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1

SLSF local fault safety experiment P4: summary and conclusions. [Sodium Loop Safety Facility  

SciTech Connect

Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment P4 in ETR was performed to investigate the consequences of an upper-bound or worse-than-worst case local fault configuration. P4 was intended to bound the consequences of credible subassembly faults by ejecting molten fuel into a 37-pin bundle of full-length Fast Test Reactor (FTR)-type pins and failing fuel with the potential for further cladding and fuel-pin damage. In addition to ejecting a large amount of molten fuel at or near full power, experiment objectives were to evaluate the severity of molten fuel-coolant interactions (MFCIs) and to demonstrate that any resulting blockage could either be tolerated during continued power operation or detected by global monitors in time to prevent significant fuel failure propagation.

Thompson, D.H.; Ragland, W.A.; Holland, J.W.; Dever, D.J.; Braid, T.H.; Baldwin, R.D.; Anderson, T.T.

1985-01-01

2

Review of recent ANL safety experiments in SLSF and TREAT. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Among the recent significant in-pile experiments conducted by ANL are Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment P4 in the Engineering Test Facility (ETR) and TREAT experiments F3, F4, and J1. The P4 experiment, which had three heat-generating flow blockages each installed in six coolant channels in a 37-pin bundle of FTR (Fast Test Reactor)-type fuel elements, investigated the bounding consequences of severe local faults. The principal objectives were to eject molten fuel into the bundle geometry and, during subsequent extended operation, to characterize the behavior of (and response of instrumentation to) any subsequent blockage growth; secondary objectives included characterizing the severity of any molten-fuel/coolant interaction and the response of the coolant. The F3 and F4 experiments in TREAT were phenomenological tests to study the fuel-column disruption mode in loss-of-flow accidents. The J1 experiment was the first slow period (approx. 10 s) transient overpower experiment done in TREAT. Results of these experiments will be presented.

Klickman, A.E.; Thompson, D.H.; Ragland, W.A.; Wright, A.E.; Palm, R.G.; Page, R.J.

1982-01-01

3

Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment P4. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

SLSF experiment P4 was designed to provide an upper-limit bound on the consequences of local faults. Three of the 37 full-length FTR-type fuel pins in the test subassembly were built with 10-cm-long, sealed fuel canisters as the center sections of the fuel regions. The fuel canisters ejected molten fuel into the bundle geometry, as planned. Each ejection was accompanied by an inlet flow deceleration and persisting flow reduction. There was no evidence of energetic fuel-coolant interactions or failure propagation through the hex duct. After about 90 s of full-power operation, scram occurred on low test subassembly flow due to gas release from fuel pins as a result of elevated inlet temperature and boiling in the blockage wake. During subsequent power operation, blockage reconfiguration and flow reduction occurred 10 minutes after 60% power was reached. The DN signal began to increase from the steady state level three minutes prior to the reconfiguration.

Ragland, W.A.; Braid, T.H.; Thompson, D.H.; Wilson, R.E.; Baldwin, R.D.; Kraimer, M.R.; Gilbert, D.M.

1982-01-01

4

W-1 SLSF post-test data analysis. Part 1. Thermal hydraulic analysis. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Four types of tests were performed: (1) a decay heat transient test, (2) Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) tests, (3) Boiling Window Tests (BWT), and (4) a fuel pin dryout and failure test. In addition, preliminary tests were run to check systems performance, instrumentation performance and test section heat balance. The objective of the decay heat test was to determine the decay heat transfer characteristics of fresh fuel pins with subcooled sodium. The objective of the LOPI experiments was to test the thermal behavior of fuel pins with four different fuel conditions subjected to the same transient. The transient was designed to simulate a rapid flow decrease as a result of pipe rupture followed by a reactor scram. The objective of the Boiling Window Tests was to study boiling initiation and progression of boiling within the fuel pin bundle.

Knight, D.D.

1980-10-01

5

P4P4P: An Agenda for Research on Pay for Performance for Patients  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy behaviors are a major cause of poor health outcomes and high health care costs. In this Commentary, we describe an agenda for research to guide broader use of patient-targeted financial incentives either in conjunction with provider-targeted financial incentives (P4P) or in clinical contexts where provider-targeted approaches are unlikely to be effective. We discuss evidence of proven effectiveness and limitations of the existing evidence, reasons for underutilization of these approaches, and options for operationalizing wider use. Patient-targeted incentives have great potential, and systematic testing will help determine how they can best be used to improve population health. PMID:19124872

Volpp, Kevin G.; Pauly, Mark V.; Loewenstein, George; Bangsberg, David

2012-01-01

6

Thermodynamics using p4-improved staggered fermion action on QCDOC  

E-print Network

We present an exploratory study of the thermodynamics of $N_f=3$ QCD with an improved staggered fermions using the QCDOC supercomputer. We use a p4 action with MILC-style smeared links (Fat 7). Some details of the implementation of the p4 action on QCDOC are discussed and performance benchmarks are given. We show preliminary results for the quark mass dependence of the pseudo-critical temperature $T_c$ from several lattice volumes . We also make a comparison between p4fat7 and the old p4 action.

Chulwoo Jung

2005-10-05

7

Unified P4 (Power-Performance-Process-Parasitic) Fast Optimization of a Nano-CMOS VCO  

E-print Network

analysis, we pro- pose a methodology called Design of Experiments-Monte Carlo (DOE-MC), which offers up to 6.25x time savings over a tradi- tional Monte Carlo (TMC) method. A performance optimization In this paper, we present the design of a P4 (Power-Performance- Process-Parasitic) aware voltage controlled

Mohanty, Saraju P.

8

Unified P4 (PowerUnified P4 (Power--PerformancePerformance--ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)  

E-print Network

Unified P4 (PowerUnified P4 (Power--PerformancePerformance-- ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic t It iprediction is challenging due to many parasitic effects. It is crucial to be able to predict parasitic effects for accurate performance. (Parasitic) GLSVLSI 2009 performance. (Parasitic) 5/12/2009 3 #12;Novel

Mohanty, Saraju P.

9

Removal of Covalent Heterogeneity Reveals Simple Folding Behavior for P4-P6 RNA*  

PubMed Central

RNA folding landscapes have been described alternately as simple and as complex. The limited diversity of RNA residues and the ability of RNA to form stable secondary structures prior to adoption of a tertiary structure would appear to simplify folding relative to proteins. Nevertheless, there is considerable evidence for long-lived misfolded RNA states, and these observations have suggested rugged energy landscapes. Recently, single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) studies have exposed heterogeneity in many RNAs, consistent with deeply furrowed rugged landscapes. We turned to an RNA of intermediate complexity, the P4-P6 domain from the Tetrahymena group I intron, to address basic questions in RNA folding. P4-P6 exhibited long-lived heterogeneity in smFRET experiments, but the inability to observe exchange in the behavior of individual molecules led us to probe whether there was a non-conformational origin to this heterogeneity. We determined that routine protocols in RNA preparation and purification, including UV shadowing and heat annealing, cause covalent modifications that alter folding behavior. By taking measures to avoid these treatments and by purifying away damaged P4-P6 molecules, we obtained a population of P4-P6 that gave near-uniform behavior in single molecule studies. Thus, the folding landscape of P4-P6 lacks multiple deep furrows that would trap different P4-P6 molecules in different conformations and contrasts with the molecular heterogeneity that has been seen in many smFRET studies of structured RNAs. The simplicity of P4-P6 allowed us to reliably determine the thermodynamic and kinetic effects of metal ions on folding and to now begin to build more detailed models for RNA folding behavior. PMID:21478155

Greenfeld, Max; Solomatin, Sergey V.; Herschlag, Daniel

2011-01-01

10

Monitors, messages, and clusters : the p4 parallel programming system.  

SciTech Connect

p4 is a portable library of C and Fortran subroutines for programming parallel computers. It is the current version of a system that has been in use since 1984. It includes features for explicit parallel programming of shared-memory machines, distributed-memory machines (including heterogeneous networks of workstations), and clusters, by which we mean shared-memory multiprocessors communicating via message passing. We discuss here the design goals, history, and system architecture of p4 and describe briefly a diverse collection of applications that have demonstrated the utility of p4.

Butler, R. M.; Lusk, E. T.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of North Florida

1994-01-01

11

Bacteriophage P4 Vis protein is needed for prophage excision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon infection of its host Escherichia coli, satellite bacteriophage P4 can integrate its genome into the bacterial chromosome by Int-mediated site-specific recombination between the attP and the attB sites. The opposite event, excision, may either occur spontaneously or be induced by a superinfecting P2 helper phage. In this work, we demonstrate that the product of the P4 vis gene, a

Elena Spoldi; Daniela Piazzolla; Ian B. Dodd; Francesca Forti; Gianni Dehò; Daniela Ghisottia

2004-01-01

12

Bacteriophage P4 Vis protein is needed for prophage excision.  

PubMed

Upon infection of its host Escherichia coli, satellite bacteriophage P4 can integrate its genome into the bacterial chromosome by Int-mediated site-specific recombination between the attP and the attB sites. The opposite event, excision, may either occur spontaneously or be induced by a superinfecting P2 helper phage. In this work, we demonstrate that the product of the P4 vis gene, a regulator of the P4 late promoters P(LL) and P(sid), is needed for prophage excision. This conclusion is supported by the following evidence: (i) P4 mutants carrying either a frameshift mutation or a deletion of the vis gene were unable to excise both spontaneously or upon P2 phage superinfection; (ii) expression of the Vis protein from a plasmid induced P4 prophage excision; (iii) excision depended on a functional integrase (Int) protein, thus suggesting that Vis is involved in the formation of the excision complex, rather than in the excision recombination event per se; (iv) Vis protein bound P4 DNA in the attP region at two distinct boxes (Box I and Box II), located between the int gene and the attP core region, and caused bending of the bound DNA. Furthermore, we mapped by primer extension the 5' end of the int transcript and found that ectopic expression of Vis reduced its signal intensity, suggesting that Vis is also involved in negative regulation of the int promoter. PMID:15063119

Calì, Simona; Spoldi, Elena; Piazzolla, Daniela; Dodd, Ian B; Forti, Francesca; Dehò, Gianni; Ghisotti, Daniela

2004-04-25

13

Tc with AsqTad and p4rhmc  

SciTech Connect

We present the ongoing analysis of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on the LLNL BG/L supercomputer. This installment includes the analysis of 12,000 trajectories from the MILC AsqTad code on a 32{sup 3} x 8 lattice and the time histories from the plaquette and {psi} - bar{psi} trajectories from the p4rhmc code.

Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Gupta, R

2007-06-20

14

First LQCD Physics Runs with MILC and P4RHMC  

SciTech Connect

An initial series of physics LQCD runs were submitted to the BG/L science bank with the milc and p4rhmc. Both runs were for lattice dimensions of 32{sup 2} x 8. The p4 calculation was performed with v2.0 QMP{_}MPI.X (semioptomized p4 code using qmp over mpi) and milc v7.2, also using RHMC, but not specifically optimized for BlueGene. Calculations were performed along lines of constant physics, with the light quark masses 2-3 times their physics values and the strange quark mass set by m{sub ud} = 0.1m{sub s}. Job submissions was performed using the standard milc and p4 scripts provided on the ubgl cluster. Initial thermalized lattices for each code were also provided in this way. The only modifications for running on BG/L were to the directory names and the mT parameter which determines job durations (24 hrs on BG/L vs. 4 hrs on ubgl). The milc scripts were set to resubmit themselves 10 times, and the p4 scripts were submitted serially using the ''psub -d'' job dependency option. The runp4rhmc.tcsh could not be used to resubmit due to the 30m time limit imposed on interactive jobs. Most jobs were submitted to the smallest, 512 node partitions, but both codes could also run on the 1024 node partitions with a gain of only 30-50%. The majority of jobs ran without error. Stalled jobs were often indicative of a communication gap within a partition that LC was able to fix quickly. On some occasion a zero-length lattice file was deleted to allow jobs to restart successfully. Approximately 1000 trajectories were calculated for each beta value, see Table . The analysis was performed with the standard analysis scripts for each code, make{_}summary.pl for milc and analysis.tcsh for p4rhmc. All lattices, log files, and job submission scripts have been archived to permanent storage for subsequent analysis.

Soltz, R; Gupta, R

2007-01-18

15

Crystal Structure of the Phosphorus Oxynitride P 4ON 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ab initio crystal structure determination of the phosphorus oxynitride P4ON6 has been performed by the X-ray powder diffraction technique (space group Pnnm; a = 6.8424(1)Å, b = 6.0714(2)Å, c = 6.8176(1)Å, Z = 2; RBragg = 4.8%, Gof = 1.35) A structure refinement of neutron data incorporating anisotropic temperature coefficients for oxygen and nitrogen reduces the RBragg-factor down to

J. Ronis; B. Bondars; A. Vitola; T. Millers; J. Schneider; F. Frey

1995-01-01

16

Isolation and properties of carboxylesterase P4 from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.  

PubMed

The carboxylesterase P4 produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was purified 330-fold by gel permeation and DEAE-trisacryl chromatography with a final yield of 21%. The apparent molecular weight, as determined by fast-protein liquid chromatography, was 45 kDa. The hydrolytic activity of esterase P4 was higher with the 1-naphthyl esters than with the 2-naphthyl esters of acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The apparent Km values were identical for 1-naphthyl acetate and 1-naphthyl propionate (0.15 mM). The enzyme was unstable at pH values below 5, but retained 80% of its initial activity after 30 min at 65 degrees C. It was unaffected by EDTA, eserine, tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone, iodoacetamide or 4-hydroxymercuribenzoate, but was strongly inhibited by low concentrations of diisopropyl fluorophosphate, suggesting the presence of serine in its active site. The purified enzyme gave a single precipitin line on Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion with homologous antiserum. This antiserum cross-reacted with the esterase bands E3 and E5 of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1, whereas there was no cross-reaction with the esterase bands produced by Y. enterocolitica biotypes 2 to 5, Y. intermedia, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii or Y. aldovae. The carboxylesterase P4 produced by Y. pestis was physicochemically, biochemically and immunologically indistinguishable from Y. pseudotuberculosis carboxylesterase P4. The latter enzyme and carboxylesterase B of Escherichia coli showed some biochemical similarities, but were antigenically unrelated. Our data confirm the relevance of esterases to phylogenetic and taxonomic studies of Enterobacteria. PMID:2694247

Goullet, P; Branger, C; Philippe, J C; Picard, B

1989-01-01

17

Systems biology and p4 medicine: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a "one gene or one protein" at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which "biology drives technology drives computation." To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another's languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this "systems" approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other "omics" is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes) for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.). The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to detect and treat perturbations in healthy individuals long before disease symptoms appear, thus optimizing the wellness of individuals and avoiding disease. P4 medicine will 1) improve health care, 2) reduce the cost of health care, and 3) stimulate innovation and new company creation. Health care is not the only subject that can benefit from such integrative, cross-disciplinary, and systems-driven platforms and cultures. Many other challenges plaguing our planet, such as energy, environment, nutrition, and agriculture can be transformed by using such an integrated and systems-driven approach. PMID:23908862

Hood, Leroy

2013-04-01

18

p4-Linda: A portable implementation of Linda  

SciTech Connect

Facilities such as interprocess communication and protection of shared resources have been added to operating systems to support multiprogramming and have since been adapted to exploit explicit multiprocessing within the scope of two models: the shared-memory model and the distributed (message-passing) model. When multiprocessors (or networks of heterogeneous processors) are used for explicit parallelism, the difference between these models is exposed to the programmer. The p4 tool set was originally developed to buffer the programmer from synchronization issues while offering an added advantage in portability, however two models are often still needed to develop parallel algorithms. We provide two implementations of Linda in an attempt to support a single high-level programming model on top of the existing paradigms in order to provide a consistent semantics regardless of the underlying model. Linda`s fundamental properties associated with generative communication eliminate the distinction between shared and distributed memory.

Butler, R.M.; Leveton, A.L. [University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States). Div. of Computer and Information Science; Lusk, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-07-01

19

LQCD Phase 1 Runs with P4RHMC  

SciTech Connect

These results represent the first set of runs of 10 {beta} values ranging from 2000-7000 trajectories with the p4rhmc code. This initial run sequence spanned roughly 2-weeks in late January and Early February, 2007. To manage the submission of dependent jobs: subSet.pl--submits a set of dependent jobs for a single run; rmSet.pl--removes a set of dependent jobs in reverse order of submission; and statSet.pl--runs pstat command and prints parsed output along with directory contents. The results of running the statSet.pl command are printed for three different times during the start up the next sequence of runs using the milc code.

Soltz, R; Gupta, R

2007-02-13

20

Inversion by P4: polarization-picture post-processing.  

PubMed

Polarization may be sensed by imaging modules. This is done in various engineering systems as well as in biological systems, specifically by insects and some marine species. However, polarization per pixel is usually not the direct variable of interest. Rather, polarization-related data serve as a cue for recovering task-specific scene information. How should polarization-picture post-processing (P(4)) be done for the best scene understanding? Answering this question is not only helpful for advanced engineering (computer vision), but also to prompt hypotheses as to the processing occurring within biological systems. In various important cases, the answer is found by a principled expression of scene recovery as an inverse problem. Such an expression relies directly on a physics-based model of effects in the scene. The model includes analysis that depends on the different polarization components, thus facilitating the use of these components during the inversion, in a proper, even if non-trivial, manner. We describe several examples for this approach. These include automatic removal of path radiance in haze or underwater, overcoming partial semireflections and visual reverberations; three-dimensional recovery and distance-adaptive denoising. The resulting inversion algorithms rely on signal-processing methods, such as independent component analysis, deconvolution and optimization. PMID:21282167

Schechner, Yoav Y

2011-03-12

21

Caspase-3 binds diverse P4 residues in peptides as revealed by crystallography and structural modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Caspase-3 recognition of various P4 residues in its numerous protein substrates was investigated by crystallography, kinetics, and calculations on model complexes. Asp is the most frequent P4 residue in peptide substrates, although a wide variety of P4 residues are found in the cellular proteins cleaved by caspase-3. The binding of peptidic inhibitors with hydrophobic P4 residues, or no P4 residue, is illustrated by crystal structures of caspase-3 complexes with Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, and Boc-D(OMe)-Fmk at resolutions of 1.9-2.6 {angstrom}. The P4 residues formed favorable hydrophobic interactions in two separate hydrophobic regions of the binding site. The side chains of P4 Ile and Tyr form hydrophobic interactions with caspase-3 residues Trp206 and Trp214 within a non-polar pocket of the S4 subsite, while P4 Trp interacts with Phe250 and Phe252 that can also form the S5 subsite. These interactions of hydrophobic P4 residues are distinct from those for polar P4 Asp, which indicates the adaptability of caspase-3 for binding diverse P4 residues. The predicted trends in peptide binding from molecular models had high correlation with experimental values for peptide inhibitors. Analysis of structural models for the binding of 20 different amino acids at P4 in the aldehyde peptide Ac-XEVD-Cho suggested that the majority of hydrophilic P4 residues interact with Phe250, while hydrophobic residues interact with Trp206, Phe250, and Trp214. Overall, the S4 pocket of caspase-3 exhibits flexible adaptation for different residues and the new structures and models, especially for hydrophobic P4 residues, will be helpful for the design of caspase-3 based drugs.

Fang, Bin; Fu, Guoxing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.; (GSU)

2009-03-31

22

The Top 10 Things I LOVE about p4c Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, Dr. Thomas Jackson, or Dr. J as the author and her colleagues affectionately call him, spoke to the faculty at Waikiki Elementary. He described philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i and encouraged them to try P4C if something about it "resonated" with them. In the beginning, Dr. J held a p4t (philosophy for teachers) after-school seminar…

Ikeda, Jolyn

2012-01-01

23

The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers oversee the removal of the P4 truss from the truck that transported it from Tulsa, Okla. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field on the International Space Station, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

2000-01-01

24

The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers get ready to lower the International Space Station's P4 truss onto a workstand. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

2000-01-01

25

The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After its move across the Space Station Processing Facility, the International Space Station's P4 truss rests in its workstand. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

2000-01-01

26

The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the P4 truss to a workstand. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field on the International Space Station, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

2000-01-01

27

Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in n-hexadecane compounds assimilation in the hydrocarbon degrading Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain  

PubMed Central

The petroleum-derived degrading Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 recently had its genome sequenced and annotated. This allowed employing the data on genes that are involved in the degradation of n-alkanes. To examine the physiological behavior of strain P4 in the presence of n-alkanes, the strain was grown under varying conditions of pH and temperature. D. cinnamea P4 was able to grow at pH 7.0–9.0 and at temperatures ranging from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. Experiments of gene expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR throughout the complete growth cycle clearly indicated the induction of the regulatory gene alkU (TetR family) during early growth. During the logarithmic phase, a large increase in transcriptional levels of a lipid transporter gene was noted. Also, the expression of a gene that encodes the protein fused rubredoxin-alkane monooxygenase was enhanced. Both genes are probably under the influence of the AlkU regulator. PMID:24294263

Procópio, Luciano; de Cassia Pereira e Silva, Michele; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

2013-01-01

28

Phasmid P4: manipulation of plasmid copy number and induction from the integrated state.  

PubMed Central

"Phasmid" P4 is unusual in that it is capable of (i) temperate, (ii) lytic, helper-dependent, and (iii) plasmid modes of propagation. In this report we characterize most of the known P4 genetic functions as to their essential or nonessential roles in the stable maintenance of plasmid P4 vir1 (pP4 vir1 (pP4 vir1). We also identify growth conditions that can be used to stably maintain pP4 vir1 at any one of several different copy number levels (n = 1 to 3, n = 10 to 15, or n = 30 to 40). Analyses of a temperature-sensitive alpha derivative of pP4 vir1 show that shifting the temperature from 37 to 42 degrees C allows this mutant to maintain an integrated copy of the plasmid, whereas replication of free copies is repressed because of the nonpermissive condition for their DNA synthesis. Conversely, a shift from 42 to 37 degrees C can be used to reinstate plasmid propagation. The utility of the inducible states of pP4 vir1 is discussed with respect to its attributes as a vector with the potential for cloning inserts of DNA up to 33,000 base pairs in a wide range of bacterial hosts. Images PMID:6370957

Lagos, R; Goldstein, R

1984-01-01

29

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1 autoionizing state in magnesium  

E-print Network

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1 Fo autoionizing state in magnesium A. Reber,1 T. Baynard ionization of magnesium from the 3 1 P state in the region of the 3p4d 1 Fo autoionizing resonance, in which of magnesium atoms just inside the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer MBS 13 . One laser is tuned

Berry, R. Stephen

30

p-(4-Azipentyl)-propofol: A Potent Photoreactive General Anesthetic Derivative of Propofol  

PubMed Central

We synthesized 2,6-Diisopropyl-4-[3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-propyl]-phenol (p-(4-azipentyl)-propofol), or p-4-AziC5-Pro, a novel photoactivable derivative of the general anesthetic propofol. p-4-AziC5-Pro has an anesthetic potency similar to propofol. Like propofol, the compound potentiates inhibitory GABAA receptor current responses and allosterically modulates binding to both agonist and benzodiazepine sites, assayed on heterologously expressed GABAA receptors. p-4-AziC5-Pro inhibits excitatory current responses of nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and photoincorporates into native nACh receptor-enriched Torpedo membranes. Thus p-4-AziC5-Pro is a functional general anesthetic that both modulates and photoincorporates into Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, making it an excellent candidate for use in identifying propofol binding sites. PMID:22029276

Stewart, Deirdre S.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Dostalova, Zuzana; Chiara, David C.; Ge, Rile; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohne, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Miller, Keith W.

2013-01-01

31

Antithrombotic effect of beta,beta'-monochloromethylene diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate.  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of using beta,beta'-monochloromethylene diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (AppCHCl-ppA) as an antithrombotic agent was studied in a rabbit intracarotid cannula thrombosis model previously shown to be sensitive to antiplatelet agents. This analogue, having a P-C-P bridge in place of a P-O-P internucleoside linkage, has been found resistant to phosphodiesterase activity. Rabbits were infused with the dinucleotide at a dose of 50 mg per kg over a 2-hr period, at a controlled rate by pump. A 1-cm length of polyethylene cannula (1 mm i.d.) was tied into the carotid artery. Animals were stable under general anesthesia during the entire period of the experiment. In the control group, 16 of 20 animals formed clots, an incidence of 80%, whereas in the test animals, 6 of the 20 formed clots (30% incidence, P < 0.05). After preincubation of whole blood with 50 microM AppCHClppA at 37 degrees C for up to 3 hr, a consistent suppression of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was observed. The present study suggests that AppCHClppA may be useful as an antithrombotic agent in certain clinical situations, such as hemodialysis, arteriovenous shunts, and introduction of artificial heart valves. It may also possibly prevent extension of recent clots. The toxicity and metabolism of AppCHClppA have, however, yet to be explored. PMID:1438314

Kim, B K; Zamecnik, P; Taylor, G; Guo, M J; Blackburn, G M

1992-01-01

32

Dynamic properties of P4O6S and P4O7:31P spin-echo and 31P MAS-NMR investigations.  

PubMed

The rotational dynamics of P4O6S and P4O7 in the solid state were studied by means of 31P NMR spectra of spinning and static powder samples in the temperature range of 153-295 K and 295-388 K, respectively. All spectra were simulated to confirm the type of the motion and to extract the time scales as a function of the temperature. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical data was obtained on the basis of a three-site jump model. For P4O6S, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor derived from the lineshape simulations amount to 51(2) kJ/mol and 6(3) x 10(15) s(-1). For P4O7, the spectral analysis yields an activation energy of 67(1) kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 6(2) x 10(14) s(-1). The dynamic behavior was checked independently by lineshape analyses under both MAS and static conditions. Activation energies are consistent within the errors for the lineshape analyses. Additionally, we have analyzed spin-lattice relaxation measurements, which show the correct trends for the activation energies. PMID:10499667

Hoffbauer, W; Wefing, S; Klösters, G; Frick, F; Jansen, M

1999-09-01

33

Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed on the CERN cyclotron. Pion capture in Ta, Re, and Bi, quadrupole moments, nuclear gamma transitions, pion absorption in the nucleus, neutron multiplicity and angular momentum, and charged particles emission after pion absorption were studied.

Konijn, J.

34

The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suspended by an overhead crane in the Space Station Processing Facility, the International Space Station's P4 truss moves toward a workstand. Below and behind it on the floor is the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, another segment of the Space Station. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

2000-01-01

35

77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae AGENCY: Technology Transfer...vaccine conjugate for prevention of Streptococcus pneumonia infection in humans...entitled ``Functional Epitopes of Streptococcus Pneumoniae PsaA Antigen and Uses...

2012-05-02

36

Determination of progesterone (P4) from bovine serum samples using a microfluidic immunosensor system.  

PubMed

Progesterone (P4) is a steroidal hormone with a vital role in the maintenance of human and animal health. This paper describes the development of an immunosensor coupled to glassy carbon (GC) electrode and integrated to a microfluidic system to quantify P4 from bovine serum samples in a fast and sensitive way. The serum samples spiked with a given P4 concentration and a given P4 concentration bound to horseradish peroxide (HPR) were simultaneously added and, therefore, they competed immunologically with sheep monoclonal anti-P4 antibodies that were immobilized at a rotating disk. HRP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) catalyzes the chatecol (H(2)Q) oxidation to benzoquinone (Q). Its reverse electrochemical reduction to H(2)Q can be detected at a GC electrode surface at -0.15 V by chronoamperometric measurements. These current responses are proportional to the enzyme activity and inversely proportional to the P4 amount present in bovine serum samples. This P4 immunosensor showed a linear working range from 0.5 to 12.5 ng mL(-1). The detection (DL) and quantification (QL) limits were 0.2 and 0.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. The electrochemical immunosensor had a higher sensitivity than the ELISA method using conventional spectrophotometric detections. However, both methods allowed us to obtain similar detection limits. The immunosensor allowed us to make up to 100 determinations on different samples without any previous pre-treatment. This behavior proved to be suitable to detect P4 in routine veterinary, clinical, biological, physiological, and analytical assays. PMID:20152443

Arévalo, Fernando Javier; Messina, Germán Alejandro; Molina, Patricia Gabriela; Zón, María Alicia; Raba, Julio; Fernández, Héctor

2010-03-15

37

Band representations and duals of the nonsymmorphic crystallographic plane groups pg and p4gm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duals of the groups pg and p4gm are constructed. (1) The group pg has only one band representation (an elementary one) equivalent to the regular representation. There exists a quasiband representation close to it, of multiplicity two, which separates the branches of the band. Finite groups which approximate pg are discussed. (2) Two elementary band representations associated with the Wyckoff position b of the group p4gm are shown to be nonequivalent although they have the same decomposition in unirreps.

Bacry, Henri

1993-09-01

38

Multiple folding pathways for the P4-P6 RNA domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently described site-specific pyrene labeling of RNA to monitor Mg2+-dependent equilibrium formation of tertiary structure. Here we extend these studies to follow the folding kinetics of the 160-nucleotide P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymenagroup I intron RNA, using stopped-flow fluorescence with 1 ms time resolution. Pyrene-labeled P4-P6 was prepared using a new phosphoramidite that allows high-yield automated synthesis of oligoribonucleotides

Scott K. Silverman; Michael L. Deras; Sarah A. Woodson; Stephen A. Scaringe; Thomas R. Cech

2000-01-01

39

Expression of phage P4 integrase is regulated negatively by both Int and Vis.  

PubMed

Phage P4 int gene encodes the integrase responsible for phage integration into and excision from the Escherichia coli chromosome. Here, the data showing that P4 int expression is regulated in a complex manner at different levels are presented. First of all, the Pint promoter is regulated negatively by both Int and Vis, the P4 excisionase. The N-terminal portion of Int appears to be sufficient for such a negative autoregulation, suggesting that the Int N terminus is implicated in DNA binding. Second, full-length transcripts covering the entire int gene could be detected only upon P4 infection, whereas in P4 lysogens only short 5'-end covering transcripts were detectable. On the other hand, transcripts covering the 5'-end of int were also very abundant upon infection. It thus appears that premature transcription termination and/or mRNA degradation play a role in Int-negative regulation both on the basal prophage transcription and upon infection. Finally, comparison between Pint-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions suggests that Vis regulates Int expression post-transcriptionally. The findings that Vis is also an RNA-binding protein and that Int may be translated from two different start codons have implications on possible regulation models of Int expression. PMID:16847139

Piazzolla, D; Calì, S; Spoldi, E; Forti, F; Sala, C; Magnoni, F; Dehò, G; Ghisotti, D

2006-08-01

40

Double-striped metallic patterns from PS-b-P4VP nanostrand templates.  

PubMed

A new nanometallic pattern, characterized by randomly disposed double or twin one-dimensional stripes and that adds to the nanotechnology toolbox, has been obtained from a unique template possessing the nanostrand morphology. This morphology had previously been shown to form in Langmuir-Blodgett films made from a polystyrene-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-P4VP) diblock copolymer blended with 3-n-pentadecylphenol (PDP). The nanostrand backbone is composed of PS, and it is bordered along both sides by a P4VP monolayer, visualized for the first time by high resolution atomic force microscopy. The exposed P4VP alongside the nanostrands serves as sites for depositing compounds attracted selectively to P4VP. Here, both gold ions (HAuCl4·3H2O) and gold nanoparticles (AuNP, 12 nm in diameter, stabilized with sodium citrate) were complexed to the P4VP. Plasma treatment of the gold ions led to double stripes of monolayer metallic gold. To obtain dense deposition of AuNP in double rows, it was necessary to acidify the AuNP aqueous solution (pH 5.2 here). The achievement of the metallic double-stripe patterns also confirms the composition of the nanostrand morphology, which up to now had been deduced indirectly. The double-stripe pattern has possible applications for plasmonic lasers, energy transport, and biosensors. PMID:25260097

Chen, Ximin; Perepichka, Iryna I; Bazuin, C Geraldine

2014-10-22

41

Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition  

PubMed Central

Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

2014-01-01

42

26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for returns or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards...

2010-04-01

43

26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.  

...for returns or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards...

2014-04-01

44

26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for returns or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards...

2012-04-01

45

26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for returns or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards...

2011-04-01

46

26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for returns or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards...

2013-04-01

47

Immunoactivating Peptide P4 Augments Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis in Two Diverse Human Populations  

PubMed Central

New treatment strategies are urgently needed to overcome early mortality in acute bacterial infections. Previous studies have shown that administration of a novel immunoactivating peptide (P4) alongside passive immunotherapy prevents the onset of septicemia and rescues mice from lethal invasive disease models of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. In this study, using two diverse populations of adult volunteers, we determined whether P4 treatment of human alveolar macrophages would upregulate phagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae ex vivo. We also measured macrophage intracellular oxidation, cytokine secretion, and surface marker expression following stimulation. Peptide treatment showed enhanced bacterial killing in the absence of nonspecific inflammation, consistent with therapeutic potential. This is the first demonstration of P4 efficacy on ex vivo-derived human lung cells. PMID:23817378

Bangert, Mathieu; Wright, Adam K.; Rylance, Jamie; Kelly, Matthew J.; Wright, Angela D.; Carlone, George M.; Sampson, Jacquelyn S.; Rajam, Gowrisankar; Ades, Edwin W.

2013-01-01

48

Immunoactivating peptide p4 augments alveolar macrophage phagocytosis in two diverse human populations.  

PubMed

New treatment strategies are urgently needed to overcome early mortality in acute bacterial infections. Previous studies have shown that administration of a novel immunoactivating peptide (P4) alongside passive immunotherapy prevents the onset of septicemia and rescues mice from lethal invasive disease models of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. In this study, using two diverse populations of adult volunteers, we determined whether P4 treatment of human alveolar macrophages would upregulate phagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae ex vivo. We also measured macrophage intracellular oxidation, cytokine secretion, and surface marker expression following stimulation. Peptide treatment showed enhanced bacterial killing in the absence of nonspecific inflammation, consistent with therapeutic potential. This is the first demonstration of P4 efficacy on ex vivo-derived human lung cells. PMID:23817378

Bangert, Mathieu; Wright, Adam K; Rylance, Jamie; Kelly, Matthew J; Wright, Angela D; Carlone, George M; Sampson, Jacquelyn S; Rajam, Gowrisankar; Ades, Edwin W; Kadioglu, Aras; Gordon, Stephen B

2013-09-01

49

Whole-genome analyses of DS-1-like human G2P[4] and G8P[4] rotavirus strains from Eastern, Western and Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) with distinct G and P genotype combinations have been reported globally. We report the genome composition and possible origin of seven G8P[4] and five G2P[4] human RVA strains based on the genetic evolution of all 11 genome segments at the nucleotide level. Twelve RVA ELISA positive stool samples collected in the representative countries of Eastern, Southern and West Africa during the 2007-2012 surveillance seasons were subjected to sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM and Illumina MiSeq platforms. A reference-based assembly was performed using CLC Bio's clc_ref_assemble_long program, and full-genome consensus sequences were obtained. With the exception of the neutralising antigen, VP7, all study strains exhibited the DS-1-like genome constellation (P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2) and clustered phylogenetically with reference strains having a DS-1-like genetic backbone. Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences with selected global cognate genome segments revealed nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of 81.7-100 % and 90.6-100 %, respectively, with NSP4 gene segment showing the most diversity among the strains. Bayesian analyses of all gene sequences to estimate the time of divergence of the lineage indicated that divergence times ranged from 16 to 44 years, except for the NSP4 gene where the lineage seemed to arise in the more distant past at an estimated 203 years ago. However, the long-term effects of changes found within the NSP4 genome segment should be further explored, and thus we recommend continued whole-genome analyses from larger sample sets to determine the evolutionary mechanisms of the DS-1-like strains collected in Africa. PMID:24952422

Nyaga, Martin M; Stucker, Karla M; Esona, Mathew D; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Mwinyi, Bakari; Shonhai, Annie; Tsolenyanu, Enyonam; Mulindwa, Augustine; Chibumbya, Julia N; Adolfine, Hokororo; Halpin, Rebecca A; Roy, Sunando; Stockwell, Timothy B; Berejena, Chipo; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

2014-10-01

50

From integrative disease modeling to predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine  

PubMed Central

With the significant advancement of high-throughput technologies and diagnostic techniques throughout the past decades, molecular underpinnings of many disorders have been identified. However, translation of patient-specific molecular mechanisms into tailored clinical applications remains a challenging task, which requires integration of multi-dimensional molecular and clinical data into patient-centric models. This task becomes even more challenging when dealing with complex diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Integrative disease modeling is an emerging knowledge-based paradigm in translational research that exploits the power of computational methods to collect, store, integrate, model and interpret accumulated disease information across different biological scales from molecules to phenotypes. We argue that integrative disease modeling will be an indispensable part of any P4 medicine research and development in the near future and that it supports the shift from descriptive to causal mechanistic diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases. For each ‘P’ in predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine, we demonstrate how integrative disease modeling can contribute to addressing the real-world issues in development of new predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory measures. With the increasing recognition that application of integrative systems modeling is the key to all activities in P4 medicine, we envision that translational bioinformatics in general and integrative modeling in particular will continue to open up new avenues of scientific research for current challenges in P4 medicine. PMID:24195840

2013-01-01

51

P 4.1 CITEL Climate change and international trade from an economic and legal  

E-print Network

to issues of mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. It does not address adaptation to climate change, which45 P 4.1 CITEL Climate change and international trade from an economic and legal perspective PI in climate change mitigation systems? How and to what extent does international trade and trade policy

Richner, Heinz

52

P 4.3 MIADAC Modelling Climate Change Policies: Mitigation, Adaptation, and  

E-print Network

P 4.3 MIADAC Modelling Climate Change Policies: Mitigation, Adaptation, and Acceptance PI: Philippe to climate change for Switzerland and what is the role of adaptation in national climate policies tariff (trade war). Task 3: Assess the economic impacts of climate change and adaptation measures

Richner, Heinz

53

Orally bioavailable factor Xa inhibitors containing alpha-substituted gem-dimethyl P4 moieties.  

PubMed

In an effort to identify a potential back-up to apixaban (Eliquis®), we explored a series of diversified P4 moieties. Several analogs with substituted gem-dimethyl moieties replacing the terminal lactam of apixaban were identified which demonstrated potent FXa binding affinity (FXa Ki), good human plasma anticoagulant activity (PT EC2x), cell permeability, and oral bioavailability. PMID:24951330

Orwat, Michael J; Qiao, Jennifer X; He, Kan; Rendina, Alan R; Luettgen, Joseph M; Rossi, Karen A; Xin, Baomin; Knabb, Robert M; Wexler, Ruth R; Lam, Patrick Y S; Pinto, Donald J P

2014-08-01

54

5-9035-01-P4 4-YEAR PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN (WITH  

E-print Network

5-9035-01-P4 4-YEAR PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN (WITH PROPOSITION 12 PROJECTS): ANALYSIS REPORT Implementation of a Web-based GIS System to Provide Information for Pavement Maintenance Decision-Making DECEMBER Table of Contents Section 1. Pavement Management Plan Executive Summary

Texas at Austin, University of

55

5-1924-01-P4 DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES FOR THE TEXAS  

E-print Network

5-1924-01-P4 DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES FOR THE TEXAS ACCELERATED PAVEMENT TEST CENTER (TXAPT Research The University of Texas at Austin 3208 Red River, Suite 200 Austin, Texas 78705-2650 Sponsoring Organization: Texas Department of Transportation Research and Technology Implementation Office P.O. Box 5080

Texas at Austin, University of

56

From integrative disease modeling to predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine.  

PubMed

With the significant advancement of high-throughput technologies and diagnostic techniques throughout the past decades, molecular underpinnings of many disorders have been identified. However, translation of patient-specific molecular mechanisms into tailored clinical applications remains a challenging task, which requires integration of multi-dimensional molecular and clinical data into patient-centric models. This task becomes even more challenging when dealing with complex diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Integrative disease modeling is an emerging knowledge-based paradigm in translational research that exploits the power of computational methods to collect, store, integrate, model and interpret accumulated disease information across different biological scales from molecules to phenotypes. We argue that integrative disease modeling will be an indispensable part of any P4 medicine research and development in the near future and that it supports the shift from descriptive to causal mechanistic diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases. For each 'P' in predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine, we demonstrate how integrative disease modeling can contribute to addressing the real-world issues in development of new predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory measures. With the increasing recognition that application of integrative systems modeling is the key to all activities in P4 medicine, we envision that translational bioinformatics in general and integrative modeling in particular will continue to open up new avenues of scientific research for current challenges in P4 medicine. PMID:24195840

Younesi, Erfan; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

2013-01-01

57

On the reactivity of Li8-yMnyP4 towards lithium , L. Monconduit2  

E-print Network

and P powders followed by an annealing at 800°C under argon in a sealed stainless steel tube decomposition of Li7MnP4 in Li3P and Mn nanoparticles at low potential, as deduced by in situ X-ray diffraction: frederic.gillot@sc.u-picardie.fr Keywords: Lithium ion batteries, Manganese phosphides, Ball milling. hal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Ferrenberg Swendsen Analysis of LLNL and NYBlue BG/L p4rhms Data  

SciTech Connect

These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG/L. These results are from the Ferrenberg-Swendsen analysis [?] of the combined data from LLNL and NYBlue BG/L runs for 32{sup 3} x 8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP-MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi). The jobs include beta values ranging from 3.525 to 3.535 with an alternate analysis extending to 3.540. The NYBlue data sets are from 9k trajectories from Oct 2007, and the LLNL data are from two independent streams of {approx}5k each, taking from the July 2007 runs. The following outputs are produced by the fs-2+1-chiub.c program. All outputs have had checksums produced by addCks.pl and checked by the checkCks.pl perl script after scanning.

Soltz, R

2007-12-05

59

QED corrections to the 4p-4d transition energies of copperlike heavy ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to 4p-4d transition energies of several copperlike ions with Z=70-92 are calculated nonperturbatively in strong external fields to all orders in binding corrections. Dirac-Kohn-Sham potentials are used to account for screening and core-relaxation effects. For the 4p1\\/2-4d3\\/2 transition in copperlike bismuth, thorium, and uranium, results are in good agreement with empirical QED corrections deduced from differences

M. H. Chen; K. T. Cheng; W. R. Johnson; J. Sapirstein

2006-01-01

60

QED corrections to the 4p-4d transition energies of copperlike heavy ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to 4p-4d transition energies of several copperlike ions with Z=70-92 are calculated nonperturbatively in strong external fields to all orders in binding corrections. Dirac-Kohn-Sham potentials are used to account for screening and core-relaxation effects. For the 4pââ-4dââ transition in copperlike bismuth, thorium, and uranium, results are in good agreement with empirical QED corrections deduced from differences

M. H. Chen; K. T. Cheng; W. R. Johnson; J. Sapirstein

2006-01-01

61

QED corrections to the 4p -4d transition energies of copperlike W. R. Johnson  

E-print Network

QED corrections to the 4p - 4d transition energies of copperlike heavy ions W. R. Johnson and J: 31.30.Jv, 32.30.Rj, 31.25.-v, 31.15.Ar johnson@nd.edu jsapirst@nd.edu chen7@llnl.gov § ktcheng were carried out by Johnson et al. [8] with RMBPT to the third order in both the Coulomb and Breit

Johnson, Walter R.

62

Performance evaluation of the microPET P4: a PET system dedicated to animal imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microPET Primate 4-ring system (P4) is an animal PET tomograph with a 7.8 cm axial extent, a 19 cm diameter transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 22 cm animal port. The system is composed of 168 detector modules, each with an 8×8 array of 2.2×2.2×10 mm3 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals, arranged as 32 crystal rings 26 cm in diameter.

Y. C. Tai; A. Chatziioannou; S. Siegel; J. Young; D. Newport; R. N. Goble; R. E. Nutt; S. R. Cherry

2001-01-01

63

Phage P4 alpha protein is multifunctional with origin recognition, helicase and primase activities.  

PubMed

alpha Protein of satellite phage P4 of Escherichia coli is multifunctional in P4 replication with three activities. First, the protein (subunit M(r) = 84,900) complexes specifically the P4 origin and the cis replication region required for replication. alpha Protein interacts with all six type I repeats (TGTTCACC) present in the origin. Second, associated with the alpha protein is a DNA helicase activity that is fueled by hydrolysis of a nucleoside 5' triphosphate. All common NTPs except UTP and dTTP can serve as cofactors. Strand separation of partial duplexes containing tailed ends that resemble a replication fork is preferred, although a preformed fork is not absolutely required for the enzyme to invade and unwind duplex DNA. alpha Protein catalyzes unwinding in the 3'-5' direction with respect to the strand it has bound. Finally, the primase activity already demonstrated for alpha protein is due to synthesis of RNA primers. In vitro, alpha protein generates di- to pentaribonucleotides on single-stranded phage fd DNA. The predominant product is the dimer pppApG, on which most of the longer oligoribonucleotides are based. Using DNA oligonucleotides of defined sequence as templates, synthesis of pppApG was also detectable. To date, among prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication systems, gp alpha is the only protein known that combines three activities on one single polypeptide chain. PMID:8253092

Ziegelin, G; Scherzinger, E; Lurz, R; Lanka, E

1993-09-01

64

Mammalian P4-ATPases and ABC Transporters And Their Role in Phospholipid Transport  

PubMed Central

Transport of phospholipids across cell membranes plays a key role in a wide variety of biological processes. These include membrane biosynthesis, generation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry, cell and organelle shape determination, phagocytosis, vesicle tranfficking, blood coagulation, lipid homeostasis, regulation of membrane protein function, apoptosis among others. P4-ATPases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two principal classes of membranes proteins that actively transport phospholipids across cellular membranes. P4-ATPases utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to flip aminophospholipids from the exocytoplasmic (extracellular/lumen) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes generating membrane lipid asymmetry and lipid imbalance which can induce membrane curvature. Many ABC transporters play crucial roles in lipid homeostasis by actively transporting phospholipids from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes or exporting phospholipids to protein acceptors or micelles. Recent studies indicate that some ABC proteins can also transport phospholipids in the opposite direction. The importance of P4-ATPases and ABC transporters is evident from the findings that mutations in many of these transporters are responsible for severe human genetic diseases linked to defective phospholipid transport. PMID:23103747

Coleman, Jonathan A.; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S.

2012-01-01

65

Optical spectra and structure of CdP4 nanoclusters fabricated by incorporation into zeolite and laser ablation.  

PubMed

CdP(4) nanoclusters were fabricated by incorporation into the pores of zeolite Na-X and by deposition of the clusters onto a quartz substrate using the laser ablation-evaporation technique. Absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CdP(4) nanoclusters in zeolite were measured at temperatures 4.2, 77, and 293 K. Both absorption and PL spectra consist of two blue-shifted bands. We performed DFT calculations to determine the most stable clusters configuration in the size region up to the size of the zeolite Na-X supercage. The bands observed in absorption and PL spectra were attributed to the emission of (CdP(4))(3) and (CdP(4))(4) clusters with binding energies of 3.78 and 4.37 eV per atom, respectively. The Raman spectrum of CdP(4) clusters in zeolite proved the fact of creation of (CdP(4))(3) and (CdP(4))(4) clusters in zeolite pores. The PL spectrum of CdP(4) clusters produced by laser ablation consists of a single band that was attributed to the emission of the (CdP(4))(4) cluster. PMID:16853613

Yeshchenko, O A; Dmitruk, I M; Koryakov, S V; Galak, M P

2005-11-01

66

Initiation of transcription from the minute virus of mice P4 promoter is stimulated in rat cells expressing a c-Ha-ras oncogene.  

PubMed Central

Transformation of FR3T3 rat fibroblasts by a c-Ha-ras oncogene but not by bovine papillomavirus type 1 is associated with an increase in the abundance of mRNAs from prototype strain MVMp of infecting minute virus of mice, an oncosuppressive parvovirus. This differential parvovirus gene expression correlates with the reported sensitization of ras- but not bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed cells to the killing effect of MVMp (N. Salomé, B. van Hille, N. Duponchel, G. Meneguzzi, F. Cuzin, J. Rommelaere, and J. Cornelis, Oncogene 5:123-130, 1990). Experiments were performed to determine at which level parvovirus expression is up-regulated in ras transformants. An MVMp "attenuation" sequence responsible for the premature arrest of RNA elongation was either placed or not placed in front of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and brought under the control of MVMp early promoter P4. Although the MVMp attenuator reduced P4-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression, the extent of attenuation was similar in normal and ras-transformed cells. Moreover, the analysis of P4-directed viral RNAs in MVMp-infected cultures by RNase protection and nuclear run-on assays also revealed a transcription elongation block of a similar amplitude in both types of cells. In addition, the stabilities of the three major parvoviral mRNAs did not vary significantly between normal and ras-transformed cells. Hence, it is concluded that the ras-induced increase in the accumulation of parvoviral mRNAs is mainly controlled at the level of transcription. Consistently, the TATA motif of the P4 promoter proved to have a differential photoreactivity when tested by in vivo UV footprinting assays in ras-transformed versus normal cells. Images PMID:1651412

Spegelaere, P; van Hille, B; Spruyt, N; Faisst, S; Cornelis, J J; Rommelaere, J

1991-01-01

67

Benzyltripropylammonium bromide: a structure in polar space group P4(2)bc.  

PubMed

Crystals of the title compound, C(16)H(28)N(+).Br(-), were grown from solution in a mixture of acetone and propan-2-ol by slow evaporation. The structure was solved in the polar space group P4(2)bc with five moieties in the asymmetric unit, namely two benzyltripropylammonium cations in general positions, and two Br(-) anions in special Wyckoff positions (4a2. and 4b2.) and one in a general position. The structure consists of two kinds of molecular columns parallel to c, built of cations connected through C-H.pi hydrogen bonds and stabilized by weak C-H.Br interactions. PMID:14532666

Hodorowicz, Maciej A; Czapkiewicz, Jan; Stadnicka, Katarzyna

2003-10-01

68

Dihydrogen tetrametaphosphate, [P4O12H2]2-: synthesis, solubilization in organic media, preparation of its anhydride [P4O11]2- and acidic methyl ester, and conversion to tetrametaphosphate metal complexes via protonolysis.  

PubMed

Dihydrogen tetrametaphosphate [P4O12H2](2-) (1) can now be synthesized and isolated as its PPN salt ([PPN](+) = [N(PPh3)2](+)) via treatment of [PPN]4[P4O12] with trifluoroacetic anhydride in wet acetone; this simple procedure affords the oxoacid salt in 94% yield. A pKa of 15.83 ± 0.11 in acetonitrile was determined. [P4O12H2](2-) reacts with the dehydrating agent N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to afford tetrametaphosphate anhydride [P4O11](2-) (2) in 82% yield, also as the PPN salt. From 2 a monohydrogen tetrametaphosphate ester [P4O10(OH)(OMe)](2-) (3, 96%) was derived by addition of methanol, illustrating that 2 can function as a reagent for chemical phosphorylation. Addition of water to 2 regenerates 1 quantitatively. Deprotonation of 1 by metal amides in the +2 oxidation state led to the unconventional monomeric tin(II) ?(4) tetrametaphosphate [Sn(P4O12)](2-) (4, 78%, a molecular analog of SnO) and binary dimeric chromium(II) bis(?2,?(2),?(2)) derivative [Cr2(P4O12)2](4-) (5, 82%). Structural data stemming from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for the PPN salts of anions 1-5 are also reported. PMID:25102033

Jiang, Yanfeng; Chakarawet, Khetpakorn; Kohout, Andrea Laura; Nava, Matthew; Marino, Nadia; Cummins, Christopher C

2014-08-27

69

Immobilization of metalloporphyrins on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 by the quaternarization reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(4vinylpyridine-co-styrene) (P(4VP-co-St)) was grafted on silica gel particles in the manner of "grafting from", and the grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was gained. The chloromethylation reaction for the tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) was performed using a chloromethylation reagent, 1,4-bis(chloromethyoxy)butane which was uncarcinogenic, and the tetra-chloromethylphenyl-porphyrin (TMCPP) was prepared. Then, the quaternization reaction between the benzyl chloride groups on TMCPP and pyridine groups of the grafted P(4VP-co-St) macromolecules occurred and the bonding of TMCPP on the particles P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was realized, resulting in the functional composite-type particles TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. Subsequently, the metallation of the bonded particles TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was carried out via the coordination reaction between TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 and metal salt, resulting in the supported metalloporphyrin (MP) catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. The supported catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectra. The effects of various factors on the bonding process of TMCPP on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 were studied in detail. In addition, the catalytic activity of the supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 have been studied in oxidation process of ethyl benzene with molecular oxygen to acetophenone without the use of sacrificial co-reductant. The experimental results showed that the tetra-chloromethylphenyl-porphyrin (TMCPP) could be successfully bonded onto the P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 surfaces by means of the quaternization reaction between TMCPP and the pyridine groups on grafted P(4VP-co-St) macromolecules. The supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 exhibited the fine catalytic activity. Moreover, the supported cobalt porphyrin was more active than the supported iron and manganese porphyrins.

Wang, Ruixin; Jiao, Weizhou; Gao, Baojiao

2010-08-01

70

Differential Pathogenicity of SHIVSF162 P4 Infection in Pig-tailed and Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Differential pathogenicity has been observed in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques following primate lentivirus infection. However, little is known about the comparative susceptibility of pig-tailed macaques to lentivirus infection and diseases. Methods We compared the in vivo infectivity and pathogenicity of a CCR5-tropic SHIVSF162 P4 after intravenous, intravaginal or intrarectal inoculation in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques. Plasma viral load, peripheral blood CD4+ T cell counts and clinical signs were monitored. Results Both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques are similarly susceptible to SHIVSF162 P4 infection by intravenous and mucosal routes. However, SHIV replication was significantly more robust in pig-tailed macaques than in rhesus, resulting in persistent viremia in 9/21 pig-tails vs. 2/24 rhesus (p<0.013) and severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in 2/21 pig-tails (vs. none in rhesus). Conclusions Together with earlier observations, our findings underscore the importance of considering host genetic and immunological factors when comparing vaccine efficacy in different macaque species. PMID:19187427

Polacino, Patricia; Larsen, Kay; Galmin, Lindsey; Suschak, John; Kraft, Zane; Stamatatos, Leonides; Anderson, David; Barnett, Susan W.; Pal, Ranajit; Bost, Kristen; Bandivdekar, A. H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hu, Shiu-Lok

2009-01-01

71

Postmodification of PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer membranes by ARGET ATRP.  

PubMed

The surfaces of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer membranes were modified in order to obtain polymer brushes by using surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP). Isoporous membranes were prepared by the combination of self-assembly of PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers and the nonsolvent induced phase separation process, also known as "phase inversion". In order to allow further functionalization, the membranes were modified with an ATRP initiator, 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB). Therefore, the mussel-inspired poly(dopamine) coating was used to attach BIBB on the membranes surface. In the next step the coated membranes were postmodified by using surface-initiated ARGET ATRP with the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). HEMA as a hydrophilic methacrylate was chosen for the modification in order to enhance the membrane characteristics and to obtain a surface with antifouling properties. The surface-initiated ARGET ATRP reaction was carried out using different reaction times and environments. PHEMA could successfully incorporate on the membrane surface as confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. Furthermore, stability tests against heat and solvents were performed, and water flux was measured for the raw and modified membranes. Stability against heat and hydrophilicity could be increased with this type of modification for diblock copolymer membranes. PMID:24948370

Keskin, Damla; Clodt, Juliana I; Hahn, Janina; Abetz, Volker; Filiz, Volkan

2014-07-29

72

Photoionization of the 1s2s2p ^4P lithium metastable state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoionization of the core-excited 1s2s2p ^4P state of Li has been calculated from threshold to 100 eV, well above the 1s ionization potential. The calculations were performed using the R-matrix code with the addition of pseudostates and our recent enhancements(L. Voky, P. Faucher, A. Hibbert, J.-M. Li, Y.-Z. Qu, J. Yan, J. C. Chang,F. Bely-Dubau, Phys. Rev. (1997, submitted).). The outstanding feature of the results is the size and dominance of the ``hollow atom'' resonances over the background continuum cross section, in contrast to the ground and valence-excited state resultsfootnote L. Voky, P. Faucher, A. Hibbert, H. L. Zhou, S. T. Manson, F. Bely-Dubau, Phys. Rev. (1997, to be submitted), where the hollow atom reasonances are quite small, relatively speaking. This is particularly true for the 2s2p^2 ^4P resonance because it can be reached via a single-particle 1sarrow 2p transition from the 1s2s2p ^4P initial state. Others are much larger because excitation of a 1s plus a valence electron is much more probable than excitation of two 1s electrons. In addition, these represent an entirely different set of resonances, quartet resonances, which can not be accessed from valence-excited states using electric dipole photons. Propects for experimental observation of the photoionization of this metastable state will be discussed.

Zhou, Hsiao-Ling; Manson, Steven T.

1998-05-01

73

Biosynthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer of p(3-hydroxypropionate)-block-p(4-hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) is a highly elastic polymer, whereas poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a polymer with enormous tensile strength. This study aimed to biosynthesize a block copolymer consisting of soft P4HB block with a strong P3HP block to gain unique and excellent material properties. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain that produces homopolymers of P3HP and P4HB was employed for the block copolymer synthesis. When the strain was grown in the presence of 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as a 4HB precursor, P4HB block was formed. Sequential supplementation of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) as a 3HP precursor allowed the strain to produce P3HP block. Thermal, NMR, fractionation, and mechanical characterizations confirmed the resulting polymer as a block copolymer of P3HP-b-P4HB. Two block copolymers were formed from this study, including the P3HP-b-29% P4HB and P3HP-b-37% P4HB, they showed superior properties over random copolymers P(3HP-co-4HB). The block copolymers had two glass transition temperatures (Tg) and two melting temperatures (Tm). In comparison to the homopolymers P3HP and P4HB, incorporation of block microstructure resulted in the lowering of Tm, block copolymers were revealed with higher Young's modulus, yield strengths, and tension strengths much better than the previously reported random copolymers of similar compositions. Block copolymerization of P3HP and P4HB adds a new vision on PHA polymerization by generation of new polymers with superior properties. PMID:23351169

Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Meng, Dechuan; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

2013-03-11

74

Use of aglepristone for the treatment of P4 induced insulin resistance in dogs  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance (IR) in dogs is suspected when hyperglycemia is present despite administration of insulin doses greater than 1.0 to 1.5 UI/kg. IR is caused by increases in counter regulatory hormones concentrations (glucagon, glucocorticoids, catecholamines and growth hormone). This study was conducted to investigate the use of aglepristone (RU 46534), a P4 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of IR diabetes mellitus in bitches during the luteal phase. All animals were treated with porcine insulin zinc suspension (Caninsulin) and aglepristone (Alizin) 10 mg/kg subcutaneously at day 1, 2, 9 and 17 from diagnosis. At day 5, no significant variation in glycemia was shown. At day 12 and 20, serum glucose concentrations were significant lower (p < 0.05). From day 12 the insulin dose was reduced to 0.8 IU BID. Insulin was reduced in the following weeks and glycemia was controlled. PMID:24378588

Bresciani, Carla; Callegari, Daniela; Di Ianni, Francesco; Morini, Giorgio; Parmigiani, Enrico; Bianchi, Ezio

2014-01-01

75

Pressure–Temperature–Field Phase Diagram in the Ferromagnet U3P4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure–temperature–field phase diagram and quantum fluctuation effect were investigated in the itinerant ferromagnet U3P4 by resistivity, ac susceptibility, and Hall effect measurements under high pressure. The zero-temperature ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transition is located at Pc ˜ 4.0 GPa. The tricritical point exists at P* = 3.8 GPa and T* = 32 K, where the ferromagnetic transition changes from second- to first-order. As a quantum fluctuation effect, the low-temperature resistivity at Pc follows T5/3 dependence, which was theoretically described in the case of a three-dimensional ferromagnet. This result indicates that the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transition at Pc may be considered as weakly first-order. Another critical behavior, the huge enhancement of ?0 observed at Pc, cannot be interpreted as the ferromagnetic fluctuation effect. The Hall effect measurements suggest that the magnetic structure in the ordered state changes under high pressure.

Araki, Shingo; Hayashida, Minami; Nishiumi, Naoto; Manabe, Hiroki; Ikeda, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Murata, Keizo; Inada, Yoshihiko; Wi?niewski, Piotr; Aoki, Dai; ?nuki, Yoshichika; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Haga, Yoshinori

2015-02-01

76

CONTRIBUTEDARTICLE N N eV 1 N 3 p 4 1  

E-print Network

P CONTRIBUTEDARTICLE P S 0 N N eV 1 N 3 p 4 1 0 E S L A r r P i G B 0 8$ F E S C HA J G ` BC oo M c r d t m p s d n a c s a a d s k m l d t c e O t f o p v p i c oc t l A c k n o w lT w od e sh w s u pi p b t N a tS c iF o u nu ng rE C S -a b A FC o nF 4 9 6 2 0 - R e qf r e ps hb s et S r iV C h

Ghosh, Joydeep

77

Electronic structure of the group V tetramers (P4-Bi4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CAS-MCSCF) followed by multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) and relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) calculations, which included up to 2 million configurations, are carried out on the ground and excited states of P4-Bi4. We computed the properties of the 1A1 ground state with tetrahedral geometry as well as five excited states of triplet, singlet, and quintet multiplicities of these clusters. The computed results were used to assign the negative photodetachment spectra of Sb4- and Bi4- as well as the matrix isolated spectra of small Bi clusters. We found spin-orbit effects were quite large for Bi4. Our computations are consistent with the recent reassignment of the spectra of Bi4 observed by Bondybey and English to Bi3.

Zhang, Hongxing; Balasubramanian, K.

1992-09-01

78

Growth, Structure, Thermal Properties and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Nd3+-Doped KGdP4O12 Crystal  

PubMed Central

A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG?SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a?=?7.812(2) Å, b?=?12.307(3) Å, c?=?10.474(2) Å, ??=?110.84(3)° and Z?=?4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920°C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 ?s and a high quantum efficiency of 96%. PMID:24968165

Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

2014-01-01

79

The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the golgi and requires a beta-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation.  

PubMed

Vesicle budding in eukaryotes depends on the activity of lipid translocases (P(4)-ATPases) that have been implicated in generating lipid asymmetry between the two leaflets of the membrane and in inducing membrane curvature. We show that Aminophospholipid ATPase3 (ALA3), a member of the P(4)-ATPase subfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and that mutations of ALA3 result in impaired growth of roots and shoots. The growth defect is accompanied by failure of the root cap to release border cells involved in the secretion of molecules required for efficient root interaction with the environment, and ala3 mutants are devoid of the characteristic trans-Golgi proliferation of slime vesicles containing polysaccharides and enzymes for secretion. In yeast complementation experiments, ALA3 function requires interaction with members of a novel family of plant membrane-bound proteins, ALIS1 to ALIS5 (for ALA-Interacting Subunit), and in this host ALA3 and ALIS1 show strong affinity for each other. In planta, ALIS1, like ALA3, localizes to Golgi-like structures and is expressed in root peripheral columella cells. We propose that the ALIS1 protein is a beta-subunit of ALA3 and that this protein complex forms an important part of the Golgi machinery required for secretory processes during plant development. PMID:18344284

Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; López-Marqués, Rosa Laura; McDowell, Stephen C; Okkeri, Juha; Licht, Dirk; Schulz, Alexander; Pomorski, Thomas; Harper, Jeffrey F; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde

2008-03-01

80

NMR and XAS reveal an inner-sphere metal binding site in the P4 helix of the metallo-ribozyme ribonuclease P  

PubMed Central

Functionally critical metals interact with RNA through complex coordination schemes that are currently difficult to visualize at the atomic level under solution conditions. Here, we report a new approach that combines NMR and XAS to resolve and characterize metal binding in the most highly conserved P4 helix of ribonuclease P (RNase P), the ribonucleoprotein that catalyzes the divalent metal ion-dependent maturation of the 5? end of precursor tRNA. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals that the Zn2+ bound to a P4 helix mimic is six-coordinate, with an average Zn-O/N bond distance of 2.08 ?. The EXAFS data also show intense outer-shell scattering indicating that the zinc ion has inner-shell interactions with one or more RNA ligands. NMR Mn2+ paramagnetic line broadening experiments reveal strong metal localization at residues corresponding to G378 and G379 in B. subtilis RNase P. A new “metal cocktail” chemical shift perturbation strategy involving titrations with , Zn2+, and confirm an inner-sphere metal interaction with residues G378 and G379. These studies present a unique picture of how metals coordinate to the putative RNase P active site in solution, and shed light on the environment of an essential metal ion in RNase P. Our experimental approach presents a general method for identifying and characterizing inner-sphere metal ion binding sites in RNA in solution. PMID:20133747

Koutmou, Kristin S.; Casiano-Negroni, Anette; Getz, Melissa M.; Pazicni, Samuel; Andrews, Andrew J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Fierke, Carol A.

2010-01-01

81

NMR and XAS reveal an inner-sphere metal binding site in the P4 helix of the metallo-ribozyme ribonuclease P.  

PubMed

Functionally critical metals interact with RNA through complex coordination schemes that are currently difficult to visualize at the atomic level under solution conditions. Here, we report a new approach that combines NMR and XAS to resolve and characterize metal binding in the most highly conserved P4 helix of ribonuclease P (RNase P), the ribonucleoprotein that catalyzes the divalent metal ion-dependent maturation of the 5' end of precursor tRNA. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals that the Zn(2+) bound to a P4 helix mimic is six-coordinate, with an average Zn-O/N bond distance of 2.08 A. The EXAFS data also show intense outer-shell scattering indicating that the zinc ion has inner-shell interactions with one or more RNA ligands. NMR Mn(2+) paramagnetic line broadening experiments reveal strong metal localization at residues corresponding to G378 and G379 in B. subtilis RNase P. A new "metal cocktail" chemical shift perturbation strategy involving titrations with , Zn(2+), and confirm an inner-sphere metal interaction with residues G378 and G379. These studies present a unique picture of how metals coordinate to the putative RNase P active site in solution, and shed light on the environment of an essential metal ion in RNase P. Our experimental approach presents a general method for identifying and characterizing inner-sphere metal ion binding sites in RNA in solution. PMID:20133747

Koutmou, Kristin S; Casiano-Negroni, Anette; Getz, Melissa M; Pazicni, Samuel; Andrews, Andrew J; Penner-Hahn, James E; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Fierke, Carol A

2010-02-01

82

Transcriptional targeting of glioblastoma by diphtheria toxin–A driven by both H19 and IGF2-P4 promoters  

PubMed Central

Background The H19-IGF2 locus is either highly expressed and/or shows aberrant allelic pattern of expression in a large array of human cancers, while rarely expressed in the corresponding normal tissue. Preclinical, clinical studies and human compassionate using a DNA plasmid containing H19 and/or IGF2-P4 regulatory sequences that drive the expression of an intracellular toxin [diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA)] have demonstrated promising results in several types of carcinomas. Recently we reported that a single construct that expresses DTA under the control of both H19 and IGF2 P4 promoters showed superior efficacy in vitro as well as in vivo, in comparison to a single promoter construct in bladder carcinoma. Here we extended this approach to glioblastoma and tested the antitumor efficacy of the double promoter DTA-expressing vector (H19-DTA-P4-DTA) in vitro as well as in heterotopic animal model. H19 gene expression was tested by in-situ hybridization (ISH) and by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) in samples of diffuse glioma. Methods IGF2-P4 gene expression was tested by qRT-PCR as well. Results Both H19 and IGF2-P4 transcripts were highly expressed in high grade gliomas. Furthermore, significant H19 expression in other types of primary brain tumors as well as in brain metastases was detected by ISH. Both A172 and U87 human glioblastoma cell lines showed high expression of IGF2-P4 while the A172 cell line showed high expression of H19 RNA as well. H19-DTA-P4-DTA exhibited superior cytotoxic activity compared to the single promoter expression vectors, in U87 and A172 glioblastoma cell lines in vitro and showed antitumoral efficacy in heterotopic glioblastoma animal model. Conclusions Our findings indicate antitumoral efficacy against glioblastoma of the targeted double promoter vector H19-DTA-P4-DTA, both in-vitro and in-vivo. Thus, its test in orthotopic animal model of glioblastoma as well as in clinical trials is warranted. PMID:22567173

Amit, Doron; Matouk, Imad J; Lavon, Iris; Birman, Tatiana; Galula, Jenifer; Abu-Lail, Rasha; Schneider, Tamar; Siegal, Tali; Hochberg, Abraham; Fellig, Yakov

2012-01-01

83

Studies on the Site and Mode of TMPyP4 Interactions with Bcl-2 Promoter Sequence G-Quadruplexes  

PubMed Central

Abstract TMPyP4 (Mesotetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine) is known to have a high affinity for G-quadruplex DNA. However, there is still some controversy over the exact site(s) and mode(s) of TMPyP4 binding to G-quadruplex DNA. We examined TMPyP4 interactions with seven G-quadruplex forming oligonucleotides. The parent oligonucleotide is a 27-mer with a wild-type (WT) G-rich sequence of the Bcl-2 P1 promoter mid-region (5?-d(CGG GCG CGG GAG GAA GGG GGC GGG AGC-3?)). This sequence folds into at least three unique loop isomer quadruplexes. The two mutant oligonucleotides used in this study are shorter (23-mer) sequences in which nonquadruplex core bases were eliminated and two different (-G-G-) ? (-T-T-) substitutions were made to restrict the folding complexity. The four additional mutant oligonucleotides were labeled by substituting a 2-aminopurine (2-AP) base for an A or G in either the first three-base lateral loop or the second five- or seven-base lateral loop (depending on the G?T mutation positions). Spectroscopic and microcalorimetric studies indicate that four molecules of TMPyP4 can be bound to a single G-quadruplex. Binding of the first two moles of TMPyP4 appears to occur by an end or exterior mode (K ? 1 × 107 M?1), whereas binding of the third and fourth moles of TMPyP4 appears to occur by a weaker, intercalative binding mode (K ? 1 × 105 M?1). As the mid-loop size decreases from seven to five bases, end binding occurs with significantly increased affinity. 2-AP-labeled Bcl-2 promoter region quadruplexes show increased fluorescence of the 2-AP base on addition of TMPyP4. The change in fluorescence for 2-AP bases in the second half of the TMPyP4 titration lends support to our previous speculation regarding the intercalative nature of the weaker binding mode. PMID:20513407

Nagesh, Narayana; Buscaglia, Robert; Dettler, Jamie M.; Lewis, Edwin A.

2010-01-01

84

The miR-124-Prolyl Hydroxylase P4HA1-MMP1 axis plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression  

PubMed Central

Collagen prolyl hydroxylases (C-P4HAs) are a family of enzymes involved in collagen biogenesis. One of the isoforms of P4HA, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I (P4HA1), catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential for the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Here, we show the overexpression of P4HA1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray demonstrated that P4HA1 expression was correlated with prostate cancer progression. Using in vitro studies, we showed that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer cell growth and tumor progression. Expression profiling studies using P4HA1-modulated prostate cells suggested regulation of Matrix metalloprotease 1. The invasive properties of P4HA1 overexpressing cells were reversed by blocking MMP1. Our studies indicate P4HA1 copy number gain in a subset of metastatic prostate tumors and its expression is also regulated by microRNA-124. MiR-124 in turn is negatively regulated by transcriptional repressors EZH2 and CtBP1, both of which are overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mice xenograft investigations show that P4HA1 is required for tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Our observations suggest that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and could serve as a viable therapeutic target. PMID:25115393

Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V. S. K.; Cie?lik, Marcin; Zheng, Heng; Nallasivam, Sivakumar; Arekapudi, Subramanyeswara R.; Jing, Xiaojun; Siddiqui, Javed; Athanikar, Jyoti; Carskadon, Shannon L.; Lonigro, Robert J.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

2014-01-01

85

17th Issue of the Statutes of Wadham College I. The Constitution of the College p. 4  

E-print Network

p. 4 II. The Warden. p. 5 1. Qualifications 2. Election and Pre-Election 7. Admission p. 7 8. Authority and Duties p. 8 9. Residence p. 8 10. Emoluments p. 9 11. Warden's tenure of other offices or appointments p. 9 12. Retirement and Pension p. 10 16. Deprivation p. 12 III. I. The Fellows. p. 13 1. Classes

Wallace, Mark

86

P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS  

E-print Network

P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS winds and other severe weather threats with which they are associated, derecho-producing mesoscale and summer, derecho MCSs typically occur in environments of substantial convective instability, with very

87

Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of Fennoscandian cowpox virus isolates based on the p4c and atip genes  

PubMed Central

Background Cowpox virus (CPXV), a rodent-borne Orthopoxvirus (OPV) that is indigenous to Eurasia can infect humans, cattle, felidae and other animals. Molecular characterization of CPXVs isolated from different geographic locations is important for the understanding of their biology, geographic distribution, classification and evolution. Our aim was to characterize CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of atip gene fragment amplicon, and phylogenetic tree topology in conjunction with the patristic and genetic distances based on full length DNA sequence of the atip and p4c genes. Methods ATI phenotypes were determined by transmission electron microcopy and RFLP profiles were obtained by restriction enzyme digestion of the atip gene fragment PCR product. A 6.2 kbp region spanning the entire atip and p4c genes of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates was amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic affinity of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates to OPVs isolated from other geographic regions was determined on the basis of the atip and p4c genes. Results Fennoscandian CPXV isolates encoded full length atip and p4c genes. They produce wild type V+ ATI except for CPXV-No-H2. CPXVs were resolved into six and seven species clusters based on the phylogeny of the atip and p4c genes respectively. The CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia were grouped into three distinct clusters that corresponded to isolates from Norway, Sweden and Finland. Conclusion CPXV is a polyphyletic assemblage of six or seven distinct clusters and the current classification in which CPXVs are united as one single species should be re-considered. Our results are of significance to the classification and evolution of OPVs. PMID:24972911

2014-01-01

88

Phosphorolytic cleavage of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate. Properties of homogeneous diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate alpha, beta-phosphorylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Novel enzymatic activity which splits diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorolytically has been found in extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the two alpha,beta-anhydride bonds between Ap4A phosphate residues undergoes phosphorolysis, and ATP (pppA) plus ADP (ppA) are the products of the reaction according to the equation: AppppA + P*i----pppA + p*pA The reaction is dependent on the presence of divalent metal ions; Mn2+ or Mg2+ sustain the greatest rates of reaction. Among analogues of the Ap4A substrate, Ap5A and Gp4G, but not p4A and Ap3A, are substrates, and corresponding products are p4A plus ADP, and GTP plus GDP, the phosphate being incorporated into the nucleoside 5'-diphosphates. In the reactions, phosphate can be substituted with arsenate. Arsenolysis of Ap4A, Ap5A, or Gp4G leads to ATP plus AMP, p4A plus AMP, and GTP plus GMP, respectively. The name diadenosine tetraphosphate alpha,beta-phosphorylase (ADP-forming) is proposed for the new enzyme. The phosphorylase has been purified to apparent homogeneity and behaves as a single polypeptide chain of Mr = 40,000. Optimum activity of the enzyme is at pH 8.0 and the sulfhydryl groups are essential for catalysis. At saturating Ap4A, the rate constant for the reaction is 36 s-1 and the Km value for Ap4A is 60 microM (37 degrees C, 50 mM Hepes/KOH (pH 8.2), 500 microM MnCl2, 10 mM K2HPO4, 1 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, and 2% glycerol). The Km values for phosphate and arsenate are 1 and 3 mM, respectively. PMID:2982863

Guranowski, A; Blanquet, S

1985-03-25

89

p stopping power in hydrogen below 1 MeV and the p 4He metastable state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stopping power of H, for pS was measured in the p energy interval 1 keV + 120 keV using a low density gas target (p\\/prho ~ l0-3 + 10-2 ÷ prho being the Hz density at STP) with the OBELIX spectrometer at the LEAR of CEBN. Furthermore, the formation of metastable states in the p 4He interaction at rest,

A. Adamo; M. Agnello; F. Balestra; G. Belli; G. Bendiscioli; A. Bertin; P. Boccaccio; G. C. Bonazzola; T. Bressani; M. Bruschi; M. P. Bussa; L. Busso; D. Calvo; M. Capponi; C. Cicaló; M. Corradini; S. Costa; S. de Castro; F. D'Isep; A. Donzella; L. Fava; A. Feliciello; L. Ferrero; V. Filippini; D. Galli; R. Garfagnini; U. Gastaldi; P. Gianotti; A. Grasso; C. Guaraldo; F. Iazzi; A. Lanaro; E. Lodi Rizzini; M. Lombardi; V. Lucherini; A. Maggiora; S. Marcello; U. Marconi; G. V. Margagliotti; G. Maron; A. Masoni; I. Massa; B. Minetti; M. Morando; P. Montagna; F. Nichitiu; M. Panzieri; G. Pauli; M. Piccinini; G. Piragino; M. Poli; G. Puddu; R. A. Ricci; C. Rizzo; E. Rossetto; A. Rotondi; A. M. Rozhdestvensky; P. Salvini; L. Santi; M. G. Sapozhmkov; N. Semprini Cesari; S. Serci; P. Temnikov; S. Tessaro; F. Tosello; V. I. Tretyak; G. L. Usai; L. Vannucci; S. Vecchi; G. Vedovato; L. Venturelli; M. Villa; A. Vitale; E. Zavattini; A. Zenom; A. Zoccoli; G. Zosi

1993-01-01

90

The Cross Section of 3He(3He,2p)4He measured at Solar Energies  

E-print Network

We report on the results of the \\hethet\\ experiment at the underground accelerator facility LUNA (Gran Sasso). For the first time the lowest projectile energies utilized for the cross section measurement correspond to energies below the center of the solar Gamow peak ($E_{\\rm 0}$=22 keV). The data provide no evidence for the existence of a hypothetical resonance in the energy range investigated. Although no extrapolation is needed anymore (except for energies at the low-energy tail of the Gamow peak), the data must be corrected for the effects of electron screening, clearly observed the first time for the \\hethet\\ reaction. The effects are however larger than expected and not understood, leading presently to the largest uncertainty on the quoted $S_{\\rm b}(E_{\\rm 0})$ value for bare nuclides (=5.40 MeV b).

The LUNA Collaboration; M. Junker; A. D'Alessandro; S. Zavatarelli; C. Arpesella; E. Bellotti; C. Broggini; P. Corvisiero; G. Fiorentini; A. Fubini; G. Gervino; U. Greife; C. Gustavino; J. Lambert; P. Prati; W. S. Rodney; C. Rolfs; F. Strieder; H. P. Trautvetter; D. Zahnow

1998-02-06

91

Mass spectrometric studies on effects of counter ions of TMPyP4 on binding to human telomeric DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes.  

PubMed

A comparative study on human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex binding of meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) between its two salt forms, i.e., tetratosylate and tetrachloride, was conducted by using ESI-TOF-MS, UV-melting measurement, and molecular modeling methods. Besides cation TMPyP4, the tosyl anion was found to bind to human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex with multiple binding stoichiometries from 1:1 to 3:1 observed in ESI-TOF-MS spectra, indicating that the stabilization activity of TMPyP4 tetratosylate on G-quadruplex is derived from a synergetic effect of both TMPyP4 cation and tosyl anion. A molecular modeling study suggests that a tosyl anion fills up the vacant space between TMPyP4 cation and DNA G-quadruplex and thus stabilizes the complex by 3.8 kcal/mol. Therefore, it is estimated that TMPyP4 tetratosylate's activity might not reflect the real effect of TMPyP4 cation in some bioassays related to G-quadruplex stabilization. This was verified by the results of less binding affinity of TMPyP4 tetrachloride with DNA G-quadruplex obtained from ESI-TOF-MS measurement, and of 2.27 °C less thermal stabilization of TMPyP4 tetrachloride for DNA G-quadruplex, compared to its tetratosylate under the same conditions. Our study demonstrated the influence of counter ions of TMPyP4 on G-quadruplex binding, which sheds light on the proper usage of TMPyP4 salt in the chemical and biological research associated with G-quadruplex binding. Subsequently, the binding of TMPyP4 tetrachloride to human telomeric RNA G-quadruplexes was studied with ESI-TOF-MS technique. The binding constants of TMPyP4 with human telomeric G-quadruplexes indicated that TMPyP4 binds to human telomeric RNA G-quadruplex one order of magnitude stronger than DNA counterpart. This is a comprehensive mass spectrometric report on binding study of TMPyP4 with human telomeric DNA/RNA G-quadruplexes. PMID:24939133

Bai, Li-Ping; Liu, Jie; Han, Li; Ho, Hing-Man; Wang, Renxiao; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

2014-09-01

92

Structures, spectroscopic studies and solid-state thermal transformations of coordination polymers from P 4Se 3 and CuX (X=Cl, Br, I)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of coordination polymers (CuCl)P 4Se 3 ( 1), (CuBr) 3(P 4Se 3) 2 ( 2), (CuI) 3(P 4Se 3) 2 ( 3) and (CuI)P 4Se 3 ( 4), from solutions of copper(I) halides and P 4Se 3 by diffusion methods has been studied. The new compounds were characterized by X-ray crystallography, solid-state 31P MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy. Theoretical studies on the DFT level in the crystalline phase allowed the unequivocal assignment of the recorded Raman shifts between 200 and 480 cm -1. The structure of 1 consists of a 2D network of castellated [CuCl] n chains and bidentate P 4Se 3 molecules. The 3D network of 2 comprises [CuBr] n chains, which are linked by tridentate P 4Se 3 molecules. Compound 3 is a three-dimensional polymer composed of four-membered (CuI) 2 rings and castellated [CuI] n chains, which are linked by tridentate P 4Se 3 molecules involving two basal and the apical P atoms. Thermal conversion of 1 at 230 °C gives (CuCl) 3(P 4Se 3) 2 ( 5), which is isostructural with 2. The thermal conversion of (CuI) 3P 4S 3, which was studied for comparison gave at 371 °C (CuI) 3P 4S 4, Cu 3PS 4 and small amounts of Cu 6PS 5I.

Biegerl, Andreas; Gröger, Christian; Kalbitzer, Hans R.; Pfitzner, Arno; Wachter, Joachim; Weihrich, Richard; Zabel, Manfred

2011-07-01

93

P4 medicine: how systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society  

PubMed Central

Ten years ago, the proposition that healthcare is evolving from reactive disease care to care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory was regarded as highly speculative. Today, the core elements of that vision are widely accepted and have been articulated in a series of recent reports by the US Institute of Medicine. Systems approaches to biology and medicine are now beginning to provide patients, consumers and physicians with personalized information about each individual’s unique health experience of both health and disease at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. This information will make disease care radically more cost effective by personalizing care to each person’s unique biology and by treating the causes rather than the symptoms of disease. It will also provide the basis for concrete action by consumers to improve their health as they observe the impact of lifestyle decisions. Working together in digitally powered familial and affinity networks, consumers will be able to reduce the incidence of the complex chronic diseases that currently account for 75% of disease-care costs in the USA. PMID:25342952

Glusman, Gustavo; Brogaard, Kristin; Price, Nathan D; Hood, Leroy

2014-01-01

94

Symmetrical P4 cleavage at cobalt half sandwich complexes [(?5-C5H5)Co(L)] (L = CO, NHC)--a computational case study on the mechanism of symmetrical P4 degradation to P2 ligands.  

PubMed

A full theoretical mechanistic investigation on the symmetrical cleavage of P4 at the active complex fragments [(?(5)-C5H5)Co(L)] (L = CO, (i)Pr2Im; (i)Pr2Im = 1,3-di-iso-propylimidazolin-2-ylidene), which results in the formation of the complex [{(?(5)-C5H5)Co}2(?,?(2:2)-P2)2] 9, is presented. The overall reaction mechanism is a complex, multistep process. Rate-determining steps of the reaction sequence are two consecutive dissociations of the co-ligands L, which induce the decisive structural rearrangements of the P4 unit. The choice of the co-ligand L ( = CO, (i)Pr2Im) influences the kinetic barrier as well as the energy balance of the overall reaction path significantly. The calculations further reveal a strong influence of the entropic effect on the overall reaction. As a consequence, the energy balance of the overall formation of 9 starting from [(?(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)] precursors is almost thermoneutral and has to overcome high kinetic barriers, whereas the reaction starting from [(?(5)-C5H5)Co((i)Pr2Im)] precursors is exothermic, featuring lower transition barriers with stabilized intermediates. From the direct comparison of both reaction coordinates it seems that the entropic effect of the co-ligands is even stronger than their electronic influence, as for both investigated systems the reactions' energy profiles are almost identical up to intermediate [{(?(5)-C5H5)Co(L)}2(?,?(2:2)-P4)] 5 (L = CO, (i)Pr2Im). After the formation of 5, the first CO dissociation step renders the reaction endothermic for L = CO, whereas in the case of (i)Pr2Im dissociation the reaction progresses exothermically. Energy decomposition analysis and fragment analysis provide a picture of the bonding mechanisms between the metal complex fragments and P4 in the case of the most significant intermediates and the final product. PMID:23515870

Zarzycki, Bartosz; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Radius, Udo

2013-05-28

95

Multiple Folding Pathways for the P4-P6 RNA Domain Scott K. Silverman,*, Michael L. Deras, Sarah A. Woodson, Stephen A. Scaringe,| and Thomas R. Cech*,,  

E-print Network

-nucleotide P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron RNA, using stopped-flow fluorescence with 1 ms timeMultiple Folding Pathways for the P4-P6 RNA Domain Scott K. Silverman,*, Michael L. Deras,§ Sarah A ABSTRACT: We recently described site-specific pyrene labeling of RNA to monitor Mg2+-dependent equilibrium

Silverman, Scott K.

96

Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

97

Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

98

Lowest-lying octet baryon masses up to $\\mathcal{O}(p^4)$ in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, we report on a systematic study of the lowest-lying octet baryon masses in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with the extended-on-mass-shell renormalization scheme up to {O}(p4). By adjusting the low-energy constants, a reasonable description of the nf = 2 + 1 lattice results is achieved with ?2/d.o.f. about 1. It confirms that the various lattice simulations are consistent with each other. We also find that the virtual decuplet effects on the baryon masses cannot be disentangled from those of the virtual octet baryons and the tree level diagrams.

Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Lisheng; Meng, Jie; Toki, Hiroshi

2014-04-01

99

Thionations using a P4S10-pyridine complex in solvents such as acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfone.  

PubMed

Tetraphosphorus decasulfide (P(4)S(10)) in pyridine has been used as a thionating agent for a long period of time. The moisture-sensitive reagent has now been isolated in crystalline form, and the detailed structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The thionating power of this storable reagent has been studied and transferred to solvents such as acetonitrile in which it has proven to be synthetically useful and exceptionally selective. Its properties have been compared with the so-called Lawesson reagent (LR). Particularly interesting are the results from thionations at relatively high temperatures (?165 °C) in dimethyl sulfone as solvent. Under these conditions, for instance, acridone and 3-acetylindole could quickly be transformed to the corresponding thionated derivatives. Glycylglycine similarly gave piperazinedithione. At these temperatures, LR is inefficient due to rapid decomposition. The thionated products are generally cleaner and more easy to obtain because in the crystalline reagent, impurities which invariably are present in the conventional reagents, P(4)S(10) in pyridine or LR, have been removed. PMID:21341727

Bergman, Jan; Pettersson, Birgitta; Hasimbegovic, Vedran; Svensson, Per H

2011-03-18

100

Specific metal-ion binding sites in a model of the P4-P6 triple-helical domain of a group I intron.  

PubMed Central

Divalent metal ions play a crucial role in RNA structure and catalysis. Phosphorothioate substitution and manganese rescue experiments can reveal phosphate oxygens interacting specifically with magnesium ions essential for structure and/or activity. In this study, phosphorothioate interference experiments in combination with structural sensitive circular dichroism spectroscopy have been used to probe molecular interactions underlying an important RNA structural motif. We have studied a synthetic model of the P4-P6 triple-helical domain in the bacteriophage T4 nrdB group I intron, which has a core sequence analogous to the Tetrahymena ribozyme. Rp and Sp sulfur substitutions were introduced into two adjacent nucleotides positioned at the 3' end of helix P6 (U452) and in the joining region J6/7 (U453). The effects of sulfur substitution on triple helix formation in the presence of different ratios of magnesium and manganese were studied by the use of difference circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results show that the pro-Sp oxygen of U452 acts as a ligand for a structurally important magnesium ion, whereas no such effect is seen for the pro-Rp oxygen of U452. The importance of the pro-Rp and pro-Sp oxygens of U453 is less clear, because addition of manganese could not significantly restore the triple-helical interactions within the isolated substituted model systems. The interpretation is that U453 is so sensitive to structural disturbance that any change at this position hinders the proper formation of the triple helix. PMID:11497430

Lindqvist, M; Sandström, K; Liepins, V; Strömberg, R; Gräslund, A

2001-01-01

101

The P4-type ATPase ATP11C is essential for B lymphopoiesis in adult bone marrow  

PubMed Central

B lymphopoiesis begins in fetal liver, switching to bone marrow after birth where it persists for life. The unique developmental outcomes of each phase are well documented, yet their molecular requirements are not. Here we describe two allelic X-linked mutations in mice that caused a cell-intrinsic arrest of adult B lymphopoiesis. Mutant fetal liver progenitors generated B cells in situ, but not in irradiated adult bone marrow, highlighting a necessity for the affected pathway only in the context of adult bone marrow. The causative mutation was ascribed to Atp11c, which encodes a P4-type ATPase with no previously described function. Our data establish an essential, cell-autonomous and context-sensitive function for ATP11C, a putative aminophospholipid flippase, in B cell development. PMID:21423172

Siggs, Owen M.; Arnold, Carrie N.; Huber, Christoph; Pirie, Elaine; Xia, Yu; Lin, Pei; Nemazee, David; Beutler, Bruce

2011-01-01

102

Firefly luciferase synthesizes P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and other dinucleoside polyphosphates.  

PubMed

The synthesis of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate (Ap4A) has been considered, for a long time, to be catalyzed mainly by some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases [Brevet et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 8275-8279]. Recently, yeast Ap4A phosphorylase, acting in reverse (Guranowski et al. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 2959-2964), was shown to synthesize Ap4A, too. In the case of the synthetases, the intermediate complex E-aminoacyl-AMP may serve as donor of AMP to ATP, yielding Ap4A. Here we demonstrate that firefly luciferase (EC 1.13.12.7) which forms the E-luciferin-AMP intermediate also synthesizes Ap4A as well as other dinucleoside polyphosphates. We suggest moreover that: other enzymes (mainly synthetases and some transferases), which catalyze the transfer of a nucleotidyl moiety, via nucleotidyl-containing intermediates and releasing PPi may produce dinucleoside polyphosphates. PMID:2172002

Guranowski, A; Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

1990-10-01

103

In-situ Lorentz microscopy of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure dependence of magnetic properties of soft magnetic Fe-Si-B-P-Cu nanocrystalline alloys were studied by using in-situ Lorentz microscopy in a transmission electron microscope equipped with a magnetizing system. In particular, we investigated in detail motion of magnetic domain walls in heat-treated Fe85Si12B6P4Cu1 amorphous ribbons. Smooth motion of domain walls was observed for the optimally heat-treated (at 430 °C) nano-crystalline alloy. Pinning of domain walls was observed for higher-temperature-heat-treated (470 °C) ribbons. Both ribbons showed a nanocrystalline structure containing ?-Fe crystallites of about 15 nm in size. Electron diffraction patterns indicated that the higher-temperature-heat-treated samples contained boride precipitates, which is considered to cause less smooth domain wall motion.

Akase, Zentaro; Aizawa, Shinji; Shindo, Daisuke; Sharma, Parmanand; Makino, Akihiro

2015-02-01

104

Activation of White Phosphorus by Low-Valent Group 5 Complexes: Formation and Reactivity of cyclo-P4 Inverted Sandwich Compounds.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis and comprehensive study of the electronic structure of a unique series of dinuclear group 5 cyclo-tetraphosphide inverted sandwich complexes. White phosphorus (P4) reacts with niobium(III) and tantalum(III) ?-diketiminate (BDI) tert-butylimido complexes to produce the bridging cyclo-P4 phosphide species {[(BDI)(N(t)Bu)M]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)} (1, M = Nb; 2, M = Ta) in fair yields. 1 is alternatively synthesized upon hydrogenolysis of (BDI)Nb(N(t)Bu)Me2 in the presence of P4. The trinuclear side product {[(BDI)NbN(t)Bu]3(?-P12)} (3) is also identified. Protonation of 1 with [HOEt2][B(C6F5)4] does not occur at the phosphide ring but rather involves the BDI ligand to yield {[(BDI(#))Nb(N(t)Bu)]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)}[B(C6F5)4]2 (4). The monocation and dication analogues {[(BDI)(N(t)Bu)Nb]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)}{B(Ar(F))4}n (5, n = 1; 6, n = 2) are both synthesized by oxidation of 1 with AgBAr(F). DFT calculations were used in combination with EPR and UV-visible spectroscopies to probe the nature of the metal-phosphorus bonding. PMID:25469924

Camp, Clément; Maron, Laurent; Bergman, Robert G; Arnold, John

2014-12-17

105

Fast-electron-impact study on excitations of 4p, 4s, and 3d electrons of krypton  

SciTech Connect

Absolute optical oscillator strength densities for the excitations of the electrons 4p, 4s, and 3d have been measured. Their absolute optical oscillator strengths have also been obtained. An enhancement above the 4p ionization threshold in the photoabsorption spectrum was assigned as a delayed maximum which arises from the photoionization process of 4p{yields}{epsilon}d according to present Dirac-Slater calculation. In the energy region of 4s autoionization, we have observed several features that are absent in previous fast-electron-impact work, but exist in optical measurements. We clarify this discrepancy here. Two Rydberg series of optically forbidden transitions, i.e., 4s{sup -1}ns({sup 1}S) (n=5,6,7) and 4s{sup -1}nd({sup 1}D) (n=4,5,6,7) have been observed when the spectrometer worked at conditions with larger momentum transfers, namely, K{sup 2}=0.23 a.u. and 0.67 a.u. Furthermore, the absolute optical oscillator strengths for the 3d excitation have been obtained.

Yuan Zhensheng; Zhu Linfan; Liu Xiaojing; Li Wenbin; Cheng Huadong; Xu Kezun [Laboratory of Bond Selective Chemistry, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Zhong Zhiping [Department of Physics, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 3908, Beijing 100039 (China)

2002-12-01

106

Comparing Student Experiences with Story Discussions in Dialogic versus Traditional Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the testimonials of 60 elementary school students about their experience during class discussions of assigned readings. They randomly assigned 12 classrooms to 2 treatments: Philosophy for Children (P4C) and Regular Instruction. P4C is an alternative educational environment that places dialogue at the center of its pedagogy.…

Reznitskaya, Alina; Glina, Monica

2013-01-01

107

Effect of CdSe nanoparticle addition on nanostructuring of PS-b-P4VP copolymer via solvent vapor exposure.  

PubMed

The surface morphology of poly(styrene-b-4 vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer thin films after solvent vapor annealing has been studied. Morphological features can be switched upon exposure to vapors of a solvent selective for one of the blocks. Self-assembled nanostructures such as hexagonal or striped morphologies were obtained varying vapor exposure time. In addition, the effect of the presence of CdSe nanoparticles located in the P4VP block on obtained nanostructures was analyzed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for morphological characterization of the block copolymer and the nanocomposites. AFM images showed that nanostructuring was different depending on the amount of CdSe nanoparticles, due to the decrease in P4VP chain mobility. PMID:24370397

Etxeberria, Haritz; Fernandez, Raquel; Zalakain, Iñaki; Mondragon, Iñaki; Eceiza, Arantxa; Kortaberria, Galder

2014-02-15

108

Exciplexes with ionic dopants: stability, structure, and experimental relevance of M(+)((2)P)(4)He(n) (M = Sr, Ba).  

PubMed

M(+)((2)P)(4)Hen species, possibly involved in the post (2)P ? (2)S excitation dynamics of Sr(+) and Ba(+) in cold (4)He gas or droplets, are studied employing both high level ab initio calculations to determine the potential energy curves (PEC) and diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) to obtain information on their ground state structure and energetics. PEC for the excited M(+)((2)P)He dimers were obtained using MRCI calculations with extended basis sets. Potential energy surfaces (PES) for M(+)((2)P)Hen were built with the DIM model including spin-orbit coupling via a perturbative procedure. DMC simulations indicated several exciplexes (n > 2) to be stable against He dissociation whatever the ion state, a finding that is at variance with what was previously suggested for Ba(+)((2)P1/2) due to the repulsive nature of the interaction potential obtained in [ Phys. Rev. A 2004 , 69 , 042505 ]. Our results, instead, support the suggestion made in [J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 137, 051102] for the existence of Ba(+)((2)P1/2)Hen exciplexes emitted following the excitation of the barium cation solvated into He droplets. In the (2)P1/2 state, the Ba ion also shows a peculiar behavior as a function of n with respect to the location and binding strength of the attached He atoms compared to Sr(+). Although the latter forms the usual equatorial He ring, Ba(+) deviates from this geometry for 1 ? n ? 4, with the radial distribution functions strongly depending on the number of solvent atoms. Finally, a putative species is proposed to explain the emission band at 523 nm that follows D1 or D2 excitation of Ba(+) in superfluid bulk helium. PMID:24878217

Mella, Massimo; Cargnoni, Fausto

2014-08-21

109

Rhesus macaques vaccinated with consensus envelopes elicit partially protective immune responses against SHIV SF162p4 challenge.  

PubMed

The development of a preventative HIV/AIDS vaccine is challenging due to the diversity of viral genome sequences, especially in the viral envelope (Env???). Since it is not possible to directly match the vaccine strain to the vast number of circulating HIV-1 strains, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. Previous studies from our group demonstrated that a mixture of wild type clade B Env(gp160s) were able to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge more effectively than a consensus clade B Envg(p160) vaccine. In order to broaden the immune response to other clades of HIV, in this study rhesus macaques were vaccinated with a polyvalent mixture of purified HIV-1 trimerized consensus Envg(p140) proteins representing clades A, B, C, and E. The elicited immune responses were compared to a single consensus Env(gp140) representing all isolates in group M (Con M). Both vaccines elicited anti- Env(gp140) IgG antibodies that bound an equal number of HIV-1 Env(gp160) proteins representing clades A, B and C. In addition, both vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized the HIV-1(SF162) isolate. However, the vaccinated monkeys were not protected against SHIV(SF162p4) challenge. These results indicate that consensus Env(gp160) vaccines, administered as purified Env(gp140) trimers, elicit antibodies that bind to Env(gp160s) from strains representing multiple clades of HIV-1, but these vaccines did not protect against heterologous SHIV challenge. PMID:23548077

Eugene, Hermancia S; Pierce-Paul, Brooke R; Cragio, Jodi K; Ross, Ted M

2013-01-01

110

Knowledge-Based Personal Health System to empower outpatients of diabetes mellitus by means of P4 Medicine.  

PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and it imposes a large economic burden on healthcare systems. We present a web patient empowering system (PHSP4) that ensures continuous monitoring and assessment of the health state of patients with DM (type I and II). PHSP4 is a Knowledge-Based Personal Health System (PHS) which follows the trend of P4 Medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, and Participative). It provides messages to outpatients and clinicians about the achievement of objectives, follow-up, and treatments adjusted to the patient condition. Additionally, it calculates a four-component risk vector of the associated pathologies with DM: Nephropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic foot, and Cardiovascular event. The core of the system is a Rule-Based System which Knowledge Base is composed by a set of rules implementing the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (American Diabetes Association: http://www.diabetes.org/ ) clinical guideline. The PHSP4 is designed to be standardized and to facilitate its interoperability by means of terminologies (SNOMED-CT [The International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization: http://www.ihtsdo.org/snomed-ct/ ] and UCUM [The Unified Code for Units of Measure: http://unitsofmeasure.org/ ]), standardized clinical documents (HL7 CDA R2 [Health Level Seven International: http://www.hl7.org/index.cfm ]) for managing Electronic Health Record (EHR). We have evaluated the functionality of the system and its users' acceptance of the system using simulated and real data, and a questionnaire based in the Technology Acceptance Model methodology (TAM). Finally results show the reliability of the system and the high acceptance of clinicians. PMID:25417090

Bresó, Adrián; Sáez, Carlos; Vicente, Javier; Larrinaga, Félix; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

2015-01-01

111

ATP9B, a P4-ATPase (a putative aminophospholipid translocase), localizes to the trans-Golgi network in a CDC50 protein-independent manner.  

PubMed

Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) are putative phospholipid flippases that translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic (lumenal) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of lipid bilayers and are believed to function in complex with CDC50 proteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five P4-ATPases are localized to specific cellular compartments and are required for vesicle-mediated protein transport from these compartments, suggesting a role for phospholipid translocation in vesicular transport. The human genome encodes 14 P4-ATPases and three CDC50 proteins. However, the subcellular localization of human P4-ATPases and their interactions with CDC50 proteins are poorly understood. Here, we show that class 5 (ATP10A, ATP10B, and ATP10D) and class 6 (ATP11A, ATP11B, and ATP11C) P4-ATPases require CDC50 proteins, primarily CDC50A, for their exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and final subcellular localization. In contrast, class 2 P4-ATPases (ATP9A and ATP9B) are able to exit the ER in the absence of exogenous CDC50 expression: ATP9B, but not ATP11B, was able to exit the ER despite depletion of CDC50 proteins by RNAi. Although ATP9A and ATP9B show a high overall sequence similarity, ATP9A localizes to endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN), whereas ATP9B localizes exclusively to the TGN. A chimeric ATP9 protein in which the N-terminal cytoplasmic region of ATP9A was replaced with the corresponding region of ATP9B was localized exclusively to the Golgi. These results indicate that ATP9B is able to exit the ER and localize to the TGN independently of CDC50 proteins and that this protein contains a Golgi localization signal in its N-terminal cytoplasmic region. PMID:21914794

Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Baba, Keiko; Shima, Takahiro; Umino, Hiroyuki; Kato, Utako; Umeda, Masato; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

2011-11-01

112

Characterization of G2P[4] rotavirus strains associated with increased detection in Australian states using the RotaTeq® vaccine during the 2010-2011 surveillance period.  

PubMed

The introduction of rotavirus vaccines Rotarix® and RotaTeq® into the Australian National Immunisation Program in July 2007 has resulted in a dramatic decrease in the burden of rotavirus disease. G2P[4] strains became the dominant genotype Australia-wide during the 2010-2011 surveillance period and for the first time since vaccine introduction, a higher proportion were isolated in jurisdictions using RotaTeq® vaccine compared to locations using Rotarix®. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene of 32 G2P[4] strains identified six genetic clusters, these distinct clusters were also observed in the VP4 gene for a subset of 12 strains. The whole genome was determined for a representative strain of clusters; A (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/SA066/2010/G2P[4]), B (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/WAPC703/2010/G2P[4]), C (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/MON008/2010/G2P[4]) and E (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/RCH041/2010/G2P[4]). All of the strains possessed the archetypal DS-1 like genome constellation G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Three of the strains, SA066, MON008 and WAPC703 clustered together and were distinct to RCH041 for all 11 genes. The VP7 genes of 31/32 of the strains characterized in this study possessed five conserved amino acid substitutions when compared to the G2 VP7 gene present in the RotaTeq® vaccine. Three of the substitutions were in the VP7 antigenic regions A and C, the substitutions A87T, D96N and S213D have been reported in the majority of G2P[4] strains circulating globally over the previous decade. These changes may have improved the ability of strains to circulate in settings of high vaccine use. PMID:24861815

Donato, Celeste M; Zhang, Zheng Andrew; Donker, Nicole C; Kirkwood, Carl D

2014-12-01

113

When incentives work too well: locally implemented pay for performance (P4P) and adverse sanctions towards home birth in Tanzania - a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite limited evidence of its effectiveness, performance-based payments (P4P) are seen by leading policymakers as a potential solution to the slow progress in reaching Millennium Development Goal 5: improved maternal health. This paper offers insights into two of the aspects that are lacking in the current literature on P4P, namely what strategies health workers employ to reach set targets, and how the intervention plays out when implemented by local government as part of a national programme that does not receive donor funding. Methods A total of 28 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 25 individuals were conducted in Mvomero district over a period of 15 months in 2010 and 2011, both before and after P4P payments. Seven facilities, including six dispensaries and one health centre, were covered. Informants included 17 nurses, three clinical officers, two medical attendants, one lab technician and two district health administrators. Results Health workers reported a number of strategies to increase the number of deliveries at their facility, including health education and cooperation with traditional health providers. The staff at all facilities also reported that they had told the women that they would be sanctioned if they gave birth at home, such as being fined or denied clinical cards and/or vaccinations for their babies. There is a great uncertainty in relation to the potential health impacts of the behavioural changes that have come with P4P, as the reported strategies may increase the numbers, but not necessarily the quality. Contrary to the design of the P4P programme, payments were not based on performance. We argue that this was due in part to a lack of resources within the District Administration, and in part as a result of egalitarian fairness principles. Conclusions Our results suggest that particular attention should be paid to adverse effects when using external rewards for improved health outcomes, and secondly, that P4P may take on a different form when implemented by local implementers without the assistance of professional P4P specialists. PMID:24438556

2014-01-01

114

Bioactive glass BAG-S53P4 for the adjunctive treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones: an in vitro and prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of the bioglass BAG S53P4 against multi-resistant microorganisms commonly involved in osteomyelitis and to evaluate its use in surgical adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis. Methods In vitro antibacterial activity of BAG-S53P4 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates was evaluated by means of time kill curves, with colony counts performed after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. In vivo evaluation was performed by prospectively studying a cohort of 27 patients with a clinically and radiologically diagnosed osteomyelitis of the long bones in an observational study. Endpoints were the absence of infection recurrence/persistence at follow-up, no need for further surgery whenever during follow-up and absence of local or systemic side effects connected with the BAG use. Results In vitro tests regarding the antibacterial activity of BAG S53P4 showed a marked bactericidal activity after 24 hrs against all the tested species. This activity continued in the subsequent 24 hrs and no growth was observed for all strains after 72 hrs. Results of the clinical study evidenced no signs of infection in 24 patients (88.9%) at the follow-up, while 2 subjects showed infection recurrence at 6 months from index operation and one more needed further surgical procedures. BAG-S53P4 was generally well tolerated. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo findings reinforce previous observations on the efficacy of BAG-S53P4 for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones, also in the presence of multi-resistant strains and in immunocompromised hosts, without relevant side effects and without the need for locally adding antibiotics. Trial registration Deutschen Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) unique identifier: DRKS00005332. PMID:24325278

2013-01-01

115

ol i{, 4n'csb-&1p4/e-ez\\ S [*^4. F/:*rJ  

E-print Network

-dimensional, a transition named, for obvious reasons, a " diaensional transition" by Scherrzer and Lovejoy (1983I and LarchevEque (1974), Macpherson and Issac(1977), Gage (1979), ciler er A1. (1980), Lovejoy (1982), LarsenEzer and Lovejoy (1983) have examined Ehe different theoretical. ideas underlying these experi- nentals resulfs

Lovejoy, Shaun

116

A Three-Body Faddeev Calculation of the Double Polarized 3He(d,p)4He Reaction in the Super Low-Energy Region  

SciTech Connect

The total cross section of the 3He(d,p)4He reaction at the super low-energy region is calculated by the three-body Faddeev equations in the 3He-p-n model. The result is compared with the ''double polarized'' total cross section in which both of the incident deuteron and the target 3He are set in a spin parallel way. The PEST potential for the p-n interaction, the REST potential for the p-3He and n-3He interactions are adopted, respectively. The off-shell importance of the p-3He and n-3He potentials is emphasized to reproduce the 5Li (3/2+) resonance. The cross section enhancement of 3He(d,p)4He reaction by the spin polarizations is confirmed.

Gojuki, S. [SGI Japan, Ltd. Queen's Tower C 20F 2-3-5 Minatomirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 200-6220 (Japan); College of Environmental Health, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8501 (Japan); Sonoda, K.; Hiratsuka, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Oryu, S. [SGI Japan, Ltd. Queen's Tower C 20F 2-3-5 Minatomirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 200-6220 (Japan)

2007-06-13

117

Comparison of aerosol characteristics over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea using IRS-P4 Ocean Color Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Color Monitor OCM aboard IRS-P4 Satellite has been used to retrieve aerosol optical depth AOD in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea We have retrieved AOD using IRS P4 OCM data at wavelength 555nm and 865nm during summer and winter season for the period 2000-2005 Characteristics of AOD and angstrom coefficient along the eastern and western coasts at 1 degree latitude interval at three different locations 25 50 and 100km from the coast have been studied AOD is found to vary significantly from north to south towards deep sea The Arabian Sea shows more aerosol loading compared to the Bay of Bengal especially during summer season due to influx of mineral dust from arid and desert regions of Middle East Africa Sahara and Thar India We have carried out validation of OCM derived AOD using same day overpass of MODIS level 2 10km resolution that shows reasonable correlation

Prasad, A. K.; Chaturvedi, P.; Singh, R. P.

118

Construction of a non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on copolymer P4VP-co-PAN and Fe2O3 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

An electrochemical sensor based on a copolymer poly(4-vinylpyridine)-co-poly(acrylonitrile), P4VP-co-PAN, and Fe2O3 nanoparticle film modified glassy carbon electrode was developed for the determination of glucose. We studied the response of glucose with the proposed electrode, and determined the optimum conditions by changing the potential, pH and P4VP-co-PAN. The current response measurements were performed in PBS (c=0.1 M) with a potential of 0.7 V. The current response of this glucose sensor showed a linear relationship with the concentration in the range of 2.5 ?M-0.58 mM (r=0.997). The experimental results demonstrate that this method has such merits as simple operation, low cost, high sensitivity, long term stability and good reproducibility, with satisfactory results. PMID:24411396

Chen, Yuxing; Zhang, Huaihao; Xue, Huaiguo; Hu, Xiaoya; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Chengyin

2014-02-01

119

Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously recorded rock ring, 26NY1371, that could not be relocated during subsequent investigations. Surface artifacts were collected from all but two of the sites, 26NY1370 and 26NY1372. The data retrieved from these investigations include over one thousand artifacts, such as projectile points, bifaces, debitage, groundstone, and pottery. The temporally diagnostic materials indicate periodic use of Sample Unit U19arP4 from the Middle Archaic to the Shoshonean period.

Johnson, W.G.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Drollinger, H.

1992-12-31

120

Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously recorded rock ring, 26NY1371, that could not be relocated during subsequent investigations. Surface artifacts were collected from all but two of the sites, 26NY1370 and 26NY1372. The data retrieved from these investigations include over one thousand artifacts, such as projectile points, bifaces, debitage, groundstone, and pottery. The temporally diagnostic materials indicate periodic use of Sample Unit U19arP4 from the Middle Archaic to the Shoshonean period.

Johnson, W.G.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Drollinger, H.

1992-01-01

121

Endophilin\\/SH3p4 Is Required for the Transition from Early to Late Stages in Clathrin-Mediated Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophilin\\/SH3p4 is a protein highly enriched in nerve terminals that binds the GTPase dynamin and the polyphosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin, two proteins implicated in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. We show here that antibody-mediated disruption of endophilin function in a tonically stimulated synapse leads to a block in the invagination of clathrin-coated pits adjacent to the active zone and therefore to a block

Niels Ringstad; Helge Gad; Peter Löw; Gilbert Di Paolo; Lennart Brodin; Oleg Shupliakov; Pietro De Camilli

1999-01-01

122

Measurement of cross sections for the 232Th(P,4n)229Pa reaction at low proton energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-emitters 225Ac and 213Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived 229Th(t1/2 = 7880y). 229Th can be produced by proton irradiation of 232Th and 230Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into 229Th. To obtain excitation functions, 232Th and 230Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of 229Pa and its daughter 225Ac from both 232Th and 230Th. Differential cross-sections for production of 229Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

Jost, C. U.; Griswold, J. R.; Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S.; Stracener, D. W.; Williams, C. L.

2013-04-01

123

99mTc-3P4-RGD2 Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Lesions: Comparative Study with 99mTc-MIBI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the potential application of 99mTc-3P-Arg-Gly-Asp (99mTc-3P4-RGD2) scintimammography (SMM) and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) SMM for the differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions. Method Thirty-six patients with breast masses on physical examination and/or suspicious mammography results that required fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-MIBI SMM were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 60 min and 20 min respectively after intravenous injection of 738±86 MBq radiotracers on a separate day. Images were evaluated by the tumor to non-tumor localization ratios (T/NT). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on each radiotracer to calculate the cut-off values of quantitative indices and to compare the diagnostic performance for the ability to differentiate malignant from benign diseases. Results The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in benign lesions (3.54±1.51 vs. 1.83±0.98, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM were 89.3%, 90.9% and 89.7%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 2.40. The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-MIBI in malignant lesions was also significantly higher than that in benign lesions (2.86±0.99 vs. 1.51±0.61, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI SMM were 87.5%, 72.7% and 82.1%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 1.45. According to the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM (area?=?0.851) was higher than that for 99mTc-MIBI SMM (area?=?0.781), but the statistical difference was not significant. Conclusion 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM does not provide any significant advantage over the established 99mTc-MIBI SMM for the detection of primary breast cancer. The T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM was significantly higher than that of 99mTc-MIBI SMM. Both tracers could offer an alternative method for elucidating non-diagnostic mammograms. PMID:25250628

Gao, Shi; Ji, Tiefeng; Wen, Qiang; Song, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Xu, Zheli; Liu, Lin

2014-01-01

124

An innovative pay-for-performance (P4P) strategy for improving malaria management in rural Kenya: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background In high-resource settings, ‘pay-for-performance’ (P4P) programs have generated interest as a potential mechanism to improve health service delivery and accountability. However, there has been little or no experimental evidence to guide the development or assess the effectiveness of P4P incentive programs in developing countries. In the developing world, P4P programs are likely to rely, at least initially, on external funding from donors. Under these circumstances, the sustainability of such programs is in doubt and needs assessment. Methods/design We describe a cluster-randomized controlled trial underway in 18 health centers in western Kenya that is testing an innovative incentive strategy to improve management of an epidemiologically and economically important problem—diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The incentive scheme in this trial promotes adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines for laboratory confirmation of malaria before treatment, a priority area for the Ministry of Health. There are three important innovations that are unique to this study among those from other resource-constrained settings: the behavior being incentivized is quality of care rather than volume of service delivery; the incentives are applied at the facility-level rather than the individual level, thus benefiting facility infrastructure and performance overall; and the incentives are designed to be budget-neutral if effective. Discussion Linking appropriate case management for malaria to financial incentives has the potential to improve patient care and reduce wastage of expensive antimalarials. In our study facilities, on average only 25% of reported malaria cases were confirmed by laboratory diagnosis prior to the intervention, and the total treatment courses of antimalarials dispensed did not correspond to the number of cases reported. This study will demonstrate whether facility rather than individual incentives are compelling enough to improve case management, and whether these incentives lead to offsetting cost-savings as a result of reduced drug consumption. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number NCT01809873 PMID:23656836

2013-01-01

125

WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b  

SciTech Connect

We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

Todorov, Kamen O. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sada, Pedro V. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-06-20

126

Synthesis of P1,P4-di(adenosine 5'-) tetraphosphate by leucyl-tRNA synthetase, coupled with ATP regeneration.  

PubMed

A simple and practical procedure for the synthesis of P1,P4-di(adenosine 5'-) tetraphosphate from ATP by the catalysis of leucyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus is described. Km for leucine was 6.7 microM and for ATP was 3.3 mM. The reaction yielded not only diadenosine tetraphosphate, but various byproducts such as P1,P3-(diadenosine 5'-) triphosphate, ADP and AMP. By coupling the reaction with an ATP regeneration system by acetate kinase and adenylate kinase with acetylphosphate as a phosphate donor, diadenosine tetraphosphate was prepared as a sole product at a high yield (96%). PMID:3606615

Kitabatake, S; Dombou, M; Tomioka, I; Nakajima, H

1987-07-15

127

Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPase ALA3 Reduces Adaptability to Temperature Stresses and Impairs Vegetative, Pollen, and Ovule Development  

PubMed Central

Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to help create asymmetry in lipid bilayers by flipping specific lipids between the leaflets of a membrane. This asymmetry is believed to be central to the formation of vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a P4-ATPase associated with the trans-Golgi network (ALA3) was previously reported to be important for vegetative growth and reproductive success. Here we show that multiple phenotypes for ala3 knockouts are sensitive to growth conditions. For example, ala3 rosette size was observed to be dependent upon both temperature and soil, and varied between 40% and 80% that of wild-type under different conditions. We also demonstrate that ala3 mutants have reduced fecundity resulting from a combination of decreased ovule production and pollen tube growth defects. In-vitro pollen tube growth assays showed that ala3 pollen germinated ?2 h slower than wild-type and had approximately 2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length. In genetic crosses under conditions of hot days and cold nights, pollen fitness was reduced by at least 90-fold; from ?18% transmission efficiency (unstressed) to less than 0.2% (stressed). Together, these results support a model in which ALA3 functions to modify endomembranes in multiple cell types, enabling structural changes, or signaling functions that are critical in plants for normal development and adaptation to varied growth environments. PMID:23667493

McDowell, Stephen C.; López-Marqués, Rosa L.; Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Palmgren, Michael G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.

2013-01-01

128

Stabilization of a G-Quadruplex from Unfolding by Replication Protein A Using Potassium and the Porphyrin TMPyP4  

PubMed Central

Replication protein A (RPA) plays an essential role in DNA replication by binding and unfolding non-canonical single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) structures. Of the six RPA ssDNA binding domains (labeled A-F), RPA-CDE selectively binds a G-quadruplex forming sequence (5?-TAGGGGAAGGGTTGGAGTGGGTT-3? called Gq23). In K+, Gq23 forms a mixed parallel/antiparallel conformation, and in Na+ Gq23 has a less stable (TM lowered by ?20°C), antiparallel conformation. Gq23 is intramolecular and 1D NMR confirms a stable G-quadruplex structure in K+. Full-length RPA and RPA-CDE-core can bind and unfold the Na+ form of Gq23 very efficiently, but complete unfolding is not observed with the K+ form. Studies with G-quadruplex ligands, indicate that TMPyP4 has a thermal stabilization effect on Gq23 in K+, and inhibits complete unfolding by RPA and RPA-CDE-core. Overall these data indicate that G-quadruplexes present a unique problem for RPA to unfold and ligands, such as TMPyP4, could possibly hinder DNA replication by blocking unfolding by RPA. PMID:21772995

Prakash, Aishwarya; Kieken, Fabien; Marky, Luis A.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.

2011-01-01

129

Strontium magnesium phosphate, Sr(2+x)Mg(3-x)P4O15 (x ~ 0.36), from laboratory X-ray powder data.  

PubMed

The previously unknown crystal structure of strontium magnesium phosphate, Sr(2+x)Mg(3-x)P(4)O(15) (x ~ 0.36), determined and refined from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data, represents a new structure type. The title compound was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction and it crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm. It was earlier thought to be stoichiometric Sr(2)Mg(3)P(4)O(15), but our structural study indicates the nonstoichiometric composition. The asymmetric unit contains one Sr (site symmetry ..m on special position 8g), one M (= Mg 64%/Sr 36%; site symmetry 2/m.. on special position 4b), one Mg (site symmetry 2.. on special position 8e), two P (site symmetry m.. on special position 8f and site symmetry ..m on special position 8g), and six O sites [two on general positions 16h, two on 8g, one on 8f and one on special position 4c (site symmetry m2m)]. The nonstoichiometry is due to the mixing of magnesium and strontium ions on the M site. The structure consists of three-dimensional networks of MgO(4) and PO(4) tetrahedra, and MO(6) octahedra with the other strontium ions occupying the larger cavities surrounded by ten O atoms. All the polyhedra are connected by corner-sharing except the edge-sharing MO(6) octahedra forming one-dimensional arrangements along [001]. PMID:21206067

Hong, Jung-Hwa; Song, Seung-Wan; Hong, Seung-Tae

2011-01-01

130

Molecular Epidemiology of Contemporary G2P[4] Human Rotaviruses Cocirculating in a Single U.S. Community: Footprints of a Globally Transitioning Genotype  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the G/P types of locally circulating RVs can vary from year to year and differ depending upon geographical location, those with G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], and G12P[8] specificities typically dominate. Little is known about the evolution and diversity of G2P[4] RVs and the possible role that widespread vaccine use has had on their increased frequency of detection. To address these issues, we analyzed the 12 G2P[4] RV isolates associated with a rise in RV gastroenteritis cases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) during the 2010-2011 winter season. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates had genotype 2 constellations typical of DS-1-like viruses (G2P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genome segments of the isolates were comprised of two or three different subgenotype alleles; this enabled recognition of three distinct clades of G2P[4] viruses that caused disease at VUMC in the 2010-2011 season. Although the three clades cocirculated in the same community, there was no evidence of interclade reassortment. Bayesian analysis of 328 VP7 genes of G2 viruses isolated in the last 39 years indicate that existing G2 VP7 gene lineages continue to evolve and that novel lineages, as represented by the VUMC isolates, are constantly being formed. Moreover, G2 lineages are characteristically shaped by lineage turnover events that introduce new globally dominant strains every 7 years, on average. The ongoing evolution of G2 VP7 lineages may give rise to antigenic changes that undermine vaccine effectiveness in the long term. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the diversity of cocirculating G2 rotaviruses and how their evolution may undermine the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines. To expand our understanding of the potential genetic range exhibited by rotaviruses circulating in postvaccine communities, we analyzed part of a collection of rotaviruses recovered from pediatric patients in the United States from 2010 to 2011. Examining the genetic makeup of these viruses revealed they represented three segregated groups that did not exchange genetic material. The distinction between these three groups may be explained by three separate introductions. By comparing a specific gene, namely, VP7, of the recent rotavirus isolates to those from a collection recovered from U.S. children between 1974 and 1991 and other globally circulating rotaviruses, we were able to reconstruct the timing of events that shaped their ancestry. This analysis indicates that G2 rotaviruses are continuously evolving, accumulating changes in their genetic material as they infect new patients. PMID:24429371

Dennis, Allison F.; McDonald, Sarah M.; Payne, Daniel C.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Chappell, James D.

2014-01-01

131

Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the C II Transitions 2s(exp 2)2p P-2(exp 0) yields 2s2p(exp 2) P-4, D-2, and S-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 2s(exp 2) 2p-2(exp 0) yield 2s2p(exp 2)P-4, D-2, and S-2 in C II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 2324 A (5.34 eV), 1335 x (9.29 eV), and 1036 A (11.97 eV), respectively. Use is made of electron energy-loss and merged beams methods. The energy range covered is from below each threshold (4 - 11 eV) to 15-24 eV. As in previous work with O II, care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction in the C II beam, to account for contributions from nearby energy-loss features, and to collect the full angular range of inelastically scattered electrons. A comparison is made for each transition between experiment and new 8-state R-matrix calculations. Subject headings: atomic data ultraviolet: general

Smith, Steven J.; Zuo, M.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Williams, I. D.

1996-01-01

132

Development of targeted therapy for bladder cancer mediated by a double promoter plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of IGF2-P3 and IGF2-P4 regulatory sequences  

PubMed Central

Background: The human IGF2-P3 and IGF2-P4 promoters are highly active in bladder carcinoma, while existing at a nearly undetectable level in the surrounding normal tissue. A double promoter DTA-expressing vector was created, carrying on a single construct two separate genes expressing diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA), from two different regulatory sequences, selected from the cancer-specific promoters IGF2-P3 and IGF2-P4. Methods: IGF2-P3 and IGF2-P4 expression was tested in samples of urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder (n=67) by RT-PCR or by ISH. The therapeutic potential of single promoter expression vectors (P3-DTA and P4-DTA) was tested and compared to the double promoter toxin vector P4-DTA-P3-DTA in UC cell lines and in heterotopic and orthotopic animal models for bladder cancer. Results: Nearly 86% of UC patients highly expressed IGF2-P4 and IGF2-P3, as determined by ISH. The double promoter vector (P4-DTA-P3-DTA) exhibited superior ability to inhibit tumor development by 68% (P=0.004) compared to the single promoter expression vectors, in heterotopic bladder tumors. The average size of the P4-DTA-P3-DTA bladder tumors (in orthotopically treated mice) was 83% smaller (P<0.001) than that of the control group. Conclusions: Overall, the double promoter vector exhibited enhanced anti-cancer activity relative to single promoter expression vectors carrying either gene alone. Our findings show that bladder tumors may be successfully treated by intravesical instillation of the double promoter vector P4-DTA-P3-DTA. PMID:21686134

Amit, Doron; Tamir, Sagi; Birman, Tatiana; Gofrit, Ofer N; Hochberg, Abraham

2011-01-01

133

Ab initio many-body calculations of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions.  

PubMed

We apply the ab initio no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method approach to calculate the cross sections of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions. These are important reactions for the big bang nucleosynthesis and the future of energy generation on Earth. Starting from a selected similarity-transformed chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction that accurately describes two-nucleon data, we performed many-body calculations that predict the S factor of both reactions. Virtual three-body breakup effects are obtained by including excited pseudostates of the deuteron in the calculation. Our results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data and pave the way for microscopic investigations of polarization and electron-screening effects, of the (3)H(d,?n)(4)He bremsstrahlung and other reactions relevant to fusion research. PMID:22400830

Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

2012-01-27

134

[Reaction of poly(ADP)-ribosylation of histone H1 in the presence of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate and its phosphonate analogs].  

PubMed

Effects of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate and its phosphonate analogs on the ADP-ribosylation of H1 catalyzed by bovine testis ADP-ribose polymerase was investigated. Analogs App[CH(COCH3)]ppA and Ap[CH2]pppA as well as Ap4A inhibited poly(ADP)-ribosylation of histone H1 and at the same time accepted the ADP-ribosyl moiety of NAD. It was shown that inhibition of ADP-ribosylation of histone H1 is due to the competition of nucleotides with histone H1 for accepting ADP-ribosyl moiety of NAD on the one hand, and alteration of acceptor properties of the histone H1 on the other. PMID:3146690

Karabashian, L V; Arutiunian, D L; Tarusova, N B; Tyrtysh, T V

1988-01-01

135

K-shell photoionization spectra of atomic beryllium between 1s2s2 and 1s(2s2p3P)4s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoionization spectra of beryllium atoms in the region of 1s excitation have been measured by synchrotron radiation. The photon energy region reported in this article is between 1s2s2 and 1s(2s2p3P)4s corresponding to 122.3 and 127 eV, respectively. The configurations which have the unique characteristics due to the configuration mixing between 2s and 2p are discussed. Comparisons with the previous paper by L. VoKy et al. [Phys. Rev. A 46, 3945 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.3945] calculating the photoionization spectrum of this energy region were made and the assignments of the resonances were performed. The Fano parameters were also derived for the observed states.

Hasegawa, Shuichi; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Fumiko; Azuma, Yoshiro; Koike, Fumihiro; Nagata, Tetsuo

2014-09-01

136

Critical roles of isoleucine-364 and adjacent residues in a hydrophobic gate control of phospholipid transport by the mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2.  

PubMed

P4-ATPases (flippases) translocate specific phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine from the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane to the cytosolic leaflet, upholding an essential membrane asymmetry. The mechanism of flipping this giant substrate has remained an enigma. We have investigated the importance of amino acid residues in transmembrane segment M4 of mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 by mutagenesis. In the related ion pumps Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, M4 moves during the enzyme cycle, carrying along the ion bound to a glutamate. In ATP8A2, the corresponding residue is an isoleucine, which recently was found mutated in patients with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome. Our analyses of the lipid substrate concentration dependence of the overall and partial reactions of the enzyme cycle in mutants indicate that, during the transport across the membrane, the phosphatidylserine head group passes near isoleucine-364 (I364) and that I364 is critical to the release of the transported lipid into the cytosolic leaflet. Another M4 residue, N359, is involved in recognition of the lipid substrate on the exoplasmic side. Our functional studies are supported by structural homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggesting that I364 and adjacent hydrophobic residues function as a hydrophobic gate that separates the entry and exit sites of the lipid and directs sequential formation and annihilation of water-filled cavities, thereby enabling transport of the hydrophilic phospholipid head group in a groove outlined by the transmembrane segments M1, M2, M4, and M6, with the hydrocarbon chains following passively, still in the membrane lipid phase. PMID:24706822

Vestergaard, Anna L; Coleman, Jonathan A; Lemmin, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Stine A; Molday, Laurie L; Vilsen, Bente; Molday, Robert S; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Andersen, Jens Peter

2014-04-01

137

Critical roles of isoleucine-364 and adjacent residues in a hydrophobic gate control of phospholipid transport by the mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2  

PubMed Central

P4-ATPases (flippases) translocate specific phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine from the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane to the cytosolic leaflet, upholding an essential membrane asymmetry. The mechanism of flipping this giant substrate has remained an enigma. We have investigated the importance of amino acid residues in transmembrane segment M4 of mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 by mutagenesis. In the related ion pumps Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, M4 moves during the enzyme cycle, carrying along the ion bound to a glutamate. In ATP8A2, the corresponding residue is an isoleucine, which recently was found mutated in patients with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome. Our analyses of the lipid substrate concentration dependence of the overall and partial reactions of the enzyme cycle in mutants indicate that, during the transport across the membrane, the phosphatidylserine head group passes near isoleucine-364 (I364) and that I364 is critical to the release of the transported lipid into the cytosolic leaflet. Another M4 residue, N359, is involved in recognition of the lipid substrate on the exoplasmic side. Our functional studies are supported by structural homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggesting that I364 and adjacent hydrophobic residues function as a hydrophobic gate that separates the entry and exit sites of the lipid and directs sequential formation and annihilation of water-filled cavities, thereby enabling transport of the hydrophilic phospholipid head group in a groove outlined by the transmembrane segments M1, M2, M4, and M6, with the hydrocarbon chains following passively, still in the membrane lipid phase. PMID:24706822

Vestergaard, Anna L.; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Lemmin, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Molday, Laurie L.; Vilsen, Bente; Molday, Robert S.; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Andersen, Jens Peter

2014-01-01

138

Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

2004-10-01

139

Status and Perspectives of the Liquid Material Experiments in FTU and ISTTOK  

E-print Network

EX/P4-6 Status and Perspectives of the Liquid Material Experiments in FTU and ISTTOK G. Mazzitelli. The main goal of FTU lithium liquid metal experiments was to demonstrate the capability of the Capillary Porous System (CPS), firstly tested on T-11 tokamak, to confine liquid lithium avoiding sudden release

Vlad, Gregorio

140

Experience matters 1 Experience matters  

E-print Network

of these theories best describes human information search. Experiment 1, which used natural sampling and experienceExperience matters 1 Experience matters: Information acquisition optimizes probability gain Jonathan D. Nelson Max Planck Institute for Human Development Craig R. M. McKenzie University of California

Nelson, Jonathan D.

141

Reducing Lattice Thermal Conductivity of the Thermoelectric Compound AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) by Lanthanum Substitution: Computational and Experimental Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed lattice dynamics first-principles calculations for the promising thermoelectric (TE) compound AgSbTe2, and estimated the stability of its three polymorphs over a wide temperature range from 0 to 600 K. We calculated the vibrational density of states of the AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) phase. The results suggested that formation of substitutional defects at Ag-sublattice sites impedes lattice vibrations, thereby reducing lattice thermal conductivity. We focused on calculations based on the Debye approximation for the compound La0.125Ag0.875SbTe2, and predicted reduction of the average sound velocity from 1684 to 1563 m s-1 as a result of La doping. This is manifested as a ca. 14% reduction in thermal conductivity. To confirm the results from computation we produced two Ag-Sb-Te-based alloys, a ternary alloy without La addition and a quaternary alloy containing La. We measured the thermal conductivity of both alloys by use of the laser flash analysis method, and, as a result of La alloying, observed a reduction in thermal conductivity from 0.92 to 0.71 W m-1 K-1 at 573 K, as calculated from first principles.

Amouyal, Yaron

2014-10-01

142

Analysis of p-4,6,8He and p-6,8,9,11Li scattering at 700 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Glauber model is used to analyze the elastic scattering of protons from He and Li isotopes at ?700 MeV. The calculations require two inputs; the nucleon–nucleon (NN) amplitude and the nucleon density distributions for the target nuclei. The NN amplitude is taken from the available NN scattering data, and, for the target nuclei, we use some of the nucleon density distributions available in the literature. The emphasis, in this work, is to study the sensitivity of the calculated differential cross sections for p-4,6,8He scattering on the density distributions used, and to compare the results with some recent findings in view of assessing the suitability of nucleon density distributions for a given nucleus at relatively low and intermediate energies. The results demonstrate that the study of p-nucleus scattering could be helpful in providing useful information about the behavior of matter density distribution in the surface and interior regions of a nuclear medium. Further, we find that the phase of the NN amplitude plays a role in providing a better description of the experimental data in all the cases.

Chauhan, Deeksha; Khan, Z. A.; Usmani, A. A.

2015-02-01

143

CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.  

SciTech Connect

The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

Sung, Yixing (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA); Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R. (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA)

2011-12-01

144

Feasibility study of the proton yield from the reaction D(3He,p)4 He as a possible tool for radiotherapy treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent achievements in proton and carbon ions therapy have shown the importance of the hadron therapy methods. Aiming at radiotherapy applications such as dermatological and intra-operative procedures, where a short range treatment is needed, we have studied the use of nuclear reactions induced by low energy ions from small accelerators. A very suitable reaction is D(3He,p)4He, using 3He+ ions with energies of about 800 keV. The resulting protons have energies above 17 MeV and could deliver significant radiation dose depending on the accelerator 3He+ beam current and the irradiation time. The deuterium containing target was prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium in Ar and Ar + D2 radiofrequency plasma on a substrate of Silicon. The Ti-Dx stoichiometry and deuterium content was determined by Ion Beam Analysis. The accelerated 3He+ beam was provided by the 2.5MV Van de Graaff accelerator at the National Laboratories of Legnaro, INFN, Italy. Proton yield as a function of the beam current at different forward scattering angles has been studied for the energies of the incoming 3He+ in the 700keV - 800keV energy interval. The irradiated volume and the radiation dose in biological tissues as a function of the proton energy and proton yield has been estimated. Possible applications in small animal treatment studies as well as potential clinical radiotherapy applications are discussed.

Uzunov, N. M.; Liguori, N.; Fontana, C. L.; Baneva, Y.; Atroshchenko, K.; Bello, M.; Moschini, G.; Rosato, A.; Rigato, V.; Doyle, B.; Rossi, P.

2012-12-01

145

Ligand 5,10,15,20-Tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) Prefers the Parallel Propeller-Type Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex DNA over Its Other Polymorphs.  

PubMed

The binding of ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) with telomeric and genomic G-quadruplex DNA has been extensively studied. However, a comparative study of interactions of TMPyP4 with different conformations of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA, namely, parallel propeller-type (PP), antiparallel basket-type (AB), and mixed hybrid-type (MH) G-quadruplex DNA, has not been done. We considered all the possible binding sites in each of the G-quadruplex DNA structures and docked TMPyP4 to each one of them. The resultant most potent sites for binding were analyzed from the mean binding free energy of the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were then carried out, and analysis of the binding free energy of the TMPyP4-G-quadruplex complex showed that the binding of TMPyP4 with parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA is preferred over the other two G-quadruplex DNA conformations. The results obtained from the change in solvent excluded surface area (SESA) and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) also support the more pronounced binding of the ligand with the parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:25526532

Ali, Asfa; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2015-01-01

146

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

147

Translating experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research investigating the significance of physical experience and materiality in creative digital visual art and design practice. Findings are presented from a recent phenomenological study, which indicates the ways in which memory of lived experience informs creative cognition and feeds the imagination.The importance of physical engagement with the world, through the senses, enables emotional expression to be

Cathy Treadaway

2009-01-01

148

Herschel Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students replicate a version of the 1800 experiment in which a form of radiation other than visible light was discovered by the famous astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel. Students use glass prisms, thermometers, and sunlight to detect the increase in temperature beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, thus detecting infrared light.

149

TRIO experiment  

SciTech Connect

The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

1984-09-01

150

Health promotion is the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health (O'Donnell, 1986, p.4). Optimal health is defined  

E-print Network

Health promotion is the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health (O'Donnell, 1986, p.4). Optimal health is defined as a balance of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual health. Lifestyle change can be facilitated through

Ghajar, Afshin J.

151

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP W W W . N I S T . G O V / M E P 1 -8 0 0 -M E P -4 M F G  

E-print Network

. Unlike traditional market research, TDMI directly considers the technical and market viability of your on its core product, Controlled Porosity Glass (CPG) for the DNA synthesis market. Continued research EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP W W W . N I S T . G O V / M E P · 1 - 8 0 0 - M E P - 4 M F G TECHNOLOGY-DRIVEN MARKET

152

Poker Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the basic poker experiment of dealing 5 cards from a standard deck. The random variable of interest is the type of hand.

Siegrist, Kyle

153

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

154

Control experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is a type of experiment in which a scientist uses a control variable approach. All conditions in the experiment will be the same except for one variable. When testing water tolerance of barley plants, for example, you could not water one plant, over-water one plant, under-water another plant, and water the last plant with the optimal amount of water and observe the results.

Peggy Greb (USDA; ARS)

2006-05-23

155

Chlorine Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by the American Chemistry Council's Science Center. The first experiment is called Sunscreen and Light Energy, which shows how chlorine is an ingredient in sunscreen and how it helps protect people from the sun's damage. The other experiment, called Antifreeze and the Freezing Point of Water, teaches how chlorine is an important component in antifreeze. Using antifreeze, foam cups, glass vials, and other simple ingredients, students learn how the liquid helps keep cars and other engines running during winter.

2008-01-01

156

Vestibular experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacelab experiments designed to investigate space motion sickness, any associated changes in otolith-mediated responses occurring during weightlessness, and the carryover of any such changes to postflight conditions are described. The experiments aimed at assessing otolithic responses in space are intended to clarify presumed alterations in vestibular function during weightlessness. Vestibular function will be investigated at several levels: vestibulo-ocular reflexes, vestibulo-spinal pathways, cortical functions involving perception of motion and spatial orientation, visual vestibular interaction, and motion sickness susceptibility. A second major objective relates to space motion sickness and man's well-being and productivity in space.

Young, L. R.

1981-01-01

157

Neutrino Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

McKeown, R. D. [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

2010-08-04

158

Triangle Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet llustrates the triangle experiment: A stick is broken randomly into three parts. The events of interest are that the pieces form an acute triangle, an obtuse triangle, or no triangle.

Siegrist, Kyle

159

Bertrand's Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of Bertrand's experiment: a random chord on a cirle. The event of interest is whether the length of the chord is larger than the length of the inscribed equilateral triangle. Three models for generating the random chord can be used.

Siegrist, Kyle

160

Birthday Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the birthday experiment: a sample of size n is chose at random and with replacement from the first m positive integers. The random variable of interest is the number of distinct sample values. The event of interest is that all sample values are distinct.

Siegrist, Kyle

161

Ballot Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the ballot experiment: The votes in an election are randomly counted. The event of interest is that the winning candidate is always ahead in the vote count.

Siegrist, Kyle

162

Television experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fixed and variable Martian features investigated by the TV experiment on Mariner 9 are described. Articles are presented concerning the dust storm of October to November over the Southern Hemisphere; global surface geodesy and cartography; geology; and the satellite astronomy.

Briggs, G. A.; Cutts, J. A.; Steinbacher, R. H.; Thorpe, T. E.; Whitehead, A. B.; Devaucouleurs, G.; Davies, M. E.; Masursky, H.; Pollack, J. B.

1973-01-01

163

Biodiesel Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this classroom activity on biodiesel. The experiment involves using some chemicals which may be considered extremely dangerous; educators should be sure to practice laboratory safety when using this lesson. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Lawrence, Richard

164

31P Solid State NMR Studies of Metal Selenophosphates Containing [P2Se6]4-, [P4Se10]4-, [PSe4]3-, [P2Se7]4-, and [P2Se9]4-Ligands  

E-print Network

31P Solid State NMR Studies of Metal Selenophosphates Containing [P2Se6]4-, [P4Se10]4-, [PSe4]3-, [P2Se7]4-, and [P2Se9]4- Ligands Christian G. Canlas, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, and David P. Weliky P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 12 metal-containing selenophosphates have

Weliky, David

165

Location Sunday 8/18 Monday 8/19 Tuesday 8/20 Wednesday 8/21 Thursday 8/22 Friday 8/23 Saturday 8/24 Sunday 8/25 SUNYCard Closed 8:30a -4:30p 8:30a -4:30p 8:30a -4:30p 8:30a -4:30p 8:30a -4:30p 1p-4p 1p-4p  

E-print Network

/24 Sunday 8/25 SUNYCard Closed 8:30a - 4:30p 8:30a - 4:30p 8:30a - 4:30p 8:30a - 4:30p 8:30a - 4:30p 1p-4p 1p-4p SEFCU Closed 9a-5p 9a-5p 9a-6p 9a-6p 9a-5p 10a-3p Closed Bookstore Closed 9a-5p 9a-5p 9a-7p 9a-7p 9a-7p 10a-7p 10a-6p Location Sunday 8/18 Monday 8/19 Tuesday 8/20 Wednesday 8/21 Thursday 8

Kidd, William S. F.

166

Soil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

1987-01-01

167

Mendel's experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this web lab, Gregor Mendel directs students through interactive virtual experiments. Students experiment with pea plants to discover how the seven pairs of traits that Mendel studied are inherited. The lab can be completed linearly, or students can move to a particular segment using the Sections menu. After they observe pea plants and infer the number of traits present, students perform five plant crosses. Mendel instructs students to search for patterns in the transmission of traits. Next, students predict the outcome of a cross and are introduced to the terms dominant and recessive. Finally, students work with pedigrees, crossing plants to determine for each of the seven pairs of traits which characteristic is dominant or recessive. A notebook feature lets students check their answers. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Center, Education D.

2002-01-01

168

Lift Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, learners investigate how the size of a wing affects lift. Learners count the number of pennies an egg crate plane wing can hold until the plane will no longer fly. Learners calculate the amount of weight/mass added to plane and conduct two more trials to find the average weight/mass lifted. This lesson guide includes a data table, conclusion questions, and extension ideas.

Ricles, Shannon; Locke, Dan; Livingston, John

2013-01-30

169

Weathering Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

Stelling, Pete

170

Matching Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the matching experiment, which consists of a random permutation of the first n positive integers. The random variable of interest is the number of matches (the number of integers in the random permutation that are in their correct positions). The applet illustrates the distribution of the number of matches and the convergence to the Poisson distribution.

Siegrist, Kyle

171

Voter Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the voter experiment, an interacting partile system that consists of a rectangular array of sites. At each discrete time unit, a site is chosen at random, a neighboring site is chosen, and the color of the first site is changed to that of the neighbor. The applet illustrates clustering of the colors and convergence to consensus.

Siegrist, Kyle

172

Taphonomy Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The taphonomy project is a semester-long experiment the students design and run themselves, using the decomposition studies area run by the Criminal Justice department on campus. Following a discussion of taphonomic processes during the first week, the students come up with original questions to test. Working in pairs, they design the experiment, including methods, materials, sampling interval, and taphonomic evaluation. The students set up the experiment in week 3 and monitor it over the course of the semester. They will be required to keep an experimental journal, data from which they will upload to a wiki page. The students will be required to periodically evaluate and comment on other student's projects. The professor will also periodically evaluate the groups' progress periodically through the wiki. The end result is a 20-minute presentation in the style of an oral paper at a conference given the week before finals. This project develops the students' skills in experimental design, data analysis and written, oral and visual communication.

Koy, Karen

173

Measurement of cross sections for the {sup 232}Th(P,4n){sup 229}Pa reaction at low proton energies  

SciTech Connect

The alpha-emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived {sup 229}Th(t{sub 1/2} = 7880y). {sup 229}Th can be produced by proton irradiation of {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into {sup 229}Th. To obtain excitation functions, {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of {sup 229}Pa and its daughter {sup 225}Ac from both {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th. Differential cross-sections for production of {sup 229}Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

Jost, C. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Griswold, J. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA and Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S. [Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Stracener, D. W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Williams, C. L. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2013-04-19

174

Descriptive Experience Sampling 1 Descriptive Experience Sampling  

E-print Network

Sampling: Exploring Moments of Inner Experience The attempt to apprehend human experience the way, and often (or usually!) argumentative force fields. DES accepts the primacy of human experience and seeks aspect of human experience, which it calls `pristine inner experience'. By `inner experience' we mean

Ahmad, Sajjad

175

The structures of marialite (Me[subscript 6]) and meionite (Me[subscript 93]) in space groups P4[subscript 2]/n and I4/m, and the absence of phase transitions in the scapolite series  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structures of marialite (Me{sub 6}) from Badakhshan, Afghanistan and meionite (Me{sub 93}) from Mt. Vesuvius, Italy were obtained using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and Rietveld structure refinements. Their structures were refined in space groups I4/m and P42/n, and similar results were obtained. The Me{sub 6} sample has a formula Ca{sub 0.24}Na{sub 3.37}K{sub 0.24}[Al{sub 3.16}Si{sub 8.84}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.84}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.15}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.047555(7), c = 7.563210(6) {angstrom}, and V = 1097.751(1) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The average (T1-O) distances are 1.599(1) {angstrom} in I4/m and 1.600(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n, indicating that the T1 site contains only Si atoms. In P4{sub 2}/n, the average distances of (T2-O) = 1.655(2) and (T3-O) = 1.664(2) {angstrom} are distinct and are not equal to each other. However, the mean (T2,3-O) = 1.659(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n and is identical to the (T2-O) = 1.659(1) {angstrom} in I4/m. The (M-O) [7] = 2.754(1) {angstrom} (M site is coordinated to seven framework O atoms) and M-A = 2.914(1) {angstrom}; these distances are identical in both space groups. The Me{sub 93} sample has a formula of Na{sub 0.29}Ca{sub 3.76}[Al{sub 5.54}Si{sub 6.46}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.05}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.02}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.93}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.19882(1), c = 7.576954(8) {angstrom}, and V = 1127.535(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}. A similar examination of the Me{sub 93} sample also shows that both space groups give similar results; however, the C-O distance is more reasonable in P4{sub 2}/n than in I4/m. Refining the scapolite structure near Me{sub 0} or Me{sub 100} in I4/m forces the T2 and T3 sites (both with multiplicity 8 in P4{sub 2}/n) to be equivalent and form the T2' site (with multiplicity 16 in I4/m), but (T2-O) is not equal to (T3-O) in P4{sub 2}/n. Using different space groups for different regions across the series implies phase transitions, which do not occur in the scapolite series.

Antao, Sytle M.; Hassan, Ishmael (West Indies) [West Indies; (Calgary)

2014-05-28

176

Antiplatelet Activity, P2Y1 and P2Y12 Inhibition, and Metabolism in Plasma of Stereoisomers of Diadenosine 5?,5??-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate  

PubMed Central

Background Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), a constituent of platelet dense granules, and its P1,P4-dithio and/or P2,P3-chloromethylene analogs, inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. We recently reported that these compounds antagonize both platelet ADP receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12. The most active of those analogs, diadenosine 5?,5??-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate, (compound 1), exists as a mixture of 4 stereoisomers. Objective To separate the stereoisomers of compound 1 and determine their effects on platelet aggregation, platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor antagonism, and their metabolism in human plasma. Methods We separated the 4 diastereomers of compound 1 by preparative reversed-phase chromatography, and studied their effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation, P2Y1-mediated changes in cytosolic Ca2+, P2Y12-mediated changes in VASP phosphorylation, and metabolism in human plasma. Results The inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet aggregation and human platelet P2Y12 receptor, and stability in human plasma strongly depended on the stereo-configuration of the chiral P1- and P4-phosphorothioate groups, the SPSP diastereomer being the most potent inhibitor and completely resistant to degradation in plasma, and the RPRP diastereomer being the least potent inhibitor and with the lowest plasma stability. The inhibitory activity of SPRP diastereomers depended on the configuration of the pseudo-asymmetric carbon of the P2,P3-chloromethylene group, one of the configurations being significantly more active than the other. Their plasma stability did not differ significantly, being intermediate to that of the SPSP and the RPRP diastereomers. Conclusions The presently-described stereoisomers have utility for structural, mechanistic, and drug development studies of dual antagonists of platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors. PMID:24722456

Chang, Hung; Yanachkov, Ivan B.; Dix, Edward J.; Yanachkova, Milka; Li, YouFu; Barnard, Marc R.; Wright, George E.; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger, Andrew L.

2014-01-01

177

NaxP4W14O50: The sodium m = 7 member of the monophosphate tungsten bronze series Ax(PO2)4(WO3)2m  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of Na1.7P4W14O50 was established by single crystal X-ray analysis. The compound is the m = 7 member of the family of monophosphate tungsten bronzes with hexagonal tunnels, Nax(PO2)4 (WO3)2m, characterized by ReO3-type slabs of various widths connected through PO4 tetrahedra. In order to compare with other members of the MPTBh family, a cell symmetry Al has been chosen

M. Lamire; Ph. Labbe; M. Goreaud; B. Raveau

1987-01-01

178

The metaphor of experience and the experience of metaphor: critical reflection on a contemplative process toward aliveness and compassion.  

PubMed

An epistemological web invites critical reflection and the possibility of new ideas emerging in the space between experience and different ways of thinking. A web offers a postmodern method of a hermeneutic of experience and a way of knowing that creates space for a robust, flexible, dynamic process of critical reflection and discovery. The following article utilizes an inter-textual epistemological web (see Figure 1, p. 4) to answer the question, "Do metaphors of experience and experiences of metaphor during contemplative healing prayer with a spiritual director nurture a transformational process toward aliveness and compassion?" How can one discover and communicate this reality in dialog with Hebrew scripture, psychoanalytic theory, affective neuroscience and ways of thinking about contemplative transformation? PMID:20306943

Kuchan, Karen L

2009-01-01

179

Crystal structure, spectroscopic, magnetic and electronic structure studies of a novel Cu(II) amino acid complex [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]2(P4O12)·8H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of a novel copper (II) complex with the amino acid L-arginine (L-arg) and cyclotetraphosphate, [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]2(P4O12)·8H2O, were prepared in aqueous solution and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance, UV-vis and IR) and thermal analysis. Magnetic measurements and electronic structure calculations were also performed. Crystal structure determination reveals that this compound has a nonsymmetrical atomic arrangement, containing mainly a binuclear [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]24+ cation and an uncoordinated cyclotetraphosphate counter-anion (P4O124-). The tetravalent cation contains two independent Cu(II) ions in two different chemical environments. This compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic (AFM) to paramagnetic (PM) phase transition at a temperature (TN) lower than 2 K. The values of paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature (?cw) and the exchange parameter (J/KB) emphasize the existence of an antiferromagnetic interaction between the neighboring copper ions.

Hemissi, H.; Nasri, M.; Abid, S.; Al-Deyab, S. S.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.; Rzaigui, M.

2012-12-01

180

Dual Function of Racemic Isopropanolamine as Solvent and as Template for the Synthesis of a New Layered Aluminophosphate: [NH 3CH 2CH(OH)CH 3] 3·Al 3P 4O 16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new layered aluminophosphate [NH 3CH 2CH(OH)CH 3] 3·Al 3P 4O 16 containing a racemic mixture of isopropanolamine has been synthesized using isopropanolamine as the predominant solvent and the template and its structure was determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group Roverline3 with M=689.18, a=13.1068(15) Å, c=26.935(4) Å, Z=6, V=4007.2(9) Å 3, R=0.0338, and Rw=0.0982. The structure consists of [Al 3P 4O 16] 3- macroanionic sheets with a 4×6×12 network stacked in an ABCABC sequence. The inorganic layers are constructed from alternating AlO 4 and PO 3(=O) tetrahedral units. The protonated isopropanolamine cations between inorganic layers are arranged in a double-layer fashion with each layer containing only one type of enantiomer. The as-synthesized product is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, inductive coupled plasma analysis, TGA and DTA.

Yuan, Hong-Ming; Zhu, Guang-Shan; Chen, Jie-Sheng; Chen, Wei; Yang, Guang-Di; Xu, Ru-Ren

2000-04-01

181

Electron excitation cross sections for the 2s(2)2p(3)4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2D(O) (forbidden) and 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P (resonance) transitions in O II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the first forbidden transition 4S(O) -- 2S(2)2p(3) 2D(O) (lambda-lambda 3726, 3729) and the first allowed (resonance) transition 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P(lambda-833) in O II. Use is made of electron energy loss and merged-beams methods. The electron energy range covered is 3.33 (threshold) to 15 eV for the S -- D transition, and 14.9 (threshold) to 40 eV for the S -- P transition. Care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction of the O II beam. An electron mirror was designed and tested to reflect inelastically backscattered electrons into the forward direction to account for the full range of polar scattering angles. Comparisons are made between present experiments and 11-state R-matrix calculations. Calculations are also presented for the 4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2P(O) (lambda-2470) transition.

Zuo, M.; Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, I. D.; Tayal, S. S.; Mclaughlin, Brendan M.

1995-01-01

182

Int-B13, an Unusual Site-Specific Recombinase of the Bacteriophage P4 Integrase Family, Is Responsible for Chromosomal Insertion of the 105-Kilobase clc Element of Pseudomonas sp. Strain B13  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 carries the clcRABDE genes encoding chlorocatechol-degradative enzymes on the self-transmissible 105-kb clc element. The element integrates site and orientation specifically into the chromosomes of various bacterial recipients, with a glycine tRNA structural gene (glyV) as the integration site. We report here the localization and nucleotide sequence of the integrase gene and the activity of the integrase gene product in mediating site-specific integration. The integrase gene (int-B13) was located near the right end of the clc element. It consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of maximally 1,971 bp with a coding capacity for 657 amino acids (aa). The full-length protein (74 kDa) was observed upon overexpression and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation. The N-terminal 430 aa of the predicted Int-B13 protein had substantial similarity to integrases from bacteriophages of the P4 family, but Int-B13 was much larger than P4-type integrases. The C-terminal 220 aa of Int-B13 were homologous to an ORF flanking a gene cluster for naphthalene degradation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PaK1. Similar to the bacteriophages ?R73 and P4, the clc element integrates into the 3? end of the target tRNA gene. This target site was characterized from four different recipient strains into which the clc element integrated, showing sequence specificity of the integration. In Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, a circular form of the clc element, which carries an 18-bp DNA sequence identical to the 3?-end portion of glyV as part of its attachment site (attP), could be detected. Upon chromosomal integration of the clc element into a bacterial attachment site (attB), a functional glyV was reconstructed at the right end of the element. The integration process could be demonstrated in RecA-deficient Escherichia coli with two recombinant plasmids, one carrying the int-B13 gene and the attP site and the other carrying the attB site of Pseudomonas putida F1. PMID:9791097

Ravatn, Roald; Studer, Sonja; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Roelof van der Meer, Jan

1998-01-01

183

TMPyP4 porphyrin distorts RNA G-quadruplex structures of the disease-associated r(GGGGCC)n repeat of the C9orf72 gene and blocks interaction of RNA-binding proteins.  

PubMed

Certain DNA and RNA sequences can form G-quadruplexes, which can affect genetic instability, promoter activity, RNA splicing, RNA stability, and neurite mRNA localization. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia can be caused by expansion of a (GGGGCC)n repeat in the C9orf72 gene. Mutant r(GGGGCC)n- and r(GGCCCC)n-containing transcripts aggregate in nuclear foci, possibly sequestering repeat-binding proteins such as ASF/SF2 and hnRNPA1, suggesting a toxic RNA pathogenesis, as occurs in myotonic dystrophy. Furthermore, the C9orf72 repeat RNA was recently demonstrated to undergo the noncanonical repeat-associated non-AUG translation (RAN translation) into pathologic dipeptide repeats in patient brains, a process that is thought to depend upon RNA structure. We previously demonstrated that the r(GGGGCC)n RNA forms repeat tract length-dependent G-quadruplex structures that bind the ASF/SF2 protein. Here we show that the cationic porphyrin (5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (TMPyP4)), which can bind some G-quadruplex-forming sequences, can bind and distort the G-quadruplex formed by r(GGGGCC)8, and this ablates the interaction of either hnRNPA1 or ASF/SF2 with the repeat. These findings provide proof of concept that nucleic acid binding small molecules, such as TMPyP4, can distort the secondary structure of the C9orf72 repeat, which may beneficially disrupt protein interactions, which may ablate either protein sequestration and/or RAN translation into potentially toxic dipeptides. Disruption of secondary structure formation of the C9orf72 RNA repeats may be a viable therapeutic avenue, as well as a means to test the role of RNA structure upon RAN translation. PMID:24371143

Zamiri, Bita; Reddy, Kaalak; Macgregor, Robert B; Pearson, Christopher E

2014-02-21

184

Theory of Spin-Orbit Coupling in Atoms. II. Comparison of Theory with Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of calculations of the spin-orbit coupling constant for 2p, 3p, 4p, and 3d shell ions and atoms are presented. The calculations are based on a theory developed in a previous paper. Excellent agreement of this theory with experiment is obtained for the 2p and 3d shell ions, while calculations using the familiar expression for the coupling constant lie 10

M. Blume; R. E. Watson

1963-01-01

185

Skylab Workshop experience in experiment accommodation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the experiment support facilities available from the Orbital Workshop (OWS) module of the Skylab. Experiments and associated support provisions have been selected and described to illustrate the various accommodations and degree of complexities involved in the integration of these experiments into the Workshop. The interfaces described start with the simple and proceed to the complex. On the basis of the experience gained in integrating the experiments into the Workshop, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made on ways to facilitate future experiment operations and at the same time simplify and reduce the cost of integration efforts.

Hanlon, W. H.; Hassel, R. R.

1974-01-01

186

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience  

E-print Network

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

Thomas, David D.

187

Experiences and Experiments - There is a Difference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students have had many experiences in science and have participated in and designed simple investigations. This lesson directs students in identifying the steps of experimentation. While microorganisms are the topic and the subject of the experimentation, the emphasis and learning should center on scientific steps and processes of scientific experiments. Designing and conducting an experiment involves an integration or combining of science process skills.

Teresa Hislop & KIRSTIN REED

2011-09-19

188

Glacier Goo Erosion Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using a glacier proxy, students design an experiment to connect glacial erosion with glacial flow. Students choose from a variety of materials, determined what question they want their experiment or experiments to answer, design the procedure, test the experiment, and write up a lab report on the experiment.

Rachel Headley

189

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) experiments using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity experiments involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of experiments. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)

Physics Education, 1984

1984-01-01

190

Measurement of the radiative lifetime of the 2s(2)2p(4) (1)S(0) metastable level of neon; a study of forbidden transitions of astrophysical interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative lifetime of the 2s22 p4 1S0 metastable level of Ne2+ (Ne III) has been measured to be 223 +/- 11 ms at the 90% confidence level by observing the photons emitted at 1815 Å (181.5 nm) by a decaying population of 1 S0 Ne2+ ions stored in a radio frequency ion trap. This thesis describes the first use of a method to account for any ions lost from the trap and determine the radiative lifetime. Metastable ions were produced by electron bombardment of Ne gas, and rate coefficients for Ne2+ + Ne collisions were also determined. The lifetime measurement is in good agreement with recent calculated values, and has a lower uncertainty than the calculated values. This is the first lifetime measurement for an excited term of a ground configuration ion in the second row of the periodic table. The transition probabilities (A-values) for the forbidden transitions in the ground configurations of these ions are required for astrophysical spectral line intensity ratio diagnostics. Using calculated branching ratios, we estimate that, at the 90% confidence level, A(3P1 - 1S0) = 1.94 +/- 0.17 s-1 for the forbidden line of Ne III at 1815 Å, and A(1D2 - 1S0) = 2.55 +/- 0.19 s-1 for the forbidden line of Ne III at 3344 Å.

Daw, Adrian Nigel

191

Recent magneto-inertial fusion experiments on the field reversed configuration heating experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) approaches take advantage of an embedded magnetic field to improve plasma energy confinement by reducing thermal conduction relative to conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF reduces required precision in the implosion and the convergence ratio. Since 2008 (Wurden et al 2008 IAEA 2008 Fusion Energy Conf. (Geneva, Switzerland, 13-18 October) IC/P4-13 LA-UR-08-0796) and since our prior refereed publication on this topic (Degnan et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 80), AFRL and LANL have developed further one version of MIF. We have (1) reliably formed, translated, and captured field reversed configurations (FRCs) in magnetic mirrors inside metal shells or liners in preparation for subsequent compression by liner implosion; (2) imploded a liner with interior magnetic mirror field, obtaining evidence for compression of a 1.36 T field to 540 T (3) performed a full system experiment of FRC formation, translation, capture, and imploding liner compression operation; (4) identified by comparison of 2D-MHD simulation and experiments factors limiting the closed-field lifetime of FRCs to about half that required for good liner compression of FRCs to multi-keV, 1019 ion cm-3, high energy density plasma (HEDP) conditions; and (5) designed and prepared hardware to increase that closed-field FRC lifetime to the required amount. Those lifetime experiments are now underway, with the goal of at least doubling closed-field FRC lifetimes and performing FRC implosions to HEDP conditions this year. These experiments have obtained imaging evidence of FRC rotation, and of initial rotation control measures slowing and stopping such rotation. Important improvements in fidelity of simulation to experiment have been achieved, enabling improved guidance and understanding of experiment design and performance.

Degnan, J. H.; Amdahl, D. J.; Domonkos, M.; Lehr, F. M.; Grabowski, C.; Robinson, P. R.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W. M.; Wurden, G. A.; Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Waganaar, W. J.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Makhin, V.; Roderick, N. F.; Gale, D. G.; Kostora, M.; Lerma, A.; McCullough, J. L.; Sommars, W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Bauer, B.; Fuelling, S. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Lynn, A. G.; Turchi, P. J.

2013-09-01

192

Bounds on the coupling of light pseudoscalars to nucleons from optical laser experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find the following improved laboratory bounds on the coupling of light pseudoscalars to protons and neutrons: g2p/4?<1.7×10-9 and g2n/4?<6.8×10-8. The limit on gp arises since a nonzero gp would induce a coupling of the pseudoscalar to two photons, which is limited by experiments studying laser beam propagation in magnetic fields. Combining our bound on gp with a recent analysis of Fischbach and Krause on two-pseudoscalar exchange potentials and experiments testing the equivalence principle, we obtain our limit on gn.

Massó, E.

2000-01-01

193

EXPERIMENTS MODEL PK-101  

E-print Network

, Electronic Kazoo, Battery Tester, Finger Touch Lamp, Burglar and Water Alarms, a Siren, a Magnetic Bridge Touch Lamp With Memory 62 Experiment #46: This OR That 63 Experiment #47: Neither This NOR That 64 Detector 17 Introduction to Capacitors 18 Experiment #8: Slow Light Bulb 20 Experiment #9: Small Dominates

Kachroo, Pushkin

194

Why labour market experiments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades, there has been a steady increase in the use of experimental methods in economics. We discuss the advantages of experiments for labour economics in this paper. Control is the most important asset behind running experiments; no other empirical method allows a similarly tight control as do experiments. Moreover, experiments produce replicable evidence and permit the implementation

Armin Falk; Ernst Fehr

2003-01-01

195

Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

2003-01-01

196

Commercial Biomedical Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

2003-01-01

197

Adaptive structures flight experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

Martin, Maurice

198

Adaptive Structures Flight Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

Martin, Maurice

1992-01-01

199

A comparative study of the use of bioactive glass S53P4 and antibiotic-loaded calcium-based bone substitutes in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis: a retrospective comparative study.  

PubMed

The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis often includes surgical debridement and filling the resultant void with antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate cement, bone grafts or bone substitutes. Recently, the use of bioactive glass to treat bone defects in infections has been reported in a limited series of patients. However, no direct comparison between this biomaterial and antibiotic-loaded bone substitute has been performed. In this retrospective study, we compared the safety and efficacy of surgical debridement and local application of the bioactive glass S53P4 in a series of 27 patients affected by chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones (Group A) with two other series, treated respectively with an antibiotic-loaded hydroxyapatite and calcium sulphate compound (Group B; n = 27) or a mixture of tricalcium phosphate and an antibiotic-loaded demineralised bone matrix (Group C; n = 22). Systemic antibiotics were also used in all groups. After comparable periods of follow-up, the control of infection was similar in the three groups. In particular, 25 out of 27 (92.6%) patients of Group A, 24 out of 27 (88.9%) in Group B and 19 out of 22 (86.3%) in Group C showed no infection recurrence at means of 21.8 (12 to 36), 22.1 (12 to 36) and 21.5 (12 to 36) months follow-up, respectively, while Group A showed a reduced wound complication rate. Our results show that patients treated with a bioactive glass without local antibiotics achieved similar eradication of infection and less drainage than those treated with two different antibiotic-loaded calcium-based bone substitutes. PMID:24891588

Romanò, C L; Logoluso, N; Meani, E; Romanò, D; De Vecchi, E; Vassena, C; Drago, L

2014-06-01

200

Experiments and Calculations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several science experiments/activities and their associated measurements. These include a simple projectile activity, cartesian diver (used to measure altitude and atmospheric pressure), experiment demonstrating atmospheric pressure, and activities using a stroboscope, and electrometer. (JN)

Siddons, J. C.

1982-01-01

201

First Impressions Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the first impressions experiment. This study allows participants to experience the formation of initial impressions and the roles minority/majority status and positive/negative attributes play in that formation process.

202

STEP Experiment Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

Brumfield, M. L. (compiler)

1984-01-01

203

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

204

Experience and Content  

E-print Network

The 'content view', in slogan form, is 'Perceptual experiences have representational content'. I explain why the content view should be reformulated to remove any reference to 'experiences'. I then argue, against Bill ...

Byrne, Alex

205

Experience and content  

E-print Network

The ‘content view’, in slogan form, is ‘Perceptual experiences have representational content’. I explain why the content view should be reformulated to remove any reference to ‘experiences’. I then argue, against Bill ...

Byrne, Alex

206

Buffon's Coin Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's coin experiment. The radius of the coin can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, events, probability, and relative frequency.

Siegrist, Kyle

207

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes apparatus needed and instructions for conducting four experiments. Experiments focus on light waves, measurement of contact resistance, demonstration of longitudinal waves, and a simple method of measuring the refractive indices of transparent plates and liquids. (JM)

Physics Education, 1984

1984-01-01

208

Experience and perception  

E-print Network

To what extent can experience shape perception? In what ways does perception vary across people or even within the same person at different times? This thesis presents three lines of research examining the role of experience ...

Witthoft, Nathan (Nathan S.)

2007-01-01

209

Adaptive structures flight experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight

Maurice Martin

1992-01-01

210

Mechanisms of catalyst poisoning in palladium-catalyzed cyanation of haloarenes. remarkably facile C-N bond activation in the [(Ph3P)4Pd]/[Bu4N]+ CN- system.  

PubMed

Reaction paths leading to palladium catalyst deactivation during cyanation of haloarenes (eq 1) have been identified and studied. Each key step of the catalytic loop (Scheme 1) can be disrupted by excess cyanide, including ArX oxidative addition, X/CN exchange, and ArCN reductive elimination. The catalytic reaction is terminated via the facile formation of inactive [(CN)4Pd]2-, [(CN)3PdH]2-, and [(CN)3PdAr]2-. Moisture is particularly harmful to the catalysis because of facile CN- hydrolysis to HCN that is highly reactive toward Pd(0). Depending on conditions, the reaction of [(Ph3P)4Pd] with HCN in the presence of extra CN- can give rise to [(CN)4Pd]2- and/or the remarkably stable new hydride [(CN)3PdH]2- (NMR, X-ray). The X/CN exchange and reductive elimination steps are vulnerable to excess CN- because of facile phosphine displacement leading to stable [(CN)3PdAr]2- that can undergo ArCN reductive elimination only in the absence of extra CN-. When a quaternary ammonium cation such as [Bu4N]+ is used as a phase-transfer agent for the cyanation reaction, C-N bond cleavage in the cation can occur via two different processes. In the presence of trace water, CN- hydrolysis yields HCN that reacts with Pd(0) to give [(CN)3PdH]2-. This also releases highly active OH- that causes Hofmann elimination of [Bu4N]+ to give Bu3N, 1-butene, and water. This decomposition mode is therefore catalytic in H2O. Under anhydrous conditions, the formation of a new species, [(CN)3PdBu]2-, is observed, and experimental studies suggest that electron-rich mixed cyano phosphine Pd(0) species are responsible for this unusual reaction. A combination of experimental (kinetics, labeling) and computational studies demonstrate that in this case C-N activation occurs via an S(N)2-type displacement of amine and rule out alternative 3-center C-N oxidative addition or Hofmann elimination processes. PMID:18336024

Erhardt, Stefan; Grushin, Vladimir V; Kilpatrick, Alison H; Macgregor, Stuart A; Marshall, William J; Roe, D Christopher

2008-04-01

211

FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted dur- ing April-July 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influ- ences the evolution

J. A. Curry; P. V. Hobbs; M. D. King; D. A. Randall; P. Minnis; G. A. Isaac; J. O. Pinto; T. Uttal; A. Bucholtz; D. G. Cripe; H. Gerber; C. W. Fairall; T. J. Garrett; J. Hudson; J. M. Intrieri; C. Jakob; T. Jensen; P. Lawson; D. Marcotte; L. Nguyen; P. Pilewskie; A. Rangno; D. C. Rogers; K. B. Strawbridge; F. P. J. Valero; A. G. Williams; D. Wylie

2000-01-01

212

Viscosity Of Liquids - Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom experiment to illustrate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring how quickly pebbles sink through them. The site describes all of the required material for the experiment and also gives a detailed chart for recording the results of the experiment. Altogether, the site is a great activity for the classroom.

2008-10-07

213

NASTRAN: Users' experiences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

1973-01-01

214

Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

1974-01-01

215

u.s. department of commerce national institute of standards and technology manufacturing extension partnership W W W . n i s t . g o v / m e p 1 -8 0 0 -m e p -4 m F g  

E-print Network

-foods success story and marketing powerhouse. Popcorn Girl Las Vegas has been successful in creating a fun MEP affiliate, contacted the firm's two founding partners to explore ways they could help the dynamic's understanding of the international marketplace and food-product marketing helped provide the kinds of experience

Perkins, Richard A.

216

Gyroscope relativity experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

Decher, R.

1971-01-01

217

Michelson-Morley Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains a simulation that recreates the Michelson-Morley experiment. The main objective of this experiment was to prove the existence of the medium in which light propagated: the luminiferous aether. This simulation allows the user to experiment with the interferometer by changing the speed of light and rotating its plane. It also has the possibility to include the aether. At the bottom of the page a l;ink to the theory involved is provided.

Fowler, Michael; Ching, Jacquie H.

2008-07-30

218

Ideas and Experience  

E-print Network

IDEAS AND EXPERIENCE Jim Tuedio Erazim Kohak: Idea and Experience: Edmund Husserl 4s Project of Phenomeno1ogyTn Ideas 1. Pp. xiv + 249. Chicago:~ University of Chicago Press, 1978. Cloth, $17.95. Any serious student of Epistemology must... ultimate fruition. Erazim Kohak has sought, in his Idea and Experience, to account for Husserl's success. As an addition to the growing wealth of Husserlian scholarship, it is perhaps the best commentary one could hope for: Although not designed...

Tuedio, Jim

219

Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY. A & M COLLEGE, CAMPUS I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 469 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... of seven years experiments with fertilizers on cotton at Troup, Nacogdoches, Angleton, College Station, Beeville, Tem- ple, and Denton, Texas, are reported in this Bulletin. The Kirvin fine sandy loam at Troup and the Nacogdoches and Ruston fine sandy...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1932-01-01

220

Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)

Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.

1975-01-01

221

LDR structural experiment definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

Russell, R. A.

1988-01-01

222

Experience and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book's essays, teachers describe and reflect on the practice of experiential education in elementary, secondary, college, and outdoor settings. Major themes of these narratives include the insider's view of the teaching experience; active learning that requires student autonomy, imagination, and responsibility; and the view of experience…

Horwood, Bert, Ed.

223

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

224

The Pinwheel Experiment Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical point hypothesis explains the origin of some cardiac arrhythmias, and the bidomain model describes electrical stimulation of the heart. In this paper, the critical point hypothesis is combined with the bidomain model. The result is four new predictions about the pinwheel experiment, a fundamental experiment in cardiac electrophysiology. These are: (1) The duration of the vulnerable period during

Bradley J. Roth

1998-01-01

225

Experiment with Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to give students the opportunity to Âthink like a scientist, making hypotheses, doing experiments, making observations, and analyzing data. Students are encouraged to construct and conduct their own experiments with ecosystems comprising grass, rabbits, and up to two predator species: hawks and foxes. (Evolution Readiness Activity 10 of 10.)

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

226

Experience with MODSIM II  

SciTech Connect

We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project.

Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

1992-02-01

227

Speaker Information Experience  

E-print Network

Speaker Information #12;Experience Programme Coordinator DLR Aviation & Aerospace Mai 2001 Jahre 5 Monate) Ms Angela Schindler-Daniels has experience working not only as the SSH NCP but also Points for Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities (SSH) in the 7th European Framework Programme (FP7

Wu, Yih-Min

228

Voyager imaging experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this experiment is exploratory reconnaissance of Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites, and Saturn's rings. Such reconnaissance, at resolutions and phase angles unobtainable from Earth, can be expected to provide much new data relevant to the atmospheric and\\/or surface properties of these bodies. The experiment also has the following specific objectives:

B. A. Smith; G. A. Briggs; G. E. Danielson; A. F. Cook; M. E. Davies; G. E. Hunt; H. Masursky; L. A. Soderblom; T. C. Owen; C. Sagan; V. E. Suomi

1977-01-01

229

Real-World Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

Borja, Rhea R.

2006-01-01

230

Varieties of Musical Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

2006-01-01

231

Franklin: User Experiences  

SciTech Connect

The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

2008-05-07

232

THE ARGUS EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical experiment on a global scale was conducted last fall. ; Three small A-bombs were detonated beyond the atmosphere at a location in the ; south Atlantic. The purpose of the experiment was to study the trapping of the ; relativistic electrons (produced by the BETA -decay fission fragments) in the ; geomagnetic field. The released electrons are trapped

N. C. Christofilos

1959-01-01

233

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes briefly three experiments, which are presented by three physics teachers to share their ideas with other teachers and readers. These experiments are: (1) a simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment; (2) the speed of light; and (3) the ball-bearing electric motor. (HM)

Physics Education, 1980

1980-01-01

234

Shusterman on Somatic Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

Maattanen, Pentti

2010-01-01

235

Social Balance Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Social Balance Experiment. In this experiment, participants are asked to imagine that they are in a situation in which they have one of five feelings (love, like, neutral, dislike or hate) toward another person named Bill.

236

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

237

Ball Collision Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments are described on collisions between two billiard balls and between a bat and a ball. The experiments are designed to extend a student's understanding of collision events and could be used either as a classroom demonstration or for a student project.

Cross, R.

2015-01-01

238

Science Experience Unit: Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

239

Instrumental Analysis Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-20

240

Buffon's Needle Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's needle experiment and the corresponding approximation of pi. The event of interest is that the needle crosses a crack. The length of the needle can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, probability, and relative frequency.

Siegrist, Kyle

241

Die Coin Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the experiment of rolling a die and then tossing a coin the number of times shown on the die. The die distribution and the probability of heads can be specified. The applet illustrates a two-stage experiment.

Siegrist, Kyle

242

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

243

The Student Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers discusses the experience of students in the United Kingdom's new, mass higher education system. The papers are viewed as dispatches from the "front line" rather than conventional analyses by education researchers. The organization of the papers mirrors the stages of students' experience of higher education--getting in,…

Haselgrove, Susanne, Ed.

244

Peak Experience Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

2010-01-01

245

Vibration isolation technology experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end

C. R. Keckler

1984-01-01

246

Experiment in Structural Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concern of the experiment is to find out the roles of abstraction and generalization in the learning of mathematical structures. The basic question is whether to generalize before abstracting or vice-versa in order to maximize transfer. The experiment involves four mathematical tasks and a transfer of activity. Experimental procedures are…

Diener, Z. P.

247

Ball collision experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments are described on collisions between two billiard balls and between a bat and a ball. The experiments are designed to extend a student’s understanding of collision events and could be used either as a classroom demonstration or for a student project.

Cross, R.

2015-01-01

248

The Overseas Internship Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the Overseas Internship Experience, a program designed expressly for undergraduate business students who wish to have an overseas experience but are either unable or unwilling to participate in traditional study-abroad programs. The program, in operation since 1996, includes a 6-week supervised summer internship in Oxford, England; a variety of cultural heritage visits; supervised travel to neighboring countries;

Mark F. Toncar; Brian V. Cudmore

2000-01-01

249

Design Of Experiments: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design Of Experiments (DOE) is needed for experiments with real-life systems, and with either deterministic or ran- dom simulation models. This contribution discusses the different types of DOE for these three domains, but fo- cusses on random simulation. DOE may have two goals: sensitivity analysis and optimization. This contribution starts with classic DOE including 2k p and Central Composite Designs

Jack P. C. Kleijnen

2008-01-01

250

Extravehicular activity welding experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

Watson, J. Kevin

1989-01-01

251

Multiwell Experiment Geophysics Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Vertical Seismic Profile experiments and a Three-Dimensional Surface Seismic experiment were conducted at the Multiwell Experiment site in central Colorado to assess the applicability of seismic methods to mapping lenticular sand bodies of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin. The data from these experiments were analyzed in conjunction with synthetic seismograms computed from well logs and additional geological data. This analysis demonstrated that the producing zones can be delineated once the seismic character of these zones is determined but the morphology of individual sand lenses cannot be mapped at the Multiwell Experiment site. Additionally, the extended vertical seismic profile technique was demonstrated to provide a very high resolution seismic technique for investigation of the region adjacent to an existing well.

Searls, C. A.

1985-09-01

252

USML-1 Glovebox experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

Naumann, Robert J.

1995-01-01

253

Dulye Leadership Experience The Ultimate Professional Development Experience  

E-print Network

Dulye Leadership Experience The Ultimate Professional Development Experience: Dulye Leadership Experience Do YOU have what it takes to join the team? Find out more at dle.dulye.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DulyeLeadershipExperience Twitter: DLE4SU #12;Dulye Leadership Experience Program Overview Dulye Leadership Experience The Dulye

Crowston, Kevin

254

LDR structural experiment definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

1988-01-01

255

Public Goods Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students must decide how to divide their "endowment" of a good between private consumption and a public good. The private consumption provides a benefit (earnings) to only the individual and the public good provides a benefit to each person in the group, even those who do not contribute to the public good. This hand-run experiment is suitable for use in small classes in the range of 5 to 40 students. Some variations on this basic experiment are also described.

Todd Swarthout

256

Industrial application experiment series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

Bluhm, S. A.

1981-01-01

257

Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1996-01-01

258

A 500-year experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charles Cockell and colleagues describe an experiment that started in 2014 and will finish in 2514. It will document how long desiccated microbes can survive, with implications for life in the planetary crust and in space.

Cockell, Charles

2015-02-01

259

Experiments in Animal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

Polt, James M.

1971-01-01

260

Illustrating the Classical Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity that (1) illustrates the classical experiment as a research tool; (2) demonstrates the interplay among hypotheses, methods, and data; and (3) nurtures the excitement of a method of study. (BSR)

Zeller, Richard A.

1988-01-01

261

The monsoon experiment MONEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of monsoons in different parts of the world on the Earth's atmosphere were studied by MONEX, India's Monsoon Experiment program. Data were gathered from meteorological satellites, sounding rockets, aircraft, land and shipborne stations.

Das, P. K.

1979-01-01

262

String & Sticky Tape Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a vast collection of physics experiments and activities demonstrating the most fundamental laws in a practical way using the simplest, least expensive materials possible. The book offers activities at varying difficulty levels suitable for all grades.

Edge, Ronald

2006-07-22

263

Experiments with needle bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

Ferretti, Pericle

1933-01-01

264

Foraging Experiences with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

Russell, Helen Ross

1976-01-01

265

Virtual Chemistry Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry applets simulate various experiments, apparatus, and chemical processes. The display and operation of an applet can be controlled by the user through the PARAM options in the APPLET tag and through JavaScript commands.

David N. Blauch

266

The Mock Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A full understanding of the mechanisms behind and the importance of scientific research is invaluable to all college students. The Mock Experiment can be used to introduce science and nonscience majors to the scientific process, presentation of research,

Leeann Sticker

2002-02-01

267

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduced are two experiments: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)

Physics Education, 1989

1989-01-01

268

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three experiments: (1) "Liquid Flow from Orifices"; (2) "Microcomputer-Controlled Investigation of Battery Discharge and Recovery"; and (3) "Measurement of the Speed of Sound." Drawings and diagrams accompany each. (RT)

Physics Education, 1988

1988-01-01

269

Cadell's Mountain Building Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show reconstructions of Cadell's famous experiments in mountain building, performed at an open day of the British Geological Survey at Murchison House, Edinburgh. Various versions at different resolutions are available.

270

General relativity and experiment  

E-print Network

The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

T. Damour

1994-12-08

271

Online polymer crystallization experiment  

E-print Network

An architecture for online remote operation of a polymer crystallization experiment was refined, beta tested in actual use conditions, and extended based on feedback from those tests. In addition, an application for ...

Pridmore, Derik A. (Derik Arnold), 1978-

2005-01-01

272

Experiments on ferrimagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrimagnetism undoubtedly deserves a proper place in the undergraduate laboratory on electricity and magnetism. Four student experiments on ferrimagnetism are considered: (i) the hysteresis loops and permeability of a ‘soft’ ferrite; (ii) the differential permeability versus a dc bias; (iii) the frequency dependence of the complex permeability and (iv) the electromagnetic interference suppression by ferrite chokes and beads. Two ferrite cores taken off a low-frequency choke and a power cord are used. The measurements are simple and straightforward and show the important properties of ferrites and their applications. The values of the permeability of the ferrite core determined in experiments (i)-(iii) are in reasonable agreement. The frequency dependence of the complex permeability of the ferrites is similar to that given by the manufacturers. The capability of absorbing electromagnetic waves in a definite frequency range shown in experiment (iv) demonstrates one of the principles of Stealth technology. The equipment necessary for the experiments can be found in many student laboratories.

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2013-03-01

273

Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

Goh, S. H.

1975-01-01

274

Solar wind composition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 SWC experiment is a continuation of the earlier experiments; however, an essential change was introduced in the solar wind particle collection technique. Platinum surfaces were incorporated in the collector foil, and use was made of a layer technique for distinguishing particles of different energies and different directions of arrival. The improvements and the expanded scope of the Apollo 16 experiment, relative to the earlier SWC experiments, can be summarized as follows: elimination of possible residual dust contamination by treating the platinum foil sections with dilute hydrofluoric acid before analysis; increased accuracy of solar wind argon abundance; determination of solar wind albedo; and search for helium in the energy range above approximately 40 KeV/nucleon.

Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.; Cerutti, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Filleux, C.

1972-01-01

275

Experiences with Butterfly Valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than twenty years' study concerning the use of rubber-seated butterfly valves is discussed in this article. Experience has revealed an understanding of early failures and led to present favorable acceptance.

J. R. Popalisky

1974-01-01

276

Experiments on autorotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article deals principally with Professor Bairstow's experiments on autorotation, in which the wing is free to rotate about an axis in its plane of symmetry, which axis is parallel with the direction of the wind.

Anderlik, E

1926-01-01

277

Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Keynote Presentation exported as a clickable quicktime movie. This presentation develops Millikan's Oil Drop experiment. The presentation is animated and the learner or Instructor can click their way through the presenation. The mathematical theory is fully developed.

Dimauro, Mr. T.

2009-01-12

278

Electrophoresis experiment for space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

1976-01-01

279

Accelerator Experiments for Astrophysics  

E-print Network

Many recent discoveries in astrophysics involve phenomena that are highly complex. Carefully designed experiments, together with sophisticated computer simulations, are required to gain insights into the underlying physics. We show that particle accelerators are unique tools in this area of research, by providing precision calibration data and by creating extreme experimental conditions relevant for astrophysics. In this paper we discuss laboratory experiments that can be carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and implications for astrophysics.

Johnny S. T. Ng

2003-10-22

280

Spacelab J experiment descriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

Miller, Teresa Y. (editor)

1993-01-01

281

Experience in parathyroid scanning.  

PubMed

In our experience, the low success rate of 75Se parathyroid studies does not justify continuance of the test as a routine diagnostic procedure. The initial results using the 99mTc O4--131I subtraction technique are encouraging but further experience is required in order to ascertain whether this procedure will justify a place as a routine test in the localization of parathyroid adenoma. PMID:1202977

Arkles, L B

1975-11-01

282

Object Location Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Object Location Experiment. The experiment begins with a description of the object location memory task that the participants will complete. Participants learn that they will study an array of objects for a designated period of time; the array of objects will then disappear; and then the array of objects will reappear, but some of the objects will have exchanged positions.

283

Coin Die Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the experiment that consists of tossing a coin and then rolling either a red die or a green die, depending on the outcome of the coin toss. The probability of heads and the distributions of the two dice can be specified. The applet illustrates a two-stage experiment.

Siegrist, Kyle

284

The MAJORANA Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

2011-10-01

285

Surface electrical properties experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

1973-01-01

286

The POLARBEAR-2 Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the design and development of the POLARBEAR-2 experiment. The POLARBEAR-2 experiment is a cosmic microwave background polarimetry experiment, which aims to characterize the small angular scale B-mode signal due to gravitational lensing and search for the large angular scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. The experiment will have a 365 mm diameter multi-chroic focal plane filled with 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor bolometers and will observe at 95 and 150 GHz. The focal plane is cooled to 250 mK. The bolometers will be read-out by SQUIDs with frequency domain multiplexing. The experiment will utilize high purity alumina lenses and thermal filters to achieve the required high optical throughput. A continuously rotating, cooled half-wave plate will be used to give stringent control over systematic errors. The experiment is designed to achieve a noise equivalent temperature of 5.7 K, and this allows us to constrain the signal from the inflationary primordial gravitational corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of (). POLARBEAR-2 will also be able to put a constraint on the sum of neutrino masses to 90 meV () with POLARBEAR-2 data alone and 65 meV () when combined with the Planck satellite. We plan to start observations in 2014 in the Atacama Desert in Chile.

Suzuki, A.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, G.; Gilbert, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Lee, A.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Reichart, C.; Richards, P.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K.; Sholl, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Stebor, N.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, J.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zahn, O.

2014-09-01

287

Understanding customer experience.  

PubMed

Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

2007-02-01

288

Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the /sup 8/B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of /sup 98/Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an understanding of stellar processes because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy may lie in the properties of neutrinos (neutrino oscillations or massive neutrinos) or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the /sup 8/B neutrino flux in current times and does not address possible temporal variations in the interior of the sun, which are also not considered in the standard model. In the molybdenum experiment, we plan to measure /sup 98/Tc (4.2 Myr), also produced by /sup 8/B neutrinos, and possibly /sup 97/Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos.

Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G.A.; Bryant, E.A.; Daniels, K.S.; Downey, S.W.; Haxton, W.C.; Niesen, V.G.; Nogar, N.S.; Miller, C.M.; Rokop, D.J.

1984-01-01

289

Commercial Experiment Transporter: COMET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A launch system consisting of ground-support equipment, a four-stage rocket, a service module, a recovery system and a recovery site, and an orbital operations center is being assembled. The system is designed to launch 818 kg (1800 lb) to a 552-km (300-n.mi.) low earth orbit at a 40-deg inclination. Experiment space exists in both the service module and the recovery system. The service module provides space for 68 kg (150 lb) of experiments plus telemetry services, attitude control, and power and uses no consumables to maintain attitude. Consequently, the service module can maintain orbit attitude for years. Power of 400 W is supplied by solar cells and batteries for both experiment operation and housekeeping. The recovery system houses an experiment carrier for 136 kg (300 lb) of experiments, a retro rocket, a heat shield, and a parachute. An orbital operations control center provides tracking, telemetry, and commanding for the satellite. The payloads are also briefly described. The first launch was scheduled for 1995.

Wessling, Francis C.; Robinson, Michael; Martinez, Ramiro S.; Gallimore, Thomas; Combs, Nick

1994-09-01

290

Fundamentals of LHC Experiments  

E-print Network

Experiments on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN represent our furthest excursion yet along the energy frontier of particle physics. The goal of probing physical processes at the TeV energy scale puts strict requirements on the performance of accelerator and experiment, dictating the awe-inspiring dimensions of both. These notes, based on a set of five lectures given at the 2010 Theoretical Advanced Studies Institute in Boulder, Colorado, not only review the physics considered as part of the accelerator and experiment design, but also introduce algorithms and tools used to interpret experimental results in terms of theoretical models. The search for new physics beyond the Standard Model presents many new challenges, a few of which are addressed in specific examples.

Jason Nielsen

2011-06-13

291

Future Experiments in Astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement methodologies of astrophysics experiments reflect the enormous variation of the astrophysical radiation itself. The diverse nature of the astrophysical radiation, e.g. cosmic rays, electromagnetic radiation, and neutrinos, is further complicated by the enormous span in energy, from the 1.95 Kappa relic neutrino background to cosmic rays with energy greater than 10(exp 20)eV. The measurement of gravity waves and search for dark matter constituents are also of astrophysical interest. Thus, the experimental techniques employed to determine the energy of the incident particles are strongly dependent upon the specific particles and energy range to be measured. This paper summarizes some of the calorimetric methodologies and measurements planned by future astrophysics experiments. A focus will be placed on the measurement of higher energy astrophysical radiation. Specifically, future cosmic ray, gamma ray, and neutrino experiments will be discussed.

Krizmanic, John F.

2002-01-01

292

Droplet Combustion Experiment movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

2003-01-01

293

Experimenting and inquiring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to a four-stage process for experimenting and using inquiry. The four stages are getting ideas, experimenting, drawing conclusions, and reporting results. Student tip sheets explain each stage and enable students to work through the process in a step-by-step manner while seeing how the information is tied together. Students gather data, interpret findings, reformulate hypotheses, and present conclusions. A graphic organizer provides students with an opportunity to organize and evaluate their experimental method. A brief outline of the four stages provides students with a handy summary for use while experimenting. The downloadable activity sheets are pdf files. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

294

The Madison Dynamo Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Madison Dynamo Experiment studies MHD dynamo physics in a liquid sodium experiment. The MHD dynamo is believed to be responsible for magnetic field generation in planetary and astrophysical systems when the motion of conducting fluids, such as plasmas or liquid metals, causes magnetic field generation. The liquid sodium is heated to 110 ^circC and contained in a stainless steel spherical pressure vessel with a 0.5m radius. Two 100 horsepower motors will drive impellers to produce the flows that are likely to couple to the large scale magnetic eigenmodes. This poster describes the experiment and its physics goals, which are to study the exitation of magnetic eigenmodes by large scale flows, the equipartition of kinetic and magnetic energies, current generation by helical turbulence, and anomalous resistivity that is produced by MHD turbulence.

Canary, Hw; Forest, Cb; O'Connell, R.; Goldwin, Jm; Kendrick, Rd; Nornberg, Md; Spence, Ej; Reither, Em

1999-11-01

295

Active plasma experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma injection experiments involve generation of luminous plasma clouds by injection, in the near-earth space, of visible tracers of plasma transport, such as Ba, Eu, or Li metal vapors, which are subsequently ionized by solar UV radiation. This paper discusses the technique involved in the Ba-release experiments and the results of some of its applications, with particular attention given to the AMPTE artificial comet experiment in which about 2 kg of Ba vapor were released outside the earth's magnetic field. The AMPTE's two satellites carried instruments for measuring and analyzing the magnetic field, electric and magnetic wave fields over many decades of frequency, the velocity distributions of ions and electrons, as well as the charge, mass, and energy distributions of energetic ions. These measurements were complemented by optical observations from aircraft and on the ground.

Haerendel, Gerhard

296

The Rock Cycle Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the BBC Education Web site, The Rock Cycle Experiments page contains ten activities related to the rock cycle, beginning with weathering and ending with the uplift of rocks. Each activity pops up after clicking the link within the very well done interactive diagram of the rock cycle. The activities are simple but effective; for example, the transportation lesson has students run water through sand to see its effects. The hands-on experience of the activities helps reinforce the learning and of course makes it fun.

King, Chris.

297

Microwave PASER Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The PASER (Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) concept for particle acceleration entails the direct transfer of energy from an active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated for optical (laser) media; we are planning a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped X-band paramagnetic medium consisting of porphyrin or fullerene (C{sub 60}) derivatives in a toluene solution or polystyrene matrix. We discuss the background of this project and report on the status of the experiment to measure the acceleration of electrons using the microwave PASER.

Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, 1375 Piccard Dr Rockville MD 20850 (United States); Antipov, S.; Poluektov, O. [Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S Cass Ave Argonne IL 60439 (United States); Jing, C. [Euclid Techlabs, 1375 Piccard Dr Rockville MD 20850 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S Cass Ave Argonne IL 60439 (United States)

2009-01-22

298

World Ocean Circulation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

Clarke, R. Allyn

1992-01-01

299

Lunar portable magnetometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Apollo 16 lunar portable magnetometer (LPM) experiment is to measure the permanent magnetic field at different geological sites on the lunar surface. The LPM field measurements are a vector sum of the steady remanent field from the lunar crust and of the time-varying ambient fields. The remanent magnetic fields measured in the Descartes region are the largest extraterrestrial fields yet measured in situ. These measurements show for the first time that the Descartes highlands have a stronger remanent magnetization than do the mare regions of the previous Apollo landing sites. The experimental technique used in the LPM experiment is described and the preliminary results obtained are discussed.

Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Sonett, C. P.; Dubois, R. L.; Simmons, G.

1972-01-01

300

Gas Chromatography Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document describes a Gas Chromatography experiment involving the separation and quantitation of four butyl alcohol isomers. It has a complete background about the components of a GC instrument (with labeled pictures) and their functions. The exercise includes a section devoted to the measurement of response factors of the detector in use (here an FID). This would be a good experiment for a new faculty member to use as is, with slight modification to make it relevant to the particular GC system to be used.

301

A Pharmacogenetics Service Experience for Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows  

PubMed Central

Objective. To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. Design. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Assessment. Students’, residents’, and fellows’ achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. Conclusion. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics. PMID:24159216

Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R.; Wong, Shan S.; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A.

2013-01-01

302

Experiments on Photoconductivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted experiments with CdS and CdSe photoresistors are described. The most important characteristics of the photoresistors are determined: (i) the spectral response, (ii) the photocurrent versus incident radiant power, (iii) the rise and decay time constants and (iv) the frequency response to modulated light. The photoconductivity gain…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2012-01-01

303

Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

1996-01-01

304

Experiments with Dipole Antennas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2009-01-01

305

Gender Perception Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the gender perception experiment. Participants view photographs of faces and only the mouth and chin regions are visible. Participants are asked to identify the gender of each stimulus and to indicate their confidence in their judgment.

306

The ULYSSES dust experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ulysses dust experiment is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10 exp -16 g and 10 exp -6 g in interplanetary space, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of heliocentric distance and ecliptic latitude. Of special interest is the question of what portion is provided by comets, asteroids, and interstellar particles.

E. Gruen; H. Fechtig; J. Kissel; D. Linkert; D. Maas; J. A. M. McDonnell; G. E. Morfill; G. H. Schwehm; H. A. Zook; R. H. Giese

1992-01-01

307

The Experience of Menarche.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines reactions to menarche and the subsequent effects of this experience as a function of preparation for and timing of menarche. A questionnaire including measures of responses about first menstruation, current symptoms, and self-image was completed by 639 girls in fifth through twelfth grades. (Author/MP)

Ruble, Diane N.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

1982-01-01

308

A Degrading Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to learn about how different types of marine debris degrade and how weather and sunlight affect the rate of degradation. Learners discover that debris made from natural materials, while biodegradable, can still be considered pollutants and can still harm the marine environment.

Sheavly, Seba; Reigster, Katie

2014-05-28

309

Stretching the Literary Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A child's literary experience may be "stretched" through extension activities such as reading aloud, discussion, writing, art, music, and drama. While any planned activity can be overused and work against the intent of furthering the child's literary growth, there are many valid ways of offering the child opportunities for savoring and reflecting…

Van Dongen, Richard

1984-01-01

310

Remote Agent Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

311

Categorizing My Leadership Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares his experience as a superintendent fortunate enough to be part of the Wallace Foundation's Project LEAD. Along with 11 other superintendents, he got to trade war stories with the likes of Ron Heifetz and other distinguished faculty members from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. The group's first…

Domenech, Daniel A.

2005-01-01

312

The KOSI experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whipple's icy conglomerate model of the comet nucleus has enjoyed progressively increasing acceptance and success in explaining Earth-based observations of comets since its very inception (Whipple, 1950, 1951). According to this model, the nucleus is a solid body composed of frozen gases and dust. The missions to Comet Halley in 1986, in particular the Vega and the Giotto missions, have confirmed that there is a single solid nucleus that is the root of all the observed phenomena that can be associated with an active comet. Two new comet missions (CRAF and Rosetta) are planned by NASA and ESA to extract further details about the structure and composition of the nucleus. Laboratory experiments play an important role in defining and identifying the objectives of these missions: Why are there small areas of activity on the surface while the largest parts of the nucleus appear to be dormant? What are the details of the development of the dusty gas atmosphere (coma)? What is the average tensile strength of the nucleus material? What is its detailed composition and how heterogeneous is it? What is the temperature profile below tie surface? Credible limits on the ranges of these physical and chemical properties and processes can be obtained from laboratory experiments. Although such experiments have been carried out in many laboratories in Europe, the Soviet Union, the USA, Israel, and Japan, the KOSI experiments are the first large-scale investigations (in spatial dimensions and duration). (KOSI is an acronym for Kometensimulation, German for comet simulation.)

Huebner, W. F.

1991-02-01

313

Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

1983-01-01

314

An NMR Kinetics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines advantages of and provides background information, procedures, and typical student data for an experiment determining rate of hydration of p-methyoxyphenylacetylene (III), followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction rate can be adjusted to meet time framework of a particular laboratory by altering concentration of…

Kaufman, Don; And Others

1982-01-01

315

Designing the spectator experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction is increasingly a public affair, taking place in our theatres, galleries, museums, exhibitions and on the city streets. This raises a new design challenge for HCI - how should spectators experience a performer's interaction with a computer? We classify public interfaces (including examples from art, performance and exhibition design) according to the extent to which a performer's manipulations of

Stuart Reeves; Steve Benford; Claire O'Malley; Mike Fraser

2005-01-01

316

A Simple Adsorption Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

2011-01-01

317

Virtual Inquiry Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of…

Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

2011-01-01

318

Introduction: Experience Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience reports are written by agile practitioners to share their project stories with the wider agile community. Our authors explain - what they tried, how their teams battled with obstacles along the way and summarize their lessons learned. You will find that reports presented here offer unique insights on how agile methods can be applied in a variety of challenging

Rachel Davies; Angela Martin

2007-01-01

319

International Experience Singapore 2014  

E-print Network

International Experience Singapore 2014 Department of Energy, Environmental And Chemical: Ray Ehrhard, Professor Palghat Ramachandran & Pratim Biswas #12;Table of Content I. Big Picture a. Prepare for Your Trip a. Travel Check List b. Foreseeing OutofPocket Expenses 1. Food 2. Lodging 3

Subramanian, Venkat

320

Global Health Field Experience  

E-print Network

Global Health Field Experience Guide Yale College Center for International and Professional in global health and looking for guidance on where to begin. It provides valuable information about choosing of global health field work. With the suggestions and tools listed here, we hope that students new to global

321

collection: thought experiments  

E-print Network

collection: thought experiments of the day #12;"Suppose now that there were two such magic rings No Member 3 Yes Yes Yes Collective Yes Yes Yes or No? #12;The Model-T Suppose several people push a Model, in effect, a highly generalized form of such a ticket. ­ G.A. Cohen, "Freedom and Money" #12;The Survival

Wolfe, Patrick J.

322

Surface electrical properties experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Surface Electrical Properties Experiment (SEP) was flown to the moon in December 1972 on Apollo 17 and used to explore a portion of the Taurus-Littrow region. SEP used a relatively new technique, termed radio frequency interferometry (RFI). Electromagnetic waves were radiated from two orthogonal, horizontal electric dipole antennas on the surface of the moon at frequencies of 1, 2,

G. Simmons

1974-01-01

323

Science and Human Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

Cooper, Leon N.

2015-01-01

324

Staying Warm Winter Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These experiments use simple materials to prove that a lot of one's body heat escapes from one's head and that wearing a hat stops some of this heat loss. In addition, students consider how sitting directly on cold ground will cause one to lose heat faster than sitting on insulating material.

325

Muon Decay Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An experiment to measure the mean lifetime of the muon. It was developed as an outreach activity of the Cosmic Ray Observation Project (CROP) at The University of Nebraska. CROP is a statewide outreach project which involves Nebraska high school students, teachers, and college undergraduates.

Struble, Tim; Neukirch, Levi

2012-03-08

326

Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the final experiment report for the TCSE and summarizes many years of hardware development and analyses. Also included are analyses presented in a number of TCSE papers that were prepared and given at scientific conferences including three LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposiums.

Wilkes, D. R.

1999-01-01

327

Carbon monoxide pollution experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiment is designed to obtain data for the investigation of mechanisms by which CO is removed from the earth's atmosphere. The approach uses an orbiting platform to remotely map global CO concentrations and determine vertical CO profiles using a correlation interferometer measurement technique. The instrument is capable of measuring CO over the range of expected atmospheric burdens and of measuring trace atmospheric constituents.

Bortner, M. H.; Dick, R.; Goldstein, H. W.; Grenda, R. N.

1975-01-01

328

Experimenting with Guitar Strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a nonmathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

LoPresto, Michael C.

2006-11-01

329

Experiments in Free Fall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

Art, Albert

2006-01-01

330

Self managing experiment resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

Stagni, F.; Ubeda, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Roiser, S.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.

2014-06-01

331

Microcomputer Controlled Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a microcomputer-controlled system which determines the current/voltage characteristics of a resistor, lamp, and diode, detailing system elements, construction, and providing printout of the program developed to provide control and arithmetic functions necessary to complete the experiment. (SK)

Kirkman, John; Knaggs, David

1982-01-01

332

Implicit Association Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Implicit Association Experiment. Greenwald, McGhee and Schwartz (1998) pioneered the use of implicit association tests. Implicit association tests (IATs) measure the relative ease with which people are able to make associations between certain groups of people (e.g., older adults) and the concepts of "good" and "bad."

333

Word Recognition Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

334

Solar Energy Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment demonstrates that energy from the Sun can be collected and stored in a variety of ways. Using plastic bottles painted black and white and capped with balloons, students will see that the black bottle becomes warmer, heating the air inside it and blowing up the balloon.

335

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

336

Finite Order Statistic Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the experiment of selecting n objects at random from the first m positive integers. The random variables of interest are the order statistics. The applet illustrates the distributions of the order statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

337

205Experience Track | Introduction  

E-print Network

and increasingly successful development. MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) in particular (Cormier, 2008; Downes containing two tracks: a SPOC (Small Private Online Courses) track and a traditional track. In the new course205Experience Track | Introduction Online education supported by new technologies is a re- cent

Bonaventure, Olivier

338

Agricultural Experiment Station  

E-print Network

­WW at 120 lb N/acre. Fertilizer Facts ·A larger portion of urea spring broadcast onto no-till wheat stubbleAgricultural Experiment Station Fertilizer Facts Fertilizer Check-off March 2014 Number 66 Pulse Crop Improves Early Nitrogen Uptake, Growth and Yield of Wheat in No-till Chengci Chen Central

Lawrence, Rick L.

339

Young's Interference Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a simulation of Young's double slit experiment. The simulation allows the user to change all usual parameters like wavelength and source separation. Most noteworthy, is the simulation's illustration of the path difference, and how it relates to the wavelength, for each of the points on the screen.

Fowler, Michael; Ching, Jacquie H.

2008-07-30

340

DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

Cunningham, B

1998-10-01

341

THE APPLIED LEARNING EXPERIENCE  

E-print Network

and networking opportunities » social media » health literacy » social marketing » health behavior theoryTHE APPLIED LEARNING EXPERIENCE: PUTTING SKILLS INTO PRACTICE Tufts students complete an Applied into the complexities of working with a refugee population, including survey design, script development, and analysis

Dennett, Daniel

342

NASSC: A Businessman's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a businessman's viewpoint, the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) offers a singular opportunity to help this nation create a Saturn-like experience for education, school by school. As Saturn revolutionized the way cars are built, NASDC can revolutionize the way children are taught. The 11 winning projects have real potential…

Rundell, C. Reid

1992-01-01

343

Experiments in Ice Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

Martin, P. F.; And Others

1978-01-01

344

Ice forming experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low gravity experiment to assess the effect of the presence of supercooled cloud droplets on the diffusional growth rate of ice crystals is described. The theoretical work and the feasibility studies are summarized. The nucleation of ice crystals in supercooled clouds is also discussed.

Vali, G.

1982-01-01

345

Experimenting with Electric Trains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

2007-01-01

346

Agricultural Experiment Station  

E-print Network

-till cropping systems are beneficial for pest control and soil quality, and can produce higher net economicAgricultural Experiment Station Fertilizer Facts Fertilizer Check-off April 2013 Number 63 Effect of Diversified Crop Rotations and Nitrogen Rates on Soil Organic Matter and Nutrient Levels Clain Jones, Perry

Lawrence, Rick L.

347

Review of PEP experiments  

SciTech Connect

Recent physics results from four PEP experiments: Mark II, MAC, DELCO, and TPC are presented herewith. The topics discussed deal with flavor tagging of charmed and bottom quarks, tau and D/sup 0/ lifetimes, Electroweak interference effects, searches for new particles and dE/dx measurements.

Goldhaber, G.

1983-03-01

348

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the following: use and construction of a lens-pinhole spatial filter assembly to produce expanded beams; how to modify a unilab V. L. F. oscillator to give variable frequencies between .1 Hz and 10 Hz; to use Crookes radiometer quantitatively; and an externally located, movable probe for plasma physics experiments, using conventional…

Physics Education, 1979

1979-01-01

349

The MAJORANA Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

Guiseppe, V.E. [Univ S Dakota; Keller, C. [Univ S Dakota; Mei, D-M [Univ S Dakota; Perevozchikov, O. [Univ S Dakota; Perumpilly, G. [Univ S Dakota; Thomas, K. [Univ S Dakota; Xiang, W. [Univ S Dakota; Zhang, C. [Univ S Dakota; Aalseth, C.E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Aguayo, E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Ely, J. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Fast, J.E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Hossbach, T.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Keillor, M. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Kephart, J.D. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Kouzes, R. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Miley, H.S. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Mizouni, L. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Myers, A.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Reid, D. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Bergevin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Chan, Y-D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Detwiler, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Loach, J.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Martin, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Poon, A.W.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Prior, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yaver, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Avignone, F.T. III [University of South Carolina; Creswick, R. [University of South Carolina; Farach, H. [University of South Carolina; Mizouni, L. [University of South Carolina; Avignone, Frank Titus [ORNL; Bertrand Jr, Fred E [ORNL; Capps, Gregory L [ORNL; Cooper, Reynold J [ORNL; Radford, David C [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Wilkerson, John F [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL; Back, H.O. [University of North Carolina; Leviner, L. [North Carolina State University; Young, A.R. [North Carolina State University; Back (et al.), H.O. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC; Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Hong, H. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Medlin, D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Sobolev, V. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Barabash, A.S. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Konovalov, S.I. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Vanyushin, I. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Yumatov, V. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Barbeau, P.S. [University of Chicago; Collar, J.I. [University of Chicago; Fields, N. [University of Chicago; Boswell (et al.), M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Gusey, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Kochetov, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Timkin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Yakushev, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Efremenko, M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burritt (et al.), T.H. [University of Washington, Ctr Expt Nucle Phys & Astrophys; Burritt (et al.), T.H. [University of Washington, Dept Phys, Seattle, WA; Busch, M. [Duke University; Esterline, J. [Duke University; Swift, G. [Duke University; Tornow, W. [Duke University/TUNL; Ejiri, H. [Osaka University; Hazama, R. [Osaka University; Nomachi, M. [Osaka University; Shima, T. [Osaka University; Finnerty (et al.), P. [University of North Carolina; et al.

2011-01-01

350

The Majorana Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

2011-08-01

351

REVIEW ARTICLE: Electroproduction experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is given for recent experiments in electroproduction and a discussion of their results. For the resonance region the main results are that the ratio of longitudinal to transverse excitation is about as small as it was found for the deep inelastic continuum (about 0.2 or smaller). The excitation of the Delta (1236) in the pi 0 channel, as

F. W. Brasse

1972-01-01

352

Experiments with Aspirin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of experiments that can be used to demonstrate how aspirin can be synthesized and characterized, how the hydrolysis of aspirin can be used as an introduction to kinetics, and how coordination chemistry (chelation) can be introduced by preparing and characterizing the copper complexes of aspirin and salicylic acid. (Contains over…

Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward

2000-01-01

353

Experiences in Systemic Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This section describes the systemic change experiences in Norfolk Public Schools, Chugach School District, Indianapolis Metropolitan School District of Decatur Township, Ditmas Educational Complex, Georgia Systemic Teacher Education Program, Sun Microsystems, and Azerbaijan. It provides a description of the change process and discusses the…

Thompson, Scott; Clem, Joe; Battino, Wendy; Richter, Kurt; Reigeluth, Charles; Doll, Marcelle; Moore, Julie; Hoo, Janet; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

2006-01-01

354

The ALARM Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment was conducted over three recent semesters of an introductory calculus course to test whether it was possible to quantify the effect that difficulty with basic algebraic and arithmetic computation had on individual performance. Points lost during the term were classified as being due to either algebraic and arithmetic mistakes…

Gerhardt, Ira

2015-01-01

355

Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113–432 nm with a wavelength

C. W. Hord; A. I. F. Stewart; C. A. Barth; L. W. Esposito; G. E. Thomas; B. R. Sandel; D. M. Hunten; A. L. Broadfoot; D. E. Shemansky; J. M. Ajello; R. A. West

1992-01-01

356

[Environmental Education Experiences].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental/ecological experiences, appropriate for elementary grades, are presented in this compilation. Designed as individual units of study, they consider components of the natural environment and in particular the local environment of Burke County, North Carolina. Units are titled: Burke County in a Nutshell, Our Culture, A Tour of the…

Burke County Board of Education, Morganton, NC.

357

FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

2007-01-01

358

Examining Latina College Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…

Romero, Amanda R.

2012-01-01

359

Personal Experiences of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen…

Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

2010-01-01

360

Hog Feeding Experiments.  

E-print Network

................................................................................. ~eriment,s Nos. 111 and IV 17 I ...................................................................................... ,,,,proved Hogs vs. Scrubs 19 I Corn vs. Rice Bran vs. Spanish Peanuts ........................................................... 22... 1 ! .................................................................................................................. Summary. 33 I I [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] HOG FEEDING EXPERIMENTS. BY JOHN C. BURNS, DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL...

Burns, John C.

1910-01-01

361

The Airplane Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

1991-01-01

362

The Doppler pendulum experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler formula.

Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

2011-07-01

363

Hybridization experiments in Geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization experiments were carried out with species of Geranium sect. Anemonifolia, sect. Lucida, sect. Pyrenaica and sect. Ruberta. All 9 species tested proved to be self-compatible. Of the 13 interspecific combinations tested only two were successful (G. brutium X G. molle and G. purpureum X G. robertianum) but both hybrids were completely sterile. It is concluded that at least the

J. Chr. Loon

1984-01-01

364

An Introduction to Experience Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the application of requirements engineering principles and techniques to the elicitation, capture, and representation of the output of the user experience design process. A stimulus-perception-response model is used to motivate experience requirements, defined as descriptions of user experiences that must be met (functional experiences) or are satisfaction goals (non-functional experiences). We identify potential benefits and look at experience

David Callele; Eric Neufeld; Kevin Schneider

2010-01-01

365

Energy level properties of 4p4d, 4p4d4f, and 4p4d configurations of the W ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectroscopic parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions was used to derive spectral data for the multicharged tungsten ion W35+. The configuration interaction method was applied to include the electron-correlation effects. The relativistic effects were taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation for quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock radial orbitals. The energy level spectra, radiative lifetimes ?, and Lande g-factors have been calculated for the 4p64d3, 4p64d24f, and 4p54d4 configurations of the W35+ ion.

Bogdanovich, P.; Kisielius, R.

2014-11-01

366

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

367

PsychExperiments: Psychology Experiments on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PsychExperiments is a collection of online cognitive psychology and social psychology experiments, accompanied by a cumulative data archive and download utilities for both data and experiment source code. Students collect data using one or more of the experiments and download it for analysis. The experiments include demonstrations, lab experiments for collecting data for in-class analysis, and research experiments in which participants take part and contribute data to an archive. Topics include the psychology of jurors, facial recognition, learning and memory, perception of gender, reaction time, and many others. Other resources include downloadable Excel macros for analyzing data from the experiments, and support materials for those who want to use and/or develop experiments at the site. A training manual for creating experiments in Authorware is available for purchase.

368

Modeling Mendel's Pea Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This modeling activity allows learners to discover for themselves what Mendel uncovered in his famous pea experiments. By modeling Mendel's pea experiments, learners will form their own explanations for the result of crossing a true-breeding round pea plant with a true-breeding wrinkled pea plant (the F1 generation) and for the results of allowing an F1 pea plant to self pollinate (the F2 generation). They will then compare their explanations to Mendel's own conclusions. This is an excellent introduction to Mendelian genetics which generates discussion and stimulates interest in Mendel's principles. Learners are encouraged to use the same observation and critical thinking skills that Mendel used. This activity can be instructor-led as a demonstration or conducted by groups of learners.

Jeanette Nolin

2009-01-01

369

Gross decontamination experiment report  

SciTech Connect

A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

1983-07-01

370

The ISPM dust experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ISPM Dust Experiment observes particulate matter with masses between 10 to the minus 19th power and 10 to the minus 10th power kg in the solar system; investigates its physical and dynamical properties as a function of ecliptic latitude and heliocentric distance; and studies its interaction with solar radiation, the solar wind, and the interplanetary magnetic field. Measurement of the three dimensional spatial distribution of cosmic dust particles and their dynamics allows the relative significance of their probable sources (comets, asteroids and interstellar dust) to be determined. An instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles is used. It is a multicoincidence detector with a sensitivity 100,000 times higher than that of previous experiments. The instrument weighs 3.750 kg, consumes 2.0 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 8 bit/sec in spacecraft tracking mode.

Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, L. D.; Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Schwehm, G.; Zook, H. A.

1983-01-01

371

Return flux experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

Tveekrem, June L.

1992-01-01

372

Stirling machine operating experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

1991-01-01

373

Herschel Infrared Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students replicate a version of the 1800 experiment in which a form of radiation other than visible light was discovered by the famous astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel. Students use glass prisms, thermometers, and sunlight to detect the increase in temperature beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, thus detecting infrared light. This activity is available on the back of the Electromagnetic Spectrum Poster which is a collaborative product of Astrophysics missions and staff comprising the Astrophysics SEPOF. The Astrophysics SEPOF is headquartered at the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Request a paper copy of the poster from SEPOF through the "contact us" page of Amazing Space - be sure to include your mailing address.

374

Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dentrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle flights (STS-62, STS-75, and STS-87) of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dentrites. Shown here is a cutaway of the isothermal bath containing its growth cell at the heart of the TDSE. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Note: an Acrobat PDF version is available from http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery

2000-01-01

375

Experiments with probe masses  

PubMed Central

It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational “charges” on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented. PMID:17296944

Braginsky, V. B.

2007-01-01

376

Shooting Star Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

1997-01-01

377

Experiments and modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usual approach in establishing the correctness and accuracy of turbulence models is to numerically solve the modeled differential equations and then compare the results with the experiment. However, in the case of a discrepancy, this procedure does not pinpoint where in the model the drawback lies. It is also possible that the model overcompensates one physical phenomenon and undercompensates the other so that the net result is a good agreement between the two. Therefore, a more desirable approach is to directly compare the individual terms in the equations with their models. To achieve this objective, primary physical experiments were used to carry out the second moment budgets. These can then be used to analyze and assess various models and closure assumptions and seek improvements/modifications where models prove deficient.

Shabbir, Aamir

1991-01-01

378

The gravitational wave experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the optimum size of a gravitational wave detector is the wave length, interplanetary dimensions are needed for the mHz band of interest. Doppler tracking of Ulysses will provide the most sensitive attempt to date at the detection of gravitational waves in the low frequency band. The driving noise source is the fluctuations in the refractive index of interplanetary plasma. This dictates the timing of the experiment to be near solar opposition and sets the target accuracy for the fractional frequency change at 3.0 x 10 exp -14 for integration times of the order of 1000 sec. The instrumentation utilized by the experiment is distributed between the radio systems on the spacecraft and the seven participating ground stations of the Deep Space Network and Medicina. Preliminary analysis is available of the measurements taken during the Ulysses first opposition test.

Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Less, L.; Messeri, A.; Wahlquist, H. D.

1992-01-01

379

Stirling machine operating experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

Ross, Brad A.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

380

IRTube: Infrared Imaging Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of easy-to-do experiments which use an affordable handheld IR camera (under $900) to visualize invisible energy flows and transformations. Using this "desktop remote sensing" approach, thermal energy can be readily "seen." Other types of energy that convert into thermal energy can be inferred from thermal signals. Hence, many invisible physical, chemical, and biological processes that absorb or release heat can be visualized, discovered, and investigated.

The Concord Consortium

381

Monty Hall Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the Monty Hall experiment: a car is behind one door, goats are behind the other two doors. The player chooses a door and then the host opens another door. The player is given the option of switching to the remaining door. The stochastic behavior of the host and the probability of the player switching can be specified.

Siegrist, Kyle

382

The MUNU experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We built a low background detector based on a 1 m3 time projection chamber surrounded by an active anti-Compton shielding. The detector has been installed near a nuclear reactor in Bugey for the experimental study of the overline?ee - scattering. A low threshold, around 500 keV, can be set on the electron recoil energy, giving the experiment a sensitivity to the overline?e magnetic moment down to 3·10 -11 Bohr magnetons.

Broggini, C.

1998-07-01

383

The MUNU experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We intend to build a low background detector based on a gas TPC to be installed near a nuclear reactor in Bugey for the experimental study of overline?ee - scattering. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the overline?e, extending down to 2-3.10 -11 Bohr magnetons.

Broggini, C.; MUNU Collaboration

1994-05-01

384

Mirror Drawing Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Mirror Drawing Experiment. This study is designed to demonstrate that for right-handed people, who comprise over 90% of the population, the right hemisphere performs visual spatial tasks better than the left hemisphere. For most right-handers, whereas the left hemisphere excels in verbal and analytical tasks, the right hemisphere specializes in emotional, nonverbal, and visual-spatial tasks.

Maureen McCarthy

2006-01-18

385

Martian Regolith Analog Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a set of laboratory experiments designed to investigate Martian regolith hydrodynamics and to test the MAGHNUM computer model. A previous study with MAGHNUM (JGR-Planets 108: 8040-8054) indicated that if H2O is present in the Martian regolith, as is widely believed, then liquid water could be present beneath the cryosphere and it should be in a convective state, locally

M. A. McGraw; D. B. Reisenfeld; L. R. Stupin; B. J. Travis

2004-01-01

386

Dichotic Listening Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the dichotic listening experiment. Each person responds to a series of trials and the analysis is conducted to compare how well an individual can distinguish sounds based on whether they received the information to the left or right ear. The independent variable is sound presentation (right or left ear) and the dependent variable is ability to correctly distinguish the sound.

387

Red and Black Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the red and black experiment in which a player bets on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until a target fortune is reached or the player is ruined. The initial fortune, target fortune, and trial win probability can be varied, and the user can select either of two basic strategies: timid play or bold play.

Siegrist, Kyle

388

Delivering ideal employee experiences.  

PubMed

Employee-centric strategies have moved from employee satisfaction and brand awareness to employee "affinity" or "attachment." In today's marketplace, occupational health nurses understand that differentiation (i.e., the perception of uniqueness) is the direct result of superior employee interactions, which lead to better employee care, enduring employee relationships, loyal employees, and satisfied employers. What drives employees to occupational health nurse attachment? The answer is a passion for rising above the competition to create ideal employee experiences. PMID:19492760

Weiss, Marjorie D; Tyink, Steve; Kubiak, Curt

2009-05-01

389

Bean Bag Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 21-22 of PDF), learners explore inclined planes. Learners conduct an experiment using a large beanbag chair (or trash bag filled with coats or pillows) and a set of stairs to see how inclined planes make work easier. Learners discover that it requires less force to roll the bean bag down an inclined plane than throwing it between students.

2012-06-26

390

NPB Cesium Space Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) weapons systems are planned to perform the ballistic missile defense functions of nuclear weapon/decoy discrimination and warhead kill at appropriate energy levels and ion currents. Negatively charged ions are produced in a specialized ion source and focused into a high quality particle beam. NPB linear accelerators accelerate and steer the negatively charged ions using electric and magnetic fields. After acceleration and steering the neutralizer system strips away extra electrons from ions to form the electrically neutral particle beam. The neutral beam then travels through space to the target unaffected by the Earth's magnetic fields. Continuing technological advances have greatly reduced the size and weight of NPB accelerator systems. Ion current production has been enhanced by over 100 percent with the intermittent addition of cesium at the NPB ion source device. This increase in current is essential to attain the most light weight, compact NPB platforms and minimize expensive launch costs. Addition of cesium into the ion source has been identified by the NPB community as the highest priority risk reduction space experiment necessary prior to planned NPB accelerator experiments and later weapons systems. The NPB Cesium Space Experiment is planned to successfully demonstrate controlled cesium introduction and vaporization into a simulated ion source chamber. Microgravity effects on the cesium deposition will be studied as will the effects of small amounts of cesium on high voltage accelerator components that might be susceptible to electrical insulator break downs. The experiment design will simulate as closely as possible the environment, physical and operational characteristics of the actual NPB ion source.

Parsons, George M., III

1992-01-01

391

Commercial Experiment Transporter: COMET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A launch system consisting of ground-support equipment, a four-stage rocket, a service module, a recovery system and a recovery site, and an orbital operations center is being assembled. The system is designed to launch 818 kg (1800 lb) to a 552-km (300-n.mi.) low earth orbit at a 40-deg inclination. Experiment space exists in both the service module and the recovery

Francis C. Wessling; Michael Robinson; Ramiro S. Martinez; Thomas Gallimore; Nick Combs

1994-01-01

392

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

393

Air Gun Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video shows an impact experiment of a high-speed impact into a frozen comet-like material (dust, ice, window cleaner and Worcestershire sauce) over a highly porous target (garden perlite). The impact makes a small hole in the comet, simulating a strength-controlled crater, but a large crater grows below and peals back the surface crust like petals of a flower. The result is similar to a deeply buried explosion.

Nasa

394

The Giotto magnetometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Giotto magnetometer experiment employs a low-mass (1.357 kg), low-power (818 mW) instrument in a dual magnetometer configuration using flux gate sensors of the ring core type. It has provided accurate vector magnetic field measurements on its way to and near comet Halley, working flawlessly from switch-on on August 22, 1985 to the formal end of the mission on March 15, 1986.

Neubauer, F. M.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Franke, B.; Gramkow, B.

1987-01-01

395

Mars brine formation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

1992-01-01

396

Detonation Shock Radius Experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation shock dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation shock radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the main charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial shock radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation Shock Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).

Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee

2007-06-01

397

AMT experiment results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) experiments have provided a terminal technology testbed for the evaluation of K- and Ka-band mobile satellite communications (satcom). Such a system could prove to be highly beneficial for many different commercial and government mobile satcom users. Combining ACTS' highly concentrated spotbeams with the smaller, higher-gain Ka-band antenna technology, results in a system design that can support a much higher throughput capacity than today's commercial configurations. To date, experiments in such diverse areas as emergency medical applications, enhanced Personal Communication Services (PCS), disaster recovery assistance, military applications, and general voice and data services have already been evaluated. Other applications that will be evaluated over the next year include telemedicine, ISDN, and television network return feed. Baseline AMT performance results will be presented, including Bit Error Rate (BER) curves and mobile propagation data characterizing the K- and Ka-band mobile satcom channel. In addition, observations from many of the application-specific experiments will also be provided.

Abbe, Brian S.; Pinck, Deborah S.

1995-01-01

398

Relay mirror experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Originating out of a SDIO-funded, Phase 1 study effort, two ground systems and an orbiting EO payload/spacecraft were the primary equipment for the RME. The RME was originally conceived to be a shuttle deployed experiment. Shortly after program start, the Challenger disaster occurred, with the promise of extensive delays. A completely new space segment was to be designed incorporating a free-flying spacecraft. During the midphase of the program, a variety of launch vehicles were envisioned to replace the shuttle, requiring the BASD team to design accommodations for Delta, Atlas, and Titan, with a Delta launch being the final solution. The ground systems tracked the spacecraft and illuminated it with green and blue beacon lasers. The Payload Experiment Package (PEP) housed the bisection tracker, a key innovation central to the experiment. The bisection tracker acquired both beacons and controlled steerable mirrors to accomplish fine tracking of the two cooperative beacons. In the process, the relay mirror was precisely positioned to enable a successful relay of a third infrared laser between the two ground sites via the orbiting spacecraft. Many of the key technologies employed in the PEP were originally developed for Ball laser communications research and development programs and other laser pointing efforts. The WAVE sensor package, built by ATA and integrated by Ball, measured the vibrations of the optical base structure on which it was mounted. These spacecraft vibration data are critical to the accurate pointing of space laser communication terminals.

Begley, David L.

1996-04-01

399

PiFEx propagation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the Pilot Field Experiments (PiFEx) performed under the Mobile Satellite Experiment Program (MSAT-X) on the performance of MSAT-X equipment and subsystems. A brief history of PiFEx and plans for future experiments are given. Some results from the satellite experiment held last August are discussed.

Emerson, Richard F.; Berner, Jeff B.; Ho, Loretta L. G.

1988-01-01

400

The Descriptive Experience Sampling method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) is a method for exploring inner experience. DES subjects carry a random beeper in natural environments; when the beep sounds, they capture their inner experience, jot down notes about it, and report it to an investigator in a subsequent expositional interview. DES is a fundamentally idiographic method, describing faithfully the pristine inner experiences of persons. Subsequently,

Russell T. Hurlburt; Sarah A. Akhter

2006-01-01

401

Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the Initial Blood Storage Experiment (IBSE) was based upon a carefully controlled comparison between identical sets of human blood cell suspensions - red cells, white cell, and platelets - one set of which was transported aboard the Columbia on a 6 day 11 hour mission, and the other held on the ground. Both sets were carried inside stainless steel dewars within specially fabricated flight hardware. Individual bags of cell suspensions were randomly assigned with respect to ground vs orbit status, dewar chamber, and specific location within the dewar. To foster optimal preservation, each cell type was held under specific optimal conditions of pH, ionic strength, solute concentration, gas tension, and temperature. An added variable in this initial experiment was provided by the use of three different polymer/plasticizer formulations for the sealed bags which held the blood cells. At termination of the experiment, aliquots of the suspensions, identified only by code, were distributed to be assayed. Assays were selected to constitute a broad survey of cellular properties and thereby maximize the chances of detection of gravitational effects. A total of 74 different outcome measurements were reported for statistical analysis. When the measurements were completed, the results were entered into the IBSE data base, at which time the data were matched with the original blood bag numbers to determine their status with respect to polymer/plasticizer type, orbit status (orbit or ground), and storage position within the experimental hardware. The data were studied by analysis of variance. Initially, type of bag and orbital status were main factors; later more detailed analyses were made on specific issues such as position in the hardware and specific plastic. If the analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance at the 5 percent level the corresponding p-value was reported.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

1988-01-01

402

APT radionuclide production experiment  

SciTech Connect

Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D. [and others

1994-07-02

403

Experience the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

2011-10-01

404

Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC/SIL efforts. Other papers will outline in detail the Air Force and Navy portions of this effort.

Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

2005-05-01

405

Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

1988-01-01

406

Materials Adherence Experiment: Technology  

SciTech Connect

NASA`s Mars Pathfinder mission, launched December 4, 1996, reflects a new philosophy of exploiting new technologies to reduce mission cost and accelerate the pace of space exploration. Pathfinder will demonstrate a variety of new technologies aimed at reducing the cost of Mars exploration. Chief among these will be the demonstration of a solar-powered spacecraft on the surface of Mars. The Materials Adherence Experiment on Pathfinder was designed to measure the degradation of solar arrays due to dust settling out of the atmosphere and blocking light to the solar array, lowering the array power output.

Jenkins, P.P. [Essential Research Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Landis, G.A.; Oberle, L.G. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1997-12-31

407

Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate that an MHD accelerator can be an effective augmentation system for increasing engine exhaust velocity. More specifically, the experiment is intended to show that electromagnetic effects are effective at producing flow acceleration whereas electrothermal effects do not cause unacceptable heating of the working fluid. The MHD accelerator was designed as an externally diagonalized segmented Faraday channel, which will be inserted into an existing 2-tesla electromagnet. This allows the external power to be connected through two terminals thereby minimizing the complexity and cost associated with powering each segment independently. The design of the accelerator and other components in the flow path has been completed and fabrication activities are underway. This paper provides a full description of MAPX including performance analysis, design, and test plans, and current status.

Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

408

Active seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

1972-01-01

409

NASA's supercomputing experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of NASA's recent experience in supercomputing is presented from two perspectives: early systems development and advanced supercomputing applications. NASA's role in supercomputing systems development is illustrated by discussion of activities carried out by the Numerical Aerodynamical Simulation Program. Current capabilities in advanced technology applications are illustrated with examples in turbulence physics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, chemistry, and structural mechanics. Capabilities in science applications are illustrated by examples in astrophysics and atmospheric modeling. Future directions and NASA's new High Performance Computing Program are briefly discussed.

Bailey, F. Ron

1990-01-01

410

Some optical communications experiments.  

PubMed

Experiments performed to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of beams of coherent light as carriers of wideband information are described. These include transmission of television pictures, multiplexed voice-frequency channels, and other signals over enclosed paths by both phase and amplitude modulation of optical carriers. It is shown that long-distance transmission can be achieved without serious distortion of the beam wavefront. This is verified from determinations of heterodyne detection efficiency and by direct measurements of the optical phase distribution over wavefronts which have been transmitted for distances as great as 20 miles through beam waveguides. PMID:20076346

Delange, O E

1970-05-01

411

Muller Lyer Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Muller Lyer Experiment. The study contained in this collection is a variation of the original Müller-Lyer illusion, one which enables investigators to study the effect of changes in fin angle on the apparent length of lines. Participants in the study are presented with two lines, as in the standard Müller-Lyer presentation, but one of the lines has fins and one does not. The participant's task is to adjust the plain line (without fins) to make the lengths the same.

412

NASA: Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has undertaken the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) to "demonstrate the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events, and to downlink only the highest value science data." The website features ASE updates, publications, and a list of the potential impacts of this research. Users can discover the autonomy software components that are aboard the ASE flight. The site includes links to information about the Artificial Intelligence Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its other projects.

413

Integrated Immune Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Integrated Immune Experiment. The objectives include: 1) Address significant lack of data regarding immune status during flight; 2) Replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; 3) Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation; 4) Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and 5) Determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

Crucian, Brian

2009-01-01

414

INSPIRE: Ionosphere Radio Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, courtesy of Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE,) monitors atmospheric sounds that are largely caused by lightning at radio frequencies. The page allows you to listen in on sferics, tweeks, whistlers and other strangely named sounds. This research is in an experimental stage, the site states: "This is an experimental resource. We hope to maintain the VLF audio stream 24 hours a day with infrequent interruptions for maintenance. However, we can't guarantee that it will be available all the time. Let us know if you encounter problems." This is an interesting resource for those interested in atmospheric science or space study.

Philips, Tom

2009-03-25

415

Visual Experiences during Paralysis  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Paralyzed human volunteers (n?=?6) participated in several studies the primary one of which required full neuromuscular paralysis while awake. After the primary experiment, while still paralyzed and awake, subjects undertook studies of humor and of attempted eye-movement. The attempted eye-movements tested a central, intentional component to one’s internal visual model and are the subject of this report. Methods: Subjects reclined in a supportive chair and were ventilated after paralysis (cisatracurium, 20?mg intravenously). In illumination, subjects were requested to focus alternately on the faces of investigators standing on the left and the right within peripheral vision. In darkness, subjects were instructed to look away from a point source of light. Subjects were to report their experiences after reversal of paralysis. Results: During attempted eye-movement in illumination, one subject had an illusion of environmental movement but four subjects perceived faces as clearly as if they were in central vision. In darkness, four subjects reported movement of the target light in the direction of attempted eye-movements and three could control the movement of the light at will. Conclusion: The hypothesis that internal visual models receive intended ocular-movement-information directly from oculomotor centers is strengthened by this evidence. PMID:22162967

Whitham, Emma M.; Fitzgibbon, Sean P.; Lewis, Trent W.; Pope, Kenneth J.; DeLosAngeles, Dylan; Clark, C. Richard; Lillie, Peter; Hardy, Andrew; Gandevia, Simon C.; Willoughby, John O.

2011-01-01

416

The OLYMPUS Experiment Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OLYMPUS Experiment aims to measure the ratio of electron-proton to positron-proton elastic scattering cross-sections to better than 1% systematic uncertainty. Achieving this goal requires a precise understanding of a wide range of systematic effects, such as the radiative corrections internal to the reaction, the varying acceptance of the detector aparatus, and efficiency of the tracking algorithms. A detailed Geant4 simulation of the OLYMPUS experiment has been developed to study these effects, and using the Monte Carlo method, properly account for their convolution. Radiative corrections are applied by the event generator, whose events are propagated through the simulation. Simulated detector signals are produced with identical format to the raw OLYMPUS data, so that simulated data can be processed using the same analysis software. The simulation, therefore, serves as a benchmark for comparison with the final OLYMPUS results. A discussion of the radiative corrections procedure and an overview of the simulation will be presented. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-94ER40818.

Schmidt, Axel

2013-04-01

417

Olympus propagation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the activities of the OPEX (Olympus Propagation EXperimenters) group is given and some of the recent findings are presented. OLYMPUS, a telecommunication satellite owned by the European Space Agency, was launched on 12 June 1989. After the in-orbit tests were completed (in September 1989) the first propagation experiments started. Throughout 1990 the spacecraft functioned very well and a large number of experimenters received the beacon signals. On 29 May 1991 the spacecraft became inoperational after a major technical problem. With a series of complicated procedures OLYMPUS was recovered on 15 August 1991 - the first time in history that a civilian telecommunications satellite was brought back to service after losing power and telemetry. The propagation experiments were back on track. However, the recovery had used up so much fuel that the North-South station keeping had to be abandoned, which led to a natural increase of inclination at a rate of about 0.8 deg per year. On 10 October 1992 the second 30 GHz beacon tube failed, causing a loss of this beacon signal. The other two beacon frequencies continued to deliver a stable signal for more than two years. On 12 August 1993 the spacecraft experienced another problem with the altitude control, but this time there was not enough fuel left for a recovery maneuver and thus the mission came to an end.

Arbesser-Rastburg, Bertram

1994-01-01

418

Lunar atmospheric composition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

Hoffman, J. H.

1975-01-01

419

The majorana experiment  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, MAJORANA aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype DEMONSTRATOR module are presented. Our proposed method uses the well-established technique of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay in high purity Ge-diode radiation detectors that play both roles of source and detector. The use of P-PC Ge detectors present advances in background rejection and a Significantly lower energy threshold than conventional Ge detector technologies. The lower energy threshold opens up a broader and exciting physics program including searches for dark matter and axions concurrent with the double-beta decay search. The DEMONSTRATOR should establish that the backgrounds are low enough to justify scaling to tonne-scale experiment, probe the neutrino effective mass region above 100 meV, and search the low energy region with a sensitivity to dark matter. The DEMONSTRATOR will be sited at the 4850-ft level (4200 m.w.e) of the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake and preparations for construction are currently underway.

Rielage, Keith R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boswell, Melissa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gehman, Victor M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kidd, Mary F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Roque, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronquest, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Harry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steele, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-13

420

Stirling machine operating experience  

SciTech Connect

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1994-09-01

421

The Virtual Arizona Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To commemorate the once-in-a-lifetime event of Arizona's hundredth birthday, the Centennial Commission and the Governor of Arizona envisioned a museum and companion website that would capture the state's history, celebrate its people, and embrace its future. Working with world-renowned museum designers, the state began to seek ideas from across Arizona to create plans for a journey of discovery through science and the humanities. The museum would introduce visitors to some of the people who nurtured the state through its early years and others who are innovating its tomorrows. Showcases would include the resources and experiences that shaped the state's history and are transforming its present day, highlighting the ingenuity that tamed the wild frontier and is envisioning Arizona's next frontiers through science and technology. The Arizona Experience (www.arizonaexperience.org) was initially intended to serve as the web presence for the physical museum, but as delays occurred with the physical museum, the site has quickly developed an identify of its own as an interactive, multimedia experience, reaching a wider audience with functions that would be difficult or expensive to produce in a museum. As leaders in scientific and technological innovation in the state, the Arizona Geological Survey was tasked with designing and creating the Arizona Experience site. The general themes remain the same; however, the site has added content and applications that are better suited to the online environment in order to create a rich, dynamic supplement to a physical museum experience. The website offers the features and displays of the future museum with the interactive nature and learning environment of the web. This provides an encyclopedic overview of the State of Arizona by subject matter experts in a manner that is free and open to the public and erases socio-economic, political, and physical boundaries. Over the Centennial Year of 2012 the site will release a new theme and explore the people, land, and innovations that shape the themes. Themes include (in order of release) Celebrates, Mining & Minerals, Biotech & Life Sciences, Sports & Recreation, Energy, Water, Technology & Aerospace, People & Culture, Ranching & Agriculture, Native American Culture, Astronomy, 21st Century Workforce, and a Best of 2012 release. The materials developed for the site come from content matter experts across the state including academic institutions, historical societies, museums, and professional associations. Currently there are over 300 content providers contributing resources, data, and videos to the site. AZGS interactions with science and technology organizations, associations, and businesses have been critical as we work to engage visitors and industry with the opportunities in Arizona, and translate innovative research and scientific application for a more generalized audience. In addition, we are involving K-12 educators in using the site content and cutting edge technology for developing classroom STEM related content linked to curriculum subject areas.

Allison, M. L.; Davis, R.; Conway, F. M.; Bellasai, R.

2012-12-01

422

Experimenting model deconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical soil erosion models describe erosion and transport of solids by flowing water as the interaction of the soils' resistivity to be eroded, the force of the water to entrain particles and its capacity to transport them in suspension. This has lead to concepts in which hydraulic parameters as flow velocity or composite parameters such as shear stress, stream power etc. are set into a direct relation to erosion and sediment transport. Soils' resistivity to erosion is in general represented as a threshold problem, in which a critical force is trespassed and the following increase of erosion depends on the characteristics of the sediments and the flowing water. Despite considerable efforts, these model concepts have not been able to produce more reliable and accurate reproduction and forecast of soil erosion than "simple" empirical models such as the USLE and its derivates. And there is still a lack in knowledge about the reasons for this failure. A considerable number of studies have addressed the following questions: 1) What are the main parameters of soils and flowing water influencing soil erosion?, 2) What relationship do these parameters have with the intensity and different types of soil erosion?, but only few researchers have faced the consequence: 3) Are the present concepts suitable to describe and quantify soil erosion accurately? Similar to other studies, we investigated the influence of basic parameters as grain size, slope, discharge and flow velocity on sediment transport by shallow flowing water in laboratory experiments. Variable flow was applied under different slopes on non-cohesive mobile beds. But in addition, field experiments were designed to quantify the hydraulic and erosive effects of small rills in the field. Here, small existing rills were flushed with defined flows, and flow velocity as well as transported sediments was quantified. The laboratory flume experiments clearly show a strong interaction of flow velocity, the size of the transported grains and their concentratio, affecting them the transport of sediments. The experiments also show that hydraulic parameters are not able to predict the combination of sediment detachment and transport. Moreover, the relationship between flowing water and sediment transport is shown to be complex, depending on the morphological evolution of the bed, depending again on the characteristics of the substrate. The field experiments confirm these results, and also show that under variable conditions higher transport rates than those predicted by different model concepts are not only possible, but even the common observation. We conclude from these results that soil erosion by flowing water is much more complex than reflected in model concepts: they neither reflect the process variability nor the interaction between the different dynamic parameters of flow and soils. Mechanistic concepts, in which simple or composite predictors define the dynamics of soil erosion, can not succeed in soil erosion modelling.

Seeger, Manuel; Wirtz, Stefan; Ali, Mazhar

2013-04-01

423

Formulating mixed models for experiments, including longitudinal experiments  

E-print Network

Formulating mixed models for experiments, including longitudinal experiments C. J. Brien1 and C of experiments, particularly those that require more complicated models (e.g. those that involve longitudinal data). This article describes a method for deriving the terms in a mixed model. Our approach extends

Brien, Chris

424

Experience Report for WOPR  

SciTech Connect

One of the purposes of the SQA effort at LLNL is to attempt to determine the 'goodness' of the research codes used for various scientific applications. Typically these are two and three dimensional multi-physics simulation and modeling codes. These legacy research codes are used for applciations such as atmospheric dispersion modeling and analysis and prediction of the performance of engineered systems. These codes are continually subjected to automated regression test suites consisting of verified and validated expected results. Code is managed in repositories. Experience level of developers is high in the knowledge domain, platforms, and languages used. Code size of the multi-physics code used in this study was 578,242 lines excluding comment and blank lines or 5538.7 function points. Languages were 70% C++, 20% C, and 10% Fortran. The code has 130 users and a development team of 14 and an embedded SQE. The code has achieved 100% prime feature test coverage, 73.6% functional test coverage, and 71.5% statement test coverage. The average cyclomatic complexity of the code was 6.25. The codes have evolved over 10 years. Research codes are challenging because there is a desire to balance agility with discipline as well as compliance with DOE standards. Agility is important to allow experimentation with new algorithms and addition of the latest physics features. Discipline is important to increase the quality of the codes. Automation of processes and defect prevention/detection are deployed throughout the software development process. Since resarch codes are a small segment of the software industry, not much information exists in terms of reliability studies on these types of codes. This paper describes attempts to determine the goodness of these research codes. Goodness defined as both correctness of the codes and their fault densities. Correctness is determined by user interviews, peer review; feature based automated testing, and coverage measurement. This paper focuses on the fault density aspect of goodness and reliability of the codes in particular. The approach taken was to use multiple fault density prediction methods and compare results to actual experimentation and other industry studies on fault density. As a result of the predictions and experiments our confidence in the prediction methods was increased and our confidence in the goodness of the code from a fault density perspective was given more context. A large unintended benefit of these experiments was to find defects hidden for years in the codes when using the Monte Carlo reliability testing results to develop heuristic based bug driven tests.

Pope, G

2010-04-06

425

The trapped human experiment.  

PubMed

This experiment observed the evolution of metabolite plumes from a human trapped in a simulation of a collapsed building. Ten participants took it in turns over five days to lie in a simulation of a collapsed building and eight of them completed the 6 h protocol while their breath, sweat and skin metabolites were passed through a simulation of a collapsed glass-clad reinforced-concrete building. Safety, welfare and environmental parameters were monitored continuously, and active adsorbent sampling for thermal desorption GC-MS, on-line and embedded CO, CO(2) and O(2) monitoring, aspirating ion mobility spectrometry with integrated semiconductor gas sensors, direct injection GC-ion mobility spectrometry, active sampling thermal desorption GC-differential mobility spectrometry and a prototype remote early detection system for survivor location were used to monitor the evolution of the metabolite plumes that were generated. Oxygen levels within the void simulator were allowed to fall no lower than 19.1% (v). Concurrent levels of carbon dioxide built up to an average level of 1.6% (v) in the breathing zone of the participants. Temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide levels and the physiological measurements were consistent with a reproducible methodology that enabled the metabolite plumes to be sampled and characterized from the different parts of the experiment. Welfare and safety data were satisfactory with pulse rates, blood pressures and oxygenation, all within levels consistent with healthy adults. Up to 12 in-test welfare assessments per participant and a six-week follow-up Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire indicated that the researchers and participants did not experience any adverse effects from their involvement in the study. Preliminary observations confirmed that CO(2), NH(3) and acetone were effective markers for trapped humans, although interactions with water absorbed in building debris needed further study. An unexpected observation from the NH(3) channel was the suppression of NH(3) during those periods when the participants slept, and this will be the subject of further study, as will be the detailed analysis of the casualty detection data obtained from the seven instruments used. PMID:21908906

Huo, R; Agapiou, A; Bocos-Bintintan, V; Brown, L J; Burns, C; Creaser, C S; Devenport, N A; Gao-Lau, B; Guallar-Hoyas, C; Hildebrand, L; Malkar, A; Martin, H J; Moll, V H; Patel, P; Ratiu, A; Reynolds, J C; Sielemann, S; Slodzynski, R; Statheropoulos, M; Turner, M A; Vautz, W; Wright, V E; Thomas, C L P

2011-12-01

426

Cell Radiation Experiment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

Morrison, Dennis R.

2010-01-01

427

Tribology theory versus experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.

Ferrante, John

1987-01-01

428

Biography of an Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the life story of a scientific experiment? What is involved with such an undertaking? These are important questions, and they are being actively explored by undergraduates and faculty at Haverford College. This website brings together excerpts of original and influential manuscripts in the natural sciences, complete with annotations by undergraduates who have spent a semester "critically evaluating the work and assessing the authors' own perspectives." Currently, there are over a dozen documents here, including "The Invention of the Dye-sensitized Solar Cell" and "Protein folding and amyloidosis". Visitors can look at students' comments on each piece and also read short biographical profiles of each young scholar. This site may very well inspire similar initiatives at other institutions and it's inspiring to see the work of scientists as they engage in a conversation with established researchers.

429

American Experience: Earth Days  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In late 1969, Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson hired Denis Hayes to organize a national teach-in day about the importance of protecting the environment for future generations. On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day was held and over 20 million Americans participated via a variety of celebrations and demonstrations. This website is designed to be a companion to the American Experience documentary on the history of Earth Day, and it includes a teacher's guide, several special interviews, and the documentary in its entirety. The film was directed by Robert Stone, and it serves as "a poetic meditation on man's complex relationship with nature and an engaging history...of groundbreaking eco-activism." On the homepage, visitors should also take note of the photo gallery, the interactive timeline of the modern environmental movement, and a telling interview with the father of the "Green Revolution", Norman Borlaug. Visitors are also encouraged to share their own Earth Day memories on the site.

430

Nonlinear dynamics experiments  

SciTech Connect

The goal of nonlinear dynamics experiments is to improve the understanding of single particle effects that increase the particle amplitude and lead to loss. Particle motion in storage rings is nearly conservative and for transverse dynamics the Hamiltonian in action angle variables (I{sub x},I{sub y},{phi}{sub x},{phi}{sub y}) near an isolated resonance k{nu}{sub x} + l{nu}{sub y} {approx} p is H = I{sub x}{nu}{sub x0} + I{sub y}{nu}{sub y0} + g(I{sub x}, I{sub y}) + h(I{sub x}, I{sub y})cos(k{phi}{sub x} + l{phi}{sub y} - p{theta}), (1) where k, l, p are integers, {theta} = 2{pi}s/L is the azimuth, and s and L are the path length and circumference respectively. The amplitude dependent tunes are given by {nu}{sub x,y}(I{sub x},I{sub y}) = {nu}{sub x0,y0} + {partial_derivative}g(I{sub x},I{sub y})/{partial_derivative}I{sub x,y} (2) and h(I{sub x},I{sub y}) is the resonance driving term (RDT). If the motion is governed by multiple resonances, h(I{sub x},I{sub y}) has to be replace by a series of terms. The particle motion is completely determined by the terms g and h, which can be calculated from higher order multipoles (Sec. ??), or obtained from simulations. Deviations from pure Hamiltonian motion occur due to synchrotron radiation damping (Sec. ??) in lepton or very high energy hadron rings, parameter variations, and diffusion processes such as residual gas and intrabeam scattering. The time scale of the non-Hamiltonian process determines the applicability of the Hamiltonian analysis. Transverse nonlinearities are introduced through sextupoles or higher order multipoles and magnetic field errors in dipoles and quadrupoles. Sextupoles can already drive all resonances. The beam-beam interaction and space charge also introduce nonlinear fields. Intentionally introduced nonlinearities are used to extract beam on a resonance or through capture in stable islands. Localization and minimization of nonlinearities in a ring is a general strategy to decrease emittance growth and increase the beam lifetime. The minimization of nonlinear effects can be done locally or globally. Except for resonant extraction, amplitude increase and particle loss is the result of chaotic particle motion. Large chaotic regions allow particles to increase their amplitudes, and ensures their ultimate loss. However, chaotic particles can, on average, still survive the time period of interest, i.e. the storage time. Nonlinear dynamics experiments aim to determine either the detuning and driving terms g and h directly, or their effect on other quantities. Nonlinear phenomena observed in experiments include phase space deformations and resonant islands in Poincare surfaces of section, nonlinear phase advances, amplitude detuning g, decoherence (Sec. ??), resonance driving terms h, smear, halo formation, echoes (Sec. ??), the tune response matrix, dynamic aperture (Sec. ??), emittance growth, and particle loss. Nonlinear experiments can also be done in the longitudinal plane.

Fischer, W.

2011-01-01

431

Information sciences experiment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid expansion of remote sensing capability over the last two decades will take another major leap forward with the advent of the Earth Observing System (Eos). An approach is presented that will permit experiments and demonstrations in onboard information extraction. The approach is a non-intrusive, eavesdropping mode in which a small amount of spacecraft real estate is allocated to an onboard computation resource. How such an approach allows the evaluation of advanced technology in the space environment, advanced techniques in information extraction for both Earth science and information science studies, direct to user data products, and real-time response to events, all without affecting other on-board instrumentation is discussed.

Katzberg, Stephen J.; Murray, Nicholas D.; Benz, Harry F.; Bowker, David E.; Hendricks, Herbert D.

1990-01-01

432

Tritium neutrino mass experiments  

SciTech Connect

The current status of the experimental search for neutrino mass is reviewed, with emphasis on direct kinematic methods, such as the beta decay of tritium. The situation concerning the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay is essentially unchanged from a year ago, although a great deal of experimental work is in progress. The ITEP group continues to find evidence for a nonzero mass, now slightly revised to 26(5) eV. After correcting for recently discovered errors in the energy loss distribution and source thickness, however, the Z/umlt u/rich group still claims and upper limit of 18 eV. There may be evidence for neutrino mass and mixing in the SN1987a data, in the same range suggested by the ITEP experiment. 42 refs., 3 figs.

Robertson, R.G.H.

1988-01-01

433

Passive seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, deployment, and operation of the Apollo 16 passive seismic experiment (PSE) are discussed. Since activation, all elements of the PSE have operated as planned, with the exception of the sensor thermal control system. Significant progress in the measurement of meteoroid flux in near-earth space has been made, along with dilineation of active moonquake source regions. The data obtained indicate that moonquakes are concentrated at great depth (800 to 1000 km) and that the apparent disparity between meteoroid flux estimtes based on lunar crater counts and those from earth-based observations can be resolved by seismic measurements in favor of the lower flux indicated by the crater count method. The results obtained from the PSE are summarized and their significance is discussed in detail.

Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.

1972-01-01

434

CRRES plasma wave experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CRRES plasma wave experiment is designed to provide information on the plasma wave environment and the total plasma density in the Earth's radiation belts and throughout the CRRES orbit. This information is valuable both for studying the naturally occurring wave-particle interactions affecting the plasma and particle environment in the plasmasphere and magnetosphere as well as for studying the chemical releases. The electric field sensors for this instrument consist of two long electric dipole antennas (about 100 m tip-to-tip), and the magnetic field sensor is a search coil magnetometer mounted at the end of a 6-m boom. The instrument has a 14-channel spectrum analyzer covering the frequency range from 5.6 Hz to 10 kHz, and a 128-step sweep frequency receiver covering the frequency range from 100 Hz to 400 kHz.

Anderson, Roger R.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Odem, Daniel L.

1992-08-01

435

American Experience: Henry Ford  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Henry Ford had a profound influence on America and the world in the 20th century. He was involved in a vast array of enterprises during his life, including the quest for world peace, automobile manufacturing, and even attempting to build a type of utopia in the Amazon known as "Fordlandia." This arresting documentary from PBS's American Experience series looks into his life in great detail. Visitors can watch the entire program here and also look through a range of photo galleries. The galleries include shots of workers at the Ford factory, along with videos of Ford "camping" with Thomas Edison. Perhaps the most interesting video here is one in which Ford gives dance lessons as part of his leisure time in Dearborn, Michigan.

2013-01-29

436

Shooting Star Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the Sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space propulsion research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of SSE and its thermal vacuum test to simulate in-orbit conditions at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflection of the engineering model under extreme condition, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the Sun, as well as vacuum.

1997-01-01

437

Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment(RICE), located at the South Pole, is designed to detect coherent broad-band radio Cherenkov radiation emitted by electromagnetic cascades caused by the charged current interactions of high energy (1015 to 1018 eV) electron neutrinos interacting with nucleons in the ice. As a cascade develops, atomic electrons in the target medium are swept into the forward moving shower in which positrons annihilate causing a net negative charge to develop [1]. The shower front is a compact pancake with transverse dimensions of 20 cm. At distances far from the shower and at wavelengths long compared to its transverse spread, the emitted radiation is coherent. For electromagnetic cascades in ice one gets coherence at radio wavelengths.

Harris, Pauline; Rice Collaboration

438

Turbulence modeling and experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The best way of verifying turbulence is to do a direct comparison between the various terms and their models. The success of this approach depends upon the availability of the data for the exact correlations (both experimental and DNS). The other approach involves numerically solving the differential equations and then comparing the results with the data. The results of such a computation will depend upon the accuracy of all the modeled terms and constants. Because of this it is sometimes difficult to find the cause of a poor performance by a model. However, such a calculation is still meaningful in other ways as it shows how a complete Reynolds stress model performs. Thirteen homogeneous flows are numerically computed using the second order closure models. We concentrate only on those models which use a linear (or quasi-linear) model for the rapid term. This, therefore, includes the Launder, Reece and Rodi (LRR) model; the isotropization of production (IP) model; and the Speziale, Sarkar, and Gatski (SSG) model. Which of the three models performs better is examined along with what are their weaknesses, if any. The other work reported deal with the experimental balances of the second moment equations for a buoyant plume. Despite the tremendous amount of activity toward the second order closure modeling of turbulence, very little experimental information is available about the budgets of the second moment equations. Part of the problem stems from our inability to measure the pressure correlations. However, if everything else appearing in these equations is known from the experiment, pressure correlations can be obtained as the closing terms. This is the closest we can come to in obtaining these terms from experiment, and despite the measurement errors which might be present in such balances, the resulting information will be extremely useful for the turbulence modelers. The purpose of this part of the work was to provide such balances of the Reynolds stress and heat flux equations for the buoyant plume.

Shabbir, Aamir

1992-01-01

439

The Armstrong experiment revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with water or polar liquid dielectrica, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. This experiment was first carried out by Lord Armstrong in 1893 and then forgotten until recently. Such bridges are stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) forces caused by electric field gradients counteracting gravity. Due to these gradients a permanent pumping of liquid from one beaker into the other is observed. At macroscopic scale several of the properties of a horizontal water bridge can be explained by modern electrohydrodynamics, analyzing the motion of fluids in electric fields. Whereas on the molecular scale water can be described by quantum mechanics, there is a conceptual gap at mesoscopic scale which is bridged by a number of theories including quantum mechanical entanglement and coherent structures in water - theories that we discuss here. Much of the phenomenon is already understood, but even more can still be learned from it, since such "floating" liquid bridges resemble a small high voltage laboratory of their own: The physics of liquids in electric fields of some kV/cm can be studied, even long time experiments like neutron or light scattering are feasible since the bridge is in a steady-state equilibrium and can be kept stable for hours. It is also an electro-chemical reactor where compounds are transported through by the EHD flow, enabling the study of electrochemical reactions under potentials which are otherwise not easily accessible. Last but not least the bridge provides the experimental biologist with the opportunity to expose living organisms such as bacteria to electric fields without killing them, but with a significant influence on their behavior, and possibly, even on their genome.

Fuchs, Elmar C.; Wexler, Adam D.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H.; Agostinho, Luewton L. F.; Yntema, Doekle; Woisetschläger, Jakob

2014-04-01

440

Mars aqueous chemistry experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. Progress for the first year MACE PIDDP is reported in two major areas of effort: (1) fluids handling concepts, definition, and breadboard fabrication and (2) aqueous chemistry ion sensing technology and test facility integration. A fluids handling breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested at Mars ambient pressure. The breadboard allows fluid manipulation scenarios to be tested under the reduced pressure conditions expected in the Martian atmosphere in order to validate valve operations, orchestrate analysis sequences, investigate sealing integrity, and to demonstrate efficacy of the fluid handling concept. Additional fluid manipulation concepts have also been developed based on updated MESUR spacecraft definition. The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) facility was designed as a test bed to develop a multifunction interface for measurements of chemical ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The interface allows acquisition of real time data concerning the kinetics and heats of salt dissolution, and transient response to calibration and solubility events. An array of ion selective electrodes has been interfaced and preliminary calibration studies performed.

Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

1993-01-01

441

The Columbus Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ignitor has been the first and remains the only experiment proposed and designed to reach ignition. In principle, it is possible to scale up its parameters (within a narrow range)while preserving the ability to maintain the goal of ignition with reasonable margins against the onset of macroscopic instabilities given the high plasma pressures required. Moreover, strong ohmic heating is to be maintained so that ignition can be reached even in the case of a failure of the ICRH system. The Columbus experiment is geometrically self-similar to the Ignitor machine and is proposed as a parallel US project to the ongoing Ignitor program carried out in Italy. The dimensions are increased by 25/22 (R_o= 1.50 m) and the volume by about 50 %. The value of the mean poloidal field ( \\overline \\overline Bp ? 3.4 T) is the most important design guideline. The plasma current I_p? 12.2 MA is close to that of the ITER-Feat concept for the same value of the safety factor q_95 (?)? 3.6 Ignitor and ITER-Feat, the plasma current redistribution time and the duration time of the plasma burning state are comparable. Columbus incorporates all the technological solutions developed for Ignitor. The logic for two similar machines is that the physics of igniting plasmas is still unexplored and more than one instrument will be needed to establish a sound knowledge basis. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. [1]B. Coppi and M.F. Salvetti, MIT(RLE) Report PTP 02/06 (December 2002, Cambridge, MA).

Salvetti, M.; Coppi, B.

2004-05-01

442

Rubidium uranyl phosphates and arsenates with polymeric tetrahedral anions: Syntheses and structures of Rb 4[(UO 2) 6(P 2O 7) 4(H 2O)], Rb 2[(UO 2) 3(P 2O 7)(P 4O 12)] and Rb[(UO 2) 2(As 3O 10)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three new framework Rb uranyl phosphates and arsenates with anionic parts based on different type of polymeric anions have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state reactions: Rb 4[(UO 2) 6(P 2O 7) 4(H 2O)] ( 1), Rb 2[(UO 2) 3(P 2O 7)(P 4O 12)] ( 2), Rb[(UO 2) 2(As 3O 10)] ( 3). The crystal structures of the synthesized compounds have been solved by direct methods: 1—monoclinic P2 1/ c, a=9.672(1) Å, b=12.951(1) Å, c=32.231(3) Å, ?=90.116(4)°, V=4037.3(6) Å 3, Z=4, R1=0.0926 for 6351 unique reflections with |F0|?4?F; 2—monoclinic, P2 1/ c, a=6.791(1) Å, b=16.155(3) Å, c=19.856(4) Å, ?=97.48(5)°, V=2159.8(7) Å 3, Z=4, R1=0.0286 for 3617 unique reflections with |F0|?4?F; 3—orthorhombic, Pbcn, a=10.558(1) Å, b=11.037(1) Å, c=11.464(1) Å, V=1335.9(2) Å 3, Z=4, R1=0.0489 for 1384 unique reflections with |F0|?4?F. The structures of title are compounds based on 3D negatively charged frameworks with chemical compositions [(UO 2) 6(P 2O 7) 4(H 2O)] 4- in 1, [(UO 2) 3(P 2O 7)(P 4O 12)] 2- in 2 and [(UO 2) 2(As 3O 10)] - in 3. These negative charges are compensated by rubidium cations which are in the channels of 1 and closed cages in structures of 2 and 3. The channels in 1 are directed along the a direction and have minimum dimensions ˜5 Å×6 Å. This is the first example of porosity generation through solid state synthesis in uranyl compounds. For the first time in uranium chemistry polymeric anionic groups P 4O 12 and As 3O 10 were observed in structure of 2 and 3.

Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Depmeier, Wulf

2009-08-01

443

Becoming a Teacher: The experiences  

E-print Network

, qualified to teach through Initial Teacher Training (ITT), and the subjects they currently teachBecoming a Teacher: The experiences of STEM teachers March 2010 #12;09ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo Becoming a Teacher: The experiences of STEM teachers March

Rambaut, Andrew

444

Experiments with Disposable Hypodermic Syringes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists five experiments or demonstrations involving hypodermic syringes. The titles of experiments are Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Atmospheric Pressure, Expansion of Gases, and Boiling at Reduced Pressure. Provides a list of materials, the typical data, and graphs where appropriate. (YP)

Clayton, G. T.; And Others

1988-01-01

445

The polarized SRF gun experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

2008-10-01

446

Aesthetic perception, nature and experience   

E-print Network

This thesis is about the perceptual nature of aesthetic experience and the importance of nature as a paradigmatic object of aesthetic perception and aesthetic experience more broadly conceived. For this reason, it merits ...

Hall, Nicole Annette

2014-07-01

447

Analytical Chemistry Role Playing Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a number of laboratory experiments (available for download in PDF format) which allow students the opportunity to role play in groups to solve problems. Experiments involve titrations, gravimetry, atomic absorption, chromatography.

2011-04-14

448

The Kansas and Minnesota experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments conducted almost 20 years ago have come to be regarded as important milestones in boundary-layer research. This paper recounts the motivation for those experiments, describes how they were conducted, and summarizes their results.

J. C. Kaimal; J. C. Wyngaard

1990-01-01

449

Partnership in Undergraduate Research Experience  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Practical laboratory and work experience has been helpful in reinforcing the undergraduate educational experience. With limited resources, individual organizations may struggle to give a student a well rounded opportunity. Most undergraduates work within internships or cooperative educational fram...

450

p4~0-86-oo9 California Energy Commission  

E-print Network

Cal cul a t i on Methods Procedure f o r Consideration o f Appl i c a t i o n s Under Sections 1404 Design C r i t e r i a Cool ing Design C r i t e r i a HVAC Systems Cal cul a t i on of Heati ng and Cool

451

Pion elastic scattering from ?p4?sHe  

E-print Network

REAL R J(100), Q R I 0142 REAL BSLQR(13, 100, 100), F L(DMNS8, DMNS5, 100) 0143 COMPLEX H L(DMNS8, DMNS5, 100) 0144 COMPLEX DUMMY, DU)livIY 2, CWFNR(100, DiVINS8), TVSH 0145 COMPLEX CWFNR AI(100, DMVS8) 0146 COMPLEX CWFNR FCT, CFACTOR 0147... ? component of the spin, and 4 is the anti-symmetrization operator. Each nucleon wave function can be expanded as the sum of 3 ? D harmonic oscillator functions in spherical coordinates, qr?p p(r), f (r) = Q C p, p, p(r) Vpp(r)x x (2. 2) where 3t and g...

Mahmoud, Ahmed Mohamed

2012-06-07

452

Practical 1P4 Energy Levels and Band Gaps  

E-print Network

, and it appears at a larger angle over a dark background. The hydrogen lamp may also contain small quantities (LED) is studied. The absorption of light by the semiconductor is measured indirectly by monitoring the photocurrent produced when the LED is illuminated with different wavelength light. The final stage

Paxton, Anthony T.

453

(continued on page 2) Research Highlights ................. (p. 4)  

E-print Network

policy doesn't damage scientific credibility in the long run. Neglecting this fact may put one. 16) Scientific Independence: A Key to Credibility USDA Forest Service: Rocky Mountain Research, RMRS, Missoula, MT Independence and objectivity are key ingredients of scientific credibility

454

Athens Journal New York Times, Feb. 15, 2007, p.4  

E-print Network

wore on and no solution was found, bags were savaged by stray dogs and cats. Pedestrians faced a daily in the next five years, as well as a "drying unit" that reduces the volume of garbage by removing moisture

Columbia University

455

Patterns for Success: Team Building (P4). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on team building is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

456

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights  

E-print Network

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights FY 2004 Fusion Ignition Research Experiment #12;Need is critically needed to advance fusion science," and recommended that: "The United States should participate in the U.S. fusion program. The scientific and technological case for adding a burning plasma experiment

457

Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz  

E-print Network

Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz One of the earliest goals of research in artificial intelligence was to create systems that can interpret and understand day to day human experience. Early work on the goal of building systems that understand human experience. Each of the previous barriers is weakened

Kautz, Henry

458

Innovative Science Experiments Using Phoenix  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple, flexible and very low cost hardware plus software framework for developing computer-interfaced science experiments is presented. It can be used for developing computer-interfaced science experiments without getting into the details of electronics or computer programming. For developing experiments this is a middle path between…

Kumar, B. P. Ajith; Satyanarayana, V. V. V.; Singh, Kundan; Singh, Parmanand

2009-01-01

459

Thought Experiments: Determining Their Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers thought experiment as a special scientific tool that mediates between theory and experiment by mental simulation. To clarify the meaning of thought experiment, as required in teaching science, we followed the relevant episodes throughout the history of science paying attention to the epistemological status of the performed…

Galili, Igal

2009-01-01

460

Young Workers: Varieties of Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains nine papers devoted to the psychological experience of youth employment and its role in shaping future employment experiences and expectations. "Introduction" (Julian Barling, E. Kevin Kelloway) emphasizes the diversity of young people as a group and the diversity of individual youth's employment experience. "The Nature of Youth…

Barling, Julian, Ed.; Kelloway, E. Kevin, Ed.

461

Optimal Experience of Web Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on Web users' optimal flow experiences to examine positive aspects of Web experiences that could be linked to theory applied to other media and then incorporated into Web design. Discusses the use of content-analytic procedures to analyze open-ended questionnaires that examined Web users' perceived flow experiences. (Author/LRW)

Chen, Hsiang; Wigand, R. T.; Nilan, M. S.

1999-01-01

462

Experiments for a Special Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

Gluck, Paul

2008-01-01

463

Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

2008-05-01

464

Energies and E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates for states of the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on relativistic wavefunctions from multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations, E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are evaluated for the states of the (1s2)2s22p3,2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in all nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX. The wavefunction expansions include valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects through single-double multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. The computed energies agree very well with experimental values, with differences of only 300-600 cm-1 for the majority of the levels and ions in the sequence. Computed transitions rates are in close agreement with available data from MCHF-BP calculations by Tachiev and Froese Fischer [G.I. Tachiev, C. Froese Fischer, A&A 385 (2002) 716].

Rynkun, P.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Froese Fischer, C.

2014-03-01

465

The Cool Flames Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space-based experiment is currently under development to study diffusion-controlled, gas-phase, low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition in an unstirred, static reactor. At Earth's gravity (1g), natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles via the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Natural convection is important in all terrestrial cool flame and auto-ignition studies, except for select low pressure, highly dilute (small temperature excess) studies in small vessels (i.e., small Rayleigh number). On Earth, natural convection occurs when the Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds a critical value of approximately 600. Typical values of the Ra, associated with cool flames and auto-ignitions, range from 104-105 (or larger), a regime where both natural convection and conduction heat transport are important. When natural convection occurs, it alters the temperature, hydrodynamic, and species concentration fields, thus generating a multi-dimensional field that is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled analytically. This point has been emphasized recently by Kagan and co-workers who have shown that explosion limits can shift depending on the characteristic length scale associated with the natural convection. Moreover, natural convection in unstirred reactors is never "sufficiently strong to generate a spatially uniform temperature distribution throughout the reacting gas." Thus, an unstirred, nonisothermal reaction on Earth does not reduce to that generated in a mechanically, well-stirred system. Interestingly, however, thermal ignition theories and thermokinetic models neglect natural convection and assume a heat transfer correlation of the form: q=h(S/V)(T(bar) - Tw) where q is the heat loss per unit volume, h is the heat transfer coefficient, S/V is the surface to volume ratio, and (T(bar) - Tw ) is the spatially averaged temperature excess. This Newtonian form has been validated in spatially-uniform, well-stirred reactors, provided the effective heat transfer coefficient associated with the unsteady process is properly evaluated. Unfortunately, it is not a valid assumption for spatially-nonuniform temperature distributions induced by natural convection in unstirred reactors. "This is why the analysis of such a system is so difficult." Historically, the complexities associated with natural convection were perhaps recognized as early as 1938 when thermal ignition theory was first developed. In the 1955 text "Diffusion and Heat Exchange in Chemical Kinetics", Frank-Kamenetskii recognized that "the purely conductive theory can be applied at sufficiently low pressure and small dimensions of the vessel when the influence of natural convection can be disregarded." This was reiterated by Tyler in 1966 and further emphasized by Barnard and Harwood in 1974. Specifically, they state: "It is generally assumed that heat losses are purely conductive. While this may be valid for certain low pressure slow combustion regimes, it is unlikely to be true for the cool flame and ignition regimes." While this statement is true for terrestrial experiments, the purely conductive heat transport assumption is valid at microgravity (mu-g). Specifically, buoyant complexities are suppressed at mu-g and the reaction-diffusion structure associated with low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignitions can be studied. Without natural convection, the system is simpler, does not require determination of the effective heat transfer coefficient, and is a testbed for analytic and numerical models that assume pure diffusive transport. In addition, mu-g experiments will provide baseline data that will improve our understanding of the effects of natural convection on Earth.

Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard; Neville, Donna; Sheredy, William; Wu, Ming-Shin; Tornabene, Robert

2001-01-01

466

SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow and support climate change research, CDIAC has designed flexible data collection system using proven network technologies and taking advantage of existing software components. The SPRUCE data system comprised primarily of a set of network components, relational database, a web server to monitor data collection status, FTP server and replication/backup arrangement. Later the data interface on the existing website will be expanded to allow users to query the SPRUCE collection in a variety of ways and then subset, visualize and download the data. From the perspective of data stewardship, on the other hand, this system is designed for CDIAC to easily control database content, automate data movement, track data provenance, manage metadata content, and handle additions and corrections. In this presentation, we share our approaches to meet the challenges of designing and constructing data system for managing sources of high volume in situ observations in a remote location. It will demonstrate the dataflow starting from the sensors and ending at the archiving/distribution points, discuss types of hardware and software used, and examine considerations that were used to choose them.

Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

2013-12-01

467

First experiments with POWERPLAY.  

PubMed

Like a scientist or a playing child, POWERPLAY (Schmidhuber, 2011) not only learns new skills to solve given problems, but also invents new interesting problems by itself. By design, it continually comes up with the fastest to find, initially novel, but eventually solvable tasks. It also continually simplifies or compresses or speeds up solutions to previous tasks. Here we describe first experiments with POWERPLAY. A self-delimiting recurrent neural network SLIM RNN (Schmidhuber, 2012) is used as a general computational problem solving architecture. Its connection weights can encode arbitrary, self-delimiting, halting or non-halting programs affecting both environment (through effectors) and internal states encoding abstractions of event sequences. Our POWERPLAY-driven SLIM RNN learns to become an increasingly general solver of self-invented problems, continually adding new problem solving procedures to its growing skill repertoire. Extending a recent conference paper (Srivastava, Steunebrink, Stollenga, & Schmidhuber, 2012), we identify interesting, emerging, developmental stages of our open-ended system. We also show how it automatically self-modularizes, frequently re-using code for previously invented skills, always trying to invent novel tasks that can be quickly validated because they do not require too many weight changes affecting too many previous tasks. PMID:23465562

Srivastava, Rupesh Kumar; Steunebrink, Bas R; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

2013-05-01

468

Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) successfully demonstrated real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) main propulsion system (MPS). Specifically, the PITEX research project developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the MPS of the X-34 RLV, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The demonstration was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, the PITEX diagnostic system was subjected to numerous realistic effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. In all cases, the PITEX system performed as required. The research demonstrated potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

Chicatelli, Amy K.; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

2006-01-01

469

Ultrafast gas switching experiments  

SciTech Connect

We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

1996-11-01

470

Ultrafast gas switching experiments  

SciTech Connect

We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and technology to practical systems antennas and bounded wave developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > Khz at > 100 kV/m E field.

Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

1993-08-01

471

The Tokamak Physics Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) [Nevins et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion, Würzburg (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1992), Vol. 3, p. 279] is to develop the scientific basis for an economically competitive and continuously operating tokamak fusion power source. This complements the primary mission of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [ITER Document Ser. No. 18 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991)], the demonstration of ignition and long-pulse burn, and the integration of nuclear technologies. The TPX program is focused on making the demonstration power plant that follows ITER as compact and attractive as possible, and on permitting ITER to achieve its ultimate goal of steady-state operation. This mission of TPX requires the development of steady-state regimes with high beta, good confinement, and a high fraction of a self-driven bootstrap current. These regimes must be compatible with plasma stability, strong heat-flux dispersion in the divertor region, and effective particle control.

Davidson, Ronald C.; Goldston, Robert J.; Neilson, George H.; Thomassen, Keith I.

1995-06-01

472

Mars brine formation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of water-soluble cations and anions in the Martian regolith has been the subject of speculation for some time. Viking lander data provided evidence for salt-cemented crusts on the Martian surface. If the crusts observed at the two Viking landing sites are, in fact, cemented by salts, and these crusts are globally widespread, as IRTM-derived thermal inertia studies of the Martian surface seem to suggest, then evaporite deposits, probably at least in part derived from brines, are a major component of the Martian regolith. The composition of liquid brines in the subsurface, which not only may be major agents of physical weathering but may also presently constitute a major deep subsurface liquid reservoir, is currently unconstrained by experimental work. A knowledge of the chemical identity and rate of production of Martian brines is a critical first-order step toward understanding the nature of both these fluids and their precipitated evaporites. Laboratory experiments are being conducted to determine the identity and production rate of water-soluble ions that form in initially pure liquid water in contact with Mars-mixture gases and unaltered Mars-analog minerals.

Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

1993-01-01

473

Atmospheric Profile Experiment, APEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The APEX instrument is a proposed follow-on to the successful Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment, ACE, satellite mission submitted in response to NASA's Earth Venture Instrument call. APEX will measure the altitude profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents including aerosols, the climate-active gases CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, H2O and various halogenated species as well as a large suite of organic and nitrogen-containing gases associated with air quality in the free troposphere.The main instrument on APEX is a high resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operated in solar occultation mode to cover the 750-4400 cm-1 region with high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1). Unlike ACE, APEX will determine temperature, pressure and pointing using a solar imager based on the AIM/SOFIE design. Compared to ACE, APEX will have higher vertical resolution, measure to lower altitudes and have better tropical coverage. The APEX mission will be presented, using recent ACE results as illustrations.

Bernath, P. F.; Gordley, L. L.

2013-12-01

474

The 'Patient experience' revolution.  

PubMed

We're arguably at the most pivotal time in our young profession. The ACA has provided EMS an unprecedented opportunity to become a part of the healthcare system, a move that many of us have dreamed about for decades. We need to pay attention to the changing dynamics of the environment in which we operate. The factors that currently impact hospitals, doctors and other healthcare providers will also impact us sooner than we think. Take the time to help shape our future and how we participate in this new healthcare system. It's time to focus on the patient and the patient's experience with our service. Wayne Gretzky said two important things during an interview when he was asked what makes him such a great hockey player. One was, "You miss 100% of the shots you don't take." The other was, "A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be. I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been." Our advice to you is to go ahead, take the shot, get ahead of the other team and focus on improved customer satisfaction sooner rather than later. PMID:24660359

Hooten, Doug; Zavadsky, Matt

2014-02-01

475

American Experience: Emma Goldman  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dubbed "Red Emma, queen of the anarchists" by the tabloids of the time, Emma Goldman, noted iconoclast and social revolutionary, was one of the most controversial and interesting women in American for over four decades. During her time in the U.S., this Russian emigrant who came to the country in 1885, spoke in defense of labor rights, women's emancipation, birth control, and free speech. This website is designed to complement the American Experience documentary on her life and times and contains a number of features that present additional information about her various passions and crusades. At the site visitors can learn about the film, read a transcript of the program, and access valuable primary sources about Goldman's life. Some of these sources include her own writings, interviews with Goldman, and the complete text of the February 1915 issue of Mother Earth, Goldman's own magazine. The site is rounded out by a great interactive map that lets visitors tour around the country with Goldman as she embarks on her 18-state lecture tour of 1911.

476

Experiments on Paint Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We seek a better understanding of the atomization of paints for purposes of limiting the environmental impact of spray painting. However, to do so one must confront both the shear and extensional rheology of mobile non-Newtonian fluids whose very composition is often complex and even unknown. A conventional Couette rheometer yields data on paint shear behavior, but no commercial instrument is available to measure the extensional viscosity, which is believed to govern ligamentary breakup in spray painting. Here a converging-flow extensional rheometer has been built for this purpose. Flow rate and orifice pressure drop are measured and related to the rheological properties of the fluid. At first, experience was gained by visualizing in this device the flow of clear aqueous solutions of both Newtonian (glycerol) and non-Newtonian (polyacrylamide) thickeners. Commercial latex and marine paints were then tested, with the goal of characterizing their extensional behavior and the hope that they might be replaceable by simpler aqueous rheological "substitute" fluids insofar as their atomization behavior is concerned. (Research supported by the US Navy via the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory.)

Hartranft, Thomas J.; Settles, Gary S.

1998-11-01

477

Diagnostics for Helimak Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Helimak plasma device (see K. W. Gentle, et al., "Helimac -- A Device for Controlled Drift-Wave Turbulence" at this conference) will produce a plasma for study of plasma turbulence. The plasma will be embedded in a 0.1 T field and have a temperature of approximately 10 eV and a density in the range of 10^17 m-3. A sheared flow will be externally applied and controlled. The initial experiments will explore plasma turbulence and flow suppression for detailed comparison with theory. Probes will be used for measurement of equilibrium plasma parameters, density and potential fluctuations, correlation lengths and wavenumber spectra. Field line tagging with driven probes will be used to diagnose the equilibrium. Spectroscopy will be used for measurement of plasma flow. Data acquisition will follow the current trend toward networked systems with PCI-based acquisition modules. The main data archive will be MDSPlus implemented on a Linux platform. Some legacy CAMAC units may be used via PCs which will link the crates to the network.

Rowan, W. L.; Phillips, P. E.; Gentle, K. W.; Huang, He; Dieter, A.; Luckhardt, S.

2001-10-01

478

Experiments with particle damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High cycle fatigue in jet engines is a current military concern. The vibratory stresses that cause fatigue can be reduced by adding damping. However, the high temperatures that occur in the gas turbine greatly hinder the application of mature damping technologies. One technology which may perform in the harsh environment is particle damping. Particle damping involves placing metallic or ceramic particles inside structural cavities. As the cavity vibrates, energy is dissipated through particle collisions. Performance is influenced by many parameters including the type, shape, and size of the particles; the amount of free volume for the particles to move in; density of the particles; and the level of vibration. This paper presents results from a series of experiments designed to gain an appreciation of the important parameters. The experimental setup consists of a cantilever beam with drilled holes. These holes are partially filled with particles. The types of particles, location of the particles, fill level, and other parameters are varied. Damping is estimated for each configuration. Trends in the results are studied to determine the influence of the varied parameter.

Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Gordon, Robert W.

1998-06-01

479

Lithium Irradiation Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

2000-08-22

480

American Experience: The Lobotomist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The film "The Lobotomist" is about Walter Freeman, the inventor of the lobotomy procedure, and is available to watch on the American Experience website. Although there are no gory scenes in the film, and the descriptions of the procedure aren't overly graphic, the horrifying part is hearing of the effects of a lobotomy. The link to the "Introduction" to the film, at the bottom left side of the page, gives an excellent description of the man behind the lobotomy. Freeman was well meaning, but was also obsessed with attaining greatness in the medical community. His obsession ultimately led him to teach and perform lobotomies at a rapid pace - the "Ice Pick" lobotomy was a rapid procedure that could be done in a psychiatrist's office, and could be taught by Freeman to those psychiatrists in an afternoon. The "Special Features" of the film include a "bonus video" with a man who had a lobotomy by Freeman at the age of 12, and interviews with those whose family members had them performed. Although some of the lobotomies would have been deemed successful because they took away the mental illness Freeman was trying to rid them of, it left many individuals in a childlike state for the rest of their days.