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1

Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment P4. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

SLSF experiment P4 was designed to provide an upper-limit bound on the consequences of local faults. Three of the 37 full-length FTR-type fuel pins in the test subassembly were built with 10-cm-long, sealed fuel canisters as the center sections of the fuel regions. The fuel canisters ejected molten fuel into the bundle geometry, as planned. Each ejection was accompanied by an inlet flow deceleration and persisting flow reduction. There was no evidence of energetic fuel-coolant interactions or failure propagation through the hex duct. After about 90 s of full-power operation, scram occurred on low test subassembly flow due to gas release from fuel pins as a result of elevated inlet temperature and boiling in the blockage wake. During subsequent power operation, blockage reconfiguration and flow reduction occurred 10 minutes after 60% power was reached. The DN signal began to increase from the steady state level three minutes prior to the reconfiguration.

Ragland, W.A.; Braid, T.H.; Thompson, D.H.; Wilson, R.E.; Baldwin, R.D.; Kraimer, M.R.; Gilbert, D.M.

1982-01-01

2

Exempt Recombinant DNA Experiments (from p.4 of "The Guidelines Explained") (IBC ACCEPTS EXPLANATORY DOCUMENT BEFORE WORK STARTS)  

E-print Network

Exempt Recombinant DNA Experiments (from p.4 of "The Guidelines Explained") (IBC ACCEPTS, the determination of what recombinant DNA work is exempt or non-exempt is often complicated. Thus, it is the IBC WHERE: o Recombinant DNA outside of living organisms or viruses, o Recombinant DNA that cannot replicate

Oliver, Douglas L.

3

Posttest examination of Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiments. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-reactor, safety experiments performed in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) rely on comprehensive posttest examinations (PTE) to characterize the postirradiation condition of the cladding, fuel, and other test-subassembly components. PTE information and on-line instrumentation data, are analyzed to identify the sequence of events and the severity of the accident for each experiment. Following in-reactor experimentation, the SLSF loop and

Holland

1982-01-01

4

W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment centerline fuel thermocouple performance. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment is the fifth in a series of experiments sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the National Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Safety Assurance Program. The experiments are being conducted under the direction of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The irradiation phase of the W-1 SLSF experiment was conducted between May 27 and July 20, 1979, and terminated with incipient fuel pin cladding failure during the final boiling transient. Experimental hardware and facility performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and test objectives. This paper focuses on high temperature in-fuel thermocouples and discusses their development, fabrication, and performance in the W-1 experiment.

Meyers, S.C.; Henderson, J.M.

1980-05-01

5

P4p: provider portal for applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As peer-to-peer (P2P) emerges as a major paradigm for scalable network application design, it also exposes significant new chal- lenges in achieving efficient and fair utilization of Internet network resources. Being largely network-oblivious, many P2P applications may lead to inefficient network resource usage and\\/or low applica- tion performance. In this paper, we propose a simple architecture called P4P to allow

Haiyong Xie; Yang Richard Yang; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Yanbin Grace Liu; Abraham Silberschatz

2008-01-01

6

Biohydrogen production from carbon monoxide and water by Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reactor-scale hydrogen (H2) productionvia the water-gas shift reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and water was studied using the purple nonsulfur bacterium,Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4. The experiment was conducted in a two-step process: an aerobic\\/chemoheterotrophic cell growth step and a subsequent anaerobic\\u000a H2 production step. Important parameters investigated included the agitation speed, inlet CO concentration and gas retention\\u000a time. P4 showed

You-Kwan Oh; Yu-Jin Kim; Ji-Young Park; Tae Ho Lee; Mi-Sun Kim; Sunghoon Park

2005-01-01

7

Thermodynamics using p4-improved staggered fermion action on QCDOC  

E-print Network

We present an exploratory study of the thermodynamics of $N_f=3$ QCD with an improved staggered fermions using the QCDOC supercomputer. We use a p4 action with MILC-style smeared links (Fat 7). Some details of the implementation of the p4 action on QCDOC are discussed and performance benchmarks are given. We show preliminary results for the quark mass dependence of the pseudo-critical temperature $T_c$ from several lattice volumes . We also make a comparison between p4fat7 and the old p4 action.

Chulwoo Jung

2005-10-05

8

Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) production in recombinant Escherichia coli: P4HB synthesis is uncoupled with cell growth  

PubMed Central

Background Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB), belonging to the family of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), is a strong, flexible and absorbable material which has a large variety of medical applications like tissue engineering and drug delivery. For efficient production of P4HB recombinant Escherichia coli has been employed. It was previously found that the P4HB synthesis is co-related with the cell growth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiology of P4HB synthesis, and to reduce the total production cost by using cheap and widely available xylose as the growth substrate and sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate (Na-4HB) as the precursor for P4HB synthesis. Results Six different E. coli strains which are able to utilize xylose as carbon source were compared for their ability to accumulate P4HB. E. coli JM109 was found to be the best strain regarding the specific growth rate and the P4HB content. The effect of growth conditions such as temperature and physiological stage of Na-4HB addition on P4HB synthesis was also studied in E. coli JM109 recombinant in batch culture. Under the tested conditions, a cellular P4HB content in the range of 58 to 70% (w w-1) and P4HB concentrations in the range of 2.76 to 4.33 g L-1 were obtained with a conversion yield (YP4HB/Na-4HB) of 92% w w-1 in single stage batch cultures. Interestingly, three phases were identified during P4HB production: the “growth phase”, in which the cells grew exponentially, the “accumulation phase”, in which the exponential cell growth stopped while P4HB was accumulated exponentially, and the “stagnation phase”, in which the P4HB accumulation stopped and the total biomass remained constant. Conclusions P4HB synthesis was found to be separated from the cell growth, i.e. P4HB synthesis mainly took place after the end of the exponential cell growth. High conversion rate and P4HB contents from xylose and precursor were achieved here by simple batch culture, which was only possible previously through fed-batch high cell density cultures with glucose. PMID:24325175

2013-01-01

9

p.4--College Projects/Academic p.12--Intercultural  

E-print Network

Contents p.2--GCR p.4--College Projects/Academic p.12--Intercultural p.16--Alumni P.17--Social p.25--10th Anniversary P.29--Features p.35--Off the Hill p.4S--Clubs and Societies p.47--Funnies A word type of music you chose, but preferably Beyonc�. Clubs and Socs-wise, we have given the Badminton team

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

10

P4 ATPases: Flippases in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

P4 ATPases catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of biological membranes, a process termed “lipid flipping”. Accumulating evidence obtained in lower eukaryotes points to an important role for P4 ATPases in vesicular protein trafficking. The human genome encodes fourteen P4 ATPases (fifteen in mouse) of which the cellular and physiological functions are slowly emerging. Thus far, deficiencies of at least two P4 ATPases, ATP8B1 and ATP8A2, are the cause of severe human disease. However, various mouse models and in vitro studies are contributing to our understanding of the cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases. This review summarizes current knowledge on the basic function of these phospholipid translocating proteins, their proposed action in intracellular vesicle transport and their physiological role. PMID:23579954

van der Mark, Vincent A.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

2013-01-01

11

Payment for performance (P4P): any future in Italy?  

PubMed Central

Background Pay for Performance (P4P) programs, based on provision of financial incentives for service quality, have been widely adopted to enhance quality of care and to promote a more efficient use of health care resources whilst improving patient outcomes. In Italy, as in other countries, the growing concern over the quality of health services provided and the scarcity of resources would make P4P programs a useful means of improving their performance. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether it is possible to implement P4P programs in the Lombardy Region, in Italy, based on the existing data set. Methods Thirteen quality measures were identified regarding four clinical conditions (acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), ischemic stroke and hip and knee replacement) on the basis of an international literature review. Data was collected using the database of three institutions, which included hospital discharge records (Scheda di Dimissione ospedaliera-SDO-) and letters of discharge. The study population was identified using both the Principal ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and the discharge date. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program was used for the text analysis. Results It was possible to calculate almost all the parameters pertaining to the three hospitals as all the data required was available with the exception of inpatient mortality in two hospitals and smoking cessation advice/counseling in one hospital. Conclusions On the ground of this analysis, we believe that it is possible to implement a P4P program in the Lombardy Region. However, for this program to be initiated, all necessary data must be available in electronic format and uniformly collected. Moreover, several other factors must be assessed: which clinical conditions should be included, the threshold for each quality parameter, the amount of financial incentives offered and how they will be provided. PMID:21605472

2011-01-01

12

Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin.

Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

1980-05-01

13

Systems Biology and P4 Medicine: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a “one gene or one protein” at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which “biology drives technology drives computation.” To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another’s languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this “systems” approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other “omics” is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes) for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.). The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to detect and treat perturbations in healthy individuals long before disease symptoms appear, thus optimizing the wellness of individuals and avoiding disease. P4 medicine will 1) improve health care, 2) reduce the cost of health care, and 3) stimulate innovation and new company creation. Health care is not the only subject that can benefit from such integrative, cross-disciplinary, and systems-driven platforms and cultures. Many other challenges plaguing our planet, such as energy, environment, nutrition, and agriculture can be transformed by using such an integrated and systems-driven approach. PMID:23908862

Hood, Leroy

2013-01-01

14

Experimental and theoretical study of the Auger cascade following 2p?4s photoexcitation in Ar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant Auger transitions from the 2p-14s photo-excited states in Ar to the 3p-13s-14s levels and the subsequent Auger decay to the 3p4 states of Ar2+ are studied by means of angle-resolved electron spectroscopy. The branching ratios and the values of the angular anisotropy parameter ? are determined for the emitted electrons. The angular correlation between the two electrons emitted in the sequential transitions in the cascade are also measured in the coincidence experiment. All the experimental data are compared with MCDF calculations which include electron correlations in the initial, intermediate and final states of the cascade. It is found that although the electron energies are very well reproduced by the calculations, the calculated anisotropy parameters and angular correlation parameters for some of the transitions disagree with the experiment.

Ueda, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Chiba, H.; Kitajima, M.; Tanaka, H.; Fritzsche, S.; Kabachnik, N. M.

2001-01-01

15

Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 4, 2001, 173178 Linear time recognition of P4-indifference  

E-print Network

of four vertices. A graph is P4-indifference if it admits an ordering on its vertex set such that every P4 is perfectly orderable if there exists an ordering on its vertex set for which the greedy colouring algorithm produces an optimal colouring. The first recognition algorithm for P4-indifference graphs is due to Ho

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

The Top 10 Things I LOVE about p4c Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, Dr. Thomas Jackson, or Dr. J as the author and her colleagues affectionately call him, spoke to the faculty at Waikiki Elementary. He described philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i and encouraged them to try P4C if something about it "resonated" with them. In the beginning, Dr. J held a p4t (philosophy for teachers) after-school seminar…

Ikeda, Jolyn

2012-01-01

17

Photoproduction of hydrogen from acetate by a chemoheterotrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4 can produce H2 either from CO by water-gas shift reaction or from various sugars by anaerobic fermentation. Fermentative H2 production by P4 is fast, but its yield is relatively low due to the formation of various organic acids. In order to increase H2 production yield from glucose, P4 was investigated for the photo-fermentation of acetate which is

You-Kwan Oh; Eun-Hee Seol; Mi-Sun Kim; Sunghoon Park

2004-01-01

18

P(4-vinyl pyridine) hydrogel use for the removal of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) from aqueous environments.  

PubMed

4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) based hydrogels with 2-hydroxyethylmetacrylate (HEMA) and magnetic composites were prepared and tested for use in the removal of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) ions from aqueous environments. It was found that the absorption of these metal ions from aqueous environments decreased with an increase in the amount of HEMA contained within p(4-VP-co-HEMA) hydrogels between 0.498 mmol for pure p(4-VP) and 0.027 mmol for pure p(HEMA). The characterization of the hydrogels was determined by swelling experiments, FT-IR and thermal analysis. The effects of initial metal ion concentration, hydrogel amount and the temperature of the medium on absorption of the ions were investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were constructed for the absorption of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+). Both isotherms demonstrated that these metal ions complied with monolayer absorption kinetics. PMID:21864974

Ozay, Ozgur; Ekici, Sema; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

2011-12-01

19

A geometric construction of elliptic conic bundles in P4 by Kristian Ranestad  

E-print Network

conic bundles in P4 . They show that these surfaces all arise as degeneracy loci of four sections, whose general fibers are embedded as smooth conic sections in P4 . In this note I give a construction.e. a scroll with minimal selfintersection of a section equal to 1. I do not prove that every conic bundle have

Ranestad, Kristian

20

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1 autoionizing state in magnesium  

E-print Network

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1 Fo autoionizing state in magnesium A. Reber,1 T. Baynard ionization of magnesium from the 3 1 P state in the region of the 3p4d 1 Fo autoionizing resonance, in which of magnesium atoms just inside the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer MBS 13 . One laser is tuned

Berry, R. Stephen

21

Systems Approach to Complex Diseases and the Emergence of Proactive P4 Medicine  

E-print Network

of personalized (P4) medicine · Introduced to biologists the idea of big science vs. small science · Spent 5Systems Approach to Complex Diseases and the Emergence of Proactive P4 Medicine Lee Hood, President Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory #12;In 10

Botte, Gerardine G.

22

Pentose Phosphate Pathway Function Affects Tolerance to the G-Quadruplex Binder TMPyP4  

PubMed Central

G-quadruplexes form in guanine-rich regions of DNA and the presence of these structures at telomeres prevents the activity of telomerase in vitro. Ligands such as the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 stabilise G-quadruplexes and are therefore under investigation for their potential use as anti-cancer drugs. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of TMPyP4 in vivo, we carried out a genome-wide screen in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that deletion of key pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) genes increased the sensitivity of yeast to the presence of TMPyP4. The PPP plays an important role in the oxidative stress response and sensitivity to TMPyP4 also increased when genes involved in the oxidative stress response, CCS1 and YAP1, were deleted. For comparison we also report genome wide-screens using hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress, RHPS4, another G-quadruplex binder and hydroxyurea, an S phase poison. We found that a number of TMPyP4-sensitive strains are also sensitive to hydrogen peroxide in a genome-wide screen. Overall our results suggest that treatment with TMPyP4 results in light-dependent oxidative stress response in budding yeast, and that this, rather than G-quadruplex binding, is the major route to cytotoxicity. Our results have implications for the usefulness and mechanism of action of TMPyP4. PMID:23776642

Andrew, Elizabeth J.; Merchan, Stephanie; Lawless, Conor; Banks, A. Peter; Wilkinson, Darren J.; Lydall, David

2013-01-01

23

Pentose phosphate pathway function affects tolerance to the G-quadruplex binder TMPyP4.  

PubMed

G-quadruplexes form in guanine-rich regions of DNA and the presence of these structures at telomeres prevents the activity of telomerase in vitro. Ligands such as the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 stabilise G-quadruplexes and are therefore under investigation for their potential use as anti-cancer drugs. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of TMPyP4 in vivo, we carried out a genome-wide screen in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that deletion of key pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) genes increased the sensitivity of yeast to the presence of TMPyP4. The PPP plays an important role in the oxidative stress response and sensitivity to TMPyP4 also increased when genes involved in the oxidative stress response, CCS1 and YAP1, were deleted. For comparison we also report genome wide-screens using hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress, RHPS4, another G-quadruplex binder and hydroxyurea, an S phase poison. We found that a number of TMPyP4-sensitive strains are also sensitive to hydrogen peroxide in a genome-wide screen. Overall our results suggest that treatment with TMPyP4 results in light-dependent oxidative stress response in budding yeast, and that this, rather than G-quadruplex binding, is the major route to cytotoxicity. Our results have implications for the usefulness and mechanism of action of TMPyP4. PMID:23776642

Andrew, Elizabeth J; Merchan, Stephanie; Lawless, Conor; Banks, A Peter; Wilkinson, Darren J; Lydall, David

2013-01-01

24

Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets. PMID:25049952

Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

2014-01-01

25

Highly charged p(4-vinylpyridine-co-vinylimidazole) particles for versatile applications: Biomedical, catalysis and environmental  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH responsive poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-1-vinylimidazole) p(4-VP-co-VI) and magnetic p(4-VP-co-VI) were prepared by microemulsion polymerization and modified with various bromoalkanes to tune the charge and size of the soft particles. The prepared p(4-VP-co-VI) particles were treated with quaternization agents containing various numbers of carbon atoms including HCl, bromoethane (BE), 1-bromobutane (BB), 1-bromohexane (BH), and 2-bromoethylamine (BEA) to generate charges on the nitrogen

Nurettin Sahiner; Ozgur Ozay

2011-01-01

26

First Reports of Human Rotavirus G8P[4] Gastroenteritis in the United States  

PubMed Central

In 2009, three children were hospitalized in Rochester, NY, with sequence-confirmed G8P[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis—the first U.S. detection of this uncommon strain more typically found in Africa. Continued monitoring of G8P[4] and other rotavirus genotypes not represented in current vaccines is essential to assess whether vaccination will result in an increase in prevalence of these strains. PMID:22170918

Payne, Daniel C.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Bowen, Michael D.; Wikswo, Mary; Gentsch, Jon R.; Parashar, Umesh D.

2012-01-01

27

Study of the 3He(d, p)4He reaction through the Trojan Horse Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astrophysically relevant 3He(d, p)4He reaction was indirectly studied by means of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the 6Li(3He, p?)4He three body process performed at 5 and 6 MeV. The bare astrophysical S(E)-factor extracted in Modified Plane Wave Born Approximation was compared with the free behaviour and an independent estimate of the screening potential was obtained, confirming the discrepancy with the adiabatic limit.

La Cognata, M.; Musumarra, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Bonomo, C.; Cherubini, S.; Figuera, P.; Lamia, L.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Rinollo, A.; et al.

2005-07-01

28

Double-Striped Metallic Patterns from PS-b-P4VP Nanostrand Templates.  

PubMed

A new nanometallic pattern, characterized by randomly disposed double or twin one-dimensional stripes and that adds to the nanotechnology toolbox, has been obtained from a unique template possessing the nanostrand morphology. This morphology had previously been shown to form in Langmuir-Blodgett films made from a polystyrene-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-P4VP) diblock copolymer blended with 3-n-pentadecylphenol (PDP). The nanostrand backbone is composed of PS, and it is bordered along both sides by a P4VP monolayer, visualized for the first time by high resolution atomic force microscopy. The exposed P4VP alongside the nanostrands serves as sites for depositing compounds attracted selectively to P4VP. Here, both gold ions (HAuCl4·3H2O) and gold nanoparticles (AuNP, 12 nm in diameter, stabilized with sodium citrate) were complexed to the P4VP. Plasma treatment of the gold ions led to double stripes of monolayer metallic gold. To obtain dense deposition of AuNP in double rows, it was necessary to acidify the AuNP aqueous solution (pH 5.2 here). The achievement of the metallic double-stripe patterns also confirms the composition of the nanostrand morphology, which up to now had been deduced indirectly. The double-stripe pattern has possible applications for plasmonic lasers, energy transport, and biosensors. PMID:25260097

Chen, Ximin; Perepichka, Iryna I; Bazuin, C Geraldine

2014-10-22

29

Whole-genome analyses of DS-1-like human G2P[4] and G8P[4] rotavirus strains from Eastern, Western and Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) with distinct G and P genotype combinations have been reported globally. We report the genome composition and possible origin of seven G8P[4] and five G2P[4] human RVA strains based on the genetic evolution of all 11 genome segments at the nucleotide level. Twelve RVA ELISA positive stool samples collected in the representative countries of Eastern, Southern and West Africa during the 2007-2012 surveillance seasons were subjected to sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM and Illumina MiSeq platforms. A reference-based assembly was performed using CLC Bio's clc_ref_assemble_long program, and full-genome consensus sequences were obtained. With the exception of the neutralising antigen, VP7, all study strains exhibited the DS-1-like genome constellation (P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2) and clustered phylogenetically with reference strains having a DS-1-like genetic backbone. Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences with selected global cognate genome segments revealed nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of 81.7-100 % and 90.6-100 %, respectively, with NSP4 gene segment showing the most diversity among the strains. Bayesian analyses of all gene sequences to estimate the time of divergence of the lineage indicated that divergence times ranged from 16 to 44 years, except for the NSP4 gene where the lineage seemed to arise in the more distant past at an estimated 203 years ago. However, the long-term effects of changes found within the NSP4 genome segment should be further explored, and thus we recommend continued whole-genome analyses from larger sample sets to determine the evolutionary mechanisms of the DS-1-like strains collected in Africa. PMID:24952422

Nyaga, Martin M; Stucker, Karla M; Esona, Mathew D; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Mwinyi, Bakari; Shonhai, Annie; Tsolenyanu, Enyonam; Mulindwa, Augustine; Chibumbya, Julia N; Adolfine, Hokororo; Halpin, Rebecca A; Roy, Sunando; Stockwell, Timothy B; Berejena, Chipo; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

2014-10-01

30

Population processes of 3p/4/4s levels of Fe X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lines emitted from levels of the 3s(2)3p(4)4s configuration to the ground levels 3s(2)3p(5) of Fe X are observed in both solar and laboratory plasma. Their relative intensities are five to six times stronger than those calculated assuming that the coronal equation is valid. Additional population processes - cascades from the 3s(2)3p(4)np configurations, radiative and dielectronic recombinations from Fe XI - have been included. Furthermore, the intensity of the unresolved satellite lines has been added to the line intensity. The intensities of lines emitted from the 3s(2)3p(4)4s levels are then reproduced with an accuracy of a factor 2.

Malinovsky, M.; Dubau, J.; Sahal-Brechot, S.

1980-01-01

31

Shear-induced orientation of gyroid PS-b-P4VP(PDP) supramolecules.  

PubMed

The phase behavior of block copolymer based supramolecular complexes polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) and amphiphilic pentadecylphenol (PDP) molecules resembles the phase behavior of conventional block copolymers. Several PS-b-P4VP(PDP) complexes are found to self-assemble into gyroid nanostructures. Typically, the grains are randomly oriented with a maximal size of several micrometers. Here, the orientation of a gyroid PS-b-P4VP(PDP) complex upon shearing is reported. It is found that the (111) gyroid lattice direction orients parallel to the shear direction after only several seconds of large amplitude oscillatory shearing. Oriented gyroid complexes can be used as templates for the preparation of metal nanofoams with improved ordering with potentially superior properties. PMID:23836620

Vukovic, Ivana; Friedrich, Heiner; Merino, Daniel Hermida; Portale, Giuseppe; Ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

2013-08-01

32

Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Identified in Patients with Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the P4-ATPase ATP8B1 cause the inherited liver disease progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Several of these mutations are located in conserved regions of the transmembrane domain associated with substrate binding and transport. Assays for P4-ATPase-mediated transport in living yeast cells were developed and used to characterize the specificity and kinetic parameters of this transport. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis mutations were introduced into the yeast plasma membrane P4-ATPase Dnf2p, and the effect of these mutations on its catalysis of phospholipid transport were determined. The results of these measurements have implications for the basis of the disease and for the mechanism of phospholipid transit through the enzyme during the reaction cycle. PMID:23060447

Stone, Alex; Chau, Christopher; Eaton, Christian; Foran, Emily; Kapur, Mridu; Prevatt, Edward; Belkin, Nathan; Kerr, David; Kohlin, Torvald; Williamson, Patrick

2012-01-01

33

COMP 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Assignment P4  

E-print Network

to write and sign the Wheaton Honor Code pledge.COMP 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Assignment P4 Due Date: March 31 Purpose It of 1034 is 10000001010 All done! #12;COMP 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Specifics

Gousie, Michael B.

34

5-9035-01-P4 4-YEAR PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN (WITH  

E-print Network

5-9035-01-P4 4-YEAR PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN (WITH PROPOSITION 12 PROJECTS): ANALYSIS REPORT Implementation of a Web-based GIS System to Provide Information for Pavement Maintenance Decision-Making DECEMBER Table of Contents Section 1. Pavement Management Plan Executive Summary

Texas at Austin, University of

35

Orally bioavailable factor Xa inhibitors containing alpha-substituted gem-dimethyl P4 moieties.  

PubMed

In an effort to identify a potential back-up to apixaban (Eliquis®), we explored a series of diversified P4 moieties. Several analogs with substituted gem-dimethyl moieties replacing the terminal lactam of apixaban were identified which demonstrated potent FXa binding affinity (FXa Ki), good human plasma anticoagulant activity (PT EC2x), cell permeability, and oral bioavailability. PMID:24951330

Orwat, Michael J; Qiao, Jennifer X; He, Kan; Rendina, Alan R; Luettgen, Joseph M; Rossi, Karen A; Xin, Baomin; Knabb, Robert M; Wexler, Ruth R; Lam, Patrick Y S; Pinto, Donald J P

2014-08-01

36

P 4.1 CITEL Climate change and international trade from an economic and legal  

E-print Network

What does the law of the World Trade Organization (WTO law) say about border tax adjustment measures45 P 4.1 CITEL Climate change and international trade from an economic and legal perspective PI: Thomas Cottier1, Deputy-PI: Gunter Stephan2 Co-PI: Kateryna Holzer1 and Oliver Schenker2 1 World Trade

Richner, Heinz

37

THE BIANCHI IDENTITIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, AND CHARGE CONSERVATION IN THE P(4) THEORY OF  

E-print Network

THE BIANCHI IDENTITIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, AND CHARGE CONSERVATION IN THE P(4) THEORY) theory one obtains a conservation law and a wave equation for the electromagnetic field that parallels OF GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM J. H. Chilton and K. S. Hammon Department of Physics North Carolina State

Norris, Larry K.

38

GPS Solutions:Closed Forms, Criticaland Special Configurations of P4P  

E-print Network

. Such an analysis of critical P4P extends results obtained for satellite laser ranging (Killian & Meissl, 1969 positioning with pseudo-ranges as observables.In order to determine the ground receiver/ satellite receiver; Mueller, 1983; Schatz, 1980;Tsimis, 1973; Grafarend & Mueller, 1985) to pseudo-ranging satellite networks

Shan, Jie

39

P 4.3 MIADAC Modelling Climate Change Policies: Mitigation, Adaptation, and  

E-print Network

P 4.3 MIADAC Modelling Climate Change Policies: Mitigation, Adaptation, and Acceptance PI: Philippe to climate change for Switzerland and what is the role of adaptation in national climate policies tariff (trade war). Task 3: Assess the economic impacts of climate change and adaptation measures

Richner, Heinz

40

Outer membrane protein P4 is not required for virulence in the human challenge model of Haemophilus ducreyi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial lipoproteins often play important roles in pathogenesis and can stimulate protective immune responses. Such lipoproteins are viable vaccine candidates. Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, expresses a number of lipoproteins during human infection. One such lipoprotein, OmpP4, is homologous to the outer membrane lipoprotein e (P4) of H. influenzae. In H. influenzae, e (P4) stimulates production of bactericidal and protective antibodies and contributes to pathogenesis by facilitating acquisition of the essential nutrients heme and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that, like its homolog, H. ducreyi OmpP4 contributes to virulence and stimulates production of bactericidal antibodies. Results We determined that OmpP4 is broadly conserved among clinical isolates of H. ducreyi. We next constructed and characterized an isogenic ompP4 mutant, designated 35000HPompP4, in H. ducreyi strain 35000HP. To test whether OmpP4 was necessary for virulence in humans, eight healthy adults were experimentally infected. Each subject was inoculated with a fixed dose of 35000HP on one arm and three doses of 35000HPompP4 on the other arm. The overall parent and mutant pustule formation rates were 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively (P?=?0.74). These results indicate that expression of OmpP4 in not necessary for H. ducreyi to initiate disease or progress to pustule formation in humans. Hyperimmune mouse serum raised against purified, recombinant OmpP4 did not promote bactericidal killing of 35000HP or phagocytosis by J774A.1 mouse macrophages in serum bactericidal and phagocytosis assays, respectively. Conclusions Our data suggest that, unlike e (P4), H. ducreyi OmpP4 is not a suitable vaccine candidate. OmpP4 may be dispensable for virulence because of redundant mechanisms in H. ducreyi for heme acquisition and NAD utilization. PMID:24961160

2014-01-01

41

Nonessential region of bacteriophage P4: DNA sequence, transcription, gene products, and functions.  

PubMed Central

We sequenced the leftmost 2,640 base pairs of bacteriophage P4 DNA, thus completing the sequence of the 11,627-base-pair P4 genome. The newly sequenced region encodes three nonessential genes, which are called gop, beta, and cII (in order, from left to right). The gop gene product kills Escherichia coli when the beta protein is absent; the gop and beta genes are transcribed rightward from the same promoter. The cII gene is transcribed leftward to a rho-independent terminator. Mutation of this terminator creates a temperature-sensitive phenotype, presumably owing to a defect in expression of the beta gene. Images PMID:2403440

Ghisotti, D; Finkel, S; Halling, C; Deho, G; Sironi, G; Calendar, R

1990-01-01

42

Ferrenberg Swendsen Analysis of LLNL and NYBlue BG/L p4rhms Data  

SciTech Connect

These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG/L. These results are from the Ferrenberg-Swendsen analysis [?] of the combined data from LLNL and NYBlue BG/L runs for 32{sup 3} x 8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP-MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi). The jobs include beta values ranging from 3.525 to 3.535 with an alternate analysis extending to 3.540. The NYBlue data sets are from 9k trajectories from Oct 2007, and the LLNL data are from two independent streams of {approx}5k each, taking from the July 2007 runs. The following outputs are produced by the fs-2+1-chiub.c program. All outputs have had checksums produced by addCks.pl and checked by the checkCks.pl perl script after scanning.

Soltz, R

2007-12-05

43

P4Well concept to empower self-management of psychophysiological wellbeing and load recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic health problems related to mental wellbeing are rapidly growing, calling for novel solutions focusing on individual as a psychophysiological being. We describe a novel technology-based concept for empowering citizen towards holistic self-management of her wellbeing: “P4Well” (Pervasive Personal and PsychoPhysiological management of WELLness). The primary focus of the concept is on management of stress and recovery from stress caused

Antti P. Happonen; Elina Mattila; M.-L. Kinnunen; V. Ikonen; T. Myllyma?ki; K. Kaipainen; H. Rusko; R. Lappalainen; I. Korhonen

2009-01-01

44

Experimental and theoretical study of the Auger cascade following 2p-->4s photoexcitation in Ar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resonant Auger transitions from the 2p-14s photo-excited states in Ar to the 3p-13s-14s levels and the subsequent Auger decay to the 3p4 states of Ar2+ are studied by means of angle-resolved electron spectroscopy. The branching ratios and the values of the angular anisotropy parameter beta are determined for the emitted electrons. The angular correlation between the two electrons emitted in

M. Kitajima; Y. Shimizu; S. Fritzsche; N. M. Kabachnik; F. Koike; T. Hayaishi; H. Tanaka; Y. Sato; K. Ueda

2001-01-01

45

QED corrections to the 4p -4d transition energies of copperlike W. R. Johnson  

E-print Network

QED corrections to the 4p - 4d transition energies of copperlike heavy ions W. R. Johnson and J: 31.30.Jv, 32.30.Rj, 31.25.-v, 31.15.Ar johnson@nd.edu jsapirst@nd.edu chen7@llnl.gov § ktcheng were carried out by Johnson et al. [8] with RMBPT to the third order in both the Coulomb and Breit

Johnson, Walter R.

46

Cytoarchitecture of the spinal cord of the postnatal (P4) mouse.  

PubMed

Interpretation of the new wealth of gene expression and molecular mechanisms in the developing mouse spinal cord requires an accurate anatomical base on which data can be mapped. Therefore, we have assembled a spinal cord atlas of the P4 mouse to facilitate direct comparison with the adult specimens and to contribute to studies of the development of the mouse spinal cord. This study presents the anatomy of the spinal cord of the P4 C57Bl/6J mouse using Nissl and acetyl cholinesterase-stained sections. It includes a detailed map of the laminar organization of selected spinal cord segments and a description of named cell groups of the spinal cord such as the central cervical (CeCv), lateral spinal nucleus, lateral cervical, and dorsal nuclei. The motor neuron groups have also been identified according to the muscle groups they are likely to supply. General features of Rexed's laminae of the P4 spinal cord showed similarities to that of the adult (P56). However, certain differences were observed with regard to the extent of laminae and location of certain cell groups, such as the dorsal nucleus having a more dispersed structure and a more ventral and medial position or the CeCv being located in the medial part of lamina 5 in contrast to the adult where it is located in lamina 7. Motor neuron pools appeared to be more tightly packed in the P4 spinal cord. The dorsal horn was relatively larger and there was more white matter in the P56 spinal cord. PMID:22454209

Sengul, Gulgun; Puchalski, Ralph B; Watson, Charles

2012-05-01

47

Estimation of surface latent heat fluxes from IRS-P4\\/MSMR satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brightness temperatures of the Microwave sensor MSMR (Multichannel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) launched in May 1999\\u000a onboard Indian Oceansat-1 IRS-P4 are used to develop a direct retrieval method for latent heat flux by multivariate regression\\u000a technique. The MSMR measures the microwave radiances at 8 channels at frequencies of 6.6, 10.7, 18 and 21 GHz at both vertical\\u000a and horizontal polarizations.

Randhir Singh; B. Simon; P. C. Joshi

2001-01-01

48

Fermentative hydrogen production by a new chemoheterotrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas Palustris P4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4 for CO-dependent H2 production was studied for its capability of fermentative H2 production in batch cultivations. Important parameters investigated include pH, temperature, concentrations of phosphate and glucose, intermittent purging of culture broth by argon gas, and kind of sugars. The pH of the culture medium significantly decreased as fermentation proceeded due to the accumulation

You-Kwan Oh; Eun-Hee Seol; Eun Yeol Lee; Sunghoon Park

2002-01-01

49

Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodeling under Hypoxic Conditions by Inducing P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 Expression in Fibroblasts*  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, organization, and compliance provide both architectural and chemical cues that modulate tissue structure and function. ECM produced by stromal fibroblasts plays a key role in breast cancer invasion and metastasis, which are also stimulated by intratumoral hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a critical regulator of ECM remodeling by fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. HIF-1 activates expression of genes encoding collagen prolyl (P4HA1 and P4HA2) and lysyl (PLOD2) hydroxylases. P4HA1 and P4HA2 are required for collagen deposition, whereas PLOD2 is required for ECM stiffening and collagen fiber alignment. Together P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 mediate remodeling of ECM composition, alignment, and mechanical properties in response to hypoxia. HIF-1-dependent ECM remodeling by hypoxic fibroblasts induces changes in breast cancer cell morphology, adhesion, and motility that promote invasion and metastasis. PMID:23423382

Gilkes, Daniele M.; Bajpai, Saumendra; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Wirtz, Denis; Semenza, Gregg L.

2013-01-01

50

Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB): a new generation of resorbable medical devices for tissue repair and regeneration.  

PubMed

Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) is a thermoplastic, linear polyester, produced by recombinant fermentation, that can be converted into a wide range of resorbable medical devices. P4HB fibers are exceptionally strong, and can be designed to provide prolonged strength retention in vivo. In 2007, the FDA cleared a monofilament suture made from P4HB for general soft tissue approximation and/or ligation. Subsequently, surgical mesh devices for hernia repair, tendon and ligament repair, and plastic and reconstructive surgery have been introduced for clinical use. This review describes the unique properties of P4HB, its clinical applications, and potential uses that are under development. PMID:23979121

Williams, Simon F; Rizk, Said; Martin, David P

2013-10-01

51

Crystal Structure of Pb 5Bi 18P 4O 42: A Fluorite-Related Superstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of a new oxyphosphate of bismuth and lead, Pb5Bi18P4O42, were studied using short-wavelength synchrotron X-ray radiation. The compound is monoclinic, I2\\/m, a=11.885(2) Å, b=11.540(2) Å, c=15.636(3) Å, ?=90.23(3)°, Z=2. The crystal is twinned by pseudo-merohedry. The structure refinement converged to R=0.0366. There are five crystallographically independent Bi atoms. The oxygen coordination polyhedron around Bi(1) is a slightly distorted

Sophie Giraud; Jean-Pierre Wignacourt; Steve Swinnea; Hugo Steinfink; Richard Harlow

2000-01-01

52

Identification of p(4')-hydroxyantipyrine as a metabolite of antipyrine in man.  

PubMed

Several metabolites of antipyrine have been known for many years, but their recovery does not fully account for the drug in man. During the development of a HPLC assay of 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine, a major metabolite of antipyrine, the presence of another metabolite was noted. Its structure was postulated to be p(4')-hydroxyantipyrine (pOHA) on the basis of chemical derivatization and of mass spectrometry. The structure was confirmed by physicochemical comparison with a synthetic compound. The amount of pOHA in man is small, representing about 2-4% of the dose and less than 1% in the rat. PMID:7268206

Inaba, T; Uchino, H; Kalow, W

1981-07-01

53

Rotavirus G2P[4] Detection in Fresh Vegetables and Oysters in Mexico City.  

PubMed

Rotaviruses are the principal cause of dehydration caused by diarrhea in children younger than 2 years of age. Although these viral infections have mainly been associated with ingestion of fecally contaminated food and water, few studies have addressed the presence of the virus in food that is consumed raw or slightly cooked. In this work, 30 oyster samples and 33 vegetable samples were examined for the presence of rotavirus genotypes to evaluate their potential to produce gastrointestinal infections. The rotaviruses were identified by reverse transcriptase PCR amplification of the VP7 gene. G and P genotyping was also performed by reverse transcriptase PCR, with a detection sensitivity of up to 15 PFU/ml. Rotaviruses were found in 17 (26.9%) of 63 samples (10 oysters and 7 vegetables). The G2 genotype was found in 11 (64.7%) of 17 of the rotavirus strains, and 16 (94.1%) of 17 had the P[4] genotype. The combined genotypes found most frequently were G2P[4] (10 [58.82%] of 17), GNTP[4] (6 [35.29%] of 17), and G2P[NT] (1 [5.8%] of 17). PMID:25364930

Quiroz-Santiago, Carolina; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Natividad-Bonifacio, Ivan; Barrón-Romero, Blanca Lilia; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

2014-11-01

54

Identification of the endophilins (SH3p4 p8 p13) as novel binding partners for the  

E-print Network

Identification of the endophilins (SH3p4 p8 p13) as novel binding partners for the 1-adrenergic protein­protein interactions such as with Src homology (SH)3 domains. Accordingly, we used the proline ap- proaches identified SH3p4 p8 p13 (also referred to as endophilin 1 2 3), a SH3 domain

Hall, Randy A

55

Isolation and characterization of Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4 which utilizes CO with the production of H 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4, was isolated from an anaerobic wastewater sludge digester by virtue of its ability to utilize CO with the production of H2. P4 grew under light with CO as a sole carbon source with the doubling time of 2 h and produced H2 at 20.7 mmol -1 cell h.

Gyoo Yeol Jung; Hyun Ok Jung; Jung Rae Kim; Yeonghee Ahn; Sunghoon Park

1999-01-01

56

Dihydrogen tetrametaphosphate, [P4O12H2]2-: synthesis, solubilization in organic media, preparation of its anhydride [P4O11]2- and acidic methyl ester, and conversion to tetrametaphosphate metal complexes via protonolysis.  

PubMed

Dihydrogen tetrametaphosphate [P4O12H2](2-) (1) can now be synthesized and isolated as its PPN salt ([PPN](+) = [N(PPh3)2](+)) via treatment of [PPN]4[P4O12] with trifluoroacetic anhydride in wet acetone; this simple procedure affords the oxoacid salt in 94% yield. A pKa of 15.83 ± 0.11 in acetonitrile was determined. [P4O12H2](2-) reacts with the dehydrating agent N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to afford tetrametaphosphate anhydride [P4O11](2-) (2) in 82% yield, also as the PPN salt. From 2 a monohydrogen tetrametaphosphate ester [P4O10(OH)(OMe)](2-) (3, 96%) was derived by addition of methanol, illustrating that 2 can function as a reagent for chemical phosphorylation. Addition of water to 2 regenerates 1 quantitatively. Deprotonation of 1 by metal amides in the +2 oxidation state led to the unconventional monomeric tin(II) ?(4) tetrametaphosphate [Sn(P4O12)](2-) (4, 78%, a molecular analog of SnO) and binary dimeric chromium(II) bis(?2,?(2),?(2)) derivative [Cr2(P4O12)2](4-) (5, 82%). Structural data stemming from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for the PPN salts of anions 1-5 are also reported. PMID:25102033

Jiang, Yanfeng; Chakarawet, Khetpakorn; Kohout, Andrea Laura; Nava, Matthew; Marino, Nadia; Cummins, Christopher C

2014-08-27

57

Use of aglepristone for the treatment of P4 induced insulin resistance in dogs.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance (IR) in dogs is suspected when hyperglycemia is present despite administration of insulin doses greater than 1.0 to 1.5 UI/kg. IR is caused by increases in counter regulatory hormones concentrations (glucagon, glucocorticoids, catecholamines and growth hormone). This study was conducted to investigate the use of aglepristone (RU 46534), a P4 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of IR diabetes mellitus in bitches during the luteal phase. All animals were treated with porcine insulin zinc suspension (Caninsulin) and aglepristone (Alizin) 10 mg/kg subcutaneously at day 1, 2, 9 and 17 from diagnosis. At day 5, no significant variation in glycemia was shown. At day 12 and 20, serum glucose concentrations were significant lower (p < 0.05). From day 12 the insulin dose was reduced to 0.8 IU BID. Insulin was reduced in the following weeks and glycemia was controlled. PMID:24378588

Bigliardi, Enrico; Bresciani, Carla; Callegari, Daniela; Di Ianni, Francesco; Morini, Giorgio; Parmigiani, Enrico; Bianchi, Ezio

2014-01-01

58

Initiation of transcription from the minute virus of mice P4 promoter is stimulated in rat cells expressing a c-Ha-ras oncogene.  

PubMed Central

Transformation of FR3T3 rat fibroblasts by a c-Ha-ras oncogene but not by bovine papillomavirus type 1 is associated with an increase in the abundance of mRNAs from prototype strain MVMp of infecting minute virus of mice, an oncosuppressive parvovirus. This differential parvovirus gene expression correlates with the reported sensitization of ras- but not bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed cells to the killing effect of MVMp (N. Salomé, B. van Hille, N. Duponchel, G. Meneguzzi, F. Cuzin, J. Rommelaere, and J. Cornelis, Oncogene 5:123-130, 1990). Experiments were performed to determine at which level parvovirus expression is up-regulated in ras transformants. An MVMp "attenuation" sequence responsible for the premature arrest of RNA elongation was either placed or not placed in front of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and brought under the control of MVMp early promoter P4. Although the MVMp attenuator reduced P4-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression, the extent of attenuation was similar in normal and ras-transformed cells. Moreover, the analysis of P4-directed viral RNAs in MVMp-infected cultures by RNase protection and nuclear run-on assays also revealed a transcription elongation block of a similar amplitude in both types of cells. In addition, the stabilities of the three major parvoviral mRNAs did not vary significantly between normal and ras-transformed cells. Hence, it is concluded that the ras-induced increase in the accumulation of parvoviral mRNAs is mainly controlled at the level of transcription. Consistently, the TATA motif of the P4 promoter proved to have a differential photoreactivity when tested by in vivo UV footprinting assays in ras-transformed versus normal cells. Images PMID:1651412

Spegelaere, P; van Hille, B; Spruyt, N; Faisst, S; Cornelis, J J; Rommelaere, J

1991-01-01

59

Biosynthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer of p(3-hydroxypropionate)-block-p(4-hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) is a highly elastic polymer, whereas poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a polymer with enormous tensile strength. This study aimed to biosynthesize a block copolymer consisting of soft P4HB block with a strong P3HP block to gain unique and excellent material properties. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain that produces homopolymers of P3HP and P4HB was employed for the block copolymer synthesis. When the strain was grown in the presence of 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as a 4HB precursor, P4HB block was formed. Sequential supplementation of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) as a 3HP precursor allowed the strain to produce P3HP block. Thermal, NMR, fractionation, and mechanical characterizations confirmed the resulting polymer as a block copolymer of P3HP-b-P4HB. Two block copolymers were formed from this study, including the P3HP-b-29% P4HB and P3HP-b-37% P4HB, they showed superior properties over random copolymers P(3HP-co-4HB). The block copolymers had two glass transition temperatures (Tg) and two melting temperatures (Tm). In comparison to the homopolymers P3HP and P4HB, incorporation of block microstructure resulted in the lowering of Tm, block copolymers were revealed with higher Young's modulus, yield strengths, and tension strengths much better than the previously reported random copolymers of similar compositions. Block copolymerization of P3HP and P4HB adds a new vision on PHA polymerization by generation of new polymers with superior properties. PMID:23351169

Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Meng, Dechuan; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

2013-03-11

60

Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitro  

SciTech Connect

The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4) is responsible for the replication of the viral RNA genome. In infected cells, nsP4 is localized in a replication complex along with the other viral non-structural proteins. nsP4 has been difficult to homogenously purify from infected cells due to its interactions with the other replication proteins and the fact that its N-terminal residue, a tyrosine, causes the protein to be rapidly turned over in cells. We report the successful expression and purification of Sindbis nsP4 in a bacterial system, in which nsP4 is expressed as an N-terminal SUMO fusion protein. After purification the SUMO tag is removed, resulting in the isolation of full-length nsP4 possessing the authentic N-terminal tyrosine. This purified enzyme is able to produce minus-strand RNA de novo from plus-strand templates, as well as terminally add adenosine residues to the 3' end of an RNA substrate. In the presence of the partially processed viral replicase polyprotein, P123, purified nsP4 is able to synthesize discrete template length minus-strand RNA products. Mutations in the 3' CSE or poly(A) tail of viral template RNA prevent RNA synthesis by the replicase complex containing purified nsP4, consistent with previously reported template requirements for minus-strand RNA synthesis. Optimal reaction conditions were determined by investigating the effects of time, pH, and the concentrations of nsP4, P123 and magnesium on the synthesis of RNA.

Rubach, Jon K. [Life Sciences Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, 210 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wasik, Brian R.; Rupp, Jonathan C. [Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E. Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Kuhn, Richard J. [Markey Center for Structural Biology and Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 W. State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Hardy, Richard W. [Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E. Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Smith, Janet L. [Life Sciences Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, 210 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: JanetSmith@umich.edu

2009-02-05

61

The synthesis of ZnP4 based on liquid-solid reaction under high pressure and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we reported the successful high pressure and temperature synthesis of micron-sized zinc tetraphosphide (ZnP4) crystals based on the liquid-solid reaction between Zn and P at a large-volume cubic press. Techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) were employed to investigate the phase structure, grain size, morphology and stoichiometric ratio of crystals. The results indicate that the synthesized ZnP4 has a tetragonal structure with the space group of P41212, and the grains with size of about 50 ?m can be prepared at 4.0 GPa and 1000 °C. We also obtained the pressure-temperature (P-T) formation region of ZnP4 and discussed the formative mechanism of ZnP4 crystals.

Li, Xin; Peng, Fang; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wang, Pei

2013-07-01

62

Antitumor activity of G-quadruplex-interactive agent TMPyP4 with photodynamic therapy in ovarian carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by the cationic porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4), on an ovarian carcinoma cell line and the underlying mechanisms by which TMPyP4-PDT exerts its actions. The analysis of cell viability, hematoxylin and eosin staining and flow cytometric apoptosis assays revealed that TMPyP4-PDT potently suppressed the growth of the A2780 cells in a laser energy- and dose-dependent manner. Mechanically, it was observed that TMPyP4-PDT suppressed the proliferation and motility of the A2780 cells. In addition, the expression levels of minichromosome maintenance protein-2 (MCM2) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) were detected by western blot analysis. The results indicated that the TMPyP4-PDT-induced apoptosis and antimetastatic activity in the A2780 cells was accompanied by the inhibition of the expression of MCM2 and CA-IX. Therefore, TMPyP4-PDT may represent a potential therapeutic method for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24959286

LIU, HONGLI; LV, CHANGSHUAI; DING, BAIJUAN; WANG, JIE; LI, SHAN; ZHANG, YOUZHONG

2014-01-01

63

A Novel Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Canine CD25 (P4A10): Selection and Evaluation of Canine Tregs  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody (mAb), P4A10, was made to the canine interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2R?; p55; Tac antigen; CD25) to facilitate studies of canine regulatory T-cells (Treg). By non-reduced western blot, P4A10 bound to a 55 kD protein, the expected size of IL-2R?. In flow cytometry assays, it reacted with a minor population of circulating dog CD3+CD4+ T cells and the majority (>60%) of in vitro PMA-Ionomycin (PMA-IO)-activated canine CD3+ T-cells. P4A10 recognized a hematopoietic cell population enriched for FoxP3+ cells as measured by flow cytometry. The P4A10-selected fractions of T-cells had significantly increased copy numbers of CD25, FoxP3, IL-10, and TGF? as detected by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) compared to the negative fractions. The P4A10-selected cells inhibited 3H (tritiated) thymidine incorporation in a mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) containing responders of the same origin. P4A10-selected T cells from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells had less FoxP3 (p = 0.07) by qRT-PCR (quantitative RT-PCR) and were less suppressive (p=0.01) than in vitro alloantigen-activated Treg. The mAb P4A10 is specific for canine CD25 and can be used to facilitate studies of CD25+FoxP3+ Treg in this clinically relevant large animal model. PMID:20060595

Abrams, V. Kraig; Hwang, Billanna; Lesnikova, Marina; Gass, M. John; Wayner, Elizabeth; Castilla-Llorente, Cristina; Georges, George E.; Nash, Richard A.

2010-01-01

64

Immunotherapy with a Combination of Intravenous Immune Globulin and P4 Peptide Rescues Mice from Postinfluenza Pneumococcal Pneumonia?  

PubMed Central

Alternate therapies are needed for treatment of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza. The immunomodulatory peptide P4 has shown promise in mouse models of primary pneumococcal infection. Mice infected with influenza virus and then challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae were treated with a combination of P4 peptide and intravenous immune globulin. Survival was improved from 20% to 80% in treated mice relative to controls. Clinical cure correlated with increased clearance of bacteria and decreased lung consolidation. Greater trafficking of professional phagocytic cells to the site of pneumococcal infection coupled with enhanced opsonophagocytosis as manifest by decreased surface display of Fc? receptors (Fc?R) on neutrophils and macrophages were associated with P4 peptide treatment. This suggests that the mechanism of action for improved clearance of bacteria engendered by P4 is through improved uptake by phagocytes mediated by IgG Fc-Fc? receptor interactions following antibody-mediated opsonophagocytosis of bacteria. Antibody-based therapies, when coupled with immune modulators, such as P4 peptide, may be an effective tool together with antibiotics in our armamentarium against severe pneumonia. PMID:21383090

Weeks, Jenni N.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Rajam, Gowrisankar; Ades, Edwin W.; McCullers, Jonathan A.

2011-01-01

65

Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.  

PubMed

The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. PMID:21241377

Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

2011-08-01

66

Bcl-2 Promoter Sequence G-Quadruplex Interactions with Three Planar and Non-Planar Cationic Porphyrins: TMPyP4, TMPyP3, and TMPyP2  

PubMed Central

The interactions of three related cationic porphyrins, TMPyP4, TMPyP3 and TMPyP2, with a WT 39-mer Bcl-2 promoter sequence G-quadruplex were studied using Circular Dichroism, ESI mass spectrometry, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, and Fluorescence spectroscopy. The planar cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 (5, 10, 15, 20-meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine) is shown to bind to a WT Bcl-2 G-quadruplex via two different binding modes, an end binding mode and a weaker mode attributed to intercalation. The related non-planar ligands, TMPyP3 and TMPyP2, are shown to bind to the Bcl-2 G-quadruplex by a single mode. ESI mass spectrometry experiments confirmed that the saturation stoichiometry is 4:1 for the TMPyP4 complex and 2:1 for the TMPyP2 and TMPyP3 complexes. ITC experiments determined that the equilibrium constant for formation of the (TMPyP4)1/DNA complex (K1 = 3.7 × 106) is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the equilibrium constant for the formation of the (TMPyP2)1/DNA complex, (K1 = 7.0 × 104). Porphyrin fluorescence is consistent with intercalation in the case of the (TMPyP4)3/DNA and (TMPyP4)4/DNA complexes. The non-planar shape of the TMPyP2 and TMPyP3 molecules results in both a reduced affinity for the end binding interaction and the elimination of the intercalation binding mode. PMID:23977303

Le, Vu H.; Nagesh, Narayana; Lewis, Edwin A.

2013-01-01

67

Bare-nucleus astrophysical factor of the 3He(d,p)4He reaction via the ``Trojan horse'' method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3He(d,p)4He reaction has been studied from Ec.m.=600 keV down to astrophysical energies by means of the “Trojan horse” method using the 6Li(3He,p?)4He three-body reaction at Elab=5 and 6 MeV. Coincidence spectra were measured in kinematic conditions favoring the quasifree 3He+2H process. The bare astrophysical factor Sb(E) for the 3He(d,p)4He reaction was extracted from the three-body cross section in the modified plane-wave Born approximation. Comparison with the Sb extrapolation from the free two-body data is presented. The independent estimate of the screening potential as obtained with the present work seems to confirm the theoretical adiabatic limit.

La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Typel, S.; Cherubini, S.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rinollo, A.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Schürmann, D.; Strieder, F.

2005-12-01

68

Development of macrocyclic inhibitors of HCV NS3/4A protease with cyclic constrained P2-P4 linkers.  

PubMed

A series of macrocyclic compounds containing a cyclic constraint in the P2-P4 linker region have been discovered and shown to exhibit excellent HCV NS3/4a genotype 3a and genotype 1b R155K, A156T, A156V, and D168V mutant activity while maintaining high rat liver exposure. The effect of the constraint is most dramatic against gt 1b A156 mutants where ~20-fold improvements in potency are achieved by introduction of a variety of ring systems into the P2-P4 linker. PMID:23084906

Rudd, Michael T; McIntyre, Charles J; Romano, Joseph J; Butcher, John W; Holloway, M Katharine; Bush, Kimberly; Nguyen, Kevin T; Gilbert, Kevin F; Lyle, Terry A; Liverton, Nigel J; Wan, Bang-Lin; Summa, Vincenzo; Harper, Steven; Rowley, Michael; Vacca, Joseph P; Carroll, Steven S; Burlein, Christine; DiMuzio, Jillian M; Gates, Adam; Graham, Donald J; Huang, Qian; Ludmerer, Steven W; McClain, Stephanie; McHale, Carolyn; Stahlhut, Mark; Fandozzi, Christine; Taylor, Anne; Trainor, Nicole; Olsen, David B; McCauley, John A

2012-12-01

69

Transcriptional targeting of glioblastoma by diphtheria toxin–A driven by both H19 and IGF2-P4 promoters  

PubMed Central

Background The H19-IGF2 locus is either highly expressed and/or shows aberrant allelic pattern of expression in a large array of human cancers, while rarely expressed in the corresponding normal tissue. Preclinical, clinical studies and human compassionate using a DNA plasmid containing H19 and/or IGF2-P4 regulatory sequences that drive the expression of an intracellular toxin [diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA)] have demonstrated promising results in several types of carcinomas. Recently we reported that a single construct that expresses DTA under the control of both H19 and IGF2 P4 promoters showed superior efficacy in vitro as well as in vivo, in comparison to a single promoter construct in bladder carcinoma. Here we extended this approach to glioblastoma and tested the antitumor efficacy of the double promoter DTA-expressing vector (H19-DTA-P4-DTA) in vitro as well as in heterotopic animal model. H19 gene expression was tested by in-situ hybridization (ISH) and by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) in samples of diffuse glioma. Methods IGF2-P4 gene expression was tested by qRT-PCR as well. Results Both H19 and IGF2-P4 transcripts were highly expressed in high grade gliomas. Furthermore, significant H19 expression in other types of primary brain tumors as well as in brain metastases was detected by ISH. Both A172 and U87 human glioblastoma cell lines showed high expression of IGF2-P4 while the A172 cell line showed high expression of H19 RNA as well. H19-DTA-P4-DTA exhibited superior cytotoxic activity compared to the single promoter expression vectors, in U87 and A172 glioblastoma cell lines in vitro and showed antitumoral efficacy in heterotopic glioblastoma animal model. Conclusions Our findings indicate antitumoral efficacy against glioblastoma of the targeted double promoter vector H19-DTA-P4-DTA, both in-vitro and in-vivo. Thus, its test in orthotopic animal model of glioblastoma as well as in clinical trials is warranted. PMID:22567173

Amit, Doron; Matouk, Imad J; Lavon, Iris; Birman, Tatiana; Galula, Jenifer; Abu-Lail, Rasha; Schneider, Tamar; Siegal, Tali; Hochberg, Abraham; Fellig, Yakov

2012-01-01

70

NMR and XAS reveal an inner-sphere metal binding site in the P4 helix of the metallo-ribozyme ribonuclease P  

PubMed Central

Functionally critical metals interact with RNA through complex coordination schemes that are currently difficult to visualize at the atomic level under solution conditions. Here, we report a new approach that combines NMR and XAS to resolve and characterize metal binding in the most highly conserved P4 helix of ribonuclease P (RNase P), the ribonucleoprotein that catalyzes the divalent metal ion-dependent maturation of the 5? end of precursor tRNA. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals that the Zn2+ bound to a P4 helix mimic is six-coordinate, with an average Zn-O/N bond distance of 2.08 ?. The EXAFS data also show intense outer-shell scattering indicating that the zinc ion has inner-shell interactions with one or more RNA ligands. NMR Mn2+ paramagnetic line broadening experiments reveal strong metal localization at residues corresponding to G378 and G379 in B. subtilis RNase P. A new “metal cocktail” chemical shift perturbation strategy involving titrations with , Zn2+, and confirm an inner-sphere metal interaction with residues G378 and G379. These studies present a unique picture of how metals coordinate to the putative RNase P active site in solution, and shed light on the environment of an essential metal ion in RNase P. Our experimental approach presents a general method for identifying and characterizing inner-sphere metal ion binding sites in RNA in solution. PMID:20133747

Koutmou, Kristin S.; Casiano-Negroni, Anette; Getz, Melissa M.; Pazicni, Samuel; Andrews, Andrew J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Fierke, Carol A.

2010-01-01

71

Orbital Orientations of Exoplanets: Hat-p-4b is Prograde and Hat-p-14b is Retrograde  

E-print Network

We present observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for two exoplanetary systems, revealing the orientations of their orbits relative to the rotation axes of their parent stars. HAT-P-4b is prograde, with a sky-projected ...

Winn, Joshua Nathan

72

P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS  

E-print Network

P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS winds and other severe weather threats with which they are associated, derecho-producing mesoscale and summer, derecho MCSs typically occur in environments of substantial convective instability, with very

73

Activation of organozinc reagents with t-Bu-P4 base for transition metal-free catalytic SN2' reaction.  

PubMed

The t-Bu-P4 base was found to be an excellent catalyst for activating organozinc reagents and was used to promote the S(N)2' reaction of alpha,beta-unsaturated esters bearing a gamma-chloride using various organozinc reagents: these reactions proceeded in high yields with excellent chemo-and regioselectivity. PMID:18685775

Kobayashi, Koji; Ueno, Masahiro; Naka, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yoshinori

2008-08-28

74

Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of Fennoscandian cowpox virus isolates based on the p4c and atip genes  

PubMed Central

Background Cowpox virus (CPXV), a rodent-borne Orthopoxvirus (OPV) that is indigenous to Eurasia can infect humans, cattle, felidae and other animals. Molecular characterization of CPXVs isolated from different geographic locations is important for the understanding of their biology, geographic distribution, classification and evolution. Our aim was to characterize CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of atip gene fragment amplicon, and phylogenetic tree topology in conjunction with the patristic and genetic distances based on full length DNA sequence of the atip and p4c genes. Methods ATI phenotypes were determined by transmission electron microcopy and RFLP profiles were obtained by restriction enzyme digestion of the atip gene fragment PCR product. A 6.2 kbp region spanning the entire atip and p4c genes of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates was amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic affinity of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates to OPVs isolated from other geographic regions was determined on the basis of the atip and p4c genes. Results Fennoscandian CPXV isolates encoded full length atip and p4c genes. They produce wild type V+ ATI except for CPXV-No-H2. CPXVs were resolved into six and seven species clusters based on the phylogeny of the atip and p4c genes respectively. The CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia were grouped into three distinct clusters that corresponded to isolates from Norway, Sweden and Finland. Conclusion CPXV is a polyphyletic assemblage of six or seven distinct clusters and the current classification in which CPXVs are united as one single species should be re-considered. Our results are of significance to the classification and evolution of OPVs. PMID:24972911

2014-01-01

75

The miR-124-Prolyl Hydroxylase P4HA1-MMP1 axis plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression  

PubMed Central

Collagen prolyl hydroxylases (C-P4HAs) are a family of enzymes involved in collagen biogenesis. One of the isoforms of P4HA, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I (P4HA1), catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential for the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Here, we show the overexpression of P4HA1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray demonstrated that P4HA1 expression was correlated with prostate cancer progression. Using in vitro studies, we showed that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer cell growth and tumor progression. Expression profiling studies using P4HA1-modulated prostate cells suggested regulation of Matrix metalloprotease 1. The invasive properties of P4HA1 overexpressing cells were reversed by blocking MMP1. Our studies indicate P4HA1 copy number gain in a subset of metastatic prostate tumors and its expression is also regulated by microRNA-124. MiR-124 in turn is negatively regulated by transcriptional repressors EZH2 and CtBP1, both of which are overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mice xenograft investigations show that P4HA1 is required for tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Our observations suggest that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and could serve as a viable therapeutic target. PMID:25115393

Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V. S. K.; Cieslik, Marcin; Zheng, Heng; Nallasivam, Sivakumar; Arekapudi, Subramanyeswara R.; Jing, Xiaojun; Siddiqui, Javed; Athanikar, Jyoti; Carskadon, Shannon L.; Lonigro, Robert J.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

2014-01-01

76

The Cross Section of 3He(3He,2p)4He measured at Solar Energies  

E-print Network

We report on the results of the \\hethet\\ experiment at the underground accelerator facility LUNA (Gran Sasso). For the first time the lowest projectile energies utilized for the cross section measurement correspond to energies below the center of the solar Gamow peak ($E_{\\rm 0}$=22 keV). The data provide no evidence for the existence of a hypothetical resonance in the energy range investigated. Although no extrapolation is needed anymore (except for energies at the low-energy tail of the Gamow peak), the data must be corrected for the effects of electron screening, clearly observed the first time for the \\hethet\\ reaction. The effects are however larger than expected and not understood, leading presently to the largest uncertainty on the quoted $S_{\\rm b}(E_{\\rm 0})$ value for bare nuclides (=5.40 MeV b).

The LUNA Collaboration; M. Junker; A. D'Alessandro; S. Zavatarelli; C. Arpesella; E. Bellotti; C. Broggini; P. Corvisiero; G. Fiorentini; A. Fubini; G. Gervino; U. Greife; C. Gustavino; J. Lambert; P. Prati; W. S. Rodney; C. Rolfs; F. Strieder; H. P. Trautvetter; D. Zahnow

1997-07-10

77

ORBITAL ORIENTATIONS OF EXOPLANETS: HAT-P-4b IS PROGRADE AND HAT-P-14b IS RETROGRADE  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for two exoplanetary systems, revealing the orientations of their orbits relative to the rotation axes of their parent stars. HAT-P-4b is prograde, with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of {lambda} = -4.9 {+-} 11.9 deg. In contrast, HAT-P-14b is retrograde, with {lambda} = 189.1 {+-} 5.1 deg. These results conform with a previously noted pattern among the stellar hosts of close-in giant planets: hotter stars have a wide range of obliquities and cooler stars have low obliquities. This, in turn, suggests that three-body dynamics and tidal dissipation are responsible for the short-period orbits of many exoplanets. In addition, our data revealed a third body in the HAT-P-4 system, which could be a second planet or a companion star.

Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Mail Code 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysics and NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shporer, Avi [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.; Holman, Matthew J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-02-15

78

The extended elastic model III: the nuclear fusion for the reaction 7 Li(p,?) 4 He  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A different procedure to determine the parameters which appear in the extended elastic model II for the sub-barrier fusion\\u000a is suggested. A comparison between the values of fusion cross-section obtained by using the extended elastic model II and\\u000a those obtained by using the new approach is shown. In the framework of the new model the reaction7Li(p,?)4He is investigated.

A. Scalia

1991-01-01

79

Stark regularities in the multiplet (3P)3p(4P°)-(3P)3d(4D) of Ne II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stark widths and shifts of 7 Ne II spectral lines in the multiplet (3P)3p(4P°)-(3P)3d(4D) have been measured in a low-pressure pulsed arc plasma. The maximal electron density and temperature was 2×l023m-3 and 43000K respectively. The parameters measurements show clear regularities than can be used for predicting other parameters with precision.

Peláez, R. J.; Djurovi?, S.; ?irišan, M.; Rodríguez, F.; Aparicio, J. A.; Mar, S.

2008-10-01

80

The in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass and gentamicin impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis is a disease that is still difficult to treat, with considerable morbidity and associated costs. The current "gold standard" in treatment - debridement and implantation of antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads - presents the disadvantage of a second surgical intervention required for the removal of the beads. We comparatively investigated the in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass (BAG) and gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads. Bacterial viability was assessed hourly by Standard Plate Count during 24 hours of incubation, by determining the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both tested materials showed an antibacterial effect on all studied bacteria. In case of S. aureus, BAG granules were almost as effective as gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads, with no statistically significant differences. In contrast, PMMA beads had a superior antibacterial effect on S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial effect of BAG was greatly influenced by granule size and contact time. There was a statistically significant correlation between pH values and the number of CFU in the case of S53P4 BAG granules. As a biocompatible and biodegradable bone substitute, S53P4 bioactive glass can be a good alternative in the local management of osteomyelitis. PMID:24939683

Gergely, István; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Man, Adrian; Zuh, Sándor György; Pop, Tudor Sorin

2014-06-01

81

Pathways of cylindrical orientations in PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer thin films upon solvent vapor annealing.  

PubMed

The orientation changes of perpendicular cylindrical microdomains in polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) thin films upon annealing in different solvent vapors were investigated by in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and ex situ scanning force microscopy (SFM). The swelling of P4VP perpendicular cylinders (C?) in chloroform, a non-selective solvent vapor, leads to the reorientation to in-plane cylinders through a disordered state in a particular kinetic pathway in the phase diagram upon drying. On the other hand, the swelling of the P4VP perpendicular cylinders in a selective solvent vapor (i.e., 1,4-dioxane) induces a morphological transition from cylindrical to ellipsoidal as a transient structure to spherical microdomains; subsequent solvent evaporation resulted in shrinkage of the matrix in the vertical direction, merging the ellipsoidal domains into the perpendicularly aligned cylinders. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism based on the selectivity of the solvent to the constituting blocks that is mainly responsible for the orientation changes. PMID:25142254

Gowd, E Bhoje; Koga, Tadanori; Endoh, Maya K; Kumar, Kamlesh; Stamm, Manfred

2014-10-21

82

P4 medicine: how systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society  

PubMed Central

Ten years ago, the proposition that healthcare is evolving from reactive disease care to care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory was regarded as highly speculative. Today, the core elements of that vision are widely accepted and have been articulated in a series of recent reports by the US Institute of Medicine. Systems approaches to biology and medicine are now beginning to provide patients, consumers and physicians with personalized information about each individual’s unique health experience of both health and disease at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. This information will make disease care radically more cost effective by personalizing care to each person’s unique biology and by treating the causes rather than the symptoms of disease. It will also provide the basis for concrete action by consumers to improve their health as they observe the impact of lifestyle decisions. Working together in digitally powered familial and affinity networks, consumers will be able to reduce the incidence of the complex chronic diseases that currently account for 75% of disease-care costs in the USA.

Glusman, Gustavo; Brogaard, Kristin; Price, Nathan D; Hood, Leroy

2014-01-01

83

miR-122 regulates collagen production via targeting hepatic stellate cells and suppressing P4HA1 expression  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in many biological processes by affecting their target gene expression. miR-122 has been extensively studied in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the role of miR-122 in liver fibrosis remains unknown. Methods The mRNA expression levels of miR-122, prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP?) were assessed by real-time PCR. The protein expression levels of P4HA1, C/EBP? and collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) were analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. MTT assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to examine the binding activity of C/EBP? to miR-122 promoter. Results miR-122 expression was significantly reduced in transactivated HSCs and in the livers of mice treated with CCl4. Overexpression of miR-122 inhibited the proliferation of LX2 cells. We also demonstrated that P4HA1 was a target gene of miR-122. The mRNA expression level of PAHA1 inversely correlated with that of miR-122 in HSCs and in the mouse liver. Overexpression of miR-122 markedly attenuated the expression of P4HA1 via targeting a binding site located at 3?-UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. We further showed that miR-122 overexpression led to decreased collagen maturation and ECM production. Finally, the binding activity of C/EBP? to miR-122 promoter was significantly decreased in activated HSCs. Conclusions Our study suggests that miR-122 may play an important role in negatively regulating collagen production in HSCs and that targeted expression of miR-122 in HSCs may represent a new strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:23178710

Li, Jiang; Ghazwani, Mohammed; Zhang, Yifei; Lu, Jianqin; Li, Jilong; Fan, Jie; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.; Li, Song

2013-01-01

84

Evolutionarily conserved structural changes in phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (PI5P4K) isoforms are responsible for differences in enzyme activity and localization  

PubMed Central

Mammals have genes coding for three PI5P4Ks (PtdIns5P 4-kinases), and these have different cellular localizations, tissue distributions and lipid kinase activities. We describe in the present paper a detailed molecular exploration of human PI5P4Ks ?, ? and ?, as well as their fly and worm homologues, to understand how and why these differences came to be. The intrinsic ATPase activities of the three isoforms are very similar, and we show that differences in their G-loop regions can account for much of their wide differences in lipid kinase activity. We have also undertaken an extensive in silico evolutionary study of the PI5P4K family, and show experimentally that the single PI5P4K homologues from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are as widely different in activity as the most divergent mammalian isoforms. Finally we show that the close association of PI5P4Ks ? and ? is a true heterodimerization, and not a higher oligomer association of homodimers. We reveal that structural modelling is consistent with this and with the apparently random heterodimerization that we had earlier observed between PI5P4K? and PI5P4K? [Wang, Bond, Letcher, Richardson, Lilley, Irvine and Clarke (2010), Biochem. J. 430, 215–221]. Overall the molecular diversity of mammalian PI5P4Ks explains much of their properties and behaviour, but their physiological functionality remains elusive. PMID:23758345

Clarke, Jonathan H.; Irvine, Robin F.

2013-01-01

85

Fe2P2O7 and Fe2P4O12 studied between 5 800 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer spectra of triclinic Fe2P2O7 indicate the existence of two crystallographic metal positions in the structure. In the paramagnetic region the two Mössbauer doublets are closely overlapping. The magnetic transition takes place at ? 21 K and the saturated fields are around 12 tesla for the two positions. In monoclinic Fe2P4O12 the two octahedrally coordinated metal positions give quite different quadrupole splittings (1.5 and 3 mm/s at room temperature) and hyperfine field values (42 and 12.5 Tesla at 5 K). The transition temperature is at ? 18.5 K.

Ericsson, T.; Nord, A. G.; Ahmed, M. M. O.; Gismelseed, A.; Khangi, F.

1990-07-01

86

Formation of sub-7 nm feature size PS-b-P4VP block copolymer structures by solvent vapour process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanometer range structure produced by thin films of diblock copolymers makes them a great of interest as templates for the microelectronics industry. We investigated the effect of annealing solvents and/or mixture of the solvents in case of symmetric Poly (styrene-block-4vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer to get the desired line patterns. In this paper, we used different molecular weights PS-b-P4VP to demonstrate the scalability of such high ? BCP system which requires precise fine-tuning of interfacial energies achieved by surface treatment and that improves the wetting property, ordering, and minimizes defect densities. Bare Silicon Substrates were also modified with polystyrene brush and ethylene glycol self-assembled monolayer in a simple quick reproducible way. Also, a novel and simple in situ hard mask technique was used to generate sub-7nm Iron oxide nanowires with a high aspect ratio on Silicon substrate, which can be used to develop silicon nanowires post pattern transfer.

Chaudhari, Atul; Ghoshal, Tandra; Shaw, Matthew T.; Cummins, Cian; Borah, Dipu; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

2014-03-01

87

X-linked cholestasis in mouse due to mutations of the P4-ATPase ATP11C  

PubMed Central

Transporters at the hepatic canalicular membrane are essential for the formation of bile and the prevention of cholestatic liver disease. One such example is ATP8B1, a P4-type ATPase disrupted in three inherited forms of intrahepatic cholestasis. Mutation of the X-linked mouse gene Atp11c, which encodes a paralogous P4-type ATPase, precludes B-cell development in the adult bone marrow, but also causes hyperbilirubinemia. Here we explore this hyperbilirubinemia in two independent Atp11c mutant mouse lines, and find that it originates from an effect on nonhematopoietic cells. Liver function tests and histology revealed only minor pathology, although cholic acid was elevated in the serum of mutant mice, and became toxic to mutant mice when given as a dietary supplement. The majority of homozygous mutant females also died of dystocia in a maternal genotype-specific manner. ATP11C therefore represents a multifunctional transporter, essential for adult B-cell development, the prevention of intrahepatic cholestasis, and parturition, and is a new candidate for genetically undiagnosed cases of cholestasis and dystocia in humans. PMID:21518881

Siggs, Owen M.; Schnabl, Bernd; Webb, Bill; Beutler, Bruce

2011-01-01

88

Interactions of Rice Tungro Bacilliform Pararetrovirus and Its Protein P4 with Plant RNA-Silencing Machinery.  

PubMed

Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed gene silencing plays a major role in antiviral defense. Virus-derived siRNAs inhibit viral replication in infected cells and potentially move to neighboring cells, immunizing them from incoming virus. Viruses have evolved various ways to evade and suppress siRNA production or action. Here, we show that 21-, 22-, and 24-nucleotide (nt) viral siRNAs together constitute up to 19% of total small RNA population of Oryza sativa plants infected with Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and cover both strands of the RTBV DNA genome. However, viral siRNA hotspots are restricted to a short noncoding region between transcription and reverse-transcription start sites. This region generates double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors of siRNAs and, in pregenomic RNA, forms a stable secondary structure likely inaccessible to siRNA-directed cleavage. In transient assays, RTBV protein P4 suppressed cell-to-cell spread of silencing but enhanced cell-autonomous silencing, which correlated with reduced 21-nt siRNA levels and increased 22-nt siRNA levels. Our findings imply that RTBV generates decoy dsRNA that restricts siRNA production to the structured noncoding region and thereby protects other regions of the viral genome from repressive action of siRNAs, while the viral protein P4 interferes with cell-to-cell spread of antiviral silencing. PMID:25122481

Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Golyaev, Victor; Seguin, Jonathan; Zvereva, Anna S; Farinelli, Laurent; Pooggin, Mikhail M

2014-12-01

89

Metabolic channeling of glucose towards gluconate in phosphate-solubilizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa P4 under phosphorus deficiency.  

PubMed

Most phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB), including the Pseudomonas species, release P from sparingly soluble mineral phosphates by producing high levels of gluconic acid from extracellular glucose, in a reaction catalyzed by periplasmic glucose dehydrogenase, which is an integral component of glucose catabolism of pseudomonads. To investigate the differences in the glucose metabolism of gluconic acid-producing PSB pseudomonads and low gluconic acid-producing/non-PSB strains, several parameters pertaining to growth and glucose utilization under P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions were monitored for the PSB isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa P4 (producing approximately 46 mM gluconic acid releasing 437 microM P) and non-PSB P. fluorescens 13525. Our results show interesting differences in the channeling of glucose towards gluconate and other catabolic end-products like pyruvate and acetate with respect to P status for both strains. However, PSB strain P. aeruginosa P4, apart from exhibiting better growth under both low and high Pi conditions, differed from P. fluorescens 13525 in its ability to accumulate gluconate under P-solubilizing conditions. These alterations in growth, glucose utilization and acid secretion are correlated with glucose dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase activities. The ability to shift glucose towards a direct oxidative pathway under P deficiency is speculated to underlie the differential gluconic acid-mediated P-solubilizing ability observed amongst pseudomonads. PMID:18996187

Buch, Aditi; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

2008-01-01

90

The Production Cross-Sections for the Process {e^ +} ({P1}) + {e^ - }({P3}) -> Hi^ + ({P2}) + Hi^ - ({P4}) + ˜ \\chi l0({P5)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross-section, in electron (e-) positron (e+) collision, are calculated over range of center of mass energy for the process. {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }({P3}) -> Hi + ({P2}) + Hi - ({P4}) + ˜ \\chi l0(P5) Four different group of Feynman diagrams are taken into consideration depending on the type of the propagator: i - Production of ?0 and H± when z0 and H0 are the propagators exchange. ii - Production of ?0 and H± when ?0 is a leg from electron or positron, and ? is the propagator. iii - Production of ?0 and H± when ?0 is a leg from electron and positron, and Z0 is the propagator. iv - Production of ?0 and H± when ?0 is a leg from electron or positron, and H0 is the propagator. Where (i, j = 1,2,3, and = 1,2,3,4) The cross section for each group is calculated according to a carefully selected set of parameters. These different possible (1155) situations are graphed and tabulated. The production mechanisms can be detected as: {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }(P3 - {P5}) -> {? 0(P2) + P4 -> Hi ^ + ({P2}) + Hi - ({P4}) {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }(P3 - {P5}) -> {Z0(P2 + P4) -> Hi + ({P2}) + Hi - ({P4}) {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }(P3 - {P5}) -> H0(P2 + {P4}) -> Hi + ({P2}) + Hi - ({P4}) {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }({P3}) -> Hi + ({P2}) + Hi - P4.

Ahmed, M. M.; Nous, M. H.; Yehia, Sherif; Asmaa, A. A.

2011-06-01

91

Increase in VEGF secretion from human fibroblast cells by bioactive glass S53P4 to stimulate angiogenesis in bone.  

PubMed

Bioactive glasses (BAGs) are being investigated for the repair and reconstruction of bone defects, as they exhibit osteoconductive and osteostimulatory potential. However, successful bone regeneration requires also the neovascularization of the construct which is, among other factors, guided by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, BAG S53P4 (53% SiO2 , 23% Na2 O, 20% CaO, 4% P2 O5 ) is investigated in relation to VEGF-release and response of fibroblast cells. Human CD-18CO fibroblasts were cultivated in contact with different granules of different sizes (0.5-0.8 mm, 1.0-2.0 mm, and 2.0-3.15 mm) and at different concentrations (0-1 wt/vol % of BAG) for 72 h. The analysis of morphology revealed no toxic effect for all granule sizes and concentrations. Compared with the reference, lactate dehydrogenase-activity of CCD-18CO cells increased in contact with BAG samples. The VEGF release from CCD-18CO fibroblasts cultured on different granule sizes and at different concentrations after 72 h of incubation was quantified. It was found that particles of 0.5-0.8 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm in size enhanced VEGF release, whereas BAG particle sizes of 2.0-3.15 mm led to inhibition of VEGF release. The results are relevant to understand the influence of the particle size and concentration of BAG S53P4 on VEGF expression and neovascularization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 4055-4061, 2014. PMID:24357515

Detsch, Rainer; Stoor, Patricia; Grünewald, Alina; Roether, Judith A; Lindfors, Nina C; Boccaccini, Aldo R

2014-11-01

92

Critical role of a transmembrane lysine in aminophospholipid transport by mammalian photoreceptor P4-ATPase ATP8A2.  

PubMed

ATP8A2 is a P(4)-ATPase ("flippase") located in membranes of retinal photoreceptors, brain cells, and testis, where it mediates transport of aminophospholipids toward the cytoplasmic leaflet. It has long been an enigma whether the mechanism of P(4)-ATPases resembles that of the well-characterized cation-transporting P-type ATPases, and it is unknown whether the flippases interact directly with the lipid and with counterions. Our results demonstrate that ATP8A2 forms a phosphoenzyme intermediate at the conserved aspartate (Asp(416)) in the P-type ATPase signature sequence and exists in E(1)P and E(2)P forms similar to the archetypical P-type ATPases. Using the properties of the phosphoenzyme, the partial reaction steps of the transport cycle were examined, and the roles of conserved residues Asp(196), Glu(198), Lys(873), and Asn(874) in the transport mechanism were elucidated. The former two residues in the A-domain T/D-G-E-S/T motif are involved in catalysis of E(2)P dephosphorylation, the glutamate being essential. Transported aminophospholipids activate the dephosphorylation similar to K(+) activation of dephosphorylation in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Lys(873) mutants (particularly K873A and K873E) display a markedly reduced sensitivity to aminophospholipids. Hence, Lys(873), located in transmembrane segment M5 at a "hot spot" for cation binding in Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, appears to participate directly in aminophospholipid binding or to mediate a crucial interaction within the ATP8A2-CDC50 complex. By contrast, Lys(865) is unimportant for aminophospholipid sensitivity. Binding of Na(+), H(+), K(+), Cl(-), or Ca(2+) to the E(1) form as a counterion is not required for activation of phosphorylation from ATP. Therefore, phospholipids could be the only substrate transported by ATP8A2. PMID:22307598

Coleman, Jonathan A; Vestergaard, Anna L; Molday, Robert S; Vilsen, Bente; Andersen, Jens Peter

2012-01-31

93

Histopathological studies of "CH1641-like" scrapie sources versus classical scrapie and BSE transmitted to ovine transgenic mice (TgOvPrP4).  

PubMed

The possibility of the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infecting small ruminants is of serious concern for human health. Among scrapie cases, the CH1641 source in particular appears to have certain biochemical properties similar to the BSE strain. In France, several natural scrapie cases were identified as "CH1641-like" natural scrapie isolates in sheep and goats. The Tg(OvPrP4) mouse line expressing the ovine prion protein is a sensitive model for studying and identifying strains of agents responsible for scrapie and BSE. This model is also very useful when studying specific scrapie source CH1641, known to be not transmissible to wild-type mice despite the similarity of some of its biochemical properties to those of the BSE strain. As it is important to be able to fully distinguish CH1641 from BSE, we herein report the histopathological data from CH1641 scrapie transmission experiments compared to specific cases of "CH1641-like" natural scrapie isolates in sheep, murine scrapie strains and BSE. In addition to the conventional vacuolar lesion profile approach and PrP(d) brain mappings, an innovative differential PET-blot analysis was introduced to classify the different strains of agent and revealed the first direct concordance between ways of grouping strains on the basis of PrP(d) biochemical characteristics. PMID:21765939

Bencsik, Anna; Baron, Thierry

2011-01-01

94

[JO95a] B. Jamison and S. Olariu. A lineartime algorithm to recognize p4 reducible graphs. Theoret. Comput. Sci., 145:329--344, 1995.  

E-print Network

. The monadic theory of order. Annals of Mathematics, 102:379--419, 1975. [Spi92] J. Spinrad. p4 ­trees. Ehrenfeucht. An application of games to the completeness problem for for­ malized theories. Fundamenta

Makowsky, Johann A. "Janos"

95

Comparison of aerosol characteristics over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea using IRS-P4 Ocean Color Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean Color Monitor OCM aboard IRS-P4 Satellite has been used to retrieve aerosol optical depth AOD in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea We have retrieved AOD using IRS P4 OCM data at wavelength 555nm and 865nm during summer and winter season for the period 2000-2005 Characteristics of AOD and angstrom coefficient along the eastern and western coasts

A. K. Prasad; P. Chaturvedi; R. P. Singh

2006-01-01

96

Bacteria-induced protein P4 (hemolin) from Manduca sexta: a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which can inhibit hemocyte aggregation.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a number of hemolymph proteins is induced in insects in response to bacterial infections. The major induced hemolymph protein in larvae of Manduca sexta is a glycoprotein of Mr = 48,000 known as P4. We have isolated a clone for P4 from a fat body cDNA library constructed from RNA isolated from larvae injected with bacteria. The cDNA has an open reading frame encoding a 411 residue polypeptide with a hydrophobic NH2-terminal sequence, which appears to be a signal peptide. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence shows that P4 is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily, and is composed largely of four C2 type Ig domains. The M. sexta P4 amino acid sequence is 60% identical with hemolin (P4) from Hyalophora cecropia. The name "hemolin" has also been adopted for the M. sexta P4 protein. Hemolin mRNA levels in fat body begin to increase within 1 h after injection of bacteria into fifth instar larvae and within 4 h after injection of adults. Hemolin associates with the surface of hemocytes and inhibits hemocyte aggregation responses, suggesting a role for the protein in modulating hemocyte adhesion during recognition and response to bacterial infections in insects. PMID:1790333

Ladendorff, N E; Kanost, M R

1991-01-01

97

Inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide (P4HB) attenuates temozolomide resistance in malignant glioma via the endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR) pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor of the central nervous system, is characterized by a relentless disease recurrence despite continued advancement in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ), a standard chemotherapeutic agent for GBM, remains a major challenge. Understanding the mechanisms behind TMZ resistance can direct the development of novel strategies for the prevention, monitoring, and treatment of tumor relapse. Methods and results Our research platform, based on the establishment of 2 pairs of TMZ-sensitive/resistant GBM cells (D54-S and D54-R; U87-S and U87-R), has successfully identified prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide (P4HB) over-expression to be associated with an increased IC50 of TMZ. Elevated P4HB expression was verified using in vivo xenografts developed from U87-R cells. Clinically, we found that P4HB was relatively up-regulated in the recurrent GBM specimens that were initially responsive to TMZ but later developed acquired resistance, when compared with treatment-naive tumors. Functionally, P4HB inhibition by RNAi knockdown and bacitracin inhibition could sensitize D54-R and U87-R cells to TMZ in vitro and in vivo, whereas over-expression of P4HB in vitro conferred resistance to TMZ in both D54-S and U87-S cells. Moreover, targeting P4HB blocked its protective function and sensitized glioma cells to TMZ through the PERK arm of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Conclusions Our study identified a novel target together with its functional pathway in the development of TMZ resistance. P4HB inhibition may be used alone or in combination with TMZ for the treatment of TMZ-resistant GBM. PMID:23444257

Sun, Stella; Lee, Derek; Ho, Amy S.W.; Pu, Jenny K.S.; Zhang, X.Q.; Lee, Nikki P.; Day, Philip J.R.; Lui, W.M.; Fung, C.F.; Leung, Gilberto K.K.

2013-01-01

98

A new ?(0)-thalassemia mutation (codon 102, AAC>ATCAC) in coexistence with a heterozygous P4.2 Nippon gene.  

PubMed

A new ?-thalassemia (?-thal) frameshift mutation was found at codon 102 (AAC>ATCAC) in a 17-year-old Japanese male and his 14-year-old sister. Both demonstrated a more severe phenotype than the usual ?-thal minor with mild hemolytic involvement. No mRNA derived from the thalassemic allele, or ?(T)mRNA, was detected in the sequencing analysis of the whole mRNA (cDNA). However, the ?(T)mRNA from the whole ?mRNA was specifically amplified by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), and was actually found to be present. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) demonstrated a negligible amount of ?(T)mRNA. Thus, their more severe phenotype was not caused by the "dominant type" ?-thal in which a considerable amount of the ?(T)mRNA would be expected. In fact, our proband had a total ?mRNA level that was mostly normal. Thus, the cause of a ?-thal phenotype by the frameshift mutation was ascribed to the reduced amount of mRNA. We further searched for the cause of their severe phenotype. However, factors that exacerbated the phenotype of ?-thal, such as ?-globin gene triplication, coexisting iron deficiency and infection were not found. Finally, we noticed that the red cell morphology revealed ovalocytosis and small numbers of stomatocytes that were seen in the hereditary spherocytosis (HS), especially by P4.2 mutations. The sequence of the P4.2 gene disclosed heterozygous P4.2 Nippon, or missense mutation at codon 142 (GCT>ACT) on exon 3, the most common mutation of Japanese HS. Frequent mutations of other membrane proteins, Band 3 and ankyrin that are common cause of HS in the Japanese population, other than P4.2, were not detected. When HS by P4.2 Nippon develops it is homozygous, and no P4.2 protein is observed in sodium dodecilsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), while in our case the amount of the P4.2 was almost normal in the SDS-PAGE. However, there are several reports that revealed more severe phenotypes of ?-thal by the coexisting abnormality of membrane protein. It is uncertain, but the presence of heterozygous P4.2 Nippon may be associated with the exacerbation of the phenotype of ?-thal minor. PMID:23600595

Adhiyanto, Chris; Yamashiro, Yasuhiro; Hattori, Yukio; Nitta, Takenori; Hino, Minako; Matar, Maryam; Takagi, Fumiya; Kimoto, Masafumi

2013-01-01

99

CASL L1 Milestone Report: CASL.P4.01, Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabi...

B. M. Adams, J. R. Secker, Y. Sung

2011-01-01

100

5530 J. Phys. Chem. 1988, 92, 5530-5540 Dynamics of the Reaction O(3P) 4-HBr: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical  

E-print Network

reaction heavy +light-heavy -heavy-light + heavy. Evidence was found for a contribution from reaction5530 J. Phys. Chem. 1988, 92, 5530-5540 Dynamics of the Reaction O(3P) 4- HBr: Experimental:December 28, 1987; In Final Form: February 23, 1988) The reaction O(3P)+HBr -OH(X211)+ Br has been

Zare, Richard N.

101

Comparison of chlorophyll distributions in the northeastern Arabian Sea and southern Bay of Bengal using IRS-P4 Ocean Color Monitor data  

E-print Network

Comparison of chlorophyll distributions in the northeastern Arabian Sea and southern Bay of Bengal partially govern the distributions of chlorophyll concentration. In the present paper, chlorophyll Color Monitor (OCM) data onboard Indian Remote Sensing Series Polar satellite (IRS-P4). The chlorophyll

Singh, Ramesh P.

102

When incentives work too well: locally implemented pay for performance (P4P) and adverse sanctions towards home birth in Tanzania - a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite limited evidence of its effectiveness, performance-based payments (P4P) are seen by leading policymakers as a potential solution to the slow progress in reaching Millennium Development Goal 5: improved maternal health. This paper offers insights into two of the aspects that are lacking in the current literature on P4P, namely what strategies health workers employ to reach set targets, and how the intervention plays out when implemented by local government as part of a national programme that does not receive donor funding. Methods A total of 28 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 25 individuals were conducted in Mvomero district over a period of 15 months in 2010 and 2011, both before and after P4P payments. Seven facilities, including six dispensaries and one health centre, were covered. Informants included 17 nurses, three clinical officers, two medical attendants, one lab technician and two district health administrators. Results Health workers reported a number of strategies to increase the number of deliveries at their facility, including health education and cooperation with traditional health providers. The staff at all facilities also reported that they had told the women that they would be sanctioned if they gave birth at home, such as being fined or denied clinical cards and/or vaccinations for their babies. There is a great uncertainty in relation to the potential health impacts of the behavioural changes that have come with P4P, as the reported strategies may increase the numbers, but not necessarily the quality. Contrary to the design of the P4P programme, payments were not based on performance. We argue that this was due in part to a lack of resources within the District Administration, and in part as a result of egalitarian fairness principles. Conclusions Our results suggest that particular attention should be paid to adverse effects when using external rewards for improved health outcomes, and secondly, that P4P may take on a different form when implemented by local implementers without the assistance of professional P4P specialists. PMID:24438556

2014-01-01

103

Bioactive glass BAG-S53P4 for the adjunctive treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones: an in vitro and prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of the bioglass BAG S53P4 against multi-resistant microorganisms commonly involved in osteomyelitis and to evaluate its use in surgical adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis. Methods In vitro antibacterial activity of BAG-S53P4 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates was evaluated by means of time kill curves, with colony counts performed after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. In vivo evaluation was performed by prospectively studying a cohort of 27 patients with a clinically and radiologically diagnosed osteomyelitis of the long bones in an observational study. Endpoints were the absence of infection recurrence/persistence at follow-up, no need for further surgery whenever during follow-up and absence of local or systemic side effects connected with the BAG use. Results In vitro tests regarding the antibacterial activity of BAG S53P4 showed a marked bactericidal activity after 24 hrs against all the tested species. This activity continued in the subsequent 24 hrs and no growth was observed for all strains after 72 hrs. Results of the clinical study evidenced no signs of infection in 24 patients (88.9%) at the follow-up, while 2 subjects showed infection recurrence at 6 months from index operation and one more needed further surgical procedures. BAG-S53P4 was generally well tolerated. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo findings reinforce previous observations on the efficacy of BAG-S53P4 for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones, also in the presence of multi-resistant strains and in immunocompromised hosts, without relevant side effects and without the need for locally adding antibiotics. Trial registration Deutschen Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) unique identifier: DRKS00005332. PMID:24325278

2013-01-01

104

Measurement of cross sections for the 232Th(P,4n)229Pa reaction at low proton energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-emitters 225Ac and 213Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived 229Th(t1/2 = 7880y). 229Th can be produced by proton irradiation of 232Th and 230Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into 229Th. To obtain excitation functions, 232Th and 230Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of 229Pa and its daughter 225Ac from both 232Th and 230Th. Differential cross-sections for production of 229Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

Jost, C. U.; Griswold, J. R.; Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S.; Stracener, D. W.; Williams, C. L.

2013-04-01

105

Synthesis and resistance to enzymic hydrolysis of stereochemically-defined phosphonate and thiophosphate analogues of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate.  

PubMed Central

Novel analogues of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate, Ap4A (1), have been prepared with sulphur substituents at P1 and P4 and either oxygen or methylene bridges at the P2,P3-position. Separation of three isomers of the ApspCH2ppsA species has been achieved by a combination of mplc and hplc and the Rp,Rp, Rp,Sp, and Sp,Sp diastereoisomers identified on the basis of selective enzymatic hydrolysis using snake venom phosphodiesterase. Each of these three isomers is a strong competitive inhibitor of the specific Ap4Aase from Artemia and is highly resistant to the asymmetric cleavage normally catalysed by this enzyme. PMID:2821489

Blackburn, G M; Taylor, G E; Thatcher, G R; Prescott, M; McLennan, A G

1987-01-01

106

Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously recorded rock ring, 26NY1371, that could not be relocated during subsequent investigations. Surface artifacts were collected from all but two of the sites, 26NY1370 and 26NY1372. The data retrieved from these investigations include over one thousand artifacts, such as projectile points, bifaces, debitage, groundstone, and pottery. The temporally diagnostic materials indicate periodic use of Sample Unit U19arP4 from the Middle Archaic to the Shoshonean period.

Johnson, W.G.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Drollinger, H.

1992-12-31

107

Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously recorded rock ring, 26NY1371, that could not be relocated during subsequent investigations. Surface artifacts were collected from all but two of the sites, 26NY1370 and 26NY1372. The data retrieved from these investigations include over one thousand artifacts, such as projectile points, bifaces, debitage, groundstone, and pottery. The temporally diagnostic materials indicate periodic use of Sample Unit U19arP4 from the Middle Archaic to the Shoshonean period.

Johnson, W.G.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Drollinger, H.

1992-01-01

108

Comparison of aerosol characteristics over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea using IRS-P4 Ocean Color Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Color Monitor OCM aboard IRS-P4 Satellite has been used to retrieve aerosol optical depth AOD in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea We have retrieved AOD using IRS P4 OCM data at wavelength 555nm and 865nm during summer and winter season for the period 2000-2005 Characteristics of AOD and angstrom coefficient along the eastern and western coasts at 1 degree latitude interval at three different locations 25 50 and 100km from the coast have been studied AOD is found to vary significantly from north to south towards deep sea The Arabian Sea shows more aerosol loading compared to the Bay of Bengal especially during summer season due to influx of mineral dust from arid and desert regions of Middle East Africa Sahara and Thar India We have carried out validation of OCM derived AOD using same day overpass of MODIS level 2 10km resolution that shows reasonable correlation

Prasad, A. K.; Chaturvedi, P.; Singh, R. P.

109

Bandpass solar exoatmospheric irradiance and Rayleigh optical thickness of sensors on board Indian Remote Sensing Satellites1B, -1C, -1D, and P4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the bandpass solar exoatmospheric irradiance and Rayleigh optical thickness for six categories of sensors, namely, the linear imaging self scanning sensor (LISS)-I, -II, -III, the wide field sensor (WiFS), the panchromatic (PAN), and the ocean color monitor (OCM) which have been flown on Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS)-1B, -1C, -1D, and -P4 platforms, based on laboratory measurements

M. R. Pandya; R. P. Singh; K. R. Murali; P. N. Babu; A. S. Kirankumar; V. K. Dadhwal

2002-01-01

110

The P4 Screener: Evaluation of a Brief Measure for Assessing Potential Suicide Risk in 2 Randomized Effectiveness Trials of Primary Care and Oncology Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Depression is the most common mental disorder, and suicide is its most serious consequence. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate preliminary evidence for the P4 screener as a brief measure to assess potential suicide risk. Method: The P4 screener was prospectively evaluated in 2 randomized effectiveness trials of primary care (January 2005–June 2008; N = 250) and oncology patients (March 2006–August 2009; N = 309). Potential suicide ideation was assessed at 5 time points in both trials: baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The P4 screener asks about the “4 P’s”: past suicide attempts, suicide plan, probability of completing suicide, and preventive factors. Patients were classified as minimal, lower, and higher risk based upon responses to these 4 items. Results: A suicide assessment was triggered 1 or more times by 17.6% (44 of 250) of Stepped Care for Affective Disorders and Musculoskeletal Pain (SCAMP) participants and 16.5% (51 of 309) of Indiana Cancer Pain and Depression (INCPAD) participants at some point in the trial. Of the patients who triggered a suicide assessment, the majority (29 of 44 in SCAMP and 27 of 51 in INCPAD) were classified as minimal risk by the algorithm. Only 1 (0.4%) of the SCAMP participants and 5 (1.6%) of the INCPAD participants were classified as higher risk. Among the latter, the most common factors preventing patients from attempting suicide were the “4 F’s”: faith, family, future hope, and fear of failing in their attempt. Conclusions: Preliminary findings suggest that the P4 screener may be useful in assessing potential suicide risk in the clinical care of depressed patients as well as in clinical research. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00118430 (SCAMP) and NCT00313573 (INCPAD) PMID:21494337

Dube, Priyanka; Bair, Matthew J.; Theobald, Dale; Williams, Linda S.

2010-01-01

111

99mTc-3P4-RGD2 Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Lesions: Comparative Study with 99mTc-MIBI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the potential application of 99mTc-3P-Arg-Gly-Asp (99mTc-3P4-RGD2) scintimammography (SMM) and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) SMM for the differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions. Method Thirty-six patients with breast masses on physical examination and/or suspicious mammography results that required fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-MIBI SMM were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 60 min and 20 min respectively after intravenous injection of 738±86 MBq radiotracers on a separate day. Images were evaluated by the tumor to non-tumor localization ratios (T/NT). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on each radiotracer to calculate the cut-off values of quantitative indices and to compare the diagnostic performance for the ability to differentiate malignant from benign diseases. Results The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in benign lesions (3.54±1.51 vs. 1.83±0.98, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM were 89.3%, 90.9% and 89.7%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 2.40. The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-MIBI in malignant lesions was also significantly higher than that in benign lesions (2.86±0.99 vs. 1.51±0.61, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI SMM were 87.5%, 72.7% and 82.1%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 1.45. According to the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM (area?=?0.851) was higher than that for 99mTc-MIBI SMM (area?=?0.781), but the statistical difference was not significant. Conclusion 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM does not provide any significant advantage over the established 99mTc-MIBI SMM for the detection of primary breast cancer. The T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM was significantly higher than that of 99mTc-MIBI SMM. Both tracers could offer an alternative method for elucidating non-diagnostic mammograms. PMID:25250628

Gao, Shi; Ji, Tiefeng; Wen, Qiang; Song, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Xu, Zheli; Liu, Lin

2014-01-01

112

Development of targeted therapy for bladder cancer mediated by a double promoter plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of H19 and IGF2-P4 regulatory sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The human IGF2-P4 and H19 promoters are highly active in a variety of human cancers (including bladder cancer), while existing at a nearly undetectable level in the surrounding normal tissue. Single promoter vectors expressing diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA) under the control regulation of IGF2-P4 or H19 regulatory sequences (IGF2-P4-DTA and H19-DTA) were previously successfully used in cell lines, animal

Doron Amit; Abraham Hochberg

2010-01-01

113

Warm Spitzer Photometry of Three Hot Jupiters: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 ?m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%^{+0.015%}_{-0.030%} (3.6 ?m) and 0.094%^{+0.016%}_{-0.009%} (4.5 ?m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%^{+0.014%}_{-0.016%} (3.6 ?m) and 0.122%^{+0.012%}_{-0.014%}(4.5 ?m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3? upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 ?m) and <0.085% (4.5 ?m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3? upper limits on the |e cos ?| quantity (where e is eccentricity and ? is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

2013-06-01

114

Reaction enthalpies for the hydrolysis of 3p, 4p and early 3d oxide bridges how unique are the oligophosphates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrolysis of M-O-M bridges in binuclear oxyhydroxides of the 3p, 4p and early 3d elements is investigated by quantum chemistry. The reaction enthalpies for the water addition reactions are compared. Hydrolysis of oxygen bridges is found endothermic for the Al-P, Ga-As and Sc-Mn species, but exothermic for the S, Se, Cl and Br species. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphoric acid is unique in displaying the reaction enthalpy, which is closest to zero. This fact is taken to explain why the oligophosphates are utilised in controlling cellular reactions, as the hydrolysis energetics rely entirely on local conditions.

Johnson, J. R. Tobias; Panas, Itai

2001-11-01

115

Extending The P4P Agenda, Part 2: How Medicare Can Reduce Waste And Improve The Care Of The Chronically Ill  

PubMed Central

The care of Americans with severe chronic illnesses is disorganized, unnecessarily costly, and undisciplined by sound clinical science. The federal government should invest in a crash program to improve the scientific basis of managing chronic illness, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) should extend its pay-for-performance (P4P) agenda to ensure that within ten years all Americans with severe chronic illnesses have access to accountable health care organizations providing evidence-based prospective care. This paper recommends a strategy for achieving this goal. PMID:17978378

Wennberg, John E.; Fisher, Elliott S.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bronner, Kristen K.

2008-01-01

116

Precise measurement of cross section of 3He(3He,2p)4He by using He-3 doubly charged beam  

E-print Network

The fusion cross section of 3He(3He,2p)4He at a center of mass energy of 30 to 50 keV has been measured by using helium-3 doubly ionized beam at a low-energy high current accelerator facility, OCEAN. Free from molecular interference in the beam, the measurement determines the astrophysical S-factor with better statistical and systematical errors than previous data. By using singly and doubly charged helium-3 ions the facility envisages to provide the data from high energy to Gamow energy regions.

Nobuyuki Kudomi; Masataka Komori; Keiji Takahisa; Sei Yoshida; Kyo Kume; Hideaki Ohsumi; Takahisa Itahashi

2003-06-23

117

4p64d8 (4d75p + 4d74f + 4p54d9) Transitions in Xe XI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum of ten times ionized xenon, Xe XI, was observed in the region 105 157 Å with a low-inductance vacuum spark and a 10.7 m grazing-incidence spectrograph. About 200 lines belonging to the 4d8 (4d75p + 4d74f + 4p54d9) transition array were observed. 140 of these lines are in the region 130 140 Å, which is of importance for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The spectrum was interpreted by means of Hartree Fock calculations and orthogonal parameters using scaling factors for the energy parameters obtained by extrapolation along the Rh II isoelectronic sequence. All 9 levels of the 4d8 configuration and 123 levels of the 4d75p + 4d74f + 4p54d9 configurations were established. Transition probabilities for all observed lines were calculated with fitted values of the energy parameters. A value of 1847200 ± 1600 cm-1 (229.02 ±0.20 eV) was obtained for the ionization energy.

Churilov, S. S.; Joshi, Y. N.; Reader, J.; Kildiyarova, R. R.

2004-01-01

118

Structural and mechanistic basis of anti-termination of Rho-dependent transcription termination by bacteriophage P4 capsid protein Psu  

PubMed Central

The conserved bacterial transcription terminator, Rho, is a potent target for bactericidal agents. Psu, a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein, is capable of inducing anti-termination to the Rho-dependent transcription termination. Knowledge of structural and mechanistic basis of this anti-termination is required to design peptide-inhibitor(s) of Rho from Psu. Using suppressor genetics, cross-linking, protein foot-printing and FRET analyses, we describe a conserved disordered structure, encompassing 139–153 amino acids of Rho, as the primary docking site for Psu. Also a neighbouring helical structure, comprising 347–354 amino acids, lining its central channel, plays a supportive role in the Rho–Psu complex formation. Based on the crystal structure of Psu, its conformation in the capsid of the P4 phage, and its interacting regions on Rho, we build an energy-minimized structural model of the Rho:Psu complex. In this model, a V-shaped dimer of Psu interacts with the two diagonally opposite subunits of a hexameric Rho, enabling Psu to form a ‘lid’ on the central channel of the latter. We show that this configuration of Psu makes the central channel of Rho inaccessible, and it causes a mechanical impediment to its translocase activity. PMID:23703205

Ranjan, Amitabh; Sharma, Savita; Banerjee, Ramanuj; Sen, Udayaditya; Sen, Ranjan

2013-01-01

119

Influence of microstructure on soft magnetic properties of low coreloss and high Bs Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure and magnetic properties of high Bs Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nano-crystalline alloy were tailored. The Bs ˜ 1.85 T and low coercivity Hc ˜ 6 A/m were obtained by conventional annealing (i.e., one step) at a heating rate of ˜400 °C/min. While one step annealing process produces a fairly stable nanostructure, for short times at temperatures <425 °C, the nanostructure and concomitant magnetic properties of this alloy are shown to be tunable by two step annealing process. Nanocrystalline ribbons with grain size (D) ranging from ˜15 to 32 nm, Hc ˜ 6 to 140 A/m and core-loss at 1.5 T, 50 Hz ˜ 0.39 ˜ 5.0 W/kg were obtained. The Hc of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy is shown to vary as D6, but a small deviation was noticed, which may be due to weak anisotropy.

Sharma, Parmanand; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Makino, Akihiro

2014-05-01

120

Quadrupole and monopole generalized oscillator strength for 2p 3p, 2p 4p transition of neon atomic in the velocity formulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quadrupole and monopole generalized oscillator strengths (GOS) as a function of momentum transfer are calculated for the 2p-3p and 2p-4p transitions of the neon atom using the analytical Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunctions for the ground-state and the wavefunctions for the excited states which are obtained numerically from the modified HF Slater equation. Calculations are carried out by using the HF method and random phase approximation with exchange in the velocity formulation. The positions and the number of the extrema in the GOS have received particular attention in the evaluation. Our calculated monopole GOS of 2p-3p transition in velocity form reveals one maximum located between the experimental and theoretical results of other authors. The disagreement between our first maximum of the quadrupole GOS 2p-3p transition with the experimental and other theoretical ones is unimportant. The extrema of the monopole and quadrupole GOS of 2p-4p transition are given in this paper. The results of velocity form study also show that the electron correlation effects are important around the maxima and are found to influence the positions of the extrema insignificantly.

Gomis, L.; Diedhiou, I.; Tall, M. S.; Diallo, S.; Diatta, C. S.; Niassy, B.

2007-11-01

121

Stabilization of a G-Quadruplex from Unfolding by Replication Protein A Using Potassium and the Porphyrin TMPyP4  

PubMed Central

Replication protein A (RPA) plays an essential role in DNA replication by binding and unfolding non-canonical single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) structures. Of the six RPA ssDNA binding domains (labeled A-F), RPA-CDE selectively binds a G-quadruplex forming sequence (5?-TAGGGGAAGGGTTGGAGTGGGTT-3? called Gq23). In K+, Gq23 forms a mixed parallel/antiparallel conformation, and in Na+ Gq23 has a less stable (TM lowered by ?20°C), antiparallel conformation. Gq23 is intramolecular and 1D NMR confirms a stable G-quadruplex structure in K+. Full-length RPA and RPA-CDE-core can bind and unfold the Na+ form of Gq23 very efficiently, but complete unfolding is not observed with the K+ form. Studies with G-quadruplex ligands, indicate that TMPyP4 has a thermal stabilization effect on Gq23 in K+, and inhibits complete unfolding by RPA and RPA-CDE-core. Overall these data indicate that G-quadruplexes present a unique problem for RPA to unfold and ligands, such as TMPyP4, could possibly hinder DNA replication by blocking unfolding by RPA. PMID:21772995

Prakash, Aishwarya; Kieken, Fabien; Marky, Luis A.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.

2011-01-01

122

Molecular Epidemiology of Contemporary G2P[4] Human Rotaviruses Cocirculating in a Single U.S. Community: Footprints of a Globally Transitioning Genotype  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the G/P types of locally circulating RVs can vary from year to year and differ depending upon geographical location, those with G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], and G12P[8] specificities typically dominate. Little is known about the evolution and diversity of G2P[4] RVs and the possible role that widespread vaccine use has had on their increased frequency of detection. To address these issues, we analyzed the 12 G2P[4] RV isolates associated with a rise in RV gastroenteritis cases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) during the 2010-2011 winter season. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates had genotype 2 constellations typical of DS-1-like viruses (G2P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genome segments of the isolates were comprised of two or three different subgenotype alleles; this enabled recognition of three distinct clades of G2P[4] viruses that caused disease at VUMC in the 2010-2011 season. Although the three clades cocirculated in the same community, there was no evidence of interclade reassortment. Bayesian analysis of 328 VP7 genes of G2 viruses isolated in the last 39 years indicate that existing G2 VP7 gene lineages continue to evolve and that novel lineages, as represented by the VUMC isolates, are constantly being formed. Moreover, G2 lineages are characteristically shaped by lineage turnover events that introduce new globally dominant strains every 7 years, on average. The ongoing evolution of G2 VP7 lineages may give rise to antigenic changes that undermine vaccine effectiveness in the long term. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the diversity of cocirculating G2 rotaviruses and how their evolution may undermine the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines. To expand our understanding of the potential genetic range exhibited by rotaviruses circulating in postvaccine communities, we analyzed part of a collection of rotaviruses recovered from pediatric patients in the United States from 2010 to 2011. Examining the genetic makeup of these viruses revealed they represented three segregated groups that did not exchange genetic material. The distinction between these three groups may be explained by three separate introductions. By comparing a specific gene, namely, VP7, of the recent rotavirus isolates to those from a collection recovered from U.S. children between 1974 and 1991 and other globally circulating rotaviruses, we were able to reconstruct the timing of events that shaped their ancestry. This analysis indicates that G2 rotaviruses are continuously evolving, accumulating changes in their genetic material as they infect new patients. PMID:24429371

Dennis, Allison F.; McDonald, Sarah M.; Payne, Daniel C.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Chappell, James D.

2014-01-01

123

K-shell photoionization spectra of atomic beryllium between 1s2s2 and 1s(2s2p3P)4s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoionization spectra of beryllium atoms in the region of 1s excitation have been measured by synchrotron radiation. The photon energy region reported in this article is between 1s2s2 and 1s(2s2p3P)4s corresponding to 122.3 and 127 eV, respectively. The configurations which have the unique characteristics due to the configuration mixing between 2s and 2p are discussed. Comparisons with the previous paper by L. VoKy et al. [Phys. Rev. A 46, 3945 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.3945] calculating the photoionization spectrum of this energy region were made and the assignments of the resonances were performed. The Fano parameters were also derived for the observed states.

Hasegawa, Shuichi; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Fumiko; Azuma, Yoshiro; Koike, Fumihiro; Nagata, Tetsuo

2014-09-01

124

IR and raman spectra of two layered aluminium phosphates Co(en)3Al3P4O16.3H2O and.  

PubMed

The FT IR and FT Raman spectra of Co(en)3Al3P4O16.3H2O (compound I) and [NH4]3[Co(NH3)6]3[Al2 (PO4)4]2.2H2O (compound II) are recorded and analysed based on the vibrations of Co(en)(3)3+, Co(NH3)(6)3+, NH4, Al-O-P, PO3, PO2 and H2O. The observed splitting of bands indicate that the site symmetry and correlation field effects are appreciable in both the compounds. In compound I, the overtone of CH2 deformation Fermi resonates with its symmetric stretching vibration. The NH4 ion in compound II is not free to rotate in the crystalline lattice. Hydrogen bonding of different groups is also discussed. PMID:11145338

John, A; Philip, D; Morgan, K R; Devanarayanan, S

2000-12-01

125

The First Structure of Polarity Suppression Protein, Psu from Enterobacteria Phage P4, Reveals a Novel Fold and a Knotted Dimer*  

PubMed Central

Psu is a capsid decoration protein of bacteriophage P4 and acts as an antiterminator of Rho-dependent transcription termination in bacteria. So far, no structures have been reported for the Psu protein or its homologues. Here, we report the first structure of Psu solved by the Hg2+ single wavelength anomalous dispersion method, which reveals that Psu exists as a knotted homodimer and is first of its kind in nature. Each monomer of Psu attains a novel fold around a tight coiled-coil motif. CD spectroscopy and the structure of an engineered disulfide-bridged Psu derivative reveal that the protein folds reversibly and reassembles by itself into the knotted dimeric conformation without the requirement of any chaperone. This structure would help to explain the functional properties of the protein and can be used as a template to design a minimal peptide fragment that can be used as a drug against Rho-dependent transcription termination in bacteria. PMID:23150672

Banerjee, Ramanuj; Nath, Seema; Ranjan, Amitabh; Khamrui, Susmita; Pani, Bibhusita; Sen, Ranjan; Sen, Udayaditya

2012-01-01

126

Critical roles of isoleucine-364 and adjacent residues in a hydrophobic gate control of phospholipid transport by the mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2.  

PubMed

P4-ATPases (flippases) translocate specific phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine from the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane to the cytosolic leaflet, upholding an essential membrane asymmetry. The mechanism of flipping this giant substrate has remained an enigma. We have investigated the importance of amino acid residues in transmembrane segment M4 of mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 by mutagenesis. In the related ion pumps Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, M4 moves during the enzyme cycle, carrying along the ion bound to a glutamate. In ATP8A2, the corresponding residue is an isoleucine, which recently was found mutated in patients with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome. Our analyses of the lipid substrate concentration dependence of the overall and partial reactions of the enzyme cycle in mutants indicate that, during the transport across the membrane, the phosphatidylserine head group passes near isoleucine-364 (I364) and that I364 is critical to the release of the transported lipid into the cytosolic leaflet. Another M4 residue, N359, is involved in recognition of the lipid substrate on the exoplasmic side. Our functional studies are supported by structural homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggesting that I364 and adjacent hydrophobic residues function as a hydrophobic gate that separates the entry and exit sites of the lipid and directs sequential formation and annihilation of water-filled cavities, thereby enabling transport of the hydrophilic phospholipid head group in a groove outlined by the transmembrane segments M1, M2, M4, and M6, with the hydrocarbon chains following passively, still in the membrane lipid phase. PMID:24706822

Vestergaard, Anna L; Coleman, Jonathan A; Lemmin, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Stine A; Molday, Laurie L; Vilsen, Bente; Molday, Robert S; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Andersen, Jens Peter

2014-04-01

127

Critical roles of isoleucine-364 and adjacent residues in a hydrophobic gate control of phospholipid transport by the mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2  

PubMed Central

P4-ATPases (flippases) translocate specific phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine from the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane to the cytosolic leaflet, upholding an essential membrane asymmetry. The mechanism of flipping this giant substrate has remained an enigma. We have investigated the importance of amino acid residues in transmembrane segment M4 of mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 by mutagenesis. In the related ion pumps Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, M4 moves during the enzyme cycle, carrying along the ion bound to a glutamate. In ATP8A2, the corresponding residue is an isoleucine, which recently was found mutated in patients with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome. Our analyses of the lipid substrate concentration dependence of the overall and partial reactions of the enzyme cycle in mutants indicate that, during the transport across the membrane, the phosphatidylserine head group passes near isoleucine-364 (I364) and that I364 is critical to the release of the transported lipid into the cytosolic leaflet. Another M4 residue, N359, is involved in recognition of the lipid substrate on the exoplasmic side. Our functional studies are supported by structural homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggesting that I364 and adjacent hydrophobic residues function as a hydrophobic gate that separates the entry and exit sites of the lipid and directs sequential formation and annihilation of water-filled cavities, thereby enabling transport of the hydrophilic phospholipid head group in a groove outlined by the transmembrane segments M1, M2, M4, and M6, with the hydrocarbon chains following passively, still in the membrane lipid phase. PMID:24706822

Vestergaard, Anna L.; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Lemmin, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Molday, Laurie L.; Vilsen, Bente; Molday, Robert S.; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Andersen, Jens Peter

2014-01-01

128

Yeast P4-ATPases Drs2p and Dnf1p Are Essential Cargos of the NPFXD/Sla1p Endocytic Pathway  

PubMed Central

Drs2p family P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) are required in multiple vesicle-mediated protein transport steps and are proposed to be phospholipid translocases (flippases). The P4-ATPases Drs2p and Dnf1p cycle between the exocytic and endocytic pathways, and here we define endocytosis signals required by these proteins to maintain a steady-state localization to internal organelles. Internalization of Dnf1p from the plasma membrane uses an NPFXD endocytosis signal and its recognition by Sla1p, part of an endocytic coat/adaptor complex with clathrin, Pan1p, Sla2p/End4p, and End3p. Drs2p has multiple endocytosis signals, including two NPFXDs near the C terminus and PEST-like sequences near the N terminus that may mediate ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent endocytosis. Drs2p localizes to the trans-Golgi network in wild-type cells and accumulates on the plasma membrane when both the Ub- and NPFXD-dependent endocytic mechanisms are inactivated. Surprisingly, the pan1-20 temperature-sensitive mutant is constitutively defective for Ub-dependent endocytosis but is not defective for NPFXD-dependent endocytosis at the permissive growth temperature. To sustain viability of pan1-20, Drs2p must be endocytosed through the NPFXD/Sla1p pathway. Thus, Drs2p is an essential endocytic cargo in cells compromised for Ub-dependent endocytosis. These results demonstrate an essential role for endocytosis in retrieving proteins back to the Golgi, and they define critical cargos of the NPFXD/Sla1p system. PMID:17122361

Liu, Ke; Hua, Zhaolin; Nepute, Joshua A.

2007-01-01

129

Analysis of the Vibrational Spectra of P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyclic phosphazene trimer P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and the related cyclic tetramer P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8 have been proposed as the major low-to-medium temperature pyrolysis products of the parent polyphosphazene (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n. Recently, both molecules have been synthesized, isolated and their vapour-phase vibrational spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR instrument. The interpretation of these spectra is achieved primarily by comparison with the results of high-quality density functional calculations, which enable the principal absorption features to be assigned and conclusions to be drawn regarding the geometries and conformations adopted by both molecules. These in turn allow interesting comparisons to be made with analogous cyclic halo-phosphazenes such as P_3N_3Cl_6 and P_4N_4Cl_8. Work to record in situ the spectra of the vapour-phase pyrolysis products of (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n and to analyse these results in terms of the tetramer and trimer spectra will also be presented. S. V. Peddada and J. H. Magill Macromolecules 16 (1983) 1258-1264. H. R. Allcock, G. S. McDonnell, G. H. Riding, and I. Manners Chem. Mater. 2 (1990) 425-432. T. R. Manley and D. A. Williams Spectrochimica Acta 23A (1966) 149-165. V. Varma, J. R. Fernandez and C. N. R. Rao J. Mol. Struct. 198 (1989) 403-412.

King, Adrian K.; Plant, David F.; Golding, Peter; Lawson, Michael A.; Davies, Paul B.

2011-06-01

130

The porphyrin TmPyP4 unfolds the extremely stable G-quadruplex in MT3-MMP mRNA and alleviates its repressive effect to enhance translation in eukaryotic cells  

PubMed Central

We report that the cationic porphyrin TmPyP4, which is known mainly as a DNA G-quadruplex stabilizer, unfolds an unusually stable all purine RNA G-quadruplex (M3Q) that is located in the 5?-UTR of MT3-MMP mRNA. When the interaction between TmPyP4 and M3Q was monitored by UV spectroscopy a 22-nm bathochromic shift and 75% hypochromicity of the porphin major Soret band was observed indicating direct binding of the two molecules. TmPyP4 disrupts folded M3Q in a concentration-dependent fashion as was observed by circular dichroism (CD), 1D 1H NMR and native gel electrophoresis. Additionally, when TmPyP4 is present during the folding process it inhibits the M3Q RNA from adopting a G-quadruplex structure. Using a dual reporter gene construct that contained the M3Q sequence alone or the entire 5?-UTR of MT3-MMP mRNA, we report here that TmPyP4 can relieve the inhibitory effect of the M3Q G-quadruplex. However, the same concentrations of TmPyP4 failed to affect translation of a mutated construct. Thus, TmPyP4 has the ability to unfold an RNA G-quadruplex of extreme stability and modulate activity of a reporter gene presumably via the disruption of the G-quadruplex. PMID:22266651

Morris, Mark J.; Wingate, Katherine L.; Silwal, Jagannath; Leeper, Thomas C.; Basu, Soumitra

2012-01-01

131

Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the C II Transitions 2s(exp 2)2p P-2(exp 0) yields 2s2p(exp 2) P-4, D-2, and S-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 2s(exp 2) 2p-2(exp 0) yield 2s2p(exp 2)P-4, D-2, and S-2 in C II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 2324 A (5.34 eV), 1335 x (9.29 eV), and 1036 A (11.97 eV), respectively. Use is made of electron energy-loss and merged beams methods. The energy range covered is from below each threshold (4 - 11 eV) to 15-24 eV. As in previous work with O II, care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction in the C II beam, to account for contributions from nearby energy-loss features, and to collect the full angular range of inelastically scattered electrons. A comparison is made for each transition between experiment and new 8-state R-matrix calculations. Subject headings: atomic data ultraviolet: general

Smith, Steven J.; Zuo, M.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Williams, I. D.

1996-01-01

132

Characterization of the G-quadruplexes in the duplex nuclease hypersensitive element of the PDGF-A promoter and modulation of PDGF-A promoter activity by TMPyP4  

PubMed Central

The proximal 5?-flanking region of the human platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) promoter contains one nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) that is critical for PDGF-A gene transcription. On the basis of circular dichroism (CD) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we have shown that the guanine-rich (G-rich) strand of the DNA in this region can form stable intramolecular parallel G-quadruplexes under physiological conditions. A Taq polymerase stop assay has shown that the G-rich strand of the NHE can form two major G-quadruplex structures, which are in dynamic equilibrium and differentially stabilized by three G-quadruplex-interactive drugs. One major parallel G-quadruplex structure of the G-rich strand DNA of NHE was identified by CD and dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting. Surprisingly, CD spectroscopy shows a stable parallel G-quadruplex structure formed within the duplex DNA of the NHE at temperatures up to 100°C. This structure has been characterized by DMS footprinting in the double-stranded DNA of the NHE. In transfection experiments, 10 ?M TMPyP4 reduced the activity of the basal promoter of PDGF-A ?40%, relative to the control. On the basis of these results, we have established that ligand-mediated stabilization of G-quadruplex structures within the PDGF-A NHE can silence PDGF-A expression. PMID:17984069

Qin, Yong; Rezler, Evonne M.; Gokhale, Vijay; Sun, Daekyu; Hurley, Laurence H.

2007-01-01

133

Longitudinal analysis of VP7 gene of group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains circulating in the pre-vaccine era in Sapporo, Japan from 1991 to 2011.  

PubMed

Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene in 23 group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains obtained during 1991-2011, that is, the pre-vaccine era, in Sapporo, Japan showed considerable genetic diversity, mainly in variable regions. Recent G2P[4] epidemic strains were located in sublineage IVa with a distinctive substitution of D96N. This study provides background data on the genetic variability of G2P[4] rotavirus-VP7 gene prior to the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines in Japan. PMID:25040726

Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Nagaoka, Yoshinobu; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Yoto, Yuko; Hori, Tsukasa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

134

Association of the genus Acinetobacter with the decomposition of a swine carcass and the isolation and characterization of a novel strain of Acinetobacter sp. P4.  

PubMed

Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and a selective and differential medium, Acinetobacter numbers were enumerated over the time course of decomposition, from fresh to putrid/dry, of a swine carcass. In addition, Acinetobacter diversity and succession were also characterized. Acinetobacter bacterial counts were observed to be the lowest before exposure (undetectable) and increased to their highest during active decay then decreased and leveled during advanced decay through putrid/dry. FISH analysis revealed Acinetobacter cells were mostly clustered together, which is consistent with growth in a non-mixed environment, such as soil. The abundance of Acinetobacter cells decreased from active decomposition to putrid/dry. BLAST analysis using the 16S rRNA-gene sequence identified the isolates as one of the following Acinetobacter spp: A. baumannii, A. haemolyticus, A. junii, A. johnsonii, and A. gerneri. Phenotypic description of the identified isolates closely matched those of known genomic species. One isolate, P4, was observed to be unique in its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics and was more closely related to A. sp E10. The isolates from this study displayed multi-antibiotic resistance. The results from the study revealed the association of Acinetobacter spp. with that of carrion which adds to our knowledge of the ecology of this genus along with the potential implications of infection for this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:21987059

Howard, Gary T; Norton, William N; Stroot, Peter G; Bailey, Kathryn L; Watson, Erin J

2012-01-01

135

Chikungunya virus nsP3 & nsP4 interacts with HSP-90 to promote virus replication: HSP-90 inhibitors reduce CHIKV infection and inflammation in vivo.  

PubMed

The global emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is alarming and currently there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral treatment available to mitigate this disease. CHIKV infection typically results in high viral load with an outcome of high fever, skin rashes, muscle pain, and sequelae of prolonged arthritis, which occurs in >90% of the infected cases. In this study, using biochemical pull-downs, mass-spectrometry, and microscopic imaging techniques, we have identified novel interactions between CHIKV nsP3 or nsP4 proteins with the host stress-pathway chaperone HSP-90 protein. Indeed, silencing of HSP-90 transcripts using siRNA disrupts CHIKV replication in cultured cells. Furthermore, drugs targeting HSP-90, such as commercially available geldanamycin, as well as other specific HSP-90 inhibitor drugs that had been obtained from a purinome mining approach (HS-10 and SNX-2112) showed dramatic reduction in viral titers and reduced inflammation in a CHIKV mouse model of severe infection and musculopathy. The detailed study of the underlying molecular mechanism of these viral and host protein interactions may provide a platform to develop novel therapeutics against CHIKV infection. PMID:24388965

Rathore, Abhay P S; Haystead, Timothy; Das, Pratyush K; Merits, Andres; Ng, Mah-Lee; Vasudevan, Subhash G

2014-03-01

136

Reducing Lattice Thermal Conductivity of the Thermoelectric Compound AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) by Lanthanum Substitution: Computational and Experimental Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed lattice dynamics first-principles calculations for the promising thermoelectric (TE) compound AgSbTe2, and estimated the stability of its three polymorphs over a wide temperature range from 0 to 600 K. We calculated the vibrational density of states of the AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) phase. The results suggested that formation of substitutional defects at Ag-sublattice sites impedes lattice vibrations, thereby reducing lattice thermal conductivity. We focused on calculations based on the Debye approximation for the compound La0.125Ag0.875SbTe2, and predicted reduction of the average sound velocity from 1684 to 1563 m s-1 as a result of La doping. This is manifested as a ca. 14% reduction in thermal conductivity. To confirm the results from computation we produced two Ag-Sb-Te-based alloys, a ternary alloy without La addition and a quaternary alloy containing La. We measured the thermal conductivity of both alloys by use of the laser flash analysis method, and, as a result of La alloying, observed a reduction in thermal conductivity from 0.92 to 0.71 W m-1 K-1 at 573 K, as calculated from first principles.

Amouyal, Yaron

2014-10-01

137

Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus infection: CHIKV nsP4 suppresses eIF2? phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis (SINV) are arboviruses belonging to the alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family. They cause frequent epidemics of febrile illness and long-term arthralgic sequelae that affect millions of people each year. Both viruses replicate prodigiously in infected patients and in vitro in mammalian cells, suggesting some level of control over the host cellular translational machinery that senses and appropriately directs the cell's fate through the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR involves BIP (or GRP78), the master sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) together with the three downstream effector branches: inositol-requiring ser/thr protein kinase/endonuclease (IRE-1), PKR-like ER resident kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6). Through careful analysis of CHIKV and SINV infections in cell culture we found that the former selectively activates ATF-6 and IRE-1 branches of UPR and suppresses the PERK pathway. By separately expressing each of the CHIKV proteins as GFP-fusion proteins, we found that non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), which is a RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, suppresses the serine-51 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor, alpha subunit (eIF2?), which in turn regulates the PERK pathway. This study provides insight into a mechanism by which CHIKV replication responds to overcome the host UPR machinery. PMID:23356742

Rathore, Abhay P S; Ng, Mah-Lee; Vasudevan, Subhash G

2013-01-01

138

Feasibility study of the proton yield from the reaction D(3He,p)4 He as a possible tool for radiotherapy treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent achievements in proton and carbon ions therapy have shown the importance of the hadron therapy methods. Aiming at radiotherapy applications such as dermatological and intra-operative procedures, where a short range treatment is needed, we have studied the use of nuclear reactions induced by low energy ions from small accelerators. A very suitable reaction is D(3He,p)4He, using 3He+ ions with energies of about 800 keV. The resulting protons have energies above 17 MeV and could deliver significant radiation dose depending on the accelerator 3He+ beam current and the irradiation time. The deuterium containing target was prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium in Ar and Ar + D2 radiofrequency plasma on a substrate of Silicon. The Ti-Dx stoichiometry and deuterium content was determined by Ion Beam Analysis. The accelerated 3He+ beam was provided by the 2.5MV Van de Graaff accelerator at the National Laboratories of Legnaro, INFN, Italy. Proton yield as a function of the beam current at different forward scattering angles has been studied for the energies of the incoming 3He+ in the 700keV - 800keV energy interval. The irradiated volume and the radiation dose in biological tissues as a function of the proton energy and proton yield has been estimated. Possible applications in small animal treatment studies as well as potential clinical radiotherapy applications are discussed.

Uzunov, N. M.; Liguori, N.; Fontana, C. L.; Baneva, Y.; Atroshchenko, K.; Bello, M.; Moschini, G.; Rosato, A.; Rigato, V.; Doyle, B.; Rossi, P.

2012-12-01

139

The PN2-3 Domain of Centrosomal P4.1-associated Protein Implements a Novel Mechanism for Tubulin Sequestration*S?  

PubMed Central

Microtubules are cytoskeletal components involved in multiple cell functions such as mitosis, motility, or intracellular traffic. In vivo, these polymers made of ??-tubulin nucleate mostly from the centrosome to establish the interphasic microtubule network or, during mitosis, the mitotic spindle. Centrosomal P4.1-associated protein (CPAP; also named CENPJ) is a centrosomal protein involved in the assembly of centrioles and important for the centrosome function. This protein contains a microtubule-destabilizing region referred to as PN2-3. Here we decrypt the microtubule destabilization activity of PN2-3 at the molecular level and show that it results from the sequestration of tubulin by PN2-3 in a non-polymerizable 1:1 complex. We also map the tubulin/PN2-3 interaction both on the PN2-3 sequence and on the tubulin surface. NMR and CD data on free PN2-3 in solution show that this is an intrinsically unstructured protein that comprises a 23-amino acid residue ?-helix. This helix is embedded in a 76-residue region that interacts strongly with tubulin. The interference of PN2-3 with well characterized tubulin properties, namely GTPase activity, nucleotide exchange, vinblastine-induced self-assembly, and stathmin family protein binding, highlights the ? subunit surface located at the intermolecular longitudinal interface when tubulin is embedded in a microtubule as a tubulin/PN2-3 interaction area. These findings characterize the PN2-3 fragment of CPAP as a protein with an unprecedented tubulin sequestering mechanism distinct from that of stathmin family proteins. PMID:19131341

Cormier, Anthony; Clement, Marie-Jeanne; Knossow, Marcel; Lachkar, Sylvie; Savarin, Philippe; Toma, Flavio; Sobel, Andre; Gigant, Benoit; Curmi, Patrick A.

2009-01-01

140

Development of targeted therapy for a broad spectrum of solid tumors mediated by a double promoter plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of IGF2-P4 and IGF2-P3 regulatory sequences  

PubMed Central

Background: The human IGF2-P4 and IGF2-P3 promoters are highly active in a variety of human cancers, while existing at a nearly undetectable level in the surrounding normal tissue. Thus, a double promoter DTA-expressing vector was created, carrying on a single construct two separate genes expressing the diphtheria toxin a-fragment (DTA), from two different regulatory sequences, selected from the cancer-specific promoters IGF2-P4 and IGF2-P3. Methods: The therapeutic potential of the double promoter toxin vector P4-DTA-P3-DTA was tested in different cancer cells (pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer and HCC). Results: The double promoter vector P4-DTA-P3-DTA exhibited superior inhibition activity in different cancer cell lines, compared to the single promoter expression vectors activity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that administration of P4-DTA-P3-DTA has the potential to reach and eradicate tumor cells and thus may help reduce tumor burden, improve the quality of life of the patients; and prolong their life span. PMID:23386914

Amit, Doron; Tamir, Sagi; Hochberg, Abraham

2013-01-01

141

Development of targeted therapy for a broad spectrum of cancers (pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, glioblastoma and HCC) mediated by a double promoter plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of H19 and IGF2-P4 regulatory sequences  

PubMed Central

Background The human IGF2-P4 and H19 promoters are highly active in a variety of human cancers, while existing at a nearly undetectable level in the surrounding normal tissue. Single promoter vectors expressing diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA) under the control regulation of IGF2-P4 or H19 regulatory sequences (IGF2-P4-DTA and H19-DTA) were previously successfully used in cell lines, animal models and recently in human patients with superficial cell carcinoma of the bladder, pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancer (treated with H19-DTA). However this targeted medicine approach may be limited, as not all cancer patients express high levels of H19 and it requires prerequisite diagnostic test for H19. Hence, a double promoter DTA-expressing vector was created, carrying on a single construct two separate genes expressing the diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA), from two different regulatory sequences, selected from the cancer-specific promoters H19 and IGF2-P4. Methods H19 and IGF2-P4 gene expression was tested in cell lines of a broad spectrum of different carcinomas (bladder, pancreas, ovary, glioblastoma and HCC), by RT-PCR. The therapeutic potential of the double promoter toxin vector H19-DTA-(IGF2)-P4-DTA was tested in the different cancer cell lines. Results The double promoter vector exhibited superior inhibition activity compared to the single promoter expression vectors, in the different cancer cell lines furthermore, the double promoter vector H19-DTA-P4-DTA exhibited augmented-than-additive anti-cancer activity relative to single promoter expression vectors carrying either DTA sequence alone, when tested in a broad spectrum of tumor cells. Conclusions Our findings show that administration of H19-DTA-P4-DTA has the potential to reach tumor cells, deliver its intracellular toxin without targeting normal tissues, and thus may help reduce tumor burden, improve the quality of life of the patient; and prolong their life span. As H19 and IGF2 were expressed in a broad spectrum of different cancers, therefore we propose a double promoter expression approach for treating a variety of tumors expressing H19, IGF2, or both. According to this approach patients may be treated with a single double promoter expression toxin vector which is under the control of the IGF2 and H19 regulatory sequences, differentially expressed in those cancers. As majority of the tumor cells express H19, IGF2, or both, therefore the use of prerequisite diagnostic test will be unnecessary. PMID:22993648

Amit, Doron; Hochberg, Abraham

2012-01-01

142

u.s. department of commerce national institute of standards and technology manufacturing extension partnership W W W . n i s t . g o v / m e p 1 -8 0 0 -m e p -4 m F g  

E-print Network

· 1 - 8 0 0 - m e p - 4 m F g 2013 lifetime entrepreneur launches food manufacturing Business. A large contract manufacturer of sauces, dressings, and dips put the Beardens in touch with The Food Processing Center has a program to assist entrepreneurs interested in starting a food manufacturing business

Perkins, Richard A.

143

Health promotion is the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health (O'Donnell, 1986, p.4). Optimal health is defined  

E-print Network

Health promotion is the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health (O'Donnell, 1986, p.4). Optimal health is defined as a balance of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual health. Lifestyle change can be facilitated through

Ghajar, Afshin J.

144

The Experience of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the process of implementing a museum experience into the course content of a literacy methods course. A museum workshop was designed to help graduate students better understand the concept of literacy as a language-based learning process that builds on and extends each child's understanding of the world. Framed by relevant…

Freidus, Helen

2007-01-01

145

Facile synthesis of mononuclear early transition-metal complexes of ?3cyclo-tetrametaphosphate ([P4O12]4-) and cyclo-trimetaphosphate ([P3O9]3-.  

PubMed

We herein report the preparation of several mononuclear-metaphosphate complexes using simple techniques and mild conditions with yields ranging from 56% to 78%. Treatment of cyclo-tetrametaphosphate ([TBA]4[P4O12]·5H2O, TBA = tetra-n-butylammonium) with various metal sources including (CH3CN)3Mo(CO)3, (CH3CN)2Mo(CO)2(?(3)-C3H5)Cl, MoO2Cl2(OSMe2)2, and VOF3, leads to the clean and rapid formation of [TBA]4[(P4O12)Mo(CO)3]·2H2O, [TBA]3[(P4O12)Mo(CO)2(?(3)-C3H5)], [TBA]3[(P4O12)MoO2Cl] and [TBA]3[(P4O12)VOF2]·Et2O salts in isolated yields of 69, 56, 68, and 56% respectively. NMR spectroscopy, NMR simulations and single crystal X-ray studies reveal that the [P4O12](4-) anion behaves as a tridentate ligand wherein one of the metaphosphate groups is not directly bound to the metal. cyclo-Trimetaphosphate-metal complexes were prepared using a similar procedure i.e., treatment of [PPN]3[P3O9]·H2O (PPN = bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium) with the metal sources (CH3CN)2Mo(CO)2(?(3)-C3H5)Cl, MoO2Cl2(OSMe2)2, MoOCl3, VOF3, WOCl4, and WO2Cl2(CH3CN)2 to produce the corresponding salts, [PPN]2[(P3O9)Mo(CO)2(?(3)-C3H5)], [PPN]2[(P3O9)MoO2Cl], [PPN]2[(P3O9)MoOCl2], [PPN]2[(P3O9)VOF2]·2CH2Cl2, and [PPN]2[(P3O9)WO2Cl] in isolated yields of 78, 56, 75, 59, and 77% respectively. NMR spectroscopy, NMR simulations and single-crystal X-ray studies indicate that the trianionic ligand [P3O9](3-) in these complexes also has ?(3) connectivity. PMID:24285119

Manna, Cesar M; Nassar, Mostafa Y; Tofan, Daniel; Chakarawet, Khetpakorn; Cummins, Christopher C

2014-01-28

146

Antiplatelet Activity, P2Y1 and P2Y12 Inhibition, and Metabolism in Plasma of Stereoisomers of Diadenosine 5?,5??-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate  

PubMed Central

Background Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), a constituent of platelet dense granules, and its P1,P4-dithio and/or P2,P3-chloromethylene analogs, inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. We recently reported that these compounds antagonize both platelet ADP receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12. The most active of those analogs, diadenosine 5?,5??-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate, (compound 1), exists as a mixture of 4 stereoisomers. Objective To separate the stereoisomers of compound 1 and determine their effects on platelet aggregation, platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor antagonism, and their metabolism in human plasma. Methods We separated the 4 diastereomers of compound 1 by preparative reversed-phase chromatography, and studied their effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation, P2Y1-mediated changes in cytosolic Ca2+, P2Y12-mediated changes in VASP phosphorylation, and metabolism in human plasma. Results The inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet aggregation and human platelet P2Y12 receptor, and stability in human plasma strongly depended on the stereo-configuration of the chiral P1- and P4-phosphorothioate groups, the SPSP diastereomer being the most potent inhibitor and completely resistant to degradation in plasma, and the RPRP diastereomer being the least potent inhibitor and with the lowest plasma stability. The inhibitory activity of SPRP diastereomers depended on the configuration of the pseudo-asymmetric carbon of the P2,P3-chloromethylene group, one of the configurations being significantly more active than the other. Their plasma stability did not differ significantly, being intermediate to that of the SPSP and the RPRP diastereomers. Conclusions The presently-described stereoisomers have utility for structural, mechanistic, and drug development studies of dual antagonists of platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors. PMID:24722456

Chang, Hung; Yanachkov, Ivan B.; Dix, Edward J.; Yanachkova, Milka; Li, YouFu; Barnard, Marc R.; Wright, George E.; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger, Andrew L.

2014-01-01

147

NaxP4W14O50: The sodium m = 7 member of the monophosphate tungsten bronze series Ax(PO2)4(WO3)2m  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of Na1.7P4W14O50 was established by single crystal X-ray analysis. The compound is the m = 7 member of the family of monophosphate tungsten bronzes with hexagonal tunnels, Nax(PO2)4 (WO3)2m, characterized by ReO3-type slabs of various widths connected through PO4 tetrahedra. In order to compare with other members of the MPTBh family, a cell symmetry Al has been chosen

M. Lamire; Ph. Labbe; M. Goreaud; B. Raveau

1987-01-01

148

Psychology Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

2001-01-01

149

Field Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field observations and field experiences have traditionally been at the core of geoscience instruction. This session was designed to allow the entire GSA community to come together to share and discuss both traditional and emerging roles of field experiences in teaching geosciences. This site provides a searchable collection of posters about field experiences from a session at the 2004 GSA annual meeting.

150

The occurrence of amino acid substitutions D96N and S242N in VP7 of emergent G2P[4] rotaviruses in Nepal in 2004-2005: a global and evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. Strains with G2P[4] have captured recent attention because of its abrupt increase or re-emergence in many locations in the world. In Nepal, G2P[4] strains were detected at a rate of 1% in 2003-2004, but increased to 33% in 2004-2005. Thus, the VP7 genes of 45 emergent G2 strains from Nepal were sequenced and analyzed together with a total of 339 G2VP7 sequences detected over the last 34 years that were compiled from the DNA database. We found that all Nepalese VP7 sequences had a substitution from aspartic acid to asparagine at residue 96 (D96N) that was the hallmark of the lineage termed sublineage IVa, which replaced virtually all globally circulating G2 strains during the last decade. Within sublineage IVa, further sublineages emerged, of which a sublineage termed IVa-3 was identified to have another amino acid substitution from serine to asparagine at 242 (S242N). This sublineage, to which all Nepalese sequences belonged, now became the most frequent G2 sequence globally. In conclusion, the G2VP7 gene evolved in a dynamic fashion such that new lineages emerged within the previously dominant lineage, one of which became subsequently dominant. PMID:21842161

Doan, Y H; Nakagomi, T; Cunliffe, N A; Pandey, B D; Sherchand, J B; Nakagomi, O

2011-11-01

151

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

152

Not all G-quadruplexes are created equally: an investigation of the structural polymorphism of the c-Myc G-quadruplex-forming sequence and its interaction with the porphyrin TMPyP4.  

PubMed

G-quadruplexes, DNA tertiary structures highly localized to functionally important sites within the human genome, have emerged as important new drug targets. The putative G-quadruplex-forming sequence (Pu27) in the NHE-III(1) promoter region of the c-Myc gene is of particular interest as stabilization of this G-quadruplex with TMPyP4 has been shown to repress c-Myc transcription. In this study, we examine the Pu27 G-quadruplex-forming sequence and its interaction with TMPyP4. We report that the Pu27 sequence exists as a heterogeneous mixture of monomeric and higher-order G-quadruplex species in vitro and that this mixture can be partially resolved by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) separation. Within this ensemble of configurations, the equilibrium can be altered by modifying the buffer composition, annealing procedure, and dialysis protocol thereby affecting the distribution of G-quadruplex species formed. TMPyP4 was found to bind preferentially to higher-order G-quadruplex species suggesting the possibility of stabilization of the junctions of the c-Myc G-quadruplex multimers by porphyrin end-stacking. We also examined four modified c-Myc sequences that have been previously reported and found a narrower distribution of G-quadruplex configurations compared to the parent Pu27 sequence. We could not definitively conclude whether these G-quadruplex structures were selected from the original ensemble or if they are new G-quadruplex structures. Since these sequences differ considerably from the wild-type promoter sequence, it is unclear whether their structures have any actual biological relevance. Additional studies are needed to examine how the polymorphic nature of G-quadruplexes affects the interpretation of in vitro data for c-Myc and other G-quadruplexes. The findings reported here demonstrate that experimental conditions contribute significantly to G-quadruplex formation and should be carefully considered, controlled, and reported in detail. PMID:23108607

Le, Huy T; Miller, M Clarke; Buscaglia, Robert; Dean, William L; Holt, Patrick A; Chaires, Jonathan B; Trent, John O

2012-12-21

153

TMPyP4 porphyrin distorts RNA G-quadruplex structures of the disease-associated r(GGGGCC)n repeat of the C9orf72 gene and blocks interaction of RNA-binding proteins.  

PubMed

Certain DNA and RNA sequences can form G-quadruplexes, which can affect genetic instability, promoter activity, RNA splicing, RNA stability, and neurite mRNA localization. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia can be caused by expansion of a (GGGGCC)n repeat in the C9orf72 gene. Mutant r(GGGGCC)n- and r(GGCCCC)n-containing transcripts aggregate in nuclear foci, possibly sequestering repeat-binding proteins such as ASF/SF2 and hnRNPA1, suggesting a toxic RNA pathogenesis, as occurs in myotonic dystrophy. Furthermore, the C9orf72 repeat RNA was recently demonstrated to undergo the noncanonical repeat-associated non-AUG translation (RAN translation) into pathologic dipeptide repeats in patient brains, a process that is thought to depend upon RNA structure. We previously demonstrated that the r(GGGGCC)n RNA forms repeat tract length-dependent G-quadruplex structures that bind the ASF/SF2 protein. Here we show that the cationic porphyrin (5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (TMPyP4)), which can bind some G-quadruplex-forming sequences, can bind and distort the G-quadruplex formed by r(GGGGCC)8, and this ablates the interaction of either hnRNPA1 or ASF/SF2 with the repeat. These findings provide proof of concept that nucleic acid binding small molecules, such as TMPyP4, can distort the secondary structure of the C9orf72 repeat, which may beneficially disrupt protein interactions, which may ablate either protein sequestration and/or RAN translation into potentially toxic dipeptides. Disruption of secondary structure formation of the C9orf72 RNA repeats may be a viable therapeutic avenue, as well as a means to test the role of RNA structure upon RAN translation. PMID:24371143

Zamiri, Bita; Reddy, Kaalak; Macgregor, Robert B; Pearson, Christopher E

2014-02-21

154

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

155

Electron excitation cross sections for the 2s(2)2p(3)4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2D(O) (forbidden) and 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P (resonance) transitions in O II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the first forbidden transition 4S(O) -- 2S(2)2p(3) 2D(O) (lambda-lambda 3726, 3729) and the first allowed (resonance) transition 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P(lambda-833) in O II. Use is made of electron energy loss and merged-beams methods. The electron energy range covered is 3.33 (threshold) to 15 eV for the S -- D transition, and 14.9 (threshold) to 40 eV for the S -- P transition. Care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction of the O II beam. An electron mirror was designed and tested to reflect inelastically backscattered electrons into the forward direction to account for the full range of polar scattering angles. Comparisons are made between present experiments and 11-state R-matrix calculations. Calculations are also presented for the 4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2P(O) (lambda-2470) transition.

Zuo, M.; Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, I. D.; Tayal, S. S.; Mclaughlin, Brendan M.

1995-01-01

156

Wanted: Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project to produce a series of laboratory manuals and instructional materials in which nuclear experiments are presented for the undergraduate advanced laboratory. The manuals are being compiled in the areas of physics, chemistry, geology and environmental sciences. (BR)

McDaniel, Floyd D.

1974-01-01

157

Control experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is a type of experiment in which a scientist uses a control variable approach. All conditions in the experiment will be the same except for one variable. When testing water tolerance of barley plants, for example, you could not water one plant, over-water one plant, under-water another plant, and water the last plant with the optimal amount of water and observe the results.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

158

Status and Perspectives of the Liquid Material Experiments in FTU and ISTTOK  

E-print Network

, where free flowing, fully formed, liquid gallium jets have been successfully exposed to the plasmas]. The problem of the mechanical stabilization of liquid metal against jÃ? forces has been faced and solvedEX/P4-6 Status and Perspectives of the Liquid Material Experiments in FTU and ISTTOK G. Mazzitelli

Vlad, Gregorio

159

SANE experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) is a measurement of parallel and near-perpendicular double spin asymmetries in an inclusive electron scattering. The main goal of the experiment was to measure A? and A80 and extract the spin asymmetries of the proton Ap1, Ap2 and spin structure functions gp1 and gp2. Using the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's polarized electron beam and the University of Virginia's polarized frozen ammonia (14NH3) target in Hall C, the experiment ran in 2009, collecting data in a Q2 region from 2.5 to 6.5 GeV2 and between Bjorken x of 0.3 to 0.8. Particle detection was accomplished using the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA), a novel non-magnetic detector. This talk will address the progress of the analysis designed to extract the proton spin asymmetries and structure functions. Preliminary results will be presented.

Baghdasaryan, H.; SANE Collaboration

2012-02-01

160

Neutrino Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

McKeown, R. D. [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

2010-08-04

161

Vestibular experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacelab experiments designed to investigate space motion sickness, any associated changes in otolith-mediated responses occurring during weightlessness, and the carryover of any such changes to postflight conditions are described. The experiments aimed at assessing otolithic responses in space are intended to clarify presumed alterations in vestibular function during weightlessness. Vestibular function will be investigated at several levels: vestibulo-ocular reflexes, vestibulo-spinal pathways, cortical functions involving perception of motion and spatial orientation, visual vestibular interaction, and motion sickness susceptibility. A second major objective relates to space motion sickness and man's well-being and productivity in space.

Young, L. R.

1981-01-01

162

Rutherford Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The simulation below shows an interaction between two "particles." The interaction force is a 1/r2 force; that is, the interaction force varies as 1/r2 where r is the distance between them. However, it only "exists" when the particles are less than 0.2 m apart. This collision is similar to the type of collisions that occurred between alpha particles and gold nuclei in the famous Rutherford experiment. This experiment showed that the very massive nuclei is very small compared to the size of the atom.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

163

Spectral Experiments+  

E-print Network

We describe extensive computational experiments on spectral properties of random objects - random cubic graphs, random planar triangulations, and Voronoi and Delaunay diagrams of random (uniformly distributed) point sets on the sphere). We look at bulk eigenvalue distribution, eigenvalue spacings, and locality properties of eigenvectors. In all cases we discover completely new (at least to this author) phenomena.

Rivin, Igor

2014-01-01

164

Television experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fixed and variable Martian features investigated by the TV experiment on Mariner 9 are described. Articles are presented concerning the dust storm of October to November over the Southern Hemisphere; global surface geodesy and cartography; geology; and the satellite astronomy.

Briggs, G. A.; Cutts, J. A.; Steinbacher, R. H.; Thorpe, T. E.; Whitehead, A. B.; Devaucouleurs, G.; Davies, M. E.; Masursky, H.; Pollack, J. B.

1973-01-01

165

Weathering Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment is designed to allow students to observe and understand chemical and physical weathering of simulated "rocks". They will place the materials in plastic bags, one wet and one dry, and store them for 3-4 days. At the end of the storage period, they will observe the contents of both bags and answer some questions about what they see.

166

experiment, collaboration  

E-print Network

-Departamento Energias Renovables, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, E-04080 Almeria, Spain Departamento de Lenguajes y ca. factor 10 less complex then imaging solar Cerenkov exp.:smaller cost, fewer systematic errors #12; 5 Rainer Plaga The GRAAL experiment, ECRS Lodz July 2000 Location of GRAAL " Plataforma Solar de

167

Biodiesel Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this classroom activity on biodiesel. The experiment involves using some chemicals which may be considered extremely dangerous; educators should be sure to practice laboratory safety when using this lesson. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Lawrence, Richard

2011-06-23

168

The intra-tumor heterogeneity of cell signaling factors in breast cancer: p4E-BP1 and peIF4E are diffusely expressed and are real potential targets.  

PubMed

Breast cancers and most malignant tumors are composed of heterogeneous tumor cells both at genetic and morphological levels; intra-tumor heterogeneity can be one underlying cause of therapeutic resistance. Classical studies have focused on analyses of the relationship between primary tumors and metastatic dissemination, and on subclone evolution. However, it should be noted that tumor heterogeneity at the level of protein expression (proteomics) has not been yet studied in depth. The differences in protein expression also can play an important role in elucidating the relationship between intra-tumor heterogeneity and resistance to systemic therapy. In fact, in human tumors there is not always a homogeneous expression of many of the crucial factors involved in cell signaling, such as pMAPK, pAKt, pMTOR, even with constitutive oncogenic alterations upstream, such as HER2, PI3 K. Conversely, two of these factors, peIF4E and p4E-BP1, which are downstream, and control protein translation, show a diffuse and strong protein expression. In summary, most of cell signaling factors show a heterogeneous expression, regardless of oncogenic alterations. Tissue heterogeneity could be driven by local factors, including hypoxia. The fact that the phosphorylation of crucial proteins such as 4E-BP1 and eIF4E is observed homogeneously throughout most tumors and are druggable opens the chance to get real potential targets in cancer therapy. PMID:25060567

Ramon Y Cajal, S; De Mattos-Arruda, L; Sonenberg, N; Cortes, J; Peg, V

2014-11-01

169

Mendel's experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this web lab, Gregor Mendel directs students through interactive virtual experiments. Students experiment with pea plants to discover how the seven pairs of traits that Mendel studied are inherited. The lab can be completed linearly, or students can move to a particular segment using the Sections menu. After they observe pea plants and infer the number of traits present, students perform five plant crosses. Mendel instructs students to search for patterns in the transmission of traits. Next, students predict the outcome of a cross and are introduced to the terms dominant and recessive. Finally, students work with pedigrees, crossing plants to determine for each of the seven pairs of traits which characteristic is dominant or recessive. A notebook feature lets students check their answers. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Center, Education D.

2002-01-01

170

Soil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

1987-01-01

171

Neutrino Experiments  

E-print Network

This article is a summary of four introductory lectures on ``Neutrino Experiments,'' given at the 2006 TASI summer school. The purposes were to sketch out the present questions in neutrino physics and to discuss the experimental challenges in addressing them. This article concentrates on specific, illustrative examples rather than providing a complete overview of the field of neutrino physics. These lectures were meant to lay the ground-work for the talks which followed on specific, selected topics in neutrino physics.

J. M. Conrad

2007-08-17

172

Transport Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

1999-01-01

173

Low core losses and magnetic properties of Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys with high B for power applications (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the energy crisis and the continued growth in electrical power generation strongly demand minimization of wasteful energy dissipation. Magnetic core loss (W) is the main source of energy dissipation in motors and transformers. This requires the development of soft magnetic materials with low coercivity (Hc) and high magnetic flux density (B). Fe-rich Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (at. %) alloy ribbons made from industrial raw materials (containing some impurities) with 6 mm in width have a heteroamorphous structure containing a large number of extremely small Fe grains (less than 3 nm), resulting from the unique effects of P and Cu addition in proper amounts. Crystallization of these alloys by annealing shows a uniform precipitation of ?-Fe, leading to a uniform nanocrystallized structure of ?-Fe grains, 16-19 nm in size, accompanied by an intergranular amorphous layer about 1 nm in width. The wide ribbons exhibit high B of 1.82-1.85 T (at 800 A/m), almost comparable to commercial oriented Fe-3 mass% Si alloys. Excellent magnetic softness (low Hc of 2.6-5.8 A/m, high permeability of 2.4-2.7 × 104 at 1 kHz and small saturation magnetostriction of 2.3-2.4 × 10-6) along with high electrical resistivity (0.67-0.74 ?? m) of these alloys result in superior frequency characteristics of core losses and a much lower W at 50 Hz up to the maximum induction of 1.75 T, in comparison to the silicon steels now in practical use for power applications.

Makino, Akihiro; Kubota, Takeshi; Yubuta, Kunio; Inoue, Akihisa; Urata, Akiri; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

2011-04-01

174

Spectral Experiments+  

E-print Network

We describe extensive computational experiments on spectral properties of random objects - random cubic graphs, random planar triangulations, and Voronoi and Delaunay diagrams of random (uniformly distributed) point sets on the sphere). We look at bulk eigenvalue distribution, eigenvalue spacings, and locality properties of eigenvectors. We also look at the statistics of \\emph{nodal domains} of eigenvectors on these graphs. In all cases we discover completely new (at least to this author) phenomena. The author has tried to refrain from making specific conjectures, inviting the reader, instead, to meditate on the data.

Igor Rivin

2014-10-12

175

[Anaphylaxis due to peach with negative ImmunoCAP result to peach allergens, including rPru p 1, rPru p 3, AND rPru p 4: a report of two cases].  

PubMed

We report two cases of anaphylactic reactions to peach with negative result of ImmunoCAP to peach. Case 1 is a 35-year-old man, who felt an itch in his oral cavity immediately after ingesting a whole fresh peach. He rapidly developed generalized urticaria, dyspnea, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. He recovered after treatment at a local hospital, thereafter he was referred to our hospital because ImmunoCAP conducted for screening allergens revealed a negative test result to peach and the cause of anaphylaxis remained unclear. He had a history of pollinosis. He reported that he previously felt an itch on his oral cavity after ingesting melon, watermelon, apple, and strawberry. Serum total IgE was 436 IU/ml. CAP-RAST revealed negative results to peach, strawberry and kiwi. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with raw peach pulp, canned peach pulp, strawberry and kiwi were positive. Case 2 is a 30-year-old woman who felt an itch on her oral cavity accompanied by blepharedema, rhinorrhea, generalized urticaria, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea after eating peach. She had a history of pollinosis. She reported that she previously developed urticaria after ingesting an apple. Serum total IgE was 85 IU/ml. ImmunoCAP revealed negative results to peach and apple. SPTs with canned yellow peach, strawberry and apple were positive. Consequently, the two patients were diagnosed with anaphylaxis due to peach, and allergic symptoms have never recurred since they avoided ingesting peach. Furthermore, in two patients ImmunoCAP to rPru p 1, rPru p 3, and rPru p 4 were negative. However, in IgE-immunoblotting of peach, serum IgE antibodies of two patients were bound to approximately 10 kDa proteins. Meanwhile, the cross-reactivity between Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apple, apricot, and plum, has been reported. These results suggest that in patients, who are suspected of having peach anaphylaxis and show a negative ImmunoCAP result to peach, the additional testing, such as SPT with peach, should be performed for diagnosis. PMID:19329877

Maeda, Nobuko; Inomata, Naoko; Morita, Akiko; Kirino, Mio; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ikezawa, Zenro

2009-02-01

176

Electrophoresis experiment, experiment MA-014  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuous, free flow electrophoresis study was conducted during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project mission to investigate and evaluate the increase in sample flow rate and sample resolution achievable in space. The electrophoresis equipment was designed for the separation of four mixtures of biological cells with variable sample flow rates, buffer flow rates, and electric field gradients. Separation quality was assessed by measuring the light from a quartz lamp through the electrophoresis channel and on to a photodiode system. The preliminary results indicate that all monitored systems operated correctly during the experiment. The optical system produced a light that was too bright to discern true cell distributions, but data were received that show a distribution of separated cells.

Hannig, K.; Wirth, H.

1976-01-01

177

G254 undergraduate experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the experiments on payload G254. Each experiment is accommodated in a spacepak and six experiments fly in a full canister. One of the experiments will be housed in a new Isospacepak structure, which will be described briefly. Five of the six experiments have dedicated controllers. The objective of each experiment is discussed. In addition, the operational scenario is provided.

Barton, Doran; Bogh, Karilyn; Evans, Brett; Folkman, Steve; Hammond, Marc; Hatch, Casey; Herr, Neva; Hubble, Tina; Humpherys, Jeff; Johnson, Steve

1992-01-01

178

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience  

E-print Network

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

Thomas, David D.

179

Framework of product experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional experience. All three components are distinguished in having their own lawful underlying process. The aesthetic level involves a product’s

P. Desmet; P. Hekkert

2007-01-01

180

Energy level properties of 4p4d, 4p4d4f, and 4p4d configurations of the W ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectroscopic parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions was used to derive spectral data for the multicharged tungsten ion W35+. The configuration interaction method was applied to include the electron-correlation effects. The relativistic effects were taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation for quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock radial orbitals. The energy level spectra, radiative lifetimes ?, and Lande g-factors have been calculated for the 4p64d3, 4p64d24f, and 4p54d4 configurations of the W35+ ion.

Bogdanovich, P.; Kisielius, R.

2014-11-01

181

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are three physics experiments: (1) "Holographic Prism"; (2) "Teaching about Energy with the Gravicar"; and (3) "The Coherer." In each experiment, a brief description of the experiment devised is provided with diagrams and references. (YP)

Physics Education, 1989

1989-01-01

182

Recent magneto-inertial fusion experiments on the field reversed configuration heating experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) approaches take advantage of an embedded magnetic field to improve plasma energy confinement by reducing thermal conduction relative to conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF reduces required precision in the implosion and the convergence ratio. Since 2008 (Wurden et al 2008 IAEA 2008 Fusion Energy Conf. (Geneva, Switzerland, 13-18 October) IC/P4-13 LA-UR-08-0796) and since our prior refereed publication on this topic (Degnan et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 80), AFRL and LANL have developed further one version of MIF. We have (1) reliably formed, translated, and captured field reversed configurations (FRCs) in magnetic mirrors inside metal shells or liners in preparation for subsequent compression by liner implosion; (2) imploded a liner with interior magnetic mirror field, obtaining evidence for compression of a 1.36 T field to 540 T (3) performed a full system experiment of FRC formation, translation, capture, and imploding liner compression operation; (4) identified by comparison of 2D-MHD simulation and experiments factors limiting the closed-field lifetime of FRCs to about half that required for good liner compression of FRCs to multi-keV, 1019 ion cm-3, high energy density plasma (HEDP) conditions; and (5) designed and prepared hardware to increase that closed-field FRC lifetime to the required amount. Those lifetime experiments are now underway, with the goal of at least doubling closed-field FRC lifetimes and performing FRC implosions to HEDP conditions this year. These experiments have obtained imaging evidence of FRC rotation, and of initial rotation control measures slowing and stopping such rotation. Important improvements in fidelity of simulation to experiment have been achieved, enabling improved guidance and understanding of experiment design and performance.

Degnan, J. H.; Amdahl, D. J.; Domonkos, M.; Lehr, F. M.; Grabowski, C.; Robinson, P. R.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W. M.; Wurden, G. A.; Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Waganaar, W. J.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Makhin, V.; Roderick, N. F.; Gale, D. G.; Kostora, M.; Lerma, A.; McCullough, J. L.; Sommars, W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Bauer, B.; Fuelling, S. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Lynn, A. G.; Turchi, P. J.

2013-09-01

183

The User Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

Schmidt, Aaron

2010-01-01

184

Experiments in Electrochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Fun Science Gallery, Experiments in Electrochemistry offers both teachers and students documentation for seven simple experiments to investigate conductors, batteries, potentials, and galvanic deposition. Each experiment is accompanied by a list of materials, explanatory text, and at least one figure that facilitates a scientific understanding of the experiment.

Carboni, Giorgio.

1998-01-01

185

Biomedical experiments. Part A: Biostack experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biostack experiment is described which was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the earth. Specifically, the biostack experiment was designed to promote research on the effects of high energy/high Z particles of galactic cosmic radiation on a broad spectrum of biologic systems, from the molecular to the highly organized and developed forms of life. The experiment was considered unique and scientifically meritorious because of its potential yield of information - currently unavailable on earth - on the interaction of biologic systems with the heavy particles of galactic cosmic radiation.

Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Scheuermann, W.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cuer, P.; Kaiser, R.

1972-01-01

186

Skylab Sleep Monitoring Experiment (Experiment M133).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-o...

J. D. Frost

1975-01-01

187

Experience and perception  

E-print Network

To what extent can experience shape perception? In what ways does perception vary across people or even within the same person at different times? This thesis presents three lines of research examining the role of experience ...

Witthoft, Nathan (Nathan S.)

2007-01-01

188

Portable controls experiments  

E-print Network

Experiments for controls classes like MIT's 2.004 require large lab setups and expensive equipment such as oscilloscopes and function generators. We developed a series of controls experiments based on National Instruments' ...

Larson, Richard Winston

2012-01-01

189

Experiences of Hunting  

E-print Network

Experiences of Hunting Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) U rgyan dbang phyung describes his personal hunting experiences. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Interview Name of recorder (if different from...

Bkra shis bzang po

2009-11-05

190

Experience and content  

E-print Network

The ‘content view’, in slogan form, is ‘Perceptual experiences have representational content’. I explain why the content view should be reformulated to remove any reference to ‘experiences’. I then argue, against Bill ...

Byrne, Alex

191

Experience and Content  

E-print Network

The 'content view', in slogan form, is 'Perceptual experiences have representational content'. I explain why the content view should be reformulated to remove any reference to 'experiences'. I then argue, against Bill ...

Byrne, Alex

192

Experiments and Calculations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several science experiments/activities and their associated measurements. These include a simple projectile activity, cartesian diver (used to measure altitude and atmospheric pressure), experiment demonstrating atmospheric pressure, and activities using a stroboscope, and electrometer. (JN)

Siddons, J. C.

1982-01-01

193

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

194

First Impressions Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the first impressions experiment. This study allows participants to experience the formation of initial impressions and the roles minority/majority status and positive/negative attributes play in that formation process.

195

Experiments in Magnetohydrodynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three student experiments in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these experiments, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)

Rayner, J. P.

1970-01-01

196

p. 2--GCR Executive columns p.4--Arrivals and Returns  

E-print Network

.17--Academic p.23--Alumni p.28--Cultural p.30--Off the Hill p.39--Clubs & Societies p.41--Funnies in the creation of several new clubs and societies under the aegis of the GCR. To help clubs and societies as much is fairer, more consistent, and should ensure clubs and societies are better supported than ever before

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

197

Pion elastic scattering from ?p4?sHe  

E-print Network

)* 0160 S (F RJ)(1)iF R D(NUM PTS)+4 DUM ODD D+2*DUM EYEV D) 0161 FINAL NI S E =FINAL N/FIIVAL D 0162 TYPE *, FINAL M S E 0163 RETURN 0164 END 58 VITA Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud was born in Benghazi, Libya on June 6, 1964. He graduated from Huntsville...)* 0160 S (F RJ)(1)iF R D(NUM PTS)+4 DUM ODD D+2*DUM EYEV D) 0161 FINAL NI S E =FINAL N/FIIVAL D 0162 TYPE *, FINAL M S E 0163 RETURN 0164 END 58 VITA Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud was born in Benghazi, Libya on June 6, 1964. He graduated from Huntsville...

Mahmoud, Ahmed Mohamed

2012-06-07

198

Athens Journal New York Times, Feb. 15, 2007, p.4  

E-print Network

, too, is brimming, and trash is being dumped in a new landfill that has been set up alongside it,000 tons of trash produced daily in this city of four million. The 250-acre landfill, said by environmental, construction rubble and household trash, besieged by seagulls scavenging for scraps. The site violates

Columbia University

199

Substrate trajectory through phospholipid-transporting P4-ATPases.  

PubMed

A difference in the lipid composition between the two leaflets of the same membrane is a relatively simple instance of lipid compositional heterogeneity. The large activation energy barrier for transbilayer movement for some (but not all) membrane lipids creates a regime governed by active transport processes. An early step in eukaryote evolution was the development of a capacity for generating transbilayer compositional heterogeneity far from equilibrium by directly tapping energy from the ATP pool. The mechanism of the P-type ATPases that create lipid asymmetry is well understood in terms of ATP hydrolysis, but the trajectory taken by the phospholipid substrate through the enzyme is a matter of current active research. There are currently three different models for this trajectory, all with support by mutation/activity measurements and analogies with known atomic structures. PMID:25233416

Williamson, Patrick

2014-10-01

200

Practical 2P4 Introduction to AFM Analysis  

E-print Network

, giving much more topographical information than optical or scanning electron microscopes. Its limitation, maintained by a feedback control. The amount of movement required to keep the constant force is then used to create the image. Close contact mode, often called tapping mode, uses a vibrating cantilever. Simple

Paxton, Anthony T.

201

Experiences with Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation "NASA Experience with Launch Vehicles" is a compilation of Mr. Dumbacher's career experiences with the Space Shuttle Program, the Delta - Clipper Experimental flight test project, the X-33 demonstrator project, and recent experiences with the Orbital Spaceplane Program agd the current NASA effort on Exploration Launch Systems. Mr. Dumbacher will discuss his personal experiences and provide lessons learned from each program. The accounts provided by Mr. Dumbacher are his own and do not necessarily represent the official NASA position.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

202

The ITALSAT experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some information is given on the ITALSAT millimetric waves propagation experiment, which is to be conducted with the ITALSAT satellite, whose launch is foreseen for the middle of 1990. The purpose of the experiment is one of experimenting with advanced technologies and techniques employing the 20/30 GHz bands in wideband telecommunications. Among the most qualified features of this system are the multispot antenna and the exchange function performed directly onboard. Details of the experiment are given.

Paraboni, A.

1989-01-01

203

Viscosity Of Liquids - Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom experiment to illustrate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring how quickly pebbles sink through them. The site describes all of the required material for the experiment and also gives a detailed chart for recording the results of the experiment. Altogether, the site is a great activity for the classroom.

2008-10-07

204

NASTRAN: Users' experiences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

1973-01-01

205

FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted dur- ing April-July 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influ- ences the evolution

J. A. Curry; P. V. Hobbs; M. D. King; D. A. Randall; P. Minnis; G. A. Isaac; J. O. Pinto; T. Uttal; A. Bucholtz; D. G. Cripe; H. Gerber; C. W. Fairall; T. J. Garrett; J. Hudson; J. M. Intrieri; C. Jakob; T. Jensen; P. Lawson; D. Marcotte; L. Nguyen; P. Pilewskie; A. Rangno; D. C. Rogers; K. B. Strawbridge; F. P. J. Valero; A. G. Williams; D. Wylie

2000-01-01

206

Experience and Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREENOUGH, WILLIAM T.; BLACK, JAMES E.; and WALLACE, GHRISTOPHER S. Experience and Brain Development. GHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1987, 58, 539-559. This article considers how experience can influence the developing and mature brain and proposes a new categorization scheme based upon the type of information stored and the brain mechanisms that appear to be involved in storing it. In this scheme, experience-expectant

William T. Greenough; James E. Black; Christopher S. Wallace

1987-01-01

207

Future Outlook: Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The personal view for the next to the next neutrino detector, the ultimate experiment, is discussed. Considering the size, cost and head winds against the basic science, the ultimate experiment will be the only experiment in the world. Here two such experiments one for the neutrino oscillation and the other for the double beta decay were discussed. The ultimate experiment needs to include a bread and butter science and to have a discovery potential for an unexpected phenomenon. There are many technical challenges and international co-operations are absolutely necessary.

Suzuki, Yoichiro

2008-11-01

208

Results from hadroproduction experiments  

E-print Network

The hadroproduction experiments HARP, MIPP and NA61 (SHINE) as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for precise predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. The MIPP experiment has nearly finalized measurements of hadron production from the NuMI target used in the MINOS experiment. First measurements released recently by the NA61 (SHINE) experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the first stage of the T2K experiment. All three experiments - HARP, MIPP and NA61 - provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

Boris A. Popov

2011-06-22

209

The Experience of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

2007-01-01

210

Experiments in Electroanalytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers educators a set of eight classical electroanalytical experiments suitable for use in a quantitative analysis, instrumental analysis, or electrochemistry course. The materials should be useful for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Experiments include coulometric, conductometric, and potentiometric titrations, stripping analysis, flow injection analysis, and polarography. It is important to note that several of the experiments use mercury or mercury coated electrodes which present safety concerns.

2011-05-30

211

Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)

Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.

1975-01-01

212

Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions among the 3s$^2$3p$^5$, 3s3p$^6$, and 3s$^2$3p$^4$3d configurations of Cl-like W LVIII  

E-print Network

We report calculations of energy levels, radiative decay rates, and lifetimes for transitions among the 3s$^2$3p$^5$, 3s3p$^6$, and 3s$^2$3p$^4$3d configurations of Cl-like W LVIII. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP) has been adopted for our calculations. Comparisons are made with the most recent results of Mohan et al. [Can. J. Phys. {\\bf 92} (2014) xxx] and discrepancies in lifetimes are noted, up to four orders of magnitude in some instances. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 0.5\\%, whereas results for radiative rates and lifetimes should be accurate to better than 20\\%.

Aggarwal, K M

2014-01-01

213

Hyperfine structure and isotope shift in the 3s2 3p2 3P0,1,2? 3s2 3p4p3P0,1,2 transitions in silicon by Doppler-free in-source two-photon resonance-ionization spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution technique for direct in-source laser spectroscopy within a hot cavity laser ion source has been demonstrated by applying Doppler free two-photon resonance ionization spectroscopy. An injection-locked narrow-bandwidth pulsed titanium:sapphire laser operating in high repetition rate was used for resonance ionization of silicon. The isotope shift of 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si as well as the hyperfine structure of all two-photon transitions of the 3s23p23P0,1,2?3s23p4p3P0,1,2 multiplet for 29Si were recorded at an overall experimental spectral linewidth of 90 MHz.

Wendt, K.; Mattolat, C.; Gottwald, T.; Kron, T.; Raeder, S.; Rothe, S.; Schwellnus, F.; Tomita, H.

2013-11-01

214

Exploring sensory neuroscience through experience and experiment.  

PubMed

Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions - color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

Wyttenbach, Robert A

2012-01-01

215

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

216

Undergraduate Infrared Spectroscopy Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights procedures and results of an experiment using atomic absorption spectroscope to illustrate a fundamental chemical concept. The experiment demonstrates the dependence of the solubility product of lead sulfate on ionic strength in the presence of a slight excess of anion. (Author/JN)

MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J.

1982-01-01

217

Franklin: User Experiences  

SciTech Connect

The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

2008-05-07

218

Instrumental Analysis Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-20

219

The Overseas Internship Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the Overseas Internship Experience, a program designed expressly for undergraduate business students who wish to have an overseas experience but are either unable or unwilling to participate in traditional study-abroad programs. The program, in operation since 1996, includes a 6-week supervised summer internship in Oxford, England; a variety of cultural heritage visits; supervised travel to neighboring countries;

Mark F. Toncar; Brian V. Cudmore

2000-01-01

220

Experience and Its Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experience is an activity that arouses emotions and generates meanings based on vivid sensation and profound comprehension. It is emotional, meaningful, and personal, playing a key role in the course of forming and developing one's qualities. The psychological process of experience generation consists of such links as sensing things, arousing…

Youqing, Chen

2006-01-01

221

Boyle's Law Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

Hermens, Richard A.

1983-01-01

222

Experiments with Plasma Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE use of a coaxial plasma gun with radial magnetic field for the production of magnetized plasma rings was suggested1 by H. Alfvén in 1958. Experiments with a plasma gun of that type were started in the spring of 1958 and a detailed report is to be published2. We present here some new results obtained during continued experiments with a

L. Lindberg; E. Witalis; C. T. Jacobsen

1960-01-01

223

Context, Situation, and Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses contextualization in the TESL classroom. Starting from the statement that fluency and comprehension are more important than absolute accuracy, and that to know how to use language students must "experience context in situations," a definition is attempted of the terms "context,""situation," and "experience." Situation is…

Palmer, Joe Darwin

224

Shusterman on Somatic Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

Maattanen, Pentti

2010-01-01

225

Global Health Field Experience  

E-print Network

Experience, Yale University Kaveh Khoshnood School of Public Health, Yale University Director, Yale Global on economic development, public health, and other related topics will be valuable as you begin to makeGlobal Health Field Experience Guide Yale College Center for International and Professional

226

Designing New Undergraduate Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the difficulty that teaching assistants and new faculty members may experience in finding a convenient outline of the task of preparing an experiment for undergraduates. Explains all phases of developing a laboratory exercise and includes a list of things to consider for each phase. (DDR)

Yang, Min J.; Atkinson, George F.

1998-01-01

227

The Jumping Ring Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

2009-01-01

228

Steer Feeding Experiments.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. - . ,p ,Ad BULLETIN NO. 110. ,-+, 0 SEPT., 1908. Steer Feeding Experiments JOHN C. BURNS. Department of Animal Husbandry. Post Office. COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL... and Agriculturist. ......... J. W. CARSON.. .Assistant to Director and State Feed Inspector .............................................. M . FRANCIS .Veterinarian ................................................... 0. 34. BALL Botanist...

Burns, John C.

1908-01-01

229

The Academic Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report shows the results of a questionnaire on academic experiences, administered to students at four different colleges. Included in the term "academic experiences" are such factors as mental activities in class and in studying for class, the role of the teacher, motivation for studying, feelings about courses, and patterns of work. Two main…

Chickering, Arthur W.

230

Electronics Lab Experiment #99  

E-print Network

, rather report it to the lab instructor during the lab and have the department technician check it outEECS 3440 Electronics Lab Experiment #99 Modeling a Sample Lab Report by [your name] with lab-paragraph statement of what was done in the lab experiment. Normally, only a few sentences are needed

King, Roger

231

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

232

The Group Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of group dynamics and leadership activities is a component of the CORE Standards for the Master's degree curriculum in Rehabilitation Counseling. A group experience is often included as a learning activity in rehabilitation counselor education curricula as an instructional method of imparting knowledge of group dynamics. Group experience

Wadsworth, John

2008-01-01

233

The virtual classroom experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern technology creates an imperative for increasingly diverse classroom experiences. Both students and faculty can benefit from the constant technological advances occurring today. Students expect their educational experience to include the use of current technology, multimedia presentations of subject content, and engaging learning interactivity. A dramatic benefit can be achieved by the use of diverse tools, such as a classroom

Barbara Bernal Thomas

2003-01-01

234

Experience and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book's essays, teachers describe and reflect on the practice of experiential education in elementary, secondary, college, and outdoor settings. Major themes of these narratives include the insider's view of the teaching experience; active learning that requires student autonomy, imagination, and responsibility; and the view of experience

Horwood, Bert, Ed.

235

Near-death experiences.  

PubMed Central

Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

Blackmore, S J

1996-01-01

236

Human Simulated Diving Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

1979-01-01

237

Incarcerated Women's Educational Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a study in which five women in a detention facility were interviewed and asked about their prior educational histories and their experiences of GED education in jail. Three central themes emerged from the interviews. The women in the study had positive academic experiences in their early school years which were…

Mageehon, Alexandria

2003-01-01

238

Social Balance Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Social Balance Experiment. In this experiment, participants are asked to imagine that they are in a situation in which they have one of five feelings (love, like, neutral, dislike or hate) toward another person named Bill.

239

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

240

Hadron production experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HARP and NA61/SHINE hadroproduction experiments as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First measurements released recently by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61/SHINE experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

Popov, Boris A.

2013-02-01

241

Health education telecommunications experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment (HET) was conducted jointly by NASA and HEW on NASA's ATS-6 communications satellite. This experiment actually consisted of six experiments testing health and education applications of a communication spacecraft producing a broadcast of color television directly from space to over 120 low-cost receivers located in remote rural areas throughout the U.S. (including Alaska). The experiments were conducted over the period from 2 July 1974 to 20 May 1975 and operated on an almost daily basis. The overall telecommunications system to support these experiments consisted of many elements: The ATS-6 spacecraft; five different types of earth stations consisting of 120 video receive terminals, 51 telephony tranceivers and eight video originating terminals of three different types. Actual performance of the equipment as measured in the field was shown to equal or exceed predicted values.

Whalen, A. A.

1975-01-01

242

Space Experiment Module (SEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

Brodell, Charles L.

1999-01-01

243

Extravehicular activity welding experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

Watson, J. Kevin

1989-01-01

244

Dulye Leadership Experience The Ultimate Professional Development Experience  

E-print Network

Dulye Leadership Experience The Ultimate Professional Development Experience: Dulye Leadership Experience Do YOU have what it takes to join the team? Find out more at dle.dulye.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DulyeLeadershipExperience Twitter: DLE4SU #12;Dulye Leadership Experience Program Overview Dulye Leadership Experience The Dulye

Crowston, Kevin

245

LDR structural experiment definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

1988-01-01

246

Advanced biostack experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

Buecker, H.

1981-01-01

247

Industrial application experiment series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

Bluhm, S. A.

1981-05-01

248

Reactor Neutrino Experiments  

E-print Network

Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measurement are also briefed.

Jun Cao

2007-12-06

249

Public Goods Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students must decide how to divide their "endowment" of a good between private consumption and a public good. The private consumption provides a benefit (earnings) to only the individual and the public good provides a benefit to each person in the group, even those who do not contribute to the public good. This hand-run experiment is suitable for use in small classes in the range of 5 to 40 students. Some variations on this basic experiment are also described.

Swarthout, Todd

250

Simulated pion photoproduction experiments  

E-print Network

Introduction: In this paper, I will be assessing the capabilities of the Neutral Meson Spectrometer (NMS) detector in a planned experiment at the High Intensity Gamma Source at Duke University. I will review the relevant ...

Howe, Ethan (Ethan Gabriel Grief)

2005-01-01

251

Illustrating the Classical Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity that (1) illustrates the classical experiment as a research tool; (2) demonstrates the interplay among hypotheses, methods, and data; and (3) nurtures the excitement of a method of study. (BSR)

Zeller, Richard A.

1988-01-01

252

ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

1993-01-01

253

Foraging Experiences with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

Russell, Helen Ross

1976-01-01

254

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduced are two experiments: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)

Physics Education, 1989

1989-01-01

255

Cadell's Mountain Building Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show reconstructions of Cadell's famous experiments in mountain building, performed at an open day of the British Geological Survey at Murchison House, Edinburgh. Various versions at different resolutions are available.

256

Experiments with needle bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

Ferretti, Pericle

1933-01-01

257

Field experiments in retailing  

E-print Network

This dissertation consists of two essays on tactical issues in retailing. The first essay compares the price sensitivity of private label and national brand products. A large-scale field experiment shows that private label ...

Fong, Nathan Minsheng

2011-01-01

258

Experiments in Animal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

Polt, James M.

1971-01-01

259

The monsoon experiment MONEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of monsoons in different parts of the world on the Earth's atmosphere were studied by MONEX, India's Monsoon Experiment program. Data were gathered from meteorological satellites, sounding rockets, aircraft, land and shipborne stations.

Das, P. K.

1979-01-01

260

Experiments on ferrimagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrimagnetism undoubtedly deserves a proper place in the undergraduate laboratory on electricity and magnetism. Four student experiments on ferrimagnetism are considered: (i) the hysteresis loops and permeability of a ‘soft’ ferrite; (ii) the differential permeability versus a dc bias; (iii) the frequency dependence of the complex permeability and (iv) the electromagnetic interference suppression by ferrite chokes and beads. Two ferrite cores taken off a low-frequency choke and a power cord are used. The measurements are simple and straightforward and show the important properties of ferrites and their applications. The values of the permeability of the ferrite core determined in experiments (i)-(iii) are in reasonable agreement. The frequency dependence of the complex permeability of the ferrites is similar to that given by the manufacturers. The capability of absorbing electromagnetic waves in a definite frequency range shown in experiment (iv) demonstrates one of the principles of Stealth technology. The equipment necessary for the experiments can be found in many student laboratories.

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2013-03-01

261

A Colorful Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment, mixing solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate to give a bright yellow lead iodide precipitate, often leads students into other topics such as making paint from the precipitate. (BB)

Hunter, C. Bruce

1978-01-01

262

Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Keynote Presentation exported as a clickable quicktime movie. This presentation develops Millikan's Oil Drop experiment. The presentation is animated and the learner or Instructor can click their way through the presenation. The mathematical theory is fully developed.

Dimauro, Mr. T.

2009-01-12

263

Experimenting with Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

1977-01-01

264

General relativity and experiment  

E-print Network

The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

T. Damour

1994-12-08

265

Packed Bed Reactor Experiment  

NASA Video Gallery

The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

266

Germany's Solar Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOVA video podcast is about Germany's solar experiment. Munich's solar panel farm lines the Autobahn and countryside in a massive effort to prove solar's feasibility as a practical renewable energy source.

Nova

267

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four physics experiments including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)

Physics Education, 1988

1988-01-01

268

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to demonstrate the following: the hysteresis effect and the existence of domains in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate); diffraction experiments using a slide with multiple slits; and an analogue technique for learning terminal velocity. (GA)

Physics Education, 1979

1979-01-01

269

ISE structural dynamic experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

1988-01-01

270

Early Teaching Experiences: Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PhysTEC suggests early teaching experience as both a mechanism for recruitment and to provide future teachers with a realistic view of their chosen career. Ways of providing this experience include becoming a learning assistant, exposing student teachers to a variety of grade levels, and inviting more experienced teachers to become involved with the teacher preparation program, either as mentors or as advisors in program development.

2008-05-20

271

The GLUEX Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

M.R. Shepherd

2009-12-01

272

The GLUEX Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

Shepherd, M. R. [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

2009-12-17

273

Spacelab J experiment descriptions  

SciTech Connect

Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Miller, T.Y.

1993-08-01

274

The Majorana Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay (??(0?)-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R&D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, H. O.; Barabash, A. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, J. I.; Combs, D. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Gehman, V. M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Hoppe, E. W.; Horton, M.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, J. D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, D.-M.; Merriman, J. H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Perumpilly, G.; Prior, G.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, D.; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

2011-12-01

275

The ATHENA antihydrogen experiment  

SciTech Connect

The ATHENA experiment is being built at CERN to produce and trap neutral antihydrogen. Here we give an overview of the plans to produce antihydrogen. The experiment must 1) trap the antiprotons produced by the CERN accelerators, 2) produce and trap positrons, 3) combine the two charge species into antihydrogen, and finally 4) detect the presence of the antihydrogen. In this paper we discuss how we intend to accomplish each of these steps.

Fine, K. S. [CERN-CH, Division EP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

1999-12-10

276

A Tasty Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct an experiment to determine whether or not the sense of smell is important to being able to recognize foods by taste. They do this by attempting to identify several different foods that have similar textures. For some of the attempts, students hold their noses and close their eyes, while for others they only close their eyes. After they have conducted the experiment, they create bar graphs showing the number of correct and incorrect identifications for the two different experimental conditions tested.

Engineering K-Phd Program

277

Michelson-Morley Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A celebrated experiment carried out by A A Michelson (1852-1931) in 1881 and by Michelson together with Edward Morley (1838-1923) in 1887, which attempted and failed to detect the motion of the Earth through the ether. The basis of the experiment was that if a beam of light traveled a known distance in the direction in which the Earth was supposed to be moving through the ether, and another beam ...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

278

Spacelab J experiment descriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

Miller, Teresa Y. (editor)

1993-01-01

279

Object Location Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Object Location Experiment. The experiment begins with a description of the object location memory task that the participants will complete. Participants learn that they will study an array of objects for a designated period of time; the array of objects will then disappear; and then the array of objects will reappear, but some of the objects will have exchanged positions.

280

Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, and headmotion signals acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit are shown. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telemetered indication of sleep stage). Results indicate that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled eight-hour rest periods during extended space missions.

Frost, J. D., Jr.

1975-01-01

281

Modal identification experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) is a proposed on-orbit experiment being developed by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology wherein a series of vibration measurements would be made on various configurations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) during its on-orbit assembly phase. The experiment is to be conducted in conjunction with station reboost operations and consists of measuring the dynamic responses of the spacecraft produced by station-based attitude control system and reboost thrusters, recording and transmitting the data, and processing the data on the ground to identify the natural frequencies, damping factors, and shapes of significant vibratory modes. The experiment would likely be a part of the Space Station on-orbit verification. Basic research objectives of MIE are to evaluate and improve methods for analytically modeling large space structures, to develop techniques for performing in-space modal testing, and to validate candidate techniques for in-space modal identification. From an engineering point of view, MIE will provide the first opportunity to obtain vibration data for the fully-assembled structure because SSF is too large and too flexible to be tested as a single unit on the ground. Such full-system data is essential for validating the analytical model of SSF which would be used in any engineering efforts associated with structural or control system changes that might be made to the station as missions evolve over time. Extensive analytical simulations of on-orbit tests, as well exploratory laboratory simulations using small-scale models, have been conducted in-house and under contract to develop a measurement plan and evaluate its potential performance. In particular, performance trade and parametric studies conducted as part of these simulations were used to resolve issues related to the number and location of the measurements, the type of excitation, data acquisition and data processing, effects of noise and nonlinearities, selection of target vibration modes, and the appropriate type of data analysis scheme. The purpose of this talk is to provide an executive-summary-type overview of the modal identification experiment which has emerged from the conceptual design studies conducted to-date. Emphasis throughout is on those aspects of the experiment which should be of interest to those attending the subject utilization conference. The presentation begins with some preparatory remarks to provide background and motivation for the experiment, describe the experiment in general terms, and cite the specific technical objectives. This is followed by a summary of the major results of the conceptual design studies conducted to define the baseline experiment. The baseline experiment which has resulted from the studies is then described.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1992-01-01

282

Understanding customer experience.  

PubMed

Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

2007-02-01

283

Experiments in Computing: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general. PMID:24688404

Moisseinen, Nella

2014-01-01

284

Cryogenic fluid management experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

1981-01-01

285

FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

1998-01-01

286

Experiments in mixed reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

2010-01-01

287

Fundamentals of LHC Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN represent our furthest excursion yet along the energy frontier of particle physics. The goal of probing physical processes at the TeV energy scale puts strict requirements on the performance of accelerator and experiment, dictating the awe-inspiring dimensions of both. These notes, based on a set of five lectures given at the 2010 Theoretical Advanced Studies Institute in Boulder, Colorado, not only review the physics considered as part of the accelerator and experiment design, but also introduce algorithms and tools used to interpret experimental results in terms of theoretical models. The search for new physics beyond the Standard Model presents many new challenges, a few of which are addressed in specific examples.

Nielsen, Jason

2012-11-01

288

Microgravity ignition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

1992-01-01

289

Gas Chromatography Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document describes a Gas Chromatography experiment involving the separation and quantitation of four butyl alcohol isomers. It has a complete background about the components of a GC instrument (with labeled pictures) and their functions. The exercise includes a section devoted to the measurement of response factors of the detector in use (here an FID). This would be a good experiment for a new faculty member to use as is, with slight modification to make it relevant to the particular GC system to be used.

2011-05-20

290

World Ocean Circulation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

Clarke, R. Allyn

1992-01-01

291

Experiences with biosynthetic dressings.  

PubMed

Almost all documented clinical experience shows that occlusively dressed wounds heal more quickly and with less pain, tenderness, and swelling than undressed wounds. Clinical experience with occlusive skin dressings on acute and chronic wounds, on diseased skin, and on normal skin is reviewed. This report presents the effects of some of the newest oxygen-permeable and oxygen-nonpermeable occlusive dressings: three polyurethane adhesive films (Bioclusive, Op-Site, and Tegaderm), a polyethylene oxide hydrogel dressing (Vigilon), and a hydroactive polymer dressing (DuoDerm). PMID:3973143

Eaglstein, W H

1985-02-01

292

AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

Depken, J.C.

1991-04-01

293

Agricultural Experiment Station  

E-print Network

, Miller et al. 2006). The effect of plant density on N fixed was influenced by termination time. For pea. METHODS Field plot experiments were conducted at Conrad and Power, MT in 2010. Two LGM crops, pea (Pisum inoculum at six target seeding rates (14, 28, 42, 56, 84, and 112 lb seed/ acre for pea and 7, 15, 22, 29

Lawrence, Rick L.

294

The MAJORANA Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

Guiseppe, V.E. [Univ S Dakota; Keller, C. [Univ S Dakota; Mei, D-M [Univ S Dakota; Perevozchikov, O. [Univ S Dakota; Perumpilly, G. [Univ S Dakota; Thomas, K. [Univ S Dakota; Xiang, W. [Univ S Dakota; Zhang, C. [Univ S Dakota; Aalseth, C.E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Aguayo, E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Ely, J. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Fast, J.E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Hossbach, T.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Keillor, M. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Kephart, J.D. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Kouzes, R. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Miley, H.S. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Mizouni, L. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Myers, A.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Reid, D. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Bergevin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Chan, Y-D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Detwiler, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Loach, J.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Martin, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Poon, A.W.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Prior, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yaver, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Avignone, F.T. III [University of South Carolina; Creswick, R. [University of South Carolina; Farach, H. [University of South Carolina; Mizouni, L. [University of South Carolina; Avignone, Frank Titus [ORNL; Bertrand Jr, Fred E [ORNL; Capps, Gregory L [ORNL; Cooper, Reynold J [ORNL; Radford, David C [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Wilkerson, John F [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL; Back, H.O. [University of North Carolina; Leviner, L. [North Carolina State University; Young, A.R. [North Carolina State University; Back (et al.), H.O. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC; Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Hong, H. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Medlin, D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Sobolev, V. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Barabash, A.S. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Konovalov, S.I. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Vanyushin, I. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Yumatov, V. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Barbeau, P.S. [University of Chicago; Collar, J.I. [University of Chicago; Fields, N. [University of Chicago; Boswell (et al.), M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Gusey, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Kochetov, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Timkin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Yakushev, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Efremenko, M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burritt (et al.), T.H. [University of Washington, Ctr Expt Nucle Phys & Astrophys; Burritt (et al.), T.H. [University of Washington, Dept Phys, Seattle, WA; Busch, M. [Duke University; Esterline, J. [Duke University; Swift, G. [Duke University; Tornow, W. [Duke University/TUNL; Ejiri, H. [Osaka University; Hazama, R. [Osaka University; Nomachi, M. [Osaka University; Shima, T. [Osaka University; Finnerty (et al.), P. [University of North Carolina; et al.

2011-01-01

295

INTERNATIONAL SODAR INTERCOMPARISON EXPERIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents preliminary results from the International Sodar Intercomparison Experiment (ISlE) conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in September 1988. wenty-minute mean wind speeds and directions from a variety of sodar systems compare well with measurements on...

296

Belt pinch experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major belt pinch facilities around the world are discussed including the NRL Pharos, the Juelich TESI, the Juelich TENQ, the Garching ISAR IV, the Garching 1MJ, and the Lausanne pinch. The Lausanne belt pinch experiment is described in detail, consisting of streak photography, measurements of magnetic fields and currents, and Thomson scattering measurements. It is found that high beta

F. Hofmann; L. Bighel; J. M. Peiry

1976-01-01

297

Experiments on Photoconductivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted experiments with CdS and CdSe photoresistors are described. The most important characteristics of the photoresistors are determined: (i) the spectral response, (ii) the photocurrent versus incident radiant power, (iii) the rise and decay time constants and (iv) the frequency response to modulated light. The photoconductivity gain…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2012-01-01

298

MOLTEN PLUTONIUM PUMP EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Plutonium Pump Experiment was a subcritical mock-up of a ; reactor core in which a plutonium-iron alloy was circulated by means of a sodium ; lift pump. Sodium for the lift pumping was circulated by an E. M. pump in an ; isothermal loop at 500 deg C. The purpose of the test was to study pump ;

J. E. Deverall; G. L. Caldwell

1962-01-01

299

The Monsoon Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the GARP framework, a monsoon sub-program, having at its center a monsoon experiment-MONEX, has been drawn up. The objectives of MONEX are outlined followed by a discussion of the scientific problems relating to summer and winter monsoons. The obse...

1976-01-01

300

Virtual Inquiry Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of…

Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

2011-01-01

301

FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

2007-01-01

302

Examining Latina College Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…

Romero, Amanda R.

2012-01-01

303

Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the final experiment report for the TCSE and summarizes many years of hardware development and analyses. Also included are analyses presented in a number of TCSE papers that were prepared and given at scientific conferences including three LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposiums.

Wilkes, D. R.

1999-01-01

304

[Environmental Education Experiences].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental/ecological experiences, appropriate for elementary grades, are presented in this compilation. Designed as individual units of study, they consider components of the natural environment and in particular the local environment of Burke County, North Carolina. Units are titled: Burke County in a Nutshell, Our Culture, A Tour of the…

Burke County Board of Education, Morganton, NC.

305

FFTF operational experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1982, the FFTF began its first nominally 100 day irradiation cycle. Since that time the plant has operated very well with steadily increasing plant capacity factors during its first four cycles. One hundred fifty fuel assemblies (eighty of which are experiments) and over 32,000 individual fuel pins have been irradiated, some in excess of 100 MWd\\/Kg burnup. Specialized

D. J. Newland; J. J. Krupar

1984-01-01

306

A Friction Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force-sensor friction experiments such as the one in Vernier Software's Physics with Computers depend on an object moving with constant velocity in order to measure the force of kinetic friction; when a block is pulled by a horizontal force sensor and the block moves along a horizontal surface with constant velocity, Newton's first law ensures that the force-sensor reading is

Leo Takahashi

2002-01-01

307

BODYYMASSINDEX ChildhoodExperiences  

E-print Network

Styles Adjustment Adults who recalled authoritative parents (who provided emotional support. SIGNIFICANT EXPERIENCES REPORTED from CHILDHOOD: » 27% moved three or more times » 16% had a parent who drank too often » 11% were in financially worse off families » 10% had an unemployed parent » 7% had

Turner, Monica G.

308

Muon Decay Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An experiment to measure the mean lifetime of the muon. It was developed as an outreach activity of the Cosmic Ray Observation Project (CROP) at The University of Nebraska. CROP is a statewide outreach project which involves Nebraska high school students, teachers, and college undergraduates.

Struble, Tim; Neukirch, Levi

2012-03-08

309

Experiments with Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a hands-on experiment that covers many areas of high school mathematics. Included are the notions of patterns, proof, triangular numbers and various aspects of problem solving. The problem involves the arrangements of a school of fish using split peas or buttons to represent the fish. (Contains 4 figures.)

de Mestre, Neville

2008-01-01

310

A UNESCO Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Symphonie Experiment Study Group reports on the experimental use of the Symphonie Satellite to link UNESCO headquarters in Paris with the Conference Centre in Nairobi, Kenya, during the nineteenth session of the General Conference. Evaluations are reported for the use of the satellite for telephone, telex, and facsimile communications. (JMF)

Journal of Communication, 1978

1978-01-01

311

DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

Cunningham, B

1998-10-01

312

The Huck Finn Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes "The Huck Finn Experience," a high motivation interdisciplinary unit that takes students on a 6-week journey back to the life and times of Mark Twain through the fictional character of Huckleberry Finn. The unit described in the paper was designed for eighth-grade students but could be easily adapted to be successful with…

Levesque, Bonnie; And Others

313

ATA beam director experiment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)

Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.

1986-06-23

314

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

315

Experimenting with Electric Trains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

2007-01-01

316

Music: A Shared Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how sixth form girls in England provided music experiences to young children (ages 3-9) with severe learning difficulties. The weekly sessions involve individual sessions and use of various instruments. The relationship of the music therapy program to the National Curriculum is noted. (DB)

Dunn, Rosemary

1992-01-01

317

Agricultural Experiment Station  

E-print Network

Crop Improves Early Nitrogen Uptake, Growth and Yield of Wheat in No-till Chengci Chen Central by no-till or minimal tillage in Montana. To prevent nitrogen (N) leaching over the winter. Methods The experiment was initiated in 2004 in adjacent long-term no-till (LTNT, 15 years) and long

Lawrence, Rick L.

318

Experiments in Free Fall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

Art, Albert

2006-01-01

319

Hybridization experiments in Geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization experiments were carried out with species of Geranium sect. Anemonifolia, sect. Lucida, sect. Pyrenaica and sect. Ruberta. All 9 species tested proved to be self-compatible. Of the 13 interspecific combinations tested only two were successful (G. brutium X G. molle and G. purpureum X G. robertianum) but both hybrids were completely sterile. It is concluded that at least the

J. Chr. Loon

1984-01-01

320

The Airplane Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

1991-01-01

321

Microgravity ignition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to develop a flight-ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCAN 2 program. The microgravity ignition experiment is designed to study how a microgravity environment affects the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. A microgravity environment will result in a decrease in the heat transferred from the sample due to a lack of convection currents, which would decrease time to ignition. A lack of convection current would also cause the oxygen supply at the sample not to be renewed, which could delay or even prevent ignition. When this experiment is conducted aboard GASCAN 2, the dominant result of the lack of ignition will be determined. The experiment consists of four canisters containing four thermocouples and a sensor to detect ignition of the paper sample. This year the interior of the canister was redesigned and a mathematical model of the heat transfer around the sample was developed. This heat transfer model predicts an ignition time of approximately 5.5 seconds if the decrease of heat loss from the sample is the dominant factor of the lack of convection currents.

Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith; Marcotte, Ryan

1992-01-01

322

Learning: A Multifarious Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education has often struggled to determine effective teaching methodologies and learning strategies. One promising field of research has been that of alternative frameworks. The research described in this paper describes how immersion in an unfamiliar environment and culture affected teacher learning, some of the significant experiences

Furuness, Linda B.; Cohen, Michael R.

323

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment on cooling by convection, holographic processes achieved using optical fibers and observation of magnetic domains are described. Also describes four demonstrations: mechanical resonance on air track, independence of horizontal/vertical motion, motion of sphere in fluid medium, and light scattering near the critical point. (JN)

Physics Education, 1983

1983-01-01

324

A Degrading Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to learn about how different types of marine debris degrade and how weather and sunlight affect the rate of degradation. Learners discover that debris made from natural materials, while biodegradable, can still be considered pollutants and can still harm the marine environment.

Sheavly, Seba; Reigster, Katie

2014-05-28

325

Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

1991-01-01

326

The OLYMPUS Experiment  

E-print Network

The OLYMPUS experiment was designed to measure the ratio between the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections, with the goal of determining the contribution of two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. Two-photon exchange might resolve the discrepancy between measurements of the proton form factor ratio, $\\mu_p G^p_E/G^p_M$, made using polarization techniques and those made in unpolarized experiments. OLYMPUS operated on the DORIS storage ring at DESY, alternating between 2.01~GeV electron and positron beams incident on an internal hydrogen gas target. The experiment used a toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight detectors to measure rates for elastic scattering over the polar angular range of approximately $25^\\circ$--$75^\\circ$. Symmetric M{\\o}ller/Bhabha calorimeters at $1.29^\\circ$ and telescopes of GEM and MWPC detectors at $12^\\circ$ served as luminosity monitors. A total luminosity of approximately 4.5~fb$^{-1}$ was collected over two running periods in 2012. This paper provides details on the accelerator, target, detectors, and operation of the experiment.

R. Milner; D. K. Hasell; M. Kohl; U. Schneekloth; N. Akopov; R. Alarcon; V. A. Andreev; O. Ates; A. Avetisyan; D. Bayadilov; R. Beck; S. Belostotski; J. C. Bernauer; J. Bessuille; F. Brinker; B. Buck; J. R. Calarco; V. Carassiti; E. Cisbani; G. Ciullo; M. Contalbrigo; N. D'Ascenzo; R. De Leo; J. Diefenbach; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; G. Elbakian; D. Eversheim; S. Frullani; Ch. Funke; G. Gavrilov; B. Gläser; N. Görrissen; J. Hauschildt; B. S. Henderson; Ph. Hoffmeister; Y. Holler; L. D. Ice; A. Izotov; R. Kaiser; G. Karyan; J. Kelsey; D. Khaneft; P. Klassen; A. Kiselev; A. Krivshich; I. Lehmann; P. Lenisa; D. Lenz; S. Lumsden; Y. Ma; F. Maas; H. Marukyan; O. Miklukho; A. Movsisyan; M. Murray; Y. Naryshkin; C. O'Connor; R. Perez Benito; R. Perrino; R. P. Redwine; D. Rodríguez Piñeiro; G. Rosner; R. L. Russell; A. Schmidt; B. Seitz; M. Statera; A. Thiel; H. Vardanyan; D. Veretennikov; C. Vidal; A. Winnebeck; V. Yeganov

2013-12-05

327

Experiences with poker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience from over five years of building nonshared memory parallel programs using the Poker Parallel Programming Environment has positioned us to evaluate our approach to defining and developing parallel programs. This paper presents the more significant results of our evaluation of Poker. The evaluation is driving our next effort in parallel programming environment; many of the results should be sufficiently

David Notkin; Lawrence Snyder; David Socha; Mary L. Bailey; Bruce Forstall; Kevin Gates; Ray Greenlaw; Willian G. Griswold; Thomas J. Holman; Richard Korry; Gemini Lasswell; Robert Mitchell; Philip A. Nelson

1988-01-01

328

Experiences with Poker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience from over five years of building nonshared memory parallel programs using the Poker Parallel Programming Environment has positioned the authors to evaluate their approach to defining and developing parallel programs. This paper presents the more-significant results of the authors evaluation of Poker. This evaluation is driving the next effort in parallel programming environments; many of the results should be

David Notkin; Lawrence Snyder; David Socha; Mary L. Bailey; Bruce Forstall; Kevin Gates; Raymond Greenlaw; William G. Griswold; Thomas J. Holman; Richard Korry; Gemini Lasswell; Robert Mitchell; Philip A. Nelson

1988-01-01

329

Agricultural Experiment Station Publications  

E-print Network

, social and cultural aspects of agriculture, natural resources management and family issues, to benefit New Mexico's citizens. Off-campus centers located near Alcalde, Artesia, Clayton, Clovis, Corona, Farm the Agricultural Experiment Station, publishes research data and study results. These publications, prepared

330

Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113–432 nm with a wavelength

C. W. Hord; A. I. F. Stewart; C. A. Barth; L. W. Esposito; G. E. Thomas; B. R. Sandel; D. M. Hunten; A. L. Broadfoot; D. E. Shemansky; J. M. Ajello; R. A. West

1992-01-01

331

The OLYMPUS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OLYMPUS experiment was designed to measure the ratio between the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross-sections, with the goal of determining the contribution of two-photon exchange to the elastic cross-section. Two-photon exchange might resolve the discrepancy between measurements of the proton form factor ratio, ?pGEp/GMp, made using polarization techniques and those made in unpolarized experiments. OLYMPUS operated on the DORIS storage ring at DESY, alternating between 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams incident on an internal hydrogen gas target. The experiment used a toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight detectors to measure rates for elastic scattering over the polar angular range of approximately 25°-75°. Symmetric Møller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29° and telescopes of GEM and MWPC detectors at 12° served as luminosity monitors. A total luminosity of approximately 4.5 fb-1 was collected over two running periods in 2012. This paper provides details on the accelerator, target, detectors, and operation of the experiment.

Milner, R.; Hasell, D. K.; Kohl, M.; Schneekloth, U.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Andreev, V. A.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bernauer, J. C.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Buck, B.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; De Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hauschildt, J.; Henderson, B. S.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ice, L. D.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Khaneft, D.; Klassen, P.; Kiselev, A.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; O'Connor, C.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Russell, R. L.; Schmidt, A.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.

2014-03-01

332

A Natural Experiment in \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the television game show 'Jeopardy!' as a natural experiment to analyze behavior under uncertainty and the ability of players to choose strategic best-responses. The results suggest that, while most players bet in a rational manner, the failure rate for choosing best-responses increases as the betting problem grows more complex and that players' choices are affected by the

Andrew Metrick

1995-01-01

333

The Majorana Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

2011-08-01

334

Recalling Harassment, Reconstructing Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how events considered "normal" or "acceptable" by some people at one time are now recalled and reconstructed as "harassment." Analysis is presented of the stories of 21 women who experienced events that earlier were not called sexual harassment. It compares the experiences of "preverbal" children and adults who recall events as assaultive…

Kidder, Louise H.; And Others

1995-01-01

335

Implicit Association Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Implicit Association Experiment. Greenwald, McGhee and Schwartz (1998) pioneered the use of implicit association tests. Implicit association tests (IATs) measure the relative ease with which people are able to make associations between certain groups of people (e.g., older adults) and the concepts of "good" and "bad."

336

Word Recognition Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

337

Be A Juror Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page to participate in the be a juror experiment. Participants are in one of three treatment conditions (a) no eyewitness, (b) unrefuted eyewitness, and (c) discredited eyewitness. Participants in this study rate their belief about the defendant's guilt. The rating scale ranges from a 1 (definitely not guilty) to a 7 (definitely guilty).

338

Gender Perception Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the gender perception experiment. Participants view photographs of faces and only the mouth and chin regions are visible. Participants are asked to identify the gender of each stimulus and to indicate their confidence in their judgment.

339

A harmonic motion experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions.

Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

2010-11-01

340

Ireland's EU Referendum Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it surveys Ireland's European Union referendum experience, tracing the key actors, issues and political dynamics of seven European referendums from 1973 to 2008. It unpicks the institutional rules of the referendum game in Ireland stemming from the McKenna and Coughlan judgements, the operation of the Referendum Commission and the effect of this

Jane OMahony

2009-01-01

341

A Simple Adsorption Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

2011-01-01

342

Experiment on ATM traffic analysis  

E-print Network

not having enough time to share with him. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION . . II POWER SPECTRUM ESTIMATION . III INPUT TRAFFIC MODELING IV SERVER ANALYSIS AND OUTPUT POWER SPECTRUM ESTIMATION . V EXPERIMENTS DESIGN AND RESULTS ANALYSIS.... . . 1. Experiment I 2. Experiment, II 3. Experiment III 4. Experiment IV 5. Experiment V VI CONCLUSION 22 30 34 35 37 39 40 REFERENCES . . APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D 44 47 48 49 50 VITA 51 vn LIST OF FIGURES...

Liang, Chai

2012-06-07

343

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

344

LCLS The First Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has selected six scientific experiments for the early phase of the project. The LCLS, with proposed construction in the 2003-2006 time frame, has been designed to utilize the last third of the existing Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) linac. The linac produces a high-current 5-15 GeV electron beam that is bunched into 230 fs slices with a 120 Hz repetition rate. When traveling through a sufficiently long (of order of 100 m) undulator, the electron bunches will lead to self amplification of the emitted x-ray intensity constituting an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). If funded as proposed, the LCLS will be the first XFEL in the world, operating in the 800-8,000 eV energy range. The emitted coherent x-rays will have unprecedented brightness with 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} photons/pulse in a 0.2-0.4% energy bandpass and an unprecedented time structure with a design pulse length of 230 fs. Studies are under way to reduce the pulse length to tens of femtoseconds. This document presents descriptions of the early scientific experiments selected by SAC in the spring of 2000. They cover a wide range of scientific fields. The experimental teams consist of many internationally recognized scientists who are excited about the unprecedented x-ray capabilities of LCLS that surely will lead to new scientific frontiers. More generally, this document serves to forward the scientific case for an accelerator-based XFEL source, as requested by the BESAC subpanel on Novel Coherent Light Sources, chaired by Stephen R. Leone. Two general classes of experiments are proposed for the LCLS. The first class consists of experiments where the x-ray beam is used to probe the sample without modifying it, as is done in most experiments at current synchrotron sources. In the second class, the LCLS beam is used to induce non-linear photo-processes or matter in extreme conditions. The same source can be used for both types of experiments by utilizing six-orders-of-magnitude changes in photon flux density by focusing the LCLS beam, and by exploiting the strong dependence of the photoabsorption cross section on photon energy and atomic number.

Galayda, John N

2003-02-10

345

Return flux experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

Tveekrem, June L.

1992-01-01

346

Electronics for Satellite Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The tracking detector for the LAT science instrument on the GLAST mission is an example of a large-scale particle detection system built primarily by particle physicists for space flight within the context of a NASA program. The design and fabrication model in most ways reflected practice and experience from particle physics, but the quality assurance aspects were guided by NASA. Similarly, most of the electronics in the LAT as a whole were designed and built by staff at a particle physics lab. This paper reports on many of the challenges and lessons learned in the experience of designing and building the tracking detector and general LAT electronics for use in the NASA GLAST mission.

Johnson, Robert P.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2006-05-16

347

The ``Venus Transit Experience''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 5-7, 2004, an unusual conference took place at the French Ministry of Research in Paris. Entitled the “Venus Transit Experience”, this meeting was organised by the VT-2004 International Steering Committee (ISC) and the local arrangements were ably taken care of by the staff of the IMCCE and the Observatoire de Paris, with Jean-Eudes Arlot and William Thuillot at the helm. It brought together more than 150 persons connected to the VT-2004 programme. The aim was to sum up the vast experience gained through this unique public education programme and, in particular, to perform an evaluation of its many components. On the first day, more than 50 students from the Paris areas who participated actively in this programme were also present.

Boffin, H.; West, R.

2004-12-01

348

Gross decontamination experiment report  

SciTech Connect

A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

1983-07-01

349

The gravitational wave experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the optimum size of a gravitational wave detector is the wave length, interplanetary dimensions are needed for the mHz band of interest. Doppler tracking of Ulysses will provide the most sensitive attempt to date at the detection of gravitational waves in the low frequency band. The driving noise source is the fluctuations in the refractive index of interplanetary plasma. This dictates the timing of the experiment to be near solar opposition and sets the target accuracy for the fractional frequency change at 3.0 x 10 exp -14 for integration times of the order of 1000 sec. The instrumentation utilized by the experiment is distributed between the radio systems on the spacecraft and the seven participating ground stations of the Deep Space Network and Medicina. Preliminary analysis is available of the measurements taken during the Ulysses first opposition test.

Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Less, L.; Messeri, A.; Wahlquist, H. D.

1992-01-01

350

Health Education Telecommunications Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment carried out with Applications Technology Satellite-6 is described. The experiment tested the effectiveness of color television broadcasts to over 120 low-cost receivers in rural areas. Five types of earth stations were involved: receive-only terminals (ROT), an intensive terminal consisting of the ROT plus a VHF transmitter and receiver; comprehensive S and C-band terminals having the capability of transmitting the video signal plus four audio channels; and the main originating stations. Additional supporting elements comprise 120 video receive terminals, 51 telephony transceivers, and 8 video originating terminals of 3 different parts. Technical parameters were measured to within 1 dB of the calculated values.

Whalen, A. A.

1975-01-01

351

Shooting Star Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

1997-01-01

352

Antimatter gravity experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development.

Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

1990-01-01

353

Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dentrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle flights (STS-62, STS-75, and STS-87) of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dentrites. Shown here is a cutaway of the isothermal bath containing its growth cell at the heart of the TDSE. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Note: an Acrobat PDF version is available from http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery

2000-01-01

354

The Giotto magnetometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Giotto magnetometer experiment employs a low-mass (1.357 kg), low-power (818 mW) instrument in a dual magnetometer configuration using flux gate sensors of the ring core type. It has provided accurate vector magnetic field measurements on its way to and near comet Halley, working flawlessly from switch-on on August 22, 1985 to the formal end of the mission on March 15, 1986.

Neubauer, F. M.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Franke, B.; Gramkow, B.

1987-01-01

355

Indigenismo: The Guatemalan Experience  

E-print Network

of the Indian became indigenismo1 s common denominator, particularly after 1944. Indigenis mo in Guatemala, however, is not strictly a recent development but one which was born in the early years of the colonial period. From the time of the first Spanish... began their first extensive colonial experience in the New World in the West Indies. Indigenismo as a religious, moral and political per suasion had its beginnings in these same documents. As was true of most early colonizing expeditions, the first...

Casey, Dennis F.

1979-05-01

356

The CKM Experiment  

SciTech Connect

I describe the CKM experiment, a new initiative using the Fermilab Main Injector to obtain {approx} 100 events of the ultra-rare decay mode K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. The branching ratio will be used to extract |V*{sub ts}V{sub td}|. Due to the decay mode's theoretical cleanliness, it plays a key role in over-constraining the Standard Model description of CP violation.

Hogan H. Nguyen

2002-10-25

357

The NASA Experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projects assigned to: (1) Testing, fixing, and procuring enclosure systems and components for Kennedy Ground Controls Systems at launch pad B. (2) Organizational spreadsheets for all subsystems involved in the project. (Procurement, parts lists, drawings, purchase requests, etc) (3) Resolve is a project devoted to the lunar rover that will sample lunar soil in an effort to remove the moister and separate the metal from the oxygen to produce drinkable water. I helped with the humidity environmental generator for the experiment (moister detector).

Ramos, Alberto

2011-01-01

358

Stress and Strain Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this experiment as an introduction to stress and strain. The lesson allows students the opportunity to "design and make a concrete cylinder and beam that can withstand the greatest applied load." The concepts of comprehensive and tensile stress are incorporated into the lesson plan. Links to useful video clips, diagrams and discussion questions are included. The exercise should take about 90 minutes of class time.

2012-12-24

359

Compact toroid formation experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. A compact toroid (CT) formation experiment is discussed. The device has coaxial electrode diameters of 0.9 m (inner) and 1.25 m (outer) and an electrode length of ~1.2 m, including an expansion drift section. The CT is formed by a 0.1-0.2-T initial radial magnetic field embedded coaxial puff gas discharge. The gas puff is

J. H. Degnan; G. P. Baca; J. D. Beason; M. E. Dearborn; D. Dietz; K. E. Hackett; J. L. Holmes; B. W. Mullins; J. L. Mullins; E. L. Ruden; D. W. Price; C. R. Sovinec; D. Gale; J. D. Graham; D. Ralph; M. Scott; W. Sommars; G. Bird; S. K. Coffey; S. W. Seiler; G. F. Kiuttu; R. E. Peterkin; N. F. Roderick; P. Turchi

1990-01-01

360

The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

2008-01-01

361

Bean Bag Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 21-22 of PDF), learners explore inclined planes. Learners conduct an experiment using a large beanbag chair (or trash bag filled with coats or pillows) and a set of stairs to see how inclined planes make work easier. Learners discover that it requires less force to roll the bean bag down an inclined plane than throwing it between students.

Museum, Chicago C.

2012-06-26

362

COLPEX - Cold Pool Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning has started towards designing a new field campaign aimed at studying the behaviour of the boundary layer over complex terrain. Of specific interest is the formation of cold-pools in valleys during stable night-time conditions. The field campaign will run continuously until the end of the winter in 2009\\/10. The experiment will make use of a wide variety of ground-based

H. Wells; J. Price; V. Horlacher; P. F. Sheridan; S. B. Vosper; A. R. Brown; S. D. Mobbs; A. N. Ross

2009-01-01

363

Localized wave pulse experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

1999-06-01

364

Davisson—Germer Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Davisson—Germer experiment (1927) was the first measurement of the wavelengths of ? electrons. C. J. Davisson, who worked\\u000a in the Bell Research Laboratories, received the Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 1937 together with George P. Thomson from\\u000a the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, who independently also found experimental indications of electron diffraction. According\\u000a to the Copenhagen Interpretation

Friedel Weinert

365

Dichotic Listening Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the dichotic listening experiment. Each person responds to a series of trials and the analysis is conducted to compare how well an individual can distinguish sounds based on whether they received the information to the left or right ear. The independent variable is sound presentation (right or left ear) and the dependent variable is ability to correctly distinguish the sound.

366

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

367

Mirror Drawing Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Mirror Drawing Experiment. This study is designed to demonstrate that for right-handed people, who comprise over 90% of the population, the right hemisphere performs visual spatial tasks better than the left hemisphere. For most right-handers, whereas the left hemisphere excels in verbal and analytical tasks, the right hemisphere specializes in emotional, nonverbal, and visual-spatial tasks.

Mccarthy, Maureen

2006-01-18

368

PsychExperiments: Psychology Experiments on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PsychExperiments is a collection of online cognitive psychology and social psychology experiments, accompanied by a cumulative data archive and download utilities for both data and experiment source code. Students collect data using one or more of the experiments and download it for analysis. The experiments include demonstrations, lab experiments for collecting data for in-class analysis, and research experiments in which participants take part and contribute data to an archive. Topics include the psychology of jurors, facial recognition, learning and memory, perception of gender, reaction time, and many others. Other resources include downloadable Excel macros for analyzing data from the experiments, and support materials for those who want to use and/or develop experiments at the site. A training manual for creating experiments in Authorware is available for purchase.

369

Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) is investigating the self-generation of magnetic fields and related processes in a large, weakly magnetized, fast flowing, and hot (conducting) plasma. The dynamo re-creates conditions highly similar to many astrophysical plasmas. Stars and other planets have dynamos, and so do galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which makes it extremely crucial for researchers in the field to carry out experiments in this previously uninvestigated plasma regime, which will help for the development of a comprehensive theory of how magnetic fields are generated in planets, the Sun and other stars. MPDX is a laboratory astrophysical experiment where 200,000-degree Fahrenheit plasma is confined within a three-meter diameter spherical aluminum vacuum chamber with the help of multiple tracks of cusp magnets covering the inside shell. The dynamo utilizes six robotic insertion sweep probes that are programmed to find any point inside the sphere by given radial and angular coordinates. This innovative mechanical system allows us to take measurements of the state variables in key points in the plasma flow and to better investigate its cosmic-like plasma behavior. The probes are able to autonomously calculate coordinate transformations, move in a two dimensional plane, and return information about their relative position. This makes them an extremely useful, highly accurate, and easily controlled tool for plasma analysis.

Kostadinova, Evdokiya; Forest, C.; Cooper, C.; Coquerel, M.

2014-01-01

370

Mars brine formation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

1992-01-01

371

Detonation Shock Radius Experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation shock dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation shock radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the main charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial shock radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation Shock Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).

Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee

2007-06-01

372

The OLYMPUS Experiment  

E-print Network

The OLYMPUS experiment was designed to measure the ratio between the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections, with the goal of determining the contribution of two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. Two-photon exchange might resolve the discrepancy between measurements of the proton form factor ratio, $\\mu_p G^p_E/G^p_M$, made using polarization techniques and those made in unpolarized experiments. OLYMPUS operated on the DORIS storage ring at DESY, alternating between 2.01~GeV electron and positron beams incident on an internal hydrogen gas target. The experiment used a toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight detectors to measure rates for elastic scattering over the polar angular range of approximately $25^\\circ$--$75^\\circ$. Symmetric M{\\o}ller/Bhabha calorimeters at $1.29^\\circ$ and telescopes of GEM and MWPC detectors at $12^\\circ$ served as luminosity monitors. A total luminosity of approximately 4.5~fb$^{-1}$ was collect...

Milner, R; Kohl, M; Schneekloth, U; Akopov, N; Alarcon, R; Andreev, V A; Ates, O; Avetisyan, A; Bayadilov, D; Beck, R; Belostotski, S; Bernauer, J C; Bessuille, J; Brinker, F; Buck, B; Calarco, J R; Carassiti, V; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; D'Ascenzo, N; De Leo, R; Diefenbach, J; Donnelly, T W; Dow, K; Elbakian, G; Eversheim, D; Frullani, S; Funke, Ch; Gavrilov, G; Gläser, B; Görrissen, N; Hauschildt, J; Henderson, B S; Hoffmeister, Ph; Holler, Y; Ice, L D; Izotov, A; Kaiser, R; Karyan, G; Kelsey, J; Khaneft, D; Klassen, P; Kiselev, A; Krivshich, A; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Lenz, D; Lumsden, S; Ma, Y; Maas, F; Marukyan, H; Miklukho, O; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Naryshkin, Y; O'Connor, C; Benito, R Perez; Perrino, R; Redwine, R P; Piñeiro, D Rodríguez; Rosner, G; Russell, R L; Schmidt, A; Seitz, B; Statera, M; Thiel, A; Vardanyan, H; Veretennikov, D; Vidal, C; Winnebeck, A; Yeganov, V

2014-01-01

373

ACTS broadband aeronautical experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last decade, the demand for reliable data, voice, and video satellite communication links between aircraft and ground to improve air traffic control, airline management, and to meet the growing demand for passenger communications has increased significantly. It is expected that in the near future, the spectrum required for aeronautical communication services will grow significantly beyond that currently available at L-band. In anticipation of this, JPL is developing an experimental broadband aeronautical satellite communications system that will utilize NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as a satellite of opportunity and the technology developed under JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) Task to evaluate the feasibility of using K/Ka-band for these applications. The application of K/Ka-band for aeronautical satellite communications at cruise altitudes is particularly promising for several reasons: (1) the minimal amount of signal attenuation due to rain; (2) the reduced drag due to the smaller K/Ka-band antennas (as compared to the current L-band systems); and (3) the large amount of available bandwidth. The increased bandwidth available at these frequencies is expected to lead to significantly improved passenger communications - including full-duplex compressed video and multiple channel voice. A description of the proposed broadband experimental system will be presented including: (1) applications of K/Ka-band aeronautical satellite technology to U.S. industry; (2) the experiment objectives; (3) the experiment set-up; (4) experimental equipment description; and (5) industrial participation in the experiment and the benefits.

Abbe, Brian S.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Estabrook, Polly; Agan, Martin J.

1993-01-01

374

AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

Depken, J.C.

1992-02-01

375

AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

Depken, J.C.

1992-02-01

376

PiFEx propagation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the Pilot Field Experiments (PiFEx) performed under the Mobile Satellite Experiment Program (MSAT-X) on the performance of MSAT-X equipment and subsystems. A brief history of PiFEx and plans for future experiments are given. Some results from the satellite experiment held last August are discussed.

Emerson, Richard F.; Berner, Jeff B.; Ho, Loretta L. G.

1988-01-01

377

Situating emotional experience  

PubMed Central

Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life. PMID:24324420

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2013-01-01

378

The American Experience: Houdini  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Come one, come all to this site on Harry Houdini, the man who escaped a locked crate lowered into the East River, the Milk Can, the Water Torture Cell, and being buried alive. This companion site to a forthcoming program in the PBS American Experience series chronicles the life of the world's greatest escape artist and one of the best showmen to grace the stage. At the site, users can trace Houdini's career, watch several video clips of his daring escapes, learn some of his secrets, and view twelve posters from his heyday. In addition, the site offers articles on the people and events featured in the program and a Teacher's Guide.

379

Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an application of the Mössbauer Effect designed to retrieve specific information on the magnetic response of iron-containing materials. It consists in the measurement of the nuclear absorption of gamma-rays as a function of an external magnetic field for a specific nuclear transition between magnetically-split nuclear levels. The experiments, here termed Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments, were carried out recording the absorption of 57Fe 14.4 keV gamma-ray in ?-Fe at constant Doppler energies coincident with some of the spectral lines of the magnetically split Mössbauer spectrum. Due to the dependence of the transition probabilities on the relative orientation between the nuclear magnetic moment and the gamma-ray direction, the present application results in a useful method to study the magnetic-field evolution of the distribution of atomic-magnetic-moment orientations. The proposed technique inherit from the Mössbauer Spectroscopy the chemical-element selectiveness as well as the ability to differentiate responses from iron atoms located at inequivalent site or at different phases. In this work, we show that the data analysis for these experiments depends on the sample thickness that the gamma-ray has to cross. For thin samples (i.e.samples with Mössbauer effective thicknesses lower than one) the magnetic-field dependence of the second-order-moment of the orientation distribution in the direction of the gamma ray is obtained. On the other hand, for thicker samples, although the data analysis is more complex, the dependences of the three second-order-moments of the orientation distribution are obtained. The experiments were performed on two ?-Fe foils of different Mössbauer effective thicknesses. They were chosen to represent the cases of thin and thick Mössbauer absorbers. The magnetic evolution of the orientations distribution is compared with results obtained from magnetometric measurements showing a good agreement as well indicating the complementarity of both techniques. A complete description of the experimental set up and the formalism for Mössbauer Magnetic Scan data analysis are presented.

Pasquevich, G. A.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Lencina, A.; Veiga, A.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.; Sánchez, F. H.

2014-06-01

380

Materials Adherence Experiment: Technology  

SciTech Connect

NASA`s Mars Pathfinder mission, launched December 4, 1996, reflects a new philosophy of exploiting new technologies to reduce mission cost and accelerate the pace of space exploration. Pathfinder will demonstrate a variety of new technologies aimed at reducing the cost of Mars exploration. Chief among these will be the demonstration of a solar-powered spacecraft on the surface of Mars. The Materials Adherence Experiment on Pathfinder was designed to measure the degradation of solar arrays due to dust settling out of the atmosphere and blocking light to the solar array, lowering the array power output.

Jenkins, P.P. [Essential Research Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Landis, G.A.; Oberle, L.G. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1997-12-31

381

Active seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

1972-01-01

382

Shuttle infrared imaging experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Imaging Experiment (IRIE) flown on Shuttle Mission 6 lC is reported. The infrared camera, which was operated in the 3.5- to 5-micron spectral band, replaced one of the visible CCTV cameras on the Shuttle. The camera employed a 160 x 244-element monolithic platinum-silicide area focal-plane array; array characteristics, camera electronics, optics, and focal plane cooling are summarized. The preplanned scenes for the IRIE are listed. A total of about 2.5 hours of data, including some preplanned scenes and unscheduled operation, were recorded. Several of the recorded scenes are mentioned specifically.

Aronson, A.; Cenker, R.; Gilmartin, H.

1986-01-01

383

Results of railgun experiments  

SciTech Connect

During the 1979 Megagauss II conference the hypervelocity potential of railguns and the pulsed power technology needed to power them were discussed. Since then, many laboratories have initiated railgun R and D projects for a variety of potential applications. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories initiated a collaborative experimental railgun project which resulted in several successes in accelerating projectiles to high velocities, emphasized the limits on railgun operation, and indicated that the numerical modeling of railgun operation was in good agreement with the experiments.

Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.

1983-04-01

384

Quantum frequency downconversion experiment  

E-print Network

We report the first quantum frequency downconversion experiment. Using the difference frequency generation process in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, we successfully observed the phase-preserved frequency downconversion of a coherent pulse train with an average photon number per pulse of $<$1, from the 0.7-$\\mu$m visible wavelength band to the 1.3-$\\mu$m telecom band. We expect this technology to become an important tool for flexible photonic quantum networking, including the realization of quantum repeater systems over optical fiber using atom-photon entanglement sources for the visible wavelength bands.

Hiroki Takesue

2010-06-02

385

Combustion Experiment Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

386

Rotational fluid flow experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.

1991-01-01

387

Feeding experiment no. 2  

E-print Network

corn, made more rapid gain than hay and corn, and at less cost. Cat- tle not sheltered consumed more food, and made less gain in weight, than cat- tle fed under sheds. From the result of this and other experiments, we assume that, except in favored... and exceptional hay producing sections, cotton hulls in the vicinityof the oil mills, and corn and sorghum silage elsewhere in the State supply rough fodder in the cheapest form to the cattle feeder as the basis of food rations; and we also assume that the best...

Gulley, F. A. (Frank Arthur); Carson, J. W.

1890-01-01

388

Experiments in Steer Feeding.  

E-print Network

of which are herewith reported for the first time. Forty steers, all white faces, with a predominance of Hereford blood were used. Ten of them were two-year-olds and thirty of them yearlings. The two-year-olds and ten of the yearlings were from West..., but, as all the steers had the same character of pasture, the experiment is a 6 a S , g L iexp?W6aWxi6 F , U S I NG S s P t P g P NX s L 7 fair trial of such feed, though it can hardly be said to represent what might be expected from such a class...

Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

1904-01-01

389

NASA's supercomputing experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of NASA's recent experience in supercomputing is presented from two perspectives: early systems development and advanced supercomputing applications. NASA's role in supercomputing systems development is illustrated by discussion of activities carried out by the Numerical Aerodynamical Simulation Program. Current capabilities in advanced technology applications are illustrated with examples in turbulence physics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, chemistry, and structural mechanics. Capabilities in science applications are illustrated by examples in astrophysics and atmospheric modeling. Future directions and NASA's new High Performance Computing Program are briefly discussed.

Bailey, F. Ron

1990-01-01

390

Muller Lyer Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Muller Lyer Experiment. The study contained in this collection is a variation of the original Müller-Lyer illusion, one which enables investigators to study the effect of changes in fin angle on the apparent length of lines. Participants in the study are presented with two lines, as in the standard Müller-Lyer presentation, but one of the lines has fins and one does not. The participant's task is to adjust the plain line (without fins) to make the lengths the same.

391

Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

1988-01-01

392

Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate that an MHD accelerator can be an effective augmentation system for increasing engine exhaust velocity. More specifically, the experiment is intended to show that electromagnetic effects are effective at producing flow acceleration whereas electrothermal effects do not cause unacceptable heating of the working fluid. The MHD accelerator was designed as an externally diagonalized segmented Faraday channel, which will be inserted into an existing 2-tesla electromagnet. This allows the external power to be connected through two terminals thereby minimizing the complexity and cost associated with powering each segment independently. The design of the accelerator and other components in the flow path has been completed and fabrication activities are underway. This paper provides a full description of MAPX including performance analysis, design, and test plans, and current status.

Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

393

Female physicist doctoral experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and womenâs support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

2013-05-07

394

The EBEX Experiment  

SciTech Connect

EBEX is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to measure the intensity and polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The measurements would probe the inflationary epoch that took place shortly after the big bang and would significantly improve constraints on the values of several cosmological parameters. EBEX is unique in its broad frequency coverage and in its ability to provide critical information about the level of polarized Galactic foregrounds which will be necessary for all future CMB polarization experiments. EBEX consists of a 1.5 m Dragone-type telescope that provides a resolution of less than 8 arcminutes over four focal planes each of 4. diffraction limited field of view at frequencies up to 450 GHz. The experiment is designed to accommodate 330 transition edge bolometric detectors per focal plane, for a total of up to 1320 detectors. EBEX will operate with frequency bands centered at 150, 250, 350, and 450 GHz. Polarimetry is achieved with a rotating achromatic half-wave plate. EBEX is currently in the design and construction phase, and first light is scheduled for 2008.

Oxley, P.; Ade, P.; Baccigalupi, C.; deBernardis, P.; Cho, H-M.; Devlin, M.J.; Hanany, S.; Johnson, B.R.; Jones, T.; Lee, A.T.; Matsumura,T.; Miller, A.D.; Milligan, M.; Renbarger, T.; Spieler, H.G.; Stompor,R.; Tucker, G.S.; Zaldarriaga, M.

2005-01-06

395

Transpiration Cooling Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transpiration cooling method was considered for a scram-jet engine to accommodate thermally the situation where a very high heat flux (200 Btu/sq. ft sec) from hydrogen fuel combustion process is imposed to the engine walls. In a scram-jet engine, a small portion of hydrogen fuel passes through the porous walls of the engine combustor to cool the engine walls and at the same time the rest passes along combustion chamber walls and is preheated. Such a regenerative system promises simultaneously cooling of engine combustor and preheating the cryogenic fuel. In the experiment, an optical heating method was used to provide a heat flux of 200 Btu/sq. ft sec to the cylindrical surface of a porous stainless steel specimen which carried helium gas. The cooling efficiencies by transpiration were studied for specimens with various porosity. The experiments of various test specimens under high heat flux have revealed a phenomenon that chokes the medium flow when passing through a porous structure. This research includes the analysis of the system and a scaling conversion study that interprets the results from helium into the case when hydrogen medium is used.

Song, Kyo D.; Ries, Heidi R.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Choi, Sang H.

1997-01-01

396

Stirling machine operating experience  

SciTech Connect

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1994-09-01

397

GPS Moving Vehicle Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the development of timing systems for remote locations, had a technical requirement for a Y code (SA/AS) Global Positioning System (GPS) precise time transfer receiver (TTR) which could be used both in a stationary mode or mobile mode. A contract was awarded to the Stanford Telecommunication Corporation (STEL) to build such a device. The Eastern Range (ER) als had a requirement for such a receiver and entered into the contract with NRL for the procurement of additional receivers. The Moving Vehicle Experiment (MVE) described in this paper is the first in situ test of the STEL Model 5401C Time Transfer System in both stationary and mobile operations. The primary objective of the MVE was to test the timing accuracy of the newly developed GPS TTR aboard a moving vessel. To accomplish this objective, a joint experiment was performed with personnel from NRL and the er at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) test range at Andros Island. Results and discussion of the test are presented in this paper.

Oaks, O. J.; Reid, Wilson; Wright, James; Duffey, Christopher; Williams, Charles; Warren, Hugh; Zeh, Tom; Buisson, James

1996-01-01

398

The Halogen Occultation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) uses solar occultation to measure vertical profiles of O3, HCl, HF, CH4, H2O, NO, NO2, aerosol extinction, and temperature versus pressure with an instantaneous vertical field of view of 1.6 km at the earth limb. Latitudinal coverage is from 80 deg S to 80 deg N over the course of 1 year and includes extensive observations of the Antarctic region during spring. The altitude range of the measurements extends from about 15 km to about 60-130 km, depending on channel. Experiment operations have been essentially flawless, and all performance criteria either meet or exceed specifications. Internal data consistency checks, comparisons with correlative measurements, and qualitative comparisons with 1985 atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) results are in good agreement. Examples of pressure versus latitude cross sections and a global orthographic projection for the September 21 to October 15, 1992, period show the utility of CH4, HF, and H2O as tracers, the occurrence of dehydration in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, the presence of the water vapor hygropause in the tropics, evidence of Antarctic air in the tropics, the influence of Hadley tropical upwelling, and the first global distribution of HCl, HF, and NO throughout the stratosphere. Nitric oxide measurements extend through the lower thermosphere.

Russell, James M., III; Gordley, Larry L.; Park, Jae H.; Drayson, S. R.; Hesketh, W. D.; Cicerone, Ralph J.; Tuck, Adrian F.; Frederick, John E.; Harries, John E.; Crutzen, Paul J.

1993-01-01

399

[Laparoscopic appendectomy. Our experience].  

PubMed

The advantages and applications of the videolaparoscopic technique (VL) versus open surgery in the treatment of acute and complicated appendicitis are not well defined. Our study examined 150 patients, 67 males and 83 females. They underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in emergency. The choice between open or laparoscopic tecnique was due to patient's clinical conditions and surgeon's experience. Two of these patients had no infiammatory process. Eleven patients were affected by gynaecological diseases. The last 137 patients underwent surgery for acute appendicitis and the diagnosis was confirmed. Among them, 35 (25%) were affected by a complicated appendicitis with diffuse or clearly defined peritonitis. In 134 patients the surgery was completed laparoscopically. The conversion rate was 2%. Morbility rate was 3%, due to intra abdominal abscesses secondary to acute complicated appendicitis. The mean operative time was 76 min and the mean hospital stay was 4.8 days. The death rate was 0%. In our experience, laparoscopic appendectomy has significant advantages over traditional open surgery in both acute and complicated appendicitis, especially in young women. In this way, we can diagnose pelvic disease that could be characterized by the same symptoms of acute appendicitis, then we suggest laparoscopic appendectomy even just to complete the diagnostic iter. Laparoscopy is useful in terms of convalescence, postoperative pain, hospital stay, aesthetic outcome and an easier exploration of the peritoneal cavity. PMID:22595725

Pezzolla, Angela; Milella, Marialessia; Lattarulo, Serafina; Barile, Graziana; Pascazio, Bianca; Ialongo, Paolo; Fabiano, Gennaro; Palasciano, Nicola

2012-01-01

400

The majorana experiment  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, MAJORANA aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype DEMONSTRATOR module are presented. Our proposed method uses the well-established technique of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay in high purity Ge-diode radiation detectors that play both roles of source and detector. The use of P-PC Ge detectors present advances in background rejection and a Significantly lower energy threshold than conventional Ge detector technologies. The lower energy threshold opens up a broader and exciting physics program including searches for dark matter and axions concurrent with the double-beta decay search. The DEMONSTRATOR should establish that the backgrounds are low enough to justify scaling to tonne-scale experiment, probe the neutrino effective mass region above 100 meV, and search the low energy region with a sensitivity to dark matter. The DEMONSTRATOR will be sited at the 4850-ft level (4200 m.w.e) of the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake and preparations for construction are currently underway.

Rielage, Keith R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boswell, Melissa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gehman, Victor M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kidd, Mary F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Roque, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronquest, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Harry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steele, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-13

401

Female physicist doctoral experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

2013-06-01

402

Exporting the hydro experience  

SciTech Connect

Energy needs in developing countries throughout the world are expanding at a rate more than double that of the US. Not only is there a growing need for reliable sources of energy in developing countries, but the trend in these capital-poor countries is to build the legal framework to allow for private development. This situation provides hydropower industry organizations with unique opportunities for exporting their knowledge and experience to develop small-scale hydropower projects. The experience of the American hydro industry with small-scale facilities, financed by private entities and backed by the project itself, is definitely an [open quotes]exportable product.[close quotes] However, the road getting there is not a smooth one. As American hydro companies look at exporting their ideas and expertise, they should be aware that exporting any commodity -- including expertise in hydro development -- is a long-term proposition and requires a long-term commitment. Fifty successful exporters polled by Business America magazine in 1990 said the keys to exporting are making a commitment and sticking with it; recognizing exporting as a full-time responsibility and devoting full attention to it; and perseverance.

Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P. (Synergics, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States))

1992-06-01

403

Experimenting model deconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical soil erosion models describe erosion and transport of solids by flowing water as the interaction of the soils' resistivity to be eroded, the force of the water to entrain particles and its capacity to transport them in suspension. This has lead to concepts in which hydraulic parameters as flow velocity or composite parameters such as shear stress, stream power etc. are set into a direct relation to erosion and sediment transport. Soils' resistivity to erosion is in general represented as a threshold problem, in which a critical force is trespassed and the following increase of erosion depends on the characteristics of the sediments and the flowing water. Despite considerable efforts, these model concepts have not been able to produce more reliable and accurate reproduction and forecast of soil erosion than "simple" empirical models such as the USLE and its derivates. And there is still a lack in knowledge about the reasons for this failure. A considerable number of studies have addressed the following questions: 1) What are the main parameters of soils and flowing water influencing soil erosion?, 2) What relationship do these parameters have with the intensity and different types of soil erosion?, but only few researchers have faced the consequence: 3) Are the present concepts suitable to describe and quantify soil erosion accurately? Similar to other studies, we investigated the influence of basic parameters as grain size, slope, discharge and flow velocity on sediment transport by shallow flowing water in laboratory experiments. Variable flow was applied under different slopes on non-cohesive mobile beds. But in addition, field experiments were designed to quantify the hydraulic and erosive effects of small rills in the field. Here, small existing rills were flushed with defined flows, and flow velocity as well as transported sediments was quantified. The laboratory flume experiments clearly show a strong interaction of flow velocity, the size of the transported grains and their concentratio, affecting them the transport of sediments. The experiments also show that hydraulic parameters are not able to predict the combination of sediment detachment and transport. Moreover, the relationship between flowing water and sediment transport is shown to be complex, depending on the morphological evolution of the bed, depending again on the characteristics of the substrate. The field experiments confirm these results, and also show that under variable conditions higher transport rates than those predicted by different model concepts are not only possible, but even the common observation. We conclude from these results that soil erosion by flowing water is much more complex than reflected in model concepts: they neither reflect the process variability nor the interaction between the different dynamic parameters of flow and soils. Mechanistic concepts, in which simple or composite predictors define the dynamics of soil erosion, can not succeed in soil erosion modelling.

Seeger, Manuel; Wirtz, Stefan; Ali, Mazhar

2013-04-01

404

Petascale system management experiences.  

SciTech Connect

Petascale High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems are among the largest systems in the world. Intrepid, one such system, is a 40,000 node, 556 teraflop Blue Gene/P system that has been deployed at Argonne National Laboratory. In this paper, we provide some background about the system and our administration experiences. In particular, due to the scale of the system, we have faced a variety of issues, some surprising to us, that are not common in the commodity world. We discuss our expectations, these issues, and approaches we have used to address them. HPC systems are a bellwether for computing systems at large, in multiple regards. HPC users are motivated by the need for absolute performance; this results in two important pushes. HPC users are frequently early adopters of new technologies and techniques. Successful technologies, like Infiniband, prove their value in HPC before gaining wider adoption. Unfortunately, this early adoption alone is not sufficient to achieve the levels of performance required by HPC users; parallelism must also be harnessed. Over the last 15 years, beowulf clustering has provided amazing accessibility to non-HPC-savvy and even non-technical audiences. During this time, substantial adoption of clustering has occurred in many market segments unrelated to computational science. A simple trend has emerged: the scale and performance of high-end HPC systems are uncommon at first, but become commonplace over the course of 3-5 years. For example, in early 2003, several systems on the Top500 list consisted of either 1024 nodes or 4096-8192 cores. In 2008, such systems are commonplace. The most recent generation of high-end HPC systems, so called petascale systems, are the culmination of years of research and development in research and academia. Three such systems have been deployed thus far. In addition to the 556 TF Intrepid system at Argonne National Laboratory, a 596 TF Blue Gene/L-based system has been deployed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and a 504 TF Opteron-based system has been deployed at Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC). Intrepid is comprised of 40,960 nodes with a total of 163,840 cores. While systems like these are uncommon now, we expect them to become more widespread in the coming years. The scale of these large systems impose several requirements upon system architecture. The need for scalability is obvious, however, power efficiency and density constraints have become increasingly important in recent years. At the same time, because the size of administrative staff cannot grow linearly with the system size, more efficient system management techniques are needed. In this paper we will describe our experiences administering Intrepid. Over the last year, we have experienced a number of interesting challenges in this endeavor. Our initial expectation was for scalability to be the dominant system issue. This expectation was not accurate. Several issues expected to have minor impact have played a much greater role in system operations. Debugging, due to the large numbers of components used in scalable system operations, has become a much more difficult endeavor. The system has a sophisticated monitoring system, however, the analysis of this data has been problematic. These issues are not specific to HPC workloads in any way, so we expect them to be of general interest. This paper consists of three major parts. First, we will provide a detailed overview of several important aspects of Intrepid's hardware and software. In this, we will highlight aspects that have featured prominently in our system management experiences. Next, we will describe our administration experiences in detail. Finally, we will draw some conclusions based on these experiences. In particular, we will discuss the implications for the non-HPC world, system managers, and system software developers.

Desai, N.; Bradshaw, R.; Lueninghoener, C.; Cherry, A.; Coghlan, S.; Scullin, W. (LCF); ( MCS)

2008-01-01

405

The Virtual Arizona Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To commemorate the once-in-a-lifetime event of Arizona's hundredth birthday, the Centennial Commission and the Governor of Arizona envisioned a museum and companion website that would capture the state's history, celebrate its people, and embrace its future. Working with world-renowned museum designers, the state began to seek ideas from across Arizona to create plans for a journey of discovery through science and the humanities. The museum would introduce visitors to some of the people who nurtured the state through its early years and others who are innovating its tomorrows. Showcases would include the resources and experiences that shaped the state's history and are transforming its present day, highlighting the ingenuity that tamed the wild frontier and is envisioning Arizona's next frontiers through science and technology. The Arizona Experience (www.arizonaexperience.org) was initially intended to serve as the web presence for the physical museum, but as delays occurred with the physical museum, the site has quickly developed an identify of its own as an interactive, multimedia experience, reaching a wider audience with functions that would be difficult or expensive to produce in a museum. As leaders in scientific and technological innovation in the state, the Arizona Geological Survey was tasked with designing and creating the Arizona Experience site. The general themes remain the same; however, the site has added content and applications that are better suited to the online environment in order to create a rich, dynamic supplement to a physical museum experience. The website offers the features and displays of the future museum with the interactive nature and learning environment of the web. This provides an encyclopedic overview of the State of Arizona by subject matter experts in a manner that is free and open to the public and erases socio-economic, political, and physical boundaries. Over the Centennial Year of 2012 the site will release a new theme and explore the people, land, and innovations that shape the themes. Themes include (in order of release) Celebrates, Mining & Minerals, Biotech & Life Sciences, Sports & Recreation, Energy, Water, Technology & Aerospace, People & Culture, Ranching & Agriculture, Native American Culture, Astronomy, 21st Century Workforce, and a Best of 2012 release. The materials developed for the site come from content matter experts across the state including academic institutions, historical societies, museums, and professional associations. Currently there are over 300 content providers contributing resources, data, and videos to the site. AZGS interactions with science and technology organizations, associations, and businesses have been critical as we work to engage visitors and industry with the opportunities in Arizona, and translate innovative research and scientific application for a more generalized audience. In addition, we are involving K-12 educators in using the site content and cutting edge technology for developing classroom STEM related content linked to curriculum subject areas.

Allison, M. L.; Davis, R.; Conway, F. M.; Bellasai, R.

2012-12-01

406

The trapped human experiment.  

PubMed

This experiment observed the evolution of metabolite plumes from a human trapped in a simulation of a collapsed building. Ten participants took it in turns over five days to lie in a simulation of a collapsed building and eight of them completed the 6 h protocol while their breath, sweat and skin metabolites were passed through a simulation of a collapsed glass-clad reinforced-concrete building. Safety, welfare and environmental parameters were monitored continuously, and active adsorbent sampling for thermal desorption GC-MS, on-line and embedded CO, CO(2) and O(2) monitoring, aspirating ion mobility spectrometry with integrated semiconductor gas sensors, direct injection GC-ion mobility spectrometry, active sampling thermal desorption GC-differential mobility spectrometry and a prototype remote early detection system for survivor location were used to monitor the evolution of the metabolite plumes that were generated. Oxygen levels within the void simulator were allowed to fall no lower than 19.1% (v). Concurrent levels of carbon dioxide built up to an average level of 1.6% (v) in the breathing zone of the participants. Temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide levels and the physiological measurements were consistent with a reproducible methodology that enabled the metabolite plumes to be sampled and characterized from the different parts of the experiment. Welfare and safety data were satisfactory with pulse rates, blood pressures and oxygenation, all within levels consistent with healthy adults. Up to 12 in-test welfare assessments per participant and a six-week follow-up Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire indicated that the researchers and participants did not experience any adverse effects from their involvement in the study. Preliminary observations confirmed that CO(2), NH(3) and acetone were effective markers for trapped humans, although interactions with water absorbed in building debris needed further study. An unexpected observation from the NH(3) channel was the suppression of NH(3) during those periods when the participants slept, and this will be the subject of further study, as will be the detailed analysis of the casualty detection data obtained from the seven instruments used. PMID:21908906

Huo, R; Agapiou, A; Bocos-Bintintan, V; Brown, L J; Burns, C; Creaser, C S; Devenport, N A; Gao-Lau, B; Guallar-Hoyas, C; Hildebrand, L; Malkar, A; Martin, H J; Moll, V H; Patel, P; Ratiu, A; Reynolds, J C; Sielemann, S; Slodzynski, R; Statheropoulos, M; Turner, M A; Vautz, W; Wright, V E; Thomas, C L P

2011-12-01

407

Rethinking Experience: What Do We Mean by This Word "Experience"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses autoethnography to reassess the concept "experience" and the lack of theoretical frameworks within experiential education for delimiting experience within the practices and research around experiential, adventure, and outdoor education. Although a pivotal and essential part of practice, theoretical understandings of experience have…

Fox, Karen

2008-01-01

408

Provenance of e-Science Experiments - experience from Bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like experiments performed at a laboratory bench, the data associated with an e-Science experiment are of reduced value if other scientists are not able to identify the origin, or provenance, of those data. Provenance information is essential if experiments are to be validated and verified by others, or even by those who originally performed them. In this article, we give

Mark Greenwood; Carole Goble; Robert Stevens; Jun Zhao; Matthew Addis; Darren Marvin; Luc Moreau; Tom Oinn

2003-01-01

409

Locating Experience in Language: Towards a Poststructuralist Theory of Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems arise with theories about experience, because subjectivity cannot be the source of meaning in experience. Proposing that experience is made intelligible through language, the author formulates an alternative theory of adult learning: the individual who learns has a language, a culture, and a history; therefore, the learner is situated in…

Usher, Robin

1989-01-01

410

American Experience: Jimmy Carter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chronicling the life and times of former President Jimmy Carter is a formidable task, but the American Experience Web site established to complement the new documentary about his life offers a valuable introduction to this former peanut farmer turned global humanitarian and peace maker. Not surprisingly, the site contains a substantial amount of coverage about the Camp David Accords and the Iranian hostage crisis, two events that seem to define his time in the Oval Office. The Camp David's Legacy feature contains commentary on this historic summit meeting by political scientist Betty Glad, and 444 Days: America Reacts has media coverage (including video clips) of these traumatic events. More basic information about President Carter's life is provided in a timeline, along with a photo gallery. The site concludes with a brief essay of President Carter's many contributions to humankind in the twenty years since he left the presidency.

1999-01-01

411

The interstellar gas experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) exposed thin metallic foils to collect neutral interstellar gas particles. These particles penetrate the solar system due to their motion relative to the sun. Thus, it is possible to entrap them in the collecting foils along with precipitating magnetospheric and perhaps some ambient atmospheric particles. For the entire duration of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission, seven of these foils collected particles arriving from seven different directions as seen from the spacecraft. In the mass spectroscopic analysis of the noble gas component of these particles, we have detected the isotopes of He-3, He-4, Ne-20, and Ne-22. In the foil analyses carried out so far, we find a distribution of particle arrival directions which shows that a significant part of the trapped particles are indeed interstellar atoms. The analysis needed to subtract the competing fluxes of magnetospheric and atmospheric particles is still in progress.

Lind, D. L.; Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.; Eugster, O.

1992-01-01

412

The CIRRIS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS), is designed for high-resolution measurement of atmospheric emissions in the long-wavelength infrared (2.5-25 microns). The CIRRIS data, which will be used to construct a definitive model of the physics of both the quiescent and the distributed atmosphere, will complement infrared background sensor (IRBS) earth-limb probe measurements planned as part of the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) Background Measurements Program. Two sensor packages are being developed for the CIRRIS experiments: the first sensor will use the high-resolution interferometer-spectrometer HIRIS in conjunction with a high off-axis rejection telescope; the second, a new interferometer combined with a field-shared radiometer and plane arrays mated to an improved telescope with a larger collecting area. Operating at different altitudes, the CIRRIS packages will carry out a two-fold mission of surveillance and intercept.

Stair, A. T., Jr.; Smith, D. R.

1981-01-01

413

Tribology theory versus experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.

Ferrante, John

1987-01-01

414

[Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: our experience].  

PubMed

Since 2002 19 laparoscopic adrenalectomies with a lateral transperitoneal access have been performed at our Division of Surgery. Three patients had Conn's syndrome, 8 incidentaloma, 4 pheochromocytoma, 2 Cushing's syndrome, 1 metastases from a contralateral renal cancer and 1 metastases from lung cancer. The parameters considered for data analysis were: intra- and postoperative hypertensive crises, haemorrhage, subcutaneous emphysema, conversions, dura- tion of surgery, hospital stay, postoperative comfort, and canalisation and mobilisation times. The results obtained in our experience were comparable to those reported in the literature, confirming the reproducibility and feasibility of this type of surgical procedure. Comparison of the data obtained with laparoscopic, surgery and those obtained with traditional surgical treatment suggest that it is reasonable to claim that the laparoscopic approach is today the gold standard for adrenal surgery. PMID:17663364

Pantuso, Gianni; Grassi, Nello; Bottino, Alessandro; Cipolla, Calogero; Lo Iacono, Angelo; Cacace, Ermenegilda; Rizzo, Marta; Farinella, Eleonora

2007-01-01

415

The XMASS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XMASS is a single-phase liquid-xenon scintillation detector. Nearly two years of commissioning runs have been conducted until June 2012. The performance of the detector is summarized. Thanks to its excellent light yield and large target mass, competitive results were obtained in solar axion and low mass dark matter searches. In addition, the detection of galactic supernova bursts is realized to be possible. The detector is currently under refurbishment to reduce the surface contamination, and will be ready for data taking very soon. A larger scale experiment, named XMASS 1.5 is planned to be launched in the near future, where photomultiplier tubes with convex photocathodes may be used to identify surface events efficiently.

Liu, Jing; Xmass Collaboration

2014-06-01

416

Experience with IPNS targets  

SciTech Connect

Three targets have operated in the IPNS Neutron Scattering Facility. The first, a depleted Uranium target, served from 1981 until it was replaced in 1988 by the Enriched Uranium Booster Target. The Booster Target had operated for nearly three years when it suffered a cladding leak and was replaced with the retired depleted Uranium target. That target reached its end-of-life after less than one year`s further operation, and was replaced with an identical one newly assembled from spare components, which is still operating satisfactorily. This paper reviews the operating history of the IPNS targets and the findings reached during analysis of the failures. Similarities with ISIS target experience, preliminary conclusions and plans for providing spares and improved targets are discussed. We present some preliminary results from the hot cell examination of the failed depleted Uranium target.

Carpenter, J.M.; Hins, A.G.

1993-12-31

417

American Experience: Earth Days  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In late 1969, Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson hired Denis Hayes to organize a national teach-in day about the importance of protecting the environment for future generations. On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day was held and over 20 million Americans participated via a variety of celebrations and demonstrations. This website is designed to be a companion to the American Experience documentary on the history of Earth Day, and it includes a teacher's guide, several special interviews, and the documentary in its entirety. The film was directed by Robert Stone, and it serves as "a poetic meditation on man's complex relationship with nature and an engaging history...of groundbreaking eco-activism." On the homepage, visitors should also take note of the photo gallery, the interactive timeline of the modern environmental movement, and a telling interview with the father of the "Green Revolution", Norman Borlaug. Visitors are also encouraged to share their own Earth Day memories on the site.

418

Shooting Star Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the Sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space propulsion research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of SSE and its thermal vacuum test to simulate in-orbit conditions at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflection of the engineering model under extreme condition, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the Sun, as well as vacuum.

1997-01-01

419

American Experience: Henry Ford  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Henry Ford had a profound influence on America and the world in the 20th century. He was involved in a vast array of enterprises during his life, including the quest for world peace, automobile manufacturing, and even attempting to build a type of utopia in the Amazon known as "Fordlandia." This arresting documentary from PBS's American Experience series looks into his life in great detail. Visitors can watch the entire program here and also look through a range of photo galleries. The galleries include shots of workers at the Ford factory, along with videos of Ford "camping" with Thomas Edison. Perhaps the most interesting video here is one in which Ford gives dance lessons as part of his leisure time in Dearborn, Michigan.

2013-01-29

420

The KATRIN Experiment  

E-print Network

The KArlsruhe TRitium Neutrino mass experiment, KATRIN, aims to search for the mass of the electron neutrino with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c^2 (90% C.L.) and a detection limit of 0.35 eV/c^2 (5 sigma). Both a positive or a negative result will have far reaching implications for cosmology and the standard model of particle physics and will give new input for astroparticle physics and cosmology. The major components of KATRIN are being set up at the Karlsruhe Institut of Technology in Karlsruhe, Germany, and test measurements of the individual components have started. Data taking with tritium is scheduled to start in 2012.

Beck, Marucs

2009-01-01

421

The KATRIN Experiment  

E-print Network

The KArlsruhe TRitium Neutrino mass experiment, KATRIN, aims to search for the mass of the electron neutrino with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c^2 (90% C.L.) and a detection limit of 0.35 eV/c^2 (5 sigma). Both a positive or a negative result will have far reaching implications for cosmology and the standard model of particle physics and will give new input for astroparticle physics and cosmology. The major components of KATRIN are being set up at the Karlsruhe Institut of Technology in Karlsruhe, Germany, and test measurements of the individual components have started. Data taking with tritium is scheduled to start in 2012.

Marcus Beck

2009-10-26

422

Gravitation Astrometric Measurement Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravitation Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME) mission concept takes advantage of astronomical techniques, also inherited from Gaia, for high precision measurements of the gamma and beta parameters of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian formulation of gravitation theories extending General Relativity. A space based telescope, looking close to the Solar limb thanks to corona-graphic techniques, may implement astrometric measurements similar to those performed in the solar eclipse of 1919, when Dyson, Eddington and Davidson measured for the first time the gravitational bending of light. Simulations show that the final accuracy of GAME can reach the 10-8 level on gamma and the 10-6 level on beta within the framework of a medium class space mission. The GAME principle is based on the differential astrometric signature on the positions of stars and planets. The concept ensures rejection of the systematic errors to within a factor 2 of the photon noise limit.

Gai, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Ligori, S.; Riva, A.

423

The UOSAT magnetometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetometer aboard the University of Surrey satellite (UOSAT) and its associated electronics are described. The basic fluxgate magnetometer employed has a dynamic range of plus or minus 8000 nT with outputs digitized by a 12-bit successive approximation A-D converter having a resolution of plus or minus 2 nT. Noise in the 3-13 Hz bandwidth is less than 1 nT. A bias field generator extends the dynamic range to plus or minus 64,000 nT with quantization steps of 8000 nT. The magnetometer experiment is expected to provide information on the secular variation of the geomagnetic field, and the decay rate of the dipole term. Special emphasis will be placed on the acquisition of real time and memory data over the poles which can be correlated with that from Magsat.

Acuna, M. H.

1982-01-01

424

Wake field acceleration experiments  

SciTech Connect

Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

Simpson, J.D.

1988-01-01

425

How experience confronts ethics.  

PubMed

Analytic moral philosophy's strong divide between empirical and normative restricts facts to providing information for the application of norms and does not allow them to confront or challenge norms. So any genuine attempt to incorporate experience and empirical research into bioethics--to give the empirical more than the status of mere 'descriptive ethics'--must make a sharp break with the kind of analytic moral philosophy that has dominated contemporary bioethics. Examples from bioethics and science are used to illustrate the problems with the method of application that philosophically prevails in both domains and with the conception of rationality that underlies this method. Cues from how these problems can be handled in science then introduce summaries of richer, more productive naturalist and constructivist accounts of reason and normative knowledge. Liberated by a naturalist approach to ethics and an enlarged conception of rationality, empirical work can be recognized not just as essential to bioethics but also as contributing to normative knowledge. PMID:19338522

Hoffmaster, Barry; Hooker, Cliff

2009-05-01

426

A Unique Teaching Experience  

PubMed Central

To explore the benefits that students may derive from assuming responsibility for the medical care of people in isolated communities under a minimum of supervision, two volunteer third-year medical students spent the summer of 1964 caring for 1600 Indians and Metis at Wabasca, Alberta. They worked closely with the local public health nurse and a Catholic nursing sister who maintained a small hospital. Considerable experience was gained in preventive medicine and in the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of illnesses, using basic clinical skills and minimal laboratory facilities. The pressure of responsibility was particularly beneficial. It provided a potent impetus to learn and perfect skills in clinical medicine and basic therapeutics. Visits by an interested clinician every two to three weeks provided the optimum combination of responsibility and supervision. The existence of some local health organization was considered helpful. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:14278026

Clarke, J. T. R.; Stevens, J. C.

1965-01-01

427

Biodiversity laws: State experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Governors' Association (WGA) includes both the public lands states with their issues and the plains states, which are 98% privately owned. WGA deals with most legislation affecting biodiversity, whether the effect is direct or tangential. It will probably not be possible, or desirable, for one entity to be in charge of biodiversity conservation. The Endangered Species Act, public lands laws, agricultural laws, water law, environmental laws, and funding legislation all affect biodiversity conservation and the responsibility for it. None of them on their own are enough, and most can cause harmful unintended consequences for biodiversity. The experience of western states in developing consensus principles for reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act provides an example of common-sense ways to improve management of biodiversity, notwithstanding the complexity and large stakes involved. The WGA's proposed changes call for increasing the role of states, streamlining the act, and increasing certainty for landowners and water users. To achieve sustainable conservation for biodiversity, the better question is not “Who is/should be in charge?”, it is “How do we get this done?” To answer this, we need goals, guidance, and bottom lines from federal laws, and management and oversight at the state level, but they all need to support local on-the-ground partnerships. Sustainable conservation requires the active participation of those who live there. WGA's experience in coordinating the Great Plains Partnership as well as its work with watershed efforts shed light on what to expect. Multilevel partnerships are not easy and require a different way of doing business. The ad hoc, sitespecific processes that result do not lend themselves to being legislated, fit into organizational boxes, or scored on a budget sheet. They do require common sense and a longterm perspective.

Clark, Jo

1996-11-01

428

Voyager imaging experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The overall objective of this experiment is exploratory reconnaissance of Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites, and Saturn's rings. Such reconnaissance, at resolutions and phase angles unobtainable from Earth, can be expected to provide much new data relevant to the atmospheric and/or surface properties of these bodies. The experiment also has the following specific objectives: Observe and characterize the global circulation of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; Determine the horizontal and vertical structure of the visible clouds and establish their relationship to the belted appearance and dynamical properties of the planetary atmospheres; Determine the vertical structure of high, optically-thin, scattering layers on Jupiter and Saturn; Determine the nature of anomalous features such as the Great Red Spot, South Equatorial Belt disturbances, etc.; Characterize the nature of the colored material in the clouds of Jupiter and Saturn, and identify the nature and sources of chromophores on Io and Titan; Perform comparative geologic studies of many satellites at less than 15-km resolution; Map and characterize the geologic structure of several satellites at high resolution (???1 km); Investigate the existence and nature of atmospheres on the satellites; Determine the mass, size, and shape of many of the satellites by direct measurement; Determine the direction of the spin axes and periods of rotation of several satellites, and establish coordinate systems for the larger satellites; Map the radial distribution of material in Saturn's rings at high resolution; Determine the optical scattering properties of the primaries, rings, and satellites at several wavelengths and phase angles; Search for novel physical phenomena, e.g., phenomena associated with the Io flux tube, meteors, aurorae, lightning, or satellite shadows. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Smith, B.A.; Briggs, G.A.; Danielson, G.E.; Cook, A.F., II; Davies, M.E.; Hunt, G.E.; Masursky, H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Owen, T.C.; Sagan, C.; Suomi, V.E.

1977-01-01

429

Student Data Sheet Crystal Experiment: _______________________________  

E-print Network

Student Data Sheet Name: Date: Crystal Experiment: _______________________________ Observations: Day One Day Two Crystal Experiment: ______________________________ Observations: Day One Day Two #12;Student Data Sheet Name: Date: Observations of Crystals Name of Crystal Observation Bismuth Pyrite

Pike, Robert D.

430

Experiments with Disposable Hypodermic Syringes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists five experiments or demonstrations involving hypodermic syringes. The titles of experiments are Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Atmospheric Pressure, Expansion of Gases, and Boiling at Reduced Pressure. Provides a list of materials, the typical data, and graphs where appropriate. (YP)

Clayton, G. T.; And Others

1988-01-01

431

Experiments in Whole Leaf Photosynthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a simple experimental system, which uses radioactive carbon dioxide to study whole leaf photosynthesis under a variety of conditions. Other experiments and simple apparatus for the experiments are also described. (Author/RH)

Stewart, J. C.; And Others

1974-01-01

432

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights  

E-print Network

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights FY 2004 Fusion Ignition Research Experiment #12;Need is critically needed to advance fusion science," and recommended that: "The United States should participate in the U.S. fusion program. The scientific and technological case for adding a burning plasma experiment

433

Thought Experiments: Determining Their Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers thought experiment as a special scientific tool that mediates between theory and experiment by mental simulation. To clarify the meaning of thought experiment, as required in teaching science, we followed the relevant episodes throughout the history of science paying attention to the epistemological status of the performed…

Galili, Igal

2009-01-01

434

The Experience of Liberal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Experience" is a healthy-sounding word, but what do educators really mean by it? And how do educators persuade people that higher education fosters important forms of experience, that "experience" is an integral part of any vital liberal learning? The author suggests that educators might begin by getting clearer in their own minds just what they…

Ayers, Edward L.

2010-01-01

435

Experience Marketing: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer experience theory, research, and practice represent an evolving area of study within the marketing discipline. Despite its importance, the customer experience concept remains vague and lacks a thorough theoretical foundation. This study addresses this gap in the literature and examines the antecedents and consequences of customer experience from customer perspectives. The study provides a conceptual framework building from a

Ahmed Rageh Ismail

2011-01-01

436

The T2K experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T2K experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Its main goal is to measure the last unknown lepton sector mixing angle ?13 by observing ?e appearance in a ?? beam. It also aims to make a precision measurement of the known oscillation parameters, ?m232 and sin22?23, via ?? disappearance studies. Other goals of the experiment include various neutrino

K. Abe; N. Abgrall; H. Aihara; Y. Ajima; J. B. Albert; D. Allan; P.-A. Amaudruz; C. Andreopoulos; B. Andrieu; M. D. Anerella; C. Angelsen; S. Aoki; O. Araoka; J. Argyriades; A. Ariga; T. Ariga; S. Assylbekov; J. P. A. M. de André; D. Autiero; A. Badertscher; O. Ballester; M. Barbi; G. J. Barker; P. Baron; G. Barr; L. Bartoszek; M. Batkiewicz; F. Bay; S. Bentham; V. Berardi; B. E. Berger; H. Berns; I. Bertram; M. Besnier; J. Beucher; D. Beznosko; S. Bhadra; P. Birney; D. Bishop; E. Blackmore; F. d. M. Blaszczyk; J. Blocki; A. Blondel; A. Blondel; C. Bojechko; J. Bouchez; T. Boussuge; S. B. Boyd; M. Boyer; N. Braam; R. Bradford; A. Bravar; K. Briggs; J. D. Brinson; C. Bronner; D. G. Brook-Roberge; M. Bryant; N. Buchanan; H. Budd; M. Cadabeschi; R. G. Calland; D. Calvet; J. Caravaca Rodríguez; S. L. Cartwright; A. Carver; R. Castillo; M. G. Catanesi; C. Cavata; A. Cazes; A. Cervera; J. P. Charrier; C. Chavez; S. Choi; S. Chollet; G. Christodoulou; P. Colas; J. Coleman; W. Coleman; G. Collazuol; K. Connolly; P. Cooke; A. Curioni; A. Dabrowska; I. Danko; R. Das; G. S. Davies; M. Day; X. De La Broise; P. de Perio; G. De Rosa; T. Dealtry; A. Debraine; E. Delagnes; A. Delbart; C. Densham; F. Di Lodovico; S. Di Luise; P. Dinh Tran; J. Dobson; J. Doornbos; U. Dore; O. Drapier; F. Druillole; J. Dumarchez; T. Durkin; S. Dytman; M. Dziewiecki; B. Ellison; S. Emery; A. Ereditato; J. E. Escallier; L. Escudero; L. S. Esposito; W. Faszer; M. Fechner; A. Ferrero; C. Fisher; M. Fitton; R. Flight; D. Forbush; E. Frank; K. Fransham; Y. Fujii; Y. Fukuda; M. Gallop; V. Galymov; G. L. Ganetis; F. C. Gannaway; A. Gaudin; J. Gaweda; A. Gendotti; M. George; S. Giffin; C. Giganti; K. Gilje; I. Giomataris; J. Giraud; A. K. Ghosh; T. Golan; M. Goldhaber; J. J. Gomez-Cadenas; S. Gomi; M. Gonin; M. Goyette; A. Grant; N. Grant; F. Grañena; S. Greenwood; P. Gumplinger; M. D. Haigh; K. Hamano; C. Hansen; T. Hara; P. F. Harrison; B. Hartfiel; M. Hartz; T. Haruyama; R. Hasanen; T. Hasegawa; N. C. Hastings; S. Hastings; A. Hatzikoutelis; K. Hayashi; Y. Hayato; T. D. J. Haycock; C. Hearty; R. L. Helmer; R. Henderson; S. Herlant; N. Higashi; J. Hignight; K. Hiraide; E. Hirose; J. Holeczek; N. Honkanen; S. Horikawa; A. Hyndman; A. K. Ichikawa; M. Ieva; M. Ikeda; J. Ilic; J. Imber; T. Ishida; C. Ishihara; T. Ishii; S. J. Ives; M. Iwasaki; K. Iyogi; A. Izmaylov; B. Jamieson; R. A. Johnson; K. K. Joo; G. Jover-Manas; C. K. Jung; H. Kaji; T. Kajita; H. Kakuno; J. Kameda; K. Kaneyuki; D. Karlen; K. Kasami; V. Kasey; I. Kato; H. Kawamuko; E. Kearns; L. Kellet; M. Khabibullin; N. Khan; A. Khotjantsev; D. Kielczewska; T. Kikawa; J. Y. Kim; S.-B. Kim; N. Kimura; B. Kirby; J. Kisiel; P. Kitching; T. Kobayashi; G. Kogan; S. Koike; T. Komorowski; A. Konaka; L. L. Kormos; A. Korzenev; K. Koseki; Y. Koshio; Y. Kouzuma; K. Kowalik; V. Kravtsov; I. Kreslo; W. Kropp; H. Kubo; J. Kubota; Y. Kudenko; N. Kulkarni; L. Kurchaninov; Y. Kurimoto; R. Kurjata; Y. Kurosawa; T. Kutter; J. Lagoda; K. Laihem; R. Langstaff; M. Laveder; T. B. Lawson; P. T. Le; A. Le Coguie; M. Le Ross; K. P. Lee; M. Lenckowski; C. Licciardi; I. T. Lim; T. Lindner; R. P. Litchfield; A. Longhin; G. D. Lopez; P. Lu; L. Ludovici; T. Lux; M. Macaire; L. Magaletti; K. Mahn; Y. Makida; C. J. Malafis; M. Malek; S. Manly; A. Marchionni; C. Mark; A. D. Marino; A. J. Marone; J. Marteau; T. Maruyama; J. Marzec; P. Masliah; E. L. Mathie; C. Matsumura; K. Matsuoka; V. Matveev; K. Mavrokoridis; E. Mazzucato; N. McCauley; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; T. McLachlan; I. Mercer; M. Messina; W. Metcalf; C. Metelko; M. Mezzetto; P. Mijakowski; C. A. Miller; C. A. Miller; O. Mineev; S. Mine; R. E. Minvielle; G. Mituka; M. Miura; K. Mizouchi; J.-P. Mols; L. Monfregola; E. Monmarthe; F. Moreau; B. Morgan; S. Moriyama; D. Morris; A. Muir; A. Murakami; J. F. Muratore; M. Murdoch; S. Murphy; J. Myslik; G. Nagashima; T. Nakadaira; M. Nakahata; T. Nakamoto; K. Nakamura; S. Nakayama; T. Nakaya; D. Naples; B. Nelson; T. C. Nicholls; K. Nishikawa; H. Nishino; K. Nitta; F. Nizery; J. A. Nowak; M. Noy; Y. Obayashi; T. Ogitsu; H. Ohhata; T. Okamura; K. Okumura; T. Okusawa; C. Ohlmann; K. Olchanski; R. Openshaw; S. M. Oser; R. A. Owen; Y. Oyama; T. Ozaki; M. Y. Pac; V. Palladino; V. Paolone; P. Paul; D. Payne; G. F. Pearce; C. Pearson; J. D. Perkin; M. Pfleger; F. Pierre; D. Pierrepont; P. Plonski; P. Poffenberger; E. Poplawska; B. Popov; M. Posiadala; J.-M. Poutissou; R. Poutissou; P. Przewlocki; W. Qian; J. L. Raaf; E. Radicioni; K. Ramos; P. Ratoff; T. M. Raufer; M. Ravonel; F. Retiere; D. Richards; J.-L. Ritou; A. Robert; P. A. Rodrigues; E. Rondio; M. Roney; M. Rooney; D. Ross; B. Rossi; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; D. Ruterbories; R. Sacco; S. Sadler; K. Sakashita; F. Sanchez; A. Sarrat; K. Sasaki; P. Schaack; J. Schmidt; K. Scholberg; J. Schwehr; M. Scott; D. I. Scully; Y. Seiya; T. Sekiguchi; H. Sekiya; G. Sheffer

2011-01-01

437

The experience of the bandit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology used in this study is hermeneutic phenomenology as the intention is to show how the method can be used to illuminate tourist experiences that would be hard to fathom in quantitative terms. By describing the tourist experience of Thunderbolt it is not claimed that all experiences from that or any other attraction, would be similar, or even that

Johan Richard Edelheim

2004-01-01

438

Innovative Science Experiments Using Phoenix  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple, flexible and very low cost hardware plus software framework for developing computer-interfaced science experiments is presented. It can be used for developing computer-interfaced science experiments without getting into the details of electronics or computer programming. For developing experiments this is a middle path between…

Kumar, B. P. Ajith; Satyanarayana, V. V. V.; Singh, Kundan; Singh, Parmanand

2009-01-01

439

The Cool Flames Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space-based experiment is currently under development to study diffusion-controlled, gas-phase, low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition in an unstirred, static reactor. At Earth's gravity (1g), natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles via the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Natural convection is important in all terrestrial cool flame and auto-ignition studies, except for select low pressure, highly dilute (small temperature excess) studies in small vessels (i.e., small Rayleigh number). On Earth, natural convection occurs when the Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds a critical value of approximately 600. Typical values of the Ra, associated with cool flames and auto-ignitions, range from 104-105 (or larger), a regime where both natural convection and conduction heat transport are important. When natural convection occurs, it alters the temperature, hydrodynamic, and species concentration fields, thus generating a multi-dimensional field that is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled analytically. This point has been emphasized recently by Kagan and co-workers who have shown that explosion limits can shift depending on the characteristic length scale associated with the natural convection. Moreover, natural convection in unstirred reactors is never "sufficiently strong to generate a spatially uniform temperature distribution throughout the reacting gas." Thus, an unstirred, nonisothermal reaction on Earth does not reduce to that generated in a mechanically, well-stirred system. Interestingly, however, thermal ignition theories and thermokinetic models neglect natural convection and assume a heat transfer correlation of the form: q=h(S/V)(T(bar) - Tw) where q is the heat loss per unit volume, h is the heat transfer coefficient, S/V is the surface to volume ratio, and (T(bar) - Tw ) is the spatially averaged temperature excess. This Newtonian form has been validated in spatially-uniform, well-stirred reactors, provided the effective heat transfer coefficient associated with the unsteady process is properly evaluated. Unfortunately, it is not a valid assumption for spatially-nonuniform temperature distributions induced by natural convection in unstirred reactors. "This is why the analysis of such a system is so difficult." Historically, the complexities associated with natural convection were perhaps recognized as early as 1938 when thermal ignition theory was first developed. In the 1955 text "Diffusion and Heat Exchange in Chemical Kinetics", Frank-Kamenetskii recognized that "the purely conductive theory can be applied at sufficiently low pressure and small dimensions of the vessel when the influence of natural convection can be disregarded." This was reiterated by Tyler in 1966 and further emphasized by Barnard and Harwood in 1974. Specifically, they state: "It is generally assumed that heat losses are purely conductive. While this may be valid for certain low pressure slow combustion regimes, it is unlikely to be true for the cool flame and ignition regimes." While this statement is true for terrestrial experiments, the purely conductive heat transport assumption is valid at microgravity (mu-g). Specifically, buoyant complexities are suppressed at mu-g and the reaction-diffusion structure associated with low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignitions can be studied. Without natural convection, the system is simpler, does not require determination of the effective heat transfer coefficient, and is a testbed for analytic and numerical models that assume pure diffusive transport. In addition, mu-g experiments will provide baseline data that will improve our understanding of the effects of natural convection on Earth.

Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard; Neville, Donna; Sheredy, William; Wu, Ming-Shin; Tornabene, Robert

2001-01-01

440

The Nepal experience.  

PubMed

Nepal's panchayat system of partyless democracy with 5 class organizations of peasants, youth, women, labor, and ex-servicemen, is an effort in community development. Panchayat training centers train panchayat secretaries and women workers. The government tried out the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) methodology to train panchayat training center instructors in 1974-75 when 5 courses were given for 76 participants. The MTS methodology included several new assumptions: the necessity of knowing the field situation, a realistic problem solving orientation, learning by actual field experience, and interdependence rather than teacher dependence. The multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was studied and clarified. Role performance led to the development of a realistic job description from which a task-focused curriculum could be developed. Field work tools included maintaining a daily diary, collecting information and developing a present and past project history, and compiling a village profile. The trainees played the roles of front line workers in the field when they returned from the villages played the roles of supervisors and trainers. The key concept in the multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was collaboration. The panchayat secretary-trainee had to understand the social roles in the community, and work within the social context to get cooperation from other agencies, village and informal organizations, in order to fulfill their role. Tutorial and team teaching methods were used to provide partnership in learning; the old roles of lecturer and lectured were seen as ineffective when actual field experience was the criteria. The role performing and role analysis group analyzed the front line workers' roles and evolved job descriptions which led to course outlines. The teaching methods and materials group produced indigenous teaching materials for classroom use based on problems faced in the field. The action research and technical collaboration groups focused on the key concept of collaboration in the role of the panchayat secretary, collecting examples of situations significant for collaboration, and holding symposiums and panel discussions. Finally, the objectives of the training of the village panchayat secretary were spelled out: the values, attitudes, knowledge, and skills needed. PMID:12265563

Kaikobad, N F

1977-01-01

441

Ultrafast gas switching experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less are described. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes less than 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. Pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz were produced and accurately measured. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. This technology was applied to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. A thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch was developed. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with less than 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF greater than 1 kHz at grater tha n 100 kV/m E field.

Frost, C. A.; Martin, T. H.; Patterson, P. E.; Rinehart, L. F.; Rohwein, G. J.; Roose, L. D.; Aurand, J. F.; Buttram, M. T.

1993-06-01

442

Northwest Airlines flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was conducted in which real-time Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data was compared with Northwest Airlines upper air charts. It was demonstrated that the regions of steep gradient in total ozone corresponded with fronts in the upper troposphere, specifically breaks in the tropopause associated with jet streams. Other small scale structures in the ozone could be related to minor trough and ridge lines. This suggests that the relation between total ozone and tropopause height might apply even on relatively small scales, and an analysis produced high correlation coefficients provided that the air mass origin was considered. In a second test, cabin ozone mixing at 37,000 ft. varied from less than 100 ppb (300 DU total ozone) to greater than 300 ppb in a trough (400 DU total ozone). A third analysis showed that clear air turbulence was located where upper air fronts were in rapid motion as suggested by comparison of the 1200 UT synoptic charts and the ozone map taken about six hours later.

Krueger, Arlin J.

1987-01-01

443

Experiments in Crystal Optics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The classic physical optics textbook approach to double-refraction starts from Huyghens constructions of wave fronts and from the optical indicatrix. Optical indicatrices are useful for a systematic description of optical properties in crystals, but students do not usually consider them an easy subject, and, therefore, shy away from optical crystallography. This is unfortunate since a basic understanding of optical crystallography is prerequisite to a correct interpretation of phenomena observed with the polarizing microscope, the most commonly used tool for the detailed study of rocks. Generally, students are comfortable with simple optical terms like reflection and refraction, while it is uncommon that they actually have seen double-refraction and noticed that crystals polarize light. Many have an unnecessarily complicated idea about vibration directions, interference colors, and interference figures; they assume such phenomena always require a microscope to observe. This is not so. Students well trained in thin section microscopy are often surprised that interference figures can be made visible macroscopically. The purpose of the experiments below is to impart an intuitive understanding of the interaction between light and crystals and, thus, of optical crystallography. This will help to demystify what is seen in the polarizing microscope, and will better prepare the student for the introduction of optical indicatrices as 3-D models to describe the directional dependence of light velocities, and thus refractive indices in anisotropic crystals.

444

Single-nucleon experiments  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the Jefferson Lab low momentum transfer data on moments of the nucleon spin structure functions $g_1$ and $g_2$ and on single charged pion electroproduction off polarized proton and polarized neutron. A wealth of data is now available, while more is being analyzed or expected to be taken in the upcoming years. Given the low momentum transfer selected by the experiments, these data can be compared to calculations from Chiral Perturbation theory, the effective theory of strong force that should describe it at low momentum transfer. The data on various moments and the respective calculations do not consistently agree. In particular, experimental data for higher moments disagree with the calculations.The absence of contribution from the $\\Delta$ resonance in the various observables was expected to facilitate the calculations and hence make the theory predictions either more robust or valid over a larger $Q^2$ range. Such expectation is verified only for the Bjorken sum, but not for other observables in which the $\\Delta$ is suppressed. Preliminary results on pion electroproduction off polarized nucleons are also presented and compared to phenomenological models for which contributions from different resonances are varied. Chiral Perturbation calculations of these observables, while not yet available, would be valuable and, together with these data, would provide an extensive test of the effective theory.

Alexandre Deur

2009-12-01

445

Experience Music Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inspired by a love of music (and a great respect and admiration for Jimi Hendrix), Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen set out to create the Experience Music Project (EMP) in Seattle. In an innovative and creative building design by noted architect Frank Gehry, Allen showcases some of the over 80,000 items related to the history of music over the past century. On the site, visitors will find a number of helpful resources, ranging from the types of ongoing and exhibits hosted at the EMP to an event calendar detailing the many performances and talks held at the facility. One of the site's most fun and engaging features is the online Music Interviews, which profile music critics, women in rock and roll, and hip-hop artists such as Force MDs and Doug E. Fresh. For up and coming guitar players, there is a section highlighting "Quick Tips" that will help individuals improve their sound and instrumental style. Overall, the site is a nice resource for those interested in learning about this rather interactive and hands-on museum.

446

A Remote Radioactivity Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

2013-01-01

447

American Experience: The Pill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The development and history of the creation of the contraceptive pill was one of the most important developments in women's reproductive health (and freedom) of the 20th century. The pill was argued and debated with great fervor for many decades before its final approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in May 1960. Produced by the American Experience series (a part of PBS's regular program), this website explores some of the issues surrounding the creation of the pill, and the many different ways in which it transformed the lives of women, and American culture more broadly. On the site, visitors can read a complete transcript of the original program, peruse primary sources (such as the notice for Margaret Sanger's first birth control clinic),and take a look at a list of further reading materials. The special features section is equally well-developed, as it contains an online poll, a virtual demonstration of how the pill works, and a question and answer area, with responses posted by Daniela Carusi, M.D., the director of generally gynecology at Brigham & Women's Hospital in Boston. As an added feature, visitors may also look through a selection of fifteen different historical versions of the pill (and their packaging materials) from the U.S. and other parts of the world.

448

An outreach experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our technological world, Science is everywhere and to participate to the public debates, citizens will need some basic scientific notions. Raising awareness of the public in Science is thus always worthwhile, even though only a small fraction of the audience will envisage a career in the field. Bringing science to the layman should even be a duty for scientists: we should not forget that we are paid by taxpayers, and are part of a public service; and besides, people tend to reject things that they do not understand - to get support, scientists need to enter the public arena and confront the crowd. Relying on attractive images and a timeless fascination, astronomy is particularly suited to do that. But what should a willing astronomer do to share (his/her) knowledge? There is certainly no definitive answer for that, but a few hints can still be given. Based on personal experience, this talk will present a few tips and things to avoid in three cases: animations (for kids and grown-ups), writing, and talking.

Naze, Y.

449

Joint collaborative technology experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of unmanned systems is rapidly growing within the military and civilian sectors in a variety of roles including reconnaissance, surveillance, explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), and force-protection and perimeter security. As utilization of these systems grows at an ever increasing rate, the need for unmanned systems teaming and inter-system collaboration becomes apparent. Collaboration provides a means of enhancing individual system capabilities through relevant data exchange that contributes to cooperative behaviors between systems and enables new capabilities not possible if the systems operate independently. A collaborative networked approach to development holds the promise of adding mission capability while simultaneously reducing the workload of system operators. The Joint Collaborative Technology Experiment (JCTE) joins individual technology development efforts within the Air Force, Navy, and Army to demonstrate the potential benefits of interoperable multiple system collaboration in a force-protection application. JCTE participants are the Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Airbase Technologies Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL/RXQF); the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center Software Engineering Directorate (AMRDEC SED); and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - Pacific (SSC Pacific) Unmanned Systems Branch operating with funding provided by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE). This paper will describe the efforts to date in system development by the three partner organizations, development of collaborative behaviors and experimentation in the force-protection application, results and lessons learned at a technical demonstration, simulation results, and a path forward for future work.

Wills, Michael; Ciccimaro, Donny; Yee, See; Denewiler, Thomas; Stroumtsos, Nicholas; Messamore, John; Brown, Rodney; Skibba, Brian; Clapp, Daniel; Wit, Jeff; Shirts, Randy J.; Dion, Gary N.; Anselmo, Gary S.

2009-05-01

450

Solar array flight experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

1986-01-01

451

Solar imaging experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the experimental investigation of the possibility of real-time image compensation of the solar photosphere using the 21-channel Real-Time Atmospheric Compensation (RTAC) system developed at Itek. Observations were made using the 76-cm Vacuum Tower Telescope at Sacramento Peak Observatory in June 1979 and March 1980. During the second period, observations were also made of single and double stars to obtain data on the isoplanatic patch. The compensated image was recorded on videotape using an ISIT camera. In addition, 48 channels of real-time RTAC data (including deformable mirror drive signals) were digitized and recorded on 9-track tape. When observing the sun, it was found that the image stabilization system worked efficiently even with bad turbulence. However, the expected improvement in image sharpness due to the deformable mirror was obtained only on some occasions and could not generally be predicted, in spite of the fact that the RTAC appeared to operate normally with all feedback loops closed and small residual errors. These results appear to be due to atmospheric parameters, primarily the small size of the isoplanatic patch and the small values of turbulence coherence length during the day. This experiment has confirmed the feasibility of real-time compensation of solar images. However, much work remains to be done to refine the technique.

Hardy, J. W.

1980-09-01

452

Isotope exchange experiments in tungsten with sequential deuterium and protium plasmas in PISCES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen isotope exchange experiments in tungsten samples were conducted in the PISCES linear plasma device to examine this technique as a means of tritium removal. Tungsten samples were first exposed to deuterium plasma in typical divertor conditions to a fluence of 1026 ions/m2 while maintaining a sample temperature below 373 K and subsequently exposed to hydrogen plasma at varying fluences (1023-1026 ions/m2). Bulk retention was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and the D(3He, p)4He reaction was used to obtain concentration profiles of deuterium. The effects of neutron damage were simulated by exposing some samples to 2.5 MeV Cu ions. Ion induced damage increases deuterium inventory in the near surface region and decreases diffusion into the bulk. Although displacement damage allows more deuterium to be retained near the surface where much of the isotope exchange takes place, the efficiency of isotope exchange in the bulk was reduced.

Barton, J. L.; Wang, Y. Q.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Doerner, R. P.; Tynan, G. R.

2013-07-01

453

Touch massage, a rewarding experience.  

PubMed

This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences. PMID:24771663

Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

2014-12-01

454

MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

1999-09-01

455

GNF2 Operating Experience  

SciTech Connect

GNF's latest generation fuel product, GNF2, is designed to deliver improved nuclear efficiency, higher bundle and cycle energy capability, and more operational flexibility. But along with high performance, our customers face a growing need for absolute fuel reliability. This is driven by a general sense in the industry that LWR fuel reliability has plateaued. Too many plants are operating with fuel leakers, and the impact on plant operations and operator focus is unacceptable. The industry has responded by implementing an INPO-coordinated program aimed at achieving leaker-free reliability by 2010. One focus area of the program is the relationship between fuel performance (i.e., duty) and reliability. The industry recognizes that the right balance between performance and problem-free fuel reliability is critical. In the development of GNF2, GNF understood the requirement for a balanced solution and utilized a product development and introduction strategy that specifically addressed reliability: evolutionary design features supported by an extensive experience base; thoroughly tested components; and defense-in-depth mitigation of all identified failure mechanisms. The final proof test that the balance has been achieved is the application of the design, initially through lead use assemblies (LUAs), in a variety of plants that reflect the diversity of the BWR fleet. Regular detailed surveillance of these bundles provides the verification that the proper balance between performance and reliability has been achieved. GNF currently has GNF2 lead use assemblies operating in five plants. Included are plants that have implemented extended power up-rates, plants on one and two-year operating cycles, and plants with and without NobleChem{sup TM} and zinc injection. The leading plant has undergone three pool-side inspections outages to date. This paper reviews the actions taken to insure GNF2's reliability, and the lead use assembly surveillance data accumulated to date to validate the adequacy/expected behavior of the design. (authors)

Schardt, John [GE Energy, Nuclear, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

2007-07-01

456

The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [1] to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in students' experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).

Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

2013-01-01

457

The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficienc