed

    Strumia, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified, are psychiatric disorders with physical complications. Several factors may contribute to the onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, including a familial predisposition to these disorders as well as individual personality characteristics. Dissatisfaction with body shape and an overwhelming desire to be thin are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugolike body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrheic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, and acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions to drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:23245978

  7. `Unstirred layers' in frog skin

    PubMed Central

    Dainty, J.; House, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Estimates of the magnitudes of the unstirred regions associated with isolated frog skin in sulphate Ringer's solution have been made under different stirring conditions. 2. The method of investigation was an analysis of the time course of the p.d. transients which occurred when external sodium concentration and internal potassium concentration changes were made in the bathing solution. 3. Making an arbitrary but reasonable assumption about the diffusional coefficient of Na2SO4 in the outer unstirred region, the magnitudes of the outer unstirred layers were found to lie within the ranges 40-60 μ, 30-50 μ and 30-40 μ under stirring conditions of 120, 300 and 500 rev/min, respectively. 4. Making an arbitrary but reasonable assumption about the diffusion coefficient of K2SO4 in the inner unstirred region, the magnitudes of the inner unstirred layers were found to lie within the ranges 150-230 μ, 120-200 μ and 100-170 μ under stirring conditions of 120, 300 and 500 rev/min, respectively. PMID:5937417

  8. Lizard-Skin Surface Texture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    The south polar region of Mars is covered seasonally with translucent carbon dioxide ice. In the spring gas subliming (evaporating) from the underside of the seasonal layer of ice bursts through weak spots, carrying dust from below with it, to form numerous dust fans aligned in the direction of the prevailing wind.

    The dust gets trapped in the shallow grooves on the surface, helping to define the small-scale structure of the surface. The surface texture is reminiscent of lizard skin (figure 1).

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003730_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 14-May-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 248.5 km (155.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.9 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:04 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 69 degrees, thus the sun was about 21 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 237.5 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  10. Human Polyomaviruses in Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Ludvigsen, Maria; Van Ghelue, Marijke

    2011-01-01

    Polyomaviruses are a family of small, nonenveloped viruses with a circular double-stranded DNA genome of ∼5,000 base pairs protected by an icosahedral protein structure. So far, members of this family have been identified in birds and mammals. Until 2006, BK virus (BKV), JC virus (JCV), and simian virus 40 (SV40) were the only polyomaviruses known to circulate in the human population. Their occurrence in individuals was mainly confirmed by PCR and the presence of virus-specific antibodies. Using the same methods, lymphotropic polyomavirus, originally isolated in monkeys, was recently shown to be present in healthy individuals although with much lower incidence than BKV, JCV, and SV40. The use of advanced high-throughput sequencing and improved rolling circle amplification techniques have identified the novel human polyomaviruses KI, WU, Merkel cell polyomavirus, HPyV6, HPyV7, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus, and HPyV9. The skin tropism of human polyomaviruses and their dermatopathologic potentials are the focus of this paper. PMID:21941687

  11. [Terminal ballistics. 2. (The skin)].

    PubMed

    Marini, F; Mangiante, G; Radin, S; Dagradi, V; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Tenci, A; Massari, S; Della Giacoma, G; Prati, G

    1993-01-01

    It goes without saying that, at first glance, it is the velocity with which the fired bullet pierces the solid target and perhaps even penetrates it that bears witness to the efficiency of a firearm. Prior to the advent of ceramic and composite materials, iron and its clone, steel, provided the most satisfactory and most coveted evidence as a test material in both the positive and negative senses. It the biological field, wood and deal in particular were for decades the only witnesses, alongside tests in cadavers, which, despite obvious reservations, provided us with a wealth of data, much of which is still regarded today as among the mainstays of forensic didactics. Prominent among these, in terms of clinical importance, in that they mark the start of the bullet wound, are the velocity and energy thresholds per presentation area. The bullet, after overcoming the barrier of the skin, continues on its course through the soft tissues, and there leaves its most authentic and singular mark as a bullet wound. PMID:7923494

  12. [Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and skin care products].

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetics are defined as "articles with mild action on the human body, which are intended to be applied to the human body through rubbing, sprinkling or other methods, aiming to clean, beautify and increase the attractiveness, alter the appearance or to keep the skin or hair in good condition (The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Article 2)." Consequently, they include personal hygiene products such as shampoos, soaps and toothpaste. In Europe, 1% of the population is estimated to be allergic to fragrances and 2-3% to ingredients of cosmetics; 10% of outpatients patch-tested for cosmetics allergy were found to be positive. Allergenic ingredients of cosmetics can be fragrances, hair dye, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, surfactants, UV absorbers, pigments or resins used in nail cosmetics. Among standard allergen series, eight substances are related to cosmetics; in Japan in 2003, p-phenylenediamine (hair dyes) induced allergic reactions with the highest rate of 7.9% in outpatients patch-tested (n=805), followed by fragrance mix No. 1 (4.0%, mixture of eight fragrances frequently used), colophony (3.2%, main contents of pine resin), lanolin alcohol (2.7%,emollients), and formaldehyde, parabens, Kathon CG (2.7% ,1.9% and 1.0%, respectively; preservatives). Cosmetic allergy symptoms tend to be mild except those caused by hair dye. However, the population exposed to cosmetics is huge and the number of ingredients used in cosmetics increased up to more than 6000. Here, major cosmetic ingredient allergens, mainly reported in Japan, are reviewed and discussed. PMID:20134105

  13. A New Skin Tensiometer Device: Computational Analyses To Understand Biodynamic Excisional Skin Tension Lines

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sharad P.; Matulich, Justin; Charlton, Nick

    2016-01-01

    One of the problems in planning cutaneous surgery is that human skin is anisotropic, or directionally dependent. Indeed, skin tension varies between individuals and at different body sites. Many a surgeon has tried to design different devices to measure skin tension to help plan excisional surgery, or to understand wound healing. However, many of the devices have been beset with problems due to many confounding variables - differences in technical ability, material (sutures) used and variability between different users. We describe the development of a new skin tensiometer that overcomes many historical technical issues. A new skin tension measuring device is presented here. It was designed to be less user-dependent, more reliable and usable on different bodily sites. The design and computational optimizations are discussed. Our skin tensiometer has helped understand the differences between incisional and excisional skin lines. Langer, who pioneered the concept of skin tension lines, created incisional lines that differ from lines caused by forces that need to be overcome when large wounds are closed surgically (excisional tension). The use of this innovative device has led to understanding of skin biomechanics and best excisional skin tension (BEST) lines. PMID:27453542

  14. Radiofrequency Ablation Complicated by Skin Burn

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, S.D.; Huffman, N.P.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Brown, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been increasingly utilized as a minimally invasive treatment for primary and metastatic liver tumors, as well as tumors in the kidneys, bones, and adrenal glands. The development of high-current RF ablation has subsequently led to an increased risk of thermal skin injuries at the grounding pad site. The incidence of skin burns in recent studies ranges from 0.1–3.2% for severe skin burns (second-/third-degree), and from 5–33% for first-degree burns.1–3 PMID:22654258

  15. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    SciTech Connect

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

  16. Considerations on photoprotection and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Cestari, T Ferreira; Oliveira, F Bazanella de; Boza, J Catucci

    2012-12-01

    Excessive exposure to solar or artificial sources of UV radiation is deleterious to the skin and can cause or worsen several diseases. Detrimental effects of UV radiation exert an important role in the development of skin cancers, cause alterations on the immune response, and act as a trigger or aggravating factor for pigmentary disorders. A group of measures, including education, change of habits, use of physical barriers and sunscreens constitutes a significant part of the treatment of many skin disorders and are valuable preventive tools. This article summarizes the relevant studies addressing these issues, emphasizing the many aspects of photoprotection. PMID:23522628

  17. [Considerations on photoprotection and skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Cestari, T Ferreira; de Oliveira, F Bazanella; Boza, J Catucci

    2012-11-01

    Excessive exposure to solar or artificial sources of UV radiation is deleterious to the skin and can cause or worsen several diseases. Detrimental effects of UV radiation exert an important role in the development of skin cancers, cause alterations on the immune response, and act as a trigger or aggravating factor for pigmentary disorders. A group of measures, including education, change of habits, use of physical barriers and sunscreens constitutes a significant part of the treatment of many skin disorders and are valuable preventive tools. This article summarizes the relevant studies addressing these issues, emphasizing the many aspects of photoprotection. PMID:23260523

  18. Quantification of skin quality through speckle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotay, Amrit; Buttenschoen, Kim-Kristin K.; Girkin, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    The surface of the skin plays an important role in the diagnosis of many clinical conditions, in relation to ageing and the acceptance of many consumer products. Considerable resource has been applied to skin in terms of cancer diagnosis but the actual surface finish of the tissue has been frequently overlooked. An optical system and associated imaging processing method has been developed which analyses the speckle pattern, recorded on a basic digital imaging system, and provides a quantitative analysis of the surface roughness. Results demonstrate that these measurements can be linked with more qualitative perceptions of skin quality (roughness).

  19. Neonatal skin barrier: structure, function, and disorders.

    PubMed

    Shwayder, Tor; Akland, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The development of the human skin from intrauterine to extrauterine life is a balletic interplay of maturing layers and interlocking structures. We discuss this transition and then branch out to touch on issues of premature infant as well as neonatal skin care. Disruption of the barrier function due to toxins and development errors are expounded upon. Staph scalded skin syndrome, collodion membrane, bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, autosomal recessive ichthyosis (lamellar and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma), and harlequin fetus are used as examples of these disruptions. Discussion of therapy with the authors' experience highlights each disease. PMID:15953139

  20. [Intrinsic factors, genes, and skin aging].

    PubMed

    Makrantonaki, E; Pfeifer, G P; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    Skin aging is determined by a combination of endogenous and environmental influences, including epigenetic, posttranslational, microbial, and lifestyle factors. In particular genetic changes, programmed or not, play a pivotal role and understanding of these complex mechanisms may contribute to the prevention of age-related diseases and extension of healthy lifespan. In this article, new knowledge about genes and biological processes that can significantly affect skin homeostasis in old age and can lead to the typical morphological and physiological characteristics of aging skin are summarized. PMID:26743050

  1. Skin-Friction Measurements in Incompressible Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald W.; Walker, John H.

    1959-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to measure the local surface-shear stress and the average skin-friction coefficient in Incompressible flow for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate having zero pressure gradient. Data were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 45 million. The local surface-shear stress was measured by a floating-element skin-friction balance and also by a calibrated total head tube located on the surface of the test wall. The average skin-friction coefficient was obtained from boundary-layer velocity profiles.

  2. Skin diseases of old dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, R E

    1990-04-21

    The ageing process tends to predispose dogs and cats to certain skin diseases. Impaired immunosurveillance is believed to render the animals more susceptible to neoplasia which can affect any organ including the skin. Endocrinopathies are also more common in older animals. There are some diseases of internal organs which can affect the skin, and some of these tend to occur with increased frequency in old animals. Finally, seborrhoeic diseases are either more common in older animals, or become increasingly severe with age. PMID:2195753

  3. Safety of skin care products during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Pina; Chua-Gocheco, Angela; Einarson, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Question Many of my female patients complain about acne, unwanted hair growth, and other skin problems that have only developed since they became pregnant. Are products used for these types of benign skin conditions safe to use in pregnancy, as it is understandable that women want to look their best at this important time in their lives? Answer With the exception of hydroquinone, which has a relatively high systemic absorption rate, and tretinoin, for which the evidence is controversial, these products act locally and therefore produce minimal systemic levels. Consequently, in most cases women can deal with these cosmetically unappealing skin conditions without compromising the safety of their unborn children. PMID:21673209

  4. An Interprofessional Quality Improvement Project to Implement Maternal/Infant Skin-to-Skin Contact During Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Karen; Bulpitt, Denise; Chiarelli, Caren

    2014-01-01

    Immediate skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn has been associated with successful breastfeeding outcomes. One of the challenges nurses face in promoting skin-to-skin occurs in the operating room during a cesarean delivery. Utilizing an interprofessional approach for this quality improvement project, we successfully implemented skin-to-skin contact for all eligible mother/infant couplets after cesarean birth. Exclusive breastfeeding rates for these women increased as a result. PMID:24981767

  5. Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-04-01

    People of skin of colour comprise the majority of the world's population and Asian subjects comprise more than half of the total population of the earth. Even so, the literature on the characteristics of the subjects with skin of colour is limited. Several groups over the past decades have attempted to decipher the underlying differences in skin structure and function in different ethnic skin types. However, most of these studies have been of small scale and in some studies interindividual differences in skin quality overwhelm any racial differences. There has been a recent call for more studies to address genetic together with phenotypic differences among different racial groups and in this respect several large-scale studies have been conducted recently. The most obvious ethnic skin difference relates to skin colour which is dominated by the presence of melanin. The photoprotection derived from this polymer influences the rate of the skin aging changes between the different racial groups. However, all racial groups are eventually subjected to the photoaging process. Generally Caucasians have an earlier onset and greater skin wrinkling and sagging signs than other skin types and in general increased pigmentary problems are seen in skin of colour although one large study reported that East Asians living in the U.S.A. had the least pigment spots. Induction of a hyperpigmentary response is thought to be through signaling by the protease-activated receptor-2 which together with its activating protease is increased in the epidermis of subjects with skin of colour. Changes in skin biophysical properties with age demonstrate that the more darkly pigmented subjects retaining younger skin properties compared with the more lightly pigmented groups. However, despite having a more compact stratum corneum (SC) there are conflicting reports on barrier function in these subjects. Nevertheless, upon a chemical or mechanical challenge the SC barrier function is reported to be

  6. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  7. [Way of drying the skin and the renewal of skin surface activity].

    PubMed

    Broniarczyk-Dyła, G

    1979-01-01

    The author tried to evaluate the impact of the way of drying the skin upon the renewal of its surface acidity, using a linen towel, paper towel, cellucotton and a stream of dry air. 20 persons were evaluated. Prior to the study, 1% solution of "BHP" soap had been put on their skin. PH was measured at the skin surface by a pH-meter (produced by "Radelkis") using a combined glass and calomel electrode. This method of skin drying was considered the best one, after which the average time of pH value renewal on the skin surface was the shortest, which amounted to the recovery of pH to the initial value. The way of drying the skin was found to have a significant impact on the time of pH renewal. The results were indicative of advisability of the use of linen towels. PMID:41154

  8. [Severe apparent life-threatening event during "skin-to-skin": treatment with hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Marin, N; Valverde, E; Cabañas, F

    2013-10-01

    'Skin-to-skin' in healthy newborn infants is currently routine practice in Spanish maternity wards. This practice has shown benefits in increasing the duration of breast-feeding and maternal bonding behaviour with no significant adverse events. Early sudden deaths and severe apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) during the first 24 hours of life are infrequent, but well recognised. Risk factors during 'skin to skin' have been established. These events can lead to high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is now the standard of care for moderate to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and has shown to reduce mortality and neurological morbidity in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Although there are no clinical trials that evaluate hypothermia after a severe ALTE, neonates who suffer it should be considered for this treatment. We present a case of a healthy newborn who had an ALTE during skin-to-skin with his mother and was treated with hypothermia. PMID:24051185

  9. Practical Uses of Botanicals in Skin Care

    PubMed Central

    Stallings, Alison F.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed. PMID:20967187

  10. On the tear resistance of skin

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Wen; Sherman, Vincent R.; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schaible, Eric; Stewart, Polite; Ritchie, Robert O.; Meyers, Marc A.

    2015-03-27

    Tear resistance is vitally important for the various functions of skin, especially protection from predatorial attack. Here, we mechanistically quantify the extreme tear resistance of skin and identify the underlying structural features, which lead to its sophisticated failure mechanisms. Here we explain why it is virtually impossible to propagate a tear in rabbit skin, chosen as a model material for the dermis of vertebrates. Finally, we express the deformation in terms of four mechanisms of collagen fibril activity in skin under tensile loading that virtually eliminate the possibility of tearing in pre-notched samples: fibril straightening, fibril reorientation towards the tensilemore » direction, elastic stretching and interfibrillar sliding, all of which contribute to the redistribution of the stresses at the notch tip.« less

  11. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this counseling. This fact sheet explains the ... skin looking young and healthy. Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling The main potential benefit of ...

  12. Skin temperatures generated following plaster splint application.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, Bennie G P; Shuler, Franklin D; Bates, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    Heat is generated during the exothermic reaction associated with plaster splint application. The amount of heat generated is affected by the plaster thickness, dipping water temperature, and extremity elevation method. The authors assessed the effect of these variables on skin and plaster temperatures. Short-leg posterior splints were applied to noninjured extremities on a volunteer using 2 protocols. Following splint application, the splinted leg was elevated in 4 ways: on plastic-covered urethane pillows in cotton pillowcases, on cotton blankets, on ice packs (short-term cryotherapy) placed on top of cotton blankets, or with heel elevation to promote free air circulation. Skin and plaster temperatures were monitored at 1-minute intervals. The maximum skin temperature generated and the average time that skin temperature was 40 °C or higher were recorded. PMID:23672893

  13. On the tear resistance of skin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Sherman, Vincent R; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schaible, Eric; Stewart, Polite; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Tear resistance is of vital importance in the various functions of skin, especially protection from predatorial attack. Here, we mechanistically quantify the extreme tear resistance of skin and identify the underlying structural features, which lead to its sophisticated failure mechanisms. We explain why it is virtually impossible to propagate a tear in rabbit skin, chosen as a model material for the dermis of vertebrates. We express the deformation in terms of four mechanisms of collagen fibril activity in skin under tensile loading that virtually eliminate the possibility of tearing in pre-notched samples: fibril straightening, fibril reorientation towards the tensile direction, elastic stretching and interfibrillar sliding, all of which contribute to the redistribution of the stresses at the notch tip. PMID:25812485

  14. Skin Rashes Due to Bed-Wetting

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney makes urine by mixing unwanted chemicals with water. When the urine is concentrated and exposed to the skin for a long time, these chemicals can ... NY Register Now 2016 Orangeburg Kidney Walk Thu, ...

  15. In vitro fabrication of engineered human skin.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Alexander; Zhang, Weitian; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2005-01-01

    In vitro fabrication of human epidermal tissues that mimic the biochemical and morphologic properties of human skin, known as skin-equivalent (organotypic) cultures, has opened new avenues in the study of skin biology. In this chapter, methods for the generation of these tissues from their component parts are described. Conditions for culture of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts that allow optimal growth in skin equivalent cultures are delineated. These cell types are then sequentially combined so that keratinocytes are grown at an air-liquid interface on a contracted collagen gel containing dermal fibroblasts. The methods described enable the generation of human epidermal tissues that show in vivo-like tissue architecture and phenotype. PMID:15502170

  16. Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oh, Julia; Byrd, Allyson L; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H; Segre, Julia A

    2016-05-01

    Biogeography and individuality shape the structural and functional composition of the human skin microbiome. To explore these factors' contribution to skin microbial community stability, we generated metagenomic sequence data from longitudinal samples collected over months and years. Analyzing these samples using a multi-kingdom, reference-based approach, we found that despite the skin's exposure to the external environment, its bacterial, fungal, and viral communities were largely stable over time. Site, individuality, and phylogeny were all determinants of stability. Foot sites exhibited the most variability; individuals differed in stability; and transience was a particular characteristic of eukaryotic viruses, which showed little site-specificity in colonization. Strain and single-nucleotide variant-level analysis showed that individuals maintain, rather than reacquire, prevalent microbes from the environment. Longitudinal stability of skin microbial communities generates hypotheses about colonization resistance and empowers clinical studies exploring alterations observed in disease states. PMID:27153496

  17. Complications of surgery for radiotherapy skin damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.

    1982-08-01

    Complications of modern surgery for radiotherapy skin damage reviewed in 28 patients who had 42 operations. Thin split-thickness skin grafts for ulcer treatment had a 100 percent complication rate, defined as the need for further surgery. Local flaps, whether delayed or not, also had a high rate of complications. Myocutaneous flaps for ulcers had a 43 percent complication rate, with viable flaps lifting off radiated wound beds. Only myocutaneous flaps for breast reconstruction and omental flaps with skin grafts and Marlex mesh had no complications. The deeper tissue penetration of modern radiotherapy techniques may make skin grafts and flaps less useful. In reconstruction of radiation ulcers, omental flaps and myocutaneous flaps are especially useful, particularly if the radiation damage can be fully excised. The pull of gravity appears detrimental to myocutaneous flap healing and, if possible, should be avoided by flap design.

  18. Studying cell biology in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. PMID:26564861

  19. The skin in psoriasis: assessment and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oji, Vinzenz; Luger, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of psoriasis arthritis (PsA) and psoriasis vulgaris in about 20% of patients with psoriasis leads to a need for rheumatologic-dermatologic team work. We summarise the role of dermatologists in assessment of the skin in psoriasis. Chronic plaque psoriasis must be differentiated from other subtypes such as generalised pustular psoriasis (GPP) or palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). Therapeutic management is based on the evaluation of the disease severity. Quantitative scoring of skin severity includes calculation of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) as well as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). These scoring systems do not replace the traditional dermatologic medical history and physical examination of the patient. The skin should be examined for additional skin diseases; moreover, patients should be monitored for comorbidity, most importantly PsA and cardiovascular comorbidity. PMID:26472560

  20. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations. PMID:24799820