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Sample records for slsf experiment p4

  1. Data acquisition for the Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment P4. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.D.; Kraimer, M.R.; Wilson, R.E.; Gilbert, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Data acquisition for the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment P4 used three computers for the continuous collection of data and two computers for the routing and displaying of data. Four of these computer systems were located at the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) site, in Idaho, to access sensor signals from the analog to digital interfaces. The fifth system was located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in Illinois, and was used mainly for display and storage of data. All display computers were connected together using the DECNET software package. The transmission of data was managed over a dedicated phone line using 9600 baud long distance modems. A stand-alone high speed data acquisition system was also used to record data during planned reactor transients.

  2. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health workers motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania. PMID:22963317

  3. The bacteriophage P4 alpha gene is the structural gene for bacteriophage P4-induced RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, K J; Blinkova, A; Arnold, G

    1983-01-01

    Two temperature-sensitive mutants of satellite phage P4 which do not synthesize P4 DNA at the nonpermissive temperature have been isolated. One of these phage is mutated in the P4 alpha gene. It complements a P4 delta mutant, but not a P4 alpha amber mutant; both mutants are phenotypically identical to alpha amber mutants in all properties studied. They synthesize P4 early proteins 1 and 2 as well as two additional P4-induced early proteins, 5 and 6, which are described here. P4 late proteins are not synthesized by these mutants and cannot be transactivated by helper phage P2. The mutants are unable to transactivate P2 late proteins from a P2 AB mutant. The P4 RNA polymerase activity which has been suggested to be involved in P4 DNA synthesis is not detected at the nonpermissive temperature. The P4 polymerase activity in partially purified extracts prepared from cells infected with the mutant at the permissive temperature is temperature sensitive. Reduced activity is found in vitro when these extracts are preincubated at 41 degrees C or assayed at temperatures higher than 37 degrees C. Thus, the P4 RNA polymerase is the product of the alpha gene. Temperature shift experiments show that the alpha gene product is required until late in the P4 cycle. Images PMID:6887349

  4. Posttest examination of Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiments. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    In-reactor, safety experiments performed in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) rely on comprehensive posttest examinations (PTE) to characterize the postirradiation condition of the cladding, fuel, and other test-subassembly components. PTE information and on-line instrumentation data, are analyzed to identify the sequence of events and the severity of the accident for each experiment. Following in-reactor experimentation, the SLSF loop and test assembly are transported to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) for initial disassembly. Goals of the HFEF-phase of the PTE are to retrieve the fuel bundle by dismantling the loop and withdrawing the test assembly, to assess the macro-condition of the fuel bundle by nondestructive examination techniques, and to prepare the fuel bundle for shipment to the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF) at Argonne National Laboratory.

  5. W-1 SLSF post-test data analysis. Part 1. Thermal hydraulic analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, D.D.

    1980-10-01

    Four types of tests were performed: (1) a decay heat transient test, (2) Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) tests, (3) Boiling Window Tests (BWT), and (4) a fuel pin dryout and failure test. In addition, preliminary tests were run to check systems performance, instrumentation performance and test section heat balance. The objective of the decay heat test was to determine the decay heat transfer characteristics of fresh fuel pins with subcooled sodium. The objective of the LOPI experiments was to test the thermal behavior of fuel pins with four different fuel conditions subjected to the same transient. The transient was designed to simulate a rapid flow decrease as a result of pipe rupture followed by a reactor scram. The objective of the Boiling Window Tests was to study boiling initiation and progression of boiling within the fuel pin bundle.

  6. Plasmid mode of propagation of the genetic element P4.

    PubMed

    Deh, G; Ghisotti, D; Alano, P; Zangrossi, S; Borrello, M G; Sironi, G

    1984-09-15

    The satellite bacteriophage P4, in the presence of a helper phage, can enter either the lytic or the lysogenic cycle. In the absence of the helper, P4 can integrate in the bacterial chromosome. In addition, the partially immunity-insensitive mutant P4 vir1 can be maintained as a plasmid. We have found that in the absence of the helper, P4 wt also can be maintained as a plasmid, and that both P4 wt and P4 vir1 have two options for their intracellular propagation: a repressed-integrated or a derepressed-high copy number plasmid mode of maintenance. In the repressed mode, the P4 wt genome is only found integrated into the bacterial chromosome, while the P4 vir1 is found also as a low copy number plasmid coexisting with the integrated P4 vir1 genome. The clones carrying P4 in the derepressed-high copy number plasmid state are obtained at low frequency (0.3%) upon infection with P4 wt, while the vir1 mutation increases this frequency about 300-fold. Such clones can be distinguished easily because of their typical colony morphology (rosettes), due to the presence of filamentous cells. Filamentation of the bacterial host suggests that the presence of derepressed P4 genomes in high copy number interferes with the normal cell division mechanism. The derepressed clones are rather stable, but may revert spontaneously to the repressed state. Spontaneous transition from the repressed to the derepressed state was not observed; however, it can be induced by P2 or P4 vir1 superinfection of P4 wt and P4 vir1 lysogens or by growing the P4 vir1 lysogens up to the late exponential phase. The ability of P4 to choose either of two stable states and the potential to shift between these two modes of propagation indicate that the synthesis of the immunity repressor is regulated. PMID:6492154

  7. Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) production in recombinant Escherichia coli: P4HB synthesis is uncoupled with cell growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB), belonging to the family of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), is a strong, flexible and absorbable material which has a large variety of medical applications like tissue engineering and drug delivery. For efficient production of P4HB recombinant Escherichia coli has been employed. It was previously found that the P4HB synthesis is co-related with the cell growth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiology of P4HB synthesis, and to reduce the total production cost by using cheap and widely available xylose as the growth substrate and sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate (Na-4HB) as the precursor for P4HB synthesis. Results Six different E. coli strains which are able to utilize xylose as carbon source were compared for their ability to accumulate P4HB. E. coli JM109 was found to be the best strain regarding the specific growth rate and the P4HB content. The effect of growth conditions such as temperature and physiological stage of Na-4HB addition on P4HB synthesis was also studied in E. coli JM109 recombinant in batch culture. Under the tested conditions, a cellular P4HB content in the range of 58 to 70% (w w-1) and P4HB concentrations in the range of 2.76 to 4.33gL-1 were obtained with a conversion yield (YP4HB/Na-4HB) of 92% w w-1 in single stage batch cultures. Interestingly, three phases were identified during P4HB production: the growth phase, in which the cells grew exponentially, the accumulation phase, in which the exponential cell growth stopped while P4HB was accumulated exponentially, and the stagnation phase, in which the P4HB accumulation stopped and the total biomass remained constant. Conclusions P4HB synthesis was found to be separated from the cell growth, i.e. P4HB synthesis mainly took place after the end of the exponential cell growth. High conversion rate and P4HB contents from xylose and precursor were achieved here by simple batch culture, which was only possible previously through fed-batch high cell density cultures with glucose. PMID:24325175

  8. P4 ATPases: Flippases in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    van der Mark, Vincent A.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

    2013-01-01

    P4 ATPases catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of biological membranes, a process termed “lipid flipping”. Accumulating evidence obtained in lower eukaryotes points to an important role for P4 ATPases in vesicular protein trafficking. The human genome encodes fourteen P4 ATPases (fifteen in mouse) of which the cellular and physiological functions are slowly emerging. Thus far, deficiencies of at least two P4 ATPases, ATP8B1 and ATP8A2, are the cause of severe human disease. However, various mouse models and in vitro studies are contributing to our understanding of the cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases. This review summarizes current knowledge on the basic function of these phospholipid translocating proteins, their proposed action in intracellular vesicle transport and their physiological role. PMID:23579954

  9. Alternative promoters in the development of bacteriophage plasmid P4.

    PubMed Central

    Deh, G; Zangrossi, S; Ghisotti, D; Sironi, G

    1988-01-01

    Infection of Escherichia coli with the satellite virus P4 without its helper bacteriophage P2 leads either to the immune integrated state or to the nonimmune multicopy plasmid condition. We analyzed the transcription pattern of the phage plasmid P4 early and late after infection and during the stable plasmid or lysogenic condition. The early postinfection phase is characterized by the leftward transcription of an operon including the genes cI (P4 immunity) and alpha (replication). This early transcript starts from the promoter PLE, which shows a good homology with the E. coli sigma 70 promoter. At later times, the transcription of this operon starts from a different promoter, PLL, located 400 base pairs upstream of PLE, and sharing little homology with the canonical E. coli promoter sequence; a longer transcript encoding an additional open reading frame is thus produced. PLL shares two boxes of homology with the P4 late promoter PSID, positively regulated by the P4 delta gene product, and depends on delta function for its full activation. In the multicopy plasmid state, the transcription pattern is similar to that observed at late times after infection. Since in the plasmid state not only is P4 immunity not expressed but its establishment is prevented, even though the P4 cI gene is transcribed, the P4 cI function may be regulated at the posttranscriptional level. In the immune state, transcription starts from PLE but does not continue to cover the P4 alpha gene. This suggests that P4 immunity acts by prematurely terminating transcription initiated at PLE. Images PMID:2833620

  10. Determination of capsid size by satellite bacteriophage P4.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, D; Deh, G; Tsipis, J; Goldstein, R

    1978-01-01

    Satellite bacteriophage P4 requires all morphogenic gene products provided by a helper phage, such as coliphage P2, to assemble its own capsid, which is one-third the volume of the larger helper capsid. We have isolated a satellite phage P4 sid (size determination) mutant that is unable to direct the assembly of the small wild-type-size P4 capsid. Instead, this mutant produces P4 plaque-forming units with large P2-size capsids which contain two or three copies of the P4 sid1 genome. P4 sid1 is evidently mutated in a protein that is specifically responsible for determining the precise size and symmetry of the structure into which the helper P2 gene products will assemble. In addition, we have found that the physical size of the genome does not appear to play an essential role in the proper assembly of the icosahedral capsid, since the majority of the P4 sid1 plaque-forming units do not contain a complete capsidful of DNA. Images PMID:272656

  11. Determination of capsid size by satellite bacteriophage P4.

    PubMed

    Shore, D; Deh, G; Tsipis, J; Goldstein, R

    1978-01-01

    Satellite bacteriophage P4 requires all morphogenic gene products provided by a helper phage, such as coliphage P2, to assemble its own capsid, which is one-third the volume of the larger helper capsid. We have isolated a satellite phage P4 sid (size determination) mutant that is unable to direct the assembly of the small wild-type-size P4 capsid. Instead, this mutant produces P4 plaque-forming units with large P2-size capsids which contain two or three copies of the P4 sid1 genome. P4 sid1 is evidently mutated in a protein that is specifically responsible for determining the precise size and symmetry of the structure into which the helper P2 gene products will assemble. In addition, we have found that the physical size of the genome does not appear to play an essential role in the proper assembly of the icosahedral capsid, since the majority of the P4 sid1 plaque-forming units do not contain a complete capsidful of DNA. PMID:272656

  12. Propagation of satellite phage P4 as a plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, R; Sedivy, J; Ljungquist, E

    1982-01-01

    Satellite phage P4 has two known options for propagation. In its lytic cycle, its regulatory functions can act in trans to alter the actions of a helper virus (P2), which then provides necessary gene products, including capsid proteins. P4 also can be propagated in the absence of a helper as a prophage, with distinct sites for integration within the Escherichia coli chromosome. We determined that a single spontaneous mutation (vir1) of phage P4 allows a third mode of propagation: as a plasmid (along with continued integration into the host chromosome). Hence, the P4 regulatory element is capable of (i) temperate; (ii) lytic, helper-dependent; and (iii) plasmid modes of development. These findings emphasize the close relationship between defective viruses and plasmids. Images PMID:7043461

  13. Multiple regulatory mechanisms controlling phage-plasmid P4 propagation.

    PubMed

    Ghisotti, D; Briani, F; Forti, F; Piazza, F; Polo, S; Sabbattini, P; Sturniolo, T; Terzano, S; Zangrossi, S; Zappone, M

    1995-08-01

    Bacteriophage P4 autonomous replication may result in the lytic cycle or in plasmid maintenance, depending, respectively, on the presence or absence of the helper phage P2 genome in the Escherichia coli host cell. Alternatively, P4 may lysogenize the bacterial host and be maintained in an immune-integrated condition. A key step in the choice between the lytic/plasmid vs. the lysogenic condition is the regulation of P4 alpha operon. This operon may be transcribed from two promoters, PLE and PLL, and encodes both immunity (promoter proximal) and replication (promoter distal) functions. PLE is a constitutive promoter and transcription of the downstream replication genes is regulated by transcription termination. The trans-acting immunity factor that controls premature transcription termination is a short RNA encoded in the PLE proximal part of the operon. Expression of the replication functions in the lytic/plasmid condition is achieved by activation of the PLL promoter. Transcription from PLL is insensitive to the termination mechanism that acts on transcription starting from PLE.PLL is also negatively regulated by P4 orf88, the first gene downstream of PLL. An additional control on P4 DNA replication is exerted by the P4 cnr gene product. PMID:7669338

  14. Crystallization of recombinant Haemophilus influenzaee (P4) acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Zhonghui; Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Nix, Jay C.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-05-01

    Lipoprotein e (P4) is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. Haemophilus influenzae infects the upper respiratory tract of humans and can cause infections of the middle ear, sinuses and bronchi. The virulence of the pathogen is thought to involve a group of surface-localized macromolecular components that mediate interactions at the host–pathogen interface. One of these components is lipoprotein e (P4), which is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. The space group is P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, c = 101.4 Å, one protein molecule per asymmetric unit and 37% solvent content. This is the first report of the crystallization of a class C acid phosphatase.

  15. First LQCD Physics Runs with MILC and P4RHMC

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Gupta, R

    2007-01-18

    An initial series of physics LQCD runs were submitted to the BG/L science bank with the milc and p4rhmc. Both runs were for lattice dimensions of 32{sup 2} x 8. The p4 calculation was performed with v2.0 QMP{_}MPI.X (semioptomized p4 code using qmp over mpi) and milc v7.2, also using RHMC, but not specifically optimized for BlueGene. Calculations were performed along lines of constant physics, with the light quark masses 2-3 times their physics values and the strange quark mass set by m{sub ud} = 0.1m{sub s}. Job submissions was performed using the standard milc and p4 scripts provided on the ubgl cluster. Initial thermalized lattices for each code were also provided in this way. The only modifications for running on BG/L were to the directory names and the mT parameter which determines job durations (24 hrs on BG/L vs. 4 hrs on ubgl). The milc scripts were set to resubmit themselves 10 times, and the p4 scripts were submitted serially using the ''psub -d'' job dependency option. The runp4rhmc.tcsh could not be used to resubmit due to the 30m time limit imposed on interactive jobs. Most jobs were submitted to the smallest, 512 node partitions, but both codes could also run on the 1024 node partitions with a gain of only 30-50%. The majority of jobs ran without error. Stalled jobs were often indicative of a communication gap within a partition that LC was able to fix quickly. On some occasion a zero-length lattice file was deleted to allow jobs to restart successfully. Approximately 1000 trajectories were calculated for each beta value, see Table . The analysis was performed with the standard analysis scripts for each code, make{_}summary.pl for milc and analysis.tcsh for p4rhmc. All lattices, log files, and job submission scripts have been archived to permanent storage for subsequent analysis.

  16. Nucleotide sequence of the essential region of bacteriophage P4.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C S

    1984-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence of one-third of the genome of coliphage P4 has been obtained and mutations virl, epsilon am104, cI405, sidl, and delta 35 identified. The epsilon gene likely encodes a 10 kd protein with epsilon am104 being located at the beginning of the gene. cI405, a proposed repressor gene mutation, is located in a sequence capable of coding for a 15 kd protein. A new class of P4 mutations, ash, is located in the neighborhood of cI405. Two TATA-like sequences are mapped 5' to this cI (ash) sequence. Virl is possibly a promoter-up mutation and is located near or within the replication origin, which is about 400 bp long and AT rich. A sidl mutation is amber that shortens the sid protein by 9 amino acids. The delta gene may encode a 17 kd protein and appears to be coupled with the sid gene translationally. In the 5' side of the sid gene a sequence of CACAAT is the best TATA-like sequence. Sequences of two possible genes that are previously unrecognized and part of the alpha and psu genes are also identified. Images PMID:6095206

  17. Systems biology and p4 medicine: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy

    2013-04-01

    Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a "one gene or one protein" at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which "biology drives technology drives computation." To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another's languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this "systems" approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other "omics" is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes) for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.). The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to detect and treat perturbations in healthy individuals long before disease symptoms appear, thus optimizing the wellness of individuals and avoiding disease. P4 medicine will 1) improve health care, 2) reduce the cost of health care, and 3) stimulate innovation and new company creation. Health care is not the only subject that can benefit from such integrative, cross-disciplinary, and systems-driven platforms and cultures. Many other challenges plaguing our planet, such as energy, environment, nutrition, and agriculture can be transformed by using such an integrated and systems-driven approach. PMID:23908862

  18. Systems Biology and P4 Medicine: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Leroy

    2013-01-01

    Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a one gene or one protein at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which biology drives technology drives computation. To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one anothers languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this systems approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other omics is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes) for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.). The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to detect and treat perturbations in healthy individuals long before disease symptoms appear, thus optimizing the wellness of individuals and avoiding disease. P4 medicine will 1) improve health care, 2) reduce the cost of health care, and 3) stimulate innovation and new company creation. Health care is not the only subject that can benefit from such integrative, cross-disciplinary, and systems-driven platforms and cultures. Many other challenges plaguing our planet, such as energy, environment, nutrition, and agriculture can be transformed by using such an integrated and systems-driven approach. PMID:23908862

  19. Effect of electron irradiation on P4VP/PTSA complex and P4VP/Phthalocyanine composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi Rao, R.; Mohan Rao, P.; Shridhar, M. H.

    2002-03-01

    Effect of electron irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of poly(4vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) complexed with P-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) and composites of P4VP with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) have been studied. In the optical spectra of the complex and composites, there is a shift in the absorption peak towards lower energy side and broadening of the peaks in case of composites after irradiation indicating the possibility of unsaturation. The FTIR analysis after irradiation shows the shift of number of peaks towards higher and lower energy sides. Shift in typical major peaks like C?N, C-H are interpreted as due to the crosslinking or creation of unsaturated bonds. From electrical studies, it is seen that for lower dose of irradiation (1 kGy) there is no significant change but for higher doses the current conduction increases substantially. The permanent and temporary defects produced in the polymer matrix seems to affect the I/V characteristics of the complex and composites.

  20. p4-Linda: A portable implementation of Linda

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.M.; Leveton, A.L.; Lusk, E.L.

    1993-07-01

    Facilities such as interprocess communication and protection of shared resources have been added to operating systems to support multiprogramming and have since been adapted to exploit explicit multiprocessing within the scope of two models: the shared-memory model and the distributed (message-passing) model. When multiprocessors (or networks of heterogeneous processors) are used for explicit parallelism, the difference between these models is exposed to the programmer. The p4 tool set was originally developed to buffer the programmer from synchronization issues while offering an added advantage in portability, however two models are often still needed to develop parallel algorithms. We provide two implementations of Linda in an attempt to support a single high-level programming model on top of the existing paradigms in order to provide a consistent semantics regardless of the underlying model. Linda`s fundamental properties associated with generative communication eliminate the distinction between shared and distributed memory.

  1. LQCD Phase 1 Runs with P4RHMC

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Gupta, R

    2007-02-13

    These results represent the first set of runs of 10 {beta} values ranging from 2000-7000 trajectories with the p4rhmc code. This initial run sequence spanned roughly 2-weeks in late January and Early February, 2007. To manage the submission of dependent jobs: subSet.pl--submits a set of dependent jobs for a single run; rmSet.pl--removes a set of dependent jobs in reverse order of submission; and statSet.pl--runs pstat command and prints parsed output along with directory contents. The results of running the statSet.pl command are printed for three different times during the start up the next sequence of runs using the milc code.

  2. Inversion by P4: polarization-picture post-processing.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Yoav Y

    2011-03-12

    Polarization may be sensed by imaging modules. This is done in various engineering systems as well as in biological systems, specifically by insects and some marine species. However, polarization per pixel is usually not the direct variable of interest. Rather, polarization-related data serve as a cue for recovering task-specific scene information. How should polarization-picture post-processing (P(4)) be done for the best scene understanding? Answering this question is not only helpful for advanced engineering (computer vision), but also to prompt hypotheses as to the processing occurring within biological systems. In various important cases, the answer is found by a principled expression of scene recovery as an inverse problem. Such an expression relies directly on a physics-based model of effects in the scene. The model includes analysis that depends on the different polarization components, thus facilitating the use of these components during the inversion, in a proper, even if non-trivial, manner. We describe several examples for this approach. These include automatic removal of path radiance in haze or underwater, overcoming partial semireflections and visual reverberations; three-dimensional recovery and distance-adaptive denoising. The resulting inversion algorithms rely on signal-processing methods, such as independent component analysis, deconvolution and optimization. PMID:21282167

  3. Low-Temperature Isolation of the Bicyclic Phosphinophosphonium Salt [Mes*2P4Cl][GaCl4].

    PubMed

    Bresien, Jonas; Faust, Kirill; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    The reaction of [ClP(?-PMes*)]2 (1) with the Lewis acid GaCl3 yielded a hitherto unknown tetraphosphabicyclo[1.1.0]butan-2-ium salt, [Mes*P4(Cl)Mes*][GaCl4] (3[GaCl4]), which incorporates a positively charged phosphonium center within its bicyclic P4 scaffold. The formation of the title compound was studied by means of low-temperature NMR experiments. This led to the identification of an intermediate cyclotetraphosphenium cation, which was trapped by reaction with dimethylbutadiene (dmb). All of the compounds were fully characterized by experimental and computational methods. PMID:25891039

  4. Caspase-3 binds diverse P4 residues in peptides as revealed by crystallography and structural modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Bin; Fu, Guoxing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2009-03-31

    Caspase-3 recognition of various P4 residues in its numerous protein substrates was investigated by crystallography, kinetics, and calculations on model complexes. Asp is the most frequent P4 residue in peptide substrates, although a wide variety of P4 residues are found in the cellular proteins cleaved by caspase-3. The binding of peptidic inhibitors with hydrophobic P4 residues, or no P4 residue, is illustrated by crystal structures of caspase-3 complexes with Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, and Boc-D(OMe)-Fmk at resolutions of 1.9-2.6 {angstrom}. The P4 residues formed favorable hydrophobic interactions in two separate hydrophobic regions of the binding site. The side chains of P4 Ile and Tyr form hydrophobic interactions with caspase-3 residues Trp206 and Trp214 within a non-polar pocket of the S4 subsite, while P4 Trp interacts with Phe250 and Phe252 that can also form the S5 subsite. These interactions of hydrophobic P4 residues are distinct from those for polar P4 Asp, which indicates the adaptability of caspase-3 for binding diverse P4 residues. The predicted trends in peptide binding from molecular models had high correlation with experimental values for peptide inhibitors. Analysis of structural models for the binding of 20 different amino acids at P4 in the aldehyde peptide Ac-XEVD-Cho suggested that the majority of hydrophilic P4 residues interact with Phe250, while hydrophobic residues interact with Trp206, Phe250, and Trp214. Overall, the S4 pocket of caspase-3 exhibits flexible adaptation for different residues and the new structures and models, especially for hydrophobic P4 residues, will be helpful for the design of caspase-3 based drugs.

  5. The function of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) explored using a specific inhibitor that targets the PI5P-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jonathan H.; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Burke, John E.; Williams, Roger L.; Maloney, David J.; Marugan, Juan; Irvine, Robin F.

    2014-01-01

    NIH-12848 (NCGC00012848-02), a putative phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) inhibitor, was explored as a tool for investigating this enigmatic, low activity, lipid kinase. PI5P4K assays in vitro showed that NIH-12848 inhibited PI5P4Kγ with an IC50 of approximately 1 μM but did not inhibit the α and β PI5P4K isoforms at concentrations up to 100 μM. A lack of inhibition of PI5P4Kγ ATPase activity suggested that NIH-12848 does not interact with the enzyme's ATP-binding site and direct exploration of binding using hydrogen–deuterium exchange (HDX)-MS (HDX-MS) revealed the putative PI5P-binding site of PI5P4Kγ to be the likely region of interaction. This was confirmed by a series of mutation experiments which led to the identification of a single PI5P4Kγ amino acid residue that can be mutated to its PI5P4Ks α and β homologue to render PI5P4Kγ resistant NIH-12848 inhibition. NIH-12848 (10 μM) was applied to cultured mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells which, we show, express PI5P4Kγ that increases when the cells grow to confluence and polarize. NIH-12848 inhibited the translocation of Na+/K+-ATPase to the plasma membrane that occurs when mpkCCD cells grow to confluence and also prevented reversibly their forming of ‘domes’ on the culture dish. Both these NIH-12848-induced effects were mimicked by specific RNAi knockdown of PI5P4Kγ, but not that of PI5P4Ks α or β. Overall, the data reveal a probable contribution of PI5P4Kγ to the development and maintenance of epithelial cell functional polarity and show that NIH-12848 is a potentially powerful tool for exploring the cell physiology of PI5P4Ks. PMID:25495341

  6. Knotting of DNA molecules isolated from deletion mutants of intact bacteriophage P4.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; McHugh, G L; Hooper, D C; Swartz, M N

    1985-01-01

    DNA molecules isolated from tailless phage particles (capsids) of bacteriophage P4 virl del10 are known to be knotted. We have found by electron microscopy that 80% of DNA molecules isolated from intact phage particles of P4 virl del10 also contained knots. This observation indicates that the predominant form of P4 virl del10 DNA within the intact phage particle is either knotted or in a configuration that permits knotting upon isolation. In comparison to P4 virl del10 (deleted 1000 basepairs), DNA molecules isolated from intact P4 virl del2 (deleted 650 basepairs) and P4 virl (non-deleted) contained 50% and 15% knots respectively, showing an association of decreased size of deletion of DNA with a decreased fraction of knotted genomes. Images PMID:3903657

  7. Mechanisms of genome propagation and helper exploitation by satellite phage P4.

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, B H; Deh, G; Calendar, R

    1993-01-01

    Temperate coliphage P2 and satellite phage P4 have icosahedral capsids and contractile tails with side tail fibers. Because P4 requires all the capsid, tail, and lysis genes (late genes) of P2, the genomes of these phages are in constant communication during P4 development. The P4 genome (11,624 bp) and the P2 genome (33.8 kb) share homologous cos sites of 55 bp which are essential for generating 19-bp cohesive ends but are otherwise dissimilar. P4 turns on the expression of helper phage late genes by two mechanisms: derepression of P2 prophage and transactivation of P2 late-gene promoters. P4 also exploits the morphopoietic pathway of P2 by controlling the capsid size to fit its smaller genome. The P4 sid gene product is responsible for capsid size determination, and the P2 capsid gene product, gpN, is used to build both sizes. The P2 capsid contains 420 capsid protein subunits, and P4 contains 240 subunits. The size reduction appears to involve a major change of the whole hexamer complex. The P4 particles are less stable to heat inactivation, unless their capsids are coated with a P4-encoded decoration protein (the psu gene product). P4 uses a small RNA molecule as its immunity factor. Expression of P4 replication functions is prevented by premature transcription termination effected by this small RNA molecule, which contains a sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the transcript that it terminates. Images PMID:8246844

  8. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the P4 truss to a workstand. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field on the International Space Station, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  9. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers get ready to lower the International Space Station's P4 truss onto a workstand. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  10. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers oversee the removal of the P4 truss from the truck that transported it from Tulsa, Okla. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field on the International Space Station, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  11. The Top 10 Things I LOVE about p4c Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Jolyn

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, Dr. Thomas Jackson, or Dr. J as the author and her colleagues affectionately call him, spoke to the faculty at Waikiki Elementary. He described philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i and encouraged them to try P4C if something about it "resonated" with them. In the beginning, Dr. J held a p4t (philosophy for teachers) after-school seminar…

  12. Detection and characterization of a human G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kaida, Atsushi; Ono, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    In a surveillance system in Osaka City, Japan, 48 sporadic rotavirus A (RVA) infections were detected during 2008/2009-2011/2012 seasons. The G/P-genotypes of detected RVAs were G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G9P[4], and G9P[8]. Although G9P[4] is a rare genotype that had not been reported in Japan, it was the second most prevalent genotype, following G1P[8], and accounted for 35.3% of RVA cases in the 2011/2012 season. Further genotyping revealed that the G9P[4] strain had genotype 2 internal protein genes except for NSP3: G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T1-E2-H2. Among detected RVA strains, G9P[4] and some G9P[8] strains shared high nucleotide identity in VP7 and NSP3 genes. Phylogenetic and BLAST search analyses showed that the G9P[4] strain in Japan shared high nucleotide identity in genotype 2 genes with common G2P[4] strains circulating globally, but was distinct from other G9P[4] strains circulating worldwide. These results suggest that the G9P[4] strain in Japan may have emerged through an independent reassortment between G9P[8] and G2P[4]. Finally, the role of NSP3 protein in the circulating RVA from an amino acid comparison between T1- and T2-type NSP3 is discussed. These findings provide an important insight into less problematic combinations of circulating RVA genes derived from different genotypes. PMID:25907907

  13. Phasmid P4: manipulation of plasmid copy number and induction from the integrated state.

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, R; Goldstein, R

    1984-01-01

    "Phasmid" P4 is unusual in that it is capable of (i) temperate, (ii) lytic, helper-dependent, and (iii) plasmid modes of propagation. In this report we characterize most of the known P4 genetic functions as to their essential or nonessential roles in the stable maintenance of plasmid P4 vir1 (pP4 vir1 (pP4 vir1). We also identify growth conditions that can be used to stably maintain pP4 vir1 at any one of several different copy number levels (n = 1 to 3, n = 10 to 15, or n = 30 to 40). Analyses of a temperature-sensitive alpha derivative of pP4 vir1 show that shifting the temperature from 37 to 42 degrees C allows this mutant to maintain an integrated copy of the plasmid, whereas replication of free copies is repressed because of the nonpermissive condition for their DNA synthesis. Conversely, a shift from 42 to 37 degrees C can be used to reinstate plasmid propagation. The utility of the inducible states of pP4 vir1 is discussed with respect to its attributes as a vector with the potential for cloning inserts of DNA up to 33,000 base pairs in a wide range of bacterial hosts. Images PMID:6370957

  14. p-(4-Azipentyl)propofol: a potent photoreactive general anesthetic derivative of propofol.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Deirdre S; Savechenkov, Pavel Y; Dostalova, Zuzana; Chiara, David C; Ge, Rile; Raines, Douglas E; Cohen, Jonathan B; Forman, Stuart A; Bruzik, Karol S; Miller, Keith W

    2011-12-01

    We synthesized 2,6-diisopropyl-4-[3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)propyl]phenol (p-(4-azipentyl)propofol), or p-4-AziC5-Pro, a novel photoactivable derivative of the general anesthetic propofol. p-4-AziC5-Pro has an anesthetic potency similar to that of propofol. Like propofol, the compound potentiates inhibitory GABA(A) receptor current responses and allosterically modulates binding to both agonist and benzodiazepine sites, assayed on heterologously expressed GABA(A) receptors. p-4-AziC5-Pro inhibits excitatory current responses of nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and photoincorporates into native nACh receptor-enriched Torpedo membranes. Thus, p-4-AziC5-Pro is a functional general anesthetic that both modulates and photoincorporates into Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, making it an excellent candidate for use in identifying propofol binding sites. PMID:22029276

  15. p-(4-Azipentyl)-propofol: A Potent Photoreactive General Anesthetic Derivative of Propofol

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Deirdre S.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Dostalova, Zuzana; Chiara, David C.; Ge, Rile; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohne, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Miller, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized 2,6-Diisopropyl-4-[3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-propyl]-phenol (p-(4-azipentyl)-propofol), or p-4-AziC5-Pro, a novel photoactivable derivative of the general anesthetic propofol. p-4-AziC5-Pro has an anesthetic potency similar to propofol. Like propofol, the compound potentiates inhibitory GABAA receptor current responses and allosterically modulates binding to both agonist and benzodiazepine sites, assayed on heterologously expressed GABAA receptors. p-4-AziC5-Pro inhibits excitatory current responses of nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and photoincorporates into native nACh receptor-enriched Torpedo membranes. Thus p-4-AziC5-Pro is a functional general anesthetic that both modulates and photoincorporates into Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, making it an excellent candidate for use in identifying propofol binding sites. PMID:22029276

  16. Investigation of core-mantle boundary topography and lowermost mantle with P4KP waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaphorst, David; Thomas, Christine; Holme, Richard; Abreu, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Differential traveltimes of P4KP and PKP waves are used in an attempt to constrain the topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) in localized areas. For epicentral distances of approximately 150°, PKP and P4KP follow the same path through the crust and mantle and differ only in the core, since P4KP reflects three times at the underside of the CMB. Hence traveltime differences should only be due to the path differences in the core. We use array techniques in order to enhance the signal to noise ratio and confirm the slowness and backazimuth of the P4KP waves. Data from the Gräfenberg Array in southern Germany yield a total of 27 events with observable P4KP waves. We find most traveltime residuals between theoretical and observed P4KP minus PKP arrival time generally within a range of ±7 s. A ray tracing method is used to model the deviations of traveltimes due to changes of CMB depth at the reflection points of the P4KP waves. It is not possible to explain the observed traveltime residuals with changes in depth of the CMB only; in several cases, the residuals are too large to be caused by CMB topography alone. Due to the expected coinciding ray paths of PKP and P4KP, the remaining variations are unlikely to be produced by heterogeneities in the lowermost mantle, and so remain for the moment unaccounted for. We find that the reflection coefficient of P4KP undergoes a polarity reversal for some scenarios of lower mantle velocities and densities and the observed P4KP polarity at this distance range can therefore help to investigate the lowermost mantle in addition to CMB topography.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2014-02-01

    Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets. PMID:25049952

  18. Pentose Phosphate Pathway Function Affects Tolerance to the G-Quadruplex Binder TMPyP4

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Elizabeth J.; Merchan, Stephanie; Lawless, Conor; Banks, A. Peter; Wilkinson, Darren J.; Lydall, David

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes form in guanine-rich regions of DNA and the presence of these structures at telomeres prevents the activity of telomerase in vitro. Ligands such as the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 stabilise G-quadruplexes and are therefore under investigation for their potential use as anti-cancer drugs. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of TMPyP4 in vivo, we carried out a genome-wide screen in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that deletion of key pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) genes increased the sensitivity of yeast to the presence of TMPyP4. The PPP plays an important role in the oxidative stress response and sensitivity to TMPyP4 also increased when genes involved in the oxidative stress response, CCS1 and YAP1, were deleted. For comparison we also report genome wide-screens using hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress, RHPS4, another G-quadruplex binder and hydroxyurea, an S phase poison. We found that a number of TMPyP4-sensitive strains are also sensitive to hydrogen peroxide in a genome-wide screen. Overall our results suggest that treatment with TMPyP4 results in light-dependent oxidative stress response in budding yeast, and that this, rather than G-quadruplex binding, is the major route to cytotoxicity. Our results have implications for the usefulness and mechanism of action of TMPyP4. PMID:23776642

  19. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection. PMID:26153407

  20. Bacteriophage P4 immunity controlled by small RNAs via transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Deh, G; Zangrossi, S; Sabbattini, P; Sironi, G; Ghisotti, D

    1992-11-01

    Satellite bacteriophage P4 immunity is encoded within a short DNA region 357 bp long containing the promoter PLE and 275 bp downstream. PLE is active both in the early post-infection phase, when genes necessary for P4 lytic cycle are transcribed from this promoter, and in the lysogenic condition, when expression of the above genes is prevented by prophage immunity. In order to understand how P4 immunity is elicited, we have characterized the transcription pattern during the establishment and the maintenance of the satellite phage P4 lysogenic condition. We found that prophage transcription starting at PLE ends prematurely and the transcripts do not extend beyond 300-400 nucleotides downstream of PLE. Thus P4 immunity acts by causing premature transcription termination rather than by repressing transcription initiation. The P4 immunity region is transcribed in the prophage, but it does not seem to be translated; this region contains two elements (seqA and seqB) of a palindromic sequence. In addition to transcripts about 300 nucleotides long, P4 prophage produces a family of shorter transcripts, about 80 nucleotides long, containing seqA or seqB. Evidence is presented suggesting that SeqB RNA is the trans-acting immunity factor, and that interaction of SeqB RNA with the complementary nascent RNA containing seqA may be involved in bringing about premature transcription termination. PMID:1484493

  1. QED Corrections to the 4p - 4d Transition Energies of Copperlike Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M H; Cheng, K T; Johnson, W R; Sapirstein, J

    2006-08-21

    Quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to 4p-4d transition energies of several copper-like ions with Z = 70-92 are calculated non-perturbatively in strong external fields to all orders in binding corrections. Dirac-Kohn-Sham potentials are used to account for screening and core-relaxation effects. For the 4p{sub 1/2}-4d{sub 3/2} transition in copperlike bismuth, thorium and uranium, results are in good agreement with empirical QED corrections deduced from differences between transition energies obtained from recent high-precision electron-beam ion-trap (EBIT) measurements and those calculated with the relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT). These comparisons provide sensitive tests of QED corrections for high angular momentum states in many-electron heavy ions and illustrate the importance of core-relaxation corrections. Comparisons are also made with other theories and with experiment on the 4s-4p transition energies of high-Z Cu-like ions as accuracy checks of the present RMBPT and QED calculations.

  2. QED corrections to the 4p-4d transition energies of copperlike heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M. H.; Cheng, K. T.; Johnson, W. R.; Sapirstein, J.

    2006-10-15

    Quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to 4p-4d transition energies of several copperlike ions with Z=70-92 are calculated nonperturbatively in strong external fields to all orders in binding corrections. Dirac-Kohn-Sham potentials are used to account for screening and core-relaxation effects. For the 4p{sub 1/2}-4d{sub 3/2} transition in copperlike bismuth, thorium, and uranium, results are in good agreement with empirical QED corrections deduced from differences between transition energies obtained from recent high-precision electron-beam ion-trap measurements and those calculated with the relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT). These comparisons provide sensitive tests of QED corrections for high-angular-momentum states in many-electron heavy ions and illustrate the importance of core-relaxation corrections. Comparisons are also made with other theories and with experiments on the 4s-4p transition energies of high-Z Cu-like ions as accuracy checks of the present RMBPT and QED calculations.

  3. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Suspended by an overhead crane in the Space Station Processing Facility, the International Space Station's P4 truss moves toward a workstand. Below and behind it on the floor is the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, another segment of the Space Station. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  4. In vitro transcription from the late promoter of bacteriophage P4.

    PubMed Central

    Keener, J; Dale, E C; Kustu, S; Calendar, R

    1988-01-01

    The late genes of satellite bacteriophage P4 are cotranscribed from a single promoter which shares little homology with known classes of Escherichia coli promoters (E. Dale, G. Christie, and R. Calendar, J. Mol. Biol. 192:793-803, 1986). In a coupled transcription-translation system, the P4 late gene promoter was activated by either the delta protein of P4 or the ogr protein of helper phage P2 in the absence of any other phage-encoded factor. delta-dependent transcription was inhibited by antibodies to the sigma 70 subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase but was restored by purified sigma 70, indicating that activation of transcription by the delta protein of P4 is dependent on the sigma 70 holoenzyme. PMID:3403508

  5. Immunity determinant of phage-plasmid P4 is a short processed RNA.

    PubMed

    Forti, F; Sabbattini, P; Sironi, G; Zangrossi, S; Deh, G; Ghisotti, D

    1995-06-23

    In the phage-plasmid P4, both lysogenic and lytic functions are coded by the same operon. Early after infection the whole operon is transcribed from the constitutive promoter PLE. In the lysogenic condition transcription from PLE terminates prematurely and only the immunity functions, which are proximal to the promoter, are thus expressed. Fragments of the P4 immunity region were cloned in an expression vector. A DNA fragment as short as 91 bp was sufficient, when transcribed, to express P4 immunity and to complement P4 immunity deficient mutants. This fragment, like prophage P4, produced a 69 nt long RNA (CI RNA). A shorter P4 fragment neither expressed immunity nor synthesized the CI RNA. Thus the CI RNA is the P4 trans-acting immunity factor. The 5' end of the CI RNA, mapped by primer extension, does not correspond to the transcription initiation point, thus suggesting that the CI RNA is produced by processing of the primary transcript. In an RNase P mutant host the processing of the 5' end and the production of a functional CI RNA were impaired. The requirement of RNase P for the correct processing of CI appears to be related to the predicted secondary structure of the precursor CI RNA. A region (seqB) within the CI RNA shows complementarity with two cis-acting sequences (seqA and seqC) required for P4 immunity, suggesting that transcription termination may be caused by pairing of the CI RNA with the complementary target sequences on the nascent transcript. PMID:7791213

  6. Discovery of ?-MnP4 and the Polymorphism of Manganese Tetraphosphide.

    PubMed

    Henge, Dennis B; Hermus, Martin; Litterscheid, Christian F; Wagner, Norbert; Beck, Johannes; Albert, Barbara; Brgoch, Jakoah

    2015-09-01

    A new polymorph of MnP4 was prepared by reaction of the elements via chemical vapor transport with iodine as transporting agent. The crystal structure was refined using single-crystal diffraction data (space group Cc, no. 9, a = 5.1049(8) , b = 10.540(2) , c = 10.875(2) , ? = 93.80(2)). The phase is called ?-MnP4 as it is isostructural with ?-FeP4. It is the fourth reported binary polymorph in the MnP4 system, all of which are stacking variants of nets built with manganese and phosphorus atoms. In ?-MnP4, there are two Mn-Mn distances (2.93 and 3.72 ) arising from a Peierls-like distortion effectively forming Mn2 dumbbells in the structure. Magnetic and electrical conductivity measurements show diamagnetism and a small anisotropic band gap (100-200 meV) with significantly enhanced conductivity along the crystallographic a axis. Calculations of the electronic and vibrational (phonon) structures show the P-P and Mn-P bonds within the nets are mainly responsible for the stability of the phase. The similar bonding motifs of the polymorphs give rise to the existence of numerous dynamically stable variants. The calculated Helmholtz energy shows the polymorph formation to be closely tied to temperature with the 6-MnP4 structure favorable at low temperatures, the 2-MnP4 favorable between approximately 800 and 2000 K, and 8-MnP4 preferred at high temperatures. PMID:26266629

  7. Regulation of phagocytosis in Dictyostelium by the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL homolog Dd5P4.

    PubMed

    Loovers, Harrit M; Kortholt, Arjan; de Groote, Hendrie; Whitty, Leslie; Nussbaum, Robert L; van Haastert, Peter J M

    2007-05-01

    Phosphoinositides are involved in endocytosis in both mammalian cells and the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Dd5P4 is the Dictyostelium homolog of human OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe); both have a RhoGAP domain and a 5-phosphatase domain that acts on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate/phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3). Inactivation of Dd5P4 inhibits growth on liquid medium and on bacteria. Dd5p4-null cells are impaired in phagocytosis of yeast cells. In wild-type cells, PI(3,4,5)P3 is formed and converted to PI(3,4)P2 just before closure of the phagocytic cup. In dd5p4-null cells, a phagocytic cup is formed upon contact with the yeast cell, and PI(3,4,5)P3 is still produced, but the phagocytic cup does not close. We suggest that Dd5P4 regulates the conversion of PI(3,4,5)P3 to PI(3,4)P2 and that this conversion is essential for closure of the phagocytic cup. Phylogenetic analysis of OCRL-like 5-phosphatases with RhoGAP domains reveal that D. discoideum Dd5P4 is a surprisingly close homolog of human OCRL, the protein responsible for Lowe syndrome. We expressed human OCRL in dd5p4-null cells. Growth on bacteria and axenic medium is largely restored, whereas the rate of phagocytosis of yeast cells is partly restored, indicating that human OCRL can functionally replace Dictyostelium Dd5P4. PMID:17343681

  8. TMPyP4, a Stabilizer of Nucleic Acid Secondary Structure, Is a Novel Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Nana; Mazzola, Michael; Cai, Elizabeth; Wang, Meng; Cave, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrin compound, TMPyP4 (5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine), is widely used as a photosensitizer and a modulator of nucleic acid secondary structure stability. Our group recently showed in cultured cells and forebrain slice cultures that this compound can also down regulate expression of Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, by stabilizing DNA secondary structures in the Th proximal promoter. The current study sought to establish whether treatment with TMPyP4 could modify mouse Th expression levels in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of low TMPyP4 doses (10mg/kg), similar to those used for photosensitization, did not significantly reduce Th transcript levels in several catecholaminergic regions. Administration of a high dose (40 mg/kg), similar to those used for tumor xenograph reduction, unexpectedly induced flaccid paralysis in an age and sex-dependent manner. In vitro analyses revealed that TMPyP4, but not putative metabolites, inhibited Acetylcholinesterase activity and pre-treatment of TMPyP4 with Hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2) rescued Acetylcholinesterase function. Age-dependent differences in HO-2 expression levels may account for some of the variable in vivo effects of high TMPyP4 doses. Together, these studies indicate that only low doses of TMPyP4, such as those typically used for photosensitization, are well tolerated in vivo. Thus, despite its widespread use in vitro, TMPyP4 is not ideal for modifying neuronal gene expression in vivo by manipulating nucleic acid secondary structure stability, which highlights the need to identify more clinically suitable compounds that can modulate nucleic acid secondary structure and gene expression. PMID:26402367

  9. Plasma Diagnostic Potential of 2p4f in N+Accurate Wavelengths and Oscillator Strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaozhi; Li, Jiguang; Jnsson, Per; Wang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    Radiative emission lines from nitrogen and its ions are often observed in nebula spectra, where the N2 + abundance can be inferred from lines of the 2p4f configuration. In addition, intensity ratios between lines of the 2p3p-2p3s and 2p4f-2p3d transition arrays can serve as temperature diagnostics. To aid abundance determinations and plasma diagnostics, wavelengths and oscillator strengths were calculated with high precision for electric dipole (E1) transitions from levels in the 2p4f configuration of N+. Electron correlation and relativistic effects, including the Breit interaction, were systematically taken into account within the framework of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. Except for the 2p4f-2p4d transitions with quite large wavelengths and the two-electron-one-photon 2p4f-2s2p 3 transitions, the uncertainties of the present calculations were controlled to within 3% and 5% for wavelengths and oscillator strengths, respectively. We also compared our results with other theoretical and experimental values when available. Discrepancies were found between our calculations and previous calculations due to the neglect of relativistic effects in the latter.

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mRNA Isoforms are Altered in Bovine Granulosa Cells (GC) by Circulating Progestin Concentrations (P4) and May Indicate Follicle Status and Oocyte Competence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) fed for 14 d (0.5mg/cow/d; < 1 ng/ml P4) resulted in persistent follicles with increased size, decreased number of GC/follicular fluid (FF) volume, and less fertile oocytes. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of circulating P4 on amount of mRNA fo...

  11. Higher proportion of G2P[4] rotaviruses in vaccinated hospitalized cases compared with unvaccinated hospitalized cases, despite high vaccine effectiveness against heterotypic G2P[4] rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Matthijnssens, J; Zeller, M; Heylen, E; De Coster, S; Vercauteren, J; Braeckman, T; Van Herck, K; Meyer, N; Pirçon, J-Y; Soriano-Gabarro, M; Azou, M; Capiau, H; De Koster, J; Maernoudt, A-S; Raes, M; Verdonck, L; Verghote, M; Vergison, A; Van Damme, P; Van Ranst, M

    2014-10-01

    The overall vaccine effectiveness of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine in an observational, prospective, multicentre, hospital-based case-control study in Belgium (RotaBel) was 90%. However, rotavirus genotype and co-infecting pathogens are important parameters to take into account when assessing vaccine effectiveness. In this study we specifically investigated the effect of rotavirus genotypes and co-infecting pathogens on vaccine effectiveness of the monovalent vaccine. In addition, we also investigated the effect of co-infecting pathogens on disease severity. From February 2008 to June 2010 stool samples of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases of a random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals were collected and subsequently genotyped. Fisher's exact tests were performed to investigate the relationships between rotavirus genotype, co-infecting pathogens and disease severity. The vaccine effectiveness of a full series of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine against hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1P[8] rotavirus strains was 95% (95% CI 77.5-98.7). Against G2P[4], the vaccine effectiveness was 85% (95% CI: 63.7-93.8). G4P[8]- and G3P[8]-specific vaccine effectiveness was 90% (95% CI 19.2-98.7) and 87% (95% CI -5.2 to 98.4), respectively. A post-hoc analysis showed that the genotype distribution was significantly related to the vaccination status (p <0.001), whereby G2P[4] strains were proportionally more prevalent in vaccinated cases than in unvaccinated cases. No statistical associations were found between co-infection status and vaccination status, Vesikari severity score or rotavirus genotype. The high vaccine effectiveness against the individual genotypes implies robust protection of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine against hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the major human rotavirus genotypes. The prevalence of G2P[4] requires continued monitoring. PMID:24580887

  12. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-12-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  13. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  14. Synthetic strategies to bicyclic tetraphosphanes using P1, P2 and P4 building blocks.

    PubMed

    Bresien, Jonas; Faust, Kirill; Hering-Junghans, Christian; Rothe, Julia; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Different reactions of Mes* substituted phosphanes (Mes* = 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) led to the formation of the bicyclic tetraphosphane Mes*P4Mes* (5) and its unknown Lewis acid adduct 5GaCl3. In this context, the endo-exo isomer of 5 was fully characterized for the first time. The synthesis was achieved by reactions involving "self-assembly" of the P4 scaffold from P1 building blocks (i.e. primary phosphanes) or by reactions starting from P2 or P4 scaffolds (i.e. a diphosphene or cyclic tetraphosphane). Furthermore, interconversion between the exo-exo and endo-exo isomer were studied by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. All compounds were fully characterized by experimental as well as computational methods. PMID:26337397

  15. Pluto's P4 and P5: Latest Results for Pluto's Tiniest Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Weaver, H. A.; Stern, A.; Steffl, A. J.; Hamilton, D. P.; Buie, M. W.; Merline, W. J.; Young, L. A.; Mutchler, M.; Soummer, R.; Throop, H. B.

    2012-10-01

    We report on the discovery and subsequent analyses of "P4" and "P5", Pluto's fourth and fifth known moons (officially designated S/2011 (134340) 1 and S/2012 (134340) 1). P4 was discovered in Hubble Space Telescope images from June-July 2011. Numerous pre-discovery detections have now been identified in the Hubble archive, spanning 2005-2011. These detections provide a long time baseline for determining the body's orbital elements. Based on a preliminary analysis, P4 has an orbital period P = 32.17 0.01 days, placing it at a semimajor axis a 59,500 km, between the orbits of Nix and Hydra. It appears to fit the general trend of orbital elements in the Pluto system, with Nix near the 1:4 mean motion resonance with Charon, P4 near the 1:5, and Hydra near the 1:6. The size of P4 depends on the assumed geometric albedo: diameter = 14 km if its albedo 0.35, comparable to that of Charon, or 40 km if it has a much darker albedo 0.04, which would be more typical of other Trans-Neptunian Objects. P5 was discovered in Hubble images from June-July 2012 and is roughly half as bright as P4. It orbits interior to Nix with P = 20.2 0.1 days or a 42,000 km, raising the possibility of an association with Charon's 1:3 resonance. This configuration of five moons in co-planar, near-circular, near-resonant orbits suggests that the bodies formed in place and/or have undergone significant orbital evolution. We will also report on the search for faint rings and additional moons.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 7Li(p,?)4He reaction rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Pizzone, R. G.

    2012-04-01

    The Trojan Horse method (THM) allows us to measure the 7Li(p,?)4He bare-nucleus S(E)-factor down to energies of ~10keV, rendering unnecessary the extrapolation procedure typically used by the direct measurements. The 7Li(p,?)4He S(E)-factor is deduced from the 2H(7Li,?4He)n reaction by selecting the quasi-free contribution to the reaction yield. The plane-wave impulse approximation has proved an effective approach as distortions appear negligible. (1 data file).

  17. Stabilization and Transfer of the Transient [Mes*P4 ](-) Butterfly Anion Using BPh3.

    PubMed

    Borger, Jaap E; Ehlers, Andreas W; Lutz, Martin; Slootweg, J Chris; Lammertsma, Koop

    2016-01-11

    The transient bicyclo[1.1.0]tetraphosphabutane anion, generated from white phosphorus (P4 ) and Mes*Li (Mes*=2,4,6-tBu3 C6 H2 ), can be trapped by BPh3 in THF. This Lewis acid stabilized anion can be used as an [RP4 ](-) transfer agent, reacting cleanly with neutral Lewis acids (B(C6 F5 )3 , BH3 , and W(CO)5 ) to afford unique singly and doubly coordinated butterfly anions, and with the trityl cation to form a neutral, nonsymmetrical, all-carbon-substituted P4 ?derivative. This reaction path enables a simple, stepwise functionalization of white phosphorus. PMID:26610405

  18. From integrative disease modeling to predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the significant advancement of high-throughput technologies and diagnostic techniques throughout the past decades, molecular underpinnings of many disorders have been identified. However, translation of patient-specific molecular mechanisms into tailored clinical applications remains a challenging task, which requires integration of multi-dimensional molecular and clinical data into patient-centric models. This task becomes even more challenging when dealing with complex diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Integrative disease modeling is an emerging knowledge-based paradigm in translational research that exploits the power of computational methods to collect, store, integrate, model and interpret accumulated disease information across different biological scales from molecules to phenotypes. We argue that integrative disease modeling will be an indispensable part of any P4 medicine research and development in the near future and that it supports the shift from descriptive to causal mechanistic diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases. For each P in predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine, we demonstrate how integrative disease modeling can contribute to addressing the real-world issues in development of new predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory measures. With the increasing recognition that application of integrative systems modeling is the key to all activities in P4 medicine, we envision that translational bioinformatics in general and integrative modeling in particular will continue to open up new avenues of scientific research for current challenges in P4 medicine. PMID:24195840

  19. A P4-ATPase gene GbPATP of cotton confers chilling tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingli; Guo, Shiwei; Lian, Ziyi; Chen, Fei; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Liu, Aiming; Wang, Rongfu; Zhang, Baolong

    2015-03-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are implicated in generating lipid asymmetry between the two lipid leaflets of the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis and are important for resistance to low temperatures, but the function of P4-ATPases in cotton remains unclear. In this study, we found using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis that the expression of the P4-ATPase gene GbPATP in cotton was induced at low temperatures. In addition, GbPATP-silenced cotton plants were more sensitive to low temperatures and exhibited greater malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lower catalase (CAT) activity than the control plants. GbPATP transgenic tobacco plants showed better chilling tolerance, had a lower MDA content and had higher CAT activity than wild-type plants under low-temperature treatment. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-GbPATP fusion protein was found to be localized to the cell plasma membrane. Collectively, the results suggest that GbPATP functions as a P4-ATPase and plays an important role in improving chilling tolerance in plant. PMID:25520408

  20. Solution structure and metal ion binding sites of the human CPEB3 ribozyme's P4 domain.

    PubMed

    Skilandat, Miriam; Rowinska-Zyrek, Magdalena; Sigel, Roland K O

    2014-08-01

    Three ribozymes are known to occur in humans, the CPEB3 ribozyme, the CoTC ribozyme, and the hammerhead ribozyme. Here, we present the NMR solution structure of a well-conserved motif within the CPEB3 ribozyme, the P4 domain. In addition, we discuss the binding sites and impact of Mg(2+) and [Co(NH3)6](3+), a spectroscopic probe for [Mg(H2O)6](2+), on the structure. The well-defined P4 region is a hairpin closed with a UGGU tetraloop that shows a distinct electrostatic surface potential and a characteristic, strongly curved backbone trajectory. The P4 hairpin contains two specific Mg(2+) binding sites: one outer-sphere binding site close to the proposed CPEB3 ribozyme active site with potential relevance for maintaining a compact fold of the ribozyme core, and one inner-sphere binding site, probably stabilizing the tetraloop structure. The structure of the tetraloop resembles an RNase III recognition structure, as previously described for an AGUU tetraloop. The detailed knowledge of the P4 domain and its metal ion binding preferences thus brings us closer to understanding the importance of Mg(2+) binding for the CPEB3 ribozyme's fold and function in the cell. PMID:24652468

  1. BaAu2P4: layered zintl polyphosphide with infinite ∞(1)(P–) chains.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, James; Kaseman, Derrick C; Dolyniuk, Juli-Anna; Lee, Kathleen; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kovnir, Kirill

    2013-06-17

    Barium gold polyphosphide BaAu2P4 was synthesized from elements and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. BaAu2P4 crystallizes in a new structure type, in the orthorhombic space group Fddd (No. 70) with a = 6.517(1) Å, b = 8.867(2) Å, c = 21.844(5) Å. The crystal structure of BaAu2P4 consists of Au–P layers separated by layers of Ba atoms. Each Au–P layer is composed of infinite ∞(1)(P–) chains of unique topology linked together by almost linearly coordinated Au atoms. According to Zintl–Klemm formalism, this compound is charge balanced assuming closed shell d10 configuration for Au: Ba2+(Au+)2(P–)4. Magnetic and solid state NMR measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal diamagnetic and semiconducting behavior for the investigated polyphosphide, which is as expected for the charged balanced Zintl phase. Electron localization function and crystal orbital Hamilton population analyses reveal strong P–P and Au–P bonding and almost nonbonding Au–Au interactions in BaAu2P4. PMID:23734787

  2. Cadmium resistance mechanism in Escherichia coli P4 and its potential use to bioremediate environmental cadmium.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaman; Nisar, Muhammad Atif; Hussain, Syed Zajif; Arshad, Muhammad Nauman; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-12-01

    A cadmium-resistant bacterium was isolated from industrial wastewater and identified as Escherichia coli (dubbed as P4) on the basis of morphological, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA ribotyping. It showed optimum growth at 30C and pH 7. E. coli P4 found to resist Cd(+2) (10.6mM) as well as Zn(+2) (4.4mM), Pb(+2) (17mM), Cu(+2) (3.5mM), Cr(+6) (4.4mM), As(+2) (10.6mM), and Hg(+2) (0.53mM). It could remove 18.8, 37, and 56% Cd(+2) from aqueous medium after 48, 96, and 144h, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis also confirmed the biosorption of Cd(+2) by E. coli P4. However, temperature and pH were found to be the most critical factors in biosorption of Cd(+2) by E. coli P4. Cd(+2) stress altered E. coli P4 cell physiology analyzed by measuring glutathione (GSH) and non-protein thiol (cysteine) levels which were increased up to 130 and 48%, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed alteration in the expression levels of ftsZ, mutS, clpB, ef-tu, and dnaK genes in the presence of Cd(+2). Total protein profiles of E. coli P4 in the absence and presence of Cd(+2) were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which showed remarkable difference in the banding pattern. czcB gene, a component of czcCBA operon, was amplified from genomic DNA which suggested the chromosomal-borne Cd(+2) resistance in E. coli P4. Furthermore, it harbors smtAB gene which plays a significant role in Cd(+2) resistance. PMID:26278537

  3. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  4. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  5. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  6. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  7. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  8. Outer membrane protein P4 is not required for virulence in the human challenge model of Haemophilus ducreyi infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial lipoproteins often play important roles in pathogenesis and can stimulate protective immune responses. Such lipoproteins are viable vaccine candidates. Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, expresses a number of lipoproteins during human infection. One such lipoprotein, OmpP4, is homologous to the outer membrane lipoprotein e (P4) of H. influenzae. In H. influenzae, e (P4) stimulates production of bactericidal and protective antibodies and contributes to pathogenesis by facilitating acquisition of the essential nutrients heme and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that, like its homolog, H. ducreyi OmpP4 contributes to virulence and stimulates production of bactericidal antibodies. Results We determined that OmpP4 is broadly conserved among clinical isolates of H. ducreyi. We next constructed and characterized an isogenic ompP4 mutant, designated 35000HPompP4, in H. ducreyi strain 35000HP. To test whether OmpP4 was necessary for virulence in humans, eight healthy adults were experimentally infected. Each subject was inoculated with a fixed dose of 35000HP on one arm and three doses of 35000HPompP4 on the other arm. The overall parent and mutant pustule formation rates were 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively (P?=?0.74). These results indicate that expression of OmpP4 in not necessary for H. ducreyi to initiate disease or progress to pustule formation in humans. Hyperimmune mouse serum raised against purified, recombinant OmpP4 did not promote bactericidal killing of 35000HP or phagocytosis by J774A.1 mouse macrophages in serum bactericidal and phagocytosis assays, respectively. Conclusions Our data suggest that, unlike e (P4), H. ducreyi OmpP4 is not a suitable vaccine candidate. OmpP4 may be dispensable for virulence because of redundant mechanisms in H. ducreyi for heme acquisition and NAD utilization. PMID:24961160

  9. Molecular cloning of the Escherichia coli gene for diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Mechulam, Y; Fromant, M; Mellot, P; Plateau, P; Blanchin-Roland, S; Fayat, G; Blanquet, S

    1985-01-01

    A clone overproducing diadenosine tetraphosphatase (diadenosine 5', 5'''-P1, P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase) activity was isolated from an Escherichia coli cosmid library. Localization of the DNA region responsible for stimulation of this activity was achieved by deletion mapping and subcloning in various vectors. Maxicell experiments and immunological assays demonstrated that a 3.5-kilobase-pair DNA fragment carried the structural gene apaH encoding the E. coli diadenosine tetraphosphatase. The DNA coding strand was determined by cloning this fragment in both orientations in pUC plasmids. It was also shown that the overproduction of diadenosine tetraphosphatase decreased the dinucleoside tetraphosphate concentration in E. coli by a factor of 10. Images PMID:2995325

  10. Nonessential region of bacteriophage P4: DNA sequence, transcription, gene products, and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Ghisotti, D; Finkel, S; Halling, C; Deh, G; Sironi, G; Calendar, R

    1990-01-01

    We sequenced the leftmost 2,640 base pairs of bacteriophage P4 DNA, thus completing the sequence of the 11,627-base-pair P4 genome. The newly sequenced region encodes three nonessential genes, which are called gop, beta, and cII (in order, from left to right). The gop gene product kills Escherichia coli when the beta protein is absent; the gop and beta genes are transcribed rightward from the same promoter. The cII gene is transcribed leftward to a rho-independent terminator. Mutation of this terminator creates a temperature-sensitive phenotype, presumably owing to a defect in expression of the beta gene. Images PMID:2403440

  11. Ferrenberg Swendsen Analysis of LLNL and NYBlue BG/L p4rhms Data

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R

    2007-12-05

    These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG/L. These results are from the Ferrenberg-Swendsen analysis [?] of the combined data from LLNL and NYBlue BG/L runs for 32{sup 3} x 8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP-MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi). The jobs include beta values ranging from 3.525 to 3.535 with an alternate analysis extending to 3.540. The NYBlue data sets are from 9k trajectories from Oct 2007, and the LLNL data are from two independent streams of {approx}5k each, taking from the July 2007 runs. The following outputs are produced by the fs-2+1-chiub.c program. All outputs have had checksums produced by addCks.pl and checked by the checkCks.pl perl script after scanning.

  12. P3 and P4 position analysis of vinyl ester pseudopeptide proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Marastoni, Mauro; Baldisserotto, Anna; Trapella, Claudio; Gavioli, Riccardo; Tomatis, Roberto

    2006-06-15

    Two small libraries of tripeptidic-based vinyl ester derivative proteasome inhibitors were synthesized and tested, starting with the Hmb-Val-Gln-Leu-VE prototype. The P3 and P4 positions were investigated with a complete set of amino acid residues, some of which showed remarkable selective inhibition of the trypsin-like (beta2) subunit. In both positions, aromatic and hydrophobic residues were preferred. PMID:16603348

  13. Functionalization of P4 in the coordination sphere of coinage metal cations.

    PubMed

    Borger, Jaap E; Bakker, Martijn S; Ehlers, Andreas W; Lutz, Martin; Chris Slootweg, J; Lammertsma, Koop

    2016-02-16

    Selective functionalization of white phosphorus is achieved by addition of ArLi to unique cationic coinage metal η(2)-P4 complexes. This novel approach allows controlled P-C bond formation using the bulky DmpLi (Dmp = 2,6-Mes2C6H3) and the unencumbered MesLi, giving sterically diverse doubly complexed RP4 butterfly derivatives in a single step. PMID:26750104

  14. Mammalian P4-ATPases and ABC Transporters And Their Role in Phospholipid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Transport of phospholipids across cell membranes plays a key role in a wide variety of biological processes. These include membrane biosynthesis, generation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry, cell and organelle shape determination, phagocytosis, vesicle tranfficking, blood coagulation, lipid homeostasis, regulation of membrane protein function, apoptosis among others. P4-ATPases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two principal classes of membranes proteins that actively transport phospholipids across cellular membranes. P4-ATPases utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to flip aminophospholipids from the exocytoplasmic (extracellular/lumen) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes generating membrane lipid asymmetry and lipid imbalance which can induce membrane curvature. Many ABC transporters play crucial roles in lipid homeostasis by actively transporting phospholipids from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes or exporting phospholipids to protein acceptors or micelles. Recent studies indicate that some ABC proteins can also transport phospholipids in the opposite direction. The importance of P4-ATPases and ABC transporters is evident from the findings that mutations in many of these transporters are responsible for severe human genetic diseases linked to defective phospholipid transport. PMID:23103747

  15. Identification of a novel mouse P4-ATPase family member highly expressed during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Okkeri, Juha; Hanisch, Susanne; Hu, Rui-Ying; Xu, Qin; Pomorski, Thomas Gnther; Ding, Xiao-Yan

    2009-08-15

    P4-ATPases are transmembrane proteins unique to eukaryotes that play a fundamental role in vesicular transport. They have been proposed to act as phospholipid flippases thereby regulating lipid topology in cellular membranes. We cloned and characterized a novel murine P4-ATPase that is specifically expressed in testis, and named it FetA (flippase expressed in testis splicing form A). When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FetA localizes partially to the plasma membrane resulting in increased internalization of NBD-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, supporting a role for FetA in the inward lipid translocation across cellular membranes. In mouse testis, FetA protein is detected in gamete cells, from pachytene spermatocytes to mature sperms, and its intracellular localization is tightly related with acrosome formation, a process that involves intensive intracellular vesicle formation and fusion. Furthermore, loss-of-function of FetA by RNA interference in mastocytoma P815 cells profoundly perturbs the structural organization of the Golgi complex and causes loss of constitutive secretion at lower temperature. Our findings point to an essential role of FetA in Golgi morphology and secretory function, suggesting a crucial role for this novel murine P4-ATPase in spermatogenesis. PMID:19657017

  16. Cole-Carpenter Syndrome Is Caused by a Heterozygous Missense Mutation in P4HB

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Frank; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Majewski, Jacek; Carrot-Zhang, Jian; Boudko, Sergei; Glorieux, Francis; Mort, JohnS.; Bchinger, Hans-Peter; Moffatt, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cole-Carpenter syndrome is a severe bone fragility disorder that is characterized by frequent fractures, craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis, hydrocephalus, and distinctive facial features. To identify the cause of Cole-Carpenter syndrome in the two individuals whose clinical results were presented in the original description of this disorder, we performed whole-exome sequencing of genomic DNA samples from both individuals. The two unrelated individuals had the same heterozygous missense mutation in exon 9 of P4HB (NM_000918.3: c.1178A>G [p.Tyr393Cys]), the gene that encodes protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In one individual, the P4HB mutation had arisen de novo, whereas in the other the mutation was transmitted from the clinically unaffected father who was a mosaic carrier of the variant. The mutation was located in the C-terminal disulfide isomerase domain of PDI, sterically close to the enzymatic center, and affected disulfide isomerase activity invitro. Skin fibroblasts showed signs of increased endoplasmic reticulum stress, but despite the reported importance of PDI for collagen type I production, the rate of collagen type I secretion appeared normal. In conclusion, Cole-Carpenter syndrome is caused by a specific de novo mutation in P4HB that impairs the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI. PMID:25683117

  17. Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodeling under Hypoxic Conditions by Inducing P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 Expression in Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Gilkes, Daniele M.; Bajpai, Saumendra; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Wirtz, Denis; Semenza, Gregg L.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, organization, and compliance provide both architectural and chemical cues that modulate tissue structure and function. ECM produced by stromal fibroblasts plays a key role in breast cancer invasion and metastasis, which are also stimulated by intratumoral hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a critical regulator of ECM remodeling by fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. HIF-1 activates expression of genes encoding collagen prolyl (P4HA1 and P4HA2) and lysyl (PLOD2) hydroxylases. P4HA1 and P4HA2 are required for collagen deposition, whereas PLOD2 is required for ECM stiffening and collagen fiber alignment. Together P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 mediate remodeling of ECM composition, alignment, and mechanical properties in response to hypoxia. HIF-1-dependent ECM remodeling by hypoxic fibroblasts induces changes in breast cancer cell morphology, adhesion, and motility that promote invasion and metastasis. PMID:23423382

  18. Optical spectra and structure of CdP4 nanoclusters fabricated by incorporation into zeolite and laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Yeshchenko, O A; Dmitruk, I M; Koryakov, S V; Galak, M P

    2005-11-01

    CdP(4) nanoclusters were fabricated by incorporation into the pores of zeolite Na-X and by deposition of the clusters onto a quartz substrate using the laser ablation-evaporation technique. Absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CdP(4) nanoclusters in zeolite were measured at temperatures 4.2, 77, and 293 K. Both absorption and PL spectra consist of two blue-shifted bands. We performed DFT calculations to determine the most stable clusters configuration in the size region up to the size of the zeolite Na-X supercage. The bands observed in absorption and PL spectra were attributed to the emission of (CdP(4))(3) and (CdP(4))(4) clusters with binding energies of 3.78 and 4.37 eV per atom, respectively. The Raman spectrum of CdP(4) clusters in zeolite proved the fact of creation of (CdP(4))(3) and (CdP(4))(4) clusters in zeolite pores. The PL spectrum of CdP(4) clusters produced by laser ablation consists of a single band that was attributed to the emission of the (CdP(4))(4) cluster. PMID:16853613

  19. Observation of collisionally induced (1s2p2p')4Pe shape resonance of He-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvodszky, P. A.; Sarkadi, L.; Vkor, L.; Plinks, J.

    1994-08-01

    Autodetachment via the collisionally populated (1s2p2p')4Pe shape resonance of He- has been observed by means of 0 electron spectroscopy in a measurement of the double-differential cross section for single and double electron loss to the continuum in He- on Ar collisions at 75-keV/u projectile energy. An alternative parametrization has been developed for the autodetachment lines emitted with low energy in the projectile reference frame. The determined position and width of the shape resonance are in agreement with the results of theoretical calculations and photodetachment measurements.

  20. Synthesis and antiviral activity of novel HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with P4 capping groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianfeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Plattner, Jacob J; Baker, Stephen J; Bu, Wei; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Yasheen; Ding, Charles Z; Zhang, Suoming; Kazmierski, Wieslaw M; Hamatake, Robert; Duan, Maosheng; Wright, Lois L; Smith, Gary K; Jarvest, Richard L; Ji, Jing-Jing; Cooper, Joel P; Tallant, Matthew D; Crosby, Renae M; Creech, Katrina; Wang, Amy

    2012-12-15

    We have synthesized and evaluated a series of novel HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with various P4 capping groups, which include urea, carbamate, methoxy-carboxamide, cyclic carbamate and amide, pyruvic amide, oxamate, oxalamide and cyanoguanidine. Most of these compounds are remarkably potent, exhibiting single-digit to sub-nanomolar activity in the enzyme assay and cell-based replicon assay. Selected compounds were also evaluated in the protease-inhibitor-resistant mutant transient replicon assay, and they were found to show quite different potency profiles against a panel of HCV protease-inhibitor-resistant mutants. PMID:23142614

  1. Mineralization of dentin induced by treatment with bioactive glass S53P4 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Forsback, Ari-Pekka; Areva, Sami; Salonen, Jukka I

    2004-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity can be managed to occlude dentin tubules, but none of the agents used are components of natural dentin. Using a calcium phosphate precipitation (CPP) method, dentin tubules can be occluded with a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer similar to the major inorganic component of dentin. The CPP method utilizes acidic pH conditions, such as etching of dentin, over the course of several dental treatments. A gentler method can be used to produce a CaP layer on the surface of dentin. By treating with bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG), or regular commercial glass (CG), mineralization occurs in physiologically neutral solutions such as simulated body fluid (SBF) and remineralization solution (RMS). After a short period of immersion, silica is dissolved from both types of glass, but the amount of silica released is much greater from BAG than from CG. The dissolved silica is adsorbed on the surface of dentin during the pretreatment procedure and enhances the mineralization of dentin in SBF. After 14 days' mineralization the dentin is fully covered by the CaP layer, but after 14 days' immersion in RMS decalcification of the dentin occurs. Pretreatment with BAG decreases the degree of decalcification of dentin during the mineralization process. These findings suggest that bioactive glass S53P4 can be used as a therapeutic material for mineralization of dentin and its tubules in a physiological environment. PMID:15124778

  2. Postmodification of PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer membranes by ARGET ATRP.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Damla; Clodt, Juliana I; Hahn, Janina; Abetz, Volker; Filiz, Volkan

    2014-07-29

    The surfaces of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer membranes were modified in order to obtain polymer brushes by using surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP). Isoporous membranes were prepared by the combination of self-assembly of PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers and the nonsolvent induced phase separation process, also known as "phase inversion". In order to allow further functionalization, the membranes were modified with an ATRP initiator, 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB). Therefore, the mussel-inspired poly(dopamine) coating was used to attach BIBB on the membranes surface. In the next step the coated membranes were postmodified by using surface-initiated ARGET ATRP with the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). HEMA as a hydrophilic methacrylate was chosen for the modification in order to enhance the membrane characteristics and to obtain a surface with antifouling properties. The surface-initiated ARGET ATRP reaction was carried out using different reaction times and environments. PHEMA could successfully incorporate on the membrane surface as confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. Furthermore, stability tests against heat and solvents were performed, and water flux was measured for the raw and modified membranes. Stability against heat and hydrophilicity could be increased with this type of modification for diblock copolymer membranes. PMID:24948370

  3. High-temperature transport properties of complex antimonides with anti-Th3P4 structure.

    PubMed

    Chamoire, A; Gascoin, F; Estourns, C; Caillat, T; Tdenac, J-C

    2010-01-28

    Polycrystalline samples of R(4)Sb(3) (R = La, Ce, Sm and Yb) and Yb(4-x)R'(x)Sb(3) (R' = Sm and La) have been quantitatively synthesized by high-temperature reaction. They crystallize in the anti-Th(3)P(4) structure type (I43d, no. 220). Structural and chemical characterizations have been performed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Powders have been densified by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 degrees C under 50 MPa of pressure. Transport property measurements show that these compounds are n-type with low Seebeck coefficient except for Yb(4)Sb(3) that shows a typical metallic behavior with hole conduction. By partially substituting Yb by a trivalent rare earth we successfully improved the thermoelectric figure of merit of Yb(4-x)R'(x)Sb(3) up to 0.75 at 1000 degrees C. PMID:20066200

  4. Performance evaluation of the microPET P4: a PET system dedicated to animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Tai, C; Chatziioannou, A; Siegel, S; Young, J; Newport, D; Goble, R N; Nutt, R E; Cherry, S R

    2001-07-01

    The microPET Primate 4-ring system (P4) is an animal PET tomograph with a 7.8 cm axial extent, a 19 cm diameter transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 22 cm animal port. The system is composed of 168 detector modules, each with an 8 x 8 array of 2.2 x 2.2 x 10 mm3 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals, arranged as 32 crystal rings 26 cm in diameter. The detector crystals are coupled to a Hamamatsu R5900-C8 PS-PMT via a 10 cm long optical fibre bundle. The detectors have a timing resolution of 3.2 ns, an average energy resolution of 26%, and an average intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.75 mm. The system operates in 3D mode without inter-plane septa, acquiring data in list mode. The reconstructed image spatial resolution ranges from 1.8 mm at the centre to 3 mm at 4 cm radial offset. The tomograph has a peak system sensitivity of 2.25% at the centre of the FOV with a 250-750 keV energy window. The noise equivalent count rate peaks at 100-290 kcps for representative object sizes. Images from two phantoms and three different types of laboratory animal demonstrate the advantage of the P4 system over the original prototype microPET. including its threefold improvement in sensitivity and a large axial FOV sufficient to image an entire mouse in a single bed position. PMID:11474929

  5. One-step synthesis of Mo(0) and W(0) bis(dinitrogen) complexes with the linear tetraphosphine ligand prP4: stereoselective formation of cis-[M(N2)2(rac-prP4)] and trans-[M(N2)2(meso-prP4)]; M = Mo, W.

    PubMed

    Römer, René; Gradert, Christian; Bannwarth, Alexander; Peters, Gerhard; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix

    2011-04-01

    A new synthetic pathway to Chatt-type Mo(0) and W(0) bis(dinitrogen) complexes with the ligand prP(4) is presented (prP(4) is a linear tetraphos ligand with two ethylene bridges and a central propylene bridge). The synthesis starts from MoCl(5) and WCl(6), respectively, employing Mg as reductant. Whereas the electrochemical reduction of the oxido-iodido-molybdenum(IV) complex [Mo(O)I(meso-prP(4)](+) (1) only gave trans-[Mo(N(2))(2)(meso-prP(4))] (2a; Römer et al., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.2008, 3258), the direct synthesis under normal conditions affords both trans and cis complexes 2a and 2b. The reaction products are characterised by vibrational and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, a single-crystal X-ray structure determination of cis-α-[Mo(N(2))(2)(rac-prP(4))] (2b) is performed. In contrast to the trans bis(dinitrogen)molybdenum(0) complex 2a supported by the meso prP(4) ligand the corresponding cis-complex is exclusively coordinated by the rac isomer of prP(4). The reactivity of 2 with acids is investigated as well, leading to the NNH(2) complex [MoF(NNH(2))(meso-prP(4))]BF(4) (15). Analogous results are obtained with the tungsten complexes. PMID:21344106

  6. Immobilization of metalloporphyrins on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 by the quaternarization reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruixin; Jiao, Weizhou; Gao, Baojiao

    2010-08-01

    Poly(4vinylpyridine-co-styrene) (P(4VP-co-St)) was grafted on silica gel particles in the manner of "grafting from", and the grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was gained. The chloromethylation reaction for the tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) was performed using a chloromethylation reagent, 1,4-bis(chloromethyoxy)butane which was uncarcinogenic, and the tetra-chloromethylphenyl-porphyrin (TMCPP) was prepared. Then, the quaternization reaction between the benzyl chloride groups on TMCPP and pyridine groups of the grafted P(4VP-co-St) macromolecules occurred and the bonding of TMCPP on the particles P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was realized, resulting in the functional composite-type particles TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. Subsequently, the metallation of the bonded particles TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was carried out via the coordination reaction between TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 and metal salt, resulting in the supported metalloporphyrin (MP) catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. The supported catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectra. The effects of various factors on the bonding process of TMCPP on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 were studied in detail. In addition, the catalytic activity of the supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 have been studied in oxidation process of ethyl benzene with molecular oxygen to acetophenone without the use of sacrificial co-reductant. The experimental results showed that the tetra-chloromethylphenyl-porphyrin (TMCPP) could be successfully bonded onto the P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 surfaces by means of the quaternization reaction between TMCPP and the pyridine groups on grafted P(4VP-co-St) macromolecules. The supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 exhibited the fine catalytic activity. Moreover, the supported cobalt porphyrin was more active than the supported iron and manganese porphyrins.

  7. Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rubach, Jon K.; Wasik, Brian R.; Rupp, Jonathan C.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Hardy, Richard W.; Smith, Janet L.

    2009-02-05

    The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4) is responsible for the replication of the viral RNA genome. In infected cells, nsP4 is localized in a replication complex along with the other viral non-structural proteins. nsP4 has been difficult to homogenously purify from infected cells due to its interactions with the other replication proteins and the fact that its N-terminal residue, a tyrosine, causes the protein to be rapidly turned over in cells. We report the successful expression and purification of Sindbis nsP4 in a bacterial system, in which nsP4 is expressed as an N-terminal SUMO fusion protein. After purification the SUMO tag is removed, resulting in the isolation of full-length nsP4 possessing the authentic N-terminal tyrosine. This purified enzyme is able to produce minus-strand RNA de novo from plus-strand templates, as well as terminally add adenosine residues to the 3' end of an RNA substrate. In the presence of the partially processed viral replicase polyprotein, P123, purified nsP4 is able to synthesize discrete template length minus-strand RNA products. Mutations in the 3' CSE or poly(A) tail of viral template RNA prevent RNA synthesis by the replicase complex containing purified nsP4, consistent with previously reported template requirements for minus-strand RNA synthesis. Optimal reaction conditions were determined by investigating the effects of time, pH, and the concentrations of nsP4, P123 and magnesium on the synthesis of RNA.

  8. Interaction of the Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (CYT-18 protein) with the group I intron P4-P6 domain. Thermodynamic analysis and the role of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Caprara, M G; Myers, C A; Lambowitz, A M

    2001-04-27

    The Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (CYT-18 protein) functions in splicing group I introns by promoting the formation of the catalytically active structure of the intron's catalytic core. Previous studies suggested a model in which the protein binds first to the intron's P4-P6 domain, and then makes additional contacts with the P3-P9 domain to stabilize the two domains in the correct relative orientation to form the intron's active site. Here, we analyzed the interaction of CYT-18 with a small RNA (P4-P6 RNA) corresponding to the isolated P4-P6 domain of the N. crassa mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA intron. RNA footprinting and modification-interference experiments showed that CYT-18 binds to this small RNA around the junction of the P4-P6 stacked helices on the side opposite the active-site cleft, as it does to the P4-P6 domain in the intact intron. The binding is inhibited by chemical modifications that disrupt base-pairing in P4, P6, and P6a, indicating that a partially folded structure of the P4-P6 domain is required. The temperature-dependence of binding indicates that the interaction is driven by a favorable enthalpy change, but is accompanied by an unfavorable entropy change. The latter may reflect entropically unfavorable conformational changes or decreased conformational flexibility in the complex. CYT-18 binding is inhibited at > or =125 mM KCl, indicating a strong dependence on phosphodiester-backbone interactions. On the other hand, Mg(2+) is absolutely required for CYT-18 binding, with titration experiments showing approximately 1.5 magnesium ions bound per complex. Metal ion-cleavage experiments identified a divalent cation-binding site near the boundary of P6 and J6/6a, and chemical modification showed that Mg(2+) binding induces RNA conformational changes in this region, as well as elsewhere, particularly in J4/5. Together, these findings suggest a model in which the binding of Mg(2+) near J6/6a and possibly at one additional location in the P4-P6 RNA induces formation of a specific phosphodiester-backbone geometry that is required for CYT-18 binding. The binding of CYT-18 may then establish the correct structure at the junction of the P4/P6 stacked helices for assembly of the P3-P9 domain. The interaction of CYT-18 with the P4-P6 domain appears similar to the TyrRS interaction with the D-/anticodon arm stacked helices of tRNA(Tyr). PMID:11327760

  9. Initiation of transcription from the minute virus of mice P4 promoter is stimulated in rat cells expressing a c-Ha-ras oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Spegelaere, P; van Hille, B; Spruyt, N; Faisst, S; Cornelis, J J; Rommelaere, J

    1991-01-01

    Transformation of FR3T3 rat fibroblasts by a c-Ha-ras oncogene but not by bovine papillomavirus type 1 is associated with an increase in the abundance of mRNAs from prototype strain MVMp of infecting minute virus of mice, an oncosuppressive parvovirus. This differential parvovirus gene expression correlates with the reported sensitization of ras- but not bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed cells to the killing effect of MVMp (N. Salom, B. van Hille, N. Duponchel, G. Meneguzzi, F. Cuzin, J. Rommelaere, and J. Cornelis, Oncogene 5:123-130, 1990). Experiments were performed to determine at which level parvovirus expression is up-regulated in ras transformants. An MVMp "attenuation" sequence responsible for the premature arrest of RNA elongation was either placed or not placed in front of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and brought under the control of MVMp early promoter P4. Although the MVMp attenuator reduced P4-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression, the extent of attenuation was similar in normal and ras-transformed cells. Moreover, the analysis of P4-directed viral RNAs in MVMp-infected cultures by RNase protection and nuclear run-on assays also revealed a transcription elongation block of a similar amplitude in both types of cells. In addition, the stabilities of the three major parvoviral mRNAs did not vary significantly between normal and ras-transformed cells. Hence, it is concluded that the ras-induced increase in the accumulation of parvoviral mRNAs is mainly controlled at the level of transcription. Consistently, the TATA motif of the P4 promoter proved to have a differential photoreactivity when tested by in vivo UV footprinting assays in ras-transformed versus normal cells. Images PMID:1651412

  10. High affinity small protein inhibitors of human chymotrypsin C (CTRC) selected by phage display reveal unusual preference for P4' acidic residues.

    PubMed

    Szab, Andrs; Hja, Dvid; Szakcs, Dvid; Zboray, Katalin; Kkesi, Katalin A; Radisky, Evette S; Sahin-Tth, Mikls; Pl, Gbor

    2011-06-24

    Human chymotrypsin C (CTRC) is a pancreatic protease that participates in the regulation of intestinal digestive enzyme activity. Other chymotrypsins and elastases are inactive on the regulatory sites cleaved by CTRC, suggesting that CTRC recognizes unique sequence patterns. To characterize the molecular determinants underlying CTRC specificity, we selected high affinity substrate-like small protein inhibitors against CTRC from a phage library displaying variants of SGPI-2, a natural chymotrypsin inhibitor from Schistocerca gregaria. On the basis of the sequence pattern selected, we designed eight inhibitor variants in which amino acid residues in the reactive loop at P1 (Met or Leu), P2' (Leu or Asp), and P4' (Glu, Asp, or Ala) were varied. Binding experiments with CTRC revealed that (i) inhibitors with Leu at P1 bind 10-fold stronger than those with P1 Met; (ii) Asp at P2' (versus Leu) decreases affinity but increases selectivity, and (iii) Glu or Asp at P4' (versus Ala) increase affinity 10-fold. The highest affinity SGPI-2 variant (K(D) 20 pm) bound to CTRC 575-fold tighter than the parent molecule. The most selective inhibitor variant exhibited a K(D) of 110 pm and a selectivity ranging from 225- to 112,664-fold against other human chymotrypsins and elastases. Homology modeling and mutagenesis identified a cluster of basic amino acid residues (Lys(51), Arg(56), and Arg(80)) on the surface of human CTRC that interact with the P4' acidic residue of the inhibitor. The acidic preference of CTRC at P4' is unique among pancreatic proteases and might contribute to the high specificity of CTRC-mediated digestive enzyme regulation. PMID:21515688

  11. The Lipid Kinase PI5P4K? Is an Intracellular GTP Sensor for Metabolism and Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Lo, Yu-Hua; Takeuchi, Koh; Senda, Miki; Kofuji, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yoshiki; Terakawa, Jumpei; Sasaki, Mika; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Majd, Nazanin; Zheng, Yuxiang; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Yokota, Takehiro; Emerling, Brooke M; Asara, John M; Ishida, Tetsuo; Locasale, Jason W; Daikoku, Takiko; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Senda, Toshiya; Sasaki, Atsuo T

    2016-01-21

    While cellular GTP concentration dramatically changes in response to an organism's cellular status, whether it serves as a metabolic cue for biological signaling remains elusive due to the lack of molecular identification of GTP sensors. Here we report that PI5P4K?, a phosphoinositide kinase that regulates PI(5)P levels, detects GTP concentration and converts them into lipid second messenger signaling. Biochemical analyses show that PI5P4K? preferentially utilizes GTP, rather than ATP, for PI(5)P phosphorylation, and its activity reflects changes in direct proportion to the physiological GTP concentration. Structural and biological analyses reveal that the GTP-sensing activity of PI5P4K? is critical for metabolic adaptation and tumorigenesis. These results demonstrate that PI5P4K? is the missing GTP sensor and that GTP concentration functions as a metabolic cue via PI5P4K?. The critical role of the GTP-sensing activity of PI5P4K? in cancer signifies this lipid kinase as a cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26774281

  12. Prevalence and genomic characterization of G2P[4] group A rotavirus strains during monovalent vaccine introduction in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gmez, Mariela Martnez; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Voloto, Eduardo de Mello; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Fialho, Alexandre Madi; Assis, Rosane Maria S; de Andrade, Juliana da Silva Ribeiro; S, Ana Caroline Costa; Zeller, Mark; Heylen, Elisabeth; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Leite, Jos Paulo Gagliardi

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to: estimate the prevalence of G2P[4] rotaviruses in Brazil between 2001-2011 from patients with acute gastroenteritis; perform phylogenetic analyses of G2P[4] Brazilian strains (from vaccinated and non-vaccinated children) based on VP7 and VP8(?) encoding genes and analyze the antigenic regions of these proteins comparing with RV1; and assess the full genetic background of eleven selected Brazilian strains. The G2P[4] detection rate among RVA positive samples was 0/157 in 2001, 3/226 (1.3%) in 2002, 0/514 in 2003, 0/651 in 2004, 31/344 (9%)/2005, 112/227 (49%)/2006, 139/211 (66%)/2007, 240/284 (85%)/2008, 66/176 (37.5%)/2009, 367/422 (87%)/2010 and 75/149 (50%)/2011. For the VP7 and VP8(?) encoding genes, 52 sequences were analyzed and shared up to 99% nucleotide identity with other contemporary G2P[4] strains detected worldwide, grouping into different clusters. Most differences inside antigenic epitopes of VP7 and VP8(?) have been maintained in the G2P[4] Brazilian strains along the years, and all were present before RV1 introduction. Eleven G2P[4] strains (4-vaccinated/7-non-vaccinated) were completely characterized and possessed the typical DS-1-like genotype constellation (G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2) sharing up to 99% of nucleotide identity with contemporary worldwide strains. Reassortments between Brazilian G2P[4] human strains were observed. In conclusion, the data obtained in the current study suggests that implementation of RV1 vaccination might not influence the genetic diversity observed in G2P[4] analyzed strains. Several factors might have contributed to the increased prevalence of this genotype in Brazil since 2005: the introduction of RV1 into the Brazilian National Immunization Program has resulted in a decrease in the relative prevalence of predominant Wa-like RVA strains facilitating the increase of the heterotypic (DS-1-like) RVA strain G2P[4] in the Brazilian population; the genetic diversity found in different geographical regions throughout the years before, and after the introduction of RV1; the long period of low or no circulation of this genotype in Brazil previous to RV1 introduction could have created favorable conditions for the accumulation of immunological susceptible individuals. PMID:25239525

  13. Measuring ^3He(^3He,2p)^4He and t(t,2n)^4He reactions near 10 keV at inertial confinement fusion facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, D. P.; Boyd, R. N.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Hatchett, S.; Li, C. K.; MacKinnon, A.; McKenty, P. W.; Navratil, P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Quaglioni, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Seguin, F. H.

    2010-11-01

    Nuclear reactions at stellar energies are often obtained through extrapolations from higher energy data, or in low-background experiments such as those at the LUNA underground laboratory. However, even when measurements are possible, TN rates in burning plasmas are inherently different from those in beam-target experiments. The fusing nuclei are surrounded by bound electrons in accelerator experiments, whereas they occupy mainly continuum states in the plasma environment of a star. We will discuss plans to measure the bare-nuclear cross section and particle production spectra for the ^3He(^3He,2p)^4He fusion, a key reaction in the solar proton-proton chain, and the analogue T(t,2n)^4He reaction. Challenging issues of characterizing background proecess and plasman conditions will be discussed.

  14. Growth, structure, thermal properties and spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-01

    A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG-SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a?=?7.812(2) , b?=?12.307(3) , c?=?10.474(2) , ??=?110.84(3) and Z?=?4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 ?s and a high quantum efficiency of 96%. PMID:24968165

  15. Image reconstruction from cryo-electron micrographs reveals the morphopoietic mechanism in the P2-P4 bacteriophage system.

    PubMed Central

    Dokland, T; Lindqvist, B H; Fuller, S D

    1992-01-01

    The satellite bacteriophage P4 does not have genes coding for any major structural proteins, but assembles a capsid from the gene products of bacteriophage P2. The capsid assembled under control of P4 is smaller (45 nm) than the normal P2 capsid (60 nm). The low resolution (4.5 nm) structures of P2 and P4 capsids were determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image processing. The capsid of P2 shows T = 7 symmetry with most of the mass clustered as 12 pentamers and 60 hexamers. The P4 capsid has T = 4 symmetry with a similar distribution of mass to P2, but the hexamer geometry has changed. The major capsid protein has a two-domain structure. The major domains form the capsomers proper, while connecting domains form trivalent contacts between the capsomers. The size determination by P4 appears to function by altering hexamer geometry rather than by affecting the interdomain angle alone. Images PMID:1547786

  16. Growth, Structure, Thermal Properties and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Nd3+-Doped KGdP4O12 Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-01

    A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG−SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a = 7.812(2) Å, b = 12.307(3) Å, c = 10.474(2) Å, β = 110.84(3)° and Z = 4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920°C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 μs and a high quantum efficiency of 96%. PMID:24968165

  17. Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

    2011-08-01

    The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. PMID:21241377

  18. Luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts after induction of estrus with PMSG/hCG.

    PubMed

    Blitek, Agnieszka; Szymanska, Magdalena; Pieczywek, Marta; Morawska-Pucinska, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether an estrus induction with gonadotropins could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Sixteen prepubertal gilts received 750IU of PMSG and 500IU of hCG 72h later. Prepubertal gilts in the control group (n=17) were observed daily for estrus behavior. All gilts were inseminated in their first estrus. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 10, 12 and 15 of pregnancy and analyzed for (1) the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (2) the tissue concentration of P4; and (3) the mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2). Additionally, P4 concentration was analyzed in blood serum of all animals. PMSG/hCG injections to induce estrus decreased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1 and 3βHSD on day 10 and CYP11A1 on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group, while CYP11A1 and 3βHSD proteins were down-regulated on day 10 in the hormonally-treated gilts. Concentrations of P4 in luteal tissue and blood serum were also lower in animals after gonadotropin-induced estrus. In contrast, LHR and ESR1 mRNA expression was greater in PMSG/hCG-treated than control gilts on day 15 of gestation. In conclusion, induction of estrus with a PMSG/hCG protocol in prepubertal gilts impaired expression of the luteal P4 synthesis system. Low P4 content may, in turn, induce local mechanisms involving LHR and ESR1 expression to support CL function. PMID:26781360

  19. Structure of recombinant Haemophilus influenzae e (P4) acid phosphatase reveals a new member of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Felts, Richard L; Ou, Zhonghui; Reilly, Thomas J; Tanner, John J

    2007-10-01

    Lipoprotein e (P4) from Haemophilus influenzae belongs to the "DDDD" superfamily of phosphohydrolases and is the prototype of class C nonspecific acid phosphatases. P4 is also a component of a H. influenzae vaccine. We report the crystal structures of recombinant P4 in the ligand-free and tungstate-inhibited forms, which are the first structures of a class C phosphatase. P4 has a two-domain architecture consisting of a core alpha/beta domain and a smaller alpha domain. The core domain features a five-stranded beta-sheet flanked by helices on both sides that is reminiscent of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily. The alpha domain appears to be unique and plays roles in substrate binding and dimerization. The active site is solvent accessible and located in a cleft between the two domains. The structure shows that P4 is a metalloenzyme and that magnesium is the most likely metal ion in the crystalline recombinant enzyme. The ligands of the metal ion are the carboxyl groups of the first and third Asp residues of the DDDD motif, the backbone carbonyl of the second Asp of the DDDD motif, and two water molecules. The structure of the tungstate-bound enzyme suggests that Asp64 is the nucleophile that attacks the substrate P atom. Dimerization appears to be important for catalysis because intersubunit contacts stabilize the active site. Analysis of the structural context of mutations engineered for vaccine studies shows that the most promising mutations are located in the dimer interface. This observation suggests a structure-based vaccine design strategy in which the dimer interface is disrupted in order to expose epitopes that are buried in dimeric P4. PMID:17824671

  20. Human G3P[4] rotavirus obtained in Japan, 2013, possibly emerged through a human-equine rotavirus reassortment event.

    PubMed

    Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mayuko; Suzuki, Akira; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Nukiwa-Soma, Nao; Tohma, Kentaro; Liu, Xiaofang; Okamoto, Michiko; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Dapat, Clyde; Kawamura, Kazuhisa; Kayama, Yasuko; Masago, Yoshifumi; Omura, Tatsuo; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Two novel G3P[4] rotavirus strains were detected from children with acute diarrhea in Sendai, Japan, identified as a G3-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation by whole-genome sequence analysis. The VP7 gene of the two strains displayed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (91 %) and showed a close genetic relationship (99 % bootstrap value) to an equine rotavirus reported in India. The other gene segments were related to human group A rotaviruses. This report suggests a possible reassortment event between human and equine rotaviruses. PMID:25352228

  1. Fine structure and ionization energy of the 1s2s2p 4P state of the helium negative ion He-.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Li, Chun; Yan, Zong-Chao; Drake, G W F

    2014-12-31

    The fine structure and ionization energy of the 1s2s2p (4)P state of the helium negative ion He(-) are calculated in Hylleraas coordinates, including relativistic and QED corrections up to O(?(4)mc(2)), O((?/M)?(4)mc(2)), O(?(5)mc(2)), and O((?/M)?(5)mc(2)). Higher order corrections are estimated for the ionization energy. A comparison is made with other calculations and experiments. We find that the present results for the fine structure splittings agree with experiment very well. However, the calculated ionization energy deviates from the experimental result by about 1 standard deviation. The estimated theoretical uncertainty in the ionization energy is much less than the experimental accuracy. PMID:25615325

  2. On the relationship between radiation-stimulated photoluminescence and nitrogen atoms in p-4 H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Ber, B. Ya.; Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) appearing in p-4 H-SiC upon its electron irradiation has been studied. A model that accounts for the dependence of the PL intensity on the irradiation dose is suggested. The conclusion is drawn that nitrogen-radiation defect donor-acceptor pairs are PL activators.

  3. BAG-S53P4 as an additive to bone allografts: A laboratory study using an uniaxial compression test.

    PubMed

    Putzer, David; Fuchs, Johannes; Coraça-Huber, Débora; Christoph, Ammann; Liebensteiner, Michael; Nogler, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We want to address the clinical issue of too sparse supply of allograft in total hip replacement and ambitions of controlling the grain size distribution. Bioglass BAG-S53P4 was evaluated as a bone graft additive to chemically treated allografts with controlled grain size distribution. Allografts were chemically cleaned (CG) and mixed with BAG-S53P4 additive (BG) for comparison. All samples were compacted with a dropped weight apparatus and then underwent a uniaxial compression test. The yield limit was determined by a uniaxial compression test and density was recorded while flowability was calculated. There was no difference between the yield stress limit of BG and CG after compaction (p=0.432). Adding BAG-S53P4 reduced flowability and could indicate better interlocking mechanism between particles. Adding BAG-S53P4 seems to have no impact on the yield stress limit. The extended allografts withstand the compaction equally good which makes it a valid bone substitute in total hip replacement. An in vivo loaded study is needed before clinical use can be recommended. PMID:26016590

  4. Mutagenesis of the in-frame opal termination codon preceding nsP4 of Sindbis virus: studies of translational readthrough and its effect on virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G P; Rice, C M

    1989-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SIN) contains an in-frame opal termination codon in the nonstructural protein-coding region separating nsP3 and nsP4 and provides a useful tool to study the readthrough phenomenon of the termination codon in host cells and its role in viral replication. We have changed the opal codon by site-directed mutagenesis of a full-length SIN cDNA clone to either sense amino acids (serine, tryptophan, or arginine) or the other two translation termination codons (amber or ochre). Transcripts from all of the mutant cDNA clones were infectious when used to transfect chicken embryo fibroblasts. The resulting progeny virus stocks were then used to study the effects of these mutations on viral protein and RNA synthesis, growth properties, host range, and fitness compared with the parental strain. None of the mutants showed temperature sensitivity in plaquing efficiency or plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast monolayers. Relative to the wild-type parent, the mutants containing sense replacements overproduced nsP34 but not nsP4 and made slightly decreased levels of nsP3, with a delay in its appearance. This indicates that the cleavage separating nsP3 and nsP4 occurs in these mutants and also that the level of nsP4 is not regulated solely by readthrough of the opal codon. The amber and ochre mutants produced decreased levels of nsP34, and the ochre mutant grew significantly more slowly than the other mutants or wild-type virus. For all five mutants, RNA synthesis early in infection was inhibited compared with that of the parental virus. This effect was apparent at multiplicities of infection of 20 PFU per cell but not at 100 PFU per cell. Using in situ hybridization to distinguish between mutant and wild-type plaques, we have studied the behavior of the serine mutant in a high-multiplicity growth competition experiment with wild-type virus. The wild-type virus eventually outcompeted the mutant after several passages, and these results indicate that this mutation has resulted in effects that are at least partially cis acting. Furthermore, by studying the growth, plaque formation, and protein synthesis of the mutants in various cell types, we have observed host range effects of the mutations, especially in mosquito and human cells. In addition, we have demonstrated, at least indirectly, that opal, amber, and ochre termination codons in the SIN nucleotide context can be suppressed in cultured cells of chicken, human, hamster, and mosquito origin. Images PMID:2521676

  5. Effect of S53P4 bone substitute on staphylococcal adhesion and biofilm formation on other implant materials in normal and hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tanoira, R; García-Pedrazuela, M; Hyyrynen, T; Soininen, A; Aarnisalo, A; Nieminen, Mikko T; Tiainen, V-M; Konttinen, Y T; Kinnari, T J

    2015-09-01

    To study the effect of bioactive glass bone substitute granules (S53P4) on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on other simultaneously used implant materials and the role of the hypoxic conditions to the adhesion. Bacterial and biofilm formation were studied on materials used both in middle ear prostheses and in fracture fixtures (titanium, polytetrafluoroethylene, polydimethylsiloxane and bioactive glass plates) in the presence or absence of S53P4 granules. The experiments were done either in normal atmosphere or in hypoxia simulating atmospheric conditions of middle ear, mastoid cavity and sinuses. We used two collection strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In the presence of bioglass and hypoxic conditions the adhesion of the planktonic bacterial cells was decreased for most of the materials. The biofilm formation was decreased for S. epidermidis on titanium and polydimethylsiloxane in both atmospheric conditions and on bioglass plates in normoxia. For S. aureus the biofilm formation was decreased on bioglass plates and polytetrafluoroethylene in normoxia. Hypoxia produces a decrease in the biofilm formation only for S. aureus on polytetrafluoroethylene and for S. epidermidis on bioglass plates. However, in none of the cases bioactive glass increased the bacterial or biofilm adhesion. The presence of bioglass in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prevents the bacterial and biofilm adhesion on surfaces of several typical prosthesis materials in vitro. This may lead to diminishing postoperative infections, however, further in vivo studies are needed. PMID:26403279

  6. A novel niobium phosphate bronze with a tunnel structure, K 3Nb 6P 4O 26, member n = ? of the series (K 3Nb 6P 4O 26)n KNb 2PO 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabbas, A.; Borel, M. M.; Grandin, A.; Leclaire, A.; Raveau, B.

    1990-02-01

    A new niobium phosphate bronze with a tunnel structure K 3Nb 6P 4O 26 has been synthesized and its structure has been determined from a single crystal by X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the space group Pnma with a = 14.7484(9), b = 31.582(2), c = 9.3859(6). Its structure consists of Nb 3P 2O 13? layers sharing the corners of their NbO 6 octahedra and PO 4 tetrahedra. The geometry of those layers derives from the hexagonal tungsten bronze and is compared to that of K 7Nb 14P 9O 60. This oxide represents the member n = ? of the structural family (K 3Nb 6P 4O 26) n KNb 2PO 8, whereas K 7Nb 14P 9O 60 previously described corresponds to n = 2.

  7. Effect of Synthetic Levers on Nickel Phosphide Nanoparticle Formation: Ni5P4 and NiP2.

    PubMed

    Li, Da; Senevirathne, Keerthi; Aquilina, Lance; Brock, Stephanie L

    2015-08-17

    Due to their unique catalytic, electronic, and redox processes, Ni5P4 and NiP2 nanoparticles are of interest for a wide-range of applications from the hydrogen evolution reaction to energy storage (batteries); yet synthetic approaches to these materials are limited. In the present work, a phase-control strategy enabling the arrested-precipitation synthesis of nanoparticles of Ni5P4 and NiP2 as phase-pure samples using different Ni organometallic precursors and trioctylphosphine (TOP) is described. The composition and purity of the product can be tuned by changing key synthetic levers, including the Ni precursor, the oleylamine (OAm) coordinating solvent and TOP concentrations, temperature, time, and the presence or absence of a moderate temperature soak step to facilitate formation of Ni and/or Ni-P amorphous nanoparticle intermediates. Notably, the 230 C intermediate step favors the ultimate formation of Ni2P and hinders further phosphidation to form Ni5P4 or NiP2 as phase-pure products. In the absence of this step, increasing the P/Ni ratio (13-20), reaction temperature (350-385 C), and time (10-48 h) favors more P-rich phases, and these parameters can be adjusted to generate either Ni5P4 or NiP2. The phase of the obtained particles can also be tuned between pure Ni2P to Ni5P4 and NiP2 by simply decreasing the OAm/TOP ratio and/or changing the nickel precursor (nickel(II)acetylacetonate, nickel(II)acetate tetrahydrate, or bis(cyclooctadiene)nickel(0)). However, at high concentrations of OAm, the product formed is the same regardless of Ni precursor, suggesting the formation of a uniform Ni intermediate (an Ni-oleylamine complex) under these conditions that is responsible for product distribution. Intriguingly, under the extreme phosphidation conditions required to favor Ni5P4 and NiP2 over Ni2P (large excess of TOP), the 20-30 nm crystallites assemble into supraparticles with diameters of 100-500 nm. These factors are discussed in light of a comprehensive synthetic scheme utilized to control P incorporation in nickel phosphides. PMID:26238550

  8. Intracellular Targeting Signals and Lipid Specificity Determinants of the ALA/ALIS P4-ATPase Complex Reside in the Catalytic ALA ?-Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Hanisch, Susanne; Meffert, Katharina; Buch-Pedersen, Morten J.; Jakobsen, Mia K.; Pomorski, Thomas Gnther; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze flipping of phospholipids across cellular membranes, in this way contributing to vesicle biogenesis in the secretory and endocytic pathways. P4-ATPases form heteromeric complexes with Cdc50-like proteins, and it has been suggested that these act as ?-subunits in the P4-ATPase transport machinery. In this work, we investigated the role of Cdc50-like ?-subunits of P4-ATPases for targeting and function of P4-ATPase catalytic ?-subunits. We show that the Arabidopsis P4-ATPases ALA2 and ALA3 gain functionality when coexpressed with any of three different ALIS Cdc50-like ?-subunits. However, the final cellular destination of P4-ATPases as well as their lipid substrate specificity are independent of the nature of the ALIS ?-subunit they were allowed to interact with. PMID:20053675

  9. P4 medicine: how systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society

    PubMed Central

    Glusman, Gustavo; Brogaard, Kristin; Price, Nathan D; Hood, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago, the proposition that healthcare is evolving from reactive disease care to care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory was regarded as highly speculative. Today, the core elements of that vision are widely accepted and have been articulated in a series of recent reports by the US Institute of Medicine. Systems approaches to biology and medicine are now beginning to provide patients, consumers and physicians with personalized information about each individual’s unique health experience of both health and disease at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. This information will make disease care radically more cost effective by personalizing care to each person’s unique biology and by treating the causes rather than the symptoms of disease. It will also provide the basis for concrete action by consumers to improve their health as they observe the impact of lifestyle decisions. Working together in digitally powered familial and affinity networks, consumers will be able to reduce the incidence of the complex chronic diseases that currently account for 75% of disease-care costs in the USA. PMID:25342952

  10. Probing the kinetic and thermodynamic consequences of the tetraloop/tetraloop receptor monovalent ion-binding site in P4-P6 RNA by smFRET.

    PubMed

    Bisaria, Namita; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Structured RNA molecules play roles in central biological processes and understanding the basic forces and features that govern RNA folding kinetics and thermodynamics can help elucidate principles that underlie biological function. Here we investigate one such feature, the specific interaction of monovalent cations with a structured RNA, the P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena ribozyme. We employ single molecule FRET (smFRET) approaches as these allow determination of folding equilibrium and rate constants over a wide range of stabilities and thus allow direct comparisons without the need for extrapolation. These experiments provide additional evidence for specific binding of monovalent cations, Na+ and K+, to the RNA tetraloop-tetraloop receptor (TL-TLR) tertiary motif. These ions facilitate both folding and unfolding, consistent with an ability to help order the TLR for binding and further stabilize the tertiary contact subsequent to attainment of the folding transition state. PMID:25849913

  11. High Resolution Self-Mixing Laser-Doppler Vibrometry with a Laser-Diode-Pumped Microchip LiNdP4O12 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Kenju; Fukazawa, Takeki; Sekita, Nobuatsu; Higashihara, Shin-ichi

    2000-07-01

    A simple laser vibrometer system (LVS) has been built around a laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP4O12 (LNP) laser combined with an acousto-optic frequency shifter, using an efficient self-mixing modulation arising from the interference between a laser field and a weak field that is fed back from a rough vibrating target. The LVS provides a 50 dB carrier-to-noise ratio for 3 kHz bandwidth, even when monitoring parts that have extremely low reflectivity. Application to laser-Doppler-velocimetry (LDV) capable of discriminating the direction in which different targets are moving has been demonstrated. A remote-sensing experiment by optical fiber access to the target is described briefly.

  12. Probing the kinetic and thermodynamic consequences of the tetraloop/tetraloop receptor monovalent ion-binding site in P4P6 RNA by smFRET

    PubMed Central

    Bisaria, Namita; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Structured RNA molecules play roles in central biological processes and understanding the basic forces and features that govern RNA folding kinetics and thermodynamics can help elucidate principles that underlie biological function. Here we investigate one such feature, the specific interaction of monovalent cations with a structured RNA, the P4P6 domain of the Tetrahymena ribozyme. We employ single molecule FRET (smFRET) approaches as these allow determination of folding equilibrium and rate constants over a wide range of stabilities and thus allow direct comparisons without the need for extrapolation. These experiments provide additional evidence for specific binding of monovalent cations, Na+ and K+, to the RNA tetralooptetraloop receptor (TLTLR) tertiary motif. These ions facilitate both folding and unfolding, consistent with an ability to help order the TLR for binding and further stabilize the tertiary contact subsequent to attainment of the folding transition state. PMID:25849913

  13. Isolation, characterization, and inactivation of the APA1 gene encoding yeast diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate phosphorylase.

    PubMed Central

    Plateau, P; Fromant, M; Schmitter, J M; Buhler, J M; Blanquet, S

    1989-01-01

    The gene encoding diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorylase from yeast was isolated from a lambda gt11 library. The DNA sequence of the coding region was determined, and more than 90% of the deduced amino acid sequence was confirmed by peptide sequencing. The Ap4A phosphorylase gene (APA1) is unique in the yeast genome. Disruption experiments with this gene, first, supported the conclusion that, in vivo, Ap4A phosphorylase catabolizes the Ap4N nucleotides (where N is A, C, G, or U) and second, revealed the occurrence of a second Ap4A phosphorylase activity in yeast cells. Finally, evidence is provided that the APA1 gene product is responsible for most of the ADP sulfurylase activity in yeast extracts. Images PMID:2556364

  14. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, N. A. P.; Geurts, J.; Hulsen, D. J. W.; van Rietbergen, B.; Hofmann, S.; Arts, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis). PMID:26504821

  15. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-man; Guo, Yan-qing; Xiang, Jing-yao; Wang, Wei-huan; Zhang, Li-xia; Gu, Qing-jiu; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  16. ORBITAL ORIENTATIONS OF EXOPLANETS: HAT-P-4b IS PROGRADE AND HAT-P-14b IS RETROGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Shporer, Avi; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-02-15

    We present observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for two exoplanetary systems, revealing the orientations of their orbits relative to the rotation axes of their parent stars. HAT-P-4b is prograde, with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of {lambda} = -4.9 {+-} 11.9 deg. In contrast, HAT-P-14b is retrograde, with {lambda} = 189.1 {+-} 5.1 deg. These results conform with a previously noted pattern among the stellar hosts of close-in giant planets: hotter stars have a wide range of obliquities and cooler stars have low obliquities. This, in turn, suggests that three-body dynamics and tidal dissipation are responsible for the short-period orbits of many exoplanets. In addition, our data revealed a third body in the HAT-P-4 system, which could be a second planet or a companion star.

  17. P4 capped amides and lactams as HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with improved potency and DMPK profile

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Latha G.; Sannigrahi, Mousumi; Bogen, Stephane; Pinto, Patrick; Chen, Kevin X.; Prongay, Andrew; Tong, Xiao; Cheng, K.-C.; Girijavallabhann, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George

    2010-09-03

    SAR studies on the extension of P3 unit of Boceprevir (1, SCH 503034) with amides and lactams and their synthesis is described. Extensive SAR studies resulted in the identification of 36 bearing 4,4-dimethyl lactam as the new P4 cap unit with improved potency (K*{sub i}, EC 90 = 70 nM) and pharmacokinetic properties (Rat AUC (PO) = 3.52 {micro}M h) compared to 1.

  18. Nqrs Data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

  19. Mixed quantum classical simulations of electronic excitation energy transfer: The pheophorbide-a DAB dendrimer P4 in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hui; May, Volkhard; Rder, Beate

    2008-07-01

    Photoinduced electronic excitation energy transfer in chromophore complexes is studied by utilizing a mixed quantum classical methodology. Electronic excitations are characterized by a Frenkel-exciton model and treated quantum mechanically while all nuclear coordinates are described classically finally by carrying out room-temperature MD simulations. The theory is applied to the chromophore complex P4 dissolved in ethanol. P4 is formed by a butanediamine dendrimer to which four pheophorbide- a molecules have been covalently linked. The P4 excited electronic states have to be described in an improved exciton model which accounts for charge distributions in the chromophores electronic ground and excited state. It also includes a correct description of the excitonic coupling among different chromophores based on the introduction of atomic centered transition charges. Excitation energy transfer is discussed in using adiabatic exciton states as well as a full solution of the time-dependent Schrdinger equation. To underline the effect of strong excitonic coupling emphasis is also placed on MD runs where two chromophores are positioned close together. Relations are discussed to the standard treatment of exciton dynamics in using the density matrix theory as well as by introducing rate equations based on rate expressions according to Frster.

  20. Differential inhibition of cellular and viral pp60src kinase by P1,P4-di(adenosine-5')tetraphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, B T; Sorge, L K; Drum, C C; Maness, P F

    1983-01-01

    We contrasted the protein kinase activities of pp60v-src, the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus, and its normal cellular homolog pp60c-src with respect to inhibition by P1,P4-di(adenosine-5')tetraphosphate by using the immune complex protein kinase assay. The concentration of P1,P4-di(adenosine-5')tetraphosphate required for 50% inhibition of pp60v-src kinase (1 microM) was found to be significantly lower than that required for inhibition of pp60c-src kinase (46 microM). Viral and cellular pp60src kinases differed to a lesser extent with respect to inhibition by adenosine-5'-tetraphosphate, di(guanosine-5')tetraphosphate, and ADP. No significant differences were found in the ATP Km values of pp60v-src (0.108 +/- 0.048 microM) and pp60c-src kinases (0.056 +/- 0.012 microM). These results demonstrate that the protein kinase activities of viral and cellular pp60src are functionally distinguishable, particularly on the basis of enhanced sensitivity of the viral enzyme to inhibition by P1,P4-di(adenosine-5')tetraphosphate. These functional differences are likely to be due to differences in the conformation of the active site and may be important for determining transformation potential. PMID:6196614

  1. Influence of H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin on the stability and conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Torosyan, Anahit; Arakelyan, Valeri

    2015-12-01

    Many water-soluble cationic porphyrins are known to be prospective chemotherapeutics and photosensitizers for cancer treatment and diagnosis. The physicochemical properties of porphyrins, in particular their interactions with membranes, are important determining factors of their biological activity. The influence of cationic meso-tetra-[4-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl) pyridyl] porphyrin (H2TOEtPyP) on the stability and conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) was studied. H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin was shown to decrease the stability of BLMs made of a mixture of DOPS and DPPE (1:1) in an electric field because of a reduction of line tension of spontaneously formed pore edges in the BLM. The presence of cationic porphyrin was found to reduce BLM surface tension. This effect was enhanced with increasing porphyrin concentration. H2TOEtPyP4 increased the probability of spontaneous pore formation. Further investigating the cyclic current-voltage characteristics of BLMs allowed determining the electrical capacity and conductivity of BLMs in the presence of H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin. It was shown that in the presence of cationic porphyrin the electrical capacity as well as conductivity of the BLM increases. PMID:26307365

  2. Recent evaluation of the 7Li(p, ?)4He reaction rate at astrophysical energies via the Trojan Horse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Pizzone, R. G.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The charged-particle induced reactions on lithium have been studied by several works. In particular, several direct measurements of the 7Li(p, ?)4He reaction have been performed to extrapolate its low-energy astrophysical S(E)-factor and evaluate the electron screening potential, Ue. Aims: In view of recent direct measurements, we discuss our estimate of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor and an evaluation of the corresponding reaction rate. Moreover, we present the extracted electron screening potential. Methods: The Trojan Horse method (THM) allows us to measure the 7Li(p, ?)4He bare-nucleus S(E)-factor down to energies of ~10 keV, rendering unnecessary the extrapolation procedure typically used by the direct measurements. The 7Li(p, ?)4He S(E)-factor is deduced from the 2H(7Li, ?4He)n reaction by selecting the quasi-free contribution to the reaction yield. The plane-wave impulse approximation has proved an effective approach as distortions appear negligible. Results: The THM enable us to measure the 7Li(p, ?)4He S(E)-factor over the energy region of interest for astrophysics, namely 0.01 < Ecm < 0.4 MeV. The zero-energy S(E)-factor and the Ue electron screening potential have been measured and compared with the available direct data. From the TH measure of the 7Li(p, ?)4He S(E)-factor, the reaction rate calculation has been performed in correspondence with the temperature window of 0.01 < T9 < 2, which is typical of several astrophysical sites where Li burning could shed light on some open questions, such as mixing phenomena. A variation of ~13%, with respect the adopted NACRE one, has been found at temperatures of about T9 = 10-3, while a variation of ~5% has been found at higher temperatures. By considering in the calculation the upper and lower limits to the TH reaction rate, no significant variation in the Li abundances of low mass giant stars follows or, if any modification occurs, this is negligible in comparison to the uncertainties in the free parameters considered in the extra-mixing model of Palmerini and collaborators. Table 2 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/541/A158

  3. Requirement for the amino-terminal domain of sindbis virus nsP4 during virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Jonathan C; Jundt, Natasha; Hardy, Richard W

    2011-04-01

    The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsP4 possesses an amino-terminal region that is unique to alphaviruses and is predicted to be disordered. To determine the importance of this region during alphavirus replication, 29 mutations were introduced, and resultant viruses were assessed for growth defects. Three small plaque mutants, D41A, G83L, and the triple mutant GPG((8-10))VAV, had defects in subgenome synthesis, minus-strand synthesis, and overall levels of viral RNA synthesis, respectively. Large plaque viruses were selected following passage in BHK-21 cells, and the genomes of these were sequenced. Suppressor mutations in nsP1, nsP2, and nsP3 that restored viral RNA synthesis were identified. An nsP2 change from M282 to L and an nsP3 change from H99 to N corrected the D41A-induced defect in subgenomic RNA synthesis. Three changes in nsP1, I351 to V, I388 to V, or the previously identified change, N374 to H (C. L. Fata, S. G. Sawicki, and D. L. Sawicki, J. Virol. 76:8641-8649, 2002), suppressed the minus-strand synthetic defect. A direct reversion back to G at position 8 reduced the RNA synthesis defect of the GPG((8-10))VAV virus. These results imply that nsP4's amino-terminal domain participates in distinct interactions with other nsPs in the context of differentially functioning RNA synthetic complexes, and flexibility in this domain is important for viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, the inability of the mutant viruses to efficiently inhibit host protein synthesis suggests a role for nsP4 in the regulation of host cell gene expression. PMID:21248049

  4. Requirement for the Amino-Terminal Domain of Sindbis Virus nsP4 during Virus Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Jonathan C.; Jundt, Natasha; Hardy, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsP4 possesses an amino-terminal region that is unique to alphaviruses and is predicted to be disordered. To determine the importance of this region during alphavirus replication, 29 mutations were introduced, and resultant viruses were assessed for growth defects. Three small plaque mutants, D41A, G83L, and the triple mutant GPG(8-10)VAV, had defects in subgenome synthesis, minus-strand synthesis, and overall levels of viral RNA synthesis, respectively. Large plaque viruses were selected following passage in BHK-21 cells, and the genomes of these were sequenced. Suppressor mutations in nsP1, nsP2, and nsP3 that restored viral RNA synthesis were identified. An nsP2 change from M282 to L and an nsP3 change from H99 to N corrected the D41A-induced defect in subgenomic RNA synthesis. Three changes in nsP1, I351 to V, I388 to V, or the previously identified change, N374 to H (C. L. Fata, S. G. Sawicki, and D. L. Sawicki, J. Virol. 76:8641-8649, 2002), suppressed the minus-strand synthetic defect. A direct reversion back to G at position 8 reduced the RNA synthesis defect of the GPG(8-10)VAV virus. These results imply that nsP4's amino-terminal domain participates in distinct interactions with other nsPs in the context of differentially functioning RNA synthetic complexes, and flexibility in this domain is important for viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, the inability of the mutant viruses to efficiently inhibit host protein synthesis suggests a role for nsP4 in the regulation of host cell gene expression. PMID:21248049

  5. Outcomes of a Seven Practice Pilot in a Pay For Performance (P4P)-Based Program in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rhonda M.; Johnson, Twyla; Zimmerman, Sarah D.; Marsh, Gary M.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine how a targeted six-month interventions impacted Best Practice/Patient Outcomes for minority patients receiving primary care in physician practices participating in a pay-for-performance (P4P) program. Methods P4P Practices were invited to participate in a pilot intervention study designed to improve care for minority patients with hypertension, diabetes or pediatric asthma. Patient medical records were reviewed to assess how the interventions impacted (n=7 practices): Body mass index, diet and exercise, smoking, compliance with visits as recommended, blood pressure, sodium intake and weight management counseling, medication reconciliation, HbA1c testing, annual lipid profile, and anti-inflammatory medications. Results Significant improvements in various clinical quality measures were observed in all seven practices. Of the 19 specified interventions, 13 were statistically significant at α=0.05 level and 14 met the target proportion. This suggests that the best practice intervention had a significant impact on some of the health care processes in the physician practices. Conclusions The most impactful interventions were those related to face-to-face educational discussions, patient medical chart documentations rather than those pertaining to medication adherence. Improvements in measuring reporting and recording of data at post-intervention were also observed. PMID:25893158

  6. Glide reflection symmetry, Brillouin zone folding, and superconducting pairing for the P 4 /n m m space group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Emilian M.; Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the studies of the superconducting pairing states in the iron-based superconductors, we analyze the effects of Brillouin zone folding procedure from a space-group symmetry perspective for a general class of materials with the P 4 /n m m space group. The Brillouin zone folding amounts to working with an effective 1-Fe unit cell, instead of the crystallographic 2-Fe unit cell. We show that the folding procedure can be justified by the validity of a glide reflection symmetry throughout the crystallographic Brillouin zone and by the existence of a minimal double degeneracy along the edges of the latter. We also demonstrate how the folding procedure fails when a local spin-orbit coupling is included although the latter does not break any of the space-group symmetries of the bare Hamiltonian. In light of these general symmetry considerations, we further discuss the implications of the glide reflection symmetry for the superconducting pairing in an effective multiorbital t -J1-J2 model. We find that, for spin-singlet pairing states, the P4/n m m space-group symmetry allows only even parity under the glide reflection and zero total momentum.

  7. Thionations using a P4S10-pyridine complex in solvents such as acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Jan; Pettersson, Birgitta; Hasimbegovic, Vedran; Svensson, Per H

    2011-03-18

    Tetraphosphorus decasulfide (P(4)S(10)) in pyridine has been used as a thionating agent for a long period of time. The moisture-sensitive reagent has now been isolated in crystalline form, and the detailed structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The thionating power of this storable reagent has been studied and transferred to solvents such as acetonitrile in which it has proven to be synthetically useful and exceptionally selective. Its properties have been compared with the so-called Lawesson reagent (LR). Particularly interesting are the results from thionations at relatively high temperatures (?165 C) in dimethyl sulfone as solvent. Under these conditions, for instance, acridone and 3-acetylindole could quickly be transformed to the corresponding thionated derivatives. Glycylglycine similarly gave piperazinedithione. At these temperatures, LR is inefficient due to rapid decomposition. The thionated products are generally cleaner and more easy to obtain because in the crystalline reagent, impurities which invariably are present in the conventional reagents, P(4)S(10) in pyridine or LR, have been removed. PMID:21341727

  8. Cutaneous and Labyrinthine Tolerance of Bioactive Glass S53P4 in Mastoid and Epitympanic Obliteration Surgery: Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernardeschi, Daniele; Nguyen, Yann; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Mosnier, Isabelle; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the cutaneous and the inner ear tolerance of bioactive glass S53P4 when used in the mastoid and epitympanic obliteration for chronic otitis surgery. Material and Methods. Forty-one cases have been included in this prospective study. Cutaneous tolerance was clinically evaluated 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery with a physical examination of the retroauricular and external auditory canal (EAC) skin and the presence of otalgia; the inner ear tolerance was assessed by bone-conduction hearing threshold 1 day after surgery and by the presence of vertigo or imbalance. Results. All surgeries but 1 were uneventful: all patients maintained the preoperative bone-conduction hearing threshold except for one case in which the round window membrane was opened during the dissection of the cholesteatoma in the hypotympanum and this led to a dead ear. No dizziness or vertigo was reported. Three months after surgery, healing was achieved in all cases with a healthy painless skin. No cases of revision surgery for removal of the granules occurred in this study. Conclusion. The bioactive glass S53P4 is a well-tolerated biomaterial for primary or revision chronic otitis surgery, as shown by the local skin reaction which lasted less than 3 months and by the absence of labyrinthine complications. PMID:26504792

  9. Mass spectrometric studies on effects of counter ions of TMPyP4 on binding to human telomeric DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Liu, Jie; Han, Li; Ho, Hing-Man; Wang, Renxiao; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-09-01

    A comparative study on human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex binding of meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) between its two salt forms, i.e., tetratosylate and tetrachloride, was conducted by using ESI-TOF-MS, UV-melting measurement, and molecular modeling methods. Besides cation TMPyP4, the tosyl anion was found to bind to human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex with multiple binding stoichiometries from 1:1 to 3:1 observed in ESI-TOF-MS spectra, indicating that the stabilization activity of TMPyP4 tetratosylate on G-quadruplex is derived from a synergetic effect of both TMPyP4 cation and tosyl anion. A molecular modeling study suggests that a tosyl anion fills up the vacant space between TMPyP4 cation and DNA G-quadruplex and thus stabilizes the complex by 3.8kcal/mol. Therefore, it is estimated that TMPyP4 tetratosylate's activity might not reflect the real effect of TMPyP4 cation in some bioassays related to G-quadruplex stabilization. This was verified by the results of less binding affinity of TMPyP4 tetrachloride with DNA G-quadruplex obtained from ESI-TOF-MS measurement, and of 2.27C less thermal stabilization of TMPyP4 tetrachloride for DNA G-quadruplex, compared to its tetratosylate under the same conditions. Our study demonstrated the influence of counter ions of TMPyP4 on G-quadruplex binding, which sheds light on the proper usage of TMPyP4 salt in the chemical and biological research associated with G-quadruplex binding. Subsequently, the binding of TMPyP4 tetrachloride to human telomeric RNA G-quadruplexes was studied with ESI-TOF-MS technique. The binding constants of TMPyP4 with human telomeric G-quadruplexes indicated that TMPyP4 binds to human telomeric RNA G-quadruplex one order of magnitude stronger than DNA counterpart. This is a comprehensive mass spectrometric report on binding study of TMPyP4 with human telomeric DNA/RNA G-quadruplexes. PMID:24939133

  10. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  11. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

  12. The P4-type ATPase ATP11C is essential for B lymphopoiesis in adult bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Siggs, Owen M.; Arnold, Carrie N.; Huber, Christoph; Pirie, Elaine; Xia, Yu; Lin, Pei; Nemazee, David; Beutler, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    B lymphopoiesis begins in fetal liver, switching to bone marrow after birth where it persists for life. The unique developmental outcomes of each phase are well documented, yet their molecular requirements are not. Here we describe two allelic X-linked mutations in mice that caused a cell-intrinsic arrest of adult B lymphopoiesis. Mutant fetal liver progenitors generated B cells in situ, but not in irradiated adult bone marrow, highlighting a necessity for the affected pathway only in the context of adult bone marrow. The causative mutation was ascribed to Atp11c, which encodes a P4-type ATPase with no previously described function. Our data establish an essential, cell-autonomous and context-sensitive function for ATP11C, a putative aminophospholipid flippase, in B cell development. PMID:21423172

  13. Exploring the contribution of distal P4 promoter elements to the oncoselectivity of Minute Virus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Paglino, Justin; Burnett, Erik; Tattersall, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) shares inherent oncotropic properties with other members of the genus Parvovirus. Two elements responsible, at least in part, for this oncoselectivity have been mapped to an Ets1 binding site adjacent to the P4 TATA box of the initiating promoter, P4, and to a more distal cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE), located within the telomeric hairpin stem. Here the CRE overlaps one half-site for the binding of parvoviral initiation factor (PIF), which is essential for viral DNA replication. We used a degenerate oligonucleotide selection approach to show that CRE binding protein (CREB) selects the sequence ACGTCAC within this context, rather than its more generally accepted palindromic TGACGTCA recognition site. We have developed strategies for manipulating these sequences directly within the left-end palindrome of the MVM infectious clone and used them to clone mutants whose CRE either matches the symmetric consensus sequence or is scrambled, or in which the PIF binding site is incrementally weakened with respect to the CRE. The panel of mutants were tested for fitness relative to wildtype in normal murine fibroblasts A9 or transformed human fibroblasts 324 K, through multiple rounds of growth in co-infected cultures, using a differential real-time quantitative PCR assay. We confirmed that inactivating the CRE substantially abrogates oncoselectivity, but found that improving its fit to the palindromic consensus is somewhat debilitating in either cell type. We also confirmed that reducing the PIF half-site spacing by one basepair enhances oncoselectivity, but found that a further basepair deletion significantly reduces this effect. PMID:17175002

  14. The synthesis of the heterocubane cluster [{CpMn}4(?3-P)4] as a tetrahedral shaped starting material for the formation of polymeric coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Sebastian; Kiefer, Konrad; Balzs, Gbor; Wickleder, Claudia; Scheer, Manfred

    2015-09-11

    Thermolysis of [CpMn(?(6)-cht)] with P4 in 1,3-diisopropylbenzene leads to the formation of the heterocubane [Cp4Mn4P4] () in high yields, as a rare example of 'naked' phosphorus containing complexes of manganese. Compound is characterized and studied by DFT calculations and reflection measurements. 1D coordination polymers [{(CpMn)4(?3-P)4}(CuX)]n (2-Cl: X = Cl; 2-Br: X = Br) are obtained in the reaction with CuX. Furthermore, it is shown that all four P atoms in can be addressed for a coordination towards cymantrene resulting in [{(CpMn)4(?3-P)4}{CpMn(CO)2}n] (: n = 1; : n = 2; : n = 3; : n = 4), and shows that is a tetra-topic building block in coordination chemistry. PMID:26225545

  15. Coherent lidar imaging of dust clouds: waveform comparison with the poly-phase (P4) modulation waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youmans, Douglas G.

    2008-04-01

    A dust or aerosol cloud represents a convenient target to examine the capabilities of range-resolved Doppler and intensity (RRDI) or inverse synthetic aperture ladar (ISAR) imaging coherent laser radar, known as coherent "lidar" for optically thin targets. The poly-phase P4 ladar waveform and its RRDI images are described and compared with previous pulse-burst, linear-FM chirp pulse-compression, pseudo-random phase modulation waveforms, and several other waveforms which have not been utilized to date. A "dust cloud" has very many independently moving point scatterers with velocities that are approximately Gaussian randomly distributed in x,y,z with standard deviations of about 10% of the mean wind + aerosol velocity. This is contrary to a hard-target where the point scatterers are rigidly attached and moving together. The dust cloud produced speckle effects for the various ladar waveforms are compared. In addition, a reference set of four corner-cube retro-reflectors within the dust cloud further illustrates the differences in the various waveform capabilities and resolution.

  16. In vivo model for frontal sinus and calvarial bone defect obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4 and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Peltola, M J; Aitasalo, K M; Suonp, J T; Yli-Urpo, A; Laippala, P J

    2001-05-01

    An in vivo model was developed to investigate the usability of a frontal sinus and a calvarial bone defect obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4 (BG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) granules. Roofs of 21 Elco rabbit frontal sinuses were drilled open from 4 separate holes using a standard method, and the sinuses, located in pairs, in frontal bone were filled with BG on one side and with HA on the other side. Two parallel posterior defects were covered with a pedicled periosteum flap, and 2 anterior defects with a free flap. The stability of materials, new bone, and connective tissue formation were observed with histomorphometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and X-ray pictures at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The results showed more rapid resorption of filling material (p = 0.019) and new bone formation (p = 0.0001) in the defects filled with BG than in the corresponding HA-filled defects studied by histomorphometry throughout the study. New bone formation and resorption of materials were faster in defects covered by a pedicled flap than by a free periosteum flap. The results were supported by SEM histomorphometric and radiologic analysis. Both bioactive materials studied were well tolerated in frontal sinuses and in calvarial bone defects. The experimental model showed the influence of early periosteum vascularization on accurate frontal sinus filling and the healing process in rabbit frontal sinuses. PMID:11319739

  17. Cytosolic calcium responses to extracellular adenosine 5',5" '-P1,P4-tetraphosphate in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Nordone, A J; Pivorun, E B

    1995-09-01

    Binding of adenosine 5',5" '-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) to a purinoceptor on nerve growth factor-differentiated (NGF) pheochromacytoma (PC12) cells modulated cytosolic Ca2+ levels. Both Ap4A and ATP elicited an influx of extracellular Ca2+, but both the sensitivity of the response and the flux profile were different. Preincubation of the PC12 cells with the compounds adenosine 5'-0-(2-thio)diphosphate (ADP-beta-S) and periodate-oxidized ATP had differential effects upon the Ap4A and ATP-induced response. These results indicate that Ap4A and ATP were either interacting with distinct purinoceptor subclasses or with the same purinoceptor with differing affinities. Simultaneous depolarization and application of either Ap4A or ATP to the PC12 cells induced an additive effect on the calcium flux. Preincubation with verapamil negated the effects of depolarization without significantly modifying the ligand-elicited Ca2+ fluxes, suggesting the presence of Ap4A ligand-gated channels that may function as modulators of PC12 cell function. PMID:7501684

  18. Activation of White Phosphorus by Low-Valent Group 5 Complexes: Formation and Reactivity of cyclo-P4 Inverted Sandwich Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and comprehensive study of the electronic structure of a unique series of dinuclear group 5 cyclo-tetraphosphide inverted sandwich complexes. White phosphorus (P4) reacts with niobium(III) and tantalum(III) ?-diketiminate (BDI) tert-butylimido complexes to produce the bridging cyclo-P4 phosphide species {[(BDI)(NtBu)M]2(?-?3:?3P4)} (1, M = Nb; 2, M = Ta) in fair yields. 1 is alternatively synthesized upon hydrogenolysis of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Me2 in the presence of P4. The trinuclear side product {[(BDI)NbNtBu]3(?-P12)} (3) is also identified. Protonation of 1 with [HOEt2][B(C6F5)4] does not occur at the phosphide ring but rather involves the BDI ligand to yield {[(BDI#)Nb(NtBu)]2(?-?3:?3P4)}[B(C6F5)4]2 (4). The monocation and dication analogues {[(BDI)(NtBu)Nb]2(?-?3:?3P4)}{B(ArF)4}n (5, n = 1; 6, n = 2) are both synthesized by oxidation of 1 with AgBArF. DFT calculations were used in combination with EPR and UVvisible spectroscopies to probe the nature of the metalphosphorus bonding. PMID:25469924

  19. Metalloporphyrins with all the pyrrole nitrogens replaced with phosphorus atoms, MP(P)4 (M = Sc, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Aleksey E.

    2015-02-01

    We performed first systematic DFT study of the structures and electronic features (frontier orbitals energies, HOMO/LUMO and optical gaps, IPs and EAs) of the MP(P)4 compounds, with increasing number of d-electrons: 3d14s2 (Sc) ? 3d24s2 (Ti) ? 3d64s2 (Fe) ? 3d84s2 (Ni) ? 3d104s1 (Cu) ? 3d104s2 (Zn). We performed systematic comparison with the tetrapyrrole MP counterparts. Complete substitution of the pyrrole nitrogens by P-atoms does not change the calculated ground spin state of the compound. All the MP(P)4 species adopt a bowl-like shape, compared to generally planar or slightly distorted shapes of their MP counterparts. Significant positive charge accumulates on P-atoms in MP(P)4. Positive charges on the metals in MP(P)4 are noticeably lower than in the MP counterparts. The calculated MP(P)4 HOMO/LUMO gaps and optical gaps are noticeably smaller than the corresponding gaps in their MP counterparts, which is explained by stabilization of the MP(P)4 LUMOs.

  20. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli and DNA bending at the P4 promoter of pBR322.

    PubMed

    Brierley, I; Hoggett, J G

    1992-07-01

    The binding of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) to its specific site on the P4 promoter of pBR322 has been studied by gel electrophoresis. Binding to the P4 site was about 40-50-fold weaker than to the principal CRP site on the lactose promoter at both low (0.01 M) and high (0.1 M) ionic strengths. CRP-induced bending at the P4 site was investigated from the mobilities of CRP bound to circularly permuted P4 fragments. The estimated bending angle, based on comparison with Zinkel & Crothers [(1990) Biopolymers 29, 29-38] A-tract bending standards, was found to be approximately 96 degrees, similar to that found for binding to the lac site. These observations suggest that there is not a simple relationship between strength of CRP binding and the extent of induced bending for different CRP sites. The apparent centre of bending in P4 is displaced about 6-8 bp away from the conserved TGTGA sequence and the P4 transcription start site. PMID:1322129

  1. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli and DNA bending at the P4 promoter of pBR322.

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, I; Hoggett, J G

    1992-01-01

    The binding of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) to its specific site on the P4 promoter of pBR322 has been studied by gel electrophoresis. Binding to the P4 site was about 40-50-fold weaker than to the principal CRP site on the lactose promoter at both low (0.01 M) and high (0.1 M) ionic strengths. CRP-induced bending at the P4 site was investigated from the mobilities of CRP bound to circularly permuted P4 fragments. The estimated bending angle, based on comparison with Zinkel & Crothers [(1990) Biopolymers 29, 29-38] A-tract bending standards, was found to be approximately 96 degrees, similar to that found for binding to the lac site. These observations suggest that there is not a simple relationship between strength of CRP binding and the extent of induced bending for different CRP sites. The apparent centre of bending in P4 is displaced about 6-8 bp away from the conserved TGTGA sequence and the P4 transcription start site. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1322129

  2. Activation of prophage P4 by the P2 Cox protein and the sites of action of the Cox protein on the two phage genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S; Haggrd-Ljungquist, E; Nordstrm, K

    1989-01-01

    Phage P2 induces the unrelated prophage P4. In this paper we show that this is due to the activation of the P4 late promoter PII by the P2 Cox protein. This is in contrast to the effects of Cox on P2, for which it is known from previous work that it acts as a repressor of the promoter Pc, which is responsible for expression of the immunity repressor C. The activator role of Cox was revealed by its effect on replication of P4 DNA and on the formation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase when a promoterless cat gene was inserted downstream of the P4 PII promoter. DNase I protection studies revealed that the Cox protein binds to the repressor promoter Pc of phage P2 and to the promoter PII of phage P4. In the latter case the Cox protein binds upstream of the -35 region, in analogy to several other activators of promoters. A weak binding was found in the promoters Pe of phage P2 and Ple of phage P4. The Cox protein is a case of viral transactivation of the replication genes of one phage by a control protein of the other. However, the effects of the Cox protein are totally different in the two phages, repressive in one case and activating in the other. Images PMID:2657731

  3. A mutation of the transactivation gene of satellite bacteriophage P4 that suppresses the rpoA109 mutation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Halling, C; Sunshine, M G; Lane, K B; Six, E W; Calendar, R

    1990-01-01

    Satellite bacteriophage P4 requires the products of the late genes of a helper such as P2 in order to grow lytically. The Escherichia coli rpoA109 mutation, which alters the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase, prevents transcription of the late genes of bacteriophage P2. Suppressor mutations that define the P2 ogr gene overcome this block. We found that P4 lytic growth using a P2 ogr+ prophage helper was prevented by the rpoA109 mutation but that this block was overcome when the P2 helper carried the suppressor mutation in the ogr gene. Furthermore, we isolated and characterized four independent mutations in P4, called org, that suppress the E. coli rpoA109 mutation by allowing P4 lytic growth using a P2 ogr+ helper. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the four independent org mutations are identical and that they occur in the P4 delta gene, which codes for a factor that positively regulates the transcription of the P2 and P4 late genes. delta is predicted to code for a basic 166-amino-acid residue protein. Each 83-residue half of the predicted delta gene product is similar to the predicted 72-residue proteins encoded by the ogr gene of P2 and the B gene of phage 186. PMID:2193910

  4. Effect of MHC Haplotype on Immune Response upon Experimental SHIVSF162P4cy Infection of Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Borsetti, Alessandra; Ferrantelli, Flavia; Maggiorella, Maria T.; Sernicola, Leonardo; Bellino, Stefania; Gallinaro, Alessandra; Farcomeni, Stefania; Mee, Edward T.; Rose, Nicola J.; Cafaro, Aurelio; Titti, Fausto; Ensoli, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) haplotypes on immunity to primate lentiviruses involving both acquired and innate immune responses. We present statistical evidence of the influence of MHC polymorphism on antiviral immunity of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM) following simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF162P4cy infection, involving the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and ?-defensins, which may modulate acquired immune responses. During the acute phase of infection, IL-10 correlated positively with viral load and negatively with CD4+T cell counts. Furthermore, ?-defensins production was directly correlated with plasma viral RNA, particularly at peak of viral load. When the effects of the MHC were analyzed, a significant association between lower anti-Env binding and neutralizing antibody levels with class IB M4 haplotype and with class IA, IB M4 haplotype, respectively, was observed in the post-acute phase. Lower antibody responses may have resulted into a poor control of infection thus explaining the previously reported lower CD4 T cell counts in these monkeys. Class II M3 haplotype displayed significantly lower acute and post-acute IL-10 levels. In addition, significantly lower levels of ?-defensins were detected in class IA M3 haplotype monkeys than in non-M3 macaques, in the post-acute phase of infection. These data indicate that the MHC could contribute to the delicate balance of pro-inflammatory mechanisms, particularly with regard to the association between IL-10 and ?-defensins in lentivirus infection. Our results show that host genetic background, virological and immunological parameters should be considered for the design and interpretation of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies. PMID:24695530

  5. Effect of MHC haplotype on immune response upon experimental SHIVSF162P4cy infection of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Borsetti, Alessandra; Ferrantelli, Flavia; Maggiorella, Maria T; Sernicola, Leonardo; Bellino, Stefania; Gallinaro, Alessandra; Farcomeni, Stefania; Mee, Edward T; Rose, Nicola J; Cafaro, Aurelio; Titti, Fausto; Ensoli, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) haplotypes on immunity to primate lentiviruses involving both acquired and innate immune responses. We present statistical evidence of the influence of MHC polymorphism on antiviral immunity of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM) following simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF162P4cy infection, involving the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and ?-defensins, which may modulate acquired immune responses. During the acute phase of infection, IL-10 correlated positively with viral load and negatively with CD4+T cell counts. Furthermore, ?-defensins production was directly correlated with plasma viral RNA, particularly at peak of viral load. When the effects of the MHC were analyzed, a significant association between lower anti-Env binding and neutralizing antibody levels with class IB M4 haplotype and with class IA, IB M4 haplotype, respectively, was observed in the post-acute phase. Lower antibody responses may have resulted into a poor control of infection thus explaining the previously reported lower CD4 T cell counts in these monkeys. Class II M3 haplotype displayed significantly lower acute and post-acute IL-10 levels. In addition, significantly lower levels of ?-defensins were detected in class IA M3 haplotype monkeys than in non-M3 macaques, in the post-acute phase of infection. These data indicate that the MHC could contribute to the delicate balance of pro-inflammatory mechanisms, particularly with regard to the association between IL-10 and ?-defensins in lentivirus infection. Our results show that host genetic background, virological and immunological parameters should be considered for the design and interpretation of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies. PMID:24695530

  6. P4W20O68: A complex charge-density-wave modulated structure with an antiferroelectric-like lattice distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, P.; Labb, Ph.; Leligny, H.; Groult, D.; Foury-Leylekian, P.; Pouget, J. P.

    2000-07-01

    The charge-density-wave (CDW) structure of the monophosphate tungsten bronze P4W20O68, the m=10 member of the (PO2)4(WO3)2m series has been solved at room temperature from single-crystal x-ray-diffraction data. In agreement with previous x-ray diffuse scattering experiments, intense first-order satellite reflections at +/-37a* reduced wave vectors as well as second-order satellite reflections at +/-17a* were observed. The CDW structure was refined in a four-dimensional (4D) formalism and found to have the superspace group P21 (?00) 0. The modulation, of the displacive type, involves mainly the tungsten atoms inside the different WO6 octahedra of the WO3-type slab. The W displacements, which are mostly oriented in the direction of the segment of 10 WO6 octahedra building the slab, tends to be oriented in opposite directions between neighboring segments. It is suggested that for the large m members these features represent a good compromise between the CDW instability of the metallic bronzes, related to their quasi-1D electronic structure, and the incipient antiferroelectric lattice distortion of the insulating oxide WO3, which corresponds to the limit m-->? of this series. These structural features play a crucial role in setting the coupling between the differently oriented 1D portions of the Fermi surface required for the hidden nesting mechanism at the basis of the stabilization of a CDW ground state in the ReO3-type metallic W and Mo bronzes and oxides.

  7. A Putative Plant Aminophospholipid Flippase, the Arabidopsis P4 ATPase ALA1, Localizes to the Plasma Membrane following Association with a ?-Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Lpez-Marqus, Rosa L.; Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells display asymmetric lipid distributions with aminophospholipids concentrated in the inner leaflet and sphingolipids in the outer leaflet. This unequal distribution of lipids between leaflets is, amongst several proposed functions, hypothesized to be a prerequisite for endocytosis. P4 ATPases, belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily of pumps, are involved in establishing lipid asymmetry across plasma membranes, but P4 ATPases have not been identified in plant plasma membranes. Here we report that the plant P4 ATPase ALA1, which previously has been connected with cold tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana, is targeted to the plasma membrane and does so following association in the endoplasmic reticulum with an ALIS protein ?-subunit. PMID:22514601

  8. Characterization of P4 ATPase Phospholipid Translocases (Flippases) in Human and Rat Pancreatic Beta Cells: THEIR GENE SILENCING INHIBITS INSULIN SECRETION.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Israr-ul H; Longacre, Melissa J; Paulusma, Coen C; Stoker, Scott W; Kendrick, Mindy A; MacDonald, Michael J

    2015-09-18

    The negative charge of phosphatidylserine in lipid bilayers of secretory vesicles and plasma membranes couples the domains of positively charged amino acids of secretory vesicle SNARE proteins with similar domains of plasma membrane SNARE proteins enhancing fusion of the two membranes to promote exocytosis of the vesicle contents of secretory cells. Our recent study of insulin secretory granules (ISG) (MacDonald, M. J., Ade, L., Ntambi, J. M., Ansari, I. H., and Stoker, S. W. (2015) Characterization of phospholipids in insulin secretory granules in pancreatic beta cells and their changes with glucose stimulation. J. Biol. Chem. 290, 11075-11092) suggested that phosphatidylserine and other phospholipids, such as phosphatidylethanolamine, in ISG could play important roles in docking and fusion of ISG to the plasma membrane in the pancreatic beta cell during insulin exocytosis. P4 ATPase flippases translocate primarily phosphatidylserine and, to a lesser extent, phosphatidylethanolamine across the lipid bilayers of intracellular vesicles and plasma membranes to the cytosolic leaflets of these membranes. CDC50A is a protein that forms a heterodimer with P4 ATPases to enhance their translocase catalytic activity. We found that the predominant P4 ATPases in pure pancreatic beta cells and human and rat pancreatic islets were ATP8B1, ATP8B2, and ATP9A. ATP8B1 and CDC50A were highly concentrated in ISG. ATP9A was concentrated in plasma membrane. Gene silencing of individual P4 ATPases and CDC50A inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin release in pure beta cells and in human pancreatic islets. This is the first characterization of P4 ATPases in beta cells. The results support roles for P4 ATPases in translocating phosphatidylserine to the cytosolic leaflets of ISG and the plasma membrane to facilitate the docking and fusion of ISG to the plasma membrane during insulin exocytosis. PMID:26240149

  9. Activation of Promoter P4 of the Autonomous Parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice at Early S Phase Is Required for Productive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleu, Laurent; Pujol, Aurora; Faisst, Steffen; Rommelaere, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Autonomous parvoviruses are tightly dependent on host cell factors for various steps of their life cycle. In particular, DNA replication and gene expression of the prototype strain of the minute virus of mice (MVMp) are closely linked to the onset of host cell DNA replication, pointing to the involvement of an S-phase-specific cellular factor(s) in parvovirus multiplication. The viral nonstructural protein NS-1 is absolutely required for parvovirus DNA replication and is able to transcriptionally regulate parvoviral and heterologous promoters. We previously showed that the promoter P4, which directs the transcription unit encoding the NS proteins, is activated at the onset of S phase. This activation is dependent on an E2F motif in the proximal region of promoter P4. An infectious MVM DNA clone was mutated in the E2F motif of P4. The wild type and the E2F mutant derivative were tested for their ability to produce progeny viruses after transfection of permissive cells. In the context of the whole MVMp genome, the E2F mutation abolished P4 induction in S phase and inactivated the infectious molecular clone, which failed to become amplified and generate progeny particles. The virus could be rescued when NS proteins were supplied in trans, showing that P4 hyperactivity in S is needed to reach a level of NS-1 expression that is sufficient to drive the viral replication cycle. These data show that E2F-mediated P4 activation at the early S phase is a limiting factor for parvovirus production. The primary barrier to parvovirus gene expression in G1 is thought to be promoter formation rather than activation, due to the poor conversion of the parental single-strand genome to a duplex form. The S dependence of P4 activation may therefore be a sign of the virus adaptation to life in the S-phase host cell. If the conversion block in G1 were to be leaky, the S induction of promoter P4 could be envisioned as a safeguard against the production of toxic NS proteins until cells reach the S phase and provide the full machinery for parvovirus replication. PMID:10196282

  10. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth in a calcareous soil by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere as the over-application of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in C...

  11. Nucleotide sequence and expression in E. coli of the complete P4 type VP4 from a G2 serotype human rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, N P; Rao, C D

    1996-01-01

    The complete sequence of a P4 type VP4 gene from a G2 serotype human rotavirus, IS2, isolated in India has been determined. Although the IS2 VP4 is highly homologous to the other P4 type alleles, it contained acidic amino acid substitutions at several positions that make it acidic among the P4 type alleles that are basic. Moreover, comparative sequence analysis revealed unusual polymorphism in members of the P4 type at amino acid position 393 which is highly conserved in members of other VP4 types. To date, expression of complete VP4 in E. colic has not been achieved. In this study we present successful expression in E. coli of the complete VP4 as well as VP8* and VP5* cleavage subunits in soluble form as fusion proteins of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and their purification by single-step affinity chromatography. The hemagglutinating activity exhibited by the recombinant protein was specifically inhibited by the antiserum raised against it. Availability of pure VP4 proteins should facilitate development of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for P serotyping of rotaviruses. PMID:8634023

  12. Bioactive Glass S53P4 versus Chlorhexidine Gluconate as Intracanal Medicament in Primary Teeth: An In-vivo Study Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ankit; Sinha, Abhishek; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Mehrotra, Rachit; Vashisth, Pallavi; Garg, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteria have long been recognized as the primary etiology for pulpal and periapical lesions, which necessitates the elimination of bacteria from the root canal system. In primary teeth, irrigation and debridement is the main protocol required to disinfect the canal. Biomechanical preparation cannot be vigorously done on the primary teeth due to anatomical barrier such as thin and flared roots. This calls for the use of an effective intracanal medication that will assist disinfection of root canal system. Aim of the study was to examine the in-vivo susceptibility of root canal bacteria to chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate-1% gel and bioactive glass (BAG) S53P4 when used as intracanal medicaments using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methodology: PCR (analysis used oligonucleotide primers of Escherichia coli) was used to detect and compare the microbial load reduction after medication of 14 teeth for a week with either CHX gel - 1% or BAG S53P4. The pre and post microbial load was checked in the form of colony forming units. When analysis was done, a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. Results: The study revealed that both medicaments caused a considerable amount of microbial load reduction. BAG S53P4 caused much more reduction than CHX 1% gel. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: BAG S53P4 has superior antibacterial property as compared to CHX 1% gel. PMID:26464542

  13. Changes in the distribution of lineage constellations of G2P[4] Rotavirus A strains detected in Japan over 32 years (1980-2011).

    PubMed

    Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Agbemabiese, Chantal Ama; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Most human RVA strains are classified into three major genotype constellations: Wa-like, DS-1-like and AU-1-like. The evolution of G2P[4] strains possessing the DS-1-like genetic background was described in a few recent studies. However, the strains analyzed in these studies were almost exclusively the ones detected after 2000. In recognition of the scarcity of G2P[4] strains detected before 2000 for which whole genome information was available, this study was undertaken to characterize 19 Japanese G2P[4] strains detected between 1983 and 1990 (14 strains) and between 2001 and 2011 (5 strains), and to compare them with 131 G2P[4] strains from across the world. The Japanese strains along with the strains elsewhere in the world underwent stepwise changes from lineage I to IVa in 5 genes (the VP7, VP4, VP2, NSP1 and NSP5 genes) and from lineage I to V in 6 genes (the VP6, VP1, VP3, NSP2, NSP3 and NSP4 genes). Furthermore, G2P[4] strains detected after 2004 appeared to have undergone further intragenotype reassortment, resulting in the emergence of lineage V in the VP7 gene, and VI and VII in the VP3 and NSP4 genes. The time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for the emergent lineages VI and VII was estimated to be around the early 2000s. However, the year when the ancestor of the emergent lineages diverged from that of the rest of the lineages in the respective genes preceded the tMRCA 80-90 years. The origin of the emergent lineages is likely to be human RVA strains possessing genotypes other than G2P[4], and not RVA strains of an animal origin. In conclusion, stepwise changes in lineages imparted new genomic constellations to G2P[4] strains, which appears to have contributed to their successful spread across the globe, most notably since 2004. PMID:26026594

  14. When incentives work too well: locally implemented pay for performance (P4P) and adverse sanctions towards home birth in Tanzania - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite limited evidence of its effectiveness, performance-based payments (P4P) are seen by leading policymakers as a potential solution to the slow progress in reaching Millennium Development Goal 5: improved maternal health. This paper offers insights into two of the aspects that are lacking in the current literature on P4P, namely what strategies health workers employ to reach set targets, and how the intervention plays out when implemented by local government as part of a national programme that does not receive donor funding. Methods A total of 28 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 25 individuals were conducted in Mvomero district over a period of 15 months in 2010 and 2011, both before and after P4P payments. Seven facilities, including six dispensaries and one health centre, were covered. Informants included 17 nurses, three clinical officers, two medical attendants, one lab technician and two district health administrators. Results Health workers reported a number of strategies to increase the number of deliveries at their facility, including health education and cooperation with traditional health providers. The staff at all facilities also reported that they had told the women that they would be sanctioned if they gave birth at home, such as being fined or denied clinical cards and/or vaccinations for their babies. There is a great uncertainty in relation to the potential health impacts of the behavioural changes that have come with P4P, as the reported strategies may increase the numbers, but not necessarily the quality. Contrary to the design of the P4P programme, payments were not based on performance. We argue that this was due in part to a lack of resources within the District Administration, and in part as a result of egalitarian fairness principles. Conclusions Our results suggest that particular attention should be paid to adverse effects when using external rewards for improved health outcomes, and secondly, that P4P may take on a different form when implemented by local implementers without the assistance of professional P4P specialists. PMID:24438556

  15. MiR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells via targeting prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guoxing; Shi, Hui; Li, Jiong; Yang, Zhe; Fang, Runping; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Weiying; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Aberrant microRNA expression has been shown to be characteristic of many cancers. It has been reported that the expression levels of miR-30e are decreased in liver cancer tissues. However, the role of miR-30e in hepatocellular carcinoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the significance of miR-30e in hepatocarcinogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a putative target site of miR-30e in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA. Moreover, luciferase reporter gene assays verified that miR-30e directly targeted 3'UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. Then, we demonstrated that miR-30e was able to reduce the expression of P4HA1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Enforced expression of miR-30e suppressed proliferation of HepG2 cells by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay and reduced colony formation of these cells by colony formation analysis. Conversely, anti-miR-30e enhanced the proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of P4HA1 could efficiently rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-30e in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, silencing of P4HA1 abolished the anti-miR-30e-induced proliferation of cells. Clinically, quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-30e was down-regulated in liver tumor tissues relative to their peritumor tissues. The expression levels of miR-30e were negatively correlated to those of P4HA1 mRNA in clinical liver tumor tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting P4HA1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26966067

  16. A novel type of heteropolyoxoanion precursors [[Ca(H2O)]6[P4M6O34]2](12-) (M = WVI, MoVI) constructed by two [P4M6O34](12-) subunits via a rare hexa-calcium cluster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingping; Zhao, Junwei; Ma, Pengtao; Ma, Junchuang; Yang, Linping; Bai, Yan; Li, Mingxue; Niu, Jingyang

    2009-05-01

    A novel type of heteropolyoxoanion (HPOA) precursors [[Ca (H(2)O)](6)[P(4)M(6)O(34)](2)](12-) [M = W(VI) (1), Mo(VI) (2)] has been synthesized and structurally characterized, which represents the rare membership of the HPOA family constituted by two early-transition-metal clusters ([P(4)M(6)O(34)](12-)) and a main-group metal cluster of high nuclearity ([Ca(6)](12+)). PMID:19377686

  17. Bioactive glass BAG-S53P4 for the adjunctive treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones: an in vitro and prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of the bioglass BAG S53P4 against multi-resistant microorganisms commonly involved in osteomyelitis and to evaluate its use in surgical adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis. Methods In vitro antibacterial activity of BAG-S53P4 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates was evaluated by means of time kill curves, with colony counts performed after 24, 48 and 72hours of incubation. In vivo evaluation was performed by prospectively studying a cohort of 27 patients with a clinically and radiologically diagnosed osteomyelitis of the long bones in an observational study. Endpoints were the absence of infection recurrence/persistence at follow-up, no need for further surgery whenever during follow-up and absence of local or systemic side effects connected with the BAG use. Results In vitro tests regarding the antibacterial activity of BAG S53P4 showed a marked bactericidal activity after 24hrs against all the tested species. This activity continued in the subsequent 24hrs and no growth was observed for all strains after 72hrs. Results of the clinical study evidenced no signs of infection in 24 patients (88.9%) at the follow-up, while 2 subjects showed infection recurrence at 6months from index operation and one more needed further surgical procedures. BAG-S53P4 was generally well tolerated. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo findings reinforce previous observations on the efficacy of BAG-S53P4 for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones, also in the presence of multi-resistant strains and in immunocompromised hosts, without relevant side effects and without the need for locally adding antibiotics. Trial registration Deutschen Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) unique identifier: DRKS00005332. PMID:24325278

  18. Differential coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song system.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ezequiel; Tokarev, Kirill; Düring, Daniel N; Retamosa, Eva Camarillo; Weiss, Michael; Arpenik, Nshdejan; Scharff, Constance

    2015-06-15

    Heterozygous disruptions of the Forkhead transcription factor FoxP2 impair acquisition of speech and language. Experimental downregulation in brain region Area X of the avian ortholog FoxP2 disrupts song learning in juvenile male zebra finches. In vitro, transcriptional activity of FoxP2 requires dimerization with itself or with paralogs FoxP1 and FoxP4. Whether this is the case in vivo is unknown. To provide the means for future functional studies we cloned FoxP4 from zebra finches and compared regional and cellular coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 mRNA and protein in brains of juvenile and adult male zebra finches. In the telencephalic song nuclei HVC, RA, and Area X, the three investigated FoxPs were either expressed alone or occurred in specific combinations with each other, as shown by double in situ hybridization and triple immunohistochemistry. FoxP1 and FoxP4 but not FoxP2 were expressed in RA and in the HVCRA and HVCX projection neurons. In Area X and the surrounding striatum the density of neurons expressing all three FoxPs together or FoxP1 and FoxP4 together was significantly higher than the density of neurons expressing other combinations. Interestingly, the proportions of Area X neurons expressing particular combinations of FoxPs remained constant at all ages. In addition, FoxP-expressing neurons in adult Area X express dopamine receptors 1A, 1B, and 2. Together, these data provide the first evidence that Area X neurons can coexpress all avian FoxP subfamily members, thus allowing for a variety of regulatory possibilities via heterodimerization that could impact song behavior in zebra finches. PMID:25556631

  19. Changing patterns of rotavirus strains circulating in Ireland: re-emergence of G2P[4] and identification of novel genotypes in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Collins, P J; Mulherin, Emily; O'Shea, Helen; Cashman, Olivia; Lennon, Grainne; Pidgeon, Eugene; Coughlan, Suzie; Hall, William; Fanning, Samus

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is recognized as the most common aetiological agent of acute diarrheal disease in children. One hundred and ninety seven positive faecal samples were obtained from patients between 2006 and 2008. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify the VP7 and VP4 gene segments of these samples, and G and P typing was carried out subsequently. The most common strain type was G1P[8], and the emergent global G9-type was identified in both years. RVA strain type G2P[4], previously reported in Ireland in 1999, was also detected. Genotypes G2 and G3 in combination with P[4] were detected in 2006-2007 only. There was also an emergence of strain types including G3P[4], G9P[4], G2P[4?+?8] and G2G4P[8] in this study. Molecular analysis of the VP7 genes revealed G1 strains circulating within lineage Ic as previously reported in Ireland. In addition, new sublineage within lineage I of G1 strains was also identified. Analysis of G4 strain NRVL-Hum-49 revealed similarity with other human G4 viruses in lineage Ib. G9 strain NRVL-Hum-74 clustered with a unique G9 strain, CIT-254, in lineage IIIc. This data supports the observations made that the profile of RVA strains in Ireland appears to be dynamic. This study demonstrates that the circulation of human rotavirus is changing continuously in Ireland, and continued surveillance of the circulating strains is needed to detect the appearance of new strains, or new variants which may lead to vaccine breakthrough. PMID:25704492

  20. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  1. Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo proximal interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p (4p15.2?p14).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Lee, Meng-Ju; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shan; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-10-25

    We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo proximal interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p (4p15.2?p14) and molecular cytogenetic characterization of the deletion using uncultured amniocytes. We review the phenotypic abnormalities of previously reported patients with similar proximal interstitial 4p deletions, and we discuss the functions of the genes of RBPJ, CCKAR, STIM2, PCDH7 and ARAP2 that are deleted within this region. PMID:23948085

  2. Care and Do Not Harm: Possible Misunderstandings With Quaternary Prevention (P4) Comment on "Quaternary Prevention, an Answer of Family Doctors to Over Medicalization".

    PubMed

    Widmer, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The discussion between general practitioners (GPs) and healthcare delivery organizations necessitates a common language. The presentation of the 4 types of GP's activities, opens dialogue but can lead to possible misunderstandings between the micro- and macro-level of the healthcare system. This commentary takes 4 examples: costs reduction by P4, priority of beneficence or nonmaleficence, role of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and use of a constructivist model. PMID:26340401

  3. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  4. Molecular characterisation of the NSP4 gene of group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains circulating in So Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 and 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bertol, Jssica Wildgrube; Fregolente, Maria Clara Duarte; Caruzo, Thabata Alessandra Ramos; da Silva, Mrcio Jos; Munford, Veridiana; Sfadi, Marco Aurlio Palazzi; Rcz, Maria Lucia; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari

    2015-01-01

    Group A human rotaviruses (HuRVA) are causative agents of acute gastroenteritis. Six viral structural proteins (VPs) and six nonstructural proteins (NSPs) are produced in RV-infected cells. NSP4 is a diarrhoea-inducing viral enterotoxin and NSP4 gene analysis revealed at least 15 (E1-E15) genotypes. This study analysed the NSP4 genetic diversity of HuRVA G2P[4] strains collected in the state of So Paulo (SP) from 1994 and 2006-2010 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Forty (97.6%) G2P[4] strains displayed genotype E2; one strain (2.4%) displayed genotype E1. These results are consistent with the proposed linkage between VP4/VP7 (G2P[4]) and the NSP4 (E2) genotype of HuRVA. NSP4 phylogenetic analysis showed distinct clusters, with grouping of most strains by their genotype and collection year, and most strains from SP were clustered together with strains from other Brazilian states. A deduced amino acid sequence alignment for E2 showed many variations in the C-terminal region, including the VP4-binding domain. Considering the ability of NSP4 to generate host immunity, monitoring NSP4 variations, along with those in the VP4 or VP7 protein, is important for evaluating the circulation and pathogenesis of RV. Finally, the presence of one G2P[4]E1 strain reinforces the idea that new genotype combinations emerge through reassortment and independent segregation. PMID:26517658

  5. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhongwei; Shi, Fachao; Jiang, Hongmei; Roberts, Daniel P; Chen, Sanfeng; Fan, Bingquan

    2015-12-01

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere, as the overapplication of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in China that had been exposed to excessive application of phosphatic fertilizer for decades. Each isolate excreted a number of organic acids into, acidified, and solubilized phosphorus in a synthetic broth containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate or rock phosphate. Isolate P4, applied as a seed treatment, increased maize fresh mass per plant when rock phosphate was added to the calcareous soil in greenhouse pot studies. Isolate P85 did not increase maize fresh mass per plant but did significantly increase total phosphorus per plant when rock phosphate was added. Significant increases in 7 and 4 organic acids were detected in soil in association with isolates P4 and P85, respectively, relative to the soil-only control. The quantity and (or) number of organic acids produced by these isolates increased when rock phosphate was added to the soil. Both isolates also significantly increased available phosphorus in soil in the presence of added rock phosphate and effectively colonized the maize rhizosphere. Studies reported here indicate that isolate P4 is adapted to and capable of promoting maize growth in a calcareous soil. Plant-growth promotion by this isolate is likely due, at least in part, to increased phosphorus availability resulting from the excretion of organic acids into, and the resulting acidification of, this soil. PMID:26469739

  6. Molecular characterisation of the NSP4 gene of group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains circulating in So Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 and 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Jssica Wildgrube; Fregolente, Maria Clara Duarte; Caruzo, Thabata Alessandra Ramos; Silva, Mrcio Jos da; Munford, Veridiana; Sfadi, Marco Aurlio Palazzi; Rcz, Maria Lucia; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari

    2015-09-01

    Group A human rotaviruses (HuRVA) are causative agents of acute gastroenteritis. Six viral structural proteins (VPs) and six nonstructural proteins (NSPs) are produced in RV-infected cells. NSP4 is a diarrhoea-inducing viral enterotoxin and NSP4 gene analysis revealed at least 15 (E1-E15) genotypes. This study analysed the NSP4 genetic diversity of HuRVA G2P[4] strains collected in the state of So Paulo (SP) from 1994 and 2006-2010 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Forty (97.6%) G2P[4] strains displayed genotype E2; one strain (2.4%) displayed genotype E1. These results are consistent with the proposed linkage between VP4/VP7 (G2P[4]) and the NSP4 (E2) genotype of HuRVA. NSP4 phylogenetic analysis showed distinct clusters, with grouping of most strains by their genotype and collection year, and most strains from SP were clustered together with strains from other Brazilian states. A deduced amino acid sequence alignment for E2 showed many variations in the C-terminal region, including the VP4-binding domain. Considering the ability of NSP4 to generate host immunity, monitoring NSP4 variations, along with those in the VP4 or VP7 protein, is important for evaluating the circulation and pathogenesis of RV. Finally, the presence of one G2P[4]E1 strain reinforces the idea that new genotype combinations emerge through reassortment and independent segregation. PMID:26517658

  7. Influence of MHC class I and II haplotypes on the experimental infection of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques with SHIVSF162P4cy.

    PubMed

    Borsetti, A; Maggiorella, M T; Sernicola, L; Bellino, S; Ferrantelli, F; Belli, R; Fulgenzi, D; Mee, E T; Rose, N J; Cafaro, A; Ensoli, B; Titti, F

    2012-07-01

    Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM) are widely used in human immunodeficiency virus research because of their restricted major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity which provides the opportunity to address the influence of host factors on vaccine studies. We herein report the impact of MHC haplotype on the outcome of 21 MCM infections with the CCR5-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)(SF162P4cy). MCM were susceptible to SHIV(SF162P4cy) infection as shown by viremia and loss of CD4+ T cells. A significant association between haplotype M7 (class IA, IB, II) and persistent viremia was observed in chronic phase, whereas recombinant class IA haplotype was associated with a reduction of viral RNA during acute infection. Class IB M4 haplotype displayed significantly lower acute phase provirus copy numbers. In addition, statistical analysis indicated a detrimental effect of haplotype M4 (class IA, IB) on the course of infection as indicated by lower CD4+ T-cell levels during chronic infection. A decrease in post-acute phase CD4+ T-cell numbers was also observed in haplotype M2 animals. This is the first report that documents the effects of host MHC class I and II molecules on the SHIV(SF162P4cy) infection in MCM, particularly with regard to the association between recombinant class IA, M4, and M7 haplotypes and the dynamic of viral replication and level of CD4+ T cells. PMID:22494179

  8. Direct imaging of structural heterogeneity of the melt-spun Fe85.2Si2B8P4Cu0.8 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuhisa; Takenaka, Kana; Makino, Akihiro; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-01

    A structural heterogeneity of the melt-spun Fe85.2Si2B8P4Cu0.8 alloy has been studied by spherical aberration (Cs) corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Hollow-cone illumination imaging revealed that the density of coherent scattering regions in the as-quenched Fe85.2Si2B8P4Cu0.8 alloy is much higher than that in the Fe76Si9B10P5 bulk metallic glass. According to the Cs-corrected TEM, crystalline atomic clusters, typically of 1 nm in diameter, are densely distributed in an amorphous matrix of Fe85.2Si2B8P4Cu0.8 alloy. Observation of four-fold and six-fold atomic arrangements of these clusters implies existence of Fe clusters with the body centered cubic structure. These Fe clusters must be responsible for the formation of ultrahigh-density ?-Fe nanocrystals produced by post-annealing.

  9. Aligned silicon nanofins via the directed self-assembly of PS-b-P4VP block copolymer and metal oxide enhanced pattern transfer.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Cian; Gangnaik, Anushka; Kelly, Roisin A; Borah, Dipu; O'Connell, John; Petkov, Nikolay; Georgiev, Yordan M; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A

    2015-04-21

    'Directing' block copolymer (BCP) patterns is a possible option for future semiconductor device patterning, but pattern transfer of BCP masks is somewhat hindered by the inherently low etch contrast between blocks. Here, we demonstrate a 'fab' friendly methodology for forming well-registered and aligned silicon (Si) nanofins following pattern transfer of robust metal oxide nanowire masks through the directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs. A cylindrical forming poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) BCP was employed producing 'fingerprint' line patterns over macroscopic areas following solvent vapor annealing treatment. The directed assembly of PS-b-P4VP line patterns was enabled by electron-beam lithographically defined hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) gratings. We developed metal oxide nanowire features using PS-b-P4VP structures which facilitated high quality pattern transfer to the underlying Si substrate. This work highlights the precision at which long range ordered ?10 nm Si nanofin features with 32 nm pitch can be defined using a cylindrical BCP system for nanolithography application. The results show promise for future nanocircuitry fabrication to access sub-16 nm critical dimensions using cylindrical systems as surface interfaces are easier to tailor than lamellar systems. Additionally, the work helps to demonstrate the extension of these methods to a 'high ?' BCP beyond the size limitations of the more well-studied PS-b-poly(methyl methylacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) system. PMID:25798892

  10. Structure determination, electronic and optical properties of NaGe 2P 3O 12 and Cs 2GeP 4O 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dan; Xie, Zhi; Hu, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Wei-long; Yang, Song-Lin; Cheng, Wen-Dan

    2009-03-01

    Two alkali-metal germanium phosphates, namely, NaGe 2P 3O 12 and Cs 2GeP 4O 13, have been synthesized by the solid-state reactions and their structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of NaGe 2P 3O 12 features a Nasicon-type structure, crystallizing in space group R3¯ with a = 8.109(2), c = 21.536(8) (Å), V = 1226.3(6) Å 3, Z = 6, R1 = 0.0383 and ωR = 0.0960; Cs 2GeP 4O 13 crystallizes in triclinic space group P1¯ with a = 9.420(3), b = 10.209(4), c = 12.407(4) (Å), α = 104.136(6), β = 108.132(5), γ = 95.338(6)°, V = 1081.0(7) Å 3, Z = 2, R1 = 0.0445 and ωR = 0.1117. Additionally, the calculations of band structure and density of states were performed with the density functional theory method for the title compounds. The results show that the solid-state compounds of NaGe 2P 3O 12 and Cs 2GeP 4O 13 are insulator with indirect band-gap of 3.529 and 3.888 eV, respectively.

  11. Analyses of pion-nucleon elastic scattering amplitudes up to O(p4) in the extended-on-mass-shell subtraction scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun-Hua; Yao, De-Liang; Zheng, H. Q.

    2013-03-01

    We extend the analysis of elastic pion-nucleon scattering up to O(p4) level using the extended-on-mass-shell subtraction scheme within the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Numerical fits to partial wave phase shift data up to s=1.13GeV are performed to pin down the free low energy constants. A good description of the existing phase shift data is achieved. We find a good convergence for the chiral series at O(p4), considerably improved with respect to the O(p3)-level analyses found in previous literature. Also, the leading order contribution from explicit ?(1232) resonance and partially-included ?(1232) loop contribution are included to describe the phase shift data up to s=1.20GeV. As phenomenological applications, we investigate chiral corrections to the Goldberger-Treiman relation and find that it converges rapidly, and the O(p3) correction is found to be very small: ?0.2%. We also get a reasonable prediction of the pion-nucleon sigma term ??N up to O(p4) by performing fits including both the pion-nucleon partial wave phase shift data and the lattice QCD data. We report that ??N=527MeV from the fit without ?(1232), and ??N=456MeV from the fit with explicit ?(1232).

  12. Aligned silicon nanofins via the directed self-assembly of PS-b-P4VP block copolymer and metal oxide enhanced pattern transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Cian; Gangnaik, Anushka; Kelly, Roisin A.; Borah, Dipu; O'Connell, John; Petkov, Nikolay; Georgiev, Yordan M.; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    `Directing' block copolymer (BCP) patterns is a possible option for future semiconductor device patterning, but pattern transfer of BCP masks is somewhat hindered by the inherently low etch contrast between blocks. Here, we demonstrate a `fab' friendly methodology for forming well-registered and aligned silicon (Si) nanofins following pattern transfer of robust metal oxide nanowire masks through the directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs. A cylindrical forming poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) BCP was employed producing `fingerprint' line patterns over macroscopic areas following solvent vapor annealing treatment. The directed assembly of PS-b-P4VP line patterns was enabled by electron-beam lithographically defined hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) gratings. We developed metal oxide nanowire features using PS-b-P4VP structures which facilitated high quality pattern transfer to the underlying Si substrate. This work highlights the precision at which long range ordered ~10 nm Si nanofin features with 32 nm pitch can be defined using a cylindrical BCP system for nanolithography application. The results show promise for future nanocircuitry fabrication to access sub-16 nm critical dimensions using cylindrical systems as surface interfaces are easier to tailor than lamellar systems. Additionally, the work helps to demonstrate the extension of these methods to a `high ?' BCP beyond the size limitations of the more well-studied PS-b-poly(methyl methylacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) system.`Directing' block copolymer (BCP) patterns is a possible option for future semiconductor device patterning, but pattern transfer of BCP masks is somewhat hindered by the inherently low etch contrast between blocks. Here, we demonstrate a `fab' friendly methodology for forming well-registered and aligned silicon (Si) nanofins following pattern transfer of robust metal oxide nanowire masks through the directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs. A cylindrical forming poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) BCP was employed producing `fingerprint' line patterns over macroscopic areas following solvent vapor annealing treatment. The directed assembly of PS-b-P4VP line patterns was enabled by electron-beam lithographically defined hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) gratings. We developed metal oxide nanowire features using PS-b-P4VP structures which facilitated high quality pattern transfer to the underlying Si substrate. This work highlights the precision at which long range ordered ~10 nm Si nanofin features with 32 nm pitch can be defined using a cylindrical BCP system for nanolithography application. The results show promise for future nanocircuitry fabrication to access sub-16 nm critical dimensions using cylindrical systems as surface interfaces are easier to tailor than lamellar systems. Additionally, the work helps to demonstrate the extension of these methods to a `high ?' BCP beyond the size limitations of the more well-studied PS-b-poly(methyl methylacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) system. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07679f

  13. Detection of inflamed atherosclerotic lesions with diadenosine-5?,5?-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and positron-emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Elmaleh, D. R.; Fischman, A. J.; Tawakol, A.; Zhu, A.; Shoup, T. M.; Hoffmann, U.; Brownell, A.-L.; Zamecnik, P. C.

    2006-01-01

    Diadenosine-5?,5?-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and its analog P2,P3-monochloromethylene diadenosine-5?,5?-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (AppCHClppA) are competitive inhibitors of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, which plays a central role in arterial thrombosis and plaque formation. In this study, we evaluate the imaging capabilities of positron-emission tomography (PET) with P2,P3-[18F]monofluoromethylene diadenosine-5?,5?-P1,P4-tetraphosphate ([18F]AppCHFppA) to detect atherosclerotic lesions in male New Zealand White rabbits. Three to six months after balloon injury to the aorta, the rabbits were injected with [18F]AppCHFppA, and microPET imaging showed rapid accumulation of this radiopharmaceutical in the atherosclerotic abdominal aorta, with lesions clearly visible 30 min after injection. Computed tomographic images were coregistered with PET images to improve delineation of aortoiliac tracer activity. Plaque macrophage density, quantified by immunostaining with RAM11 against rabbit macrophages, correlated with PET measurements of [18F]AppCHFppA uptake (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001), whereas smooth-muscle cell density, quantified by immunostaining with 1A4 against smooth muscle actin, did not. Biodistribution studies of [18F]AppCHFppA in normal rats indicated typical adenosine dinucleotide behavior with insignificant myocardial uptake and fast kidney clearance. The accumulation of [18F]AppCHFppA in macrophage-rich atherosclerotic plaques can be quantified noninvasively with PET. Hence, [18F]AppCHFppA holds promise for the noninvasive characterization of vascular inflammation. PMID:17038498

  14. Whole genome analysis of Vietnamese G2P[4] rotavirus strains possessing the NSP2 gene sharing an ancestral sequence with Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Do, Loan Phuong; Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Gauchan, Punita; Kaneko, Miho; Agbemabiese, Chantal; Dang, Anh Duc; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Because imminent introduction into Vietnam of a vaccine against Rotavirus A is anticipated, baseline information on the whole genome of representative strains is needed to understand changes in circulating strains that may occur after vaccine introduction. In this study, the whole genomes of two G2P[4] strains detected in Nha Trang, Vietnam in 2008 were sequenced, this being the last period during which virtually no rotavirus vaccine was used in this country. The two strains were found to be >99.9% identical in sequence and had a typical DS-1 like G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation. Analysis of the Vietnamese strains with >184 G2P[4] strains retrieved from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ DNA databases placed the Vietnamese strains in one of the lineages commonly found among contemporary strains, with the exception of the NSP2 and NSP4 genes. The NSP2 genes were found to belong to a previously undescribed lineage that diverged from Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains, including a Chinese rotavirus vaccine strain LLR with 95% nucleotide identity; the time of their most recent common ancestor was 1975. The NSP4 genes were found to belong, together with Thai and USA strains, to an emergent lineage (VIII), adding further diversity to ever diversifying NSP4 lineages. Thus, there is a need to enhance surveillance of locally-circulating strains from both children and animals at the whole genome level to address the effect of rotavirus vaccines on changing strain distribution. PMID:26382233

  15. Specific mutations in mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 catalytic subunit entail differential glycosylation of the accessory CDC50A subunit.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Anna L; Mikkelsen, Stine A; Coleman, Jonathan A; Molday, Robert S; Vilsen, Bente; Andersen, Jens Peter

    2015-12-21

    P4-ATPases, or flippases, translocate phospholipids between the two leaflets of eukaryotic biological membranes. They are essential to the physiologically crucial phospholipid asymmetry and involved in severe diseases, but their molecular structure and mechanism are still unresolved. Here, we show that in an extensive mutational alanine screening of the mammalian flippase ATP8A2 catalytic subunit, five mutations stand out by leading to reduced glycosylation of the accessory subunit CDC50A. These mutations may disturb the interaction between the subunits. PMID:26592152

  16. WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-20

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  17. An examination of the consistency of the published levels of the p2, p3 and p4 isoelectronic sequences using jj-relativistic expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Julio C.; Di Rocco, Hctor O.

    2014-12-01

    We check the consistency of the known energy levels of the p2, p3 and p4 isoelectronic sequences tabulated at the NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Database. We used a screening parameter formulation using the Slater integrals arising from the jj-coupling relativistic expressions for the matrix elements. The general conclusion is that the use of the screening parameters is very adequate to check the consistency of level values along their isoelectronic sequences, more suitable than comparison of Slater integrals or other criteria, such as the widely used difference between theoretical and observed values.

  18. Simulation of 3He(d,p) 4He reaction and recent results of the experimental investigation of dp breakup reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janek, M.; Kurilkin, P. K.; Tarjanyiova, G.; Ladygin, V. P.; Gurchin, Yu V.; Isupov, A. Yu; Karachuk, J.-T.; Khrenov, A. N.; Kurilkin, A. K.; Livanov, A. N.; Martinska, G.; Piyadin, S. M.; Reznikov, S. G.; Merts, S. P.; Batyuk, P. N.; Terekhin, A. A.; Vnukov, I. E.

    2016-02-01

    The feasibility study for the measurements of the polarization observables in the 3He(d,p) 4He reaction for DSS project using a part of the BM@N setup have been performed. Deuteron beam with energy of 1.5 GeV, magnet, 12 stations GEM tracker and TOF wall were used in simulations in order to obtain momentum resolution and to prove the separation of the secondary protons and deuterons. Summarized results of the dp breakup reactions with detection of two protons in coincidence for some kinematic configurations at energies from 300 to 500 MeV obtained in Nuclotron are presented.

  19. Highly sensitive self-mixing measurement of Brillouin scattering with a laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP(4)O(12) laser.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, K; Kawai, R; Asakawa, Y; Fukazawa, T

    1999-12-15

    Brillouin scattering has been measured with a high degree of sensitivity by a system built around a laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP(4)O(12) laser. An efficient self-mixing modulation effect that is due to the interference between a lasing field and a weak field fed back from an acousto-optic modulator by means of a phase-conjugate reflection was used. Laser-Doppler velocimetry that can discriminate the direction of motion has been demonstrated. PMID:18079956

  20. DCT-based algorithm to remove vertical stripings from Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) data in Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Santosh Kumar; Dube, Nitant; Ramakrishnan, R.

    2006-12-01

    IRS-P4(Oceansat-1) is the first in the series of Indian operational ocean remote sensing satellites. The payloads of this mission are tailored for making measurements of the physical and biological oceanographic parameters. IRS-P4 contains two sensors, namely Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and MSMR. OCM has 8-bands, in which first band, intermittently shows vertical stripings in the raw data. An algorithm based on Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT), is proposed here to model these vertical stripings. Some of the basis function of the DCT has very high degree of similarity with the vertical strips. This work elliminates the vertical strips present in the image by modelling the appropriate coefficients of the basis functions. Results of our work shows that the approach followed by us is effective in removing the vertical strips. To avoid the computational overheads of application of this algorithm on large image, we have divided the image into smaller blocks, the issues of block based processing in frequency domain has been taken care by handling the boundary conditions by means of smoothening.

  1. Combined Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies the P3/P4 Transition as a Key Stage in Rice Leaf Photosynthetic Development.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Julia C; Yaapar, Muhammad N; Narawatthana, Supatthra; Lehmeier, Christoph; Wanchana, Samart; Thakur, Vivek; Chater, Caspar; Kelly, Steve; Rolfe, Stephen A; Quick, W Paul; Fleming, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Leaves are derived from heterotrophic meristem tissue that, at some point, must make the transition to autotrophy via the initiation of photosynthesis. However, the timing and spatial coordination of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning this switch are poorly characterized. Here, we report on the identification of a specific stage in rice (Oryza sativa) leaf development (P3/P4 transition) when photosynthetic competence is first established. Using a combined physiological and molecular approach, we show that elements of stomatal and vascular differentiation are coordinated with the onset of measurable light absorption for photosynthesis. Moreover, by exploring the response of the system to environmental perturbation, we show that the earliest stages of rice leaf development have significant plasticity with respect to elements of cellular differentiation of relevance for mature leaf photosynthetic performance. Finally, by performing an RNA sequencing analysis targeted at the early stages of rice leaf development, we uncover a palette of genes whose expression likely underpins the acquisition of photosynthetic capability. Our results identify the P3/P4 transition as a highly dynamic stage in rice leaf development when several processes for the initiation of photosynthetic competence are coordinated. As well as identifying gene targets for future manipulation of rice leaf structure/function, our data highlight a developmental window during which such manipulations are likely to be most effective. PMID:26813793

  2. Kinetics of activation of the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hoggett, J G; Brierley, I

    1992-01-01

    The activation of transcription initiation from the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) has been investigated using a fluorescence abortive initiation assay. The effect of the cyclic-AMP/CRP complex on the linear P4 promoter was to increase the initial binding (KB) of RNA polymerase to the promoter by about a factor of 10, but the rate of isomerization of closed to open complex (kf) was unaffected. One molecule of CRP per promoter was required for activation, and the concentration of cyclic AMP producing half-maximal stimulation was about 7-8 microM. Supercoiling caused a 2-3-fold increase in the rate of isomerization of the CRP-activated promoter, but weakened the initial binding of polymerase by about one order of magnitude. The unactivated supercoiled promoter was too weak to allow reliable assessment of kinetic parameters against the high background rate originating from the rest of the plasmid. PMID:1445251

  3. Kinetics of activation of the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Hoggett, J G; Brierley, I

    1992-11-01

    The activation of transcription initiation from the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) has been investigated using a fluorescence abortive initiation assay. The effect of the cyclic-AMP/CRP complex on the linear P4 promoter was to increase the initial binding (KB) of RNA polymerase to the promoter by about a factor of 10, but the rate of isomerization of closed to open complex (kf) was unaffected. One molecule of CRP per promoter was required for activation, and the concentration of cyclic AMP producing half-maximal stimulation was about 7-8 microM. Supercoiling caused a 2-3-fold increase in the rate of isomerization of the CRP-activated promoter, but weakened the initial binding of polymerase by about one order of magnitude. The unactivated supercoiled promoter was too weak to allow reliable assessment of kinetic parameters against the high background rate originating from the rest of the plasmid. PMID:1445251

  4. Structural and mechanistic basis of anti-termination of Rho-dependent transcription termination by bacteriophage P4 capsid protein Psu

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Amitabh; Sharma, Savita; Banerjee, Ramanuj; Sen, Udayaditya; Sen, Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    The conserved bacterial transcription terminator, Rho, is a potent target for bactericidal agents. Psu, a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein, is capable of inducing anti-termination to the Rho-dependent transcription termination. Knowledge of structural and mechanistic basis of this anti-termination is required to design peptide-inhibitor(s) of Rho from Psu. Using suppressor genetics, cross-linking, protein foot-printing and FRET analyses, we describe a conserved disordered structure, encompassing 139–153 amino acids of Rho, as the primary docking site for Psu. Also a neighbouring helical structure, comprising 347–354 amino acids, lining its central channel, plays a supportive role in the Rho–Psu complex formation. Based on the crystal structure of Psu, its conformation in the capsid of the P4 phage, and its interacting regions on Rho, we build an energy-minimized structural model of the Rho:Psu complex. In this model, a V-shaped dimer of Psu interacts with the two diagonally opposite subunits of a hexameric Rho, enabling Psu to form a ‘lid’ on the central channel of the latter. We show that this configuration of Psu makes the central channel of Rho inaccessible, and it causes a mechanical impediment to its translocase activity. PMID:23703205

  5. Artificial neural network (ANN)-based simultaneous inversion of optically active ocean-colour variables from IRS-P4 OCM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Prakash; Nagamani, P. V.; Dwivedi, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) based procedure is developed to estimate concentrations of Chlorophyll-a, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and absorption due to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the seawater from satellite detected normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) of the IRS-P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) satellite data. An ocean colour reflectance model was used to generate surface spectral reflectance corresponding to first five bands of IRS-P4 OCM sensor, using three optically active oceanic water constituents as inputs. ANN model making use of reflectance in five visible bands was trained, tested and validated to invert the spectral reflectance for the simultaneous estimation of three optically active constituents. The retrieved chlorophyll-a concentrations from ANN based algorithm were compared with the corresponding chlorophyll-a distribution obtained by global empirical algorithms e.g. Ocean Chlorophyll-4 (OC4) algorithm. ANN derived chlorophyll-a estimates were found to have reduced the over estimation in coastal waters often observed with the use of band ratio algorithms.

  6. Mutual influence between contiguous TMPyP4 ligands when bound to a synthetic double-stranded Poly(A)-Poly(U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstykh, G.; Kudrev, A.

    2015-10-01

    The cooperativity of TMPyP4 ligand binding to Poly(A)-Poly(U) polynucleotide were monitored in this study by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. To solve the equilibrium binding model between a dye and substrate, a new computational approach has been proposed based collectively on Principal Component Analysis and the conditional probabilities method. This approach suggest that the absorbance and fluorescence variance during a titration is determined by spectral species formed in stepwise saturation of binding sites on Poly(A)-Poly(U) with porphyrin and a conformational changes on a macromolecule. Spectral species assigned to different forms of polymer-ligand complexes whose existences in equilibrium were postulated by the conditional probabilities method. The binding of TMPyP4 molecule to the Poly(A)-Poly(U) enhances the binding of additional molecules to that same receptor. The intrinsic binding constant to an isolated binding site lgKin = 6.4, the cooperativity parameter ω = 5.0, and number of monomers occupied by a ligand n = 2 (25 °C; pH 7) were calculated based upon the non-linear least-squares fitting procedure.

  7. Combined Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies the P3/P4 Transition as a Key Stage in Rice Leaf Photosynthetic Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yaapar, Muhammad N.; Wanchana, Samart; Thakur, Vivek; Quick, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Leaves are derived from heterotrophic meristem tissue that, at some point, must make the transition to autotrophy via the initiation of photosynthesis. However, the timing and spatial coordination of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning this switch are poorly characterized. Here, we report on the identification of a specific stage in rice (Oryza sativa) leaf development (P3/P4 transition) when photosynthetic competence is first established. Using a combined physiological and molecular approach, we show that elements of stomatal and vascular differentiation are coordinated with the onset of measurable light absorption for photosynthesis. Moreover, by exploring the response of the system to environmental perturbation, we show that the earliest stages of rice leaf development have significant plasticity with respect to elements of cellular differentiation of relevance for mature leaf photosynthetic performance. Finally, by performing an RNA sequencing analysis targeted at the early stages of rice leaf development, we uncover a palette of genes whose expression likely underpins the acquisition of photosynthetic capability. Our results identify the P3/P4 transition as a highly dynamic stage in rice leaf development when several processes for the initiation of photosynthetic competence are coordinated. As well as identifying gene targets for future manipulation of rice leaf structure/function, our data highlight a developmental window during which such manipulations are likely to be most effective. PMID:26813793

  8. The different biological effects of telomestatin and TMPyP4 can be attributed to their selectivity for interaction with intramolecular or intermolecular G-quadruplex structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mu-Yong; Gleason-Guzman, Mary; Izbicka, Elzbieta; Nishioka, David; Hurley, Laurence H

    2003-06-15

    Demonstration of the existence of G-quadruplex structures in telomeres of Stylonychia macronuclei and in the promoter of c-myc in human cells has validated these secondary DNA structures as potential targets for drug design. The next important issue is the selectivity of G-quadruplex-interactive agents for the different types of G-quadruplex structures. In this study, we have taken an important step in associating specific biological effects of these drugs with selective interaction with either intermolecular or intramolecular G-quadruplex structures formed in telomeres. Telomestatin is a natural product isolated from Streptomyces anulatus 3533-SV4 and has been shown to be a very potent telomerase inhibitor through its G-quadruplex interaction. We have demonstrated that telomestatin interacts preferentially with intramolecular versus intermolecular G-quadruplex structures and also has a 70-fold selectivity for intramolecular G-quadruplex structures over duplex DNA. Telomestatin is able to stabilize G-quadruplex structures that are formed from duplex human telomeric DNA as well as from single-stranded DNA. Importantly, telomestatin stabilizes these G-quadruplex structures in the absence of monovalent cations, which is a unique characteristic among G-quadruplex-interactive compounds. At noncytotoxic concentrations, telomestatin suppresses the proliferation of telomerase-positive cells within several weeks. In contrast, TMPyP4, a compound that preferentially facilitates the formation of intermolecular G-quadruplex structures, suppresses the proliferation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)-positive cells as well as telomerase-positive cells. We have also demonstrated that TMPyP4 induces anaphase bridges in sea urchin embryos, whereas telomestatin did not have this effect, leading us to conclude that the selectivity of telomestatin for intramolecular G-quadruplex structures and TMPyP4 for intermolecular G-quadruplex structures is important in mediating different biological effects: stabilization of intramolecular G-quadruplex structures produces telomerase inhibition and accelerated telomere shortening, whereas facilitation of the formation of intermolecular G-quadruplex structures induces the formation of anaphase bridges. PMID:12810655

  9. Higher-order dipole-polarizabilities and intermolecular interaction potential of P 4 clusters obtained from collision-induced light scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Uwe

    1999-09-01

    Collision-induced light scattering spectra of phosphorus vapour measured at 1000 K and density 132 mol m -3 are used to deduce a Lennard-Jones type (15-6) intermolecular interaction potential U( R), the dipole-quadrupole polarizability A, and dipole-octopole polarizability E of P 4 clusters. Using a recent experimental value of the dipole-dipole polarizability ?0=14.4210 -30 m 3 at ?=514.5 nm, the experimentally recorded depolarized interaction-induced Raman spectra are best fitted with ?=4.410 -10 m, ?/ k=700 K, A=(62)10 -40 m 4, and | E|=(12717)10 -50 m 5. The analysis is hampered by the existence of the ?3- ?2 vibrational combination band at 98 cm -1.

  10. The production cross-sections for the process e- (p1)e+ (p2) --> ?~i0 (p3)??j0 (p4)H0 (p5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, M. A.; Nous, M. H.; Ahmed, M. M.; Doaa, M. H.

    2007-02-01

    The cross-sections for the process: e- (p1)e+ (p2) ? ?i0(p3)??j0(p4)Hl0(p5) Have been calculated for all different situations, which are (1520) situations. Three different groups of Feynman diagrams are taken into account a- Production of Hl0 from different propagators (from 1-752 Feynman diagrams), b- Production of Hl0 from different legs when Z0 is the propagator (from 753-944 Feynman diagrams), c- Production of Hl0 from different legs when H0 is the propagator (from 945-1520 Feynman diagrams). The values of the cross-sections have been calculated for different incident energy (S) which ranges from 500 to 2000 GeV and for different Higgs' masses. The most probable mechanisms for such reaction are determined.

  11. The First Structure of Polarity Suppression Protein, Psu from Enterobacteria Phage P4, Reveals a Novel Fold and a Knotted Dimer*

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ramanuj; Nath, Seema; Ranjan, Amitabh; Khamrui, Susmita; Pani, Bibhusita; Sen, Ranjan; Sen, Udayaditya

    2012-01-01

    Psu is a capsid decoration protein of bacteriophage P4 and acts as an antiterminator of Rho-dependent transcription termination in bacteria. So far, no structures have been reported for the Psu protein or its homologues. Here, we report the first structure of Psu solved by the Hg2+ single wavelength anomalous dispersion method, which reveals that Psu exists as a knotted homodimer and is first of its kind in nature. Each monomer of Psu attains a novel fold around a tight coiled-coil motif. CD spectroscopy and the structure of an engineered disulfide-bridged Psu derivative reveal that the protein folds reversibly and reassembles by itself into the knotted dimeric conformation without the requirement of any chaperone. This structure would help to explain the functional properties of the protein and can be used as a template to design a minimal peptide fragment that can be used as a drug against Rho-dependent transcription termination in bacteria. PMID:23150672

  12. X-ray luminescence properties of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 nanocrystals: Concentration and size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, L.; Tomala, R.; Guyot, Y.; Moretti, F.; Hreniak, D.; Strek, W.

    2015-12-01

    X-ray luminescence properties of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 nanocrystals were investigated for the first time. The influence of the Nd3+ concentration on the integral emission intensities in visible and near infrared emission region were investigated. It was found that emission from 2F(2)5/2 is strongly affected by cross-relaxation process and its intensity decreases exponentially with Nd3+ amount, while emission from 4F7/2 + 4S3/2, 4F5/2 + 2H11/2, and 4F3/2 states rises up sublinearly with Nd3+ concentration. The size effect on emission spectra under X-ray excitation was presented.

  13. Ab initio many-body calculations of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

    2012-01-27

    We apply the ab initio no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method approach to calculate the cross sections of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions. These are important reactions for the big bang nucleosynthesis and the future of energy generation on Earth. Starting from a selected similarity-transformed chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction that accurately describes two-nucleon data, we performed many-body calculations that predict the S factor of both reactions. Virtual three-body breakup effects are obtained by including excited pseudostates of the deuteron in the calculation. Our results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data and pave the way for microscopic investigations of polarization and electron-screening effects, of the (3)H(d,γn)(4)He bremsstrahlung and other reactions relevant to fusion research. PMID:22400830

  14. Biological and molecular properties of a pathotype P-1 and a pathotype P-4 isolate of pea seed-borne mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Johansen, I E; Keller, K E; Dougherty, W G; Hampton, R O

    1996-06-01

    Two isolates of pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus, DPD1 and NY, were identified as pathotypes P-1 and P-4, respectively, by their infectivity on Pisum sativum L. lines homozygous for the recessive resistance genes sbm-1 and sbm-4. The two isolates differed in several biological characteristics. DPD1 induced transient vein clearing, downward rolling of leaflets and internode shortening on P. sativum, whereas NY only caused a slight growth reduction. DPD1 moved systemically in Chenopodium quinoa whereas NY was restricted to inoculated leaves. DPD1 was frequently transmitted by seeds whereas NY was rarely seed-transmitted: 24% and 0.3%, respectively, in P. sativum '549'. Both DPD1 and NY were transmitted by aphids (Myzus persicae), though a DAG triplet was not present in the N terminus of the coat protein. The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of NY were determined and compared to the corresponding sequences of DPD1. PMID:8683223

  15. High Resolution Polarization Analysis of the Fluorescence from Ar+[3P]4p 2Po3/2 Formed in Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenen, O.; McLaughlin, K. W.; Jaecks, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    Using high resolution intensity and polarization measurements of radiation from the [3P]4p 2Po3/2 excited state of Ar+ formed by linearly polarized synchrotron radiation, one can trace how the one unit of angular momentum brought by the ionizing photon is shared between the bound state electrons and the photoelectron. A measured sharp change in polarization from 25% to -25% over a 7-8 meV energy interval of the ionizing radiation results from variations in the partial cross sections of the \\|mj\\| = 1/2 and 3/2 magnetic substates and is the signature of a rapid oscillation of the excited ionic charge cloud from prolate to oblate spheroid.

  16. A diadenosine 5',5''-P1P4 tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase from Arabidopsis thaliana that is activated preferentially by Mn2+ ions.

    PubMed

    Szurmak, Blanka; Wys?ouch-Cieszy?ska, Aleksandra; Wszelaka-Rylik, Ma?gorzata; Bal, Wojciech; Dobrza?ska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetrical diadenosine 5',5''-P(1)P(4) tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) hydrolases are key enzymes controlling the in vivo concentration of Ap(4)A--an important signaling molecule involved in regulation of DNA replication and repair, signaling in stress response and apoptosis. Sequence homologies indicate that the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains at least three open reading frames encoding presumptive Ap(4)A hydrolases: At1g30110, At3g10620, and At5g06340. In this work we present efficient overexpression and detailed biochemical characteristics of the AtNUDX25 protein encoded by the At1g30110 gene. Aided by the determination of the binding constants of Mn(Ap(4)A) and Mg(Ap(4)A) complexes using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) we show that AtNUDX25 preferentially hydrolyzes Ap(4)A in the form of a Mn(2+) complex. PMID:18345354

  17. 3D Modeling of dengue virus NS4B and Chikungunya virus nsP4: identification of a common drug target and designing a single antiviral inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Satheesh, Garisekurthi; Prabhu, Nagu P; Venkataramana, Musturi

    2014-01-01

    Dengue and chikungunya virus infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These two viruses belong to two different families with many similarities and dissimilarities. Both are enveloped viruses and the mode of transmission is also by the same mosquito species. Especially in case of symptom expression, there is confusion between these two viruses. Reports indicate the overlapping endemic areas and co-infections of both viruses in a single patient. The above factors indicate that there is a need for developing a single drug/vaccine for both the viruses. As a first report in this direction, we have used the bioinformatics tools to identify a common target in both the viruses for a single inhibitor molecule. Phylogenetic and distance based analyses using the nucleotide sequences of arthropod and non-arthropod borne viruses indicated a common origin of evolutionary point for mosquito borne viruses, irrespective of their families. Similarly, the amino acid sequences of non-structural protein-4B (NS4B) of dengue virus and non-structural protein-P4 (nsP4) of chikungunya virus showed a common evolutionary origin. Modeled and superimposed 3D-structures of above two proteins showed a common alpha helix. Virtual screening of selected molecules was done to identify the molecules which can bind to the identified common helix and found that N-(p-tolylmethyl)-3-[(3-pyridylmethylamino)methyl]benzamide (TPB) has significant binding characteristics to the common helix. Molecular simulations indicated that both the protein-TPB complexes were stable. Therefore, we propose that TPB or its analogues could act as antiviral agents against both the viruses. PMID:25847003

  18. Analysis of the Vibrational Spectra of P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Adrian K.; Plant, David F.; Golding, Peter; Lawson, Michael A.; Davies, Paul B.

    2011-06-01

    The cyclic phosphazene trimer P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and the related cyclic tetramer P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8 have been proposed as the major low-to-medium temperature pyrolysis products of the parent polyphosphazene (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n. Recently, both molecules have been synthesized, isolated and their vapour-phase vibrational spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR instrument. The interpretation of these spectra is achieved primarily by comparison with the results of high-quality density functional calculations, which enable the principal absorption features to be assigned and conclusions to be drawn regarding the geometries and conformations adopted by both molecules. These in turn allow interesting comparisons to be made with analogous cyclic halo-phosphazenes such as P_3N_3Cl_6 and P_4N_4Cl_8. Work to record in situ the spectra of the vapour-phase pyrolysis products of (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n and to analyse these results in terms of the tetramer and trimer spectra will also be presented. S. V. Peddada and J. H. Magill Macromolecules 16 (1983) 1258-1264. H. R. Allcock, G. S. McDonnell, G. H. Riding, and I. Manners Chem. Mater. 2 (1990) 425-432. T. R. Manley and D. A. Williams Spectrochimica Acta 23A (1966) 149-165. V. Varma, J. R. Fernandez and C. N. R. Rao J. Mol. Struct. 198 (1989) 403-412.

  19. The P4-P2′ Amino Acids Surrounding Human Norovirus Polyprotein Cleavage Sites Define the Core Sequence Regulating Self-Processing Order

    PubMed Central

    May, Jared; Viswanathan, Prasanth; Ng, Kenneth K.-S.; Medvedev, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Noroviruses (NoV) are members of the family Caliciviridae. The human NoV open reading frame 1 (ORF1) encodes a 200-kDa polyprotein which is cleaved by the viral 20-kDa 3C-like protease (Pro, NS6) into 6 nonstructural proteins that are necessary for viral replication. The NoV ORF1 polyprotein is processed in a specific order, with “early” sites (NS1/2-3 and NS3-4) being cleaved rapidly and three “late” sites (NS4-5, NS5-6, and NS6-7) processed subsequently and less efficiently. Previously, we demonstrated that the NoV polyprotein processing order is directly correlated with the efficiency of the enzyme, which is regulated by the primary amino acid sequences surrounding ORF1 cleavage sites. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides representing the NS2-3 and NS6-7 ORF1 cleavage sites, we now demonstrate that the amino acids spanning positions P4 to P2′ (P4-P2′) surrounding each site comprise the core sequence controlling NoV protease enzyme efficiency. Furthermore, the NoV polyprotein self-processing order can be altered by interchanging this core sequence between NS2-3 and any of the three late sites in in vitro transcription-translation assays. We also demonstrate that the nature of the side chain at the P3 position for the NS1/2-3 (Nterm/NTPase) site confers significant influence on enzyme catalysis (kcat and kcat/Km), a feature overlooked in previous structural studies. Molecular modeling provides possible explanations for the P3 interactions with NoV protease. IMPORTANCE Noroviruses (NoV) are the prevailing cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide and pose a significant financial burden on health care systems. Proteolytic processing of the viral nonstructural polyprotein is required for norovirus replication. Previously, the core sequence of amino acids surrounding the scissile bonds responsible for governing the relative processing order had not been determined. Using both FRET-based peptides and full-length NoV polyprotein, we have successfully demonstrated that the core sequences spanning positions P4-P2′ surrounding the NS2-3, NS4-5, NS5-6, and NS6-7 cleavage sites contain all of the structural information necessary to control processing order. We also provide insight into a previously overlooked role for the NS2-3 P3 residue in enzyme efficiency. This article builds upon our previous studies on NoV protease enzymatic activities and polyprotein processing order. Our work provides significant additional insight into understanding viral polyprotein processing and has important implications for improving the design of inhibitors targeting the NoV protease. PMID:24991013

  20. Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus infection: CHIKV nsP4 suppresses eIF2? phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis (SINV) are arboviruses belonging to the alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family. They cause frequent epidemics of febrile illness and long-term arthralgic sequelae that affect millions of people each year. Both viruses replicate prodigiously in infected patients and in vitro in mammalian cells, suggesting some level of control over the host cellular translational machinery that senses and appropriately directs the cells fate through the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR involves BIP (or GRP78), the master sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) together with the three downstream effector branches: inositol-requiring ser/thr protein kinase/endonuclease (IRE-1), PKR-like ER resident kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6). Through careful analysis of CHIKV and SINV infections in cell culture we found that the former selectively activates ATF-6 and IRE-1 branches of UPR and suppresses the PERK pathway. By separately expressing each of the CHIKV proteins as GFP-fusion proteins, we found that non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), which is a RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, suppresses the serine-51 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor, alpha subunit (eIF2?), which in turn regulates the PERK pathway. This study provides insight into a mechanism by which CHIKV replication responds to overcome the host UPR machinery. PMID:23356742

  1. Engineering of living autologous human umbilical cord cell-based septal occluder membranes using composite PGA-P4HB matrices.

    PubMed

    Weber, Benedikt; Schoenauer, Roman; Papadopulos, Francesca; Modregger, Peter; Peter, Silvia; Stampanoni, Marco; Mauri, Arabella; Mazza, Edoardo; Gorelik, Julia; Agarkova, Irina; Frese, Laura; Breymann, Christian; Kretschmar, Oliver; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2011-12-01

    Interventional closure of intracardiac wall defects using occluder devices has evolved as a highly attractive treatment option. However, incomplete and delayed healing reactions often result in a major risk of residual defects, thromboembolism, or device fractures. Biodegradable living tissue engineered occluder membranes (TEOMs) could provide autologous thromboresistant implants with growth and remodeling capacities. PGA-P4HB composite matrices were seeded with human umbilical cord-derived cells or vascular-derived control cells and exposed to static (n = 19) or dynamic (n = 13) conditioning. Harvested TEOMs were integrated into occluder frameworks, exposed to crimping and delivered into pre-formed defects of juvenile porcine hearts. Dynamically conditioned TEOM constructs showed higher collagen formation in histology than static constructs with significantly higher stiffness moduli in uniaxial tensile testing. Grating interferometry revealed substantial but inhomogeneous cone-like degradation of the composite matrices in dynamic conditioning. The crimping and delivery procedures resulted in no significant changes in macroscopy, histo-morphology, cellular viability, DNA or hydroxyproline content, and scanning electron microscopy findings. Here, we present the in vitro fabrication, crimping and experimental delivery of living human umbilical cord-cell derived TEOMs based on composite matrices as a potential future autologous therapy of intracardiac wall defects. PMID:21978890

  2. Loss of marginal zone B-cells in SHIVSF162P4 challenged rhesus macaques despite control of viremia to low or undetectable levels in chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Thorsten; Mohanram, Venkatramanan; Musich, Thomas; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; McKinnon, Katherine M; Venzon, David; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2015-10-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells generate T-independent antibody responses to pathogens before T-dependent antibodies arise in germinal centers. They have been identified in cynomolgus monkeys and monitored during acute SIV infection, yet have not been well-studied in rhesus macaques. Here we characterized rhesus macaque MZ B cells, present in secondary lymphoid tissue but not peripheral blood, as CD19(+), CD20(+), CD21(hi), IgM(+), CD22(+), CD38(+), BTLA(+), CD40(+), CCR6(+) and BCL-2(+). Compared to healthy macaques, SHIVSF162P4-infected animals showed decreased total B cells and MZ B cells and increased MZ B cell Ki-67 expression early in chronic infection. These changes persisted in late chronic infection, despite viremia reductions to low or undetectable levels. Expression levels of additional phenotypic markers and RNA PCR array analyses were in concert with continued low-level activation and diminished function of MZ B cells. We conclude that MZ B-cell dysregulation and dysfunction associated with SIV/HIV infection are not readily reversible. PMID:26151223

  3. CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Yixing; Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R.

    2011-12-01

    The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

  4. Ab initio prediction on ferrotoroidic and electronic properties of olivine Li4MnFeCoNiP4O16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hong-Jian; Liu, Fa-Min

    2009-06-01

    First-principles calculations predict that olivine Li4MnFeCoNiP4O16 has a large toroidal moment and ferrimagnetic configuration with a magnetic moment of 1.99?B per formula unit. Density functional theory plus U (DFT + U) shows an indirect band gap of 0.65 eV in this hypothetical material. The band gap is not simply related to the electronic conductivity when it is used as cathode material in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Based on the orbital-resolved density of states for the transition-metal ions in the hypothetical material, Co, Ni and Mn are in the high-spin configuration while Fe is in the low-spin configuration, which leads to a large resulting toroidal moment deriving from the Co and Ni ions. The spin configuration of the transition-metal ions in the system breaks the space- and time-inversion symmetry and leads to the magnetoelectric property simultaneously. The ferrotoroidic domain, the fourth form of ferroic, is observed in this new material, as in the case of LiCoPO4 reported recently.

  5. Three-dimensional atom probe analysis and magnetic properties of Fe85Cu1Si2B8P4 melt spun ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, S.; Beitollahi, A.; Eftekhari Yekta, B.; Ohkubo, T.; Budinsky, Viktoria; Marsilius, Mie; Mollazadeh, S.; Herzer, Giselher; Hono, K.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of phosphorous on the microstructure and magnetic properties of as-spun and flash annealed (389-535 °C for 7 s) Fe85Cu1Si2B8P4 melt spun ribbons were investigated by three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The formation of quasi-amorphous α -Fe clusters of 3-5 nm size in an amorphous matrix were detected by HRTEM, despite the high quenching rate applied by high wheel speed used. Flash annealing of the as-spun ribbons gave rise to the formation of nanocrystalline α-Fe (Si) phase in amorphous matrix containing Fe, Si, B and P elements as detected by 3DAP. Comparing 3DAP analysis of the samples annealed at 445 °C and 535 °C revealed that the concentration of P and B in amorphous matrix were increased for the latter. Further, it was shown that P hardly solidified into nanocrystalline phase and partitioned in amorphous phase alongside B atoms leading to the further stabilization of amorphous matrix as confirmed by 3DAP analysis. The highest magnitude of saturation magnetic induction (Bs~1.85 T) and the lowest coercive field (~10-20 A/m) were obtained for the samples annealed above 445 °C, for which noticeable reduction of saturation magnetostriction (λ s) were also detected.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Victor G; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J; Roberts, Deborah J; Fox, George E

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Victor G.; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J.

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  8. Comparing Student Experiences with Story Discussions in Dialogic versus Traditional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reznitskaya, Alina; Glina, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the testimonials of 60 elementary school students about their experience during class discussions of assigned readings. They randomly assigned 12 classrooms to 2 treatments: Philosophy for Children (P4C) and Regular Instruction. P4C is an alternative educational environment that places dialogue at the center of its pedagogy.…

  9. Comparing Student Experiences with Story Discussions in Dialogic versus Traditional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reznitskaya, Alina; Glina, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the testimonials of 60 elementary school students about their experience during class discussions of assigned readings. They randomly assigned 12 classrooms to 2 treatments: Philosophy for Children (P4C) and Regular Instruction. P4C is an alternative educational environment that places dialogue at the center of its pedagogy.

  10. Identification of chlorophyll ( with application of IRS-P4 OCM data and Geographical Information System - a case study of part of Bay of Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan Dayaker, T.

    2002-05-01

    As 60 - 70 % of the world's population live within 20 - 30 km of the coastline, coastal zone management and optimisation of ocean resources have grown in of importance. The study of the ocean encompasses its physical chemical, biological properties and its interaction with land and biological productivity. Mapping of coastal zone gives us insight about how to conserve its eco-balance and implement effective coastal zone management. Effective Coastal Zone Management will need accurate and comprehensive scientific data, on which decisions can be based. In the present study Ocean Color Monitor ( OCM ) data is used for identification of chlorophyll, which inturn indicates the presence of phytoplankton, which is the primary producer in the food chain, and also to fish . The study area is part of Bay of Bengal Sea near the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Remote sensing in optical region is found useful in understanding the spatial distribution of ocean water constituents, in which phytoplankton pigment which impart a green colour to the sea water, has a definite response in the visible region, which enables plant material to be distinguished from the other suspended matter. Normalised Differential Vegetative Index ( NDVI ), which is mainly used on land applications for the identification of vegetation based on chlorophyll absorption, is used on water surface in the present study. The positive value of NDVI is an indication of the presence of pigment concentration / chlorophyll / phytoplankton / fish. The successful launch of the IRS - P4 satellite which provides us a challenging opportunity to study ocean resources and its characteristics and see how best we can benefit, over a period of time, in several areas of human survival specifically related to food security on a sustained basis. This study is first of its kind in utilising the latest technology to explore the marine resources for mapping the fishing zones and the results, clearly indicate that NDVI can be utilised as an indicator for the presence of phytoplankton on water surface.

  11. 1998-1999 Rotavirus Seasons in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Detection of an Unusual G3P[4] Epidemic Strain

    PubMed Central

    Rosa e Silva, Maria Luzia; Pires de Carvalho, In; Gouvea, Vera

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiologic survey on the rotavirus strains causing gastroenteritis in young children was conducted in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, in Southern Brazil during two consecutive seasons. Rotavirus was detected in 94 of the 1,056 fecal specimens collected from January 1998 to December 1999. Among the 13 discernible long electrophoretic profiles found, one was highly prevalent (73.4%) and represented the rotavirus strain responsible for the May-August winter epidemic outbreak of 1998, as clearly shown in a three-dimensional graph. This epidemic strain, designated JF98, was characterized as subgroup II and genotype G3P[4] by the original reverse transcription-PCR typing assays. Besides the unusual combination of G and P types, this G3 strain lacked reactivity with anti-G3-specific monoclonal antibodies and presented an uncommon pattern upon digestion of its cDNA-copied VP7 gene with the BstYI restriction enzyme. Strain JF98 affected primarily 6- to 24-month-old children and accounted for 85.5% of the severe rotavirus-associated dehydrating diarrhea cases that required hospitalization. As in our previous studies in neighboring Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo, a remarkably large proportion (44%) of mixed infections was detected, generating a complex set of circulating strains in the community, represented by the many distinct electropherotypes. Other common human types were detected as minor strains in single or in mixed infections, including the JF98 strain. Those were types G1, G4, G8, G9, P[8], and P[6], but not G2 or G5. One specimen contained a mixture of group A and C rotaviruses. PMID:12149339

  12. Interaction of the brain-specific protein p42IP4/centaurin-alpha1 with the peptidase nardilysin is regulated by the cognate ligands of p42IP4, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, with stereospecificity.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Rolf; Chow, K Martin; Walther, Daniela; Hanck, Theodor; Hersh, Louis B; Reiser, Georg

    2006-07-01

    The brain-specific protein p42IP4, also called centaurin-alpha1, specifically binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4]. Here, we investigate the interaction of p42IP4/centaurin-alpha1 with nardilysin (NRDc), a member of the M16 family of zinc metalloendopeptidases. Members of this peptidase family exhibit enzymatic activity and also act as receptors for other proteins. We found that p42IP4/centaurin-alpha1 binds specifically to NRDc from rat brain. We further detected that centaurin-alpha2, a protein that is highly homologous to p42IP4/centaurin-alpha1 and expressed ubiquitously, also binds to NRDc. In vivo interaction was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation of p42IP4/centaurin-alpha1 with NRDc from rat brain. The acidic domain of NRDc (NRDc-AD), which does not participate in catalysis, is sufficient for the protein interaction with p42IP4. Interestingly, preincubation of p42IP4 with its cognate ligands D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and the lipid diC8PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 negatively modulates the interaction between the two proteins. D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and diC8PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 suppress the interaction with virtually identical concentration dependencies. This inhibition is highly ligand specific. The enantiomer L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is not effective. Similarly, the phosphoinositides diC8PtdIns(3,4)P2, diC8PtdIns(3,5)P2 and diC8PtdIns(4,5)P2 all have no influence on the interaction. Further experiments revealed that endogenous p42IP4 from rat brain binds to glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-NRDc-AD. The proteins dissociate from each other when incubated with D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, but not with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3]. In summary, we demonstrate that p42IP4 binds to NRDc via the NRDc-AD, and that this interaction is controlled by the cognate cellular ligands of p42IP4/centaurin-alpha1. Thus, specific ligands of p42IP4 can modulate the recruitment of proteins, which are docked to p42IP4, to specific cellular compartments. PMID:16805830

  13. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 impairs pollen fitness and alters the pollen tube plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Stephen C.; Lpez-Marqus, Rosa L.; Cohen, Taylor; Brown, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Alexa; Palmgren, Michael G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7) results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance of lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions. PMID:25954280

  14. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 impairs pollen fitness and alters the pollen tube plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Stephen C; Lpez-Marqus, Rosa L; Cohen, Taylor; Brown, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Alexa; Palmgren, Michael G; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2015-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7) results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance of lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions. PMID:25954280

  15. Seasonality in subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the Arabian Sea: detection by IRS-P4/OCM and implication of it to primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matondkar, S. G. P.; Parab, Sushma; Dwivedi, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Arabian Sea is highly influenced by monsoon systems like SW monsoon (June-September) and NE monsoon (December-February). This affects distribution pattern of phytoplankton, availability of nutrients and changing temperature specially during winter cooling period (February-March). These and other conditions like quality and quantity of light influence phytoplankton (type and concentration) in the Arabian Sea. In our study we have observed monsoon related peaks in phytoplankton and chlorophyll a in the Arabian Sea. These chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations detected by OCM sensor onboard IRS-P4 satellite is helping us to work out seasonality of phytoplankton in the Arabian Sea, which is of the great importance in the field of biology and biogeochemistry of this region. However, during these study subsurface chlorophyll a maxima (SCM) was observed as characteristics feature of chlorophyll a distribution in the Arabian Sea. The subsurface chlorophyll a maxima varies from 30m to 55m in the Arabian Sea during various seasons. During November at St. 1 surface chlorophyll a was 1.503 mgm^-3 and subsurface chlorophyll maxima was 12.692 mgm^-3. Similarly, at St. 13 surface chlorophyll a was 0.584 mgm^-3 and surface chlorophyll maxima was 8.517 mgm^-3. During upwelling, nutrients remained unused at sub surface due to shortage of light which may lead to subsurface blooms, detection of which is critical for precise estimation of chlorophyll a from ocean colour sensor. During our 5 year study (covering all the seasons) in northeastern (NE) Arabian Sea, we have observed more than 50 % stations were with subsurface chlorophyll a maxima where chlorophyll a was approximately 10 times higher compared to surface value. The high chlorophyll some time detected by OCM is mainly because of detection of subsurface chlorophyll maxima by the satellite but may not actually sampled during ship studies. The satellite penetration depth (ze), subsurface chlorophyll maxima depth, OCM derived chlorophyll a for different seasons in NE Arabian Sea is presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) prefers the parallel propeller-type human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over its other polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asfa; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    The binding of ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) with telomeric and genomic G-quadruplex DNA has been extensively studied. However, a comparative study of interactions of TMPyP4 with different conformations of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA, namely, parallel propeller-type (PP), antiparallel basket-type (AB), and mixed hybrid-type (MH) G-quadruplex DNA, has not been done. We considered all the possible binding sites in each of the G-quadruplex DNA structures and docked TMPyP4 to each one of them. The resultant most potent sites for binding were analyzed from the mean binding free energy of the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were then carried out, and analysis of the binding free energy of the TMPyP4-G-quadruplex complex showed that the binding of TMPyP4 with parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA is preferred over the other two G-quadruplex DNA conformations. The results obtained from the change in solvent excluded surface area (SESA) and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) also support the more pronounced binding of the ligand with the parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:25526532

  17. X-ray wavelengths and Auger transition energies of 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances in B-like (Z = 6-18) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakho, I.; Sow, M.; Wagué, A.

    2015-04-01

    We report Auger energies of the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances belonging to the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) → 1s2 2p2 (1S, 1P, 1D) and to the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) → 1s2 2s2p 1,3P transitions in B-like ions (Z = 6-18). X-ray wavelengths of the 1s2p4 (2S, 2P, 2D) resonances are also reported. The calculations are carried out in the framework of the screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. The present results for the core-excited 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances in B-like C+, O3+, Ne5+, Mg7+ and Si9+ ions agree well with recent saddle-point variation and saddle-point complex-rotation (SPCR) results (Sun et al 2013 Phys. Rev A 87 032509). The new Auger energies and wavelengths for the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances in B-like N2+, F4+, Na6+, Al8+, P10+, S11+, Cl12+ and Ar13+ ions provide benchmarked values for future experimental and theoretical studies on these B-like ions in connection with the diagnostic of astrophysical and laboratory plasma.

  18. Characterization of G2P[4] rotavirus strains associated with increased detection in Australian states using the RotaTeq® vaccine during the 2010-2011 surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Zhang, Zheng Andrew; Donker, Nicole C; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of rotavirus vaccines Rotarix® and RotaTeq® into the Australian National Immunisation Program in July 2007 has resulted in a dramatic decrease in the burden of rotavirus disease. G2P[4] strains became the dominant genotype Australia-wide during the 2010-2011 surveillance period and for the first time since vaccine introduction, a higher proportion were isolated in jurisdictions using RotaTeq® vaccine compared to locations using Rotarix®. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene of 32 G2P[4] strains identified six genetic clusters, these distinct clusters were also observed in the VP4 gene for a subset of 12 strains. The whole genome was determined for a representative strain of clusters; A (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/SA066/2010/G2P[4]), B (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/WAPC703/2010/G2P[4]), C (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/MON008/2010/G2P[4]) and E (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/RCH041/2010/G2P[4]). All of the strains possessed the archetypal DS-1 like genome constellation G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Three of the strains, SA066, MON008 and WAPC703 clustered together and were distinct to RCH041 for all 11 genes. The VP7 genes of 31/32 of the strains characterized in this study possessed five conserved amino acid substitutions when compared to the G2 VP7 gene present in the RotaTeq® vaccine. Three of the substitutions were in the VP7 antigenic regions A and C, the substitutions A87T, D96N and S213D have been reported in the majority of G2P[4] strains circulating globally over the previous decade. These changes may have improved the ability of strains to circulate in settings of high vaccine use. PMID:24861815

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe85B15 to quinary Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-01

    Fe-based Fe85B15, Fe84B15Cu1, Fe82Si2B15Cu1, Fe85Si2B12Cu1, and Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET®) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔHx1 and ΔHx2) and their crystallization temperatures (Tx1 and Tx2), respectively. The ratio ΔHx1/ΔHx2 measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (Vf) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe85B15 to 0.75 for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (Gα-Fe and Gamor) shows that a relationship Gα-Fe ˜ Gamor holds for the Fe85Si2B12Cu1, whereas Gα-Fe < Gamor for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy at Tx1 and that an extremely high Vf = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy barely forms amorphous phase, which, in turn, leads to high Vf and resultant high Bs.

  20. Measurement of cross sections for the {sup 232}Th(P,4n){sup 229}Pa reaction at low proton energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, C. U.; Griswold, J. R.; Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S.; Stracener, D. W.; Williams, C. L.

    2013-04-19

    The alpha-emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived {sup 229}Th(t{sub 1/2} = 7880y). {sup 229}Th can be produced by proton irradiation of {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into {sup 229}Th. To obtain excitation functions, {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of {sup 229}Pa and its daughter {sup 225}Ac from both {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th. Differential cross-sections for production of {sup 229}Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

  1. Coordinated Overexpression in Yeast of a P4-ATPase and Its Associated Cdc50 Subunit: The Case of the Drs2p/Cdc50p Lipid Flippase Complex.

    PubMed

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cdric; Jacquot, Aurore; Barry, Raphalle; Champeil, Philippe; Lenoir, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional characterization of integral membrane proteins requires milligram amounts of purified sample. Unless the protein you are studying is abundant in native membranes, it will be critical to overexpress the protein of interest in a homologous or heterologous way, and in sufficient quantities for further purification. The situation may become even more complicated if you chose to investigate the structure and function of a complex of two or more membrane proteins. Here, we describe the overexpression of a yeast lipid flippase complex, namely the P4-ATPase Drs2p and its associated subunit Cdc50p, in a coordinated manner. Moreover, we can take advantage of the fact that P4-ATPases, like most other P-type ATPases, form an acid-stable phosphorylated intermediate, to verify that the expressed complex is functional. PMID:26695021

  2. Reductive cleavage of P4 by iron(I) centres: synthesis and structural characterisation of Fe2(P2)2 complexes with two bridging P2(2-) ligands.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenglai; Szilvsi, Tibor; Lindenmaier, Nils; Xiong, Yun; Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Adelhardt, Mario; Sutter, Jrg; Meyer, Karsten; Driess, Matthias

    2015-04-11

    The selective transformation of white phosphorus with a ?-diketiminato iron(I) toluene complex under mild reaction conditions is reported which furnishes a new dinuclear iron(III) Fe2(P2)2 complex with two bridging P2(2-) ligands. Its reduction with potassium results in the formation of the first delocalised mixed-valent bis-diphosphido iron(II,III) complex which is isostructural with the neutral Fe2P4 precursor. PMID:25747898

  3. Testing for archaic hominin admixture on the X chromosome: model likelihoods for the modern human RRM2P4 region from summaries of genealogical topology under the structured coalescent.

    PubMed

    Cox, Murray P; Mendez, Fernando L; Karafet, Tatiana M; Pilkington, Maya Metni; Kingan, Sarah B; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Strassmann, Beverly I; Hammer, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    A 2.4-kb stretch within the RRM2P4 region of the X chromosome, previously sequenced in a sample of 41 globally distributed humans, displayed both an ancient time to the most recent common ancestor (e.g., a TMRCA of approximately 2 million years) and a basal clade composed entirely of Asian sequences. This pattern was interpreted to reflect a history of introgressive hybridization from archaic hominins (most likely Asian Homo erectus) into the anatomically modern human genome. Here, we address this hypothesis by resequencing the 2.4-kb RRM2P4 region in 131 African and 122 non-African individuals and by extending the length of sequence in a window of 16.5 kb encompassing the RRM2P4 pseudogene in a subset of 90 individuals. We find that both the ancient TMRCA and the skew in non-African representation in one of the basal clades are essentially limited to the central 2.4-kb region. We define a new summary statistic called the minimum clade proportion (pmc), which quantifies the proportion of individuals from a specified geographic region in each of the two basal clades of a binary gene tree, and then employ coalescent simulations to assess the likelihood of the observed central RRM2P4 genealogy under two alternative views of human evolutionary history: recent African replacement (RAR) and archaic admixture (AA). A molecular-clock-based TMRCA estimate of 2.33 million years is a statistical outlier under the RAR model; however, the large variance associated with this estimate makes it difficult to distinguish the predictions of the human origins models tested here. The pmc summary statistic, which has improved power with larger samples of chromosomes, yields values that are significantly unlikely under the RAR model and fit expectations better under a range of archaic admixture scenarios. PMID:18202385

  4. Thermal analysis of a six-channel heat-generating blockage in an LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Warinner, D.K.; Chao, D.H.Y.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the temperature fields within and around a six-channel blockage designed as a molten-fuel-release initiator in SLSF-P4, an in-reactor experiment (37-mixed-oxide pin bundle) planned for February, 1981, irradiation. To meet the experiment objectives, a minimum of ten grams of molten UO/sub 2/ must be ejected into the sodium stream from one, two, or three such blockages. The temperature fields of the electrodeposited-nickel blockage filled with a mixture of UO/sub 2/ powder, stainless steel, and gas are found at intervals of full power. The SS content, type of gas, and porosity were parameters varied in this study which used the computer codes THYME-B, SABRE-1, and ANL's version of THTB. State-of-the-art treatments of the conductivity of the mixture and the gas-gap conductance are included. The contrived-blockage design has been found to maintain structural integrity until sufficient molten fuel exists to release, challenge the subassembly, and be detected by delayed-neutron and fission-product monitors. This will serve to resolve lingering questions on rapid pin-to-pin propagation, blockage propagation, and other local-fault issues.

  5. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 30 MBq and 293 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin ?v?3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both ?v?3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin ?v?3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin ?v?3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive expression (integrin ?v?3 negative). The preliminary application of 99mTc-RGD-BBN has demonstrated its powerful potential in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25849333

  6. The structures of marialite (Me[subscript 6]) and meionite (Me[subscript 93]) in space groups P4[subscript 2]/n and I4/m, and the absence of phase transitions in the scapolite series

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.; Hassan, Ishmael

    2014-05-28

    The crystal structures of marialite (Me{sub 6}) from Badakhshan, Afghanistan and meionite (Me{sub 93}) from Mt. Vesuvius, Italy were obtained using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and Rietveld structure refinements. Their structures were refined in space groups I4/m and P42/n, and similar results were obtained. The Me{sub 6} sample has a formula Ca{sub 0.24}Na{sub 3.37}K{sub 0.24}[Al{sub 3.16}Si{sub 8.84}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.84}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.15}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.047555(7), c = 7.563210(6) {angstrom}, and V = 1097.751(1) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The average (T1-O) distances are 1.599(1) {angstrom} in I4/m and 1.600(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n, indicating that the T1 site contains only Si atoms. In P4{sub 2}/n, the average distances of (T2-O) = 1.655(2) and (T3-O) = 1.664(2) {angstrom} are distinct and are not equal to each other. However, the mean (T2,3-O) = 1.659(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n and is identical to the (T2-O) = 1.659(1) {angstrom} in I4/m. The (M-O) [7] = 2.754(1) {angstrom} (M site is coordinated to seven framework O atoms) and M-A = 2.914(1) {angstrom}; these distances are identical in both space groups. The Me{sub 93} sample has a formula of Na{sub 0.29}Ca{sub 3.76}[Al{sub 5.54}Si{sub 6.46}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.05}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.02}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.93}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.19882(1), c = 7.576954(8) {angstrom}, and V = 1127.535(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}. A similar examination of the Me{sub 93} sample also shows that both space groups give similar results; however, the C-O distance is more reasonable in P4{sub 2}/n than in I4/m. Refining the scapolite structure near Me{sub 0} or Me{sub 100} in I4/m forces the T2 and T3 sites (both with multiplicity 8 in P4{sub 2}/n) to be equivalent and form the T2' site (with multiplicity 16 in I4/m), but (T2-O) is not equal to (T3-O) in P4{sub 2}/n. Using different space groups for different regions across the series implies phase transitions, which do not occur in the scapolite series.

  7. Antiplatelet Activity, P2Y1 and P2Y12 Inhibition, and Metabolism in Plasma of Stereoisomers of Diadenosine 5′,5′″-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung; Yanachkov, Ivan B.; Dix, Edward J.; Yanachkova, Milka; Li, YouFu; Barnard, Marc R.; Wright, George E.; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), a constituent of platelet dense granules, and its P1,P4-dithio and/or P2,P3-chloromethylene analogs, inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. We recently reported that these compounds antagonize both platelet ADP receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12. The most active of those analogs, diadenosine 5′,5″″-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate, (compound 1), exists as a mixture of 4 stereoisomers. Objective To separate the stereoisomers of compound 1 and determine their effects on platelet aggregation, platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor antagonism, and their metabolism in human plasma. Methods We separated the 4 diastereomers of compound 1 by preparative reversed-phase chromatography, and studied their effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation, P2Y1-mediated changes in cytosolic Ca2+, P2Y12-mediated changes in VASP phosphorylation, and metabolism in human plasma. Results The inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet aggregation and human platelet P2Y12 receptor, and stability in human plasma strongly depended on the stereo-configuration of the chiral P1- and P4-phosphorothioate groups, the SPSP diastereomer being the most potent inhibitor and completely resistant to degradation in plasma, and the RPRP diastereomer being the least potent inhibitor and with the lowest plasma stability. The inhibitory activity of SPRP diastereomers depended on the configuration of the pseudo-asymmetric carbon of the P2,P3-chloromethylene group, one of the configurations being significantly more active than the other. Their plasma stability did not differ significantly, being intermediate to that of the SPSP and the RPRP diastereomers. Conclusions The presently-described stereoisomers have utility for structural, mechanistic, and drug development studies of dual antagonists of platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors. PMID:24722456

  8. Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

    2004-10-01

    At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

  9. SYSTEM PARAMETERS, TRANSIT TIMES, AND SECONDARY ECLIPSE CONSTRAINTS OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEMS HAT-P-4, TrES-2, TrES-3, and WASP-3 FROM THE NASA EPOXI MISSION OF OPPORTUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2011-01-10

    As part of the NASA EPOXI Mission of Opportunity, we observed seven known transiting extrasolar planet systems in order to construct time series photometry of extremely high phase coverage and precision. Here we present the results for four 'hot-Jupiter systems' with near-solar stars-HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, and WASP-3. We observe 10 transits of HAT-P-4, estimating the planet radius R{sub p} = 1.332 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}, the stellar radius R{sub *} = 1.602 {+-} 0.061 R{sub sun}, the inclination i = 89.67 {+-} 0.30 deg, and the transit duration from first to fourth contact {tau} = 255.6 {+-} 1.9 minutes. For TrES-3, we observe seven transits and find R{sub p} = 1.320 {+-} 0.057 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.817 {+-} 0.022 R{sub sun}, i = 81.99 {+-} 0.30 deg, and {tau} = 81.9 {+-} 1.1 minutes. We also note a long-term variability in the TrES-3 light curve, which may be due to star spots. We observe nine transits of TrES-2 and find R{sub p} = 1.169 {+-} 0.034 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.940 {+-} 0.026 R{sub sun}, i = 84.15 {+-} 0.16 deg, and {tau} = 107.3 {+-} 1.1 minutes. Finally, we observe eight transits of WASP-3, finding R{sub p} = 1.385 {+-} 0.060 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 1.354 {+-} 0.056 R{sub sun}, i = 84.22 {+-} 0.81 deg, and {tau} = 167.3 {+-} 1.3 minutes. We present refined orbital periods and times of transit for each target. We state 95% confidence upper limits on the secondary eclipse depths in our broadband visible bandpass centered on 650 nm. These limits are 0.073% for HAT-P-4, 0.062% for TrES-3, 0.16% for TrES-2, and 0.11% for WASP-3. We combine the TrES-3 secondary eclipse information with the existing published data and confirm that the atmosphere likely does not have a temperature inversion.

  10. Na 4- xNb 7P 4O 29: A phosphate niobium bronze intergrowth of the members m = 3 and m = 4 of the MPTB's series Na x(NbO 3) 2 m(PO 2) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabbas, A.; Leligny, H.; Borel, M. M.; Grandin, A.; Leclaire, A.; Raveau, B.

    1992-11-01

    A new niobium phosphate bronzeNa 4- xNb 7P 4O 29(0 ? x ? 1) has been isolated. It crystallizes in the space group C2/c with a = 32.850(4), b = 5.3484(4), and c = 13.252(2)A?and ? = 97.79(1). The structure was solved by X-ray diffraction on a twinned crystal with an (100) twinning plane. This oxide is an intergrowth of the m = 3 and m = 4 members of the series of the monophosphate tungsten bronzes with pentagonal tunnels (MPTB p), corresponding to the formulation Na x(NbO 3) 2 m(PO 2) 4. The ReO 3 slabs alternate parallel to (100) and are linked by isolated PO 4 tetrahedra delimiting pentagonal tunnels running along b. Relationships with other niobium phosphate bronzes are also discussed.

  11. Synthesis and up-conversion luminescence of Er3+ and Y b3+ codoped nanocrystalline tetra- (KLaP4O12) and pentaphosphates (LaP5O14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, L.; Stefanski, M.; Tomala, R.; Hreniak, D.; Strek, W.

    2015-09-01

    The up-converting nanocrystals of KLa0.95Er0.05Y bxP4O12 and La0.95-xEr0.05Y bxP5O14 were prepared using co-precipitation method. The spectroscopic properties of these materials were investigated in a function of Y b3+ concentration. The up-conversion emission, power dependence of emission intensities, and the luminescence decay times were investigated. It was found that the green to red and 2H11/2 ? 4I15/2 to 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2 emission intensity ratio were strongly affected by the Y b3+ concentration. Moreover, the order of up-conversion emission and threshold power rises up with Y b3+ concentration for 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2 transition. The luminescence decay time of the 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2 emission increases with Y b3+ concentration while the 4F9/2 ? 4I15/2 emission is independent of dopant concentration. The influence of the Y b3+ concentration on the up-conversion emission intensities was discussed in terms of concentration dependent hetero looped photon avalanche process. A comparison of the up-conversion properties of KLa0.95Er0.05Y bxP4O12 and La0.95-xEr0.05Y bxP5O14 nanocrystals was presented.

  12. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection. PMID:26280524

  13. Synthesis and up-conversion luminescence of Er(3+) and Y b(3+) codoped nanocrystalline tetra- (KLaP4O12) and pentaphosphates (LaP5O14).

    PubMed

    Marciniak, L; Stefanski, M; Tomala, R; Hreniak, D; Strek, W

    2015-09-01

    The up-converting nanocrystals of KLa0.95Er0.05Y bxP4O12 and La0.95-xEr0.05Y bxP5O14 were prepared using co-precipitation method. The spectroscopic properties of these materials were investigated in a function of Y b(3+) concentration. The up-conversion emission, power dependence of emission intensities, and the luminescence decay times were investigated. It was found that the green to red and (2)H11/2 ? (4)I15/2 to (4)S3/2 ? (4)I15/2 emission intensity ratio were strongly affected by the Y b(3+) concentration. Moreover, the order of up-conversion emission and threshold power rises up with Y b(3+) concentration for (4)S3/2 ? (4)I15/2 transition. The luminescence decay time of the (4)S3/2 ? (4)I15/2 emission increases with Y b(3+) concentration while the (4)F9/2 ? (4)I15/2 emission is independent of dopant concentration. The influence of the Y b(3+) concentration on the up-conversion emission intensities was discussed in terms of concentration dependent hetero looped photon avalanche process. A comparison of the up-conversion properties of KLa0.95Er0.05Y bxP4O12 and La0.95-xEr0.05Y bxP5O14 nanocrystals was presented. PMID:26342377

  14. Electron excitation cross sections for the 2s(2)2p(3)4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2D(O) (forbidden) and 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P (resonance) transitions in O II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuo, M.; Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, I. D.; Tayal, S. S.; Mclaughlin, Brendan M.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the first forbidden transition 4S(O) -- 2S(2)2p(3) 2D(O) (lambda-lambda 3726, 3729) and the first allowed (resonance) transition 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P(lambda-833) in O II. Use is made of electron energy loss and merged-beams methods. The electron energy range covered is 3.33 (threshold) to 15 eV for the S -- D transition, and 14.9 (threshold) to 40 eV for the S -- P transition. Care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction of the O II beam. An electron mirror was designed and tested to reflect inelastically backscattered electrons into the forward direction to account for the full range of polar scattering angles. Comparisons are made between present experiments and 11-state R-matrix calculations. Calculations are also presented for the 4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2P(O) (lambda-2470) transition.

  15. EEG activity in Carmelite nuns during a mystical experience.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Mario; Paquette, Vincent

    2008-10-17

    Mystical experiences relate to a fundamental dimension of human existence. These experiences, which are characterized by a sense of union with God, are commonly reported across all cultures. To date, no electroencephalography (EEG) study has been conducted to identify the neuroelectrical correlates of such experiences. The main objective of this study was to measure EEG spectral power and coherence in 14 Carmelite nuns during a mystical experience. EEG activity was recorded from 19 scalp locations during a resting state, a control condition and a mystical condition. In the mystical condition compared to control condition, electrode sites showed greater theta power at F3, C3, P3, Fz, Cz and Pz, and greater gamma1 power was detected at T4 and P4. Higher delta/beta ratio, theta/alpha ratio and theta/beta ratio were found for several electrode sites. In addition, FP1-C3 pair of electrodes displayed greater coherence for theta band while F4-P4, F4-T6, F8-T6 and C4-P4 pairs of electrodes showed greater coherence for alpha band. These results indicate that mystical experiences are mediated by marked changes in EEG power and coherence. These changes implicate several cortical areas of the brain in both hemispheres. PMID:18721862

  16. Phorbol ester stimulates ethanolamine release from the metastatic basal prostate cancer cell line PC3 but not from prostate epithelial cell lines LNCaP and P4E6

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, J; Noble, A; Otsuka, M; Berry, P; Maitland, N J; Rumsby, M G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malignancy alters cellular complex lipid metabolism and membrane lipid composition and turnover. Here, we investigated whether tumorigenesis in cancer-derived prostate epithelial cell lines influences protein kinase C-linked turnover of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EtnPGs) and alters the pattern of ethanolamine (Etn) metabolites released to the medium. Methods: Prostate epithelial cell lines P4E6, LNCaP and PC3 were models of prostate cancer (PCa). PNT2C2 and PNT1A were models of benign prostate epithelia. Cellular EtnPGs were labelled with [1-3H]-Etn hydrochloride. PKC was activated with phorbol ester (TPA) and inhibited with Ro31-8220 and GF109203X. D609 was used to inhibit PLD (phospholipase D). [3H]-labelled Etn metabolites were resolved by ion-exchange chromatography. Sodium oleate and mastoparan were tested as activators of PLD2. Phospholipase D activity was measured by a transphosphatidylation reaction. Cells were treated with ionomycin to raise intracellular Ca2+ levels. Results: Unstimulated cell lines release mainly Etn and glycerylphosphorylEtn (GPEtn) to the medium. Phorbol ester treatment over 3h increased Etn metabolite release from the metastatic PC3 cell line and the benign cell lines PNT2C2 and PNT1A but not from the tumour-derived cell lines P4E6 and LNCaP; this effect was blocked by Ro31-8220 and GF109203X as well as by D609, which inhibited PLD in a transphosphatidylation reaction. Only metastatic PC3 cells specifically upregulated Etn release in response to TPA treatment. Oleate and mastoparan increased GPEtn release from all cell lines at the expense of Etn. Ionomycin stimulated GPEtn release from benign PNT2C2 cells but not from cancer-derived cell lines P4E6 or PC3. Ethanolamine did not stimulate the proliferation of LNCaP or PC3 cell lines but decreased the uptake of choline (Cho). Conclusions: Only the metastatic basal PC3 cell line specifically increased the release of Etn on TPA treatment most probably by PKC activation of PLD1 and increased turnover of EtnPGs. The phosphatidic acid formed will maintain a cancer phenotype through the regulation of mTOR. Ethanolamine released from cells may reduce Cho uptake, regulating the membrane PtdEtn:PtdCho ratio and influencing the action of PtdEtn-binding proteins such as RKIP and the anti-apoptotic hPEBP4. The work highlights a difference between LNCaP cells used as a model of androgen-dependent early stage PCa and androgen-independent PC3 cells used to model later refractory stage disease. PMID:25137020

  17. Spread and predominance in Japan of novel G1P[8] double-reassortant rotavirus strains possessing a DS-1-like genotype constellation typical of G2P[4] strains.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshiki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nishimura, Naoko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Miura, Sinobu; Ito, Hisato; Doan, Yen Hai; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Ozaki, Takao; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age worldwide, and two, live attenuated rotavirus vaccines are globally available. As rotavirus vaccines are introduced into national immunization programs, there is an increasing need to monitor circulating wild-type strains. However, few studies have systematically examined their full genotype constellation. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the whole genotype constellation of circulating rotavirus strains in three widely-separated locations in Japan during the 2012 rotavirus season when rotavirus vaccines became available in the country for the first time. Of 107 rotavirus-positive specimens, 50 (46.7%) strains collected from all three locations possessed an unusual G1-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 constellation in which a typical G2P[4] strain appeared to have acquired its two surface protein genes from the most common G1P[8] strain. These G1P[8] double-reassortant strains were shown to possess the 11 genome segments virtually indistinguishable from each other in their nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic lineages except for two strains that underwent further intra-genotype reassortment. Successful spread to and predominance in broad locations across Japan of novel rotavirus strains possessing a genotype constellation that was previously thought not to be preferred suggests unexpected genomic flexibility of the genotype constellation. PMID:25111613

  18. Disruption and overexpression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe aph1 gene and the effects on intracellular diadenosine 5',5'''-P1, P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A), ATP and ADP concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, S W; Barnes, L D

    2000-01-01

    Diadenosine oligophosphates are ubiquitous compounds that were discovered over 30 years ago. Diadenosine 5',5"'-P(1), P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) is the most studied member of this family, and its function in yeast is unknown. To investigate possible functions, we changed the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration in Schizosaccharomyces pombe via disruption and overexpression of the aph1 gene, which encodes an Ap(4)A hydrolase (Aph1). S. pombe Aph1 is 52% identical with a human tumour suppressor protein, Fhit, in a core region of 109 amino acids. Disruption of aph1 resulted in an 85% decrease in Ap(4)A hydrolase activity and a 290-fold increase in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration. The disruption and subsequent increase in intracellular Ap(4)A concentration had no significant effect on the growth of S. pombe. Overexpression of the S. pombe aph1 gene, resulting in 17- and 84-fold increases in Ap(4)A hydrolase activity above wild-type levels, resulted in 60 and 80% decreases respectively in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration. This represents the first report of a decrease in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration in response to overexpression of a degradative enzyme in any eukaryotic organism. We describe a new S. pombe expression plasmid, pPOX, which was used to achieve the largest increase in expression of aph1. Overexpression of aph1 at the highest level resulted in a 46% increase in generation time in comparison with the control strain. Neither overexpression nor disruption had any effect on the intracellular ATP or ADP concentrations. This is the first report of ADP and ATP concentrations in S. pombe. These data also indicate that Aph1 functions in vivo to degrade Ap(4)A, and that high-level overexpression of this enzyme reduces the growth rate. PMID:10970777

  19. Orientation distribution functions based upon both (P1), (P3) order parameters and upon the four (P1) up to (P4) values: application to an electrically poled nonlinear optical azopolymer film.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, V; Lagugn-Labarthet, F; Sourisseau, C

    2005-03-01

    The most probable orientational distribution functions of rod-like polar molecules contained in a noncentrosymmetric uniaxial system are established using the first-rank and third-rank Legendre polynomials, (P1(cos theta)) and (P3(cos theta)) order parameters, and the maximum entropy method. Emphasis is put on the different domains of existence in the ((P1), (P3)) plane for the various shapes of the distributions: it is thus shown that, for any positive (P1(cos theta)) value and for decreasing (P3(cos theta)) values, the distribution function may exhibit either a distorted oblate form with an intense maximum at 0 degrees, or a three-leaved rose curve with maxima at 60 degrees, 180 degrees, and 300 degrees, and finally another markedly oblate shape with a strong maximum at 180 degrees. As an illustrative example, we have considered the azobenzene molecular orientations in an electrically poled p(DR1M) homopolymer thin film after a thermal process and several relaxation periods. We have made use not only of the (P1) and (P3) parameters determined from polarized second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements, but also of the (P2) values extracted from UV-visible spectra and of the (P4) values adjusted according to the information entropy theory. In such a thin film with very large nonlinear properties (d33 coefficients were varying from 437.0 to 117.0 pm/V at 1064 nm) it is evidenced that a strong polar order is maintained even after a long relaxation period of 42 days. So, the distribution functions demonstrate that the poling treatment was quite efficient and they emphasize the importance in the determination of both couples of odd and even order parameters in such uniaxially oriented optical elements. PMID:15901313

  20. Low core losses and magnetic properties of Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys with high B for power applications (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Akihiro; Kubota, Takeshi; Yubuta, Kunio; Inoue, Akihisa; Urata, Akiri; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

    2011-04-01

    Recently, the energy crisis and the continued growth in electrical power generation strongly demand minimization of wasteful energy dissipation. Magnetic core loss (W) is the main source of energy dissipation in motors and transformers. This requires the development of soft magnetic materials with low coercivity (Hc) and high magnetic flux density (B). Fe-rich Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (at. %) alloy ribbons made from industrial raw materials (containing some impurities) with 6 mm in width have a heteroamorphous structure containing a large number of extremely small Fe grains (less than 3 nm), resulting from the unique effects of P and Cu addition in proper amounts. Crystallization of these alloys by annealing shows a uniform precipitation of α-Fe, leading to a uniform nanocrystallized structure of α-Fe grains, 16-19 nm in size, accompanied by an intergranular amorphous layer about 1 nm in width. The wide ribbons exhibit high B of 1.82-1.85 T (at 800 A/m), almost comparable to commercial oriented Fe-3 mass% Si alloys. Excellent magnetic softness (low Hc of 2.6-5.8 A/m, high permeability of 2.4-2.7 × 104 at 1 kHz and small saturation magnetostriction of 2.3-2.4 × 10-6) along with high electrical resistivity (0.67-0.74 μΩ m) of these alloys result in superior frequency characteristics of core losses and a much lower W at 50 Hz up to the maximum induction of 1.75 T, in comparison to the silicon steels now in practical use for power applications.

  1. Wanted: Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Floyd D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a project to produce a series of laboratory manuals and instructional materials in which nuclear experiments are presented for the undergraduate advanced laboratory. The manuals are being compiled in the areas of physics, chemistry, geology and environmental sciences. (BR)

  2. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  3. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  4. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  5. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  6. Multiwell experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Hart, C.M.; Branagan, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Multiwell Experiment is a research-oriented field laboratory. Its overall objectives are to characterize lenticular, low-permeability gas reservoirs and to develop technology for their production. This field laboratory has been established at a site in the east-central Piceance basin, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. Field work began in late 1981 and is scheduled through mid-1988. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. Accomplishments of the past year are listed. 4 refs.

  7. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  8. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  9. Pay for Performance: Are Hospitals Becoming More Efficient in Improving Their Patient Experience?

    PubMed

    Stanowski, Anthony Charles; Simpson, Kit; White, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) changed the way hospitals interact with patients when it implemented a pay-for-performance (P4P) system. Under this system, a financial reward or penalty is based in part on measures of patient experience. The program seeks to reward healthcare providers who expand their focus from solely delivering a highly technical set of services that improves the patient's health to creating an atmosphere that makes hospitalization more humane and respectful of patients' values and preferences. Refocusing priorities requires capital investment in more "patient-friendly" facilities or funding staff training programs. This study seeks to determine whether a relationship exists between inpatient costs and the score for "overall rating of hospital" (ORH) on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) hospital version survey. Second, if a relationship exists, the study examines how that relationship changed during the time of CMS' implementation of its P4P program. The study's findings suggest that higher-cost hospitals have higher levels of positive patient experiences, after controlling for other variables. Importantly, the research findings indicate that hospitals are becoming more efficient in delivering care associated with higher levels of patient experience, coinciding with implementation of the P4P program. PMID:26364350

  10. G254 undergraduate experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Doran; Bogh, Karilyn; Evans, Brett; Folkman, Steve; Hammond, Marc; Hatch, Casey; Herr, Neva; Hubble, Tina; Humpherys, Jeff; Johnson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experiments on payload G254. Each experiment is accommodated in a spacepak and six experiments fly in a full canister. One of the experiments will be housed in a new Isospacepak structure, which will be described briefly. Five of the six experiments have dedicated controllers. The objective of each experiment is discussed. In addition, the operational scenario is provided.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus

    PubMed Central

    Carulei, Olivia; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus, a novel Avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, reveals its relationship to other poxviruses. The genes corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L were sequenced and phylogenetic trees (Neighbour-Joining and UPGMA) constructed from MUSCLE nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the equivalent sequences from several different poxviruses. Based on this analysis, PEPV was confirmed to belong to the genus Avipoxvirus, specifically, clade A, subclade A2 and to be most closely related to Turkeypox virus (TKPV), Ostrichpox virus (OSPV)and Pigeonpox virus (PGPV). PMID:19426497

  12. Parallel collision probability solutions with GTRAN2 and P4

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, S.M.; Vujic, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor remains one of the most cornputationally intensive applications in engineering and science. A three-dimensional transport analysis of the entire reactor core is still beyond the capability of current machines (and algorithms), but with the use of workstations as nodes in a distributed computing environment, this large-scale problem may soon be solved. The GTRAN2 code uses the exact collision probability formalism to solve the multigroup integral transport equation in general two-dimensional geometries and employs combinatorial geometry to describe complex and irregular configurations. The code first performs ray tracing to generate the geometric data needed throughout the analysis. The next step involves numerical integration, which calculates the collision/transfer probability (CTP) matrices. The resulting set of eigenvalue nations is then solved by an iterative method.

  13. Further examples of the P-O-P connection in borophosphates: synthesis and characterization of Li2Cs2B2P4O15, LiK2BP2O8, and Li3M2BP4O14 (M = K, Rb).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Pan, Shilie; Shi, Yunjing

    2012-09-17

    A new series of anhydrous mixed alkali-metal borophosphates--Li(2)Cs(2)B(2)P(4)O(15) (1), LiK(2)BP(2)O(8) (2), Li(3)K(2)BP(4)O(14) (3), and Li(3)Rb(2)BP(4)O(14) (4)--have been successfully synthesized by using the conventional solid-state reaction method. Compound 1 contains a novel fundamental building unit (FBU), [B(4)P(8)O(30)], with B/P = 1:2. Compound 2 contains an FBU of [B(2)P(4)O(16)] with B/P = 1:2. Compounds 3 and 4 are isotypic, and they have a [B(P(2)O(7))(2)] unit as their FBU. In all four compounds, their FBUs are connected through corner sharing to generate layered anionic partial structures, and then further linked with metallic polyhedra to form three-dimensional (3D) frameworks. Most interestingly, three of the four compounds contain direct P-O-P connections in their structures, which is extremely rare among borophosphates. Thermal analyses, IR spectroscopy, and UV/Vis/near-IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy have also been performed on the four title compounds. PMID:22887000

  14. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes: (1) experiments using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity experiments involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of experiments. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)

  15. Physician response to pay-for-performance: evidence from a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhu; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeCicca, Philip; Buckley, Gioia

    2014-08-01

    This study exploits a natural experiment in the province of Ontario, Canada, to identify the impact of pay-for-performance (P4P) incentives on the provision of targeted primary care services and whether physicians' responses differ by age, size of patient population, and baseline compliance level. We use administrative data that cover the full population of Ontario and nearly all the services provided by primary care physicians. We employ a difference-in-differences approach that controls for selection on observables and selection on unobservables that may cause estimation bias. We implement a set of robustness checks to control for confounding from other contemporaneous interventions of the primary care reform in Ontario. The results indicate that responses were modest and that physicians responded to the financial incentives for some services but not others. The results provide a cautionary message regarding the effectiveness of employing P4P to increase the quality of health care. PMID:23861240

  16. Energies and E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates for states of the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynkun, P.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Froese Fischer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Based on relativistic wavefunctions from multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations, E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are evaluated for the states of the (1s2)2s22p3,2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in all nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX. The wavefunction expansions include valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects through single-double multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. The computed energies agree very well with experimental values, with differences of only 300-600 cm-1 for the majority of the levels and ions in the sequence. Computed transitions rates are in close agreement with available data from MCHF-BP calculations by Tachiev and Froese Fischer [G.I. Tachiev, C. Froese Fischer, A&A 385 (2002) 716].

  17. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  18. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)

  19. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  20. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  1. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  2. Adaptive Structures Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Maurice

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  3. Biomedical experiments. Part A: Biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Scheuermann, W.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cuer, P.; Kaiser, R.

    1972-01-01

    The biostack experiment is described which was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the earth. Specifically, the biostack experiment was designed to promote research on the effects of high energy/high Z particles of galactic cosmic radiation on a broad spectrum of biologic systems, from the molecular to the highly organized and developed forms of life. The experiment was considered unique and scientifically meritorious because of its potential yield of information - currently unavailable on earth - on the interaction of biologic systems with the heavy particles of galactic cosmic radiation.

  4. Making Experiences Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Walter A.

    1973-01-01

    Colleges and universities are encouraged to be innovative and creative and to be willing to experiment in an effort to find newer and better ways to provide expanded opportunities for field experiences for new teachers. (Author)

  5. Observing System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prive, Nikki

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). The components of an OSSE are described, along with discussion of the process for validating, calibrating, and performing experiments. a.

  6. Experiments in Magnetohydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, J. P.

    1970-01-01

    Describes three student experiments in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these experiments, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)

  7. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  8. More Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two experiments that illustrate basic ideas but would be difficult to carry out. Also presents activities and experiments on rainbow cups, electrical charges, electrophorus calculation, pulse electrometer, a skidding car, and on the Oersted effect. (JN)

  9. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes apparatus needed and instructions for conducting four experiments. Experiments focus on light waves, measurement of contact resistance, demonstration of longitudinal waves, and a simple method of measuring the refractive indices of transparent plates and liquids. (JM)

  10. Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses several science experiments/activities and their associated measurements. These include a simple projectile activity, cartesian diver (used to measure altitude and atmospheric pressure), experiment demonstrating atmospheric pressure, and activities using a stroboscope, and electrometer. (JN)

  11. The ITALSAT experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paraboni, A.

    1989-01-01

    Some information is given on the ITALSAT millimetric waves propagation experiment, which is to be conducted with the ITALSAT satellite, whose launch is foreseen for the middle of 1990. The purpose of the experiment is one of experimenting with advanced technologies and techniques employing the 20/30 GHz bands in wideband telecommunications. Among the most qualified features of this system are the multispot antenna and the exchange function performed directly onboard. Details of the experiment are given.

  12. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This video describes the development of the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) by researchers at NASA LeRC. The experiment studies fire spreading over a small solid fuel sample subjected to microgravity conditions in Earth orbit. Buoyant convection, which determines the heat transfer in fires on Earth, disappears in microgravity; hence, this experiment will help researchers understand how fires act on Earth.

  13. NASTRAN: Users' experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

  14. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  15. Evidence for the non-statistical population of the 1s2s2p4P metastable state by electron capture in 4 MeV collisions of B3+(1s2s 3S) with H2 targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benis, E. P.; Doukas, S.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We have revisited previously published data involving collisions of mixed 4 MeV B3+ (1s21 S, 1 s 2 s3 S) with H2 targets (Benis et al., 2002) in search of evidence for the non-statistical production of the 1 s 2 s 2 p4 P long-lived metastable state by single electron capture. Using our recently published method for the accurate determination of the effective solid angle of Auger decaying metastable projectile states in combination with knowledge of the 1 s 2 s3 S metastable beam fraction allowed us to determine the ratio R =4 P /2 P of 1 s 2 s 2 p quartet to doublet production cross sections both formed by electron capture. Our present determination of R = 2.8 ± 0.5 , clearly departs from the expected value of R = 2 based on statistical spin recoupling arguments and thus provides evidence for the active presence of additional population mechanisms in a new collision system.

  16. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

  17. ACTS Experiments Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the ACTS Experiments Program is presented. ACTS is being developed and will flight test the advanced technologies associated with: a Ka-band multibeam antenna, onboard signal processing and switching as well as laser communications. A nominal 3 yr experiments program is planned. Through the experiments program, the capabilities of the ACTS system will be made available to U.S. industry, university and government experimenters to test, prove the feasibility and evaluate the key ACTS system technologies. Communication modes of operation using the baseband processor and microwave switch matrix are presented, along with the antenna coverage pattern. Potential experiment categories are also presented and briefly discussed. An overall schedule of activities associated with the experiments program is outlined. Results of the ACTS Experiments Program will provide information vital to successful industry implementation of ACTS technology in a future operational system.

  18. Shared experiences are amplified.

    PubMed

    Boothby, Erica J; Clark, Margaret S; Bargh, John A

    2014-12-01

    In two studies, we found that sharing an experience with another person, without communicating, amplifies one's experience. Both pleasant and unpleasant experiences were more intense when shared. In Study 1, participants tasted pleasant chocolate. They judged the chocolate to be more likeable and flavorful when they tasted it at the same time that another person did than when that other person was present but engaged in a different activity. Although these results were consistent with our hypothesis that shared experiences are amplified compared with unshared experiences, it could also be the case that shared experiences are more enjoyable in general. We designed Study 2 to distinguish between these two explanations. In this study, participants tasted unpleasantly bitter chocolate and judged it to be less likeable when they tasted it simultaneously with another person than when that other person was present but doing something else. These results support the amplification hypothesis. PMID:25274583

  19. The Experience of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554

  20. Gyroscope relativity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.

    1971-01-01

    A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

  1. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  2. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:24294729

  3. Future Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, B. T.

    2009-12-17

    There are a number of future neutrino experiments addressing fundamental questions about the neutrino and about what the neutrino can tell us about the universe. A class of these experiments are long baseline neutrino oscillation v{sub e} appearance searches which can measure the final unknowns of the 3x3 neutrino mixing matrix and look for CP violation in the neutrino sector. The massive detectors needed for these experiments can also search for proton decay and measure extra-terrestrial neutrino sources. There are a number of efforts worldwide to launch these experiments. These efforts, with a focus on US plans, are described.

  4. Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)

  5. LDR structural experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  6. SEDS experiment design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.; Oldson, John C.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Expendable-tether Deployment System (SEDS) was developed to design, build, integrate, fly, and safely deploy and release an expendable tether. A suitable concept for an on-orbit test of SEDS was developed. The following tasks were performed: (1) Define experiment objectives and requirements; (2) Define experiment concepts to reach those objectives; (3) Support NASA in experiment concept selection and definition; (4) Perform analyses and tests of SEDS hardware; (5) Refine the selected SEDS experiment concept; and (6) Support interactive SEDS system definition process. Results and conclusions are given.

  7. Exploring Sensory Neuroscience Through Experience and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

  8. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  9. Infant and Toddler Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

    Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center, this book presents a model of infant and toddler child care. The purpose of the book is to offer caregivers and interested parents a repertoire of ways to respond to infants and toddlers that support individual development. Planned experiences and practical strategies for

  10. Fluorescence Experiments with Quinine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, James E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments which illustrate the analytical capabilities of fluorescence, and outlines two straightforward analyses involving real analyses. These experiments are suitable for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course and require approximately six to seven hours of laboratory time. (MLH)

  11. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are

  12. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-01-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

  13. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  14. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) two experiments using a laser (resonant cavity for light and pinhole camera effect with a hologram); (2) optical differaction patterns displayed by microcomputer; and (3) automating the Hall effect (with comments on apparatus needed and computer program used); and (4) an elegant experiment in mechanical equilibrium. (JN)

  15. Play as Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including

  16. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are

  17. Nonparametric identification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Yeung

    1988-01-01

    The following constitutes a summary of this paper: on-orbit identification methodology starts with nonparametric techniques for a priori system identification; development of the nonparametric identification and model determination experiment software has been completed; the validation experiments to be performed on the JPL Control and Identification Technology Validation Laboratory have been designed.

  18. Shusterman on Somatic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2010-01-01

    Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a

  19. Ball Collision Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, R.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are described on collisions between two billiard balls and between a bat and a ball. The experiments are designed to extend a student's understanding of collision events and could be used either as a classroom demonstration or for a student project.

  20. On the Poggendorff Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, RicardoLopes; Silva, P. A. S.; Borges, Paulo de Faria

    2015-01-01

    Poggendorff showed experimentally, in the middle of the 19th century, that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. His experiment has been revisited from time to time, making use of instrumentation that reflects the technological development of the moment. In this paper, the evolution of the experiment is briefly

  1. Experience and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert, Ed.

    In this book's essays, teachers describe and reflect on the practice of experiential education in elementary, secondary, college, and outdoor settings. Major themes of these narratives include the insider's view of the teaching experience; active learning that requires student autonomy, imagination, and responsibility; and the view of experience

  2. Human Simulated Diving Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

    1979-01-01

    This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

  3. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  4. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  5. Total Immersion Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Mildred; Murphy, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    Describes the immersion experiences developed by one high school to involve foreign language students in speaking the target language over a period of hours or days. Experiences ranged from an afternoon of language games and a party for first-level students to a weekend involving 165 people from 13 schools. (KM)

  6. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which

  7. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  8. On the Poggendorff Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes; Silva, P. A. S.; Borges, Paulo de Faria

    2015-01-01

    Poggendorff showed experimentally, in the middle of the 19th century, that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. His experiment has been revisited from time to time, making use of instrumentation that reflects the technological development of the moment. In this paper, the evolution of the experiment is briefly…

  9. A Duplicate Construction Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent

    This experiment was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction experiment" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item

  10. Solute breakthrough experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory: The breakthrough experiment is desired to derived soil transport parameters for different chemicals. Experiment is conducted in soil columns at a constant water flow velocity. A tracer (chemical) is applied from the top of the column and its concentration is measured in the effluent from the...

  11. Shusterman on Somatic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2010-01-01

    Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

  12. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it

  13. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes briefly three experiments, which are presented by three physics teachers to share their ideas with other teachers and readers. These experiments are: (1) a simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment; (2) the speed of light; and (3) the ball-bearing electric motor. (HM)

  14. Peak Experience Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected

  15. The Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of group dynamics and leadership activities is a component of the CORE Standards for the Master's degree curriculum in Rehabilitation Counseling. A group experience is often included as a learning activity in rehabilitation counselor education curricula as an instructional method of imparting knowledge of group dynamics. Group experience

  16. A Column Dispersion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

    1982-01-01

    Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

  17. MSFC Skylab corollary experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The evolution of the development and integration of Skylab experiments from initial concepts through mission operations is documented. All experiment systems are covered as well as management controls which were developed and exercised to assure acceptable operational capability and optimize data acquisition for final scientific results.

  18. Programmed French: An Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Lucien

    An experiment in programed language instruction based on the "Basic French" method of T. Mueller and H. Niedzielski is reviewed in this paper. Seventy-two civil servants participated in the program which provided for 60 hours of taped instruction. Experiment description, objectives, modifications, and a review of the structuring of lessons 1-20…

  19. The Student Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselgrove, Susanne, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses the experience of students in the United Kingdom's new, mass higher education system. The papers are viewed as dispatches from the "front line" rather than conventional analyses by education researchers. The organization of the papers mirrors the stages of students' experience of higher education--getting in,

  20. Undergraduate Infrared Spectroscopy Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J.

    1982-01-01

    Highlights procedures and results of an experiment using atomic absorption spectroscope to illustrate a fundamental chemical concept. The experiment demonstrates the dependence of the solubility product of lead sulfate on ionic strength in the presence of a slight excess of anion. (Author/JN)

  1. Hadron production experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris A.

    2013-02-01

    The HARP and NA61/SHINE hadroproduction experiments as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First measurements released recently by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61/SHINE experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  2. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  3. Extravehicular activity welding experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

  4. USML-1 Glovebox experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

  5. LDR structural experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  6. The three eggs experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ahin Blbl, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  7. Industrial application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

  8. ROCSAT-1 telecommunication experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. F.; Taur, R. R.; Chu, T. H.; Li, H. S.; Su, Y. T.; Kiang, Y. W.; Su, S. L.; Shih, M. P.; Lin, H. D.; Chung, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses a telecommunication payload project approved by the R.O.C. NSPO's ROCSAT-1 space program. This project will enable several innovative experiments via the low-earth-orbit satellite ROCSAT-1, including multipath fading channel characterization, ionospheric scintillation measurement, real-time voice communications, and CDMA data communications. A unified L/S-band transponder payload is proposed for conducting these experiments in an efficient way. The results of these experiments would provide the evolving mobile communication communities with fruitful information.

  9. Electrophoresis experiment for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

  10. Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

  11. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  12. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Introduced are two experiments: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)

  13. A 500-year experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Charles Cockell and colleagues describe an experiment that started in 2014 and will finish in 2514. It will document how long desiccated microbes can survive, with implications for life in the planetary crust and in space.

  14. Celestial mechanics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, J.; Anderson, J. D.; Jordan, J. F.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    The efforts and accomplishments of the CME Team are summarized. The objectives and experiment status, gravity field of Mars, test of general relativity, and the generation of normal points are discussed.

  15. ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

  16. Early Experiences in Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, E. B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical concepts and experiences are recalled and organized in a flow chart format. The power of unifying ideas in mathematics often causes this sequence to be forgotten or assigned less importance than it should be. (SD)

  17. The Double Chooz Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dracos, Marcos

    2011-10-06

    The Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment aims at observing the last neutrino oscillation not yet observed and at measuring the corresponding mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. A relatively big value of this angle will allow the measurement of CP violation in the leptonic sector by the next neutrino oscillation experiments. This disappearance experiment will precisely count the number of anti-neutrinos produced by the two nuclear reactors of the Chooz nuclear plant in France. In a first stage, Double Chooz will only use a far detector which could allow to give a sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) low limit of 0.06. Two years after, a near detector, identical to the far one, will be in operation and allow us to push this limit down to 0.03 by reducing the systematic errors. The status of this experiment is presented in this paper.

  18. Foraging Experiences with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen Ross

    1976-01-01

    Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

  19. Status of RENO Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jee-Seung

    2011-10-06

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) experiment is under construction to measure the smallest neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} using anti-neutrinos emitted from the Yonggwang nuclear power plant in Korea. The experiment is planning to start data-taking in early 2011 with two identical 16-ton Gadolinium loaded liquid scintillator detectors located near and far from the center of the reactor array. The estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%. Based on three years of data, the expected statistical error is about 0.3% and it would be sensitive to measure the neutrino mixing angle in the range, sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13})> 0.02. In this talk, the overview and status of RENO experiment are described.

  20. A Colorful Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, C. Bruce

    1978-01-01

    This experiment, mixing solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate to give a bright yellow lead iodide precipitate, often leads students into other topics such as making paint from the precipitate. (BB)

  1. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Explains how to demonstrate the following: the hysteresis effect and the existence of domains in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate); diffraction experiments using a slide with multiple slits; and an analogue technique for learning terminal velocity. (GA)

  2. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes four physics experiments including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)

  3. Experiments on ferrimagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-03-01

    Ferrimagnetism undoubtedly deserves a proper place in the undergraduate laboratory on electricity and magnetism. Four student experiments on ferrimagnetism are considered: (i) the hysteresis loops and permeability of a soft ferrite; (ii) the differential permeability versus a dc bias; (iii) the frequency dependence of the complex permeability and (iv) the electromagnetic interference suppression by ferrite chokes and beads. Two ferrite cores taken off a low-frequency choke and a power cord are used. The measurements are simple and straightforward and show the important properties of ferrites and their applications. The values of the permeability of the ferrite core determined in experiments (i)-(iii) are in reasonable agreement. The frequency dependence of the complex permeability of the ferrites is similar to that given by the manufacturers. The capability of absorbing electromagnetic waves in a definite frequency range shown in experiment (iv) demonstrates one of the principles of Stealth technology. The equipment necessary for the experiments can be found in many student laboratories.

  4. Experiment design and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Markham, B. J.; Wang, J. R.; Strebel, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives, design, and field operations of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are described. The simultaneous acquisition of satellite, atmosphere, and surface data, and the understanding of the processes governing surface energy and mass exchange and how these are manifested in satellite-resolution radiometric data are identified as the specific objectives of the field-phase experiment. The central issues concerning the design of the field experiment are considered: the size of the site, the duration of the experiment, and the location of the site; it is noted that the Konza Prairie National Reserve was selected as the focus of the study. Field operations in 1987 and 1989 are discussed, and it is pointed out that a data set is available now from a single combined repository to all FIFE investigators, and that scientists can test models and algorithms on scales consistent with satellite observations and with enough supporting data on finer scales.

  5. Experimenting with Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

  6. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes (1) computer graphics for the coefficient of restitution; (2) an experiment on the optical processing of images; and (3) a simple, coherent optical system for character recognition using Polaroid (Type 665) negative film. (JN)

  7. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  8. The monsoon experiment MONEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of monsoons in different parts of the world on the Earth's atmosphere were studied by MONEX, India's Monsoon Experiment program. Data were gathered from meteorological satellites, sounding rockets, aircraft, land and shipborne stations.

  9. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes three experiments: (1) "Liquid Flow from Orifices"; (2) "Microcomputer-Controlled Investigation of Battery Discharge and Recovery"; and (3) "Measurement of the Speed of Sound." Drawings and diagrams accompany each. (RT)

  10. The Brain Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polenta, G.; Calvo, M.; Conversi, L.; de Bernardis, P.; Giordano, C.; Iacoangeli, A.; Maiello, M.; Marini-Bettolo, C.; Masi, S.; Nati, F.; Nati, L.; Peterzen, S.; Piacentini, F.; Sordini, R.; Veneziani, M.; Bartlett, J.; Bréelle, E.; Dufour, C.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghribi, A.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Guglielmi, L.; Hamilton, J. C.; Kaplan, J.; Piat, M.; Gervasi, M.; Sironi, G.; Spinelli, S.; Tartari, A.; Zannoni, M.; Maffei, B.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Ade, P.; Orlando, A.; Savini, G.; Brossard, J.; Giard, M.; Landé, J.; Bergé, L.; Dumoulin, L.; Juillard, A.; Marnieros, S.; Pajot, F.; Rosset, C.

    2008-09-01

    The rotational component of the CMB polarization, the so-called B-modes, is one of the major topic for next generation CMB experiments. This signal traces the effect on the CMB due to primordial gravitational waves produced during the inflationary epoch, probing the physics of the very early universe at GUT energy scales. This is a challenge, being the expected amplitude of B-mode polarization ~ 0.1μK. In this paper we describe the BRAIN experiment, a bolometric interferometer which combines high sensitivity bolometric detectors with the excellent control of systematic effects proper of interferometers. Being a ground based experiment, we identified Dome Charlie in Antarctica as the best site for such measurements. In order to validate the goodness of the site, as well as some of the implemented technical solutions, we built a pathfinder experiment which has been successfully operated during last Antarctic summer, and we report about preliminary results obtained.

  11. ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

  12. Experiment-o-mania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndarski, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Every 21st century student is expected to develop science literacy skills. As this is not part of Serbian national curriculum yet, we decided to introduce it with this project. Experiment-o-mania provides students to experience science in different and exciting way. It makes opportunity for personalized learning offering space and time to ask (why, where, how, what if) and to try. Therefore, we empower young people with skills of experimenting, and they love science back. They ask questions, make hypothesis, make problems and solve them, make mistakes, discuss about the results. Subsequently this raises the students' interest for school curriculum. This vision of science teaching is associated with inquiry-based learning. Experiment-o-mania is the unique and recognizable teaching methodology for the elementary school Drinka Pavlović, Belgrade, Serbia. Experiment-o-mania implies activities throughout the school year. They are held on extra class sessions, through science experiments, science projects or preparations for School's Days of science. Students learn to ask questions, make observations, classify data, communicate ideas, conduct experiments, analyse results and make conclusions. All science teachers participate in designing activities and experiments for students in Experiment-o-mania teaching method. But they are not alone. Teacher of fine arts, English teachers and others also take part. Students have their representatives in this team, too. This is a good way to blend knowledge among different school subject and popularize science in general. All the experiments are age appropriate and related to real life situations, local community, society and the world. We explore Fibonacci's arrays, saving energy, solar power, climate change, environmental problems, pollution, daily life situations in the country or worldwide. We introduce great scientists as Nikola Tesla, Milutin Milanković and sir Isaac Newton. We celebrate all relevant international days, weeks, months or years (this year, 2015. the students will prepare opera science for celebrate the International Year of Light and International Year of Soils). Experiment-o-mania makes science teaching and learning exciting for teachers as well as for students. The acquisition of this kind of teaching method (and its frequency) empowers students and become self-regulated learners, independent, to creatively solve problems, to innovate, to truly understand and appreciate science and to better understand themselves and the world around them.

  13. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  14. The GLUEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.R. Shepherd

    2009-12-01

    The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

  15. Developing experiment instrument packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herreid, R.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-Support Equipment (GSE) system supports development, calibration, and testing of experiment packages. It is also used for "quick look" processing and in-progress data analysis. User interacts with incoming telemetry data, performs computations, and controls execution of procedures using versatile Experiment Command Interactive Language (ECIL). Program is implemented many ways with minimal modification. It is written in MARCO II and FORTRAN for DEC PDP-11/34 using the RSX-11M operating system.

  16. ISE structural dynamic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

  17. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  18. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  19. Surface electrical properties experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

    1973-01-01

    The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

  20. Hamlet and psychoanalytic experience.

    PubMed

    Schwaber, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Hamlet draws us into its rendered world, enabling us to experience it with depth, awareness, and resonance, in a mode we recognize as aesthetic. By way of Shakespeare's play--primarily the first act--and a detailed case study, aesthetic and psychoanalytic experience are compared, to suggest that, for our own analytic discourse, we revalue Freud's unease that his case studies read like short stories. PMID:17601097

  1. Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, and headmotion signals acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit are shown. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telemetered indication of sleep stage). Results indicate that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled eight-hour rest periods during extended space missions.

  2. Modal identification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) is a proposed on-orbit experiment being developed by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology wherein a series of vibration measurements would be made on various configurations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) during its on-orbit assembly phase. The experiment is to be conducted in conjunction with station reboost operations and consists of measuring the dynamic responses of the spacecraft produced by station-based attitude control system and reboost thrusters, recording and transmitting the data, and processing the data on the ground to identify the natural frequencies, damping factors, and shapes of significant vibratory modes. The experiment would likely be a part of the Space Station on-orbit verification. Basic research objectives of MIE are to evaluate and improve methods for analytically modeling large space structures, to develop techniques for performing in-space modal testing, and to validate candidate techniques for in-space modal identification. From an engineering point of view, MIE will provide the first opportunity to obtain vibration data for the fully-assembled structure because SSF is too large and too flexible to be tested as a single unit on the ground. Such full-system data is essential for validating the analytical model of SSF which would be used in any engineering efforts associated with structural or control system changes that might be made to the station as missions evolve over time. Extensive analytical simulations of on-orbit tests, as well exploratory laboratory simulations using small-scale models, have been conducted in-house and under contract to develop a measurement plan and evaluate its potential performance. In particular, performance trade and parametric studies conducted as part of these simulations were used to resolve issues related to the number and location of the measurements, the type of excitation, data acquisition and data processing, effects of noise and nonlinearities, selection of target vibration modes, and the appropriate type of data analysis scheme. The purpose of this talk is to provide an executive-summary-type overview of the modal identification experiment which has emerged from the conceptual design studies conducted to-date. Emphasis throughout is on those aspects of the experiment which should be of interest to those attending the subject utilization conference. The presentation begins with some preparatory remarks to provide background and motivation for the experiment, describe the experiment in general terms, and cite the specific technical objectives. This is followed by a summary of the major results of the conceptual design studies conducted to define the baseline experiment. The baseline experiment which has resulted from the studies is then described.

  3. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

  4. Experiments in Computing: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moisseinen, Nella

    2014-01-01

    Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general. PMID:24688404

  5. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  6. National Flood Interoperability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment is led by the academic community in collaboration with the National Weather Service through the new National Water Center recently opened on the Tuscaloosa campus of the University of Alabama. The experiment will also involve the partners in IWRSS (Integrated Water Resources Science and Services), which include the USGS, the Corps of Engineers and FEMA. The experiment will address the following questions: (1) How can near-real-time hydrologic forecasting at high spatial resolution, covering the nation, be carried out using the NHDPlus or next generation geofabric (e.g. hillslope, watershed scales)? (2) How can this lead to improved emergency response and community resilience? (3) How can improved an improved interoperability framework support the first two goals and lead to sustained innovation in the research to operations process? The experiment will run from September 2014 through August 2015, in two phases. The mobilization phase from September 2014 until May 2015 will assemble the components of the interoperability framework. A Summer Institute to integrate the components will be held from June to August 2015 at the National Water Center involving faculty and students from the University of Alabama and other institutions coordinated by CUAHSI. It is intended that the insight that arises from this experiment will help lay the foundation for a new national scale, high spatial resolution, near-real-time hydrologic simulation system for the United States.

  7. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  8. Research by retrieving experiments.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2007-06-01

    Newton did not discover that apples fall: the information was available prior to his gravitational hypothesis. Hypotheses can be tested not only by performing experiments but also by retrieving experiments from the literature (via PubMed, for example). Here I show how disconnected facts from known data, if properly connected, can generate novel predictions testable in turn by other published data. With examples from cell cycle, aging, cancer and other fields of biology and medicine, I discuss how new knowledge was and will be derived from old information. Millions of experiments have been already performed to test unrelated hypotheses and the results of those experiments are available to 'test' your hypotheses too. But most data (99% by some estimates) remain unpublished, because they were negative, seemed of low priority, or did not fit the story. Yet for other investigators those data may be valuable. The well-known story of Franklin and Watson is a case in point. By making preliminary data widely available, 'data-owners' will benefit most, receiving the credit for otherwise unused results. If posted (pre-published) on searchable databases, these data may fuel thousands of projects without the need for repetitive experiments. Enormous 'pre-published' databases coupled with Google-like search engines can change the structure of scientific research, and shrinking funding will make this inevitable. PMID:17525526

  9. Galileo Optical Experiment (GOPEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Two sets of laser pulses transmitted from Earth to a spacecraft over a distance of 1.4 million kilometers (870,000 miles) in a communications experiment are shown in this long-exposure image made by the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system. In the image, taken on Dec. 10, second day of the 8-day experiment, the sunlit part of the planet (west central United States) is to the right, the night side to the left. The camera was scanned from bottom to top of the frame (approximately south to north), smearing terrain features but showing individual pulses. The five larger spots in a vertical column near the pre-dawn centerline of the frame represent pulses from the U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory's Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM, at a pulse rate of 10 Hz. Those to the left are from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA, at a rate of 15 Hz. Spots near the day/night terminator to the right are noise events not associated with the laser transmissions. The experiment, called GOPEX (Galileo Optical Experiment), is demonstrating a laser 'uplink' from Earth to spacecraft. Laser 'downlinks' may be used in the future to send large volumes of data from spacecraft to Earth. The experiment is operated by JPL's Tracking and Data Acquisition Technology Development Office for NASA's Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Proqram.

  10. Commercial Experiment Transporter: COMET

    SciTech Connect

    Wessling, F.C.; Robinson, M.; Martinez, R.S.; Gallimore, T.; Combs, N.

    1994-09-01

    A launch system consisting of ground-support equipment, a four-stage rocket, a service module, a recovery system and a recovery site, and an orbital operations center is being assembled. The system is designed to launch 818 kg (1800 lb) to a 552-km (300-n.mi.) low earth orbit at a 40-deg inclination. Experiment space exists in both the service module and the recovery system. The service module provides space for 68 kg (150 lb) of experiments plus telemetry services, attitude control, and power and uses no consumables to maintain attitude. Consequently, the service module can maintain orbit attitude for years. Power of 400 W is supplied by solar cells and batteries for both experiment operation and housekeeping. The recovery system houses an experiment carrier for 136 kg (300 lb) of experiments, a retro rocket, a heat shield, and a parachute. An orbital operations control center provides tracking, telemetry, and commanding for the satellite. The payloads are also briefly described. The first launch was scheduled for 1995.

  11. Staging Experiences: A Proposed Framework for Designing Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    2002-01-01

    Explains experience design as an emerging multidisciplinary approach to design and considers implications for the design of instruction and learning experiences. Discusses experience design applications in education; what experience is and how people experience things; the role of stories and drama; boundaries and constraints; and implications for

  12. An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell. Students are permitted to create their own fragrance based on the results of the experiment. Student response has been favorable. The experiment rectifies misconceptions students have about structure and odor, and gives positive reinforcement to the lecture material.

  13. Reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haoqi

    2014-05-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive non-zero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference ∣ Δ m2ee∣ = (2.59+0.19-0.20)× 10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

  14. Future Experiments in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement methodologies of astrophysics experiments reflect the enormous variation of the astrophysical radiation itself. The diverse nature of the astrophysical radiation, e.g. cosmic rays, electromagnetic radiation, and neutrinos, is further complicated by the enormous span in energy, from the 1.95 Kappa relic neutrino background to cosmic rays with energy greater than 10(exp 20)eV. The measurement of gravity waves and search for dark matter constituents are also of astrophysical interest. Thus, the experimental techniques employed to determine the energy of the incident particles are strongly dependent upon the specific particles and energy range to be measured. This paper summarizes some of the calorimetric methodologies and measurements planned by future astrophysics experiments. A focus will be placed on the measurement of higher energy astrophysical radiation. Specifically, future cosmic ray, gamma ray, and neutrino experiments will be discussed.

  15. Electrophoresis experiments for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been hoped that space could alleviate the problems of large-scale, high-capacity electrophoresis. Support media and reduced chamber dimensions of capillary electrophoresis have established the physical boundaries for Earth-based systems. Ideally, electrophoresis conducted in a virtual weightless environment in an unrestricted ``free'' fluid should have great potential. The electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing experiments done in the reduced gravity over the past twenty-five years have demonstrated the absence of thermal convection and sedimentation as well as the presence of electrohydrodynamics that requires careful control. One commercial venture produced gram amounts of an electrophoretically purified protein during seven Space Shuttle flights but the market disappeared in the six years between experiment conception and performance on the Space Shuttle. Our accumulated experience in microgravity plus theoretical models predict improvements that should be possible with electrophoresis if past problems are considered and both invention of new technologies and innovation of procedures on the Space Station are encouraged. .

  16. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  17. Space experiment development process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depauw, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a process for developing space experiments utilizing the Space Shuttle. The role of the Principal Investigator is described as well as the Principal Investigator's relation with the project development team. Described also is the sequence of events from an early definition phase through the steps of hardware development. The major interactions between the hardware development program and the Shuttle integration and safety activities are also shown. The presentation is directed to people with limited Shuttle experiment experience. The objective is to summarize the development process, discuss the roles of major participants, and list some lessons learned. Two points should be made at the outset. First, no two projects are the same so the process varies from case to case. Second, the emphasis here is on Code EN/Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD).

  18. The CDMSlite Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu Thakur, Ritoban

    2013-04-01

    The SuperCDMS experiment will use new iZIP detectors to achieve competitive sensitivity in the direct detection of Dark Matter, particularly in the 100 to 1000 GeV/c^2 range of WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) mass. In the SuperCDMS framework we are also attempting a novel low-threshold experiment to look for light WIMPs of mass O(10GeV/c^2). We call this the CDMS low ionization threshold experiment or ''CDMSlite.'' Here, we use high bias voltage to amplify the charge signal from low-energy recoils by increasing their Luke phonon emission. In this manner we reduce the detector threshold. I will describe the physics behind CDMSlite and comment on our expected sensitivity to low-mass WIMPs. I will also discuss our progress from running CDMSlite.

  19. Results of space experiments.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schfer, M

    1995-08-01

    Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program. PMID:7480627

  20. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (199KB JPEG, 1311 x 1477 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300165.html.

  1. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (120KB JPEG, 655 x 736 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300167.html.

  2. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  3. Experiments in mixed reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  4. STELLA EXPERIMENT: HARDWARE ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    KUSCHE,K.P.; CAMPBELL,L.P.; GOTTSCHALK,S.C.; KIMURA,W.D.; QUIMBY,D.C.; ROBINSON,K.E.; STEINHAUER,L.C.; BABZIEN,M.; BEN-ZVI,I.; GALLARDO,J.C.; POGORELSKY,I.V.; SKARITKA,J.; VAN STEENBERGEN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.; CLINE,D.B.; HE,P.; LIU,Y.; FIORITO,R.B.

    1998-07-06

    The Staged Electron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment is currently being assembled and tested at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The existing BNL inverse free electron laser (IFEL) has been positioned upstream of the inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) experiment on Beamline {number_sign}1. This beamline also features new quadrupoles and a new spectrometer capable of a {+-}20% energy acceptance. A new laser beam transport system has been installed to permit accurate control of the laser phase for the laser beams sent to the IFEL and ICA devices. Detection of the microbunches are performed using a coherent transition radiation (CTR) diagnostic similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF.

  5. The VIP Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bartalucci, S.; Bertolucci, S.; Catitti, M.; Curceanu, C.; Di Matteo, S.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Pietreanu, D.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Bragadireanu, M.; Ponta, T.; Bucci, C.; Ferrari, N.; Laubenstein, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.

    2006-01-04

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is a basic principle of Quantum Mechanics, and its validity has never been seriously challenged. However, given its importance, it is very important to check it as thoroughly as possible. Here we describe the VIP (Violation of PEP) experiment, an improved version of the Ramberg and Snow experiment (Ramberg and Snow, Phys. Lett. B238 (1990) 438); VIP shall be performed at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, and aims to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to {beta}2/2 {approx_equal} 10-30.

  6. Microwave PASER Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.; Poluektov, O.; Jing, C.

    2009-01-22

    The PASER (Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) concept for particle acceleration entails the direct transfer of energy from an active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated for optical (laser) media; we are planning a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped X-band paramagnetic medium consisting of porphyrin or fullerene (C{sub 60}) derivatives in a toluene solution or polystyrene matrix. We discuss the background of this project and report on the status of the experiment to measure the acceleration of electrons using the microwave PASER.

  7. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

  8. Halogen lamp experiment, HALEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, G.; Stapelmann, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the Halogen Lamp Experiment (HALEX) was to investigate the operation of a halogen lamp during an extended period in a microgravity environment and to prove its behavior in space. The Mirror Heating Facilities for Crystal Growth and Material Science Experiments in space relies on one or two halogen lamps as a furnace to melt the specimens. The HALEX aim is to verify: full power operation of a halogen lamp for a period of about 60 hours; achievement of about 10% of its terrestrial life span; and operation of the halogen lamp under conditions similar to furnace operation.

  9. Experiences of the dying.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    It is often a mystery to us how we have come to know and believe in certain things. Beliefs are like guests who come up to a door. They come in only if the host opens it and invites them in. Otherwise they are turned away, unable to enter. LPNs/LVNs are invited to reflect on their experiences and expand their knowledge and beliefs. There is growing recognition that bedside talks of the dying, spirit travel and near-death events are real events for the people who experience them. LPNs/ LVNs are encouraged to expand their knowledge and beliefs about dying. PMID:23252027

  10. Experiments with RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Gary D.

    2000-12-31

    Experiments with the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will begin in December 1999. RHIC consists of two superconducting rings capable of accelerating and storing Au beams of 100 GeV/nucleon and proton beams of 250 GeV. Four experiments are being prepared for RHIC: STAR, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and BRAHMS. These detector systems are designed to search for signals of the quark gluon plasma in Au-Au collisions. A spin physics program using polarized protons will also be carried out at RHIC.

  11. Offshore wave energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.; Scholten, N.C.; Soerensen, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the second phase of the off-shore wave energy experiment, taking place in the Danish part of the North Sea near Hanstholm. The wave power converter is a scale model consisting of a float 2.5 meter in diameter connected by rope to a seabed mounted piston pump installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore. The structure, installation procedure results and experience gained during the test period will be presented and compared to calculations based on a computer model.

  12. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  13. Experiments in autonomous robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is performing basic research in autonomous robotics for energy-related applications in hazardous environments. The CESAR research agenda includes a strong experimental component to assure practical evaluation of new concepts and theories. An evolutionary sequence of mobile research robots has been planned to support research in robot navigation, world sensing, and object manipulation. A number of experiments have been performed in studying robot navigation and path planning with planar sonar sensing. Future experiments will address more complex tasks involving three-dimensional sensing, dexterous manipulation, and human-scale operations.

  14. Chondrule Crystallization Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hweins, R. H.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lofgren, G. E.; Libourel, G.

    2004-01-01

    Given the great diversity of chondrules, laboratory experiments are invaluable in yielding information on chondrule formation process(es) and for deciphering their initial conditions of formation together with their thermal history. In addition, they provide some critical parameters for astrophysical models of the solar system and of nebular disk evolution in particular (partial pressures, temperature, time, opacity, etc). Most of the experiments simulating chondrules have assumed formation from an aggregate of solid grains, with total pressure of no importance and with virtually no gain or loss of elements from or to the ambient environment. They used pressed pellets attached to wires and suffered from some losses of alkalis and Fe.

  15. NOSL experiment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brook, M.

    1986-01-01

    An optical lightning detector was constructed and flown, along with Vinton cameras and a Fairchild Line Scan Spectrometer, on a U-2 during the summer of 1979. The U-2 lightning data was obtained in daylight, and was supplemented with ground truth taken at Langmuir Laboratory. Simulations were prepared as required to establish experiment operating procedures and science training for the astronauts who would operate the Night/Day Optical Survey of Thunderstorm Lightning (NOSL) equipment during the STS-2 NOSL experiment on the Space Shuttle. Data was analyzed and papers were prepared for publication.

  16. Ti Hemi boombox experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Phillip Isaac; Hull, Lawrence Mark

    2015-05-14

    Previous deformation experiments in which IR imaging was used pointed to a correlation in between IR signature in areas where heat was expected to be. The surface is not uniform during deformation experiments which cause cracks in the image in areas with increased temperature. To measure temperature under dynamic conditions, simultaneous reflectivity and radiance measurement under events of interest is needed. To measure a temperature measurement, a Reflectance measurement taken by framing camera at the edge of the camera sensitivity (700nm). Allows relative measurement at this wavelength. At reasonable temperatures the spectral radiance should peak near 2u and be 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than at 700 nm.

  17. Solar-neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bethe, H.A. )

    1989-08-21

    The observation of solar neutrinos at Kamiokande rules out the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) theory with a large'' mass difference between the neutrinos, {Delta}{ital m}{sup 2}{congruent}10{sup {minus}4} eV{sup 2}. There remain the MSW theory with a small {Delta}{ital m}{sup 2}{congruent}10{sup {minus}7} eV{sup 2} or the assumption of unexpectedly low central temperature in the Sun. A decision between these two alternatives will be possible on the basis of the future gallium experiment, and the Sudbury experiment with heavy water.

  18. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  19. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  20. A Pharmacogenetics Service Experience for Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R.; Wong, Shan S.; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. Design. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Assessment. Students’, residents’, and fellows’ achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. Conclusion. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics. PMID:24159216

  1. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old

  2. A Horrible Experiment.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael H

    2015-07-01

    A patient presented to my office who had been tortured in the course of a wartime medical experiment many years ago. Seeing him prompted me to explore my personal reaction to his case and to reflect on the history of the ethics of medical experimentation in the 20th century. PMID:25855417

  3. Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and

  4. Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

    1970-01-01

    Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.

  5. Rocket Auroral Correlator Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBelle, James

    2003-01-01

    Dartmouth College provided a multi-channel high- and low- frequency wave receivers, including active sensors on deployable booms, to the Rocket Auroral Correlator Experiment launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, in January 2002. College also performed preliminary analysis of the data. Details are outlined in chronological order.

  6. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  7. Chlorine solar neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.K.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The chlorine solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine is described and the results obtained with the chlorine detector over the last fourteen years are summarized and discussed. Background processes producing /sup 37/Ar and the question of the constancy of the production rate of /sup 37/Ar are given special emphasis.

  8. A Vibrating String Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Russev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    A simple experiment demonstrating the excitation of a standing wave in a metal string is presented here. Several tasks using the set-up are considered, which help the students to better understand the standing waves, the interaction between electric current and magnetic field and the resonance phenomena. This can serve also as a good lecture…

  9. Experiments with Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a hands-on experiment that covers many areas of high school mathematics. Included are the notions of patterns, proof, triangular numbers and various aspects of problem solving. The problem involves the arrangements of a school of fish using split peas or buttons to represent the fish. (Contains 4 figures.)

  10. The Experience of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruble, Diane N.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examines reactions to menarche and the subsequent effects of this experience as a function of preparation for and timing of menarche. A questionnaire including measures of responses about first menstruation, current symptoms, and self-image was completed by 639 girls in fifth through twelfth grades. (Author/MP)

  11. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  12. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the following: use and construction of a lens-pinhole spatial filter assembly to produce expanded beams; how to modify a unilab V. L. F. oscillator to give variable frequencies between .1 Hz and 10 Hz; to use Crookes radiometer quantitatively; and an externally located, movable probe for plasma physics experiments, using conventional

  13. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guiseppe, V.E.; Keller, C.; Mei, D-M; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, G.; Thomas, K.; Xiang, W.; Zhang, C.; Aalseth, C.E.; Aguayo, E.; Ely, J.; Fast, J.E.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hossbach, T.W.; Keillor, M.; Kephart, J.D.; Kouzes, R.; Miley, H.S.; Mizouni, L.; Myers, A.W.; Reid, D.; Amman, M.; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J.A.; Loach, J.C.; Luke, P.N.; Martin, R.D.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Vetter, K.; Yaver, H.; Avignone, F.T. III; Creswick, R.; Farach, H.; Mizouni, L.; Avignone, Frank Titus; Bertrand Jr, Fred E; Capps, Gregory L; Cooper, Reynold J; Radford, David C; Varner Jr, Robert L; Wilkerson, John F; Yu, Chang-Hong; Back, H.O.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.R.; Back , H.O.; Bai, X.; Hong, H.; Howard, S.; Medlin, D.; Sobolev, V.; Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V.; Barbeau, P.S.; Collar, J.I.; Fields, N.; Boswell , M.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, M.; Burritt , T.H.; Burritt , T.H.; Busch, M.; Esterline, J.; Swift, G.; Tornow, W.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, M.; Shima, T.; Finnerty , P.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  14. The Airplane Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

  15. Microcomputer Controlled Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, John; Knaggs, David

    1982-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-controlled system which determines the current/voltage characteristics of a resistor, lamp, and diode, detailing system elements, construction, and providing printout of the program developed to provide control and arithmetic functions necessary to complete the experiment. (SK)

  16. Personal Experiences of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    2010-01-01

    This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen

  17. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, P. H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Introduces three physics experiments for high school and college classes. Topics include measuring the ratio of heat capacities using a microcomputer and a glass syringe, producing large electric sparks using a variation of a Leyden bucket, and observing transmission line behavior using television signals. Includes descriptions of materials and

  18. Ice forming experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.

    1982-01-01

    A low gravity experiment to assess the effect of the presence of supercooled cloud droplets on the diffusional growth rate of ice crystals is described. The theoretical work and the feasibility studies are summarized. The nucleation of ice crystals in supercooled clouds is also discussed.

  19. Experiments in ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Stephen M.; Guerin, Clark L.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a phenomenon called Extrasensory Perception (ESP) whereby information is gained directly by the mind without the use of the ordinary senses. Experiments in ESP and the basic equipment and methods are presented. Statistical evaluation of ESP experimental results are also included. (HM)

  20. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  1. Self managing experiment resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Ubeda, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Roiser, S.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.

    2014-06-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  2. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,

  3. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  4. Experiments on Photoconductivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted experiments with CdS and CdSe photoresistors are described. The most important characteristics of the photoresistors are determined: (i) the spectral response, (ii) the photocurrent versus incident radiant power, (iii) the rise and decay time constants and (iv) the frequency response to modulated light. The photoconductivity gain

  5. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith; Marcotte, Ryan

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight-ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCAN 2 program. The microgravity ignition experiment is designed to study how a microgravity environment affects the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. A microgravity environment will result in a decrease in the heat transferred from the sample due to a lack of convection currents, which would decrease time to ignition. A lack of convection current would also cause the oxygen supply at the sample not to be renewed, which could delay or even prevent ignition. When this experiment is conducted aboard GASCAN 2, the dominant result of the lack of ignition will be determined. The experiment consists of four canisters containing four thermocouples and a sensor to detect ignition of the paper sample. This year the interior of the canister was redesigned and a mathematical model of the heat transfer around the sample was developed. This heat transfer model predicts an ignition time of approximately 5.5 seconds if the decrease of heat loss from the sample is the dominant factor of the lack of convection currents.

  6. ATA beam director experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.

    1986-06-23

    This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)

  7. Learning Through Group Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottaway, A.K.C.

    This book recounts experiments with small groups of social workers and teachers who came together in order to improve their understanding of human relations and personality development. The technique employed can be called non-directive tutoring, and is a type of group-centered discussion. The role of the leader is to clarify and interpret what is

  8. Experimenting with Liquid Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, J. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Outlined are two experiments using liquid membranes that illustrate carrier-facilitated transport, where chemical species are ushered across the membrane by selective "carrier" molecules residing in the membrane. The use of liquid membranes as models for studying and describing biological transport mechanisms is explored. (CS)

  9. Examining Latina College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.

  10. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Described are the purposes, laboratory set-ups, and procedures of four classroom experiments: ultrasound speedometer; vibrating-bar depth gauge; folding three-dimensional model of equipotential surfaces; and a simple optical system for the reconstruction of images from computer-generated holograms. Diagrams and pictures are provided. (YP)

  11. The OLYMPUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, R.; Hasell, D. K.; Kohl, M.; Schneekloth, U.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Andreev, V. A.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bernauer, J. C.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Buck, B.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; De Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Glser, B.; Grrissen, N.; Hauschildt, J.; Henderson, B. S.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ice, L. D.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Khaneft, D.; Klassen, P.; Kiselev, A.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; O'Connor, C.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodrguez Pieiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Russell, R. L.; Schmidt, A.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.

    2014-03-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment was designed to measure the ratio between the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross-sections, with the goal of determining the contribution of two-photon exchange to the elastic cross-section. Two-photon exchange might resolve the discrepancy between measurements of the proton form factor ratio, ?pGEp/GMp, made using polarization techniques and those made in unpolarized experiments. OLYMPUS operated on the DORIS storage ring at DESY, alternating between 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams incident on an internal hydrogen gas target. The experiment used a toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight detectors to measure rates for elastic scattering over the polar angular range of approximately 25-75. Symmetric Mller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29 and telescopes of GEM and MWPC detectors at 12 served as luminosity monitors. A total luminosity of approximately 4.5 fb-1 was collected over two running periods in 2012. This paper provides details on the accelerator, target, detectors, and operation of the experiment.

  12. Language Experience Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Allen, Roach; Allen, Claryce

    This book contains more than 250 language-experience activities, designed for use in classrooms where individualized programs require a variety of materials and a wide range of learning tasks. Intended for use as a resource text for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for inservice teachers at the elementary level, the book provides

  13. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  14. Aesthetigrams: Mapping Aesthetic Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Boyd

    1998-01-01

    Describes a strategy for heightening university students' awareness within aesthetic encounters. The purpose of these "aesthetigrams" is to improve teaching and learning of aesthetics-in-the-classroom. Discusses research goals, and addresses the possibility of defining "aesthetic experience" based on student records of their encounters. (DSK)

  15. [Environmental Education Experiences].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke County Board of Education, Morganton, NC.

    Environmental/ecological experiences, appropriate for elementary grades, are presented in this compilation. Designed as individual units of study, they consider components of the natural environment and in particular the local environment of Burke County, North Carolina. Units are titled: Burke County in a Nutshell, Our Culture, A Tour of the

  16. Experimenting with Electric Trains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include

  17. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  18. Caretaker's Experiences of RPL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Recognition of prior learning (RPL) involves an idea of "making learning visible"--of valuing knowledge irrespective of how, when and where it is learnt. This is a phenomenographic analysis of how a group of caretakers from a Swedish property management company experience participation in an RPL initiative focusing on their vocational competence.…

  19. An NMR Kinetics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Don; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages of and provides background information, procedures, and typical student data for an experiment determining rate of hydration of p-methyoxyphenylacetylene (III), followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction rate can be adjusted to meet time framework of a particular laboratory by altering concentration of

  20. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  1. Experimenting with Guitar Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2006-11-01

    What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a nonmathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

  2. INTERNATIONAL SODAR INTERCOMPARISON EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents preliminary results from the International Sodar Intercomparison Experiment (ISlE) conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in September 1988. wenty-minute mean wind speeds and directions from a variety of sodar systems compare well with measurements on...

  3. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  4. Experiments with Aspirin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments that can be used to demonstrate how aspirin can be synthesized and characterized, how the hydrolysis of aspirin can be used as an introduction to kinetics, and how coordination chemistry (chelation) can be introduced by preparing and characterizing the copper complexes of aspirin and salicylic acid. (Contains over

  5. The ALARM Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhardt, Ira

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted over three recent semesters of an introductory calculus course to test whether it was possible to quantify the effect that difficulty with basic algebraic and arithmetic computation had on individual performance. Points lost during the term were classified as being due to either algebraic and arithmetic mistakes…

  6. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  7. Experiment with Conical Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tongaonkar, S. S.; Khadse, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Conical pendulum is similar to simple pendulum with the difference that the bob, instead of moving back and forth, swings around in a horizontal circle. Thus, in a conical pendulum the bob moves at a constant speed in a circle with the string tracing out a cone. This paper describes an experiment with conical pendulum, with determination of g from…

  8. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  9. The ALARM Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhardt, Ira

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted over three recent semesters of an introductory calculus course to test whether it was possible to quantify the effect that difficulty with basic algebraic and arithmetic computation had on individual performance. Points lost during the term were classified as being due to either algebraic and arithmetic mistakes

  10. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent

  11. [Near-death experiences].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2011-03-01

    Near-death experiences (NDE) are lucid events that take place when a person is so physically compromised that he would die if its condition does not improve. He is unconscious, without heartbeats and breath, and with a flat-line electroencephalogram. NDE may include some of the following elements: Out of the body experiences or separation of consciousness from the physical body, increase in sensory perception and intense emotions, travel into or through a tunnel, encounter with a brilliant light and mystical beings, deceased relatives or friends, a sense of alteration in time and space, visualization of unworldly realms and a special knowledge, encounter with a barrier or boundary, and a return to the body, either voluntary or involuntary. The fact that children NDE are similar to adult NDE is an evidence that these experiences are real and not due to pre-existing beliefs, cultural influences or previous experiences in the present life. The characteristics of NDE are similar worldwide. No evidence supports the physiological, psychological, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical hypothesis proposed to explain the NDE. Multifactorial models, based on the combination of all of them (brain anoxia or hypoxia, release of serotonin, endorphins and ketamine-like compounds) have also been proposed. Although physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors could interact in the NDE, the hypothesis proposed consist essentially in unsupported speculations about what might be happening during the NDE. PMID:21614815

  12. Microheater Array Boiling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

    2002-01-01

    By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. Data from KC-135 and sounding rocket experiments indicate little effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble, surrounded by smaller satellite bubbles, moved over the surface, occasionally causing nucleation. Once formed, the primary bubble size remained constant for a given superheat, indicating evaporation at the bubble base is balanced with condensation on the bubble cap. The primary bubble's size increased with wall superheat. Most heaters under the primary bubble had low heat transfer rates, suggesting liquid dryout. Strong Marangoni convection developed in microgravity, forming a 'jet' into the bulk liquid that forced the bubble onto the heater. An experiment is being designed for the. Microgravity Science Glovebox. This experiment uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 and 7.0 mm in size. These heaters are individually controlled to operate at a constant temperature, measuring local heat fluxes as a function of time and space. Most boiling experiments operate at constant wall heat flux with larger heaters, allowing only time and space-averaged measurements. Each heater is about the bubble departure size in normal gravity, but significantly smaller than the bubble departure size in reduced gravity.

  13. Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

  14. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  15. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

    2011-08-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  16. Four Experiments on Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Daniel

    Four experiments on speech reception and speech production in deaf children are reported. In study 1, conversations of seven deaf children (6 to 12 years old) were recorded and analyzed, indicating that their speech was no less intelligible than their normally hearing peers. The deaf children had received 3 or more years of parent/infant training.…

  17. Kelp growth experiments

    SciTech Connect

    North, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Harvest yields obtainable from giant kelp plants that are adequately fertilized were investigated. The following topics are discussed: desirable characteristics in a candidate macroalga, and giant kelp as a candidate macroalga for ocean farming. Nutrient requirements, field experiments, and approaches to acquiring yield data are reviewed. (MHR)

  18. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a

  19. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  20. Review of PEP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, G.

    1983-03-01

    Recent physics results from four PEP experiments: Mark II, MAC, DELCO, and TPC are presented herewith. The topics discussed deal with flavor tagging of charmed and bottom quarks, tau and D/sup 0/ lifetimes, Electroweak interference effects, searches for new particles and dE/dx measurements.

  1. Experiences in Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Scott; Clem, Joe; Battino, Wendy; Richter, Kurt; Reigeluth, Charles; Doll, Marcelle; Moore, Julie; Hoo, Janet; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This section describes the systemic change experiences in Norfolk Public Schools, Chugach School District, Indianapolis Metropolitan School District of Decatur Township, Ditmas Educational Complex, Georgia Systemic Teacher Education Program, Sun Microsystems, and Azerbaijan. It provides a description of the change process and discusses the

  2. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  3. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler

  4. The Huck Finn Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Bonnie; And Others

    This paper describes "The Huck Finn Experience," a high motivation interdisciplinary unit that takes students on a 6-week journey back to the life and times of Mark Twain through the fictional character of Huckleberry Finn. The unit described in the paper was designed for eighth-grade students but could be easily adapted to be successful with…

  5. Virtual Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

    2011-01-01

    Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of…

  6. Junctional Tourniquet Training Experience.

    PubMed

    Kragh, John F; Geracci, James J; Parsons, Donald L; Robinson, John B; Biever, Kimberlie A; Rein, Erling B; Glassberg, Elon; Strandenes, Geir; Chen, Jacob; Benov, Avi; Marcozzi, David; Shackelford, Stacy; Cox, Kevin M; Mann-Salinas, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, out-of-hospital care of junctional hemorrhage bleeding from the trunk-appendage junctions has changed, in part, due to the newly available junctional tourniquets (JTs) that have been cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration. Given four new models of JT available in 2014, several military services have begun to acquire, train, or even use such JTs in care. The ability of users to be trained in JT use has been observed by multiple instructors. The experience of such instructors has been broad as a group, but their experience as individuals has been neither long nor deep. A gathering into one source of the collective experience of trainers of JT users could permit a collation of useful information to include lessons learned, tips in skill performance, identification of pitfalls of use to avoid, and strategies to optimize user learning. The purpose of the present review is to record the experiences of several medical personnel in their JT training of users to provide a guide for future trainers. PMID:26360350

  7. NASSC: A Businessman's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundell, C. Reid

    1992-01-01

    From a businessman's viewpoint, the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) offers a singular opportunity to help this nation create a Saturn-like experience for education, school by school. As Saturn revolutionized the way cars are built, NASDC can revolutionize the way children are taught. The 11 winning projects have real potential

  8. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables

  9. Experiments on Photoconductivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted experiments with CdS and CdSe photoresistors are described. The most important characteristics of the photoresistors are determined: (i) the spectral response, (ii) the photocurrent versus incident radiant power, (iii) the rise and decay time constants and (iv) the frequency response to modulated light. The photoconductivity gain…

  10. Language Experience Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Allen, Roach; Allen, Claryce

    This book contains more than 250 language-experience activities, designed for use in classrooms where individualized programs require a variety of materials and a wide range of learning tasks. Intended for use as a resource text for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for inservice teachers at the elementary level, the book provides…

  11. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and

  12. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  13. Carbon monoxide pollution experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortner, M. H.; Dick, R.; Goldstein, H. W.; Grenda, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment is designed to obtain data for the investigation of mechanisms by which CO is removed from the earth's atmosphere. The approach uses an orbiting platform to remotely map global CO concentrations and determine vertical CO profiles using a correlation interferometer measurement technique. The instrument is capable of measuring CO over the range of expected atmospheric burdens and of measuring trace atmospheric constituents.

  14. Experiments with Aspirin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments that can be used to demonstrate how aspirin can be synthesized and characterized, how the hydrolysis of aspirin can be used as an introduction to kinetics, and how coordination chemistry (chelation) can be introduced by preparing and characterizing the copper complexes of aspirin and salicylic acid. (Contains over…

  15. Virtual Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

    2011-01-01

    Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of

  16. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  17. Enhance Your Twitter Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shannon McClintock

    2010-01-01

    The author has been encouraging teachers, students, and others to join Twitter and build their personal learning networks (PLNs) ever since she delved into this great social networking site. In this article, she offers a few other tools and tips that can improve the Twitter experience of those who have opened up an account and dabbled a bit but…

  18. JPL solar power experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Report describes evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial use. Discussion focuses on technological problems impeding further systems development. Experiments and test data on seven types of solar panels and six material test specimens are described in detail.

  19. Experimenting with Guitar Strings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a non-mathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

  20. Experiences of Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration,

  1. Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the final experiment report for the TCSE and summarizes many years of hardware development and analyses. Also included are analyses presented in a number of TCSE papers that were prepared and given at scientific conferences including three LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposiums.

  2. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    An experiment on cooling by convection, holographic processes achieved using optical fibers and observation of magnetic domains are described. Also describes four demonstrations: mechanical resonance on air track, independence of horizontal/vertical motion, motion of sphere in fluid medium, and light scattering near the critical point. (JN)

  3. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects

  4. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

  5. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

  6. Return flux experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    1992-01-01

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  7. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  8. The NEMO-3 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlka, R. B.; NEMO-3 Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The NEMO-3 (Neutrino Ettore Majorana Observatory) experiment, located in the Modane Underground Laboratory, is currently searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???). The experiment has been taking data since 2003 with seven double beta isotopes and is scheduled to complete data acquisition in late 2010. Two neutrino double beta decay (2???) results for the main isotopes (7 kg of 100Mo and 1 kg of 82Se), new results for 150Nd, as well as results for 96Zr, 48Ca, 130Te and 116Cd are presented. NEMO-3 uses a unique technique that allows for the in situ measurement of background contamination. No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay has been found to date. The data are also interpreted in terms of alternative models such as weak right-handed currents and Majoron emission.

  9. Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Caffrey, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building the Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE), a reconfigurable processor payload intended for a Low Earth Orbit system. It will survey portions of the VHF and UHF radio spectra. The experiment uses networks of reprogrammable, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to process the received signals for ionospheric and lightning studies. The objective is to validate the on-orbit use of commercial, reconfigurable FPGA technology utilizing several different single-event upset mitigation schemes. It will also detect and measure impulsive events that occur in a complex background. Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd (SSTL) is building the small host satellite, CFESat, based upon SSTL's disaster monitoring constellation (DMC) and Topsat mission satellite designs. The CFESat satellite will be launched by the Space Test Program in September 2006 on the US Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) using the EELV's Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) that allows up to six small satellites to be launched as 'piggyback' passengers with larger spacecraft.

  10. Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dentrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle flights (STS-62, STS-75, and STS-87) of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dentrites. Shown here is a cutaway of the isothermal bath containing its growth cell at the heart of the TDSE. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Note: an Acrobat PDF version is available from http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery

  11. The ISPM dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, L. D.; Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Schwehm, G.; Zook, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The ISPM Dust Experiment observes particulate matter with masses between 10 to the minus 19th power and 10 to the minus 10th power kg in the solar system; investigates its physical and dynamical properties as a function of ecliptic latitude and heliocentric distance; and studies its interaction with solar radiation, the solar wind, and the interplanetary magnetic field. Measurement of the three dimensional spatial distribution of cosmic dust particles and their dynamics allows the relative significance of their probable sources (comets, asteroids and interstellar dust) to be determined. An instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles is used. It is a multicoincidence detector with a sensitivity 100,000 times higher than that of previous experiments. The instrument weighs 3.750 kg, consumes 2.0 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 8 bit/sec in spacecraft tracking mode.

  12. Computer Experience of Nurses.

    PubMed

    Schleder Gonalves, Luciana; Cndida Castro, Talita; Fialek, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the computing experience of nurses in southern Brazil, through exploratory survey research. The results, which were obtained from the application of The Staggers Nursing Computer Experience Questionnaire, were analyzed by statistical tests. The survey was conducted with nurses working both in hospitals, as in public health, in a capital in southern Brazil. There is the predominance of novice nurses in the application of computer tools in their practices but most often declare the use the computers to develop their professional and also personal life activities. We conclude that the computer and health information systems are part of the working reality of the participants, being considered indispensable resources his activity, while noting limitations on the potential use of these tools. This study reflects on how the issue has been addressed in educational schools and the challenges of inclusion of the theme of Nursing Informatics in the curricula in Brazil. PMID:26262313

  13. Vibration isolation technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end of a shuttle-attached flexible structure such as MAST. The disturbance generator, located on top of the isolation system, will be energized at selected and broadband frequencies to simulate a typical spacecraft vibration environment. Sensors located on the isolation system and the flexible structures element will be used to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system.

  14. The Stanford gyroscope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, C. W. F.

    1971-01-01

    Gyroscopes in motion about a massive body are found to have two main effects: (1) geodetic effect, solely due to motion of the gyroscope about the earth and (2) motional effect, due to earth rotation. An experiment is proposed to measure the precession rate of one or more gyroscopes, mounted either on earth or in a satellite, with respect to the axis of a telescope pointing at a suitable fixed star. The procedures and apparatus to be used in this experiment are outlined; the error analysis is summarized. The relation of error to size, speed, and mechanical properties of rotor is presented, along with the design requirements for accuracy of 10 to the -16th power rad/s.

  15. The PHOBOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    PHOBOS is an experiment designed to study Au-Au collisions at RHIC. The apparatus consists of a 4{pi} multiplicity array and two spectrometer arms. The experiment is designed to measure the polar and azimuthal angles of most particles produced in the collisions and whether they are charged particles or photons. For approximately 1% of these particles, the two spectrometer arms will measure their properties in great detail. This includes many of the particles near mid-rapidity which are expected to show the most striking effects of any new physics which may occur. PHOBOS has proceeded from the Letter of Intent stage through Proposal and Conceptual Design Review to Construction Approval. It is anticipated that data taking will commence in 1999 when RHIC first provides beam.

  16. Analysis of NIF experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ming

    2015-06-01

    A minimal energy implosion-scaling model was recently developed to characterize the physical properties of the hot spot in terms of the peak implosion energy. In this model, the hot spot energy, volume, pressure, mass and areal density at the stagnation time are uniquely determined by the peak implosion velocity, the equation of state and the adiabat of the pusher and the DT fuel (cold and hot) at the peak implosion time. In this work, we apply this model to a number of published low-foot and high-foot experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility. Our model analysis is in a good agreement with the experimental data when a high adiabat is assumed for both low and high foot experiments. Implications of the results are discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  17. Experiments with probe masses

    PubMed Central

    Braginsky, V. B.

    2007-01-01

    It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational charges on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented. PMID:17296944

  18. The GLORIA demonstrator experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcher, A.; ?wiek, A.; ?wiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Zaremba, M.; ?arnecki, A. F.

    2013-10-01

    GLORIA stands for "GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array" and it is the first free and open-access network of robotic telescopes on the world. Based on a Web 2.0 environment amateur and professional users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes, and/or analyzing data acquired with GLORIA, or from other free access databases. GLORIA project develops free standards, protocols and tools for controlling Robotic Telescopes and related instrumentation, for scheduling observations in the telescope network, and for conducting so-called off-line experiments based on the analysis of astronomical data. This contribution summarizes the implementation and results from the first research level off-line demonstrator experiment implemented in GLORIA, which was base on the data collected with the "Pi of the Sky" telescope in Chile.

  19. Collaborative engagement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullens, Katherine; Troyer, Bradley; Wade, Robert; Skibba, Brian; Dunn, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts within the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) to provide a picture of the future of unmanned warfare. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL/MLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle experiments for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This paper describes the work by these organizations to date and outlines some of the plans for future work.

  20. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions