Science.gov

Sample records for slsf experiment p4

  1. SLSF in-reactor local fault safety experiment P4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D. H.; Holland, J. W.; Braid, T. H.; Ragland, W. A.

    1985-09-01

    The Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF), a major facility in the US fast-reactor safety program, has been used to simulate a variety of sodium-cooled fast reactor accidents. SLSF experiment P4 was conducted to investigate the behavior of a "worse-than-case" local fault configuration. Objectives of this experiment were to eject molten fuel into a 37-pin bundle of full-length Fast-Test-Reactor-type fuel pins form heat-generating fuel canisters, to characterize the severity of any molten fuel-coolant interaction, and to demonstrate that any resulting blockage could either be tolerated during continued power operation or detected by global monitors to prevent fuel failure propagation. The design goal for molten fuel release was 10 to 30 g. Explusion of molten fuel from fuel canisters caused failure of adjacent pins and a partial flow channel blockage in the fuel bundle during full-power operation. Molten fuel and fuel debris also lodged against the inner surface of the test subassembly hex-can wall. The total fuel disruption of 310 g evaluated from posttest examination data was in excellent agreement with results from the SLSF delayed neutron detection system, but exceeded the target molten fuel release by an order of magnitude. This report contains a summary description of the SLSF in-reactor loop and support systems and the experiment operations. results of the detailed macro- and microexamination of disrupted fuel and metal and results from the analysis of the on-line experimental data are described, as are the interpretations and conclusions drawn from the posttest evaluations. 60 refs., 74 figs.

  2. FPIN2 posttest analysis of cylindrical canisters in SLSF Experiment P4

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T H; Kramer, J M

    1984-12-01

    Results demonstrate that the clad deformation is dominated by the expansion of the fuel when it melts. In our analysis we moved the end space volume and some of the fuel-clad radial gap volume to an artificial central hole. This approximation may affect the details in the early parts of the transient, but clearly did not affect the major cladding deformation. It is also clear that the accuracy of the value of the fuel expansion upon melting is significant as is the dimensional accuracy of the fuel and canisters. The major conclusions from the FPIN2 posttest analysis of the cylindrical canisters in SLSF Experiment P4 are: The maximum melt fractions in the two canisters were about 75%. Both canisters experienced about the same diametral strains of 12% prior to failure. These strains were almost entirely due to the additional volume that must be created inside the canisters to accommodate the expansion of fuel on melting. The mode of cladding failure was plastic instability by necking of the canister walls. The failure time of the 20% CW canister and the nonmechanical failure of the 10% CW canister are consistent with the FPIN2 calculations using the plastic instability failure criteria.

  3. Characterizing W-2 SLSF experiment temperature oscillations using computer graphics. [Sodium Loop Safety Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.

    1983-06-23

    The W-2 SLSF (Sodium Loop Safety Facility) experiment was an instrumented in-reactor test performed to characterize the failure response of full-length, preconditioned LMFBR prototypic fuel pins to slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions. Although the test results were expected to confirm analytical predictions of upper level failure and fuel expulsion, an axial midplane failure was experienced. Extensive post-test analyses were conducted to understand all of the unexpected behavior in the experiment. (1) The initial post-test effort focused on the temperature oscillations recorded by the 54 thermocouples used in the experiment. In order to synthesize the extensive data records and identify patterns of behavior in the data records, a computer-generated film was used to present the temperature data recorded during the experiment.

  4. HEDL W-1 SLSF experiment LOPI transient and boiling test results. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.M.; Wood, S.A.; Rothrock, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment was designed to study the heat release characteristics of fast reactor fuel pins under Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) accident conditions and determine stable sodium boiling initiation and recovery limits in a prototypic fuel pin bundle array. The results of the experiment address major second level of assurance (LOA-2) safety issues and provide increased insight and understanding of phenomena that would inherently terminate hypothesized accidents with only limited core damage. The irradiation phase of the experiment, consisting of thirteen individual transients, was performed between May 27 and July 20, 1979. The final transient produced approximately two seconds of coolant boiling, cladding dryout, and incipient fuel pin failure. The facility and test hardware performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and achievement of all test objectives.

  5. GE post-test analysis of SLSF experiment W-1 through LOPI-4. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoire, K.E.; Atcheson, D.B.; Knight, D.D.

    1981-07-01

    SLSF experiment W-1 was designed to investigate fuel pin-to-coolant heat transfer during various LMFBR flow-coastdown events in the burnup interval from 0.0 atom percent to 0.5 atom percent. In the study reported here, data from in-fuel thermocouples and coolant (wire-wrap) thermocouples were evaluated during steady-state and transient operation from the beginning of the experiment through LOPI-4 (Loss-of-Piping-Integrity Transient Number 4). The objective of the data evaluation was to determine how maximum coolant temperatures during successive LOPI transients were affected by burnup. A second objective was to identify the mechanisms responsible for this burnup effect.

  6. Sodium boiling and mixed oxide fuel thermal behavior in FBR undercooling transients; W-1 SLSF experiment results

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J M; Wood, S A; Knight, D D

    1981-01-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) Experiment was conducted to study fuel pin heat release characteristics during a series of LMFBR Loss-of-Piping Integrity (LOPI) transients and to investigate a regime of coolant boiling during a second series of transients at low, medium and high bundle power levels. The LOPI transients produced no coolant boiling and showed only small changes in coolant temperatures as the test fuel microstructure changed from a fresh, unrestructured to a low burnup, restructured condition. During the last of seven boiling transients, intense coolant boiling produced inlet flow reversal, cladding dryout and moderate cladding melting.

  7. W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment centerline fuel thermocouple performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.C.; Henderson, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment is the fifth in a series of experiments sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the National Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Safety Assurance Program. The experiments are being conducted under the direction of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The irradiation phase of the W-1 SLSF experiment was conducted between May 27 and July 20, 1979, and terminated with incipient fuel pin cladding failure during the final boiling transient. Experimental hardware and facility performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and test objectives. This paper focuses on high temperature in-fuel thermocouples and discusses their development, fabrication, and performance in the W-1 experiment.

  8. W-1 SLSF post-test data analysis. Part 1. Thermal hydraulic analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, D.D.

    1980-10-01

    Four types of tests were performed: (1) a decay heat transient test, (2) Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) tests, (3) Boiling Window Tests (BWT), and (4) a fuel pin dryout and failure test. In addition, preliminary tests were run to check systems performance, instrumentation performance and test section heat balance. The objective of the decay heat test was to determine the decay heat transfer characteristics of fresh fuel pins with subcooled sodium. The objective of the LOPI experiments was to test the thermal behavior of fuel pins with four different fuel conditions subjected to the same transient. The transient was designed to simulate a rapid flow decrease as a result of pipe rupture followed by a reactor scram. The objective of the Boiling Window Tests was to study boiling initiation and progression of boiling within the fuel pin bundle.

  9. Safe P4 reagent in a reusable porous coordination network.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wanuk; Ohtsu, Hiroyoshi; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Kawano, Masaki

    2016-04-12

    P4 generated from red phosphorus via the gas phase was trapped into an interactive pore of a porous coordination network, showing weak interactions which stabilize the reactive P4 in a pore. The network is reusable as a safe container of P4. Furthermore, we found a size dependence of the P4 trapping amount: for 100-50 μm crystal, 27% occupancy of P4; and for <20 μm crystal, ca. 93% occupancy of P4. PMID:27008184

  10. P4P4P: An Agenda for Research on Pay for Performance for Patients

    PubMed Central

    Volpp, Kevin G.; Pauly, Mark V.; Loewenstein, George; Bangsberg, David

    2012-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviors are a major cause of poor health outcomes and high health care costs. In this Commentary, we describe an agenda for research to guide broader use of patient-targeted financial incentives either in conjunction with provider-targeted financial incentives (P4P) or in clinical contexts where provider-targeted approaches are unlikely to be effective. We discuss evidence of proven effectiveness and limitations of the existing evidence, reasons for underutilization of these approaches, and options for operationalizing wider use. Patient-targeted incentives have great potential, and systematic testing will help determine how they can best be used to improve population health. PMID:19124872

  11. Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) production in recombinant Escherichia coli: P4HB synthesis is uncoupled with cell growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB), belonging to the family of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), is a strong, flexible and absorbable material which has a large variety of medical applications like tissue engineering and drug delivery. For efficient production of P4HB recombinant Escherichia coli has been employed. It was previously found that the P4HB synthesis is co-related with the cell growth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiology of P4HB synthesis, and to reduce the total production cost by using cheap and widely available xylose as the growth substrate and sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate (Na-4HB) as the precursor for P4HB synthesis. Results Six different E. coli strains which are able to utilize xylose as carbon source were compared for their ability to accumulate P4HB. E. coli JM109 was found to be the best strain regarding the specific growth rate and the P4HB content. The effect of growth conditions such as temperature and physiological stage of Na-4HB addition on P4HB synthesis was also studied in E. coli JM109 recombinant in batch culture. Under the tested conditions, a cellular P4HB content in the range of 58 to 70% (w w-1) and P4HB concentrations in the range of 2.76 to 4.33 g L-1 were obtained with a conversion yield (YP4HB/Na-4HB) of 92% w w-1 in single stage batch cultures. Interestingly, three phases were identified during P4HB production: the “growth phase”, in which the cells grew exponentially, the “accumulation phase”, in which the exponential cell growth stopped while P4HB was accumulated exponentially, and the “stagnation phase”, in which the P4HB accumulation stopped and the total biomass remained constant. Conclusions P4HB synthesis was found to be separated from the cell growth, i.e. P4HB synthesis mainly took place after the end of the exponential cell growth. High conversion rate and P4HB contents from xylose and precursor were achieved here by simple batch culture, which was only possible previously

  12. Theoretical investigation of the electronic and optical properties of pseudocubic Si3P4, Ge3P4 and Sn3P4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Wang, Songyou; Yin, Gang; Chen, Liangyao; Jia, Yu

    2006-01-01

    Group-IV phosphides are relatively unknown materials as compared to the Group-IV carbide. In this work, we detailed the first principles calculations of the electronic and optical properties of the pseudocubic M3 P4 (M=Si, Ge, Sn) using the density function theory (DFT). Results are in good agreement with those previous works. Furthermore, the optical constants, such as the dielectric function, energy loss function and effective number of valence electrons are calculated and presented in the study.

  13. Crystallization of recombinant Haemophilus influenzaee (P4) acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Zhonghui; Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Nix, Jay C.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-05-01

    Lipoprotein e (P4) is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. Haemophilus influenzae infects the upper respiratory tract of humans and can cause infections of the middle ear, sinuses and bronchi. The virulence of the pathogen is thought to involve a group of surface-localized macromolecular components that mediate interactions at the host–pathogen interface. One of these components is lipoprotein e (P4), which is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. The space group is P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, c = 101.4 Å, one protein molecule per asymmetric unit and 37% solvent content. This is the first report of the crystallization of a class C acid phosphatase.

  14. Tc with AsqTad and p4rhmc

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Gupta, R

    2007-06-20

    We present the ongoing analysis of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on the LLNL BG/L supercomputer. This installment includes the analysis of 12,000 trajectories from the MILC AsqTad code on a 32{sup 3} x 8 lattice and the time histories from the plaquette and {psi} - bar{psi} trajectories from the p4rhmc code.

  15. Payment for performance (P4P): any future in Italy?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pay for Performance (P4P) programs, based on provision of financial incentives for service quality, have been widely adopted to enhance quality of care and to promote a more efficient use of health care resources whilst improving patient outcomes. In Italy, as in other countries, the growing concern over the quality of health services provided and the scarcity of resources would make P4P programs a useful means of improving their performance. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether it is possible to implement P4P programs in the Lombardy Region, in Italy, based on the existing data set. Methods Thirteen quality measures were identified regarding four clinical conditions (acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), ischemic stroke and hip and knee replacement) on the basis of an international literature review. Data was collected using the database of three institutions, which included hospital discharge records (Scheda di Dimissione ospedaliera-SDO-) and letters of discharge. The study population was identified using both the Principal ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and the discharge date. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program was used for the text analysis. Results It was possible to calculate almost all the parameters pertaining to the three hospitals as all the data required was available with the exception of inpatient mortality in two hospitals and smoking cessation advice/counseling in one hospital. Conclusions On the ground of this analysis, we believe that it is possible to implement a P4P program in the Lombardy Region. However, for this program to be initiated, all necessary data must be available in electronic format and uniformly collected. Moreover, several other factors must be assessed: which clinical conditions should be included, the threshold for each quality parameter, the amount of financial incentives offered and how they will be provided. PMID:21605472

  16. Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin.

  17. Systems biology and p4 medicine: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy

    2013-04-01

    Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a "one gene or one protein" at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which "biology drives technology drives computation." To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another's languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this "systems" approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other "omics" is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes) for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.). The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to detect and treat perturbations in

  18. LQCD Phase 1 Runs with P4RHMC

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Gupta, R

    2007-02-13

    These results represent the first set of runs of 10 {beta} values ranging from 2000-7000 trajectories with the p4rhmc code. This initial run sequence spanned roughly 2-weeks in late January and Early February, 2007. To manage the submission of dependent jobs: subSet.pl--submits a set of dependent jobs for a single run; rmSet.pl--removes a set of dependent jobs in reverse order of submission; and statSet.pl--runs pstat command and prints parsed output along with directory contents. The results of running the statSet.pl command are printed for three different times during the start up the next sequence of runs using the milc code.

  19. p4-Linda: A portable implementation of Linda

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.M.; Leveton, A.L.; Lusk, E.L.

    1993-07-01

    Facilities such as interprocess communication and protection of shared resources have been added to operating systems to support multiprogramming and have since been adapted to exploit explicit multiprocessing within the scope of two models: the shared-memory model and the distributed (message-passing) model. When multiprocessors (or networks of heterogeneous processors) are used for explicit parallelism, the difference between these models is exposed to the programmer. The p4 tool set was originally developed to buffer the programmer from synchronization issues while offering an added advantage in portability, however two models are often still needed to develop parallel algorithms. We provide two implementations of Linda in an attempt to support a single high-level programming model on top of the existing paradigms in order to provide a consistent semantics regardless of the underlying model. Linda`s fundamental properties associated with generative communication eliminate the distinction between shared and distributed memory.

  20. White Paper on P4 Concepts for Pediatric Imaging.

    PubMed

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E; Sammet, Christina; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Barsness, Katherine A; Cahill, Anne Marie; Chung, Ellen; Doria, Andrea S; Darge, Kassa; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Lungren, Matthew P; Moore, Sheila; Olivieri, Laura; Panigrahy, Ashok; Towbin, Alexander J; Trout, Andrew; Voss, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decade, innovations in the field of pediatric imaging have been based largely on single-center and retrospective studies, which provided limited advances for the benefit of pediatric patients. To identify opportunities for potential "quantum-leap" progress in the field of pediatric imaging, the ACR-Pediatric Imaging Research (PIR) Committee has identified high-impact research directions related to the P4 concept of predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory diagnosis and intervention. Input from 237 members of the Society for Pediatric Radiology was clustered around 10 priority areas, which are discussed in this article. Needs within each priority area have been analyzed in detail by ACR-PIR experts on these topics. By facilitating work in these priority areas, we hope to revolutionize the care of children by shifting our efforts from unilateral reaction to clinical symptoms, to interactive maintenance of child health. PMID:26850380

  1. Inversion by P4: polarization-picture post-processing.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Yoav Y

    2011-03-12

    Polarization may be sensed by imaging modules. This is done in various engineering systems as well as in biological systems, specifically by insects and some marine species. However, polarization per pixel is usually not the direct variable of interest. Rather, polarization-related data serve as a cue for recovering task-specific scene information. How should polarization-picture post-processing (P(4)) be done for the best scene understanding? Answering this question is not only helpful for advanced engineering (computer vision), but also to prompt hypotheses as to the processing occurring within biological systems. In various important cases, the answer is found by a principled expression of scene recovery as an inverse problem. Such an expression relies directly on a physics-based model of effects in the scene. The model includes analysis that depends on the different polarization components, thus facilitating the use of these components during the inversion, in a proper, even if non-trivial, manner. We describe several examples for this approach. These include automatic removal of path radiance in haze or underwater, overcoming partial semireflections and visual reverberations; three-dimensional recovery and distance-adaptive denoising. The resulting inversion algorithms rely on signal-processing methods, such as independent component analysis, deconvolution and optimization. PMID:21282167

  2. Caspase-3 binds diverse P4 residues in peptides as revealed by crystallography and structural modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Bin; Fu, Guoxing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2009-03-31

    Caspase-3 recognition of various P4 residues in its numerous protein substrates was investigated by crystallography, kinetics, and calculations on model complexes. Asp is the most frequent P4 residue in peptide substrates, although a wide variety of P4 residues are found in the cellular proteins cleaved by caspase-3. The binding of peptidic inhibitors with hydrophobic P4 residues, or no P4 residue, is illustrated by crystal structures of caspase-3 complexes with Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, and Boc-D(OMe)-Fmk at resolutions of 1.9-2.6 {angstrom}. The P4 residues formed favorable hydrophobic interactions in two separate hydrophobic regions of the binding site. The side chains of P4 Ile and Tyr form hydrophobic interactions with caspase-3 residues Trp206 and Trp214 within a non-polar pocket of the S4 subsite, while P4 Trp interacts with Phe250 and Phe252 that can also form the S5 subsite. These interactions of hydrophobic P4 residues are distinct from those for polar P4 Asp, which indicates the adaptability of caspase-3 for binding diverse P4 residues. The predicted trends in peptide binding from molecular models had high correlation with experimental values for peptide inhibitors. Analysis of structural models for the binding of 20 different amino acids at P4 in the aldehyde peptide Ac-XEVD-Cho suggested that the majority of hydrophilic P4 residues interact with Phe250, while hydrophobic residues interact with Trp206, Phe250, and Trp214. Overall, the S4 pocket of caspase-3 exhibits flexible adaptation for different residues and the new structures and models, especially for hydrophobic P4 residues, will be helpful for the design of caspase-3 based drugs.

  3. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers get ready to lower the International Space Station's P4 truss onto a workstand. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  4. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers oversee the removal of the P4 truss from the truck that transported it from Tulsa, Okla. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field on the International Space Station, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  5. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the P4 truss to a workstand. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field on the International Space Station, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  6. Mechanisms of genome propagation and helper exploitation by satellite phage P4.

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, B H; Dehò, G; Calendar, R

    1993-01-01

    Temperate coliphage P2 and satellite phage P4 have icosahedral capsids and contractile tails with side tail fibers. Because P4 requires all the capsid, tail, and lysis genes (late genes) of P2, the genomes of these phages are in constant communication during P4 development. The P4 genome (11,624 bp) and the P2 genome (33.8 kb) share homologous cos sites of 55 bp which are essential for generating 19-bp cohesive ends but are otherwise dissimilar. P4 turns on the expression of helper phage late genes by two mechanisms: derepression of P2 prophage and transactivation of P2 late-gene promoters. P4 also exploits the morphopoietic pathway of P2 by controlling the capsid size to fit its smaller genome. The P4 sid gene product is responsible for capsid size determination, and the P2 capsid gene product, gpN, is used to build both sizes. The P2 capsid contains 420 capsid protein subunits, and P4 contains 240 subunits. The size reduction appears to involve a major change of the whole hexamer complex. The P4 particles are less stable to heat inactivation, unless their capsids are coated with a P4-encoded decoration protein (the psu gene product). P4 uses a small RNA molecule as its immunity factor. Expression of P4 replication functions is prevented by premature transcription termination effected by this small RNA molecule, which contains a sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the transcript that it terminates. Images PMID:8246844

  7. The Top 10 Things I LOVE about p4c Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Jolyn

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, Dr. Thomas Jackson, or Dr. J as the author and her colleagues affectionately call him, spoke to the faculty at Waikiki Elementary. He described philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i and encouraged them to try P4C if something about it "resonated" with them. In the beginning, Dr. J held a p4t (philosophy for teachers) after-school seminar…

  8. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    After its move across the Space Station Processing Facility, the International Space Station's P4 truss rests in its workstand. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  9. p-(4-Azipentyl)-propofol: A Potent Photoreactive General Anesthetic Derivative of Propofol

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Deirdre S.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Dostalova, Zuzana; Chiara, David C.; Ge, Rile; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohne, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Miller, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized 2,6-Diisopropyl-4-[3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-propyl]-phenol (p-(4-azipentyl)-propofol), or p-4-AziC5-Pro, a novel photoactivable derivative of the general anesthetic propofol. p-4-AziC5-Pro has an anesthetic potency similar to propofol. Like propofol, the compound potentiates inhibitory GABAA receptor current responses and allosterically modulates binding to both agonist and benzodiazepine sites, assayed on heterologously expressed GABAA receptors. p-4-AziC5-Pro inhibits excitatory current responses of nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and photoincorporates into native nACh receptor-enriched Torpedo membranes. Thus p-4-AziC5-Pro is a functional general anesthetic that both modulates and photoincorporates into Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, making it an excellent candidate for use in identifying propofol binding sites. PMID:22029276

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets. PMID:25049952

  11. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection. PMID:26153407

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2014-02-01

    Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets. PMID:25049952

  13. Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in n-hexadecane compounds assimilation in the hydrocarbon degrading Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain

    PubMed Central

    Procópio, Luciano; de Cassia Pereira e Silva, Michele; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The petroleum-derived degrading Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 recently had its genome sequenced and annotated. This allowed employing the data on genes that are involved in the degradation of n-alkanes. To examine the physiological behavior of strain P4 in the presence of n-alkanes, the strain was grown under varying conditions of pH and temperature. D. cinnamea P4 was able to grow at pH 7.0–9.0 and at temperatures ranging from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. Experiments of gene expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR throughout the complete growth cycle clearly indicated the induction of the regulatory gene alkU (TetR family) during early growth. During the logarithmic phase, a large increase in transcriptional levels of a lipid transporter gene was noted. Also, the expression of a gene that encodes the protein fused rubredoxin-alkane monooxygenase was enhanced. Both genes are probably under the influence of the AlkU regulator. PMID:24294263

  14. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Suspended by an overhead crane in the Space Station Processing Facility, the International Space Station's P4 truss moves toward a workstand. Below and behind it on the floor is the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, another segment of the Space Station. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ), a lipid signalling enigma.

    PubMed

    Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Clarke, Jonathan H; Irvine, Robin F

    2016-05-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are an important family of enzymes, whose physiological roles are being teased out by a variety of means. Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) is especially intriguing as its in vitro activity is very low. Here we review what is known about this enzyme and discuss some recent advances towards an understanding of its physiology. Additionally, the effects of the ATP-competitive inhibitor I-OMe Tyrphostin AG-538 on all three mammalian PI5P4Ks was explored, including two PI5P4Kγ mutants with altered ATP- or PI5P-binding sites. The results suggest a strategy for targeting non-ATP binding sites on inositol lipid kinases. PMID:26710750

  16. P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases—Structure, Function, and Enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens P.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Mogensen, Louise S.; Chalat, Madhavan; Molday, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase by exoplasmic K+. How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms of a peripheral hydrophobic gate pathway between transmembrane helices M1, M3, M4, and M6. This pathway, which partially overlaps with the suggested pathway for migration of Ca2+ in the opposite direction in the Ca2+-ATPase, is wider than the latter, thereby accommodating the phospholipid head group. The head group is propelled along against its concentration gradient with the hydrocarbon chains projecting out into the lipid phase by movement of an isoleucine located at the position corresponding to an ion binding glutamate in the Ca2+- and Na+/K+-ATPases. Hence, the P4-ATPase mechanism is quite similar to the mechanism of these ion pumps, where the glutamate translocates the ions by moving like a pump rod. The accessory subunit CDC50 may be located in close association with the

  17. P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases-Structure, Function, and Enigmas.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jens P; Vestergaard, Anna L; Mikkelsen, Stine A; Mogensen, Louise S; Chalat, Madhavan; Molday, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by exoplasmic K(+). How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms of a peripheral hydrophobic gate pathway between transmembrane helices M1, M3, M4, and M6. This pathway, which partially overlaps with the suggested pathway for migration of Ca(2+) in the opposite direction in the Ca(2+)-ATPase, is wider than the latter, thereby accommodating the phospholipid head group. The head group is propelled along against its concentration gradient with the hydrocarbon chains projecting out into the lipid phase by movement of an isoleucine located at the position corresponding to an ion binding glutamate in the Ca(2+)- and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Hence, the P4-ATPase mechanism is quite similar to the mechanism of these ion pumps, where the glutamate translocates the ions by moving like a pump rod. The accessory subunit CDC50 may be located in close association

  18. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mRNA Isoforms are Altered in Bovine Granulosa Cells (GC) by Circulating Progestin Concentrations (P4) and May Indicate Follicle Status and Oocyte Competence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) fed for 14 d (0.5mg/cow/d; < 1 ng/ml P4) resulted in persistent follicles with increased size, decreased number of GC/follicular fluid (FF) volume, and less fertile oocytes. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of circulating P4 on amount of mRNA fo...

  19. TMPyP4, a Stabilizer of Nucleic Acid Secondary Structure, Is a Novel Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Nana; Mazzola, Michael; Cai, Elizabeth; Wang, Meng; Cave, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrin compound, TMPyP4 (5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine), is widely used as a photosensitizer and a modulator of nucleic acid secondary structure stability. Our group recently showed in cultured cells and forebrain slice cultures that this compound can also down regulate expression of Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, by stabilizing DNA secondary structures in the Th proximal promoter. The current study sought to establish whether treatment with TMPyP4 could modify mouse Th expression levels in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of low TMPyP4 doses (10mg/kg), similar to those used for photosensitization, did not significantly reduce Th transcript levels in several catecholaminergic regions. Administration of a high dose (40 mg/kg), similar to those used for tumor xenograph reduction, unexpectedly induced flaccid paralysis in an age and sex-dependent manner. In vitro analyses revealed that TMPyP4, but not putative metabolites, inhibited Acetylcholinesterase activity and pre-treatment of TMPyP4 with Hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2) rescued Acetylcholinesterase function. Age-dependent differences in HO-2 expression levels may account for some of the variable in vivo effects of high TMPyP4 doses. Together, these studies indicate that only low doses of TMPyP4, such as those typically used for photosensitization, are well tolerated in vivo. Thus, despite its widespread use in vitro, TMPyP4 is not ideal for modifying neuronal gene expression in vivo by manipulating nucleic acid secondary structure stability, which highlights the need to identify more clinically suitable compounds that can modulate nucleic acid secondary structure and gene expression. PMID:26402367

  20. Discovery of γ-MnP4 and the Polymorphism of Manganese Tetraphosphide.

    PubMed

    Henge, Dennis B; Hermus, Martin; Litterscheid, Christian F; Wagner, Norbert; Beck, Johannes; Albert, Barbara; Brgoch, Jakoah

    2015-09-01

    A new polymorph of MnP4 was prepared by reaction of the elements via chemical vapor transport with iodine as transporting agent. The crystal structure was refined using single-crystal diffraction data (space group Cc, no. 9, a = 5.1049(8) Å, b = 10.540(2) Å, c = 10.875(2) Å, β = 93.80(2)°). The phase is called γ-MnP4 as it is isostructural with γ-FeP4. It is the fourth reported binary polymorph in the MnP4 system, all of which are stacking variants of nets built with manganese and phosphorus atoms. In γ-MnP4, there are two Mn-Mn distances (2.93 and 3.72 Å) arising from a Peierls-like distortion effectively forming Mn2 dumbbells in the structure. Magnetic and electrical conductivity measurements show diamagnetism and a small anisotropic band gap (100-200 meV) with significantly enhanced conductivity along the crystallographic a axis. Calculations of the electronic and vibrational (phonon) structures show the P-P and Mn-P bonds within the nets are mainly responsible for the stability of the phase. The similar bonding motifs of the polymorphs give rise to the existence of numerous dynamically stable variants. The calculated Helmholtz energy shows the polymorph formation to be closely tied to temperature with the 6-MnP4 structure favorable at low temperatures, the 2-MnP4 favorable between approximately 800 and 2000 K, and 8-MnP4 preferred at high temperatures. PMID:26266629

  1. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  2. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-12-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  3. E × e Jahn-Teller effect in the P4+ cation and its signatures in the photoelectron spectrum of P4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Swarnendu; Opalka, Daniel; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect in the electronic ground state of the P4+ radical cation, which is one of the strongest E × e Jahn-Teller effects known in nature, has been revisited in this work with computational methods. The relevance of the Jahn-Teller coupling terms beyond second order in normal-mode displacements has been investigated. An elegant and efficient scheme based on polynomial invariant theory has been employed to expand the E × e potential energy matrix up to arbitrarily high orders in normal mode displacements. Using the state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent-field method and a correlation consistent double- ζ basis set, an accurate ab initio adiabatic E × e Jahn-Teller potential-energy surface was obtained. It is shown that a polynomial expansion of least up to sixth order is necessary to account for the pronounced anharmonicity of the ab initio potential-energy surface for large amplitude displacements of the Jahn-Teller active vibrational mode. The vibronic structure of the X ˜ 2 E band of the photoelectron spectrum of P4 has been computed using a time-dependent wave-packet propagation method. The results reveal the significance of the higher-order Jahn-Teller coupling terms for the high-resolution vibronic spectrum as well as for the low-resolution band shape.

  4. A P4-ATPase gene GbPATP of cotton confers chilling tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingli; Guo, Shiwei; Lian, Ziyi; Chen, Fei; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Liu, Aiming; Wang, Rongfu; Zhang, Baolong

    2015-03-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are implicated in generating lipid asymmetry between the two lipid leaflets of the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis and are important for resistance to low temperatures, but the function of P4-ATPases in cotton remains unclear. In this study, we found using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis that the expression of the P4-ATPase gene GbPATP in cotton was induced at low temperatures. In addition, GbPATP-silenced cotton plants were more sensitive to low temperatures and exhibited greater malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lower catalase (CAT) activity than the control plants. GbPATP transgenic tobacco plants showed better chilling tolerance, had a lower MDA content and had higher CAT activity than wild-type plants under low-temperature treatment. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-GbPATP fusion protein was found to be localized to the cell plasma membrane. Collectively, the results suggest that GbPATP functions as a P4-ATPase and plays an important role in improving chilling tolerance in plant. PMID:25520408

  5. P4 radiology of hepatobiliary diseases with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Qayyum, Aliya; Bastati, Nina; Fakhrai, Negar; Herold, Christian J; Caseiro Alves, Filipe

    2014-02-01

    A recent paradigm shift in radiology has focused on the globalization of so-called P4 radiology. P4 radiology represents delivery of imaging results that are predictive, personalized, pre-emptive and participatory. The combination of the P4 approach and biomarkers is particularly pertinent to MRI, especially with technological advances such as diffusion-weighted imaging. The development of new liver-specific MRI contrast media, particularly gadoxetic acid, demonstrate specific pharmacokinetic properties, which provide combined morphologic and functional information in the same setting. The evaluation of hepatobiliary pathology beyond morphology gives rise to the possibilty of using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as an imaging biomarker of hepatobiliary diseases. The integration of functional imaging with an understanding of complex disease mechanisms forms the basis for P4 radiology, which may ultimately lead to individualized, cost-effective, targeted therapy for patients. This will enable radiologists to determine the prognosis of the disease and estimate early response to treatment, with the participation of all the required medical disciplines. PMID:24417263

  6. Influence of the nacnac Ligand in Iron(I)-Mediated P4 Transformations.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Fabian; Graßl, Christian; Balázs, Gábor; Zolnhofer, Eva M; Meyer, Karsten; Scheer, Manfred

    2016-03-18

    A study of P4 transformations at low-valent iron is presented using β-diketiminato (L) Fe(I) complexes [LFe(tol)] (tol=toluene; L=L(1) (1 a), L(2) (1 b), L(3) (1 c)) with different combinations of aromatic and backbone substituents at the ligand. The products [(LFe)4 (μ4 -η(2) :η(2) :η(2) :η(2) -P8 )] (L=L(1) (2 a), L(2) (2 b)) containing a P8 core were obtained by the reaction of 1 a,b with P4 in toluene at room temperature. Using a slightly more sterically encumbered ligand in 1 c results in the formation of [(L(3) Fe)2 (μ-η(4) :η(4) -P4 )] (2 c), possessing a cyclo-P4 moiety. Compounds 2 a-c were comprehensively characterized and their electronic structures investigated by SQUID magnetization and (57) Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as by DFT methods. PMID:26924606

  7. FROM "CANAL BRIDGE, F.A.P. 4C, MAR. 1938." SHOWING WAIKELE BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FROM "CANAL BRIDGE, F.A.P. 4-C, MAR. 1938." SHOWING WAIKELE BRIDGE PLAN AND ELEVATION. Hawaii Department of Transportation, Design Branch, Project ID 7101-001, drawing 4449.27. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Influence of the nacnac Ligand in Iron(I)‐Mediated P4 Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Fabian; Graßl, Christian; Balázs, Gábor; Zolnhofer, Eva M.; Meyer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A study of P4 transformations at low‐valent iron is presented using β‐diketiminato (L) FeI complexes [LFe(tol)] (tol=toluene; L=L1 (1 a), L2 (1 b), L3 (1 c)) with different combinations of aromatic and backbone substituents at the ligand. The products [(LFe)4(μ4‐η2:η2:η2:η2‐P8)] (L=L1 (2 a), L2 (2 b)) containing a P8 core were obtained by the reaction of 1 a,b with P4 in toluene at room temperature. Using a slightly more sterically encumbered ligand in 1 c results in the formation of [(L3Fe)2(μ‐η4:η4‐P4)] (2 c), possessing a cyclo‐P4 moiety. Compounds 2 a–c were comprehensively characterized and their electronic structures investigated by SQUID magnetization and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as by DFT methods. PMID:26924606

  9. From integrative disease modeling to predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the significant advancement of high-throughput technologies and diagnostic techniques throughout the past decades, molecular underpinnings of many disorders have been identified. However, translation of patient-specific molecular mechanisms into tailored clinical applications remains a challenging task, which requires integration of multi-dimensional molecular and clinical data into patient-centric models. This task becomes even more challenging when dealing with complex diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Integrative disease modeling is an emerging knowledge-based paradigm in translational research that exploits the power of computational methods to collect, store, integrate, model and interpret accumulated disease information across different biological scales from molecules to phenotypes. We argue that integrative disease modeling will be an indispensable part of any P4 medicine research and development in the near future and that it supports the shift from descriptive to causal mechanistic diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases. For each ‘P’ in predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine, we demonstrate how integrative disease modeling can contribute to addressing the real-world issues in development of new predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory measures. With the increasing recognition that application of integrative systems modeling is the key to all activities in P4 medicine, we envision that translational bioinformatics in general and integrative modeling in particular will continue to open up new avenues of scientific research for current challenges in P4 medicine. PMID:24195840

  10. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  11. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  12. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  13. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  14. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  15. Application of the Dimensional Reduction Formalism to Pb12[Li2(P2O7)2(P4O13)2](P4O13): a Phosphate Containing Three Types of Isolated P-O Groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hongping; Wang, Ying; Dong, Xiaoyu; Han, Shujuan; Pan, Shilie

    2016-08-01

    A new phosphate, Pb12[Li2(P2O7)2(P4O13)2](P4O13), containing three types of isolated polyphosphate anionic groups [P2O7], and two types of [P4O13] has been successfully synthesized by using Li2O as dimensional reduction agent to dismantle Pb3P4O13. The isolation of [P2O7] and two types of [P4O13] with different symmetries in the title compound mainly benefits from the large number and flexible coordination of the Pb(2+) cations. PMID:27399881

  16. Theoretical study of frequency and temperature dependence of dipole-quadrupole polarizability of P4 and adamantane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedge, Sapana V.; Pal, Sourav; Köster, Andreas M.

    2012-11-01

    The frequency and temperature dependence of dipole-quadrupole polarizability of tetrahedral P4 and adamantane molecules have been studied using first-principle all-electron density functional theory calculation. The recently developed time-dependent auxiliary density functional theory is extended for the calculation of dynamic dipole-quadrupole polarizabilities. Temperature effects are incorporated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations recorded up to 100 ps. The dynamic dipole-quadrupole polarizabilities are calculated along these trajectories. The frequency and temperature effects can be significant for the accurate calculation of dipole-quadrupole polarizability. We have also identified the main reason for the observed discrepancy between experiment and theory in the case of adamantane.

  17. Nonessential region of bacteriophage P4: DNA sequence, transcription, gene products, and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Ghisotti, D; Finkel, S; Halling, C; Dehò, G; Sironi, G; Calendar, R

    1990-01-01

    We sequenced the leftmost 2,640 base pairs of bacteriophage P4 DNA, thus completing the sequence of the 11,627-base-pair P4 genome. The newly sequenced region encodes three nonessential genes, which are called gop, beta, and cII (in order, from left to right). The gop gene product kills Escherichia coli when the beta protein is absent; the gop and beta genes are transcribed rightward from the same promoter. The cII gene is transcribed leftward to a rho-independent terminator. Mutation of this terminator creates a temperature-sensitive phenotype, presumably owing to a defect in expression of the beta gene. Images PMID:2403440

  18. Spectroscopic properties of Eu3+ doped RbLaP4O12 powders.

    PubMed

    Mesfar, M; Horchani-Naifer, K; Abdelhedi, M; Dammak, M; Ferid, M

    2013-10-01

    Monophasic RbLaP4O12 possessing monoclinic symmetry with varied Eu(3+) concentrations was synthesized by flux method. The obtained cyclotetraphosphate exhibits very small crystals and the dopant Eu(3+) ions were successfully incorporated into the sites of La(3+) ions of the host lattice. These compounds were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and luminescence spectroscopy. The spectroscopy properties confirm the potentiality of present RbLaP4O12 doped with Eu(3+) ions as luminophore host materials to produce an intense red luminescence at 616 nm corresponding to (5)D0→(7)F2 emission level and have significant importance in the development of emission optical systems. PMID:23770502

  19. Ferrenberg Swendsen Analysis of LLNL and NYBlue BG/L p4rhms Data

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R

    2007-12-05

    These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG/L. These results are from the Ferrenberg-Swendsen analysis [?] of the combined data from LLNL and NYBlue BG/L runs for 32{sup 3} x 8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP-MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi). The jobs include beta values ranging from 3.525 to 3.535 with an alternate analysis extending to 3.540. The NYBlue data sets are from 9k trajectories from Oct 2007, and the LLNL data are from two independent streams of {approx}5k each, taking from the July 2007 runs. The following outputs are produced by the fs-2+1-chiub.c program. All outputs have had checksums produced by addCks.pl and checked by the checkCks.pl perl script after scanning.

  20. XP-PCM Calculations of High Pressure Structural and Vibrational Properties of P4S3.

    PubMed

    Pagliai, Marco; Cammi, Roberto; Cardini, Gianni; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2016-07-14

    The structure and the vibrational properties of the P4S3 crystal at high pressures are discussed by application of the XP-PCM method. The vibrational assignment has been clarified. The structure and the electron distribution changes as a function of pressure are analyzed. The pressure effect on the vibrational frequencies is satisfactorily reproduced and discussed in terms of confinement and structure relaxation contributions. PMID:26943701

  1. Care and Do Not Harm: Possible Misunderstandings With Quaternary Prevention (P4)

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The discussion between general practitioners (GPs) and healthcare delivery organizations necessitates a common language. The presentation of the 4 types of GP’s activities, opens dialogue but can lead to possible misunderstandings between the micro- and macro-level of the healthcare system. This commentary takes 4 examples: costs reduction by P4, priority of beneficence or nonmaleficence, role of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and use of a constructivist model. PMID:26340401

  2. Negative magnetoresistance in a magnetic semiconducting Zintl phase: Eu(3)In(2)P(4).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiong; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Lee, Han-Oh; Klavins, Peter; Fisk, Zachary

    2005-07-25

    A new rare earth metal Zintl phase, Eu(3)In(2)P(4), was synthesized by utilizing a metal flux method. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnnm with the cell parameters a = 16.097(3) A, b = 6.6992(13) A, c = 4.2712(9) A, and Z = 2 (T = 90(2) K, R1 = 0.0159, wR2 = 0.0418 for all data). It is isostructural to Sr(3)In(2)P(4). The structure consists of tetrahedral dimers, [In(2)P(2)P(4/2)](6-), that form a one-dimensional chain along the c axis. Three europium atoms interact via a Eu-Eu distance of 3.7401(6) A to form a straight line triplet. Single-crystal magnetic measurements show anisotropy at 30 K and a magnetic transition at 14.5 K. High-temperature data give a positive Weiss constant, which suggests ferromagnetism, while the shape of susceptibility curves (chi vs T) suggests antiferromagnetism. Heat capacity shows a magnetic transition at 14.5 K that is suppressed with field. This compound is a semiconductor according to the temperature-dependent resistivity measurements with a room-temperature resistivity of 0.005(1) Omega m and E(g) = 0.452(4) eV. It shows negative magnetoresistance below the magnetic ordering temperature. The maximum magnetoresistance (Deltarho/rho(H)) is 30% at 2 K with H = 5 T. PMID:16022530

  3. Positive selection in AvrP4 avirulence gene homologues across the genus Melampsora

    PubMed Central

    Van der Merwe, Marlien M.; Kinnear, Mark W.; Barrett, Luke G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Ericson, Lars; Thrall, Peter H.; Burdon, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Pathogen genes involved in interactions with their plant hosts are expected to evolve under positive Darwinian selection or balancing selection. In this study a single copy avirulence gene, AvrP4, in the plant pathogen Melampsora lini, was used to investigate the evolution of such a gene across species. Partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequences were obtained to establish phylogenetic relationships among the Melampsora species. We amplified AvrP4 homologues from species pathogenic on hosts from different plant families and orders, across the inferred phylogeny. Translations of the AvrP4 sequences revealed a predicted signal peptide and towards the C-terminus of the protein, six identically spaced cysteines were identified in all sequences. Maximum likelihood analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates indicated that positive selection played a role in the evolution of the gene during the diversification of the genus. Fourteen codons under significant positive selection reside in the C-terminal 28 amino acid region, suggesting that this region interacts with host molecules in most sequenced accessions. Selection pressures on the gene may be either due to the pathogenicity or avirulence function of the gene or both. PMID:19457888

  4. Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodeling under Hypoxic Conditions by Inducing P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 Expression in Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Gilkes, Daniele M.; Bajpai, Saumendra; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Wirtz, Denis; Semenza, Gregg L.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, organization, and compliance provide both architectural and chemical cues that modulate tissue structure and function. ECM produced by stromal fibroblasts plays a key role in breast cancer invasion and metastasis, which are also stimulated by intratumoral hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a critical regulator of ECM remodeling by fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. HIF-1 activates expression of genes encoding collagen prolyl (P4HA1 and P4HA2) and lysyl (PLOD2) hydroxylases. P4HA1 and P4HA2 are required for collagen deposition, whereas PLOD2 is required for ECM stiffening and collagen fiber alignment. Together P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 mediate remodeling of ECM composition, alignment, and mechanical properties in response to hypoxia. HIF-1-dependent ECM remodeling by hypoxic fibroblasts induces changes in breast cancer cell morphology, adhesion, and motility that promote invasion and metastasis. PMID:23423382

  5. Methodologies and experimental platforms for generating and analysing microarray and mass spectrometry-based omics data to support P4 medicine.

    PubMed

    Guzzi, Pietro H; Agapito, Giuseppe; Milano, Marianna; Cannataro, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine is an emerging medical model that is based on the customization of all medical aspects (i.e. practices, drugs, decisions) of the individual patient. P4 medicine presupposes the elucidation of the so-called omic world, under the assumption that this knowledge may explain differences of patients with respect to disease prevention, diagnosis and therapies. Here, we elucidate the role of some selected omics sciences for different aspects of disease management, such as early diagnosis of diseases, prevention of diseases, selection of personalized appropriate and optimal therapies based on molecular profiling of patients. After introducing basic concepts of P4 medicine and omics sciences, we review some computational tools and approaches for analysing selected omics data, with a special focus on microarray and mass spectrometry data, which may be used to support P4 medicine. Some applications of biomarker discovery and pharmacogenomics and some experiences on the study of drug reactions are also described. PMID:26351205

  6. The new holism: P4 systems medicine and the medicalization of health and life itself.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Henrik; Hofmann, Bjørn; Getz, Linn

    2016-06-01

    The emerging concept of systems medicine (or 'P4 medicine'-predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory) is at the vanguard of the post-genomic movement towards 'precision medicine'. It is the medical application of systems biology, the biological study of wholes. Of particular interest, P4 systems medicine is currently promised as a revolutionary new biomedical approach that is holistic rather than reductionist. This article analyzes its concept of holism, both with regard to methods and conceptualization of health and disease. Rather than representing a medical holism associated with basic humanistic ideas, we find a technoscientific holism resulting from altered technological and theoretical circumstances in biology. We argue that this holism, which is aimed at disease prevention and health optimization, points towards an expanded form of medicalization, which we call 'holistic medicalization': Each person's whole life process is defined in biomedical, technoscientific terms as quantifiable and controllable and underlain a regime of medical control that is holistic in that it is all-encompassing. It is directed at all levels of functioning, from the molecular to the social, continual throughout life and aimed at managing the whole continuum from cure of disease to optimization of health. We argue that this medicalization is a very concrete materialization of a broader trend in medicine and society, which we call 'the medicalization of health and life itself'. We explicate this holistic medicalization, discuss potential harms and conclude by calling for preventive measures aimed at avoiding eventual harmful effects of overmedicalization in systems medicine (quaternary prevention). PMID:26821201

  7. Mineralization of dentin induced by treatment with bioactive glass S53P4 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Forsback, Ari-Pekka; Areva, Sami; Salonen, Jukka I

    2004-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity can be managed to occlude dentin tubules, but none of the agents used are components of natural dentin. Using a calcium phosphate precipitation (CPP) method, dentin tubules can be occluded with a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer similar to the major inorganic component of dentin. The CPP method utilizes acidic pH conditions, such as etching of dentin, over the course of several dental treatments. A gentler method can be used to produce a CaP layer on the surface of dentin. By treating with bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG), or regular commercial glass (CG), mineralization occurs in physiologically neutral solutions such as simulated body fluid (SBF) and remineralization solution (RMS). After a short period of immersion, silica is dissolved from both types of glass, but the amount of silica released is much greater from BAG than from CG. The dissolved silica is adsorbed on the surface of dentin during the pretreatment procedure and enhances the mineralization of dentin in SBF. After 14 days' mineralization the dentin is fully covered by the CaP layer, but after 14 days' immersion in RMS decalcification of the dentin occurs. Pretreatment with BAG decreases the degree of decalcification of dentin during the mineralization process. These findings suggest that bioactive glass S53P4 can be used as a therapeutic material for mineralization of dentin and its tubules in a physiological environment. PMID:15124778

  8. Postmodification of PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer membranes by ARGET ATRP.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Damla; Clodt, Juliana I; Hahn, Janina; Abetz, Volker; Filiz, Volkan

    2014-07-29

    The surfaces of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer membranes were modified in order to obtain polymer brushes by using surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP). Isoporous membranes were prepared by the combination of self-assembly of PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers and the nonsolvent induced phase separation process, also known as "phase inversion". In order to allow further functionalization, the membranes were modified with an ATRP initiator, 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB). Therefore, the mussel-inspired poly(dopamine) coating was used to attach BIBB on the membranes surface. In the next step the coated membranes were postmodified by using surface-initiated ARGET ATRP with the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). HEMA as a hydrophilic methacrylate was chosen for the modification in order to enhance the membrane characteristics and to obtain a surface with antifouling properties. The surface-initiated ARGET ATRP reaction was carried out using different reaction times and environments. PHEMA could successfully incorporate on the membrane surface as confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. Furthermore, stability tests against heat and solvents were performed, and water flux was measured for the raw and modified membranes. Stability against heat and hydrophilicity could be increased with this type of modification for diblock copolymer membranes. PMID:24948370

  9. TMPyP4 promotes cancer cell migration at low doses, but induces cell death at high doses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Nie, Xin; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fang, Yi-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Xia, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    TMPyP4 is widely considered as a potential photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy and a G-quadruplex stabilizer for telomerase-based cancer therapeutics. However, its biological effects including a possible adverse-effect are poorly understood. In this study, whole genome RNA-seq analysis was used to explore the alteration in gene expression induced by TMPyP4. Unexpectedly, we find that 27.67% of changed genes were functionally related to cell adhesion. Experimental evidences from cell adhesion assay, scratch-wound and transwell assay indicate that TMPyP4 at conventional doses (≤0.5 μM) increases cell-matrix adhesion and promotes the migration of tumor cells. In contrast, a high dose of TMPyP4 (≥2 μM) inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death. The unintended “side-effect” of TMPyP4 on promoting cell migration suggests that a relative high dose of TMPyP4 is preferred for therapeutic purpose. These findings contribute to better understanding of biological effects induced by TMPyP4 and provide a new insight into the complexity and implication for TMPyP4 based cancer therapy. PMID:27221067

  10. TMPyP4 promotes cancer cell migration at low doses, but induces cell death at high doses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Nie, Xin; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fang, Yi-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Xia, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    TMPyP4 is widely considered as a potential photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy and a G-quadruplex stabilizer for telomerase-based cancer therapeutics. However, its biological effects including a possible adverse-effect are poorly understood. In this study, whole genome RNA-seq analysis was used to explore the alteration in gene expression induced by TMPyP4. Unexpectedly, we find that 27.67% of changed genes were functionally related to cell adhesion. Experimental evidences from cell adhesion assay, scratch-wound and transwell assay indicate that TMPyP4 at conventional doses (≤0.5 μM) increases cell-matrix adhesion and promotes the migration of tumor cells. In contrast, a high dose of TMPyP4 (≥2 μM) inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death. The unintended "side-effect" of TMPyP4 on promoting cell migration suggests that a relative high dose of TMPyP4 is preferred for therapeutic purpose. These findings contribute to better understanding of biological effects induced by TMPyP4 and provide a new insight into the complexity and implication for TMPyP4 based cancer therapy. PMID:27221067

  11. Asymmetry in the triplet 3p-4s Mg lines in cool DZ white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, N. F.; Leininger, T.; Gadéa, F. X.; Brousseau-Couture, V.; Dufour, P.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present work is to make an exhaustive study of the line shape of the triplet 3p-4s Mg line (Mgb triplet), which is perturbed by He in the extreme physical conditions found in the cool atmosphere of DZ white dwarfs. This study is undertaken by inferring both a unified theory of spectral line broadening and ab initio potential energies. Cool white dwarfs require a specific treatment for line broadening owing to the high helium densities that are involved. Beyond the conventional symmetrical Lorentzian core at low density, we show that the line profiles are asymmetrical and have significant additional contributions on the short wavelength side. This blue asymmetry is a consequence of low maxima in the corresponding Mg-He potential energy difference curves at short and intermediate internuclear distances. The new profiles are shown to provide a good fit to an SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) observation.

  12. Immobilization of metalloporphyrins on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 by the quaternarization reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruixin; Jiao, Weizhou; Gao, Baojiao

    2010-08-01

    Poly(4vinylpyridine-co-styrene) (P(4VP-co-St)) was grafted on silica gel particles in the manner of "grafting from", and the grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was gained. The chloromethylation reaction for the tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) was performed using a chloromethylation reagent, 1,4-bis(chloromethyoxy)butane which was uncarcinogenic, and the tetra-chloromethylphenyl-porphyrin (TMCPP) was prepared. Then, the quaternization reaction between the benzyl chloride groups on TMCPP and pyridine groups of the grafted P(4VP-co-St) macromolecules occurred and the bonding of TMCPP on the particles P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was realized, resulting in the functional composite-type particles TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. Subsequently, the metallation of the bonded particles TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was carried out via the coordination reaction between TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 and metal salt, resulting in the supported metalloporphyrin (MP) catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. The supported catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectra. The effects of various factors on the bonding process of TMCPP on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 were studied in detail. In addition, the catalytic activity of the supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 have been studied in oxidation process of ethyl benzene with molecular oxygen to acetophenone without the use of sacrificial co-reductant. The experimental results showed that the tetra-chloromethylphenyl-porphyrin (TMCPP) could be successfully bonded onto the P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 surfaces by means of the quaternization reaction between TMCPP and the pyridine groups on grafted P(4VP-co-St) macromolecules. The supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 exhibited the fine catalytic activity. Moreover, the supported cobalt porphyrin was more active than the supported iron and manganese porphyrins.

  13. Highly Ordered Structure Formation in RAFT-Synthesized PtBOS-b-P4VP Diblock Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Faber, Martin; Hofman, Anton H; Loos, Katja; Brinke, Gerrit Ten

    2016-06-01

    Linear poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PtBOS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers are synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The self-assembly of four different PtBOS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers is studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy and a number of interesting observations are made. A tBOS62 -b-4VP28 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.21 shows a disordered morphology of P4VP spheres with liquid-like short-range order despite an estimated value of χN of the order of 50. Increasing the length of the 4VP block to tBOS62 -b-4VP199 results in a diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.66. It forms a remarkably well-ordered lamellar structure. Likewise, a tBOS146 -b-4VP120 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.33 forms an extremely well-ordered hexagonal structure of P4VP cylinders. Increasing the P4VP block of this block copolymer to tBOS146 -b-4VP190 with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.44 results in a bicontinuous gyroid morphology despite the estimated strong segregation of χN≅150. These results are discussed in terms of the architectural dissimilarity of the two monomers, characterized by the presence of the large side group of PtBOS, and the previously reported value of the interaction parameter, χ≅0.39, for this polymer pair. PMID:27079547

  14. Initiation of transcription from the minute virus of mice P4 promoter is stimulated in rat cells expressing a c-Ha-ras oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Spegelaere, P; van Hille, B; Spruyt, N; Faisst, S; Cornelis, J J; Rommelaere, J

    1991-01-01

    Transformation of FR3T3 rat fibroblasts by a c-Ha-ras oncogene but not by bovine papillomavirus type 1 is associated with an increase in the abundance of mRNAs from prototype strain MVMp of infecting minute virus of mice, an oncosuppressive parvovirus. This differential parvovirus gene expression correlates with the reported sensitization of ras- but not bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed cells to the killing effect of MVMp (N. Salomé, B. van Hille, N. Duponchel, G. Meneguzzi, F. Cuzin, J. Rommelaere, and J. Cornelis, Oncogene 5:123-130, 1990). Experiments were performed to determine at which level parvovirus expression is up-regulated in ras transformants. An MVMp "attenuation" sequence responsible for the premature arrest of RNA elongation was either placed or not placed in front of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and brought under the control of MVMp early promoter P4. Although the MVMp attenuator reduced P4-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression, the extent of attenuation was similar in normal and ras-transformed cells. Moreover, the analysis of P4-directed viral RNAs in MVMp-infected cultures by RNase protection and nuclear run-on assays also revealed a transcription elongation block of a similar amplitude in both types of cells. In addition, the stabilities of the three major parvoviral mRNAs did not vary significantly between normal and ras-transformed cells. Hence, it is concluded that the ras-induced increase in the accumulation of parvoviral mRNAs is mainly controlled at the level of transcription. Consistently, the TATA motif of the P4 promoter proved to have a differential photoreactivity when tested by in vivo UV footprinting assays in ras-transformed versus normal cells. Images PMID:1651412

  15. Directed evolution of a sphingomyelin flippase reveals mechanism of substrate backbone discrimination by a P4-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Roland, Bartholomew P; Graham, Todd R

    2016-08-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase (P4-ATPases) family establish membrane asymmetry and play critical roles in vesicular transport, cell polarity, signal transduction, and neurologic development. All characterized P4-ATPases flip glycerophospholipids across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of the membrane, but how these enzymes distinguish glycerophospholipids from sphingolipids is not known. We used a directed evolution approach to examine the molecular mechanisms through which P4-ATPases discriminate substrate backbone. A mutagenesis screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has identified several gain-of-function mutations in the P4-ATPase Dnf1 that facilitate the transport of a novel lipid substrate, sphingomyelin. We found that a highly conserved asparagine (N220) in the first transmembrane segment is a key enforcer of glycerophospholipid selection, and specific substitutions at this site allow transport of sphingomyelin. PMID:27432949

  16. n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC diode: Structural, electrical, and photoresponse characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Guziewicz, M. Jung, W.

    2015-09-07

    Epitaxial n-type ZnO film has been grown, on a commercial 5 μm thick p-type 4H-SiC(00.1) Al doped epilayer, by atomic layer deposition. A full width at half maximum of the ZnO 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of 0.34°{sup  }± 0.02° has been measured. Diodes formed on the n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC heterostructure show rectifying behavior with a forward to reverse current ratio at the level of 10{sup 9} at ±4 V, a leakage current density of ∼6 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}, and a low ideality factor equal to 1.17 ± 0.04. In addition, the diodes exhibit selective photoresponse with a maximum at 367 nm, and with a current increase of ∼10{sup 3} under illuminations with respect to the dark value, which makes such devices prospective candidates for ultraviolet light sensors.

  17. The Lipid Kinase PI5P4Kβ Is an Intracellular GTP Sensor for Metabolism and Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Lo, Yu-Hua; Takeuchi, Koh; Senda, Miki; Kofuji, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yoshiki; Terakawa, Jumpei; Sasaki, Mika; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Majd, Nazanin; Zheng, Yuxiang; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Yokota, Takehiro; Emerling, Brooke M; Asara, John M; Ishida, Tetsuo; Locasale, Jason W; Daikoku, Takiko; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Senda, Toshiya; Sasaki, Atsuo T

    2016-01-21

    While cellular GTP concentration dramatically changes in response to an organism's cellular status, whether it serves as a metabolic cue for biological signaling remains elusive due to the lack of molecular identification of GTP sensors. Here we report that PI5P4Kβ, a phosphoinositide kinase that regulates PI(5)P levels, detects GTP concentration and converts them into lipid second messenger signaling. Biochemical analyses show that PI5P4Kβ preferentially utilizes GTP, rather than ATP, for PI(5)P phosphorylation, and its activity reflects changes in direct proportion to the physiological GTP concentration. Structural and biological analyses reveal that the GTP-sensing activity of PI5P4Kβ is critical for metabolic adaptation and tumorigenesis. These results demonstrate that PI5P4Kβ is the missing GTP sensor and that GTP concentration functions as a metabolic cue via PI5P4Kβ. The critical role of the GTP-sensing activity of PI5P4Kβ in cancer signifies this lipid kinase as a cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26774281

  18. Surface complex of ZnTMPyP4 metalloporphyrin with double-stranded Poly(A)-Poly(U).

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, G; Sizov, V; Kudrev, A

    2016-08-01

    This communication presents synthesis and spectral characterization of metalloporphyrin [Zn(X)TMPyP4] (TMPyP4 is 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin), and studies its binding onto anionic surface sites of synthetic double stranded polynucleotide Poly(A)-Poly(U). [Zn(X)TMPyP4] binding with Poly(A)-Poly(U) was monitored by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, two fluorescence spectroscopies and 1H NMR in a working aqueous medium of 0.15M ionic strength, pH7.0 and at 25°C. The evidence provided by spectroscopic measurements and multivariate data analysis suggests the use of this metalloporphyrin as a probe for investigation of the polynucleotide surface. In contrast to TMPyP4 intercalation, an outside adsorption of [Zn(X)TMPyP4] induces an attenuation of luminescence intensity and has little influence on the shape of luminescence band. Special attention was paid to the quantitative description of the interaction between neighboring ligands on the Poly(A)-Poly(U) surface. The intrinsic binding constant to an isolated binding site lgKin 5.8±0.1, the cooperativity parameter ω 1.8±0.2, and number of monomers occupied by a ligand n=2 (25°C; pH7.0) were calculated based upon the recently proposed non-linear least-squares fitting procedure. The discovered cooperativity of binding of [Zn(X)TMPyP4] metalloporphyrin to Poly(A)-Poly(U) is significantly lower as compared to free porphyrin TMPyP4, reflecting minimal mutual influence between the nearest neighboring ligands bound with functional PO4(-) groups of the polynucleotide surface. PMID:27216450

  19. Growth, Structure, Thermal Properties and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Nd3+-Doped KGdP4O12 Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-01

    A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG−SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a = 7.812(2) Å, b = 12.307(3) Å, c = 10.474(2) Å, β = 110.84(3)° and Z = 4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920°C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 μs and a high quantum efficiency of 96%. PMID:24968165

  20. Regulation of Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) signaling by a reversible kinase/phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Ho, Melisa W Y; Yang, Xiaonian; Carew, Mark A; Zhang, Tong; Hua, Len; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Chung, Sung-Kee; Adelt, Stephan; Vogel, Günter; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L; Shears, Stephen B

    2002-03-19

    Regulation of Cl(-) channel conductance by Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) provides receptor-dependent control over salt and fluid secretion, cell volume homeostasis, and electrical excitability of neurones and smooth muscle. Ignorance of how Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) is synthesized has long hindered our understanding of this signaling pathway. We now show Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) synthesis by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 1-phosphatase activity by an enzyme previously characterized as an Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) 1-kinase. Rationalization of these phenomena with a ligand binding model unveils Ins(1,3,4)P(3) as not simply an alternative kinase substrate, but also an activator of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 1-phosphatase. Stable overexpression of the enzyme in epithelial monolayers verifies its physiological role in elevating Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) levels and inhibiting secretion. It is exceptional for a single enzyme to catalyze two opposing signaling reactions (1-kinase/1-phosphatase) under physiological conditions. Reciprocal coordination of these opposing reactions offers an alternative to general doctrine that intracellular signals are regulated by integrating multiple, distinct phosphatases and kinases. PMID:11909533

  1. Mechanism and significance of P4 ATPase-catalyzed lipid transport: lessons from a Na+/K+-pump.

    PubMed

    Puts, Catheleyne F; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2009-07-01

    Members of the P(4) subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze phospholipid transport across membrane bilayers, a process influencing a host of cellular functions. Atomic structures and functional analysis of P-type ATPases that pump small cations and metal ions revealed a transport mechanism that appears to be conserved throughout the family. A challenging problem is to understand how this mechanism is adapted in P(4) ATPases to flip phospholipids. P(4) ATPases form oligomeric complexes with members of the CDC50 protein family. While formation of these complexes is required for P(4) ATPase export from the endoplasmic reticulum, little is known about the functional role of the CDC50 subunits. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and closely-related H(+)/K(+)-ATPase are the only other P-type pumps that are oligomeric, comprising mandatory beta-subunits that are strikingly reminiscent of CDC50 proteins. Besides serving a role in the functional maturation of the catalytic alpha-subunit, the beta-subunit also contributes specifically to intrinsic transport properties of the Na(+)/K(+) pump. As beta-subunits and CDC50 proteins likely adopted similar structures to accomplish analogous tasks, current knowledge of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase provides a useful guide for understanding the inner workings of the P(4) ATPase class of lipid pumps. PMID:19233312

  2. Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

    2011-08-01

    The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. PMID:21241377

  3. Luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts after induction of estrus with PMSG/hCG.

    PubMed

    Blitek, Agnieszka; Szymanska, Magdalena; Pieczywek, Marta; Morawska-Pucinska, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether an estrus induction with gonadotropins could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Sixteen prepubertal gilts received 750IU of PMSG and 500IU of hCG 72h later. Prepubertal gilts in the control group (n=17) were observed daily for estrus behavior. All gilts were inseminated in their first estrus. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 10, 12 and 15 of pregnancy and analyzed for (1) the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (2) the tissue concentration of P4; and (3) the mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2). Additionally, P4 concentration was analyzed in blood serum of all animals. PMSG/hCG injections to induce estrus decreased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1 and 3βHSD on day 10 and CYP11A1 on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group, while CYP11A1 and 3βHSD proteins were down-regulated on day 10 in the hormonally-treated gilts. Concentrations of P4 in luteal tissue and blood serum were also lower in animals after gonadotropin-induced estrus. In contrast, LHR and ESR1 mRNA expression was greater in PMSG/hCG-treated than control gilts on day 15 of gestation. In conclusion, induction of estrus with a PMSG/hCG protocol in prepubertal gilts impaired expression of the luteal P4 synthesis system. Low P4 content may, in turn, induce local mechanisms involving LHR and ESR1 expression to support CL function. PMID:26781360

  4. Fine structure and ionization energy of the 1s2s2p 4P state of the helium negative ion He-.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Li, Chun; Yan, Zong-Chao; Drake, G W F

    2014-12-31

    The fine structure and ionization energy of the 1s2s2p (4)P state of the helium negative ion He(-) are calculated in Hylleraas coordinates, including relativistic and QED corrections up to O(α(4)mc(2)), O((μ/M)α(4)mc(2)), O(α(5)mc(2)), and O((μ/M)α(5)mc(2)). Higher order corrections are estimated for the ionization energy. A comparison is made with other calculations and experiments. We find that the present results for the fine structure splittings agree with experiment very well. However, the calculated ionization energy deviates from the experimental result by about 1 standard deviation. The estimated theoretical uncertainty in the ionization energy is much less than the experimental accuracy. PMID:25615325

  5. Structure-activity relationships of anthranilamide-based factor Xa inhibitors containing piperidinone and pyridinone P4 moieties.

    PubMed

    Corte, James R; Fang, Tianan; Pinto, Donald J P; Han, Wei; Hu, Zilun; Jiang, Xiang-Jun; Li, Yun-Long; Gauuan, Jolicia F; Hadden, Mark; Orton, Darren; Rendina, Alan R; Luettgen, Joseph M; Wong, Pancras C; He, Kan; Morin, Paul E; Chang, Chong-Hwan; Cheney, Daniel L; Knabb, Robert M; Wexler, Ruth R; Lam, Patrick Y S

    2008-05-01

    Introduction of the phenyl piperidinone and phenyl pyridinone P4 moieties in the anthranilamide scaffold led to potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitors of factor Xa. Anthranilamide 28 displayed comparable efficacy to apixaban in the rabbit arteriovenous-shunt (AV) thrombosis model. PMID:18424044

  6. PEO-b-P4VP/Yttrium Hydroxide Hybrid Nanotubes as Supporter for Catalyst Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian; Chen, Dao-yong

    2012-06-01

    The adsorption of poly (ethylene oxide)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine)(PEO-b-P4VP) micelles onto the surface of yttrium hydroxide nanotubes (YNTs) resulted in the hybrid nanotubes with a dense P4VP inner layer and a stretched PEO outer layer surrounding YNTs. The dense P4VP layer was further stabilized by the crosslinking using 1,4-dibromobutane as the crosslinker. Then, the crosslinked hybrid nanotubes (CHNTs) were used as a novel nano supporter for loading the catalyst gold nanoparticles (GNPs) within the crosslinked P4VP layer. The resultant GNPs/CHNTs (GNTs loaded on CHNTs) were applied to catalyze the reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol. The results indicate that this novel nano supporter has advantages such as good dispersity in the suspension, high capacity in loading GNPs (0.87 mmol/g), high catalytic activity of the loaded GNPs (12.9 μmol-1min-1), and good reusability of GNTs/CHNTs.

  7. On the relationship between radiation-stimulated photoluminescence and nitrogen atoms in p-4 H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Ber, B. Ya.; Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) appearing in p-4 H-SiC upon its electron irradiation has been studied. A model that accounts for the dependence of the PL intensity on the irradiation dose is suggested. The conclusion is drawn that nitrogen-radiation defect donor-acceptor pairs are PL activators.

  8. Sphingosine 1-phosphate analogue recognition and selectivity at S1P4 within the endothelial differentiation gene family of receptors

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yuichi; Pham, TrucChi T.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Kohno, Takayuki; Osborne, Daniel A.; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Tigyi, Gabor; Parrill, Abby L.

    2005-01-01

    Synergistic computational and experimental studies provided previously unforeseen details concerning the structural basis of S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) recognition by the S1P4 G-protein-coupled receptor. Similarly to reports on the S1P1 receptor, cationic and anionic residues in the third transmembrane domain (R3.28 and E3.29 at positions 124 and 125) form ion pairs with the phosphate and ammonium of S1P, and alanine mutations at these positions abolished specific S1P binding, S1P-induced receptor activation and cell migration. Unlike findings on the S1P1 receptor, no cationic residue in the seventh transmembrane domain interacts with the phosphate. Additionally, two previously undiscovered interactions with the S1P polar headgroup have been identified. Trp186 at position 4.64 in the fourth transmembrane domain interacts by a cation-π interaction with the ammonium group of S1P. Lys204 at position 5.38 forms an ion pair with the S1P. The S1P4 and S1P1 receptors show differences in binding-pocket shape and electrostatic distributions that correlate with the published structure–activity relationships. In particular, the binding pocket of mS1P4 (mouse S1P4) has recognition sites for the anionic phosphate and cationic ammonium groups that are equidistant from the end of the non-polar tail. In contrast, the binding pocket of hS1P1 (human S1P4) places the ammonium recognition site 2 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) closer to the end of the non-polar tail than the phosphate recognition site. PMID:15733055

  9. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-Man; Guo, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Jing-Yao; Wang, Wei-Huan; Zhang, Li-Xia; Gu, Qing-Jiu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  10. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-man; Guo, Yan-qing; Xiang, Jing-yao; Wang, Wei-huan; Zhang, Li-xia; Gu, Qing-jiu; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  11. ORBITAL ORIENTATIONS OF EXOPLANETS: HAT-P-4b IS PROGRADE AND HAT-P-14b IS RETROGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Shporer, Avi; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-02-15

    We present observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for two exoplanetary systems, revealing the orientations of their orbits relative to the rotation axes of their parent stars. HAT-P-4b is prograde, with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of {lambda} = -4.9 {+-} 11.9 deg. In contrast, HAT-P-14b is retrograde, with {lambda} = 189.1 {+-} 5.1 deg. These results conform with a previously noted pattern among the stellar hosts of close-in giant planets: hotter stars have a wide range of obliquities and cooler stars have low obliquities. This, in turn, suggests that three-body dynamics and tidal dissipation are responsible for the short-period orbits of many exoplanets. In addition, our data revealed a third body in the HAT-P-4 system, which could be a second planet or a companion star.

  12. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, N. A. P.; Geurts, J.; Hulsen, D. J. W.; van Rietbergen, B.; Hofmann, S.; Arts, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis). PMID:26504821

  13. Carbohydrates as additives for the formation of isoporous PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Clodt, Juliana Isabel; Rangou, Sofia; Schröder, Anne; Buhr, Kristian; Hahn, Janina; Jung, Adina; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

    2013-01-25

    Highly porous polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer membranes are prepared using carbohydrates as additives. Therefore α-cyclodextrine, α-(D)-glucose, and saccharose (cane sugar) are tested for the membrane formation of three different PS-b-P4VP polymers. The addition of the carbohydrates leads to an increasing viscosity of the membrane solutions due to hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates and pyridine units of the block copolymer. In all cases, the membranes made from solution with carbohydrates have higher porosity, an improved narrow pore distribution on the surface and a higher water flux as membranes made without carbohydrates with the same polymer, solvent ratio, and polymer concentration. PMID:23225180

  14. P4 capped amides and lactams as HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with improved potency and DMPK profile

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Latha G.; Sannigrahi, Mousumi; Bogen, Stephane; Pinto, Patrick; Chen, Kevin X.; Prongay, Andrew; Tong, Xiao; Cheng, K.-C.; Girijavallabhann, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George

    2010-09-03

    SAR studies on the extension of P3 unit of Boceprevir (1, SCH 503034) with amides and lactams and their synthesis is described. Extensive SAR studies resulted in the identification of 36 bearing 4,4-dimethyl lactam as the new P4 cap unit with improved potency (K*{sub i}, EC 90 = 70 nM) and pharmacokinetic properties (Rat AUC (PO) = 3.52 {micro}M h) compared to 1.

  15. Nqrs Data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

  16. P4 capped amides and lactams as HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with improved potency and DMPK profile.

    PubMed

    Nair, Latha G; Sannigrahi, Mousumi; Bogen, Stephane; Pinto, Patrick; Chen, Kevin X; Prongay, Andrew; Tong, Xiao; Cheng, K-C; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; George Njoroge, F

    2010-01-15

    SAR studies on the extension of P3 unit of Boceprevir (1, SCH 503034) with amides and lactams and their synthesis is described. Extensive SAR studies resulted in the identification of 36 bearing 4, 4-dimethyl lactam as the new P4 cap unit with improved potency (K(i)( *)=15nM, EC 90=70nM) and pharmacokinetic properties (Rat AUC (PO)=3.52microMh) compared to 1. PMID:20004570

  17. Pathways of cylindrical orientations in PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer thin films upon solvent vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Gowd, E Bhoje; Koga, Tadanori; Endoh, Maya K; Kumar, Kamlesh; Stamm, Manfred

    2014-10-21

    The orientation changes of perpendicular cylindrical microdomains in polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) thin films upon annealing in different solvent vapors were investigated by in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and ex situ scanning force microscopy (SFM). The swelling of P4VP perpendicular cylinders (C⊥) in chloroform, a non-selective solvent vapor, leads to the reorientation to in-plane cylinders through a disordered state in a particular kinetic pathway in the phase diagram upon drying. On the other hand, the swelling of the P4VP perpendicular cylinders in a selective solvent vapor (i.e., 1,4-dioxane) induces a morphological transition from cylindrical to ellipsoidal as a transient structure to spherical microdomains; subsequent solvent evaporation resulted in shrinkage of the matrix in the vertical direction, merging the ellipsoidal domains into the perpendicularly aligned cylinders. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism based on the selectivity of the solvent to the constituting blocks that is mainly responsible for the orientation changes. PMID:25142254

  18. Cellular Localization and Biochemical Analysis of Mammalian CDC50A, a Glycosylated β-subunit for P4 ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Folmer, Dineke E.; Mok, Kam S.; de Wee, Sebastiaan W.; Duijst, Suzanne; Hiralall, Johan K.; Seppen, Jurgen; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.

    2012-01-01

    CDC50 proteins are β-subunits for P4 ATPases, which upon heterodimerization form a functional phospholipid translocation complex. Emerging evidence in mouse models and men links mutations in P4 ATPase genes with human disease. This study analyzed the tissue distribution and cellular localization of CDC50A, the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed CDC50 homologue in the mouse. The authors have raised antibodies that detect mouse and human CDC50A and studied CDC50A localization and glycosylation status in mouse liver cells. CDC50A is a terminal-glycosylated glycoprotein and is expressed in hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, where it resides in detergent-resistant membranes. In pancreas and stomach, CDC50A localized to secretory vesicles, whereas in the kidney, CDC50A localized to the apical region of proximal convoluted tubules of the cortex. In WIF-B9 cells, CDC50A partially costains with the trans-Golgi network. Data suggest that CDC50A is present as a fully glycosylated protein in vivo, which presumes interaction with distinct P4 ATPases. PMID:22253360

  19. Cellular localization and biochemical analysis of mammalian CDC50A, a glycosylated β-subunit for P4 ATPases.

    PubMed

    Folmer, Dineke E; Mok, Kam S; de Wee, Sebastiaan W; Duijst, Suzanne; Hiralall, Johan K; Seppen, Jurgen; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Paulusma, Coen C

    2012-03-01

    CDC50 proteins are β-subunits for P4 ATPases, which upon heterodimerization form a functional phospholipid translocation complex. Emerging evidence in mouse models and men links mutations in P4 ATPase genes with human disease. This study analyzed the tissue distribution and cellular localization of CDC50A, the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed CDC50 homologue in the mouse. The authors have raised antibodies that detect mouse and human CDC50A and studied CDC50A localization and glycosylation status in mouse liver cells. CDC50A is a terminal-glycosylated glycoprotein and is expressed in hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, where it resides in detergent-resistant membranes. In pancreas and stomach, CDC50A localized to secretory vesicles, whereas in the kidney, CDC50A localized to the apical region of proximal convoluted tubules of the cortex. In WIF-B9 cells, CDC50A partially costains with the trans-Golgi network. Data suggest that CDC50A is present as a fully glycosylated protein in vivo, which presumes interaction with distinct P4 ATPases. PMID:22253360

  20. Symmetrical P4 cleavage at cobalt half sandwich complexes [(η5-C5H5)Co(L)] (L = CO, NHC)--a computational case study on the mechanism of symmetrical P4 degradation to P2 ligands.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Bartosz; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Radius, Udo

    2013-05-28

    A full theoretical mechanistic investigation on the symmetrical cleavage of P4 at the active complex fragments [(η(5)-C5H5)Co(L)] (L = CO, (i)Pr2Im; (i)Pr2Im = 1,3-di-iso-propylimidazolin-2-ylidene), which results in the formation of the complex [{(η(5)-C5H5)Co}2(μ,η(2:2)-P2)2] 9, is presented. The overall reaction mechanism is a complex, multistep process. Rate-determining steps of the reaction sequence are two consecutive dissociations of the co-ligands L, which induce the decisive structural rearrangements of the P4 unit. The choice of the co-ligand L ( = CO, (i)Pr2Im) influences the kinetic barrier as well as the energy balance of the overall reaction path significantly. The calculations further reveal a strong influence of the entropic effect on the overall reaction. As a consequence, the energy balance of the overall formation of 9 starting from [(η(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)] precursors is almost thermoneutral and has to overcome high kinetic barriers, whereas the reaction starting from [(η(5)-C5H5)Co((i)Pr2Im)] precursors is exothermic, featuring lower transition barriers with stabilized intermediates. From the direct comparison of both reaction coordinates it seems that the entropic effect of the co-ligands is even stronger than their electronic influence, as for both investigated systems the reactions' energy profiles are almost identical up to intermediate [{(η(5)-C5H5)Co(L)}2(μ,η(2:2)-P4)] 5 (L = CO, (i)Pr2Im). After the formation of 5, the first CO dissociation step renders the reaction endothermic for L = CO, whereas in the case of (i)Pr2Im dissociation the reaction progresses exothermically. Energy decomposition analysis and fragment analysis provide a picture of the bonding mechanisms between the metal complex fragments and P4 in the case of the most significant intermediates and the final product. PMID:23515870

  1. Proteomic Analysis of the Rat Canalicular Membrane Reveals Expression of a Complex System of P4-ATPases in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Chaubey, Pururawa Mayank; Hofstetter, Lia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Stieger, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Transport processes in the canalicular membrane are key elements in bile formation and are the driving force of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. The canalicular membrane is constantly exposed to the detergent action of bile salts. One potential element protecting the canalicular membrane from the high canalicular bile salt concentrations may be bile salt resistant microdomains, however additional factors are likely to play a role. To obtain more insights into the molecular composition of the canalicular membrane, the proteome of highly purified rat canalicular membrane vesicles was determined. Isolated rat canalicular membrane vesicles were stripped from adhering proteins, deglycosylated and protease digested before subjecting the samples to shot gun proteomic analysis. The expression of individual candidates was studied by PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 2449 proteins were identified, of which 1282 were predicted to be membrane proteins. About 50% of the proteins identified here were absent from previously published liver proteomes. In addition to ATP8B1, four more P4-ATPases were identified. ATP8A1 and ATP9A showed expression specific to the canalicular membrane, ATP11C at the bLPM and ATP11A in an intracellular vesicular compartment partially colocalizing with RAB7A and EEA1 as markers of the endosomal compartment. This study helped to identify additional P4-ATPases from rat liver particularly in the canalicular membrane, previously not known to be expressed in liver. These P4-ATPases might be contributing for maintaining transmembrane lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. PMID:27347675

  2. Solution structure and metal-ion binding of the P4 element from bacterial RNase P RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, M; Tinoco, I

    2000-01-01

    We determined the solution structure of two 27-nt RNA hairpins and their complexes with cobalt(III)-hexammine (Co(NH3)3+(6)) by NMR spectroscopy. The RNA hairpins used in this study are the P4 region from Escherichia coli RNase P RNA and a C-to-U mutant that confers altered divalent metal-ion specificity (Ca2+ replaces Mg2+) for catalytic activity of this ribozyme. Co(NH3)3+(6) is a useful spectroscopic probe for Mg(H2O)2+(6)-binding sites because both complexes have octahedral symmetry and have similar radii. The thermodynamics of binding to both RNA hairpins was studied using chemical shift changes upon titration with Mg2+, Ca2+, and Co(NH3)3+(6). We found that the equilibrium binding constants for each of the metal ions was essentially unchanged when the P4 model RNA hairpin was mutated, although the NMR structures show that the RNA hairpins adopt different conformations. In the C-to-U mutant a C.G base pair is replaced by U.G, and the conserved bulged uridine in the P4 wild-type stem shifts in the 3' direction by 1 nt. Intermolecular NOE cross-peaks between Co(NH3)3+(6) and RNA protons were used to locate the site of Co(NH3)3+(6) binding to both RNA hairpins. The metal ion binds in the major groove near a bulge loop, but is shifted 5' by more than 1 bp in the mutant. The change of the metal-ion binding site provides a possible explanation for changes in catalytic activity of the mutant RNase P in the presence of Ca2+. PMID:10999599

  3. Effect of biomimetic conditions on mechanical and structural integrity of PGA/P4HB and electrospun PCL scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Klouda, Leda; Vaz, Claudia M; Mol, Anita; Baaijens, Frank P T; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2008-03-01

    The selection of an appropriate scaffold represents one major key to success in tissue engineering. In cardiovascular applications, where a load-bearing structure is required, scaffolds need to demonstrate sufficient mechanical properties and importantly, reliable retention of these properties during the developmental phase of the tissue engineered construct. The effect of in vitro culture conditions, time and mechanical loading on the retention of mechanical properties of two scaffold types was investigated. First candidate tested was a poly-glycolic acid non-woven fiber mesh, coated with poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (PGA/P4HB), the standard scaffold used successfully in cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. As an alternative, an electrospun poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold was used. A 15-day dynamic loading protocol was applied to the scaffolds. Additionally, control scaffolds were incubated statically. All studies were performed in a simulated physiological environment (phosphate-buffered saline solution, T=37 degrees C). PGA/P4HB scaffolds showed a dramatic decrease in mechanical properties as a function of incubation time and straining. Mechanical loading had a significant effect on PCL scaffold properties. Degradation as well as fiber fatigue caused by loading promote loss of mechanical properties in PGA/P4HB scaffolds. For PCL, fiber reorganization due to straining seems to be the main reason behind the brittle behavior that was pronounced in these scaffolds. It is suggested that those changes in scaffolds' mechanical properties must be considered at the application of in vitro tissue engineering protocols and should ideally be taken over by tissue formation to maintain mechanically stable tissue constructs. PMID:17701317

  4. Proteomic Analysis of the Rat Canalicular Membrane Reveals Expression of a Complex System of P4-ATPases in Liver.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Pururawa Mayank; Hofstetter, Lia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Stieger, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Transport processes in the canalicular membrane are key elements in bile formation and are the driving force of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. The canalicular membrane is constantly exposed to the detergent action of bile salts. One potential element protecting the canalicular membrane from the high canalicular bile salt concentrations may be bile salt resistant microdomains, however additional factors are likely to play a role. To obtain more insights into the molecular composition of the canalicular membrane, the proteome of highly purified rat canalicular membrane vesicles was determined. Isolated rat canalicular membrane vesicles were stripped from adhering proteins, deglycosylated and protease digested before subjecting the samples to shot gun proteomic analysis. The expression of individual candidates was studied by PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 2449 proteins were identified, of which 1282 were predicted to be membrane proteins. About 50% of the proteins identified here were absent from previously published liver proteomes. In addition to ATP8B1, four more P4-ATPases were identified. ATP8A1 and ATP9A showed expression specific to the canalicular membrane, ATP11C at the bLPM and ATP11A in an intracellular vesicular compartment partially colocalizing with RAB7A and EEA1 as markers of the endosomal compartment. This study helped to identify additional P4-ATPases from rat liver particularly in the canalicular membrane, previously not known to be expressed in liver. These P4-ATPases might be contributing for maintaining transmembrane lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. PMID:27347675

  5. Structures, spectroscopic studies and solid-state thermal transformations of coordination polymers from P 4Se 3 and CuX (X=Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegerl, Andreas; Gröger, Christian; Kalbitzer, Hans R.; Pfitzner, Arno; Wachter, Joachim; Weihrich, Richard; Zabel, Manfred

    2011-07-01

    The formation of coordination polymers (CuCl)P 4Se 3 ( 1), (CuBr) 3(P 4Se 3) 2 ( 2), (CuI) 3(P 4Se 3) 2 ( 3) and (CuI)P 4Se 3 ( 4), from solutions of copper(I) halides and P 4Se 3 by diffusion methods has been studied. The new compounds were characterized by X-ray crystallography, solid-state 31P MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy. Theoretical studies on the DFT level in the crystalline phase allowed the unequivocal assignment of the recorded Raman shifts between 200 and 480 cm -1. The structure of 1 consists of a 2D network of castellated [CuCl] n chains and bidentate P 4Se 3 molecules. The 3D network of 2 comprises [CuBr] n chains, which are linked by tridentate P 4Se 3 molecules. Compound 3 is a three-dimensional polymer composed of four-membered (CuI) 2 rings and castellated [CuI] n chains, which are linked by tridentate P 4Se 3 molecules involving two basal and the apical P atoms. Thermal conversion of 1 at 230 °C gives (CuCl) 3(P 4Se 3) 2 ( 5), which is isostructural with 2. The thermal conversion of (CuI) 3P 4S 3, which was studied for comparison gave at 371 °C (CuI) 3P 4S 4, Cu 3PS 4 and small amounts of Cu 6PS 5I.

  6. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Commercial melt-quenched bioactive glasses consist of the oxides of silicon, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Doping of the glasses with oxides of some other elements is known to affect their capability to support hydroxyapatite formation and thus bone tissue healing but also to modify their high temperature processing parameters. In the present study, the influence of gradual substitution of SrO for CaO on the properties of the bioactive glass S53P4 was studied. Thermal analysis and hot stage microscopy were utilized to measure the thermal properties of the glasses. The in vitro bioactivity and solubility was measured by immersing the glasses in simulated body fluid for 6 h to 1 week. The formation of silica rich and hydroxyapatite layers was assessed from FTIR spectra analysis and SEM images of the glass surface. Increasing substitution of SrO for CaO decreased all characteristic temperatures and led to a slightly stronger glass network. The initial glass dissolution rate increased with SrO content. Hydroxyapatite layer was formed on all glasses but on the SrO containing glasses the layer was thinner and contained also strontium. The results suggest that substituting SrO for CaO in S53P4 glass retards the bioactivity. However, substitution greater than 10 mol% allow for precipitation of a strontium substituted hydroxyapatite layer. PMID:24338267

  7. Cutaneous and Labyrinthine Tolerance of Bioactive Glass S53P4 in Mastoid and Epitympanic Obliteration Surgery: Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernardeschi, Daniele; Nguyen, Yann; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Mosnier, Isabelle; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the cutaneous and the inner ear tolerance of bioactive glass S53P4 when used in the mastoid and epitympanic obliteration for chronic otitis surgery. Material and Methods. Forty-one cases have been included in this prospective study. Cutaneous tolerance was clinically evaluated 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery with a physical examination of the retroauricular and external auditory canal (EAC) skin and the presence of otalgia; the inner ear tolerance was assessed by bone-conduction hearing threshold 1 day after surgery and by the presence of vertigo or imbalance. Results. All surgeries but 1 were uneventful: all patients maintained the preoperative bone-conduction hearing threshold except for one case in which the round window membrane was opened during the dissection of the cholesteatoma in the hypotympanum and this led to a dead ear. No dizziness or vertigo was reported. Three months after surgery, healing was achieved in all cases with a healthy painless skin. No cases of revision surgery for removal of the granules occurred in this study. Conclusion. The bioactive glass S53P4 is a well-tolerated biomaterial for primary or revision chronic otitis surgery, as shown by the local skin reaction which lasted less than 3 months and by the absence of labyrinthine complications. PMID:26504792

  8. Thionations using a P4S10-pyridine complex in solvents such as acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Jan; Pettersson, Birgitta; Hasimbegovic, Vedran; Svensson, Per H

    2011-03-18

    Tetraphosphorus decasulfide (P(4)S(10)) in pyridine has been used as a thionating agent for a long period of time. The moisture-sensitive reagent has now been isolated in crystalline form, and the detailed structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The thionating power of this storable reagent has been studied and transferred to solvents such as acetonitrile in which it has proven to be synthetically useful and exceptionally selective. Its properties have been compared with the so-called Lawesson reagent (LR). Particularly interesting are the results from thionations at relatively high temperatures (∼165 °C) in dimethyl sulfone as solvent. Under these conditions, for instance, acridone and 3-acetylindole could quickly be transformed to the corresponding thionated derivatives. Glycylglycine similarly gave piperazinedithione. At these temperatures, LR is inefficient due to rapid decomposition. The thionated products are generally cleaner and more easy to obtain because in the crystalline reagent, impurities which invariably are present in the conventional reagents, P(4)S(10) in pyridine or LR, have been removed. PMID:21341727

  9. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

  10. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  11. Fluorescence emission of Disperse Red 1 in PS-b-P4VP micelles controlled by a toluene/ethanol solvent mixture.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nauman; Park, Soo-Young

    2009-12-01

    The effects of Disperse Red 1 (DR1) in the poly(styrene-block-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) micelle on micellar morphology and fluorescence emission were studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), generalized indirect Fourier transform (GIFT), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL). PS-b-P4VP was coupled with DR1 in 10 mg/mL toluene/ethanol mixture solutions where ethanol and toluene were P4VP and PS selective, respectively. Hydrogen bonds were formed between the -OH group of DR1 and the pyridine ring in PS-b-P4VP. DR1 (which was coupled with P4VP) was confined in the core or corona of the micelle depending on the location of P4VP. The micellar structure was strongly dependent on varphi (weight percentage of toluene in a toluene/ethanol mixture). The PS-b-P4VP-DR1 complex in the mixture solutions showed the spherical micelle with the cores of P4VP and PS in ethanol-rich and toluene-rich solvents, respectively. The quenching phenomenon was observed for DR1 in the corona of PS-b-P4VP micelles [at varphi = 0 (ethanol)], while the fluorescence quantum yield decreased. However, significant increases in the fluorescence quantum yields at varphi = 100 were observed when DR1 was confined in the core of the PS-b-P4VP micelles. The confinement of DR1 in the hard core was more effective in fluorescence emission than that in the soft corona due to the slow trans-to-cis transition of DR1. PMID:19764779

  12. A Switchable Molecular Dielectric with Two Sequential Reversible Phase Transitions: [(CH3)4P]4[Mn(SCN)6].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Shi, Ping-Ping; Ye, Qiong; Wang, Hui-Ting; Wu, De-Hong; Ye, Heng-Yun; Fu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yi

    2015-11-16

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid switchable and tunable dielectric compound, [(CH3)4P]4[Mn(SCN)6] (1), exhibits three distinct dielectric states above room temperature and undergoes two reversible solid-state phase transitions, including a structural phase transition at 330 K and a ferroelastic phase transition with the Aizu notation of mmmF2/m at 352 K. The variable-temperature structural analyses disclose that the origin of the phase transitions and dielectric anomalies can be ascribed to the reorientation or motion of both the [(CH3)4P](+) cations and [Mn(SCN)6](4-) anions in solid-state crystals. PMID:26512411

  13. Increase in VEGF secretion from human fibroblast cells by bioactive glass S53P4 to stimulate angiogenesis in bone.

    PubMed

    Detsch, Rainer; Stoor, Patricia; Grünewald, Alina; Roether, Judith A; Lindfors, Nina C; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-11-01

    Bioactive glasses (BAGs) are being investigated for the repair and reconstruction of bone defects, as they exhibit osteoconductive and osteostimulatory potential. However, successful bone regeneration requires also the neovascularization of the construct which is, among other factors, guided by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, BAG S53P4 (53% SiO2 , 23% Na2 O, 20% CaO, 4% P2 O5 ) is investigated in relation to VEGF-release and response of fibroblast cells. Human CD-18CO fibroblasts were cultivated in contact with different granules of different sizes (0.5-0.8 mm, 1.0-2.0 mm, and 2.0-3.15 mm) and at different concentrations (0-1 wt/vol % of BAG) for 72 h. The analysis of morphology revealed no toxic effect for all granule sizes and concentrations. Compared with the reference, lactate dehydrogenase-activity of CCD-18CO cells increased in contact with BAG samples. The VEGF release from CCD-18CO fibroblasts cultured on different granule sizes and at different concentrations after 72 h of incubation was quantified. It was found that particles of 0.5-0.8 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm in size enhanced VEGF release, whereas BAG particle sizes of 2.0-3.15 mm led to inhibition of VEGF release. The results are relevant to understand the influence of the particle size and concentration of BAG S53P4 on VEGF expression and neovascularization. PMID:24357515

  14. Diadenosine 5', 5'''-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) is synthesized in response to DNA damage and inhibits the initiation of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Andrew S; Copeland, Nikki A; Cunningham, Ryan; Wilkinson, Mark C; McLennan, Alexander G; Jones, Nigel J

    2015-09-01

    The level of intracellular diadenosine 5', 5'''-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) increases several fold in mammalian cells treated with non-cytotoxic doses of interstrand DNA-crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C. It is also increased in cells lacking DNA repair proteins including XRCC1, PARP1, APTX and FANCG, while >50-fold increases (up to around 25 μM) are achieved in repair mutants exposed to mitomycin C. Part of this induced Ap4A is converted into novel derivatives, identified as mono- and di-ADP-ribosylated Ap4A. Gene knockout experiments suggest that DNA ligase III is primarily responsible for the synthesis of damage-induced Ap4A and that PARP1 and PARP2 can both catalyze its ADP-ribosylation. Degradative proteins such as aprataxin may also contribute to the increase. Using a cell-free replication system, Ap4A was found to cause a marked inhibition of the initiation of DNA replicons, while elongation was unaffected. Maximum inhibition of 70-80% was achieved with 20 μM Ap4A. Ap3A, Ap5A, Gp4G and ADP-ribosylated Ap4A were without effect. It is proposed that Ap4A acts as an important inducible ligand in the DNA damage response to prevent the replication of damaged DNA. PMID:26204256

  15. Production of high energy and low flux protons using 2D(3He,p)4He for space detector calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Q.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Tesmer, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    In this report, we want to demonstrate that besides the conventional use for elemental analysis and depth profiling by ion beam analysis (IBA), particles generated through ion-solid interactions in IBA may find other novel and important applications. Specifically, we use Rutherford backscattered and nuclear reaction produced high energy proton particles to calibrate an energetic particle subsystem (called ZEP) of the Space and Atmospheric Burst Reporting System (SABRS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To simulate low radiation flux in the space, we have devised an experiment that uses an ultrathin (∼51.8 nm) self-support gold foil to scatter a proton beam from a 3 MV Tandem accelerator into the ZEP subsystem. Direct backscattering from the thin gold foil produces proton particles with tunable energies of 0.2-6.0 MeV and desired counting rates of <10 kHz. To extend the proton particle energy beyond the Tandem's limit of 6 MeV, a high Q-value nuclear reaction, 2D + 3He → p + 4He + 18.352 MeV, was used. This reaction allows us to obtain as high as 25.6 MeV proton particles on our 3 MV tandem accelerator, more than 4 times as high as the accelerator's maximum proton beam energy, and has greatly extended our proton energy range for this calibration activity. Preliminary ZEP subsystem calibration results are presented.

  16. Chalcogenation of the 1,4-C2P4 ring: oxidation, isomerization, insertion, and ring contraction.

    PubMed

    Elder, Philip J W; Chivers, Tristram

    2013-07-01

    The reaction of H2C(PCl2)2 with 4 equiv of (t)BuMgCl in tetrahydrofuran (THF) produces 1,4-(CH2)2(P(t)Bu)4, 1, in about 65% yield. This six-membered ring reacts directly with elemental sulfur or selenium in toluene at low temperatures to give the mono- and dichalcogenides 1,4-(CH2)2(P(t)BuE)(P(t)Bu)3 (E = S, 2a, E = Se, 2b) and 1,4-(CH2)2-2,5-(P(t)BuE)2(P(t)Bu)2 (E = S, 3a, E = Se, 3b). X-ray structural determinations showed that 3a and 3b are isostructural in the solid state; the six-membered C2P4 ring exhibits a twist-boat geometry with chalcogen substituents in syn positions in each case. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the three possible isomers of disubstitution were performed to elucidate the factors that favor the 2,5-isomer. Thermal isomerism was observed in solutions of 3b or 3a in toluene at 60 and 95 °C, respectively, to give the corresponding 2,6-isomers. With an excess of chalcogen in toluene at reflux, the four-membered rings (H2C)(P(t)BuE)2E (E = S, 4a, E = Se, 4b) were obtained and identified by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography, which showed the (t)Bu groups in a trans orientation with respect to the CP2E ring. With a large excess of chalcogen, the five-membered rings (H2C)(P(t)BuE)2E2 (E = S, 5a, E = Se, 5b) were also observed; the X-ray structure of 5b revealed a half-envelope conformation for the CP2Se2 ring. The direct reaction of 4a with sulfur in boiling toluene does not produce 5a, whereas 5b is formed slowly and in low yields from 4b and selenium under similar conditions. On the basis of DFT calculations of the relative energies of likely intermediates, chalcogen insertion into the P-P bonds of 3a and 3b to give eight-membered C2P4E2 rings, followed by monomerization, is proposed as a feasible pathway for the formation of the four-membered CP2E heterocycles 4a and 4b. PMID:23786389

  17. The synthesis of the heterocubane cluster [{CpMn}4(μ3-P)4] as a tetrahedral shaped starting material for the formation of polymeric coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Sebastian; Kiefer, Konrad; Balázs, Gábor; Wickleder, Claudia; Scheer, Manfred

    2015-09-11

    Thermolysis of [CpMn(η(6)-cht)] with P4 in 1,3-diisopropylbenzene leads to the formation of the heterocubane [Cp4Mn4P4] () in high yields, as a rare example of 'naked' phosphorus containing complexes of manganese. Compound is characterized and studied by DFT calculations and reflection measurements. 1D coordination polymers [{(CpMn)4(μ3-P)4}(CuX)]n (2-Cl: X = Cl; 2-Br: X = Br) are obtained in the reaction with CuX. Furthermore, it is shown that all four P atoms in can be addressed for a coordination towards cymantrene resulting in [{(CpMn)4(μ3-P)4}{CpMn(CO)2}n] (: n = 1; : n = 2; : n = 3; : n = 4), and shows that is a tetra-topic building block in coordination chemistry. PMID:26225545

  18. A novel cobalt(II)-selective potentiometric sensor based on p-(4-n-butylphenylazo)calix[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2009-01-15

    A new poly(vinyl chloride)-based membranes containing p-(4-n-butylphenylazo)calix[4]arene (I) as an electroactive material along with sodiumtetraphenylborate (NaTPB), and dibutyl(butyl)phosphonate in the ratio 10:100:1:200 (I:DBBP:NaTPB:PVC) (w/w) was used to fabricate a new cobalt(II)-selective sensor. It exhibited a working concentration range of 9.2 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-1)M, with a Nernstian slope of 29.0+/-1.0 mV/decade of activity and the response time of 25s. This sensor shows the detection limit of 4.0 x 10(-6)M. Its potential response remains unaffected of pH in the range, 4.0-7.2, and the cell assembly can be used successfully in partially non-aqueous medium (up to 10%, v/v) without significant change in the slope of working concentration range. The sensor has a lifetime of about 3 months and exhibits excellent selectivity over a number of mono-, bi-, and tri-valent cations including alkali, alkaline earth metal, heavy and transition metal ions. It can be used as an indicator electrode for the end point determination in the potentiometric titration of cobalt ions against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as for the determination of cobalt ion concentration in real samples. PMID:19064091

  19. Rhesus macaques vaccinated with consensus envelopes elicit partially protective immune responses against SHIV SF162p4 challenge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The development of a preventative HIV/AIDS vaccine is challenging due to the diversity of viral genome sequences, especially in the viral envelope (Env160). Since it is not possible to directly match the vaccine strain to the vast number of circulating HIV-1 strains, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. Previous studies from our group demonstrated that a mixture of wild type clade B Envgp160s were able to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge more effectively than a consensus clade B Envgp160 vaccine. In order to broaden the immune response to other clades of HIV, in this study rhesus macaques were vaccinated with a polyvalent mixture of purified HIV-1 trimerized consensus Envgp140 proteins representing clades A, B, C, and E. The elicited immune responses were compared to a single consensus Envgp140 representing all isolates in group M (Con M). Both vaccines elicited anti- Envgp140 IgG antibodies that bound an equal number of HIV-1 Envgp160 proteins representing clades A, B and C. In addition, both vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized the HIV-1SF162 isolate. However, the vaccinated monkeys were not protected against SHIVSF162p4 challenge. These results indicate that consensus Envgp160 vaccines, administered as purified Envgp140 trimers, elicit antibodies that bind to Envgp160s from strains representing multiple clades of HIV-1, but these vaccines did not protect against heterologous SHIV challenge. PMID:23548077

  20. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sara R; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian B; Theorin, Lisa; Pomorski, Thomas G; López-Marqués, Rosa L

    2016-06-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues, Asn(181) and Asn(231) Whereas mutation of Asn(231) seems to have a small effect on P4-ATPase complex formation, mutation of evolutionarily conserved Asn(181) disrupts interaction between the two subunits. Of the four cysteine residues located in the ALIS5 ectodomain, mutation of Cys(86) and Cys(107) compromises complex association, but the mutant β-subunits still promote complex trafficking and activity to some extent. In contrast, disruption of a conserved disulfide bond between Cys(158) and Cys(172) has no effect on the P4-ATPase complex. Our results demonstrate that post-translational modifications in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase. PMID:27048590

  1. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli and DNA bending at the P4 promoter of pBR322.

    PubMed

    Brierley, I; Hoggett, J G

    1992-07-01

    The binding of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) to its specific site on the P4 promoter of pBR322 has been studied by gel electrophoresis. Binding to the P4 site was about 40-50-fold weaker than to the principal CRP site on the lactose promoter at both low (0.01 M) and high (0.1 M) ionic strengths. CRP-induced bending at the P4 site was investigated from the mobilities of CRP bound to circularly permuted P4 fragments. The estimated bending angle, based on comparison with Zinkel & Crothers [(1990) Biopolymers 29, 29-38] A-tract bending standards, was found to be approximately 96 degrees, similar to that found for binding to the lac site. These observations suggest that there is not a simple relationship between strength of CRP binding and the extent of induced bending for different CRP sites. The apparent centre of bending in P4 is displaced about 6-8 bp away from the conserved TGTGA sequence and the P4 transcription start site. PMID:1322129

  2. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli and DNA bending at the P4 promoter of pBR322.

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, I; Hoggett, J G

    1992-01-01

    The binding of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) to its specific site on the P4 promoter of pBR322 has been studied by gel electrophoresis. Binding to the P4 site was about 40-50-fold weaker than to the principal CRP site on the lactose promoter at both low (0.01 M) and high (0.1 M) ionic strengths. CRP-induced bending at the P4 site was investigated from the mobilities of CRP bound to circularly permuted P4 fragments. The estimated bending angle, based on comparison with Zinkel & Crothers [(1990) Biopolymers 29, 29-38] A-tract bending standards, was found to be approximately 96 degrees, similar to that found for binding to the lac site. These observations suggest that there is not a simple relationship between strength of CRP binding and the extent of induced bending for different CRP sites. The apparent centre of bending in P4 is displaced about 6-8 bp away from the conserved TGTGA sequence and the P4 transcription start site. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1322129

  3. Activation of White Phosphorus by Low-Valent Group 5 Complexes: Formation and Reactivity of cyclo-P4 Inverted Sandwich Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and comprehensive study of the electronic structure of a unique series of dinuclear group 5 cyclo-tetraphosphide inverted sandwich complexes. White phosphorus (P4) reacts with niobium(III) and tantalum(III) β-diketiminate (BDI) tert-butylimido complexes to produce the bridging cyclo-P4 phosphide species {[(BDI)(NtBu)M]2(μ-η3:η3P4)} (1, M = Nb; 2, M = Ta) in fair yields. 1 is alternatively synthesized upon hydrogenolysis of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Me2 in the presence of P4. The trinuclear side product {[(BDI)NbNtBu]3(μ-P12)} (3) is also identified. Protonation of 1 with [HOEt2][B(C6F5)4] does not occur at the phosphide ring but rather involves the BDI ligand to yield {[(BDI#)Nb(NtBu)]2(μ-η3:η3P4)}[B(C6F5)4]2 (4). The monocation and dication analogues {[(BDI)(NtBu)Nb]2(μ-η3:η3P4)}{B(ArF)4}n (5, n = 1; 6, n = 2) are both synthesized by oxidation of 1 with AgBArF. DFT calculations were used in combination with EPR and UV–visible spectroscopies to probe the nature of the metal–phosphorus bonding. PMID:25469924

  4. On the contribution of stereochemistry to human ITPK1 specificity: Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 is not a physiologic substrate.

    PubMed

    Riley, Andrew M; Deleu, Sandrine; Qian, Xun; Mitchell, Jennifer; Chung, Sung-Kee; Adelt, Stephan; Vogel, Günter; Potter, Barry V L; Shears, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Ins(1,4,5,6)P4, a biologically active cell constituent, was recently advocated as a substrate of human Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 1-kinase (hITPK1), because stereochemical factors were believed relatively unimportant to specificity [Miller, G.J., Wilson, M.P., Majerus, P.W. and Hurley, J.H. (2005) Specificity determinants in inositol polyphosphate synthesis: crystal structure of inositol 1,3,4-triphosphate 5/6-kinase. Mol. Cell. 18, 201-212]. Contrarily, we provide three examples of hITPK1 stereospecificity. hITPK1 phosphorylates only the 1-hydroxyl of both Ins(3,5,6)P3 and the meso-compound, Ins(4,5,6)P3. Moreover, hITPK1 has >13,000-fold preference for Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 over its enantiomer, Ins(1,4,5,6)P4. The biological significance of hITPK1 being stereospecific, and not physiologically phosphorylating Ins(1,4,5,6)P4, is reinforced by our demonstrating that Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 is phosphorylated (K(m) = 0.18 microM) by inositolphosphate-multikinase. PMID:16376887

  5. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sara R.; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Theorin, Lisa; Pomorski, Thomas G.; López-Marqués, Rosa L.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues, Asn181 and Asn231. Whereas mutation of Asn231 seems to have a small effect on P4-ATPase complex formation, mutation of evolutionarily conserved Asn181 disrupts interaction between the two subunits. Of the four cysteine residues located in the ALIS5 ectodomain, mutation of Cys86 and Cys107 compromises complex association, but the mutant β-subunits still promote complex trafficking and activity to some extent. In contrast, disruption of a conserved disulfide bond between Cys158 and Cys172 has no effect on the P4-ATPase complex. Our results demonstrate that post-translational modifications in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase. PMID:27048590

  6. Knowledge-Based Personal Health System to empower outpatients of diabetes mellitus by means of P4 Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bresó, Adrián; Sáez, Carlos; Vicente, Javier; Larrinaga, Félix; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and it imposes a large economic burden on healthcare systems. We present a web patient empowering system (PHSP4) that ensures continuous monitoring and assessment of the health state of patients with DM (type I and II). PHSP4 is a Knowledge-Based Personal Health System (PHS) which follows the trend of P4 Medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, and Participative). It provides messages to outpatients and clinicians about the achievement of objectives, follow-up, and treatments adjusted to the patient condition. Additionally, it calculates a four-component risk vector of the associated pathologies with DM: Nephropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic foot, and Cardiovascular event. The core of the system is a Rule-Based System which Knowledge Base is composed by a set of rules implementing the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (American Diabetes Association: http://www.diabetes.org/ ) clinical guideline. The PHSP4 is designed to be standardized and to facilitate its interoperability by means of terminologies (SNOMED-CT [The International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization: http://www.ihtsdo.org/snomed-ct/ ] and UCUM [The Unified Code for Units of Measure: http://unitsofmeasure.org/ ]), standardized clinical documents (HL7 CDA R2 [Health Level Seven International: http://www.hl7.org/index.cfm ]) for managing Electronic Health Record (EHR). We have evaluated the functionality of the system and its users' acceptance of the system using simulated and real data, and a questionnaire based in the Technology Acceptance Model methodology (TAM). Finally results show the reliability of the system and the high acceptance of clinicians. PMID:25417090

  7. Structural plasticity and Mg2+ binding properties of RNase P P4 from combined analysis of NMR residual dipolar couplings and motionally decoupled spin relaxation.

    PubMed

    Getz, Melissa M; Andrews, Andy J; Fierke, Carol A; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M

    2007-02-01

    The P4 helix is an essential element of ribonuclease P (RNase P) that is believed to bind catalytically important metals. Here, we applied a combination of NMR residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and a recently introduced domain-elongation strategy for measuring "motionally decoupled" relaxation data to characterize the structural dynamics of the P4 helix from Bacillus subtilis RNase P. In the absence of divalent ions, the two P4 helical domains undergo small amplitude (approximately 13 degrees) collective motions about an average interhelical angle of 10 degrees. The highly conserved U7 bulge and helical residue C8, which are proposed to be important for substrate recognition and metal binding, are locally mobile at pico- to nanosecond timescales and together form the pivot point for the collective domain motions. Chemical shift mapping reveals significant association of Mg2+ ions at the P4 major groove near the flexible pivot point at residues (A5, G22, G23) previously identified to bind catalytically important metals. The Mg2+ ions do not, however, significantly alter the structure or dynamics of P4. Analysis of results in the context of available X-ray structures of the RNA component of RNase P and structural models that include the pre-tRNA substrate suggest that the internal motions observed in P4 likely facilitate adaptive changes in conformation that take place during folding and substrate recognition, possibly aided by interactions with Mg2+ ions. Our results add to a growing view supporting the existence of functionally important internal motions in RNA occurring at nanosecond timescales. PMID:17194721

  8. Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state in magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, A.; Baynard, T.; Berry, R.S.; Martin, F.; Bachau, H.

    2005-05-15

    Two-photon above-threshold ionization (ATI) relative cross sections from the 3 {sup 1}P state of Mg have been measured using two-color ionization in the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and have been calculated using the Green's-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L{sup 2}-integrable close-coupling approach, with a basis of L{sup 2}-integrable B-spline functions. We report these cross sections in the region of 3d4p {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state, with photon energies of 3.3-3.6 eV. This is one of the few direct comparisons between ab initio theory and experiments in ATI in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the relative total cross sections.

  9. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth in a calcareous soil by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere as the over-application of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in C...

  10. Fabrication of hierarchical Fe3O4@SiO2@P(4VP-DVB)@Au nanostructures and their enhanced catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanchun; Wang, Qian; Luan, Yi; Wang, Ge; Dong, Wenjun; Yu, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Hierarchical Fe3O4@SiO2@P(4VP-DVB)@Au nanostructures were prepared in which the slightly cross-linked, thin poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-divinylbenzene) (P(4VP-DVB)) shells were constructed onto Fe3O4@SiO2 nanospheres, followed by in situ embedding of gold nanocrystals homogeneously into the P4VP chains. These slightly cross-linked chains, easily swollen by the reactants, make the gold nanocrystals accessible to the reactants, and the thin shell (about 15 nm) reduces the diffusion distance of the reactants to the active gold nanocrystals (about 5 nm), thereby enhancing their catalytic activity and utility. At the same time, confinement of gold nanocrystals within the P4VP shells prevents their migration and coagulation during catalytic transformations. Hence the nanocomposites exhibit high activity (up to 4369.5 h(-1) of turnover frequency (TOF)) and controllable magnetic recyclability without any significant loss of gold species after ten runs of catalysis in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. PMID:25585563

  11. Bioactive Glass S53P4 versus Chlorhexidine Gluconate as Intracanal Medicament in Primary Teeth: An In-vivo Study Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ankit; Sinha, Abhishek; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Mehrotra, Rachit; Vashisth, Pallavi; Garg, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteria have long been recognized as the primary etiology for pulpal and periapical lesions, which necessitates the elimination of bacteria from the root canal system. In primary teeth, irrigation and debridement is the main protocol required to disinfect the canal. Biomechanical preparation cannot be vigorously done on the primary teeth due to anatomical barrier such as thin and flared roots. This calls for the use of an effective intracanal medication that will assist disinfection of root canal system. Aim of the study was to examine the in-vivo susceptibility of root canal bacteria to chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate-1% gel and bioactive glass (BAG) S53P4 when used as intracanal medicaments using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methodology: PCR (analysis used oligonucleotide primers of Escherichia coli) was used to detect and compare the microbial load reduction after medication of 14 teeth for a week with either CHX gel - 1% or BAG S53P4. The pre and post microbial load was checked in the form of colony forming units. When analysis was done, a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. Results: The study revealed that both medicaments caused a considerable amount of microbial load reduction. BAG S53P4 caused much more reduction than CHX 1% gel. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: BAG S53P4 has superior antibacterial property as compared to CHX 1% gel. PMID:26464542

  12. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth in a calcareous soil by penicillium oxalicum P4 and aspergillus niger P85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere as the over-application of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in C...

  13. Repeated circulation over 6 years of intergenogroup mono-reassortant G2P[4] rotavirus strains with genotype N1 of the NSP2 gene.

    PubMed

    Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    Human rotavirus A, a major cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide, contains the genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA, which is grouped into three major genotype constellations: the Wa genogroup (G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1), the DS-1 genogroup (G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2), and the AU-1 genogroup (G3-P[9]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A3-N3-T3-E3-H3). Recently, a G2P[4] strain detected in Kenya in 1982 was reported to be a nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) gene mono-reassortant between the Wa and DS-1 genogroups. While NSP2 induces heterotypic antibody responses in children, thereby being the likely target of immune selective pressure, it was not known how frequently these NSP2 mono-reassortants circulated among children. In a previous 10 year epidemiological study, out of 100 G2P[4] rotavirus specimens that were typed into 22 distinct electropherotypes (i.e., strains), RNA-RNA hybridization identified that 12 strains were mono-reassortants involving either the NSP2 or the NSP3 gene. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the nucleotide sequences of all 11 genes of the representative mono-reassortant strain (AU605) and the sequences of the reassorted genes of the other mono-reassortant strains. The genome constellation of AU605 was G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2, indicating that it was a mono-reassortant strain carrying a Wa-like NSP2 genotype on the DS-1 genogroup background. The reassorted gene of the other 11 strains also had the genotype N1 in the NSP2 gene. Given that electrophoretically-identical rotaviruses represent a single strain, the 12 NSP2 mono-reassortants detected in six rotavirus seasons accounted for 36% (36 of 100) of G2P[4] rotavirus specimens in the 10 year collection. The circulation of NSP2 mono-reassortant strains was observed in epidemic seasons when the G2P[4] genotype was not dominant. Taken together with their repeated occurrence at higher-than-expected frequencies, the identification of NSP2 mono

  14. When incentives work too well: locally implemented pay for performance (P4P) and adverse sanctions towards home birth in Tanzania - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite limited evidence of its effectiveness, performance-based payments (P4P) are seen by leading policymakers as a potential solution to the slow progress in reaching Millennium Development Goal 5: improved maternal health. This paper offers insights into two of the aspects that are lacking in the current literature on P4P, namely what strategies health workers employ to reach set targets, and how the intervention plays out when implemented by local government as part of a national programme that does not receive donor funding. Methods A total of 28 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 25 individuals were conducted in Mvomero district over a period of 15 months in 2010 and 2011, both before and after P4P payments. Seven facilities, including six dispensaries and one health centre, were covered. Informants included 17 nurses, three clinical officers, two medical attendants, one lab technician and two district health administrators. Results Health workers reported a number of strategies to increase the number of deliveries at their facility, including health education and cooperation with traditional health providers. The staff at all facilities also reported that they had told the women that they would be sanctioned if they gave birth at home, such as being fined or denied clinical cards and/or vaccinations for their babies. There is a great uncertainty in relation to the potential health impacts of the behavioural changes that have come with P4P, as the reported strategies may increase the numbers, but not necessarily the quality. Contrary to the design of the P4P programme, payments were not based on performance. We argue that this was due in part to a lack of resources within the District Administration, and in part as a result of egalitarian fairness principles. Conclusions Our results suggest that particular attention should be paid to adverse effects when using external rewards for improved health outcomes, and secondly, that P4P may take on a

  15. Changes in the distribution of lineage constellations of G2P[4] Rotavirus A strains detected in Japan over 32 years (1980-2011).

    PubMed

    Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Agbemabiese, Chantal Ama; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Most human RVA strains are classified into three major genotype constellations: Wa-like, DS-1-like and AU-1-like. The evolution of G2P[4] strains possessing the DS-1-like genetic background was described in a few recent studies. However, the strains analyzed in these studies were almost exclusively the ones detected after 2000. In recognition of the scarcity of G2P[4] strains detected before 2000 for which whole genome information was available, this study was undertaken to characterize 19 Japanese G2P[4] strains detected between 1983 and 1990 (14 strains) and between 2001 and 2011 (5 strains), and to compare them with 131 G2P[4] strains from across the world. The Japanese strains along with the strains elsewhere in the world underwent stepwise changes from lineage I to IVa in 5 genes (the VP7, VP4, VP2, NSP1 and NSP5 genes) and from lineage I to V in 6 genes (the VP6, VP1, VP3, NSP2, NSP3 and NSP4 genes). Furthermore, G2P[4] strains detected after 2004 appeared to have undergone further intragenotype reassortment, resulting in the emergence of lineage V in the VP7 gene, and VI and VII in the VP3 and NSP4 genes. The time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for the emergent lineages VI and VII was estimated to be around the early 2000s. However, the year when the ancestor of the emergent lineages diverged from that of the rest of the lineages in the respective genes preceded the tMRCA 80-90 years. The origin of the emergent lineages is likely to be human RVA strains possessing genotypes other than G2P[4], and not RVA strains of an animal origin. In conclusion, stepwise changes in lineages imparted new genomic constellations to G2P[4] strains, which appears to have contributed to their successful spread across the globe, most notably since 2004. PMID:26026594

  16. Differential coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song system.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ezequiel; Tokarev, Kirill; Düring, Daniel N; Retamosa, Eva Camarillo; Weiss, Michael; Arpenik, Nshdejan; Scharff, Constance

    2015-06-15

    Heterozygous disruptions of the Forkhead transcription factor FoxP2 impair acquisition of speech and language. Experimental downregulation in brain region Area X of the avian ortholog FoxP2 disrupts song learning in juvenile male zebra finches. In vitro, transcriptional activity of FoxP2 requires dimerization with itself or with paralogs FoxP1 and FoxP4. Whether this is the case in vivo is unknown. To provide the means for future functional studies we cloned FoxP4 from zebra finches and compared regional and cellular coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 mRNA and protein in brains of juvenile and adult male zebra finches. In the telencephalic song nuclei HVC, RA, and Area X, the three investigated FoxPs were either expressed alone or occurred in specific combinations with each other, as shown by double in situ hybridization and triple immunohistochemistry. FoxP1 and FoxP4 but not FoxP2 were expressed in RA and in the HVCRA and HVCX projection neurons. In Area X and the surrounding striatum the density of neurons expressing all three FoxPs together or FoxP1 and FoxP4 together was significantly higher than the density of neurons expressing other combinations. Interestingly, the proportions of Area X neurons expressing particular combinations of FoxPs remained constant at all ages. In addition, FoxP-expressing neurons in adult Area X express dopamine receptors 1A, 1B, and 2. Together, these data provide the first evidence that Area X neurons can coexpress all avian FoxP subfamily members, thus allowing for a variety of regulatory possibilities via heterodimerization that could impact song behavior in zebra finches. PMID:25556631

  17. Magnetic Field Alignment of PS-P4VP: a Non-Liquid Crystalline Coil-Coil Block Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Zhang, Kai; Larson, Steven; Gopalan, Padma; O'Hern, Corey; Osuji, Chinedum

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic fields provide the ability to control alignment of self-assembled soft materials such as block copolymers. Most prior work in this area has relied on the presence of ordered assemblies of anisotropic liquid crystalline species to ensure sufficient magnetic anisotropy to drive alignment. Recent experiments with poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine), a non-liquid crystalline BCP, however, show field-induced alignment of a lamellar microstructure during cooling across the order-disorder transition. Using in situ x-ray scattering, we examine the roles of field strength and cooling rate on the alignment response of this low MW coil-coil BCP. Alignment is first observed at field strengths as low as 1 Tesla and improves markedly with both increasing field strength and slower cooling. We present a geometric argument to illustrate the origin of a finite, non-trivial magnetic susceptibility anisotropy for highly stretched surface-tethered polymer chains and corroborate this using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We rationalize the magnetic field response of the system in terms of the mobility afforded by the absence of entanglements, the intrinsic anisotropy resulting from the stretched polymer chains and sterically constrained conjugated rings, and the large grain size in these low molecular weight materials.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo proximal interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p (4p15.2→p14).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Lee, Meng-Ju; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shan; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-10-25

    We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo proximal interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p (4p15.2→p14) and molecular cytogenetic characterization of the deletion using uncultured amniocytes. We review the phenotypic abnormalities of previously reported patients with similar proximal interstitial 4p deletions, and we discuss the functions of the genes of RBPJ, CCKAR, STIM2, PCDH7 and ARAP2 that are deleted within this region. PMID:23948085

  19. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhongwei; Shi, Fachao; Jiang, Hongmei; Roberts, Daniel P; Chen, Sanfeng; Fan, Bingquan

    2015-12-01

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere, as the overapplication of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in China that had been exposed to excessive application of phosphatic fertilizer for decades. Each isolate excreted a number of organic acids into, acidified, and solubilized phosphorus in a synthetic broth containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate or rock phosphate. Isolate P4, applied as a seed treatment, increased maize fresh mass per plant when rock phosphate was added to the calcareous soil in greenhouse pot studies. Isolate P85 did not increase maize fresh mass per plant but did significantly increase total phosphorus per plant when rock phosphate was added. Significant increases in 7 and 4 organic acids were detected in soil in association with isolates P4 and P85, respectively, relative to the soil-only control. The quantity and (or) number of organic acids produced by these isolates increased when rock phosphate was added to the soil. Both isolates also significantly increased available phosphorus in soil in the presence of added rock phosphate and effectively colonized the maize rhizosphere. Studies reported here indicate that isolate P4 is adapted to and capable of promoting maize growth in a calcareous soil. Plant-growth promotion by this isolate is likely due, at least in part, to increased phosphorus availability resulting from the excretion of organic acids into, and the resulting acidification of, this soil. PMID:26469739

  20. A large-scale relativistic configuration-interaction calculation for the 4s-4p and 4p-4d transition energies of copperlike heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K T; Chen, M H

    2005-06-21

    The 4s-4p and 4p-4d transition energies for high-Z copperlike ions are calculated using the relativistic configuration-interaction (RCI) method. Mass polarization (MP) and quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections are also evaluated. For the 4s-4p transitions, the present RCI energies agree very well with results from the relativistic many-body perturbation theory. With QED and MP corrections included, our total transition energies are in very good agreement with recent high precision measurements.

  1. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  2. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  3. Direct imaging of structural heterogeneity of the melt-spun Fe85.2Si2B8P4Cu0.8 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuhisa; Takenaka, Kana; Makino, Akihiro; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-01

    A structural heterogeneity of the melt-spun Fe85.2Si2B8P4Cu0.8 alloy has been studied by spherical aberration (Cs) corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Hollow-cone illumination imaging revealed that the density of coherent scattering regions in the as-quenched Fe85.2Si2B8P4Cu0.8 alloy is much higher than that in the Fe76Si9B10P5 bulk metallic glass. According to the Cs-corrected TEM, crystalline atomic clusters, typically of ˜1 nm in diameter, are densely distributed in an amorphous matrix of Fe85.2Si2B8P4Cu0.8 alloy. Observation of four-fold and six-fold atomic arrangements of these clusters implies existence of Fe clusters with the body centered cubic structure. These Fe clusters must be responsible for the formation of ultrahigh-density α-Fe nanocrystals produced by post-annealing.

  4. Layer by layer H-bonded assembly of P4VP with various hydroxylated PPFS: impact of the donor strength on growth mechanism and surface features.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Duchet, Jannick; Portinha, Daniel; Charlot, Aurélia

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen bond mediated films made by step by step deposition of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) and hydroxylated poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene) (PPFS) copolymers prepared by thiol para-fluoro coupling, bearing either one (PPFSME) or two (PPFSMPD) hydrogenated hydroxyl groups or a (poly)fluorinated hydroxyl (PPFSOH), respectively, were successfully constructed. The influence of the structural parameters, such as the hydroxyl environment (which dictates the H-bond strength) was in-depth investigated in terms of their impact on (i) growth mechanism, (ii) internal organization, and (iii) surface features. The use of the weaker H-bond donor partner (PPFSME) leads to low quality films composed of irregularly distributed aggregates. While [PPFSMPD/P4VP] multilayer films are comparatively thick and composed of stratified layers with smooth topology, the use of PPFSOH with P4VP yields thin films made of mixed and interpenetrated polymer layers. Playing on the interaction strength appears as a powerful tool to elaborate tailored multilayer films with molecularly tunable properties. PMID:25081421

  5. Whole genome analysis of Vietnamese G2P[4] rotavirus strains possessing the NSP2 gene sharing an ancestral sequence with Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Do, Loan Phuong; Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Gauchan, Punita; Kaneko, Miho; Agbemabiese, Chantal; Dang, Anh Duc; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Because imminent introduction into Vietnam of a vaccine against Rotavirus A is anticipated, baseline information on the whole genome of representative strains is needed to understand changes in circulating strains that may occur after vaccine introduction. In this study, the whole genomes of two G2P[4] strains detected in Nha Trang, Vietnam in 2008 were sequenced, this being the last period during which virtually no rotavirus vaccine was used in this country. The two strains were found to be >99.9% identical in sequence and had a typical DS-1 like G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation. Analysis of the Vietnamese strains with >184 G2P[4] strains retrieved from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ DNA databases placed the Vietnamese strains in one of the lineages commonly found among contemporary strains, with the exception of the NSP2 and NSP4 genes. The NSP2 genes were found to belong to a previously undescribed lineage that diverged from Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains, including a Chinese rotavirus vaccine strain LLR with 95% nucleotide identity; the time of their most recent common ancestor was 1975. The NSP4 genes were found to belong, together with Thai and USA strains, to an emergent lineage (VIII), adding further diversity to ever diversifying NSP4 lineages. Thus, there is a need to enhance surveillance of locally-circulating strains from both children and animals at the whole genome level to address the effect of rotavirus vaccines on changing strain distribution. PMID:26382233

  6. Controllable Cooperative Self-Assembly of PS-b-PAA/PS-b-P4VP Mixture by Tuning the Intercorona Interaction.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhen; Cheng, Zhongkai; Zhu, Yutian; Jiang, Wei

    2016-06-23

    The cooperative self-assembly of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS144-b-PAA22) and polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS144-b-P4VP33) diblock copolymers in DMF/H2O mixtures has been investigated. Both copolymers self-assemble into small spherical micelles (SSMs) if used individually. However, the equimolar mixture of these two copolymers cooperatively self-assembles into vesicles. It is found that the formation of vesicles is attributed to the complex interactions between PAA and P4VP chains, including the hydrogen bonds between un-ionized acrylic acid units and pyridine units as well as the electronic attractions between ionized acrylic acid units and protonated pyridine units. Since these interactions between PAA and P4VP chains depend on pH value, the cooperatively self-assembled morphology can be easily tuned by the addition of HCl or NaOH. At high addition of H(+) or OH(-), the intercorona interaction is repulsive and the copolymer mixture tends to form SSMs (basic condition) or cylindrical micelles (acidic condition), whereas it prefers to aggregate into vesicles at low addition of H(+) or OH(-) because the intercorona interaction is attractive. Interestingly, the same morphology of the self-assembled aggregates can be obtained either at high H(+) addition or at low OH(-) addition, which results from the nonmonotonic variation of the intercorona interaction along with the addition of HCl or NaOH. The current study implies that it is the intercorona interaction rather than the chemical condition that dominates the cooperatively self-assembled morphology. PMID:27195581

  7. NF-Y controls transcription of the minute virus of mice P4 promoter through interaction with an unusual binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z; Plaza, S; Perros, M; Cziepluch, C; Rommelaere, J; Cornelis, J J

    1995-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed with nuclear extracts from human fibroblasts revealed the formation of two major protein complexes with an oligonucleotide (nucleotides 78 to 107) from the palindromic region located upstream from the minute virus of mice (MVM) P4 promoter. It was shown that this oligonucleotide bound USF at the enhancer E box CACATG. The second complex contained the transcription factor NF-Y, whose association was surprising because its target sequence lacks the canonical CCAAT motif present in all mammalian NF-Y binding sites identified so far. The MVM NF-Y recognition element instead contains the CCAAC sequence. USF and NF-Y had distinct but overlapping sequence requirements for binding, suggesting that their associations with MVM DNA were mutually exclusive. Because of the palindromic nature of MVM DNA terminal sequences, NF-Y associated with the three nucleotide configurations corresponding to the hairpin structure and to the external and internal arms of the extended duplex replication form, respectively. However, owing to the imperfection of the palindrome, the binding of USF was restricted to the internal arm. Point mutations that suppressed the in vitro binding of NF-Y to the internal palindromic arm reduced the activity of the resident P4 promoter, while those preventing complex formation with USF did not, as determined by transient expression assays using the luciferase reporter gene. The data led to the identification of a novel P4 upstream regulatory region capable of interacting with two transcription factors, from which one (NF-Y) appeared to upmodulate the activity of the promoter. PMID:7983715

  8. WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-20

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  9. T(T,2n)4He and 3He(3He,2p)4He: The Reaction Mechanism from Solar Energies to 10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, A. D.; Brune, C. R.; Sayre, D. B.; Hale, G. M.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the energy dependence of the reaction mechanism of the T(t,2n)4He reaction at stellar energies and of its charge symmetric analog reaction 3He(3He,2p)4He at energies up 10 MeV. We find that the reaction mechanism changes dramatically over this energy range in part due to the interference of the two identical fermions in the three-body final state. This contribution is dedicated to the memory of Tom Tombrello, my Ph.D. advisor at Cal Tech, who died in 2014.

  10. Simulation of 3He(d,p) 4He reaction and recent results of the experimental investigation of dp breakup reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janek, M.; Kurilkin, P. K.; Tarjanyiova, G.; Ladygin, V. P.; Gurchin, Yu V.; Isupov, A. Yu; Karachuk, J.-T.; Khrenov, A. N.; Kurilkin, A. K.; Livanov, A. N.; Martinska, G.; Piyadin, S. M.; Reznikov, S. G.; Merts, S. P.; Batyuk, P. N.; Terekhin, A. A.; Vnukov, I. E.

    2016-02-01

    The feasibility study for the measurements of the polarization observables in the 3He(d,p) 4He reaction for DSS project using a part of the BM@N setup have been performed. Deuteron beam with energy of 1.5 GeV, magnet, 12 stations GEM tracker and TOF wall were used in simulations in order to obtain momentum resolution and to prove the separation of the secondary protons and deuterons. Summarized results of the dp breakup reactions with detection of two protons in coincidence for some kinematic configurations at energies from 300 to 500 MeV obtained in Nuclotron are presented.

  11. The introduction of P4 substituted 1-methylcyclohexyl groups into Boceprevir: a change in direction in the search for a second generation HCV NS3 protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Frank; Huang, Yuhua; Hendrata, Siska; Lovey, Raymond; Bogen, Stephane L; Pan, Weidong; Guo, Zhuyan; Prongay, Andrew; Chen, Kevin X; Arasappan, Ashok; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Velazquez, Francisco; Nair, Latha; Sannigrahi, Mousumi; Tong, Xiao; Pichardo, John; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor M; Saksena, Anil K; Njoroge, F George

    2010-04-15

    In the search for a second generation HCV protease inhibitor, molecular modeling studies of the X-ray crystal structure of Boceprevir1 bound to the NS3 protein suggest that expansion into the S4 pocket could provide additional hydrophobic Van der Waals interactions. Effective replacement of the P4 tert-butyl with a cyclohexylmethyl ligand led to inhibitor 2 with improved enzyme and replicon activities. Subsequent modeling and SAR studies led to the pyridine 38 and sulfone analogues 52 and 53 with vastly improved PK parameters in monkeys, forming a new foundation for further exploration. PMID:20303756

  12. Kinetics of activation of the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Hoggett, J G; Brierley, I

    1992-11-01

    The activation of transcription initiation from the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) has been investigated using a fluorescence abortive initiation assay. The effect of the cyclic-AMP/CRP complex on the linear P4 promoter was to increase the initial binding (KB) of RNA polymerase to the promoter by about a factor of 10, but the rate of isomerization of closed to open complex (kf) was unaffected. One molecule of CRP per promoter was required for activation, and the concentration of cyclic AMP producing half-maximal stimulation was about 7-8 microM. Supercoiling caused a 2-3-fold increase in the rate of isomerization of the CRP-activated promoter, but weakened the initial binding of polymerase by about one order of magnitude. The unactivated supercoiled promoter was too weak to allow reliable assessment of kinetic parameters against the high background rate originating from the rest of the plasmid. PMID:1445251

  13. Kinetics of activation of the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hoggett, J G; Brierley, I

    1992-01-01

    The activation of transcription initiation from the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) has been investigated using a fluorescence abortive initiation assay. The effect of the cyclic-AMP/CRP complex on the linear P4 promoter was to increase the initial binding (KB) of RNA polymerase to the promoter by about a factor of 10, but the rate of isomerization of closed to open complex (kf) was unaffected. One molecule of CRP per promoter was required for activation, and the concentration of cyclic AMP producing half-maximal stimulation was about 7-8 microM. Supercoiling caused a 2-3-fold increase in the rate of isomerization of the CRP-activated promoter, but weakened the initial binding of polymerase by about one order of magnitude. The unactivated supercoiled promoter was too weak to allow reliable assessment of kinetic parameters against the high background rate originating from the rest of the plasmid. PMID:1445251

  14. Combined Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies the P3/P4 Transition as a Key Stage in Rice Leaf Photosynthetic Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yaapar, Muhammad N.; Wanchana, Samart; Thakur, Vivek; Quick, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Leaves are derived from heterotrophic meristem tissue that, at some point, must make the transition to autotrophy via the initiation of photosynthesis. However, the timing and spatial coordination of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning this switch are poorly characterized. Here, we report on the identification of a specific stage in rice (Oryza sativa) leaf development (P3/P4 transition) when photosynthetic competence is first established. Using a combined physiological and molecular approach, we show that elements of stomatal and vascular differentiation are coordinated with the onset of measurable light absorption for photosynthesis. Moreover, by exploring the response of the system to environmental perturbation, we show that the earliest stages of rice leaf development have significant plasticity with respect to elements of cellular differentiation of relevance for mature leaf photosynthetic performance. Finally, by performing an RNA sequencing analysis targeted at the early stages of rice leaf development, we uncover a palette of genes whose expression likely underpins the acquisition of photosynthetic capability. Our results identify the P3/P4 transition as a highly dynamic stage in rice leaf development when several processes for the initiation of photosynthetic competence are coordinated. As well as identifying gene targets for future manipulation of rice leaf structure/function, our data highlight a developmental window during which such manipulations are likely to be most effective. PMID:26813793

  15. Mutual influence between contiguous TMPyP4 ligands when bound to a synthetic double-stranded Poly(A)-Poly(U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstykh, G.; Kudrev, A.

    2015-10-01

    The cooperativity of TMPyP4 ligand binding to Poly(A)-Poly(U) polynucleotide were monitored in this study by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. To solve the equilibrium binding model between a dye and substrate, a new computational approach has been proposed based collectively on Principal Component Analysis and the conditional probabilities method. This approach suggest that the absorbance and fluorescence variance during a titration is determined by spectral species formed in stepwise saturation of binding sites on Poly(A)-Poly(U) with porphyrin and a conformational changes on a macromolecule. Spectral species assigned to different forms of polymer-ligand complexes whose existences in equilibrium were postulated by the conditional probabilities method. The binding of TMPyP4 molecule to the Poly(A)-Poly(U) enhances the binding of additional molecules to that same receptor. The intrinsic binding constant to an isolated binding site lgKin = 6.4, the cooperativity parameter ω = 5.0, and number of monomers occupied by a ligand n = 2 (25 °C; pH 7) were calculated based upon the non-linear least-squares fitting procedure.

  16. Combined Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies the P3/P4 Transition as a Key Stage in Rice Leaf Photosynthetic Development.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Julia C; Yaapar, Muhammad N; Narawatthana, Supatthra; Lehmeier, Christoph; Wanchana, Samart; Thakur, Vivek; Chater, Caspar; Kelly, Steve; Rolfe, Stephen A; Quick, W Paul; Fleming, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Leaves are derived from heterotrophic meristem tissue that, at some point, must make the transition to autotrophy via the initiation of photosynthesis. However, the timing and spatial coordination of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning this switch are poorly characterized. Here, we report on the identification of a specific stage in rice (Oryza sativa) leaf development (P3/P4 transition) when photosynthetic competence is first established. Using a combined physiological and molecular approach, we show that elements of stomatal and vascular differentiation are coordinated with the onset of measurable light absorption for photosynthesis. Moreover, by exploring the response of the system to environmental perturbation, we show that the earliest stages of rice leaf development have significant plasticity with respect to elements of cellular differentiation of relevance for mature leaf photosynthetic performance. Finally, by performing an RNA sequencing analysis targeted at the early stages of rice leaf development, we uncover a palette of genes whose expression likely underpins the acquisition of photosynthetic capability. Our results identify the P3/P4 transition as a highly dynamic stage in rice leaf development when several processes for the initiation of photosynthetic competence are coordinated. As well as identifying gene targets for future manipulation of rice leaf structure/function, our data highlight a developmental window during which such manipulations are likely to be most effective. PMID:26813793

  17. A further implementation of the rotational symmetry boundary conditions for calculations of P4(3)2(1)2 symmetry crystals.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, S

    1997-08-01

    One of the most accurate styles of protein simulation is to calculate proteins in crystalline environment without neglect of long-range interactions. The long-range interactions can be accelerated by various methods. However, as a unit cell of a protein crystal is a large molecular assembly, its simulation is still unpractical without high-speed computers. Thus this article is addressed to the reduction of calculational volumes for protein crystal simulation by a further implementation of the rotational symmetry boundary condition method. For protein crystals in P4(3)2(1)2 symmetry, a computational cell and related tables were developed. A 120-ps molecular dynamics simulation was performed for a P4(3)2(1)2 symmetry crystal of glycogen phosphorylase b under rotational symmetry boundary conditions. The computational cell was one-eighth of the unit cell in volume, and less than about one-fourth of the conventional periodic boundary box. Generation of neighbor atom pair lists was greatly accelerated, and thus the simulation was practical even with a personal computer. PMID:9524932

  18. Structural and mechanistic basis of anti-termination of Rho-dependent transcription termination by bacteriophage P4 capsid protein Psu

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Amitabh; Sharma, Savita; Banerjee, Ramanuj; Sen, Udayaditya; Sen, Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    The conserved bacterial transcription terminator, Rho, is a potent target for bactericidal agents. Psu, a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein, is capable of inducing anti-termination to the Rho-dependent transcription termination. Knowledge of structural and mechanistic basis of this anti-termination is required to design peptide-inhibitor(s) of Rho from Psu. Using suppressor genetics, cross-linking, protein foot-printing and FRET analyses, we describe a conserved disordered structure, encompassing 139–153 amino acids of Rho, as the primary docking site for Psu. Also a neighbouring helical structure, comprising 347–354 amino acids, lining its central channel, plays a supportive role in the Rho–Psu complex formation. Based on the crystal structure of Psu, its conformation in the capsid of the P4 phage, and its interacting regions on Rho, we build an energy-minimized structural model of the Rho:Psu complex. In this model, a V-shaped dimer of Psu interacts with the two diagonally opposite subunits of a hexameric Rho, enabling Psu to form a ‘lid’ on the central channel of the latter. We show that this configuration of Psu makes the central channel of Rho inaccessible, and it causes a mechanical impediment to its translocase activity. PMID:23703205

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Contemporary G2P[4] Human Rotaviruses Cocirculating in a Single U.S. Community: Footprints of a Globally Transitioning Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Allison F.; McDonald, Sarah M.; Payne, Daniel C.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Chappell, James D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the G/P types of locally circulating RVs can vary from year to year and differ depending upon geographical location, those with G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], and G12P[8] specificities typically dominate. Little is known about the evolution and diversity of G2P[4] RVs and the possible role that widespread vaccine use has had on their increased frequency of detection. To address these issues, we analyzed the 12 G2P[4] RV isolates associated with a rise in RV gastroenteritis cases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) during the 2010-2011 winter season. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates had genotype 2 constellations typical of DS-1-like viruses (G2P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genome segments of the isolates were comprised of two or three different subgenotype alleles; this enabled recognition of three distinct clades of G2P[4] viruses that caused disease at VUMC in the 2010-2011 season. Although the three clades cocirculated in the same community, there was no evidence of interclade reassortment. Bayesian analysis of 328 VP7 genes of G2 viruses isolated in the last 39 years indicate that existing G2 VP7 gene lineages continue to evolve and that novel lineages, as represented by the VUMC isolates, are constantly being formed. Moreover, G2 lineages are characteristically shaped by lineage turnover events that introduce new globally dominant strains every 7 years, on average. The ongoing evolution of G2 VP7 lineages may give rise to antigenic changes that undermine vaccine effectiveness in the long term. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the diversity of cocirculating G2 rotaviruses and how their evolution may undermine the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines. To expand our understanding of the potential genetic range exhibited by rotaviruses circulating in postvaccine communities, we

  20. Nano-crystallization and magnetic mechanisms of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 amorphous alloy by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaocen; Takeuchi, Akira; Makino, Akihiro; Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Iron-based amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys have attracted a growing interest due to their potential in the application of magnetic coil production. However, fundamental understanding of the nano-crystallization mechanisms and magnetic features in the amorphous structure are still lack of knowledge. In the present work, we performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to clarify the ionic and electronic structure in atomic scale, and to derive the origin of the good magnetic property of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 amorphous alloy. The simulation gave a direct evidence of the Cu-P bonding preference in the amorphous alloy, which may promote nucleation in nano-crystallization process. On the other hand, the electron transfer and the band/orbital features in the amorphous alloy suggests that alloying elements with large electronegativity and the potential to expand Fe disordered matrix are preferred for enhancing the magnetization.

  1. Use of IRS-P4 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) images for tracing the red edge of the terrestrial vegetation reflectance spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-04-01

    A methodology is put forward to retrieve the red edge for terrestrial vegetated regions of IRS P4 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) images. The objective is to utilize land-related portions of the archived OCM images that contain a significant amount of digital information on land cover. OCM band data were simulated from spectroradiometric reflectance of fresh green leaves and hyperspectral reflectance of vegetated regions derived from EO-1 Hyperion images. The red edge recovered from these model data using numerical techniques of Lagrange interpolation and inverted Gaussian was compared with the original one and reasonable accuracy was obtained. The technique was then applied to the actual red and near-infrared bands of OCM images, and red edge reflectance curves were computed for evergreen, deciduous and mangrove forest regions of the images for winter and spring seasons. Consistent results were obtained for seasonal changes, and vegetated and non-vegetated areas could be distinguished.

  2. Ab initio many-body calculations of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

    2012-01-27

    We apply the ab initio no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method approach to calculate the cross sections of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions. These are important reactions for the big bang nucleosynthesis and the future of energy generation on Earth. Starting from a selected similarity-transformed chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction that accurately describes two-nucleon data, we performed many-body calculations that predict the S factor of both reactions. Virtual three-body breakup effects are obtained by including excited pseudostates of the deuteron in the calculation. Our results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data and pave the way for microscopic investigations of polarization and electron-screening effects, of the (3)H(d,γn)(4)He bremsstrahlung and other reactions relevant to fusion research. PMID:22400830

  3. Probing the specificity of cysteine proteinases at subsites remote from the active site: analysis of P4, P3, P2' and P3' variations in extended substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Portaro, F C; Santos, A B; Cezari, M H; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L; Carmona, E

    2000-01-01

    We have determined the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis by papain, cathepsin B and cathepsin L of internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from the lead peptides Abz-AAFRSAQ-EDDnp [in which Abz and EDDnp stand for o-aminobenzoic acid and N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine respectively], to map the specificity of S(4) and S(3) subsites, and Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp, to identify the specificity of S(2)' and S(3)'. Abz and EDDnp were the fluorescent quencher pair. These two series of peptides were cleaved at the Arg-Ser bond and systematic modifications at P(4), P(3), P(2)' and P(3)' were made. The S(4) to S(2)' subsites had a significant influence on the hydrolytic efficiencies of the three enzymes. Only papain activity was observed to be dependent on S(3)', indicating that its binding site is larger than those of cathepsins B and L. Hydrophobic amino acids were accepted at S(4), S(3), S(2)' and S(3)' of the three enzymes. The best substrates for cathepsins L and B had Trp and Asn at P(2)' respectively; variations at this position were less accepted by these enzymes. The best substrates for papain were peptides containing Trp, Tyr or Asn at P(3)'. Basic residues at P(3) and P(4) were well accepted by cathepsin L and papain. We also explored the susceptibility of substrates Abz-AFRSXAQ-EDDnp, modified at P(2)' (X), to human cathepsin B mutants from which one or two occluding loop contacts had been removed. The modifications at His(111) (H111A) and His(110) (H110A) of cathepsin B led to an increase in k(cat) values of one or two orders of magnitude. The hydrolytic efficiencies of these cathepsin B mutants became closer to those of papain or cathepsin L. PMID:10727410

  4. Kinetic and thermodynamic framework for P4-P6 RNA reveals tertiary motif modularity and modulation of the folding preferred pathway.

    PubMed

    Bisaria, Namita; Greenfeld, Max; Limouse, Charles; Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Mabuchi, Hideo; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-08-23

    The past decade has seen a wealth of 3D structural information about complex structured RNAs and identification of functional intermediates. Nevertheless, developing a complete and predictive understanding of the folding and function of these RNAs in biology will require connection of individual rate and equilibrium constants to structural changes that occur in individual folding steps and further relating these steps to the properties and behavior of isolated, simplified systems. To accomplish these goals we used the considerable structural knowledge of the folded, unfolded, and intermediate states of P4-P6 RNA. We enumerated structural states and possible folding transitions and determined rate and equilibrium constants for the transitions between these states using single-molecule FRET with a series of mutant P4-P6 variants. Comparisons with simplified constructs containing an isolated tertiary contact suggest that a given tertiary interaction has a stereotyped rate for breaking that may help identify structural transitions within complex RNAs and simplify the prediction of folding kinetics and thermodynamics for structured RNAs from their parts. The preferred folding pathway involves initial formation of the proximal tertiary contact. However, this preference was only ∼10 fold and could be reversed by a single point mutation, indicating that a model akin to a protein-folding contact order model will not suffice to describe RNA folding. Instead, our results suggest a strong analogy with a modified RNA diffusion-collision model in which tertiary elements within preformed secondary structures collide, with the success of these collisions dependent on whether the tertiary elements are in their rare binding-competent conformations. PMID:27493222

  5. Comparing Student Experiences with Story Discussions in Dialogic versus Traditional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reznitskaya, Alina; Glina, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the testimonials of 60 elementary school students about their experience during class discussions of assigned readings. They randomly assigned 12 classrooms to 2 treatments: Philosophy for Children (P4C) and Regular Instruction. P4C is an alternative educational environment that places dialogue at the center of its pedagogy.…

  6. Anomalous high amplitude ratios of P5KP/PKPab and P4KP/P(S)cP observed globally around 1 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Marian; Wang, Rongjiang

    2013-04-01

    Amplitude ratio of 30 short-period conspicuous P5KP and PKPab phases from five intermediate depth or deep events in Fiji-Tonga recorded at European stations around 150° distance shows a mean value two to three times the ratio of the synthetic amplitudes obtained by the normal-mode theory (and ak135 model) or by full-wave theory (and PREM). There is a large variance in the results, also observed in five amplitude ratios from one event in Argentina observed at temporary stations in China around 156°. Global recordings of three major deep earthquakes in Fiji, Bonin, and Western Brazil observed at ASAR, WRA, and ZRNK arrays, at 59 North America stations and at six South Pole stations displayed conspicuous P4KP and PcP (or ScP) phases. The amplitude ratio values of P4KP vs P(S)cP are sometimes almost one order of magnitude larger than the corresponding values of the synthetics. In both cases, arrival times and slowness values (corrected for ellipticity and station elevation) at the distances up to 23° beyond the A cutoff point predicted by ray theory match both the synthetics, suggesting the observations are the AB branch of PmKP ( m = 4, 5) around 1 Hz. In disagreement to ray theory, no reliable BC branch is observed neither on the recordings nor on the normal-mode synthetics. The high amplitude ratio values cannot be explained by realistic perturbations of the velocity or attenuation values of the global models in the proximity of the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB). We speculate that the focusing effects and/or strong scattering most likely associated to some anomalous velocity areas of the lowermost mantle are responsible for that. The results suggest limitations of the previous evaluations of the short-period attenuation in the outer core from PmKP amplitudes ( m ≥ 3), irrespective of the fact that they are obtained by using ray theory, normal-mode or full-wave synthetics. Attempts to use PmKP arrival times in order to refine velocity structure in the proximity

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Victor G; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J; Roberts, Deborah J; Fox, George E

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Victor G.; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J.

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  9. P4-ATPase Requirement for AP-1/Clathrin Function in Protein Transport from the trans-Golgi Network and Early Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Surendhran, Kavitha; Nothwehr, Steven F.

    2008-01-01

    Drs2p is a resident type 4 P-type ATPase (P4-ATPase) and potential phospholipid translocase of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) where it has been implicated in clathrin function. However, precise protein transport pathways requiring Drs2p and how it contributes to clathrin-coated vesicle budding remain unclear. Here we show a functional codependence between Drs2p and the AP-1 clathrin adaptor in protein sorting at the TGN and early endosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic criteria indicate that Drs2p and AP-1 operate in the same pathway and that AP-1 requires Drs2p for function. In addition, we show that loss of AP-1 markedly increases Drs2p trafficking to the plasma membrane, but does not perturb retrieval of Drs2p from the early endosome back to the TGN. Thus AP-1 is required at the TGN to sort Drs2p out of the exocytic pathway, presumably for delivery to the early endosome. Moreover, a conditional allele that inactivates Drs2p phospholipid translocase (flippase) activity disrupts its own transport in this AP-1 pathway. Drs2p physically interacts with AP-1; however, AP-1 and clathrin are both recruited normally to the TGN in drs2Δ cells. These results imply that Drs2p acts independently of coat recruitment to facilitate AP-1/clathrin-coated vesicle budding from the TGN. PMID:18508916

  10. Cast iron (CI) based soft magnetic BMG Ci88.3Al2Ga1P4.35B4.35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, S. N.; Lee, H. J.; Jeong, Y. H.; Varga, L. K.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal stability, structure, and magnetic properties of bulk type Ci88.3Al2Ga1P4.35B4.35 alloy in ribbon form have been studied using differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Results reveal that crystallization peak temperature (Tx) and Curie temperature (Tc) of the as-cast alloy are respectively 513 and 370 °C. Crystallization of the specimen starts after annealing at 460 °C and α-Fe is precipitated out. Annealing at temperatures higher than 515 °C, produces apart from α-Fe, hard magnetic precipitants (Fe2B, Fe3B), which deteriorate the soft magnetic properties. Lowest coercive field - 9.8 A/m, highest saturation of induction - 1.55 Tesla and best losses - 0.42 W/kg (at 50 Hz and 0.4 kA/m) were obtained for as-cast specimen. Observed good soft magnetic properties of these low cost cast-iron based alloys suggest perspective applications of these soft magnetic alloys as an alternative to the conventional Fe-Si electrical steel and Mn-Zn ferrites.

  11. Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus infection: CHIKV nsP4 suppresses eIF2α phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis (SINV) are arboviruses belonging to the alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family. They cause frequent epidemics of febrile illness and long-term arthralgic sequelae that affect millions of people each year. Both viruses replicate prodigiously in infected patients and in vitro in mammalian cells, suggesting some level of control over the host cellular translational machinery that senses and appropriately directs the cell’s fate through the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR involves BIP (or GRP78), the master sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) together with the three downstream effector branches: inositol-requiring ser/thr protein kinase/endonuclease (IRE-1), PKR-like ER resident kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6). Through careful analysis of CHIKV and SINV infections in cell culture we found that the former selectively activates ATF-6 and IRE-1 branches of UPR and suppresses the PERK pathway. By separately expressing each of the CHIKV proteins as GFP-fusion proteins, we found that non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), which is a RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, suppresses the serine-51 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor, alpha subunit (eIF2α), which in turn regulates the PERK pathway. This study provides insight into a mechanism by which CHIKV replication responds to overcome the host UPR machinery. PMID:23356742

  12. CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Yixing; Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R.

    2011-12-01

    The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

  13. Use Electrospinning to Introduce Graphene into Poly(4-Vinylpridine) (P4VP) Polymer Fibers and Their Biocompatibility with Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linxi; Chang, Chung-Chueh; Rafailovich, Miriam

    Graphene-polymer composite materials have been popularized in tissue engineering due to the outstanding thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. Most of the current studies, however, focus on 2-D structured films which hardly represent the real conditions of scaffolds in vivo environment and dispersion of graphene in polymer matrix has always been challenging since the graphene tends to aggregate. In our study, we have successfully introduced graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) into poly(4-vinphylpridine) (P4VP) matrix and fabricated nano- and micro-scale size fibers by using electrospinning technique. SEM and TEM reveal uniform defect-free fiber structures and good dispersion of graphene; DSC and AFM indicate the enhancement of physical properties. The biocompatibility of the electrospun 3-D scaffolds with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) has been examined. Our results show that the cells can accelerate proliferation to respond to the existence of GNPs. SEM with EDAX reveals a deposition of mineralized calcium matrix on the fibers after 35-day incubation, which has possibly been caused by cell differentiation induced by fibrous scaffolds. Electrospinning Nano- and Mirco-scale size Poly(4-vinphylpridine) Fibers Loaded with Graphene Nano Platelets (GNPs).

  14. Reducing Lattice Thermal Conductivity of the Thermoelectric Compound AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) by Lanthanum Substitution: Computational and Experimental Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouyal, Yaron

    2014-10-01

    In this study we performed lattice dynamics first-principles calculations for the promising thermoelectric (TE) compound AgSbTe2, and estimated the stability of its three polymorphs over a wide temperature range from 0 to 600 K. We calculated the vibrational density of states of the AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) phase. The results suggested that formation of substitutional defects at Ag-sublattice sites impedes lattice vibrations, thereby reducing lattice thermal conductivity. We focused on calculations based on the Debye approximation for the compound La0.125Ag0.875SbTe2, and predicted reduction of the average sound velocity from 1684 to 1563 m s-1 as a result of La doping. This is manifested as a ca. 14% reduction in thermal conductivity. To confirm the results from computation we produced two Ag-Sb-Te-based alloys, a ternary alloy without La addition and a quaternary alloy containing La. We measured the thermal conductivity of both alloys by use of the laser flash analysis method, and, as a result of La alloying, observed a reduction in thermal conductivity from 0.92 to 0.71 W m-1 K-1 at 573 K, as calculated from first principles.

  15. Effect of irradiation with MeV protons and electrons on the conductivity compensation and photoluminescence of moderately doped p-4H-SiC (CVD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovski, V. V.; Lebedev, A. A. Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V.

    2015-09-15

    The compensation of moderately doped p-4H-SiC samples grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method under irradiation with 0.9-MeV electrons and 15-MeV protons is studied. The experimentally measured carrier removal rates are 1.2–1.6 cm{sup –1} for electrons and 240–260 cm{sup –1} for protons. The dependence of the concentration of uncompensated acceptors and donors, measured in the study, demonstrates a linear decrease with increasing irradiation dose to the point of complete compensation. This run of the dependence shows that compensation of the samples is due to the transition of carriers to deep centers formed by primary radiation-induced defects. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to n-SiC (CVD), primary defects in the carbon sublattice of moderately doped p-SiC (CVD) only cannot account for the compensation process. In p-SiC, either primary defects in the silicon sublattice, or defects in both sublattices are responsible for conductivity compensation. Also, photoluminescence spectra are examined in relation to the irradiation dose.

  16. An emerging micro-scale immuno-analytical diagnostic tool to see the unseen. Holding promise for precision medicine and P4 medicine.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Norberto A; Guzman, Daniel E

    2016-05-15

    as a point-of-care instrument and holding promise for precision medicine and P4 medicine. PMID:26657799

  17. 1998-1999 rotavirus seasons in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil: detection of an unusual G3P[4] epidemic strain.

    PubMed

    Rosa E Silva, Maria Luzia; Pires De Carvalho, Iná; Gouvea, Vera

    2002-08-01

    An epidemiologic survey on the rotavirus strains causing gastroenteritis in young children was conducted in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, in Southern Brazil during two consecutive seasons. Rotavirus was detected in 94 of the 1,056 fecal specimens collected from January 1998 to December 1999. Among the 13 discernible long electrophoretic profiles found, one was highly prevalent (73.4%) and represented the rotavirus strain responsible for the May-August winter epidemic outbreak of 1998, as clearly shown in a three-dimensional graph. This epidemic strain, designated JF98, was characterized as subgroup II and genotype G3P[4] by the original reverse transcription-PCR typing assays. Besides the unusual combination of G and P types, this G3 strain lacked reactivity with anti-G3-specific monoclonal antibodies and presented an uncommon pattern upon digestion of its cDNA-copied VP7 gene with the BstYI restriction enzyme. Strain JF98 affected primarily 6- to 24-month-old children and accounted for 85.5% of the severe rotavirus-associated dehydrating diarrhea cases that required hospitalization. As in our previous studies in neighboring Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, a remarkably large proportion (44%) of mixed infections was detected, generating a complex set of circulating strains in the community, represented by the many distinct electropherotypes. Other common human types were detected as minor strains in single or in mixed infections, including the JF98 strain. Those were types G1, G4, G8, G9, P[8], and P[6], but not G2 or G5. One specimen contained a mixture of group A and C rotaviruses. PMID:12149339

  18. Copper Selenidophosphates Cu4P2Se6, Cu4P3Se4, Cu4P4Se3, and CuP2Se, Featuring Zero-, One-, and Two-Dimensional Anions.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Alexander; Schoop, Leslie M; Eger, Roland; Moudrakovski, Igor; Schwarzmüller, Stefan; Duppel, Viola; Kremer, Reinhard K; Oeckler, Oliver; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2016-08-15

    Five new compounds in the Cu/P/Se phase diagram have been synthesized, and their crystal structures have been determined. The crystal structures of these compounds comprise four previously unreported zero-, one-, and two-dimensional selenidophosphate anions containing low-valent phosphorus. In addition to two new modifications of Cu4P2Se6 featuring the well-known hexaselenidohypodiphosphate(IV) ion, there are three copper selenidophosphates with low-valent P: Cu4P3Se4 contains two different new anions, (i) a monomeric (zero-dimensional) selenidophosphate anion [P2Se4](4-) and (ii) a one-dimensional selenidophosphate anion [Formula: see text], which is related to the well-known gray-Se-like [Formula: see text] Zintl anion. Cu4P4Se3 contains one-dimensional [Formula: see text] polyanions, whereas CuP2Se contains the 2D selenidophosphate [Formula: see text] polyanion. It consists of charge-neutral CuP2Se layers separated by a van der Waals gap which is very rare for a Zintl-type phase. Hence, besides black P, CuP2Se constitutes a new possible source of 2D oxidized phosphorus containing layers for intercalation or exfoliation experiments. Additionally, the electronic structures and some fundamental physical properties of the new compounds are reported. All compounds are semiconducting with indirect band gaps of the orders of around 1 eV. The phases reported here add to the structural diversity of chalcogenido phosphates. The structural variety of this family of compounds may translate into a variety of tunable physical properties. PMID:27447868

  19. Ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) prefers the parallel propeller-type human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over its other polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asfa; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    The binding of ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) with telomeric and genomic G-quadruplex DNA has been extensively studied. However, a comparative study of interactions of TMPyP4 with different conformations of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA, namely, parallel propeller-type (PP), antiparallel basket-type (AB), and mixed hybrid-type (MH) G-quadruplex DNA, has not been done. We considered all the possible binding sites in each of the G-quadruplex DNA structures and docked TMPyP4 to each one of them. The resultant most potent sites for binding were analyzed from the mean binding free energy of the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were then carried out, and analysis of the binding free energy of the TMPyP4-G-quadruplex complex showed that the binding of TMPyP4 with parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA is preferred over the other two G-quadruplex DNA conformations. The results obtained from the change in solvent excluded surface area (SESA) and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) also support the more pronounced binding of the ligand with the parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:25526532

  20. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 impairs pollen fitness and alters the pollen tube plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Stephen C; López-Marqués, Rosa L; Cohen, Taylor; Brown, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Alexa; Palmgren, Michael G; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2015-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7) results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance of lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions. PMID:25954280

  1. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 impairs pollen fitness and alters the pollen tube plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Stephen C.; López-Marqués, Rosa L.; Cohen, Taylor; Brown, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Alexa; Palmgren, Michael G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7) results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance of lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions. PMID:25954280

  2. Thermal analysis of a six-channel heat-generating blockage in an LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Warinner, D.K.; Chao, D.H.Y.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the temperature fields within and around a six-channel blockage designed as a molten-fuel-release initiator in SLSF-P4, an in-reactor experiment (37-mixed-oxide pin bundle) planned for February, 1981, irradiation. To meet the experiment objectives, a minimum of ten grams of molten UO/sub 2/ must be ejected into the sodium stream from one, two, or three such blockages. The temperature fields of the electrodeposited-nickel blockage filled with a mixture of UO/sub 2/ powder, stainless steel, and gas are found at intervals of full power. The SS content, type of gas, and porosity were parameters varied in this study which used the computer codes THYME-B, SABRE-1, and ANL's version of THTB. State-of-the-art treatments of the conductivity of the mixture and the gas-gap conductance are included. The contrived-blockage design has been found to maintain structural integrity until sufficient molten fuel exists to release, challenge the subassembly, and be detected by delayed-neutron and fission-product monitors. This will serve to resolve lingering questions on rapid pin-to-pin propagation, blockage propagation, and other local-fault issues.

  3. A simple synthesis and characterization of binary Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and its final decomposition product CoFeP 4O 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonchom, Banjong; Danvirutai, Chanaiporn; Vittayakorn, Naratip

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of binary Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O by a simple, rapid and cost-effective method using CoCO 3-Fe(c)-H 3PO 4 system in water-acetone media at ambient temperature. Thermal transformation of the synthesized powder was investigated by TG/DTG/DTA and DSC techniques, which indicate that its final decomposed product was a binary cobalt iron cyclotetraphosphate CoFeP 4O 12. The FTIR and XRD results of the synthesized Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and the decomposed CoFeP 4O 12 indicate the pure monoclinic phases with space group P2 1/n and C2/c, respectively. The morphologies of Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and CoFeP 4O 12 powders appear non-uniform particle shapes and high agglomerates, which are different from the cases of the single compounds M(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and M 2P 4O 12 (where M = Co, Fe). The magnetic properties of the studied compounds are superparamagnetic behaviors, which are important for specific applications. The physical properties of the studied powders are comparable with those reported in our previous study, affected by medium and condition of preparation method.

  4. Ground and excited state interactions of metalloporphyrin PtTMPyP4 with polynucleotides [poly(dG-dC)]2 and [poly(dA-dT)]2.

    PubMed

    Keane, Páraic M; Kelly, John M

    2016-08-01

    The ground- and excited-state interactions of Pt(ii) meso-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (PtTMPyP4) with polynucleotides [poly(dG-dC)]2 and [poly(dA-dT)]2 have been investigated using UV/visible, circular dichroism, and steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. PtTMPyP4 intercalates into [poly(dG-dC)]2 with K∼ 10(6) M(-1). When bound to [poly(dG-dC)]2 in aerated solution there is a six-fold emission enhancement with 18 nm red-shift in emission maximum. Emission lifetimes are biexponential. In the presence of [poly(dA-dT)]2 at least two distinct groove-binding modes are observed, depending on the binding ratio. In [poly(dA-dT)]2 the emission intensity increases by a maximum factor of 17 with no shift in the emission spectrum. Three exponentials were required for lifetime fitting. The lower extent of emission enhancement in the presence of [poly(dG-dC)]2 suggests that a slow electron transfer may take place to guanine, which is significantly less efficient than that previously observed for PtTMPyP4 in the presence of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP). The results are compared to those previously recorded with free base H2TMPyP4. PMID:27377608

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe85B15 to quinary Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-01

    Fe-based Fe85B15, Fe84B15Cu1, Fe82Si2B15Cu1, Fe85Si2B12Cu1, and Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET®) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔHx1 and ΔHx2) and their crystallization temperatures (Tx1 and Tx2), respectively. The ratio ΔHx1/ΔHx2 measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (Vf) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe85B15 to 0.75 for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (Gα-Fe and Gamor) shows that a relationship Gα-Fe ˜ Gamor holds for the Fe85Si2B12Cu1, whereas Gα-Fe < Gamor for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy at Tx1 and that an extremely high Vf = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy barely forms amorphous phase, which, in turn, leads to high Vf and resultant high Bs.

  6. Measurement of cross sections for the {sup 232}Th(P,4n){sup 229}Pa reaction at low proton energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, C. U.; Griswold, J. R.; Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S.; Stracener, D. W.; Williams, C. L.

    2013-04-19

    The alpha-emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived {sup 229}Th(t{sub 1/2} = 7880y). {sup 229}Th can be produced by proton irradiation of {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into {sup 229}Th. To obtain excitation functions, {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of {sup 229}Pa and its daughter {sup 225}Ac from both {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th. Differential cross-sections for production of {sup 229}Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

  7. Coordinated Overexpression in Yeast of a P4-ATPase and Its Associated Cdc50 Subunit: The Case of the Drs2p/Cdc50p Lipid Flippase Complex.

    PubMed

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cédric; Jacquot, Aurore; Barry, Raphaëlle; Champeil, Philippe; Lenoir, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional characterization of integral membrane proteins requires milligram amounts of purified sample. Unless the protein you are studying is abundant in native membranes, it will be critical to overexpress the protein of interest in a homologous or heterologous way, and in sufficient quantities for further purification. The situation may become even more complicated if you chose to investigate the structure and function of a complex of two or more membrane proteins. Here, we describe the overexpression of a yeast lipid flippase complex, namely the P4-ATPase Drs2p and its associated subunit Cdc50p, in a coordinated manner. Moreover, we can take advantage of the fact that P4-ATPases, like most other P-type ATPases, form an acid-stable phosphorylated intermediate, to verify that the expressed complex is functional. PMID:26695021

  8. Toward the back-up of boceprevir (SCH 503034): discovery of new extended P4-capped ketoamide inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease with improved potency and pharmacokinetic profiles.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Stéphane L; Pan, Weidong; Ruan, Sumei; Nair, Latha G; Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin X; Jao, Edwin; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Liu, Rong; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Guo, Zhuyan; Tong, Xiao; Saksena, Anil K; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F George

    2009-06-25

    Hepatitis C is the most prevalent liver disease. Viral hepatitis C (HCV), a small (+)-RNA virus, infects chronically an estimated 300 million people worldwide. Results of Phase I clinical studies with our first generation HCV inhibitor Boceprevir, SCH 503034 (1), presented at the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) were encouraging, and thus, additional human clinical studies are underway. In view of the positive data from our first generation compound, further work aimed at optimizing its overall profile was undertaken. Herein, we report that extension of our earlier inhibitor to the P(4) pocket and optimization of the P(1)' capping led to the discovery of new ketoamide inhibitors of the HCV NS3 serine protease with improved in vitro potency. In addition to being potent inhibitors of HCV subgenomic RNA replication, some of the new P(4)-capped inhibitors were also found to have improved PK profile. PMID:19456105

  9. Testing for Archaic Hominin Admixture on the X Chromosome: Model Likelihoods for the Modern Human RRM2P4 Region From Summaries of Genealogical Topology Under the Structured Coalescent

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Murray P.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Pilkington, Maya Metni; Kingan, Sarah B.; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Strassmann, Beverly I.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    A 2.4-kb stretch within the RRM2P4 region of the X chromosome, previously sequenced in a sample of 41 globally distributed humans, displayed both an ancient time to the most recent common ancestor (e.g., a TMRCA of ∼2 million years) and a basal clade composed entirely of Asian sequences. This pattern was interpreted to reflect a history of introgressive hybridization from archaic hominins (most likely Asian Homo erectus) into the anatomically modern human genome. Here, we address this hypothesis by resequencing the 2.4-kb RRM2P4 region in 131 African and 122 non-African individuals and by extending the length of sequence in a window of 16.5 kb encompassing the RRM2P4 pseudogene in a subset of 90 individuals. We find that both the ancient TMRCA and the skew in non-African representation in one of the basal clades are essentially limited to the central 2.4-kb region. We define a new summary statistic called the minimum clade proportion (pmc), which quantifies the proportion of individuals from a specified geographic region in each of the two basal clades of a binary gene tree, and then employ coalescent simulations to assess the likelihood of the observed central RRM2P4 genealogy under two alternative views of human evolutionary history: recent African replacement (RAR) and archaic admixture (AA). A molecular-clock-based TMRCA estimate of 2.33 million years is a statistical outlier under the RAR model; however, the large variance associated with this estimate makes it difficult to distinguish the predictions of the human origins models tested here. The pmc summary statistic, which has improved power with larger samples of chromosomes, yields values that are significantly unlikely under the RAR model and fit expectations better under a range of archaic admixture scenarios. PMID:18202385

  10. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive

  11. The structures of marialite (Me[subscript 6]) and meionite (Me[subscript 93]) in space groups P4[subscript 2]/n and I4/m, and the absence of phase transitions in the scapolite series

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.; Hassan, Ishmael

    2014-05-28

    The crystal structures of marialite (Me{sub 6}) from Badakhshan, Afghanistan and meionite (Me{sub 93}) from Mt. Vesuvius, Italy were obtained using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and Rietveld structure refinements. Their structures were refined in space groups I4/m and P42/n, and similar results were obtained. The Me{sub 6} sample has a formula Ca{sub 0.24}Na{sub 3.37}K{sub 0.24}[Al{sub 3.16}Si{sub 8.84}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.84}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.15}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.047555(7), c = 7.563210(6) {angstrom}, and V = 1097.751(1) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The average (T1-O) distances are 1.599(1) {angstrom} in I4/m and 1.600(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n, indicating that the T1 site contains only Si atoms. In P4{sub 2}/n, the average distances of (T2-O) = 1.655(2) and (T3-O) = 1.664(2) {angstrom} are distinct and are not equal to each other. However, the mean (T2,3-O) = 1.659(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n and is identical to the (T2-O) = 1.659(1) {angstrom} in I4/m. The (M-O) [7] = 2.754(1) {angstrom} (M site is coordinated to seven framework O atoms) and M-A = 2.914(1) {angstrom}; these distances are identical in both space groups. The Me{sub 93} sample has a formula of Na{sub 0.29}Ca{sub 3.76}[Al{sub 5.54}Si{sub 6.46}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.05}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.02}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.93}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.19882(1), c = 7.576954(8) {angstrom}, and V = 1127.535(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}. A similar examination of the Me{sub 93} sample also shows that both space groups give similar results; however, the C-O distance is more reasonable in P4{sub 2}/n than in I4/m. Refining the scapolite structure near Me{sub 0} or Me{sub 100} in I4/m forces the T2 and T3 sites (both with multiplicity 8 in P4{sub 2}/n) to be equivalent and form the T2' site (with multiplicity 16 in I4/m), but (T2-O) is not equal to (T3-O) in P4{sub 2}/n. Using different space groups for different regions across the series implies phase transitions

  12. Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

    2004-10-01

    At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

  13. Crystal structure, spectroscopic, magnetic and electronic structure studies of a novel Cu(II) amino acid complex [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]2(P4O12)·8H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemissi, H.; Nasri, M.; Abid, S.; Al-Deyab, S. S.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.; Rzaigui, M.

    2012-12-01

    Single crystals of a novel copper (II) complex with the amino acid L-arginine (L-arg) and cyclotetraphosphate, [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]2(P4O12)·8H2O, were prepared in aqueous solution and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance, UV-vis and IR) and thermal analysis. Magnetic measurements and electronic structure calculations were also performed. Crystal structure determination reveals that this compound has a nonsymmetrical atomic arrangement, containing mainly a binuclear [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]24+ cation and an uncoordinated cyclotetraphosphate counter-anion (P4O124-). The tetravalent cation contains two independent Cu(II) ions in two different chemical environments. This compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic (AFM) to paramagnetic (PM) phase transition at a temperature (TN) lower than 2 K. The values of paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature (θcw) and the exchange parameter (J/KB) emphasize the existence of an antiferromagnetic interaction between the neighboring copper ions.

  14. New mercury-contained cationic frameworks stabilized by (GaCl4)- unit via weak electrostatic forces in supramolecular compounds (Hg11P4)(GaCl4)4 and (Hg3AsS)(GaCl4).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Xiao-Guo; Fan, Yu-Hang; Liu, Bin-Wen; Zeng, Hui-Yi; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2013-11-21

    Two new inorganic supramolecular compounds, (Hg11P4)(GaCl4)4 (1) and (Hg3AsS)(GaCl4) (2), have been prepared by the solid-state reactions. Their structures are characterized by mercury-containing cationic hosts and discrete (GaCl4)(-) guests, which is a derivative of a very strong Lewis acid. The three-dimensional cationic framework of 1, (Hg11P4)(4+), is marvellously extended by Hg2(2+) and Hg3(2+) groups as well as Hg(2+) ions to form two large tunnels with different sizes each embedded with two columns of (GaCl4)(-) anions. Compound 2 features a layered structure with (GaCl4)(-) tetrahedra being intercalated between two-dimensional (Hg3AsS)(+) layers and it is the first mercury pnictidechalcohalide. It is found that the weak electrostatic forces between hosts and guests play a key role in the stabilization of the whole structures of 1 and 2, which is strikingly different from almost all the reported metal pnictidehalide and chalcohalide supramolecular compounds. Optical dielectric constants calculations show that both 1 and 2 possess strong dielectric anisotropy. PMID:24022795

  15. Long-range and short-range magnetic correlations, and microscopic origin of net magnetization in the spin-1 trimer chain compound CaNi3P4O14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, A. K.; Yusuf, S. M.; Kumar, Amit; Majumder, M.; Ghoshray, K.; Keller, L.

    2016-05-01

    Spin-spin correlations and microscopic origin of net magnetization in the spin-1 trimer chain compound CaNi3P4O14 have been investigated by powder neutron diffraction. The present study reveals a three-dimensional long-range magnetic ordering below 16 K where the magnetic structure consists of ferromagnetic trimers that are coupled ferromagnetically along the spin-chain direction (b axis). The moment components along the a and c axes arrange antiferromagnetically. Our study establishes that the uncompensated moment components along the b axis (mb) result in a net magnetization per unit cell. The magnetic structure, determined in the present study, is in agreement with the results of recent first-principles calculation; however, it is in contrast to a fascinating experimental prediction of ferrimagnetic ordering based on the periodicity of the exchange interactions in CaNi3P4O14 . Our study also confirms the presence of broad diffuse magnetic scattering, due to one-dimensional short-range spin-spin correlations, over a wide temperature range below ˜50 K down to a temperature well below the Tc. Total neutron scattering analysis by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method reveals that the dominating spin-spin correlation above Tc is ferromagnetic and along the b axis. The nearest-neighbor spin-spin correlations along the a and c axes are found to be weakly antiferromagnetic. The nature of the trimer spin structure of the short-range ordered state (above Tc) is similar to that of the 3D long-range ordered state (below Tc). The present investigation of microscopic nature of the magnetic ground state also explains the condition required for the 1/3 magnetization plateau to be observed in the trimer spin chains. In spite of the S =1 trimer chain system, the present compound CaNi3P4O14 is found to be a good realization of a three-dimensional magnet below Tc=16 K with full ordered moment values of ˜2 μB/Ni2 + (1.98 and 1.96 μB/Ni2 + for two Ni sites, respectively) at 1.5 K.

  16. SYSTEM PARAMETERS, TRANSIT TIMES, AND SECONDARY ECLIPSE CONSTRAINTS OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEMS HAT-P-4, TrES-2, TrES-3, and WASP-3 FROM THE NASA EPOXI MISSION OF OPPORTUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2011-01-10

    As part of the NASA EPOXI Mission of Opportunity, we observed seven known transiting extrasolar planet systems in order to construct time series photometry of extremely high phase coverage and precision. Here we present the results for four 'hot-Jupiter systems' with near-solar stars-HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, and WASP-3. We observe 10 transits of HAT-P-4, estimating the planet radius R{sub p} = 1.332 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}, the stellar radius R{sub *} = 1.602 {+-} 0.061 R{sub sun}, the inclination i = 89.67 {+-} 0.30 deg, and the transit duration from first to fourth contact {tau} = 255.6 {+-} 1.9 minutes. For TrES-3, we observe seven transits and find R{sub p} = 1.320 {+-} 0.057 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.817 {+-} 0.022 R{sub sun}, i = 81.99 {+-} 0.30 deg, and {tau} = 81.9 {+-} 1.1 minutes. We also note a long-term variability in the TrES-3 light curve, which may be due to star spots. We observe nine transits of TrES-2 and find R{sub p} = 1.169 {+-} 0.034 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.940 {+-} 0.026 R{sub sun}, i = 84.15 {+-} 0.16 deg, and {tau} = 107.3 {+-} 1.1 minutes. Finally, we observe eight transits of WASP-3, finding R{sub p} = 1.385 {+-} 0.060 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 1.354 {+-} 0.056 R{sub sun}, i = 84.22 {+-} 0.81 deg, and {tau} = 167.3 {+-} 1.3 minutes. We present refined orbital periods and times of transit for each target. We state 95% confidence upper limits on the secondary eclipse depths in our broadband visible bandpass centered on 650 nm. These limits are 0.073% for HAT-P-4, 0.062% for TrES-3, 0.16% for TrES-2, and 0.11% for WASP-3. We combine the TrES-3 secondary eclipse information with the existing published data and confirm that the atmosphere likely does not have a temperature inversion.

  17. Ce4(P1-xSi x)3-z: a first example for the stabilization of the anti-Th3P4 type structure by substitution in the non-metal substructure.

    PubMed

    Chizhov, Pavel S; Khasanova, Nellie R; Baitinger, Michael; Schnelle, Walter; Prots, Yuri; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Antipov, Evgeny V; Grin, Yuri

    2006-09-01

    A first rare-earth phosphide silicide Ce4(P(1-x)Si(x))(3-z) and its analogues with La, Pr, and Nd were synthesized and characterized. The compounds crystallize in the anti-Th3P4 structure type. The cerium compound shows a mixed occupation of the 12a site with Si and P and possesses a wide homogeneity range with respect to x and z variation. The electronic configuration of Ce, deduced from magnetic susceptibility and X-ray absorption spectroscopy data, remains 4f(1) (Ce3+) independently from x and z. The cerium valence and the phase stability region are discussed employing electronic band-structure calculation and chemical bonding analysis with electron localization function. Atomic interactions are shown to remain nearly unchanged, while the change of the excess electron concentration with P/Si substitution is considered to play the main role for the stabilization of the structural motif. PMID:16933921

  18. Observation of Cu nanometre scale clusters formed in Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy by a spherical aberration-corrected TEM/STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, Masahiko; Matsuura, Makoto; Zhang, Yan; Makino, Akihiro

    2015-05-01

    Microstructure of a nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy (NANOMET®) was investigated by the state of the art spherical aberration-corrected TEM/STEM. Observation by TEM shows that the microstructure of NANOMET® heat treated at 738 K for 600 s which exhibits the optimum soft magnetic properties has homogeneously distributed bcc-Fe nanocrystallites with the average grain size of 30 nm embedded in an amorphous matrix. Elemental mappings indicate that P is excluded from bcc-Fe grains and enriched outside the grains, which causes to retard the grain growth of bcc-Fe crystallites. The aberration-corrected STEM-EDS analysis with the ultrafine electron probe successfully proved that Cu atoms form nanometre scale clusters inside and/or outside the bcc-Fe nanocrystallites.

  19. Structure analyses of Cu nanoclusters in the soft magnetic Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 alloy by XAFS and fcc cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Nishijima, M.; Konno, K.; Ofuchi, H.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2016-05-01

    Size of the clusters and structure details of fcc Cu clusters in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy of Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET) are investigated. A linear combination fitting of XAFS data indicates that about 30% of Cu atoms are partitioned in the fcc clusters and the rest in the amorphous matrix. EXAFS of the fcc Cu nanocluster embedded in amorphous matrix is calculated on the basis of a simple fcc structure model using FEFF9. Surface effect of the nanoclusters is considered by counting a fraction of the nearest neighbour atoms in amorphous matrix. Good agreement with the experimental result is obtained for the fcc nanocluster with 9 coordination shells which consists of total 177 atoms within 1.5 nm in a diameter.

  20. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection. PMID:26280524

  1. Psychology Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  2. Electron excitation cross sections for the 2s(2)2p(3)4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2D(O) (forbidden) and 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P (resonance) transitions in O II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuo, M.; Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, I. D.; Tayal, S. S.; Mclaughlin, Brendan M.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the first forbidden transition 4S(O) -- 2S(2)2p(3) 2D(O) (lambda-lambda 3726, 3729) and the first allowed (resonance) transition 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P(lambda-833) in O II. Use is made of electron energy loss and merged-beams methods. The electron energy range covered is 3.33 (threshold) to 15 eV for the S -- D transition, and 14.9 (threshold) to 40 eV for the S -- P transition. Care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction of the O II beam. An electron mirror was designed and tested to reflect inelastically backscattered electrons into the forward direction to account for the full range of polar scattering angles. Comparisons are made between present experiments and 11-state R-matrix calculations. Calculations are also presented for the 4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2P(O) (lambda-2470) transition.

  3. Phorbol ester stimulates ethanolamine release from the metastatic basal prostate cancer cell line PC3 but not from prostate epithelial cell lines LNCaP and P4E6

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, J; Noble, A; Otsuka, M; Berry, P; Maitland, N J; Rumsby, M G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malignancy alters cellular complex lipid metabolism and membrane lipid composition and turnover. Here, we investigated whether tumorigenesis in cancer-derived prostate epithelial cell lines influences protein kinase C-linked turnover of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EtnPGs) and alters the pattern of ethanolamine (Etn) metabolites released to the medium. Methods: Prostate epithelial cell lines P4E6, LNCaP and PC3 were models of prostate cancer (PCa). PNT2C2 and PNT1A were models of benign prostate epithelia. Cellular EtnPGs were labelled with [1-3H]-Etn hydrochloride. PKC was activated with phorbol ester (TPA) and inhibited with Ro31-8220 and GF109203X. D609 was used to inhibit PLD (phospholipase D). [3H]-labelled Etn metabolites were resolved by ion-exchange chromatography. Sodium oleate and mastoparan were tested as activators of PLD2. Phospholipase D activity was measured by a transphosphatidylation reaction. Cells were treated with ionomycin to raise intracellular Ca2+ levels. Results: Unstimulated cell lines release mainly Etn and glycerylphosphorylEtn (GPEtn) to the medium. Phorbol ester treatment over 3h increased Etn metabolite release from the metastatic PC3 cell line and the benign cell lines PNT2C2 and PNT1A but not from the tumour-derived cell lines P4E6 and LNCaP; this effect was blocked by Ro31-8220 and GF109203X as well as by D609, which inhibited PLD in a transphosphatidylation reaction. Only metastatic PC3 cells specifically upregulated Etn release in response to TPA treatment. Oleate and mastoparan increased GPEtn release from all cell lines at the expense of Etn. Ionomycin stimulated GPEtn release from benign PNT2C2 cells but not from cancer-derived cell lines P4E6 or PC3. Ethanolamine did not stimulate the proliferation of LNCaP or PC3 cell lines but decreased the uptake of choline (Cho). Conclusions: Only the metastatic basal PC3 cell line specifically increased the release of Etn on TPA treatment most probably by PKC activation of

  4. Distinct Transmissibility Features of TSE Sources Derived from Ruminant Prion Diseases by the Oral Route in a Transgenic Mouse Model (TgOvPrP4) Overexpressing the Ovine Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arsac, Jean-Noël; Baron, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a misfolded form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP). Some of them, such as classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (BSE), transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), kuru and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans, are acquired by the oral route exposure to infected tissues. We investigated the possible transmission by the oral route of a panel of strains derived from ruminant prion diseases in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4) overexpressing the ovine prion protein (A136R154Q171) under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Sources derived from Nor98, CH1641 or 87V scrapie sources, as well as sources derived from L-type BSE or cattle-passaged TME, failed to transmit by the oral route, whereas those derived from classical BSE and classical scrapie were successfully transmitted. Apart from a possible effect of passage history of the TSE agent in the inocula, this implied the occurrence of subtle molecular changes in the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) following oral transmission that can raises concerns about our ability to correctly identify sheep that might be orally infected by the BSE agent in the field. Our results provide proof of principle that transgenic mouse models can be used to examine the transmissibility of TSE agents by the oral route, providing novel insights regarding the pathogenesis of prion diseases. PMID:24797075

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Layered Aluminophosphate [Al 3P 4O 16][(CH 3) 2NHCH 2CH 2NH(CH 3) 2][H 3O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wenfu; Yu, Jihong; Li, Yi; Shi, Zhan; Xu, Ruren

    2002-09-01

    A new layered aluminophosphate, denoted AlPO-CJ12, has been synthesized in the system Al(OPr i) 3-H 3PO 4-tetramethylethylenediamine-triethyleneglycol and its structure solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It is further characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, ICP, TG, DTA, and elemental analyses. The compound has an empirical formula of [Al 3P 4O 16][(CH 3) 2NHCH 2CH 2NH(CH 3) 2][H 3O], and crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 (No. 2) with a=8.9907(6) Å b=9.8359(6) Å, c=14.5566(8) Å, α=75.872(3)°, β=88.616(3)°, γ=63.404(3)°, Z=2, R1=0.0451, and w R2=0.1094. The alternation of tetrahedral AlO 4 and PO 3 (=O) units forms a sheet structure with a 4×6×8 network. The inorganic layers stacked in an AAAA sequence are held together by the protonated organic amine and water molecules. The co-templating role of the water molecules is studied by the calculation of the nonbonding host-guest interaction energies through a computational simulation.

  6. Alignment of Ar{sup +} [{sup 3}P]4p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} satellite state from the polarization analysis of fluorescent radiation after photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Yenen, O.; McLaughlin, K.W.; Jaecks, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    The measurement of the polarization of radiation from satellite states of Ar{sup +} formed after the photoionization of Ar provides detailed information about the nature of doubly excited states, magnetic sublevel cross sections and partial wave ratios of the photo-ejected electrons. Since the formation of these satellite states is a weak process, it is necessary to use a high flux beam of incoming photons. In addition, in order to resolve the many narrow doubly excited Ar resonances, the incoming photons must have a high resolution. The characteristics of the beam line 9.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source fulfill these requirements. The authors determined the polarization of 4765 {Angstrom} fluorescence from the Ar{sup +} [{sup 3}P] 4p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{sup 0} satellite state formed after photoionization of Ar by photons from the 9.0.1 beam line of ALS in the 35.620-38.261 eV energy range using a resolution of approximately 12,700. This is accomplished by measuring the intensities of the fluorescent light polarized parallel (I{parallel}) and perpendicular (I{perpendicular}) to the polarization axis of the incident synchrotron radiation using a Sterling Optics 105MB polarizing filter. The optical system placed at 90{degrees} with respect to the polarization axis of the incident light had a narrow band interference filter ({delta}{lambda}=0.3 nm) to isolate the fluorescent radiation.

  7. The influence of dopant concentration on temperature dependent emission spectra in LiLa1-x-yEuxTbyP4O12 nanocrystals: toward rational design of highly-sensitive luminescent nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, L; Bednarkiewicz, A

    2016-06-21

    Luminescence nanothermometry is gaining great interest, and different excitation and readout schemes have been sought to improve temperature sensitivity and sensing range, or to simplify the readout. Although many up-conversion based nanothermometers have been studied, Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) doped systems have not been widely considered, so far. Herein, we report the synthesis of new LiLa1-x-yEuxTbyP4O12 nanocrystals for luminescent thermal sensing; their spectroscopic properties have been investigated in a wide range of compositions and temperatures. In particular, the impact of dopant concentration on energy transfer processes (such as energy transfer, back energy transfer, energy diffusion and cross relaxation) is presented in a quantitative manner, both experimentally and theoretically, which enables the intentional optimization of the composition to find the finest balance between temperature sensitive excitation and depletion phenomena, and thus, enhance the luminescent thermometry properties. The studied thermometers can be applied in as wide a temperature range as 77-600 K, where they demonstrate sensitivity up to 1% K(-1), which is the highest among the Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) doped inorganic phosphor based materials, to date. PMID:27220884

  8. Simulated Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snadden, R. B.; Runquist, O.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an experiment in which a programmable calculator is employed as a data generating system for simulated laboratory experiments. The example used as an illustration is a simulated conductimetric titration of an aqueous solution of HC1 with an aqueous solution of NaOH. (Author/EB)

  9. Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  10. TRIO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  11. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  12. Experience Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laslett, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The author, a tertiary chemistry teacher, spent a period of six weeks in a research project with an industrial firm. Describes his experience, the benefits and insight he gained from such an exchange. (GA)

  13. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  14. Phase transition from fcc to bcc structure of the Cu-clusters during nanocrystallization of Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 soft magnetic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, Masahiko; Matsuura, Makoto; Takenaka, Kana; Takeuchi, Akira; Ofuchi, Hironori; Makino, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    A role of Cu on the nanocrystallization of an Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 alloy was investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Cu K-edge XAFS results show that local structure around Cu is disordered for the as-quenched sample whereas it changes to fcc-like structure at 613 K. The fcc Cu-clusters are, however, thermodynamically unstable and begin to transform into bcc structure at 638 K. An explicit bcc structure is observed for the sample annealed at 693 K for 600 s in which TEM observation shows that precipitated bcc-Fe crystallites with ˜12 nm are homogeneously distributed. The bcc structure of the Cu-clusters transforms into the fcc-type again at 973 K, which can be explained by the TEM observations; Cu segregates at grain boundaries between bcc-Fe crystallites and Fe3(B,P) compounds. Combining the XAFS results with the TEM observations, the structure transition of the Cu-clusters from fcc to bcc is highly correlated with the preliminary precipitation of the bcc-Fe which takes place prior to the onset of the first crystallization temperature, Tx1 = 707 K. Thermodynamic analysis suggests that an interfacial energy density γ between an fcc-Cu cluster and bcc-Fe matrix dominates at a certain case over the structural energy between fcc and bcc Cu, ΔGfcc - bcc, which causes phase transition of the Cu clusters from fcc to bcc structure.

  15. Low core losses and magnetic properties of Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys with high B for power applications (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Akihiro; Kubota, Takeshi; Yubuta, Kunio; Inoue, Akihisa; Urata, Akiri; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

    2011-04-01

    Recently, the energy crisis and the continued growth in electrical power generation strongly demand minimization of wasteful energy dissipation. Magnetic core loss (W) is the main source of energy dissipation in motors and transformers. This requires the development of soft magnetic materials with low coercivity (Hc) and high magnetic flux density (B). Fe-rich Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (at. %) alloy ribbons made from industrial raw materials (containing some impurities) with 6 mm in width have a heteroamorphous structure containing a large number of extremely small Fe grains (less than 3 nm), resulting from the unique effects of P and Cu addition in proper amounts. Crystallization of these alloys by annealing shows a uniform precipitation of α-Fe, leading to a uniform nanocrystallized structure of α-Fe grains, 16-19 nm in size, accompanied by an intergranular amorphous layer about 1 nm in width. The wide ribbons exhibit high B of 1.82-1.85 T (at 800 A/m), almost comparable to commercial oriented Fe-3 mass% Si alloys. Excellent magnetic softness (low Hc of 2.6-5.8 A/m, high permeability of 2.4-2.7 × 104 at 1 kHz and small saturation magnetostriction of 2.3-2.4 × 10-6) along with high electrical resistivity (0.67-0.74 μΩ m) of these alloys result in superior frequency characteristics of core losses and a much lower W at 50 Hz up to the maximum induction of 1.75 T, in comparison to the silicon steels now in practical use for power applications.

  16. The Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  17. Experiment 2042

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Zora V.; Dennis, Bert R.; Dreesen, Donald S.; Fehler, Michael C.; House, Leigh S.; Walter, Fritz; Zyvoloski, George A.

    1984-09-10

    Experiment 2042, an injection test in EE-3, was conducted from May 15, 1984 through May 19, 1984. During this four day test ~2 million gallons of water were injected with a maximum injection rate of ~10BPM at 6000 psi. It was planned as a pumping test of the lower zone of well EE-3 (the open hole region from 11,400 ft to 11,648 ft) to test the reservoir characteristics and fracture-seismic system first created during Experiment 2025. However early in the experiment it became apparent that there was some sort connection between the lower zone and the upper "low pressure" zone in EE-3 (from the casing shoe at 10374 ft to about 10900 ft). Available information ruled out a packer failure or other direct connection between these zones so the experiment was continued as planned. Although not a major goal of the experiment, it was hoped that fractures would propagate from EE-3 to EE-2, so hydraulic communication could be established between the two wells, however this did not occur.

  18. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  19. [Anaphylaxis due to peach with negative ImmunoCAP result to peach allergens, including rPru p 1, rPru p 3, AND rPru p 4: a report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Nobuko; Inomata, Naoko; Morita, Akiko; Kirino, Mio; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2009-02-01

    We report two cases of anaphylactic reactions to peach with negative result of ImmunoCAP to peach. Case 1 is a 35-year-old man, who felt an itch in his oral cavity immediately after ingesting a whole fresh peach. He rapidly developed generalized urticaria, dyspnea, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. He recovered after treatment at a local hospital, thereafter he was referred to our hospital because ImmunoCAP conducted for screening allergens revealed a negative test result to peach and the cause of anaphylaxis remained unclear. He had a history of pollinosis. He reported that he previously felt an itch on his oral cavity after ingesting melon, watermelon, apple, and strawberry. Serum total IgE was 436 IU/ml. CAP-RAST revealed negative results to peach, strawberry and kiwi. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with raw peach pulp, canned peach pulp, strawberry and kiwi were positive. Case 2 is a 30-year-old woman who felt an itch on her oral cavity accompanied by blepharedema, rhinorrhea, generalized urticaria, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea after eating peach. She had a history of pollinosis. She reported that she previously developed urticaria after ingesting an apple. Serum total IgE was 85 IU/ml. ImmunoCAP revealed negative results to peach and apple. SPTs with canned yellow peach, strawberry and apple were positive. Consequently, the two patients were diagnosed with anaphylaxis due to peach, and allergic symptoms have never recurred since they avoided ingesting peach. Furthermore, in two patients ImmunoCAP to rPru p 1, rPru p 3, and rPru p 4 were negative. However, in IgE-immunoblotting of peach, serum IgE antibodies of two patients were bound to approximately 10 kDa proteins. Meanwhile, the cross-reactivity between Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apple, apricot, and plum, has been reported. These results suggest that in patients, who are suspected of having peach anaphylaxis and show a negative ImmunoCAP result to peach, the additional testing, such as SPT with

  20. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Calaspargase Pegol Escherichia coli L-Asparaginase in the Treatment of Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From Children's Oncology Group Study AALL07P4

    PubMed Central

    Angiolillo, Anne L.; Schore, Reuven J.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Borowitz, Michael J.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Keilani, Taha; Lane, Ashley R.; Loh, Mignon L.; Reaman, Gregory H.; Adamson, Peter C.; Wood, Brent; Wood, Charlotte; Zheng, Hao W.; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Winick, Naomi J.; Carroll, William L.; Hunger, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Asparaginase is a critical agent used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Pegaspargase (SS-PEG), a pegylated form of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase with a succinimidyl succinate (SS) linker, is the first-line asparaginase product used in Children's Oncology Group (COG) ALL trials. Calaspargase pegol (SC-PEG) replaces the SS linker in SS-PEG with a succinimidyl carbamate linker, creating a more stable molecule. COG AALL07P4 was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparability of SC-PEG to SS-PEG in patients with newly diagnosed high-risk (HR) B-cell ALL. Patients and Methods A total of 165 evaluable patients were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to receive SC-PEG at 2,100 (SC-PEG2100; n = 69) or 2,500 IU/m2 (SC-PEG2500; n = 42) versus SS-PEG 2,500 IU/m2 (SS-PEG2500; n = 54) as part of an otherwise identical chemotherapy regimen. The groups were similar demographically, except more female patients received SC-PEG2500. Results The mean half-life of plasma asparaginase activity for both SC-PEG doses was approximately 2.5× longer than that of SS-PEG2500. The total systemic exposure, as defined by induction area under the curve from time 0 to 25 days, was greater with SC-PEG2500 than with SS-PEG2500 or SC-PEG2100. The proportion of patients with plasma asparaginase activity ≥ 100 mIU/mL and ≥ 400 mIU/mL was higher in patients who received SC-PEG as compared with SS-PEG2500. After one dose of pegylated asparaginase on induction day 4, plasma asparagine was undetectable for 11 days for SS-PEG2500 and 18 days for both SC-PEG groups. Conclusion SC-PEG2500 achieves a significantly longer period of asparaginase activity above defined thresholds and asparagine depletion compared with SS-PEG2500 and has a comparable toxicity profile in children with HR B-cell ALL. PMID:25348002

  1. Pay for performance in health care: strategic issues for Australian experiments.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian A

    2007-07-01

    In response to persisting quality problems in clinical practice, policymakers in various countries, including Australia, are experimenting with pay-for-performance (P4P) schemes that tie a portion of provider payments to performance on measures of quality. Rigorous studies of P4P efficacy are relatively few, with many focused on preventive care in ambulatory settings and many suggesting only modest gains in performance. Several key issues need to be considered in determining the optimal design and implementation methods for P4P programs, including: the choice of clinical practice area; the size of financial incentives and who should receive them; the selection of quality measures and performance thresholds that determine incentive eligibility; data collection methods; and the best mix of financial and non-financial incentives. A proposed framework to guide Australian initiatives in P4P emphasises early clinician involvement in development, a phased approach from "pay-for-participation" in performance measurement to P4P within several pilot demonstration programs, and investment in clinical information technology. PMID:17605700

  2. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  3. XMASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Ko

    2016-06-01

    XMASS is a single phase liquid xenon scintillator detector. The project is designed for multi purposes, dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and 7Be/pp solar neutrino. As the first step of project, XMASS-I detector with 832kg sensitive volume started operation from Dec. 2010. In this paper, recent obtained physics results from commissioning data, refurbishment of detector and future step of experiment are presented.

  4. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  5. SANE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    H. Baghdasaryan, SANE Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) is a measurement of parallel and near-perpendicular double spin asymmetries in an inclusive electron scattering. The main goal of the experiment was to measure A{sub {parallel}} and A{sub 80} and extract the spin asymmetries of the proton A{sub 1}{sup p}, A{sub 2}{sup p} and spin structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 2}{sup p}. Using the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's polarized electron beam and the University of Virginia's polarized frozen ammonia ({sup 14}NH{sub 3}) target in Hall C, the experiment ran in 2009, collecting data in a Q{sup 2} region from 2.5 to 6.5 GeV{sup 2} and between Bjorken x of 0.3 to 0.8. Particle detection was accomplished using the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA), a novel non-magnetic detector. This talk will address the progress of the analysis designed to extract the proton spin asymmetries and structure functions. Preliminary results will be presented.

  6. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  7. Technique of analysis and error detection for thermo-hydraulic system data

    SciTech Connect

    Bordner, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Statistical techniques based on estimation theory were developed for the analysis of steady-state data from thermo-hydraulic systems, which could be either experimental loops or operating power plants. The method seeks to resolve errors in the component heat balances which describe the system, to obtain system parameter estimates which are more accurate than the raw data, and to flag possible faulty sensors. Sample results are given for the analysis of test data from the Sodium Loop Safety Faciltiy (SLSF) P3 experiment.

  8. The metaphor of experience and the experience of metaphor: critical reflection on a contemplative process toward aliveness and compassion.

    PubMed

    Kuchan, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    An epistemological web invites critical reflection and the possibility of new ideas emerging in the space between experience and different ways of thinking. A web offers a postmodern method of a hermeneutic of experience and a way of knowing that creates space for a robust, flexible, dynamic process of critical reflection and discovery. The following article utilizes an inter-textual epistemological web (see Figure 1, p. 4) to answer the question, "Do metaphors of experience and experiences of metaphor during contemplative healing prayer with a spiritual director nurture a transformational process toward aliveness and compassion?" How can one discover and communicate this reality in dialog with Hebrew scripture, psychoanalytic theory, affective neuroscience and ways of thinking about contemplative transformation? PMID:20306943

  9. Energy level properties of 4p4d, 4p4d4f, and 4p4d configurations of the W ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, P.; Kisielius, R.

    2014-11-01

    The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectroscopic parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions was used to derive spectral data for the multicharged tungsten ion W35+. The configuration interaction method was applied to include the electron-correlation effects. The relativistic effects were taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation for quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock radial orbitals. The energy level spectra, radiative lifetimes τ, and Lande g-factors have been calculated for the 4p64d3, 4p64d24f, and 4p54d4 configurations of the W35+ ion.

  10. Pay for Performance: Are Hospitals Becoming More Efficient in Improving Their Patient Experience?

    PubMed

    Stanowski, Anthony Charles; Simpson, Kit; White, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) changed the way hospitals interact with patients when it implemented a pay-for-performance (P4P) system. Under this system, a financial reward or penalty is based in part on measures of patient experience. The program seeks to reward healthcare providers who expand their focus from solely delivering a highly technical set of services that improves the patient's health to creating an atmosphere that makes hospitalization more humane and respectful of patients' values and preferences. Refocusing priorities requires capital investment in more "patient-friendly" facilities or funding staff training programs. This study seeks to determine whether a relationship exists between inpatient costs and the score for "overall rating of hospital" (ORH) on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) hospital version survey. Second, if a relationship exists, the study examines how that relationship changed during the time of CMS' implementation of its P4P program. The study's findings suggest that higher-cost hospitals have higher levels of positive patient experiences, after controlling for other variables. Importantly, the research findings indicate that hospitals are becoming more efficient in delivering care associated with higher levels of patient experience, coinciding with implementation of the P4P program. PMID:26364350

  11. Sleep Monitoring Experiment - Skylab Experiment M133

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows equipment for the Skylab's Sleep Monitoring Experiment (M133), a medical evaluation designed to objectively determine the amount and quality of crewmembers' inflight sleep. The experiment monitored and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity during astronauts' sleep periods. One of the astronauts was selected for this experiment and wore a fitted cap during his sleep periods. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  12. Substrate trajectory through phospholipid-transporting P4-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    A difference in the lipid composition between the two leaflets of the same membrane is a relatively simple instance of lipid compositional heterogeneity. The large activation energy barrier for transbilayer movement for some (but not all) membrane lipids creates a regime governed by active transport processes. An early step in eukaryote evolution was the development of a capacity for generating transbilayer compositional heterogeneity far from equilibrium by directly tapping energy from the ATP pool. The mechanism of the P-type ATPases that create lipid asymmetry is well understood in terms of ATP hydrolysis, but the trajectory taken by the phospholipid substrate through the enzyme is a matter of current active research. There are currently three different models for this trajectory, all with support by mutation/activity measurements and analogies with known atomic structures. PMID:25233416

  13. Patterns for Success: Team Building (P4). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on team building is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  14. The challenges in achieving successful P4P programs.

    PubMed

    Blecker, Emily

    2014-03-01

    (1) Study results indicate that neither the quality scorecard nor the quality incentive payment program had a significant positive effect on general clinical quality. (2) Three main factors likely combined to weaken program effects: (1) modest size of the incentive; (2) use of rewards only; (3) targeting incentive payments to the group rather than to individuals. (3) The researchers found that, relative to the scorecard and reporting alone, the addition of the Quality Incentive Payment Structure (QIP) was associated with a reduction in quality, a result contrary to the intent of the payment incentive program. PMID:24654291

  15. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Described are three physics experiments: (1) "Holographic Prism"; (2) "Teaching about Energy with the Gravicar"; and (3) "The Coherer." In each experiment, a brief description of the experiment devised is provided with diagrams and references. (YP)

  16. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes: (1) experiments using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity experiments involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of experiments. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)

  17. Physician response to pay-for-performance: evidence from a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhu; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeCicca, Philip; Buckley, Gioia

    2014-08-01

    This study exploits a natural experiment in the province of Ontario, Canada, to identify the impact of pay-for-performance (P4P) incentives on the provision of targeted primary care services and whether physicians' responses differ by age, size of patient population, and baseline compliance level. We use administrative data that cover the full population of Ontario and nearly all the services provided by primary care physicians. We employ a difference-in-differences approach that controls for selection on observables and selection on unobservables that may cause estimation bias. We implement a set of robustness checks to control for confounding from other contemporaneous interventions of the primary care reform in Ontario. The results indicate that responses were modest and that physicians responded to the financial incentives for some services but not others. The results provide a cautionary message regarding the effectiveness of employing P4P to increase the quality of health care. PMID:23861240

  18. How the change of the ligand from L = porphine, P2-, to L = P4-substituted porphine, P(P)42-, affects the electronic properties and the M-L binding energies for the first-row transition metals M = Sc-Zn: Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Aleksey E.

    2016-05-01

    We performed comparative DFT study, including Natural Bond Orbitals (NBO) analysis, of the binding energies between all the first-row transition metals Mn+ (M = Sc-Zn) and two ligands of the similar type: porphine, P2-, and its completely P-substituted counterpart, P(P)42-. The main findings are as follows: (i) complete substitution of all the pyrrole nitrogens with P-atoms does not affect the ground spin state of metalloporphyrins; (ii) generally, for the MP(P)4 compounds the calculated HOMO/LUMO gaps and optical gaps are smaller than for their MP counterparts; (iii) the trends in the change of the binding energies between Mn+ and P(P)42-/P2- are very similar for both ligands. The complete substitution of the pyrrole nitrogens by the P-atoms decreases the Mn+-ligand binding energies; all the MP(P)4 compounds studied are stable according to the calculated Ebind values and therefore can be potentially synthesized.

  19. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  20. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  1. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  2. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  3. Adaptive Structures Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Maurice

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  4. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  5. Biomedical experiments. Part A: Biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Scheuermann, W.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cuer, P.; Kaiser, R.

    1972-01-01

    The biostack experiment is described which was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the earth. Specifically, the biostack experiment was designed to promote research on the effects of high energy/high Z particles of galactic cosmic radiation on a broad spectrum of biologic systems, from the molecular to the highly organized and developed forms of life. The experiment was considered unique and scientifically meritorious because of its potential yield of information - currently unavailable on earth - on the interaction of biologic systems with the heavy particles of galactic cosmic radiation.

  6. Energies and E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates for states of the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynkun, P.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Froese Fischer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Based on relativistic wavefunctions from multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations, E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are evaluated for the states of the (1s2)2s22p3,2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in all nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX. The wavefunction expansions include valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects through single-double multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. The computed energies agree very well with experimental values, with differences of only 300-600 cm-1 for the majority of the levels and ions in the sequence. Computed transitions rates are in close agreement with available data from MCHF-BP calculations by Tachiev and Froese Fischer [G.I. Tachiev, C. Froese Fischer, A&A 385 (2002) 716].

  7. Structure cristalline du cyclotétraphosphate triple de lithium sodium et d'éthylène diammonium trihydrate NaLi[NH 3(CH 2) 2NH 3]P 4O 12.3H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bdiri, Mohamed; Jouini, Amor

    1989-12-01

    Classical methods extensively used for the synthesis of inorganic condensed phosphates are known to give compounds that are intermediate between inorganic and organic. We prepared the title compound to examine the possibility of using, in this new field, the ion exchange resin method. The cyclotetraphosphate is the first condensed phosphate associated with the ethylenediammonium ion and mixed monovalent cations. We describe its chemical preparation and crystal structure. The orthorhombic unit cell has the following dimensions: a = 13.135(3) Å, b = 7.737(2) Å, c = 15.478(4) Å, V = 1573(2)Å 3, Dm = 2.020 g/cm 3, Dx = 1.951 g/cm 3, μ = 0.297 mm -1, space group is Pcca with Z = 4. The crystal structure has been solved by using 2005 unique reflections with a final R value of 0.043 ( Rw = 0.045). The principal feature of this compound lies in its linear atomic arrangement of the monovalent cations with different coordination polyhedra. The lithium cation is statistically distributed on two general positions with 0.5 occupancy, or moves very rapidly between these two positions. The P 4O 4-12 ring anion is located around the twofold axis. The cohesiveness and the stability of the crystal result from two kinds of weak hydrogen bonds: NH---O and O(W)H---O. The structure of this compound is compared to that of Na 2[NH 3(CH 2) 2NH 3]P 4O 12.2H 2O; half the sodium positions are occupied by lithium cations.

  8. Experimental demonstration of early time, hohlraum radiation symmetry tuning for indirect drive ignition experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J.; Thomas, C.; Kline, J.; Sorce, C.; Glenn, S.; Landen, O. L.

    2011-09-01

    Early time radiation symmetry at the capsule for indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] will be inferred from the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern of a high-Z sphere replacing the ignition capsule. This technique was tested on the OMEGA laser facility [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, T. Boehly et al., Laser Part. Beams 11, 317 (1991)] in near full ignition scale vacuum hohlraums using an equivalent experimental setup to the one planned for NIF. Two laser cones entering each laser entrance hole heat the hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 100 eV, mimicking the NIF ignition pulse foot drive. The experiments have demonstrated accuracies of ±1.5% (±2%) in inferred P2/P0 (P4/P0) Legendre mode incident flux asymmetry and consistency between 900 eV and 1200 eV re-emission patterns. We have also demonstrated the expected tuning capability of P2/P0, from positive (pole hot) to negative (waist hot), decreasing linearly with the inner/outer beams power fraction. P4/P0 on the other hand shows very little variation with power fraction. We developed a simple analytical viewfactor model that is in good agreement with both measured P2/P0 and P4/P0 and their dependence on inner beam power fraction.

  9. Literature or Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Dennis

    1978-01-01

    Shows that the need to choose between literature-centered or experience-centered English instruction is a delusion, because instruction in literature also adds to the child's experience of language. (RL)

  10. Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses several science experiments/activities and their associated measurements. These include a simple projectile activity, cartesian diver (used to measure altitude and atmospheric pressure), experiment demonstrating atmospheric pressure, and activities using a stroboscope, and electrometer. (JN)