Note: This page contains sample records for the topic slsf experiment p4 from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Post-test examination observations for the W-2 SLSF experiment. [Sodium Loop Safety Facility  

SciTech Connect

Gamma scanning measurements revealed that the axial power profile in these test trains was more peaked than expected based on pretest calculations and critical facility measurements. These results implied that the thermal flux incident on the test assembly was greater than expected, which was manifested in highly skewed and extensive fuel melting zones in the outer pin fuel pellets. Observations indicated that the extent of fuel melting near the midplane exceeded 90% of the pellet radius in some of the outer fuel pins toward the end of the overpower transient, with penetration of molten fuel to the cladding inner surface. It is postulated that this extensive fuel melting and penetration combined with bowing-induced high temperature oscillations to produce the initial disruptive failure in an outer pin at the midplane. Subsequent failure events were induced by the inrush of argon fill gas following rupture of the fluted duct tube. Up to one-third of the total fuel inventory was expelled from the test pin bundle into the coolant channels, with substantial upward sweepout of the ejected fuel noted in the post-test examination. The overall nature of the failure event was judged to be relatively nonviolent, based largely on the survival of unclad, free standing fuel pellet columns in the upper levels of the test section. The observed midplane failure in the W-2 experiment has been attributed to conditions unique to the test. These conditions would not exist in full-size LMFBR fuel assemblies, for which fuel pin failure under slow, unprotected TOP conditions would be expected by a different mode at a higher elevation.

Pitner, A.L.; Smith, D.E; Culley, G.E.

1983-09-01

2

THE P4 MOLECULE AND P4H ION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental findings as well as quantum chemical calculations indicate that the P4 molecule has a remarkably low nucleophilicity. The P4H+ ion is predicted to have a ‘proton at apex’ configuration whereas a proton in the centre seems to be metastable. The influence of d orbitals on the stability of P4 against 2 P2 and 1\\/2 P8, the photoelectron spectrum, and

E. Fluck; C. M. E. Pavlidou; R. Janoschek

1979-01-01

3

Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania.

2012-01-01

4

Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 Experiment Fuel Pin Rupture Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. Th...

M. A. Hoffman T. L. Kirchner S. C. Meyers

1980-01-01

5

W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment centerline fuel thermocouple performance. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment is the fifth in a series of experiments sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the National Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Safety Assurance Program. The experiments are being conducted under the direction of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The irradiation phase of the W-1 SLSF experiment was conducted between May 27 and July 20, 1979, and terminated with incipient fuel pin cladding failure during the final boiling transient. Experimental hardware and facility performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and test objectives. This paper focuses on high temperature in-fuel thermocouples and discusses their development, fabrication, and performance in the W-1 experiment.

Meyers, S.C.; Henderson, J.M.

1980-05-01

6

W-1 SLSF post-test data analysis. Part 1. Thermal hydraulic analysis. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Four types of tests were performed: (1) a decay heat transient test, (2) Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) tests, (3) Boiling Window Tests (BWT), and (4) a fuel pin dryout and failure test. In addition, preliminary tests were run to check systems performance, instrumentation performance and test section heat balance. The objective of the decay heat test was to determine the decay heat transfer characteristics of fresh fuel pins with subcooled sodium. The objective of the LOPI experiments was to test the thermal behavior of fuel pins with four different fuel conditions subjected to the same transient. The transient was designed to simulate a rapid flow decrease as a result of pipe rupture followed by a reactor scram. The objective of the Boiling Window Tests was to study boiling initiation and progression of boiling within the fuel pin bundle.

Knight, D.D.

1980-10-01

7

P4p: provider portal for applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As peer-to-peer (P2P) emerges as a major paradigm for scalable network application design, it also exposes significant new chal- lenges in achieving efficient and fair utilization of Internet network resources. Being largely network-oblivious, many P2P applications may lead to inefficient network resource usage and\\/or low applica- tion performance. In this paper, we propose a simple architecture called P4P to allow

Haiyong Xie; Yang Richard Yang; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Yanbin Grace Liu; Abraham Silberschatz

2008-01-01

8

Thermal Analysis of a Six-Channel Heat-Generating Blockage in an LMFBR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a case study of the temperature fields within and around a six-channel blockage designed as a molten-fuel-release initiator in SLSF-P4, an in-reactor experiment (37-mixed-oxide pin bundle) planned for February, 1981, irradiation. To me...

D. K. Warinner D. H. Y. Chao

1980-01-01

9

P4 ATPases: Flippases in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

P4 ATPases catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of biological membranes, a process termed “lipid flipping”. Accumulating evidence obtained in lower eukaryotes points to an important role for P4 ATPases in vesicular protein trafficking. The human genome encodes fourteen P4 ATPases (fifteen in mouse) of which the cellular and physiological functions are slowly emerging. Thus far, deficiencies of at least two P4 ATPases, ATP8B1 and ATP8A2, are the cause of severe human disease. However, various mouse models and in vitro studies are contributing to our understanding of the cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases. This review summarizes current knowledge on the basic function of these phospholipid translocating proteins, their proposed action in intracellular vesicle transport and their physiological role.

van der Mark, Vincent A.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

2013-01-01

10

Fig mosaic emaravirus p4 protein is involved in cell-to-cell movement.  

PubMed

Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a member of the newly formed genus Emaravirus, is a segmented negative-strand RNA virus. Each of the six genomic FMV segments contains a single ORF: that of RNA4 encodes the protein p4. FMV-p4 is presumed to be the movement protein (MP) of the virus; however, direct experimental evidence for this is lacking. We assessed the intercellular distribution of FMV-p4 in plant cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy and we found that FMV-p4 was localized to plasmodesmata and to the plasma membrane accompanied by tubule-like structures. A series of experiments designed to examine the movement functions revealed that FMV-p4 has the capacity to complement viral cell-to-cell movement, prompt GFP diffusion between cells, and spread by itself to neighbouring cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrated that FMV-p4 shares several properties with other viral MPs and plays an important role in cell-to-cell movement. PMID:23152372

Ishikawa, Kazuya; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Netsu, Osamu; Keima, Takuya; Shiraishi, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

2013-03-01

11

Infection systems biology: from reactive to proactive (P4) medicine.  

PubMed

This short review establishes the conceptual bases and discusses the principal aspects of P4-shorthand for predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-medicine, in the framework of infectious diseases. P4 medicine is a new way to approach medical care; instead of acting when the patient is sick, physicians will be able to detect early warnings of disease to take early action. Furthermore, people might even be able to adjust their lifestyles to prevent disease. P4 medicine is fuelled by systems approaches to disease, including methods for personalized genome sequencing and new computational techniques for building dynamic disease predictive networks from massive amounts of data from a variety of OMICs. An excellent example of the effectiveness of the P4 medicine approach is the change in cancer treatments. Emphasis is placed on early detection, followed by genotyping of the patient to use the most adequate treatment according to the genetic background. Cardiovascular diseases and perhaps even neurodegenerative disorders will be the next targets for P4 medicine. The application of P4 medicine to infectious diseases is still in its infancy, but is a promising field that will provide much benefit to both the patients and the health-care system. PMID:22847266

Bengoechea, José A

2012-06-01

12

Van der Waals interaction between P4 molecules: Density functional theory calculations with dispersion correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the structural and the binding properties of tetrahedral P4 molecular pairs by employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations using both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). To consider the van der Waals interaction, we employed the GGA with dispersion correction, specifically Grimme's approach (DFT-D2). This DFT-D2 in conjunction with the GGA (GGA-D2) well fixes the failure of the GGA in reproducing a reasonable binding energy curve. The binding energy and the equilibrium intermolecular distance are found to be in close correlation with the number of adjacent atomic pairs between two molecules. Application of the LDA and the GGA-D2 to a molecular crystal ?-P4 and comparison with experiments confirms that the GGA-D2 should be used for a reliable description of P4-based molecular systems.

Noh, Ji-Young; Kim, Hanchul

2012-02-01

13

DpD(p+4) in noncommutative Yang-Mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anti-self-dual instanton solution in Yang-Mills theory on noncommutative Bbb R4 with an anti-self-dual noncommutative parameter is constructed. The solution is constructed by the ADHM construction and it can be treated in the framework of the IIB matrix model. In the IIB matrix model, this solution is interpreted as a system of a Dp-brane and D(p+4)-branes, with the Dp-brane dissolved

Furuuchi Kazuyuki

2001-01-01

14

DpD(p+4) in Noncommutative Yang-Mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anti-self-dual instanton solution in Yang-Mills theory on noncommutative ${\\\\R}^4$ with an anti-self-dual noncommutative parameter is constructed. The solution is constructed by the ADHM construction and it can be treated in the framework of the IIB matrix model. In the IIB matrix model, this solution is interpreted as a system of a Dp-brane and D(p+4)-branes, with the Dp-brane dissolved in

Kazuyuki Furuuchi

2000-01-01

15

Systems biology and p4 medicine: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a "one gene or one protein" at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which "biology drives technology drives computation." To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another's languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this "systems" approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other "omics" is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes) for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.). The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to detect and treat perturbations in healthy individuals long before disease symptoms appear, thus optimizing the wellness of individuals and avoiding disease. P4 medicine will 1) improve health care, 2) reduce the cost of health care, and 3) stimulate innovation and new company creation. Health care is not the only subject that can benefit from such integrative, cross-disciplinary, and systems-driven platforms and cultures. Many other challenges plaguing our planet, such as energy, environment, nutrition, and agriculture can be transformed by using such an integrated and systems-driven approach. PMID:23908862

Hood, Leroy

2013-04-01

16

p4-Linda: A portable implementation of Linda  

SciTech Connect

Facilities such as interprocess communication and protection of shared resources have been added to operating systems to support multiprogramming and have since been adapted to exploit explicit multiprocessing within the scope of two models: the shared-memory model and the distributed (message-passing) model. When multiprocessors (or networks of heterogeneous processors) are used for explicit parallelism, the difference between these models is exposed to the programmer. The p4 tool set was originally developed to buffer the programmer from synchronization issues while offering an added advantage in portability, however two models are often still needed to develop parallel algorithms. We provide two implementations of Linda in an attempt to support a single high-level programming model on top of the existing paradigms in order to provide a consistent semantics regardless of the underlying model. Linda`s fundamental properties associated with generative communication eliminate the distinction between shared and distributed memory.

Butler, R.M.; Leveton, A.L. [University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States). Div. of Computer and Information Science; Lusk, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-07-01

17

Sodium Loop Safety Facility W-2 experiment fuel pin rupture detection system. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-2 experiment is to characterize the combined effects of a preconditioned full-length fuel column and slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions on breeder reactor (BR) fuel pin cladding failures. The W-2 experiment will meet this objective by providing data in two technological areas: (1) time and location of cladding failure, and (2) early post-failure test fuel behavior. The test involves a seven pin, prototypic full-length fast test reactor (FTR) fuel pin bundle which will be subjected to a simulated unprotected 5 cents/s reactivity transient overpower event. The outer six pins will provide the necessary prototypic thermal-hydraulic environment for the center pin.

Hoffman, M.A.; Kirchner, T.L.; Meyers, S.C.

1980-05-01

18

Energy levels of Pr 3+ in CsPrP 4O 12 and RbPrP 4O 12 cyclotetraphosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of CsPrP 4O 12 and RbPrP 4O 12 cyclotetraphosphates were grown using the flux method. CsPrP 4O 12 crystallizes in the cubic I-43d space group whereas RbPrP 4O 12 crystallizes either in the cubic I-43d or monoclinic C2/c space group. The Pr 3+ ions occupy sites of S 4 and C 2 symmetries in the cubic and monoclinic phases, respectively, with an eightfold coordination in both phases. The present work reports on an analysis of the Pr 3+ 4f 2 energy level diagram based on the low temperature fluorescence spectra under laser selective excitation in the 3P 2 states of the cubic CsPrP 4O 12 and monoclinic RbPrP 4O 12 compounds. The experimental energy levels are fitted using the SPECTRA program available on the Argonne National Laboratory website. The best fits lead to standard deviations in the order of 28 and 21 cm -1 for the CsPrP 4O 12 and RbPrP 4O 12 materials, respectively.

Horchani, K.; Gâcon, J. C.; Ferid, M.; Trabelsi-Ayedi, M.; Krachni, O.; Liu, G. K.

2003-10-01

19

The Top 10 Things I LOVE about p4c Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, Dr. Thomas Jackson, or Dr. J as the author and her colleagues affectionately call him, spoke to the faculty at Waikiki Elementary. He described philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i and encouraged them to try P4C if something about it "resonated" with them. In the beginning, Dr. J held a p4t (philosophy for teachers) after-school seminar…

Ikeda, Jolyn

2012-01-01

20

Mechanisms of genome propagation and helper exploitation by satellite phage P4.  

PubMed Central

Temperate coliphage P2 and satellite phage P4 have icosahedral capsids and contractile tails with side tail fibers. Because P4 requires all the capsid, tail, and lysis genes (late genes) of P2, the genomes of these phages are in constant communication during P4 development. The P4 genome (11,624 bp) and the P2 genome (33.8 kb) share homologous cos sites of 55 bp which are essential for generating 19-bp cohesive ends but are otherwise dissimilar. P4 turns on the expression of helper phage late genes by two mechanisms: derepression of P2 prophage and transactivation of P2 late-gene promoters. P4 also exploits the morphopoietic pathway of P2 by controlling the capsid size to fit its smaller genome. The P4 sid gene product is responsible for capsid size determination, and the P2 capsid gene product, gpN, is used to build both sizes. The P2 capsid contains 420 capsid protein subunits, and P4 contains 240 subunits. The size reduction appears to involve a major change of the whole hexamer complex. The P4 particles are less stable to heat inactivation, unless their capsids are coated with a P4-encoded decoration protein (the psu gene product). P4 uses a small RNA molecule as its immunity factor. Expression of P4 replication functions is prevented by premature transcription termination effected by this small RNA molecule, which contains a sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the transcript that it terminates. Images

Lindqvist, B H; Deho, G; Calendar, R

1993-01-01

21

Lipoprotein e (P4) of Haemophilus influenzae: Role in heme utilization and pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Lipoprotein e (P4) of Haemophilus influenzae is a phosphomonoesterase, encoded by the hel gene, that has been implicated in the acquisition of heme by this fastidious organism. However, lipoprotein e (P4) is also involved in the utilization of NAD and NMN. Some reports have concluded that the reported heme-related growth defect actually reflects a growth defect for NAD. In the current study hel insertion mutants were constructed and a role for e (P4) in heme acquisition was demonstrated independent of its role in NAD or NMN acquisition. In addition a rat model of infection demonstrated a role for e (P4) in the pathogenesis of invasive disease.

Morton, Daniel J.; Smith, Ann; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Whitby, Paul W.; Stull, Terrence L.

2007-01-01

22

The Helicase Domain of Phage P4 a Protein Overlaps the Specific DNA Binding Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication initiation depends on origin recognition, helicase, and primase activities. In phage P4, a second DNA region, the cis replication region (crr), is also required for replication initiation. The multifunctional a protein of phage P4, which is essential for DNA replication, combines the three aforementioned activities on a single polypeptide chain. Protein domains responsible for the activities were identified by

GUNTER ZIEGELIN; RICHARD CALENDAR; RUDI LURZ; ERICH LANKA

1997-01-01

23

Synergism between cytotoxin P4 from the snake venom of Naja nigricollis nigricollis and various phospholipases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergism between the lytic activity of cytotoxin P4 isolated from the venom of Naja nigricollis nigricollis and various phospholipases (PLA) is demonstrated. The highest synergistic activity was obtained with one of the basic phospholipases found in the same venom. It was also shown between cytotoxin P4 and heterologous elapid and viperid snake phospholipases. Moreover, remarkable synergism was also demonstrated

Adina Chaim-Matyas; Gadi Borkow; Michael Ovadia

1995-01-01

24

p-(4-Azipentyl)-propofol: A Potent Photoreactive General Anesthetic Derivative of Propofol  

PubMed Central

We synthesized 2,6-Diisopropyl-4-[3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-propyl]-phenol (p-(4-azipentyl)-propofol), or p-4-AziC5-Pro, a novel photoactivable derivative of the general anesthetic propofol. p-4-AziC5-Pro has an anesthetic potency similar to propofol. Like propofol, the compound potentiates inhibitory GABAA receptor current responses and allosterically modulates binding to both agonist and benzodiazepine sites, assayed on heterologously expressed GABAA receptors. p-4-AziC5-Pro inhibits excitatory current responses of nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and photoincorporates into native nACh receptor-enriched Torpedo membranes. Thus p-4-AziC5-Pro is a functional general anesthetic that both modulates and photoincorporates into Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, making it an excellent candidate for use in identifying propofol binding sites.

Stewart, Deirdre S.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Dostalova, Zuzana; Chiara, David C.; Ge, Rile; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohne, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Miller, Keith W.

2013-01-01

25

Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in n-hexadecane compounds assimilation in the hydrocarbon degrading Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain  

PubMed Central

The petroleum-derived degrading Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 recently had its genome sequenced and annotated. This allowed employing the data on genes that are involved in the degradation of n-alkanes. To examine the physiological behavior of strain P4 in the presence of n-alkanes, the strain was grown under varying conditions of pH and temperature. D. cinnamea P4 was able to grow at pH 7.0–9.0 and at temperatures ranging from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. Experiments of gene expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR throughout the complete growth cycle clearly indicated the induction of the regulatory gene alkU (TetR family) during early growth. During the logarithmic phase, a large increase in transcriptional levels of a lipid transporter gene was noted. Also, the expression of a gene that encodes the protein fused rubredoxin-alkane monooxygenase was enhanced. Both genes are probably under the influence of the AlkU regulator.

Procopio, Luciano; de Cassia Pereira e Silva, Michele; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

2013-01-01

26

Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets.

Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

2014-01-01

27

ANALYSIS OF p-4, 6, 8He AND p-6, 9, 11Li SCATTERING  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Coulomb modified Glauber model, we analyze the elastic scattering of protons from He and Li isotopes at 60 MeV and 72 MeV. The calculations require two inputs; the nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitude and the nucleon density distributions in target nuclei. The central part of the NN amplitude is taken from the available NN scattering observables. To find the spin-dependent part, we employ p-4He scattering data to fix its parameter values. For target nuclei, we use nucleon density distributions available in the literature. The NN amplitude, as obtained in this work, is then used to study the sensitivity of the calculated differential cross-section and polarization for p-6, 8He scattering on the density distributions used. It is found that both the differential cross-section and polarization could provide a test to know which is the better choice of nucleon (especially neutron) density distributions. We also present the differential cross-sections for p-6, 9, 11Li scattering at 60 MeV and 72 MeV in order to assess the suitability of the obtained NN amplitude. It is found that the results are in reasonable agreement with the experiment up to only moderate scattering angles, leaving significant discrepancy at large scattering angles. Our calculations suggest the need of medium modifications in the NN amplitude, arising due to Pauli blocking.

Khan, Z. A.; Chauhan, Deeksha; Singh, Minita

2013-11-01

28

Genetic polymorphism of mephenytoin p(4')-hydroxylation: difference between Orientals and Caucasians.  

PubMed Central

The genetically controlled mephenytoin p(4')-hydroxylation capacity was determined in 118 Caucasians and 70 Orientals. After an oral dose of 50 or 100 mg of racemic mephenytoin, the amount of p(4')-hydroxymephenytoin in 24 h urine was measured by gas chromatography. Bimodal distribution was found with 9/70 (13%) Orientals and 5/118 (4%) Caucasians demonstrating deficient p(4')-hydroxylation. The statistically significant difference between Orientals and Caucasians (P less than 0.05) was accounted for by the high incidence of poor metabolizers among the Japanese subjects, 7/31 (23%). The frequency among Chinese subjects, 2/39 (5%), was similar to the frequency among Caucasians.

Jurima, M; Inaba, T; Kadar, D; Kalow, W

1985-01-01

29

Reversible, photoinduced activation of p4 by low-coordinate main group compounds.  

PubMed

Two unique systems based on low-coordinate main group elements that activate P4 are shown to quantitatively release the phosphorus cage upon short exposure to UV light. This reactivity marks the first reversible reactivity of P4 , and the germanium system can be cycled 5?times without appreciable loss in activity. Theoretical calculations reveal that the LUMO is antibonding with respect to the main group element-phosphorus bonds and bonding with respect to reforming the P4 tetrahedron, providing a rationale for this unprecedented activity, and suggesting that the process is tunable based on the substituents. PMID:24687238

Dube, Jonathan W; Graham, Cameron M E; Macdonald, Charles L B; Brown, Zachary D; Power, Philip P; Ragogna, Paul J

2014-05-26

30

Importance of the P4' residue in human granzyme B inhibitors and substrates revealed by scanning mutagenesis of the proteinase inhibitor 9 reactive center loop.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic lymphocyte serine proteinase granzyme B induces apoptosis of abnormal cells by cleaving intracellular proteins at sites similar to those cleaved by caspases. Understanding the substrate specificity of granzyme B will help to identify natural targets and develop better inhibitors or substrates. Here we have used the interaction of human granzyme B with a cognate serpin, proteinase inhibitor 9 (PI-9), to examine its substrate sequence requirements. Cleavage and sequencing experiments demonstrated that Glu(340) is the P1 residue in the PI-9 RCL, consistent with the preference of granzyme B for acidic P1 residues. Ala-scanning mutagenesis demonstrated that the P4-P4' region of the PI-9 RCL is important for interaction with granzyme B, and that the P4' residue (Glu(344)) is required for efficient serpin-proteinase binding. Peptide substrates based on the P4-P4' PI-9 RCL sequence and containing either P1 Glu or P1 Asp were cleaved by granzyme B (k(cat)/K(m) 9.5 x 10(3) and 1.2 x 10(5) s(-1) M(-1), respectively) but were not recognized by caspases. A substrate containing P1 Asp but lacking P4' Glu was cleaved less efficiently (k(cat)/K(m) 5.3 x 10(4) s(-1) M(-1)). An idealized substrate comprising the previously described optimal P4-P1 sequence (Ile-Glu-Pro-Asp) fused to the PI-9 P1'-P4' sequence was efficiently cleaved by granzyme B (k(cat)/K(m) 7.5 x 10(5) s(-1) M(-1)) and was also recognized by caspases. This contrasts with the literature value for a tetrapeptide comprising the same P4-P1 sequence (k(cat)/K(m) 6.7 x 10(4) s(-1) M(-1)) and confirms that P' residues promote efficient interaction of granzyme B with substrates. Finally, molecular modeling predicted that PI-9 Glu(344) forms a salt bridge with Lys(27) of granzyme B, and we showed that a K27A mutant of granzyme B binds less efficiently to PI-9 and to substrates containing a P4' Glu. We conclude that granzyme B requires an extended substrate sequence for specific and efficient binding and propose that an acidic P4' substrate residue allows discrimination between early (high affinity) and late (lower affinity) targets during the induction of apoptosis. PMID:11278311

Sun, J; Whisstock, J C; Harriott, P; Walker, B; Novak, A; Thompson, P E; Smith, A I; Bird, P I

2001-05-01

31

Genome Analysis of Bovine-Mastitis-Associated Escherichia coli O32:H37 Strain P4  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli is a major pathogen of bovine intramammary infections. Here we report the first draft of the genome sequence of the E. coli O32:H37 P4 strain, which is widely used in experimental bovine mastitis studies.

Sela, Noa; Heller, Elimelech D.; Sela, Shlomo; Leitner, Gabriel

2012-01-01

32

77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Use of P4 as either a carrier and/or immunoenhancer in a polysaccharide vaccine conjugate for prevention of Streptococcus pneumonia infection in humans'') to practice the inventions embodied in the patent application referred to below to Viper...

2012-05-02

33

A splitting criterion for rank 2 vector bundles on hypersurfaces in P^4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that Horrocks' criterion for the splitting of rank two vector bundles in P^3 can be extended, with some assumptions on the Chern classes, on non singular hypersurfaces in P^4. Extension of other splitting criterion are studied.

Carlo Madonna

1998-01-01

34

Evolution of DS-1-like human G2P[4] rotaviruses assessed by complete genome analyses.  

PubMed

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in children, with G2P[4] RVA being one of the most common human strains worldwide. The complete genome sequences of nine G2P[4] RVA strains, selected from a 26-year archival collection (1985-2011) established in Palermo, Italy, were determined. A strain associated with a peak of G2P[4] RVA activity in 1996 resembled a reassortant strain identified in Kenya in 1982 and differed completely in genomic make up from more recent strains that circulated during 2004-2011. Conversely, the 2004-2011 G2P[4] RVAs were genetically more similar to contemporary RVA strains circulating globally. Recent G2P[4] strains possessed either single or multiple genome segments (VP1, VP3 and/or NSP4) likely derived from ruminant viruses through intra-genotype reassortment. Amino acid substitutions were selected and maintained over time in the VP7 and VP8* antigenic proteins, allowing the circulation of two contemporary G2P[4] variants to be distinguished. Altogether, these findings suggest that major changes in the genomic composition of recent G2P[4] RVAs occurred in the early 2000s, leading to the appearance of a novel variant of the DS-1-like genotype constellation. Whether the modifications observed in the neutralizing antigens and in the genome composition of modern G2P[4] RVAs may affect the long-term effectiveness of the vaccination programmes remains to be explored. PMID:24077298

Giammanco, Giovanni M; Bonura, Floriana; Zeller, Mark; Heylen, Elisabeth; Van Ranst, Marc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Kristián; Matthijnssens, Jelle; De Grazia, Simona

2014-01-01

35

Radiative Lifetime of the 2s^22p^4 ^1S0 Metastable Level of Ne^++  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed the radiative decay of the 2s^22p^4 ^1S0 metastable level of Ne^++ by monitoring for equal time intervals the photons emitted by the nonrelativistic magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions between the ^1S0 metastable level and the 2s^22p^4 ^3P ground term. This represents the first such measurement for an ion of a second period element. A metastable Ne^++

A. G. Calamai; A. N. Daw; W. H. Parkinson; Peter L. Smith

1996-01-01

36

Prolyl4-hydroxylase ( AtP4H1 ) mediates and mimics low oxygen response in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proline hydroxylation is an important phenomenon of a living cell. Prolyl-4-hydroxylases (P4H) responsible for this process have been characterized from animals, and one of its forms, HIF-P4H, is regarded\\u000a as an oxygen sensor. In plants, P4H has been partially characterized from few species, and one of the Arabidopsis P4H (AtP4H1) has been shown to hydroxylate proline-rich peptides in vitro. In

Mehar Hasan Asif; Prabodh Kumar Trivedi; Prashant Misra; Pravendra Nath

2009-01-01

37

BaAu2P4: layered zintl polyphosphide with infinite ?(1)(P–) chains.  

PubMed

Barium gold polyphosphide BaAu2P4 was synthesized from elements and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. BaAu2P4 crystallizes in a new structure type, in the orthorhombic space group Fddd (No. 70) with a = 6.517(1) Å, b = 8.867(2) Å, c = 21.844(5) Å. The crystal structure of BaAu2P4 consists of Au–P layers separated by layers of Ba atoms. Each Au–P layer is composed of infinite ?(1)(P–) chains of unique topology linked together by almost linearly coordinated Au atoms. According to Zintl–Klemm formalism, this compound is charge balanced assuming closed shell d10 configuration for Au: Ba2+(Au+)2(P–)4. Magnetic and solid state NMR measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal diamagnetic and semiconducting behavior for the investigated polyphosphide, which is as expected for the charged balanced Zintl phase. Electron localization function and crystal orbital Hamilton population analyses reveal strong P–P and Au–P bonding and almost nonbonding Au–Au interactions in BaAu2P4. PMID:23734787

Fulmer, James; Kaseman, Derrick C; Dolyniuk, Juli-Anna; Lee, Kathleen; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kovnir, Kirill

2013-06-17

38

Shear-induced orientation of gyroid PS-b-P4VP(PDP) supramolecules.  

PubMed

The phase behavior of block copolymer based supramolecular complexes polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) and amphiphilic pentadecylphenol (PDP) molecules resembles the phase behavior of conventional block copolymers. Several PS-b-P4VP(PDP) complexes are found to self-assemble into gyroid nanostructures. Typically, the grains are randomly oriented with a maximal size of several micrometers. Here, the orientation of a gyroid PS-b-P4VP(PDP) complex upon shearing is reported. It is found that the (111) gyroid lattice direction orients parallel to the shear direction after only several seconds of large amplitude oscillatory shearing. Oriented gyroid complexes can be used as templates for the preparation of metal nanofoams with improved ordering with potentially superior properties. PMID:23836620

Vukovic, Ivana; Friedrich, Heiner; Merino, Daniel Hermida; Portale, Giuseppe; Ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

2013-08-01

39

Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Identified in Patients with Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the P4-ATPase ATP8B1 cause the inherited liver disease progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Several of these mutations are located in conserved regions of the transmembrane domain associated with substrate binding and transport. Assays for P4-ATPase-mediated transport in living yeast cells were developed and used to characterize the specificity and kinetic parameters of this transport. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis mutations were introduced into the yeast plasma membrane P4-ATPase Dnf2p, and the effect of these mutations on its catalysis of phospholipid transport were determined. The results of these measurements have implications for the basis of the disease and for the mechanism of phospholipid transit through the enzyme during the reaction cycle.

Stone, Alex; Chau, Christopher; Eaton, Christian; Foran, Emily; Kapur, Mridu; Prevatt, Edward; Belkin, Nathan; Kerr, David; Kohlin, Torvald; Williamson, Patrick

2012-01-01

40

26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for returns or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards...

2013-04-01

41

In vitro antibiofilm activity of bioactive glass S53P4.  

PubMed

Aim: This work aimed to investigate the ability of different formulations of bioactive glass (BAG)-S53P4 to interfere with bacterial biofilm produced on prosthetic material by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials & methods: Antibiofilm activity of three formulations of bioglass was assessed at different time points through two different analyses: Crystal Violet and confocal laser scanning microscopy assays. Results: Significant differences in the whole biofilm were observed between BAG-S53P4-treated and control samples, while no marked changes in antibiofilm activity were observed among the tested formulations. Data from colorimetric assay were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, which evidenced the significant reduction in biomass and a decrease of total cell volume when both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms were treated with BAG-S53P4. Conclusion: BAG-S53P4 can be considered as an excellent adjuvant in the treatment of prosthetic infections related to biofilm. PMID:24957087

Drago, Lorenzo; Vassena, Christian; Fenu, Simone; Vecchi, Elena De; Signori, Valentina; Francesco, Raffaele De; Romanò, Carlo Luca

2014-05-01

42

An early transition state for folding of the P4-P6 RNA domain.  

PubMed Central

Tertiary folding of the 160-nt P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron RNA involves burying of substantial surface area, providing a model for the folding of other large RNA domains involved in catalysis. Stopped-flow fluorescence was used to monitor the Mg2+-induced tertiary folding of pyrene-labeled P4-P6. At 35 degrees C with [Mg2+] approximately 10 mM, P4-P6 folds on the tens of milliseconds timescale with k(obs) = 15-31 s(-1). From these values, an activation free energy deltaG(double dagger) of approximately 8-16 kcal/mol is calculated, where the large range for deltaG(double dagger) arises from uncertainty in the pre-exponential factor relating k(obs) and delta G(double dagger). The folding rates of six mutant P4-P6 RNAs were measured and found to be similar to that of the wild-type RNA, in spite of significant thermodynamic destabilization or stabilization. The ratios of the kinetic and thermodynamic free energy changes phi = delta deltaG(double dagger)/delta deltaG(o') are approximately 0, implying a folding transition state in which most of the native-state tertiary contacts are not yet formed (an early folding transition state). The k(obs) depends on the Mg2+ concentration, and the initial slope of k(obs) versus [Mg2+] suggests that only approximately 1 Mg2+ ion is bound in the rate-limiting folding step. This is consistent with an early folding transition state, because folded P4-P6 binds many Mg2+ ions. The observation of a substantial deltaG(double dagger) despite an early folding transition state suggests that a simple two-state folding diagram for Mg2+-induced P4-P6 folding is incomplete. Our kinetic data are some of the first to provide quantitative values for an activation barrier and location of a transition state for tertiary folding of an RNA domain.

Silverman, S K; Cech, T R

2001-01-01

43

Outer membrane protein P4 is not required for virulence in the human challenge model of Haemophilus ducreyi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial lipoproteins often play important roles in pathogenesis and can stimulate protective immune responses. Such lipoproteins are viable vaccine candidates. Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, expresses a number of lipoproteins during human infection. One such lipoprotein, OmpP4, is homologous to the outer membrane lipoprotein e (P4) of H. influenzae. In H. influenzae, e (P4) stimulates production of bactericidal and protective antibodies and contributes to pathogenesis by facilitating acquisition of the essential nutrients heme and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that, like its homolog, H. ducreyi OmpP4 contributes to virulence and stimulates production of bactericidal antibodies. Results We determined that OmpP4 is broadly conserved among clinical isolates of H. ducreyi. We next constructed and characterized an isogenic ompP4 mutant, designated 35000HPompP4, in H. ducreyi strain 35000HP. To test whether OmpP4 was necessary for virulence in humans, eight healthy adults were experimentally infected. Each subject was inoculated with a fixed dose of 35000HP on one arm and three doses of 35000HPompP4 on the other arm. The overall parent and mutant pustule formation rates were 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively (P?=?0.74). These results indicate that expression of OmpP4 in not necessary for H. ducreyi to initiate disease or progress to pustule formation in humans. Hyperimmune mouse serum raised against purified, recombinant OmpP4 did not promote bactericidal killing of 35000HP or phagocytosis by J774A.1 mouse macrophages in serum bactericidal and phagocytosis assays, respectively. Conclusions Our data suggest that, unlike e (P4), H. ducreyi OmpP4 is not a suitable vaccine candidate. OmpP4 may be dispensable for virulence because of redundant mechanisms in H. ducreyi for heme acquisition and NAD utilization.

2014-01-01

44

Computational Studies of Gas-Phase Ca3P2 and Ca6P4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic and molecular structures of Ca3P2 and Ca6P4 are investigated using high-level ab initio methods. The lowest energy structure for Ca3P2 is found to be a Jahn-Teller distorted triplet. An excited-state singlet is found with various post HF methods; however, DFT incorrectly predicts a closed shell singlet to be the ground state. For the Ca6P4 system, both DFT and ab initio methods give consistent relative energies. The computational results demonstrate that the energetics are very sensitive to the size of the Ca basis set. Enhancing the Ca basis sets with additional s and p valence functions significantly affects the calculated energies.

Gamage, Chammi S. Palehepitiya; Ueno-Noto, Kaori; Marynick, Dennis S.

2009-08-01

45

Ferrenberg Swendsen Analysis of LLNL and NYBlue BG/L p4rhms Data  

SciTech Connect

These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG/L. These results are from the Ferrenberg-Swendsen analysis [?] of the combined data from LLNL and NYBlue BG/L runs for 32{sup 3} x 8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP-MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi). The jobs include beta values ranging from 3.525 to 3.535 with an alternate analysis extending to 3.540. The NYBlue data sets are from 9k trajectories from Oct 2007, and the LLNL data are from two independent streams of {approx}5k each, taking from the July 2007 runs. The following outputs are produced by the fs-2+1-chiub.c program. All outputs have had checksums produced by addCks.pl and checked by the checkCks.pl perl script after scanning.

Soltz, R

2007-12-05

46

HAT-P-4b: A Metal-rich Low-Density Transiting Hot Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the discovery of HAT-P-4b, a low-density extrasolar planet transiting BD +36 2593, a V=11.2 mag slightly evolved metal-rich late F star. The planet's orbital period is 3.056536+\\/-0.000057 days with a midtransit epoch of 2,454,245.8154 +\\/- 0.0003 (HJD). Based on high-precision photometric and spectroscopic data, and by using transit light curve modeling, spectrum analysis, and evolutionary models, we derive

G. Kovács; G. Á. Bakos; G. Torres; A. Sozzetti; D. W. Latham; R. W. Noyes; R. P. Butler; G. W. Marcy; D. A. Fischer; J. M. Fernández; G. Esquerdo; D. D. Sasselov; R. P. Stefanik; A. Pál; J. Lázár; I. Papp; P. Sári

2007-01-01

47

Performance evaluation of the microPET P4: a PET system dedicated to animal imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microPET Primate 4-ring system (P4) is an animal PET tomograph with a 7.8 cm axial extent, a 19 cm diameter transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 22 cm animal port. The system is composed of 168 detector modules, each with an 8×8 array of 2.2×2.2×10 mm3 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals, arranged as 32 crystal rings 26 cm in diameter.

Y. C. Tai; A. Chatziioannou; S. Siegel; J. Young; D. Newport; R. N. Goble; R. E. Nutt; S. R. Cherry

2001-01-01

48

Effect of Formulation and Temperature on Boundary Lubrication Performance of Polyphenylethers (5P4E)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two formulations of polyphenylether (PPE) (5P4E) were evaluated in boundary lubrication regime using a ball-on-rod type rolling contact fatigue (RCF) tester. RCF tests were conducted using VIM-VAR M50 bearing elements at a stress of 4.8 GPa. To study the lubricant's dynamic thermal stability and tribological characteristics, tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 66 to 343 °C for a 24

Hitesh K. Trivedi; Christopher J. Klenke; Costandy S. Saba

2004-01-01

49

Measurement of ^3He(^3He,2p)^4He Reactions in an IEC Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device has been used to measure ^3He(^3He,2p)^4He reactions. The experimental setup consists of a spherical vacuum vessel approximately 61 cm in diameter held at ground potential and a spherical cathode centered within the vessel that can be biased from 0 to -200kV. The ion source is an externally mounted high-density helicon source which provides a

Gregory R. Piefer; Gilbert A. Emmert; John F. Santarius

2006-01-01

50

A general solution to the P4P problem for camera with unknown focal length  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general solution to the determina- tion of the pose of a perspective camera with unknown fo- cal length from images of four 3D reference points. Our problem is a generalization of the P3P and P4P problems previously developed for fully calibrated cameras. Given four 2D-to-3D correspondences, we estimate camera posi- tion, orientation and recover the camera

Martin Bujnak; Zuzana Kukelova; Tomás Pajdla

2008-01-01

51

Mammalian P4-ATPases and ABC Transporters And Their Role in Phospholipid Transport  

PubMed Central

Transport of phospholipids across cell membranes plays a key role in a wide variety of biological processes. These include membrane biosynthesis, generation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry, cell and organelle shape determination, phagocytosis, vesicle tranfficking, blood coagulation, lipid homeostasis, regulation of membrane protein function, apoptosis among others. P4-ATPases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two principal classes of membranes proteins that actively transport phospholipids across cellular membranes. P4-ATPases utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to flip aminophospholipids from the exocytoplasmic (extracellular/lumen) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes generating membrane lipid asymmetry and lipid imbalance which can induce membrane curvature. Many ABC transporters play crucial roles in lipid homeostasis by actively transporting phospholipids from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes or exporting phospholipids to protein acceptors or micelles. Recent studies indicate that some ABC proteins can also transport phospholipids in the opposite direction. The importance of P4-ATPases and ABC transporters is evident from the findings that mutations in many of these transporters are responsible for severe human genetic diseases linked to defective phospholipid transport.

Coleman, Jonathan A.; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S.

2012-01-01

52

Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodeling under Hypoxic Conditions by Inducing P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 Expression in Fibroblasts*  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, organization, and compliance provide both architectural and chemical cues that modulate tissue structure and function. ECM produced by stromal fibroblasts plays a key role in breast cancer invasion and metastasis, which are also stimulated by intratumoral hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a critical regulator of ECM remodeling by fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. HIF-1 activates expression of genes encoding collagen prolyl (P4HA1 and P4HA2) and lysyl (PLOD2) hydroxylases. P4HA1 and P4HA2 are required for collagen deposition, whereas PLOD2 is required for ECM stiffening and collagen fiber alignment. Together P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 mediate remodeling of ECM composition, alignment, and mechanical properties in response to hypoxia. HIF-1-dependent ECM remodeling by hypoxic fibroblasts induces changes in breast cancer cell morphology, adhesion, and motility that promote invasion and metastasis.

Gilkes, Daniele M.; Bajpai, Saumendra; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Wirtz, Denis; Semenza, Gregg L.

2013-01-01

53

Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (AtP4H1) mediates and mimics low oxygen response in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Proline hydroxylation is an important phenomenon of a living cell. Prolyl-4-hydroxylases (P4H) responsible for this process have been characterized from animals, and one of its forms, HIF-P4H, is regarded as an oxygen sensor. In plants, P4H has been partially characterized from few species, and one of the Arabidopsis P4H (AtP4H1) has been shown to hydroxylate proline-rich peptides in vitro. In order to study its function in planta, we have overexpressed AtP4H1 in Arabidopsis. The AtP4H1oexp plants showed hypoxia-in-normoxia phenotype with strict requirement for carbon source for its growth, increased root hair, absence of trichome, and reduction in seed size. Genome-wide expression analyses suggest that expression of several genes related to hypoxia as well as plant growth and development are upregulated in AtP4H1oexp lines. Based on our studies on AtP4H1oexp lines, we speculate a direct role of AtP4H1 in hypoxia stress and in different stages of plant growth and development. PMID:19277739

Asif, Mehar Hasan; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Misra, Prashant; Nath, Pravendra

2009-11-01

54

P1,P4-Dithio-P2,P3-monochloromethylene diadenosine 5?,5?-P1,P4-tetraphosphate: A novel antiplatelet agent  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated in a series of searches for antithrombotic agents that diadenosine 5?,5?-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (AppppA) and its analogues are competitive inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Among various analogues, the P2,P3-monochloromethylene analog of AppppA (AppCHClppA) is superior to unmodified AppppA in its antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects. In this communication, we compare the antiplatelet potency of five newly synthesized agents with that of AppCHClppA. The five new agents include four diadenosine polyphosphate analogues [ApspCHClppsA (ps indicates a thiophosphate), dAppCHClppdA, dApspCHClppsdA, and AppCHClpCHClppA], and an adenosine tetraphosphate analogue (AppCHClpCHClp). When tested for their inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation by ADP, the most promising agent among them was ApspCHClppsA. Both molecular and functional integrity of this compound proved to be stable in blood at 37°C for at least 3 h. It also showed an excellent heat stability. This agent inhibits a number of aspects of ADP-induced platelet activation—e.g., release reaction, cytoplasmic calcium mobilization, thromboxane production, fibrinogen binding sites, and platelet factor 3 activity. Moreover, platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP—e.g., arachidonic acid, collagen, and epinephrine—was inhibited partially by ApspCHClppsA. It is concluded that (i) ApspCHClppsA is a promising antiplatelet agent; (ii) it is resistant to blood phosphodiesterases and stable to heat treatment; (iii) platelet aggregation induced by collagen, epinephrine, or arachidonic acid is also inhibited in part by this agent; and (iv) specificity of the inhibitory effects is presented by unmodified adenosine moieties of the agent. Resistance to phosphodiesterases raises the possibility of oral administration.

Chan, Samuel W.; Gallo, Steven J.; Kim, Byung K.; Guo, Mao J.; Blackburn, G. Michael; Zamecnik, Paul C.

1997-01-01

55

Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB): a new generation of resorbable medical devices for tissue repair and regeneration.  

PubMed

Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) is a thermoplastic, linear polyester, produced by recombinant fermentation, that can be converted into a wide range of resorbable medical devices. P4HB fibers are exceptionally strong, and can be designed to provide prolonged strength retention in vivo. In 2007, the FDA cleared a monofilament suture made from P4HB for general soft tissue approximation and/or ligation. Subsequently, surgical mesh devices for hernia repair, tendon and ligament repair, and plastic and reconstructive surgery have been introduced for clinical use. This review describes the unique properties of P4HB, its clinical applications, and potential uses that are under development. PMID:23979121

Williams, Simon F; Rizk, Said; Martin, David P

2013-10-01

56

Efficacy of antibacterial bioactive glass S53P4 against S. aureus biofilms grown on titanium discs in vitro.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of different sizes of bioactive glass S53P4 against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on metal discs in vitro. S. aureus biofilms were cultivated on titanium discs. BAG-S53P4 (0.5-0.8 mm and <45 µm) were placed in contact with the discs containing biofilms. Glass beads (0.5 mm) were used as a control. After each interval, the pH from each sample was measured. Colony forming units were counted for the biofilm recovery verification. In parallel, we tested the activity of bioactive glass against S. aureus planktonic cells. We found that BAG-S53P4 can suppress S. aureus biofilm formation on titanium discs in vitro. The suppression rate of biofilm cells by BAG-S53P4 <45 µm was significantly higher than by BAG-S53P4 0.5-0.8 mm. BAG-S53P4 has a clear growth-inhibitory effect on S. aureus biofilms. BAG-S53P4 <45 µm is more efficient against biofilm growth in vitro comparing with BAG-S53P4 0.5-0.8 mm. Bioactive glass S53P4 has potential to be used as bone substitute for the resolution of infection complications in joint replacement surgeries and treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. PMID:24108602

Coraça-Huber, Débora C; Fille, Manfred; Hausdorfer, Johann; Putzer, David; Nogler, Michael

2014-01-01

57

Synthesis and antiviral activity of novel HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with P4 capping groups.  

PubMed

We have synthesized and evaluated a series of novel HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with various P4 capping groups, which include urea, carbamate, methoxy-carboxamide, cyclic carbamate and amide, pyruvic amide, oxamate, oxalamide and cyanoguanidine. Most of these compounds are remarkably potent, exhibiting single-digit to sub-nanomolar activity in the enzyme assay and cell-based replicon assay. Selected compounds were also evaluated in the protease-inhibitor-resistant mutant transient replicon assay, and they were found to show quite different potency profiles against a panel of HCV protease-inhibitor-resistant mutants. PMID:23142614

Li, Xianfeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Plattner, Jacob J; Baker, Stephen J; Bu, Wei; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Yasheen; Ding, Charles Z; Zhang, Suoming; Kazmierski, Wieslaw M; Hamatake, Robert; Duan, Maosheng; Wright, Lois L; Smith, Gary K; Jarvest, Richard L; Ji, Jing-Jing; Cooper, Joel P; Tallant, Matthew D; Crosby, Renae M; Creech, Katrina; Wang, Amy

2012-12-15

58

One-step synthesis of Mo(0) and W(0) bis(dinitrogen) complexes with the linear tetraphosphine ligand prP4: stereoselective formation of cis-[M(N2)2(rac-prP4)] and trans-[M(N2)2(meso-prP4)]; M = Mo, W.  

PubMed

A new synthetic pathway to Chatt-type Mo(0) and W(0) bis(dinitrogen) complexes with the ligand prP(4) is presented (prP(4) is a linear tetraphos ligand with two ethylene bridges and a central propylene bridge). The synthesis starts from MoCl(5) and WCl(6), respectively, employing Mg as reductant. Whereas the electrochemical reduction of the oxido-iodido-molybdenum(IV) complex [Mo(O)I(meso-prP(4)](+) (1) only gave trans-[Mo(N(2))(2)(meso-prP(4))] (2a; Römer et al., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.2008, 3258), the direct synthesis under normal conditions affords both trans and cis complexes 2a and 2b. The reaction products are characterised by vibrational and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, a single-crystal X-ray structure determination of cis-?-[Mo(N(2))(2)(rac-prP(4))] (2b) is performed. In contrast to the trans bis(dinitrogen)molybdenum(0) complex 2a supported by the meso prP(4) ligand the corresponding cis-complex is exclusively coordinated by the rac isomer of prP(4). The reactivity of 2 with acids is investigated as well, leading to the NNH(2) complex [MoF(NNH(2))(meso-prP(4))]BF(4) (15). Analogous results are obtained with the tungsten complexes. PMID:21344106

Römer, René; Gradert, Christian; Bannwarth, Alexander; Peters, Gerhard; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix

2011-04-01

59

The moonlighting function of bacteriophage P4 capsid protein, Psu, as a transcription antiterminator  

PubMed Central

Psu, a 20-kD bacteriophage P4 capsid decorating protein moonlights as a transcription antiterminator of the Rho-dependent termination. Psu forms specific complex with E.coli Rho protein, and affects the latter's ATP-dependent translocase activity along the nascent RNA. It forms a unique knotted dimer to take a V-shaped structure. The C-terminal helix of Psu makes specific contacts with a disordered region of Rho, encompassing the residues 139–153. An energy minimized structural model of the Rho–Psu complex reveals that the V-shaped Psu dimer forms a lid over the central channel of the Rho hexamer. This configuration of Psu causes a mechanical impediment to the translocase activity of Rho. The knowledge of structural and mechanistic basis of inhibition of Rho action by Psu may help to design peptide inhibitors for the conserved Rho-dependent transcription termination process of bacteria.

Ranjan, Amitabh; Banerjee, Ramanuj; Pani, Bibhusita; Sen, Udayditya; Sen, Ranjan

2013-01-01

60

High-temperature transport properties of complex antimonides with anti-Th3P4 structure.  

PubMed

Polycrystalline samples of R(4)Sb(3) (R = La, Ce, Sm and Yb) and Yb(4-x)R'(x)Sb(3) (R' = Sm and La) have been quantitatively synthesized by high-temperature reaction. They crystallize in the anti-Th(3)P(4) structure type (I43d, no. 220). Structural and chemical characterizations have been performed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Powders have been densified by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 degrees C under 50 MPa of pressure. Transport property measurements show that these compounds are n-type with low Seebeck coefficient except for Yb(4)Sb(3) that shows a typical metallic behavior with hole conduction. By partially substituting Yb by a trivalent rare earth we successfully improved the thermoelectric figure of merit of Yb(4-x)R'(x)Sb(3) up to 0.75 at 1000 degrees C. PMID:20066200

Chamoire, A; Gascoin, F; Estournès, C; Caillat, T; Tédenac, J-C

2010-01-28

61

Use of aglepristone for the treatment of P4 induced insulin resistance in dogs.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance (IR) in dogs is suspected when hyperglycemia is present despite administration of insulin doses greater than 1.0 to 1.5 UI/kg. IR is caused by increases in counter regulatory hormones concentrations (glucagon, glucocorticoids, catecholamines and growth hormone). This study was conducted to investigate the use of aglepristone (RU 46534), a P4 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of IR diabetes mellitus in bitches during the luteal phase. All animals were treated with porcine insulin zinc suspension (Caninsulin) and aglepristone (Alizin) 10 mg/kg subcutaneously at day 1, 2, 9 and 17 from diagnosis. At day 5, no significant variation in glycemia was shown. At day 12 and 20, serum glucose concentrations were significant lower (p < 0.05). From day 12 the insulin dose was reduced to 0.8 IU BID. Insulin was reduced in the following weeks and glycemia was controlled. PMID:24378588

Bigliardi, Enrico; Bresciani, Carla; Callegari, Daniela; Di Ianni, Francesco; Morini, Giorgio; Parmigiani, Enrico; Bianchi, Ezio

2014-06-01

62

Use of aglepristone for the treatment of P4 induced insulin resistance in dogs  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance (IR) in dogs is suspected when hyperglycemia is present despite administration of insulin doses greater than 1.0 to 1.5 UI/kg. IR is caused by increases in counter regulatory hormones concentrations (glucagon, glucocorticoids, catecholamines and growth hormone). This study was conducted to investigate the use of aglepristone (RU 46534), a P4 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of IR diabetes mellitus in bitches during the luteal phase. All animals were treated with porcine insulin zinc suspension (Caninsulin) and aglepristone (Alizin) 10 mg/kg subcutaneously at day 1, 2, 9 and 17 from diagnosis. At day 5, no significant variation in glycemia was shown. At day 12 and 20, serum glucose concentrations were significant lower (p < 0.05). From day 12 the insulin dose was reduced to 0.8 IU BID. Insulin was reduced in the following weeks and glycemia was controlled.

Bresciani, Carla; Callegari, Daniela; Di Ianni, Francesco; Morini, Giorgio; Parmigiani, Enrico; Bianchi, Ezio

2014-01-01

63

Ustilago maydis virus P4 killer toxin: characterization, partial amino terminus sequence, and evidence for glycosylation.  

PubMed

The toxin from Ustilago maydis virus P4 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The native molecular mass, using size-exclusion HPLC was estimated to be 7.2 kDa. The purified toxin was composed of a single subunit. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis under reduced and nonreduced conditions resulted in estimated molecular masses of 8.4 and 7.4 kDa, respectively. The purified toxin was found to be glycosylated when tested for carbohydrates using the phenol-sulfuric acid method, Schiff's base reagent, and a Glycan detection kit and when probed against different biotinylated lectins. Partial amino acid sequence analysis of the purified toxin indicated a free N-terminus, 16% glycine, and 23% basic amino acid residues. No homology was found to either the alpha or the beta subunit of the toxin encoded by U. maydis infected with the P6 virus. PMID:1897946

Ganesa, C; Flurkey, W H; Randhawa, Z I; Bozarth, R F

1991-04-01

64

Stabilization of the triphosphallyl ligand ?3-P3{P(O)H} at iridium via alkaline activation of P4.  

PubMed

The selective functionalization of the polyphosphorus moiety Ph2PCH2PPh2PPPP present as a tetrahapto-ligand in complex [Ir(dppm)(Ph2PCH2PPh2PPPP)](+) (1, dppm=Ph2PCH2PPh2) was obtained by reaction of 1 with water under basic conditions at room temperature. The formation of the new triphosphaallyl moiety ?(3)-P3{P(O)H} was determined in solution by NMR spectroscopy, and confirmed in the solid state by a single-crystal X-ray structure of the stable product [Ir(?(2)-dppm)(?(1)-dppm)(?(3)-P3{P(O)H})] (2). In solution, 2 has a fluxional behavior attributable to the four P atoms belonging to the tetraphosphorus moiety in 1 and exhibits a chemical exchange process involving the two PPh2 moieties of the same bidentate ligand, as determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy experiments carried out at variable temperature. The mechanism of the reaction was investigated at the DFT level, which suggested a selective attack of an in-situ generated OH(-) anion on one of the non-coordinated phosphorus atoms of the P4 moiety. The reaction then evolves through an acid-assisted tautomerization, which leads to the final compound 2. Bonding analysis pointed out that the new unsubstituted P3-unit in the ?(3)-P3{P(O)H} moiety behaves as a triphosphallyl ligand. PMID:24039037

Mirabello, Vincenzo; Caporali, Maria; Gonsalvi, Luca; Manca, Gabriele; Ienco, Andrea; Peruzzini, Maurizio

2013-12-01

65

Initiation of transcription from the minute virus of mice P4 promoter is stimulated in rat cells expressing a c-Ha-ras oncogene.  

PubMed Central

Transformation of FR3T3 rat fibroblasts by a c-Ha-ras oncogene but not by bovine papillomavirus type 1 is associated with an increase in the abundance of mRNAs from prototype strain MVMp of infecting minute virus of mice, an oncosuppressive parvovirus. This differential parvovirus gene expression correlates with the reported sensitization of ras- but not bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed cells to the killing effect of MVMp (N. Salomé, B. van Hille, N. Duponchel, G. Meneguzzi, F. Cuzin, J. Rommelaere, and J. Cornelis, Oncogene 5:123-130, 1990). Experiments were performed to determine at which level parvovirus expression is up-regulated in ras transformants. An MVMp "attenuation" sequence responsible for the premature arrest of RNA elongation was either placed or not placed in front of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and brought under the control of MVMp early promoter P4. Although the MVMp attenuator reduced P4-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression, the extent of attenuation was similar in normal and ras-transformed cells. Moreover, the analysis of P4-directed viral RNAs in MVMp-infected cultures by RNase protection and nuclear run-on assays also revealed a transcription elongation block of a similar amplitude in both types of cells. In addition, the stabilities of the three major parvoviral mRNAs did not vary significantly between normal and ras-transformed cells. Hence, it is concluded that the ras-induced increase in the accumulation of parvoviral mRNAs is mainly controlled at the level of transcription. Consistently, the TATA motif of the P4 promoter proved to have a differential photoreactivity when tested by in vivo UV footprinting assays in ras-transformed versus normal cells. Images

Spegelaere, P; van Hille, B; Spruyt, N; Faisst, S; Cornelis, J J; Rommelaere, J

1991-01-01

66

Antitumor activity of G-quadruplex-interactive agent TMPyP4 with photodynamic therapy in ovarian carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by the cationic porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4), on an ovarian carcinoma cell line and the underlying mechanisms by which TMPyP4-PDT exerts its actions. The analysis of cell viability, hematoxylin and eosin staining and flow cytometric apoptosis assays revealed that TMPyP4-PDT potently suppressed the growth of the A2780 cells in a laser energy- and dose-dependent manner. Mechanically, it was observed that TMPyP4-PDT suppressed the proliferation and motility of the A2780 cells. In addition, the expression levels of minichromosome maintenance protein-2 (MCM2) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) were detected by western blot analysis. The results indicated that the TMPyP4-PDT-induced apoptosis and antimetastatic activity in the A2780 cells was accompanied by the inhibition of the expression of MCM2 and CA-IX. Therefore, TMPyP4-PDT may represent a potential therapeutic method for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

LIU, HONGLI; LV, CHANGSHUAI; DING, BAIJUAN; WANG, JIE; LI, SHAN; ZHANG, YOUZHONG

2014-01-01

67

Crystal and electronic structure of La 3Zn 2- xP 4 - New phosphide with isolated P 3- species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new phosphide La 3Zn 2- xP 4 was synthesized from lanthanum, LaZn and red phosphorous in a NaCl/KCl halide flux at 1120 K. La 3Zn 2- xP 4 crystallizes with a new structure type: R3¯m, a = 418.72(7), c = 4143.7(1) pm, wR2 = 0.0577, 1061 F2 values for La 3Zn 1.75P 4 and a = 418.99(6), c = 4157.1(8) pm, wR2 = 0.0485, 337 F2 values for La 3Zn 1.88P 4 with 17 variables per refinement. The P 3- phosphide anions show an hhcc stacking sequence, similar to the structures of Mg 3In and PuGa 3. The Zn 2+ and La 3+ cations fill 1/4 and 3/4 of the tetrahedral and octahedral voids, respectively, in an ordered manner, leading to a layer of ZnP 4 tetrahedra and triple layers of LaP 6 octahedra. DFT band structural calculations verify that the lower zinc occupation stabilizes the structure close to an electron precise composition.

Lincke, Hannes; Nilges, Tom; Johrendt, Dirk; Pöttgen, Rainer

2008-08-01

68

Growth, Structure, Thermal Properties and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Nd3+-Doped KGdP4O12 Crystal.  

PubMed

A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG-SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a?=?7.812(2) Å, b?=?12.307(3) Å, c?=?10.474(2) Å, ??=?110.84(3)° and Z?=?4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920°C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 ?s and a high quantum efficiency of 96%. PMID:24968165

Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

2014-01-01

69

Growth, Structure, Thermal Properties and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Nd3+-Doped KGdP4O12 Crystal  

PubMed Central

A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG?SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a?=?7.812(2) Å, b?=?12.307(3) Å, c?=?10.474(2) Å, ??=?110.84(3)° and Z?=?4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920°C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 ?s and a high quantum efficiency of 96%.

Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

2014-01-01

70

P4A-4 Evaluation of Cardiac Dyssynchrony Using Strain Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain and strain rate imaging provide new information for evaluation of regional myocardial function. Clinical diagnosis using echocardiography is based on visually assessed wall motion scoring, which is semi quantitative and heavily weighted on operator experience and expertise. Cardiac motion estimation methods such as Tissue Doppler and elastography can be used to assess myocardial muscle displacements, providing quantitative parameters such

Hao Chen; Tomy Varghese; Peter S. Rahko; J. A. Zagzebski

2007-01-01

71

Measuring Cluster Fusion Plasma Temperature and Density from ^3He(D,p)^4He and D(D,p)T Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular clusters produces the explosion of the clusters with enough kinetic energy to drive nuclear reactions. If we assume the thermalization of the plasma, the ratio of the yields from two different nuclear reactions occurring simultaneously will allow the determination of the ion temperature at the time when the reaction occurred. We performed two experiments: one using pure deuterium to drive the D(D,p)T and D(D,n)^3He reactions, another mixing D2 and ^3He into the gas jet target to allow us to measure simultaneously yields from the ^ 3He(D,p)^4He and the D-D reactions. We detected both the 2.45 MeV neutrons and 3.02 MeV protons from the D-D reactions and the 14.7 MeV protons from the ^3He(D,p)^4He reaction. Preliminary results will be shown.

Barbui, Marina; Bonasera, A.; Hagel, K.; Natowitz, J. B.; Schmidt, K.; Zheng, H.; Barbarino, M.; Bang, W.; Ditmire, T.; Dyer, G.; Quevedo, H.; Bernstein, A.

2011-10-01

72

Structure–activity relationships of anthranilamide-based factor Xa inhibitors containing piperidinone and pyridinone P4 moieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of the phenyl piperidinone and phenyl pyridinone P4 moieties in the anthranilamide scaffold led to potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitors of factor Xa. Anthranilamide 28 displayed comparable efficacy to apixaban in the rabbit arteriovenous-shunt (AV) thrombosis model.

James R. Corte; Tianan Fang; Donald J. P. Pinto; Wei Han; Zilun Hu; Xiang-Jun Jiang; Yun-Long Li; Jolicia F. Gauuan; Mark Hadden; Darren Orton; Alan R. Rendina; Joseph M. Luettgen; Pancras C. Wong; Kan He; Paul E. Morin; Chong-Hwan Chang; Daniel L. Cheney; Robert M. Knabb; Ruth R. Wexler; Patrick Y. S. Lam

2008-01-01

73

Structure and size determination of bacteriophage P2 and P4 procapsids: function of size responsiveness mutations  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage P4 is dependent on structural proteins supplied by a helper phage, P2, to assemble infectious virions. Bacteriophage P2 normally forms an icosahedral capsid with T=7 symmetry from the gpN capsid protein, the gpO scaffolding protein and the gpQ portal protein. In the presence of P4, however, the same structural proteins are assembled into a smaller capsid with T=4 symmetry. This size determination is effected by the P4-encoded protein Sid, which forms an external scaffold around the small P4 procapsids. Size responsiveness (sir) mutants in gpN fail to assemble small capsids even in the presence of Sid. We have produced large and small procapsids by co-expression of gpN with gpO and Sid, respectively, and applied cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to visualize these procapsids. gpN has an HK97-like fold and interacts with Sid in an exposed loop where the sir mutations are clustered. The T=7 lattice of P2 has dextro handedness, unlike the laevo lattices of other phages with this fold observed so far.

Dearborn, Altaira D.; Laurinmaki, Pasi; Chandramouli, Preethi; Rodenburg, Cynthia M.; Wang, Sifang; Butcher, Sarah J.; Dokland, Terje

2012-01-01

74

S1P(4) receptor mediates S1P-induced vasoconstriction in normotensive and hypertensive rat lungs.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify receptors mediating sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-induced vasoconstriction in the normotensive and chronic hypoxia-induced hypertensive rat pulmonary circulation. In isolated perfused lungs from normoxic rats, infusion of S1P caused a sustained vasoconstriction, which was not reduced by combinational pretreatment with the dual S1P(1 and 3) receptor antagonist VPC23019 and the S1P(2) receptor antagonist JTE013. The S1P(4) receptor agonists phytosphingosine-1-phospate and VPC23153, but not the dual S1P(1 and 3) receptor agonist VPC24191, caused dose-dependent vasoconstrictions. In hypertensive lungs from chronically hypoxic rats, the vasoconstrictor responses to S1P and VPC23153 were markedly enhanced. The S1P(4) receptor agonist VPC 23153 caused contraction of isolated pulmonary but not of renal or mesenteric arteries from chronically hypoxic rats. S1P(4) receptor protein as well as mRNA were detected in both normotensive and hypertensive pulmonary arteries. In contrast to what has been reported in the systemic circulation and mouse lung, our findings raise the possibility that S1P(4) receptor plays a significant role in S1P-induced vasoconstriction in the normotensive and hypertensive rat pulmonary circulation. PMID:22140630

Ota, Hiroki; Beutz, Michelle A; Ito, Masako; Abe, Kohtaro; Oka, Masahiko; McMurtry, Ivan F

2011-01-01

75

Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of Fennoscandian cowpox virus isolates based on the p4c and atip genes  

PubMed Central

Background Cowpox virus (CPXV), a rodent-borne Orthopoxvirus (OPV) that is indigenous to Eurasia can infect humans, cattle, felidae and other animals. Molecular characterization of CPXVs isolated from different geographic locations is important for the understanding of their biology, geographic distribution, classification and evolution. Our aim was to characterize CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of atip gene fragment amplicon, and phylogenetic tree topology in conjunction with the patristic and genetic distances based on full length DNA sequence of the atip and p4c genes. Methods ATI phenotypes were determined by transmission electron microcopy and RFLP profiles were obtained by restriction enzyme digestion of the atip gene fragment PCR product. A 6.2 kbp region spanning the entire atip and p4c genes of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates was amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic affinity of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates to OPVs isolated from other geographic regions was determined on the basis of the atip and p4c genes. Results Fennoscandian CPXV isolates encoded full length atip and p4c genes. They produce wild type V+ ATI except for CPXV-No-H2. CPXVs were resolved into six and seven species clusters based on the phylogeny of the atip and p4c genes respectively. The CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia were grouped into three distinct clusters that corresponded to isolates from Norway, Sweden and Finland. Conclusion CPXV is a polyphyletic assemblage of six or seven distinct clusters and the current classification in which CPXVs are united as one single species should be re-considered. Our results are of significance to the classification and evolution of OPVs.

2014-01-01

76

Intracellular Targeting Signals and Lipid Specificity Determinants of the ALA/ALIS P4-ATPase Complex Reside in the Catalytic ALA ?-Subunit  

PubMed Central

Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze flipping of phospholipids across cellular membranes, in this way contributing to vesicle biogenesis in the secretory and endocytic pathways. P4-ATPases form heteromeric complexes with Cdc50-like proteins, and it has been suggested that these act as ?-subunits in the P4-ATPase transport machinery. In this work, we investigated the role of Cdc50-like ?-subunits of P4-ATPases for targeting and function of P4-ATPase catalytic ?-subunits. We show that the Arabidopsis P4-ATPases ALA2 and ALA3 gain functionality when coexpressed with any of three different ALIS Cdc50-like ?-subunits. However, the final cellular destination of P4-ATPases as well as their lipid substrate specificity are independent of the nature of the ALIS ?-subunit they were allowed to interact with.

Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Hanisch, Susanne; Meffert, Katharina; Buch-Pedersen, Morten J.; Jakobsen, Mia K.; Pomorski, Thomas Gunther; Palmgren, Michael G.

2010-01-01

77

High Resolution Self-Mixing Laser-Doppler Vibrometry with a Laser-Diode-Pumped Microchip LiNdP4O12 Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple laser vibrometer system (LVS) has been built around a laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP4O12 (LNP) laser combined with an acousto-optic frequency shifter, using an efficient self-mixing modulation arising from the interference between a laser field and a weak field that is fed back from a rough vibrating target. The LVS provides a 50 dB carrier-to-noise ratio for 3 kHz bandwidth, even when monitoring parts that have extremely low reflectivity. Application to laser-Doppler-velocimetry (LDV) capable of discriminating the direction in which different targets are moving has been demonstrated. A remote-sensing experiment by optical fiber access to the target is described briefly.

Otsuka, Kenju; Fukazawa, Takeki; Sekita, Nobuatsu; Higashihara, Shin-ichi

2000-07-01

78

ORBITAL ORIENTATIONS OF EXOPLANETS: HAT-P-4b IS PROGRADE AND HAT-P-14b IS RETROGRADE  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for two exoplanetary systems, revealing the orientations of their orbits relative to the rotation axes of their parent stars. HAT-P-4b is prograde, with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of {lambda} = -4.9 {+-} 11.9 deg. In contrast, HAT-P-14b is retrograde, with {lambda} = 189.1 {+-} 5.1 deg. These results conform with a previously noted pattern among the stellar hosts of close-in giant planets: hotter stars have a wide range of obliquities and cooler stars have low obliquities. This, in turn, suggests that three-body dynamics and tidal dissipation are responsible for the short-period orbits of many exoplanets. In addition, our data revealed a third body in the HAT-P-4 system, which could be a second planet or a companion star.

Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Mail Code 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysics and NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shporer, Avi [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.; Holman, Matthew J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-02-15

79

Effect of pressure on the electrical resistivity of Ln_3Cu_4P_4O2 (Ln = La and Ce).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ln_3Cu_4P_4O2 (Ln = La and Ce) compounds are metallic with layers of Cu_2P2 tetrahedra [1]. Physical properties measurements including electrical resistivity ? (at ambient and high pressures up to 2.0 GPa), heat capacity, and magnetic susceptibility will be reported. We find that ? of Ce_3Cu_4P_4O2 is very sensitive to pressure; pressure reduces ? by 9.5 %/GPa at 10 K and 4.8 %/GPa at 200 K. Measurements of heat capacity and electrical resistivity at ambient pressure to 0.4 K will also be presented. The results on the Ln = La and Ce compounds will be compared to related compounds. [1] R. J. Cava, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Krajewski, T. Siegrist, H. Y. Hwang, and B. Batlogg, J. Solid State Chem. 129 (1997) 250.

Neumeier, John J.; Terashita, Hirotoshi

2004-03-01

80

Carbohydrates as additives for the formation of isoporous PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer membranes.  

PubMed

Highly porous polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer membranes are prepared using carbohydrates as additives. Therefore ?-cyclodextrine, ?-(D)-glucose, and saccharose (cane sugar) are tested for the membrane formation of three different PS-b-P4VP polymers. The addition of the carbohydrates leads to an increasing viscosity of the membrane solutions due to hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates and pyridine units of the block copolymer. In all cases, the membranes made from solution with carbohydrates have higher porosity, an improved narrow pore distribution on the surface and a higher water flux as membranes made without carbohydrates with the same polymer, solvent ratio, and polymer concentration. PMID:23225180

Clodt, Juliana Isabel; Rangou, Sofia; Schröder, Anne; Buhr, Kristian; Hahn, Janina; Jung, Adina; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

2013-01-25

81

Viscosimetric behaviour of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-poly(4-vinylpyridine) [AD37-P4VP] mixture in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between 27% hydrolyzed polyacrylamide [AD37] and poly(4-vinylpyridine) [P4VP], in aqueous solutions and at neutralization degree ?=1, were studied by using viscosimetry technique.The reduced viscosities of these copolymer mixture solutions, at 25°C, reach several orders of magnitude higher than the reduced viscosity of each polymer taken separately, and according to the ratio R of the chain numbers.Intermolecular electrostatic associations

A. Mansri; L. Tennouga; J. Desbrières

2007-01-01

82

Autioionizing states in the photionization of the 3s(2)3p(4) (3)Pe ground state of sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The partial and total photoionization cross sections for the S(3s/2/3p/4/ /3/Pe) ground state are calculated in both the dipole length and velocity forms. The prominent features in the cross sections are the autoionization Rydberg series converging to S+(3s/2/p/3/ /2/D/0/, /2/P/0/) excited-state thresholds. The results are pertinent to the study of sulfur in the plasma of Jupiter's satellite Io.

Tayal, S. S.

1988-01-01

83

The in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass and gentamicin impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis is a disease that is still difficult to treat, with considerable morbidity and associated costs. The current "gold standard" in treatment - debridement and implantation of antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads - presents the disadvantage of a second surgical intervention required for the removal of the beads. We comparatively investigated the in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass (BAG) and gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads. Bacterial viability was assessed hourly by Standard Plate Count during 24 hours of incubation, by determining the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both tested materials showed an antibacterial effect on all studied bacteria. In case of S. aureus, BAG granules were almost as effective as gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads, with no statistically significant differences. In contrast, PMMA beads had a superior antibacterial effect on S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial effect of BAG was greatly influenced by granule size and contact time. There was a statistically significant correlation between pH values and the number of CFU in the case of S53P4 BAG granules. As a biocompatible and biodegradable bone substitute, S53P4 bioactive glass can be a good alternative in the local management of osteomyelitis. PMID:24939683

Gergely, István; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Man, Adrian; Zuh, Sándor György; Pop, Tudor Sorin

2014-06-01

84

miR-122 regulates collagen production via targeting hepatic stellate cells and suppressing P4HA1 expression  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in many biological processes by affecting their target gene expression. miR-122 has been extensively studied in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the role of miR-122 in liver fibrosis remains unknown. Methods The mRNA expression levels of miR-122, prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP?) were assessed by real-time PCR. The protein expression levels of P4HA1, C/EBP? and collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) were analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. MTT assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to examine the binding activity of C/EBP? to miR-122 promoter. Results miR-122 expression was significantly reduced in transactivated HSCs and in the livers of mice treated with CCl4. Overexpression of miR-122 inhibited the proliferation of LX2 cells. We also demonstrated that P4HA1 was a target gene of miR-122. The mRNA expression level of PAHA1 inversely correlated with that of miR-122 in HSCs and in the mouse liver. Overexpression of miR-122 markedly attenuated the expression of P4HA1 via targeting a binding site located at 3?-UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. We further showed that miR-122 overexpression led to decreased collagen maturation and ECM production. Finally, the binding activity of C/EBP? to miR-122 promoter was significantly decreased in activated HSCs. Conclusions Our study suggests that miR-122 may play an important role in negatively regulating collagen production in HSCs and that targeted expression of miR-122 in HSCs may represent a new strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Li, Jiang; Ghazwani, Mohammed; Zhang, Yifei; Lu, Jianqin; Li, Jilong; Fan, Jie; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.; Li, Song

2013-01-01

85

Symmetrical P4 cleavage at cobalt half sandwich complexes [(?5-C5H5)Co(L)] (L = CO, NHC)--a computational case study on the mechanism of symmetrical P4 degradation to P2 ligands.  

PubMed

A full theoretical mechanistic investigation on the symmetrical cleavage of P4 at the active complex fragments [(?(5)-C5H5)Co(L)] (L = CO, (i)Pr2Im; (i)Pr2Im = 1,3-di-iso-propylimidazolin-2-ylidene), which results in the formation of the complex [{(?(5)-C5H5)Co}2(?,?(2:2)-P2)2] 9, is presented. The overall reaction mechanism is a complex, multistep process. Rate-determining steps of the reaction sequence are two consecutive dissociations of the co-ligands L, which induce the decisive structural rearrangements of the P4 unit. The choice of the co-ligand L ( = CO, (i)Pr2Im) influences the kinetic barrier as well as the energy balance of the overall reaction path significantly. The calculations further reveal a strong influence of the entropic effect on the overall reaction. As a consequence, the energy balance of the overall formation of 9 starting from [(?(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)] precursors is almost thermoneutral and has to overcome high kinetic barriers, whereas the reaction starting from [(?(5)-C5H5)Co((i)Pr2Im)] precursors is exothermic, featuring lower transition barriers with stabilized intermediates. From the direct comparison of both reaction coordinates it seems that the entropic effect of the co-ligands is even stronger than their electronic influence, as for both investigated systems the reactions' energy profiles are almost identical up to intermediate [{(?(5)-C5H5)Co(L)}2(?,?(2:2)-P4)] 5 (L = CO, (i)Pr2Im). After the formation of 5, the first CO dissociation step renders the reaction endothermic for L = CO, whereas in the case of (i)Pr2Im dissociation the reaction progresses exothermically. Energy decomposition analysis and fragment analysis provide a picture of the bonding mechanisms between the metal complex fragments and P4 in the case of the most significant intermediates and the final product. PMID:23515870

Zarzycki, Bartosz; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Radius, Udo

2013-05-28

86

A novel method for immobilization of Co tetraphenylporphyrins on P(4VP-co-St)\\/SiO 2: Efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, poly(4vinylpyridine-co-styrene) (P(4VP-co-St)) was grafted on silica gel particles in the manner of “grafting from”, and the grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)\\/SiO2 was gained. The grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)\\/SiO2 is a novel kind of supports for immobilizing metalloporphyrin catalysts. Then, the immobilization of cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin (CoTPP) on the supports P(4VP-co-St)\\/SiO2 was carried out via the axial coordination reaction between CoTPP and

Ruixin Wang; Baojiao Gao; Weizhou Jiao

2009-01-01

87

Evolutionarily conserved structural changes in phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (PI5P4K) isoforms are responsible for differences in enzyme activity and localization  

PubMed Central

Mammals have genes coding for three PI5P4Ks (PtdIns5P 4-kinases), and these have different cellular localizations, tissue distributions and lipid kinase activities. We describe in the present paper a detailed molecular exploration of human PI5P4Ks ?, ? and ?, as well as their fly and worm homologues, to understand how and why these differences came to be. The intrinsic ATPase activities of the three isoforms are very similar, and we show that differences in their G-loop regions can account for much of their wide differences in lipid kinase activity. We have also undertaken an extensive in silico evolutionary study of the PI5P4K family, and show experimentally that the single PI5P4K homologues from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are as widely different in activity as the most divergent mammalian isoforms. Finally we show that the close association of PI5P4Ks ? and ? is a true heterodimerization, and not a higher oligomer association of homodimers. We reveal that structural modelling is consistent with this and with the apparently random heterodimerization that we had earlier observed between PI5P4K? and PI5P4K? [Wang, Bond, Letcher, Richardson, Lilley, Irvine and Clarke (2010), Biochem. J. 430, 215–221]. Overall the molecular diversity of mammalian PI5P4Ks explains much of their properties and behaviour, but their physiological functionality remains elusive.

Clarke, Jonathan H.; Irvine, Robin F.

2013-01-01

88

A novel cobalt(II)-selective potentiometric sensor based on p-(4- n-butylphenylazo)calix[4]arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new poly(vinyl chloride)-based membranes containing p-(4-n-butylphenylazo)calix[4]arene (I) as an electroactive material along with sodiumtetraphenylborate (NaTPB), and dibutyl(butyl)phosphonate in the ratio 10:100:1:200 (I:DBBP:NaTPB:PVC) (w\\/w) was used to fabricate a new cobalt(II)-selective sensor. It exhibited a working concentration range of 9.2×10?6 to 1.0×10?1M, with a Nernstian slope of 29.0±1.0mV\\/decade of activity and the response time of 25s. This sensor shows the

Pankaj Kumar; Yoon-Bo Shim

2009-01-01

89

A novel method for immobilization of Co tetraphenylporphyrins on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2: Efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, poly(4vinylpyridine-co-styrene) (P(4VP-co-St)) was grafted on silica gel particles in the manner of "grafting from", and the grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was gained. The grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 is a novel kind of supports for immobilizing metalloporphyrin catalysts. Then, the immobilization of cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin (CoTPP) on the supports P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was carried out via the axial coordination reaction between CoTPP and the pyridine groups of the grafted P(4VP-co-St), resulting in the heterogenised catalysts CoTPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by FTIR and the axial coordination process between CoTPP and the grafted P(4VP-co-St) was confirmed by UV-vis. The effects of various factors on the immobilization reaction of CoTPP were studied in detail. Finally, the catalytic performance of CoTPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 in the catalytic oxidation process of ethyl benzene was investigated. The experimental results show that the axial coordination reaction is a very easy and novel method for favorably immobilizing CoTPP onto the P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 surfaces. During the immobilization process of CoTPP on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2, the most bonding amount of CoTPP (0.19 g/g) is obtained under the lower temperature (5 °C) and the higher concentration of CoTPP(6.0 mg/ml) lasting 4 h. Moreover, the supported catalyst CoTPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 can effectively activate the dioxygen, and obviously catalyze the transform of ethylbenzene into acetophenone. So it exhibits the fine catalytic activity.

Wang, Ruixin; Gao, Baojiao; Jiao, Weizhou

2009-01-01

90

Formation of sub-7 nm feature size PS-b-P4VP block copolymer structures by solvent vapour process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanometer range structure produced by thin films of diblock copolymers makes them a great of interest as templates for the microelectronics industry. We investigated the effect of annealing solvents and/or mixture of the solvents in case of symmetric Poly (styrene-block-4vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer to get the desired line patterns. In this paper, we used different molecular weights PS-b-P4VP to demonstrate the scalability of such high ? BCP system which requires precise fine-tuning of interfacial energies achieved by surface treatment and that improves the wetting property, ordering, and minimizes defect densities. Bare Silicon Substrates were also modified with polystyrene brush and ethylene glycol self-assembled monolayer in a simple quick reproducible way. Also, a novel and simple in situ hard mask technique was used to generate sub-7nm Iron oxide nanowires with a high aspect ratio on Silicon substrate, which can be used to develop silicon nanowires post pattern transfer.

Chaudhari, Atul; Ghoshal, Tandra; Shaw, Matthew T.; Cummins, Cian; Borah, Dipu; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

2014-03-01

91

Mutational analysis of the role of nucleoside triphosphatase P4 in the assembly of the RNA polymerase complex of bacteriophage phi6.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage phi6 is a complex enveloped double-stranded RNA virus with a segmented genome and replication strategy quite similar to that of the Reoviridae. An in vitro packaging and replication system using purified components is available. The positive-polarity genomic segments are translocated into a preformed polymerase complex (procapsid) particle. This particle is composed of four proteins: the shell-forming protein P1, the RNA polymerase P2, and two proteins active in packaging. Protein P7 is involved in stable packaging, and protein P4 is a homomultimeric potent nucleoside triphosphatase that provides the energy for the RNA translocation event. In this investigation, we used mutational analysis to study P4 multimerization and assembly. P4 is assembled onto a preformed particle containing proteins P2 and P7 in addition to P1. Only simultaneous production of P1 and P4 in the same cell leads to P4 assembly on P1 alone, whereas the P1 shell is incompetent for accepting P4 if produced separately. The C-terminal part of P4 is essential for particle assembly but not for multimerization or enzymatic activity. Altering the P4 nucleoside triphosphate binding site destroys the ability to form multimers. PMID:9811745

Paatero, A O; Mindich, L; Bamford, D H

1998-12-01

92

Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

93

Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

94

Interactions of solute (3p, 4p, 5p and 6p) with solute, vacancy and divacancy in bcc Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solute-vacancy binding energy is a key quantity in understanding solute diffusion kinetics and phase segregation, and may help choice of alloy compositions for future material design. However, the binding energy of solute with vacancy is notoriously difficult to measure and largely unknown in bcc Fe. With first-principles method, we systemically calculate the binding energies of solute (3p, 4p, 5p and 6p alloying solutes are included) with vacancy, divacancy and solute in bcc Fe. The binding energy of Si with vacancy in the present work is in good consistent with experimental value available. All the solutes considered are able to form stable solute-vacancy, solute-divacancy complexes, and the binding strength of solute-divacancy is about two times larger than that of solute-vacancy. Most solutes could not form stable solute-solute complexes except S, Se, In and Tl. The factors controlling the binding energies are analyzed at last.

You, Yu-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Shan; Wu, Xue-Bang; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S.; Fang, Q. F.; Chen, J. L.; Luo, G.-N.; Wang, Zhiguang

2014-12-01

95

Exploring the contribution of distal P4 promoter elements to the oncoselectivity of Minute Virus of Mice  

PubMed Central

Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) shares inherent oncotropic properties with other members of the genus Parvovirus. Two elements responsible, at least in part, for this oncoselectivity have been mapped to an Ets1 binding site adjacent to the P4 TATA box of the initiating promoter, P4, and to a more distal cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE), located within the telomeric hairpin stem. Here the CRE overlaps one half-site for the binding of parvoviral initiation factor (PIF), which is essential for viral DNA replication. We used a degenerate oligonucleotide selection approach to show that CRE binding protein (CREB) selects the sequence ACGTCAC within this context, rather than its more generally accepted palindromic TGACGTCA recognition site. We have developed strategies for manipulating these sequences directly within the left-end palindrome of the MVM infectious clone and used them to clone mutants whose CRE either matches the symmetric consensus sequence or is scrambled, or in which the PIF binding site is incrementally weakened with respect to the CRE. The panel of mutants were tested for fitness relative to wildtype in normal murine fibroblasts A9 or transformed human fibroblasts 324 K, through multiple rounds of growth in co-infected cultures, using a differential real-time quantitative PCR assay. We confirmed that inactivating the CRE substantially abrogates oncoselectivity, but found that improving its fit to the palindromic consensus is somewhat debilitating in either cell type. We also confirmed that reducing the PIF half-site spacing by one basepair enhances oncoselectivity, but found that a further basepair deletion significantly reduces this effect.

Paglino, Justin; Burnett, Erik; Tattersall, Peter

2007-01-01

96

Critical role of a transmembrane lysine in aminophospholipid transport by mammalian photoreceptor P4-ATPase ATP8A2  

PubMed Central

ATP8A2 is a P4-ATPase (“flippase”) located in membranes of retinal photoreceptors, brain cells, and testis, where it mediates transport of aminophospholipids toward the cytoplasmic leaflet. It has long been an enigma whether the mechanism of P4-ATPases resembles that of the well-characterized cation-transporting P-type ATPases, and it is unknown whether the flippases interact directly with the lipid and with counterions. Our results demonstrate that ATP8A2 forms a phosphoenzyme intermediate at the conserved aspartate (Asp416) in the P-type ATPase signature sequence and exists in E1P and E2P forms similar to the archetypical P-type ATPases. Using the properties of the phosphoenzyme, the partial reaction steps of the transport cycle were examined, and the roles of conserved residues Asp196, Glu198, Lys873, and Asn874 in the transport mechanism were elucidated. The former two residues in the A-domain T/D-G-E-S/T motif are involved in catalysis of E2P dephosphorylation, the glutamate being essential. Transported aminophospholipids activate the dephosphorylation similar to K+ activation of dephosphorylation in Na+,K+-ATPase. Lys873 mutants (particularly K873A and K873E) display a markedly reduced sensitivity to aminophospholipids. Hence, Lys873, located in transmembrane segment M5 at a “hot spot” for cation binding in Ca2+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase, appears to participate directly in aminophospholipid binding or to mediate a crucial interaction within the ATP8A2-CDC50 complex. By contrast, Lys865 is unimportant for aminophospholipid sensitivity. Binding of Na+, H+, K+, Cl-, or Ca2+ to the E1 form as a counterion is not required for activation of phosphorylation from ATP. Therefore, phospholipids could be the only substrate transported by ATP8A2.

Coleman, Jonathan A.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Molday, Robert S.; Vilsen, Bente; Peter Andersen, Jens

2012-01-01

97

Production of high energy and low flux protons using 2D(3He,p)4He for space detector calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we want to demonstrate that besides the conventional use for elemental analysis and depth profiling by ion beam analysis (IBA), particles generated through ion-solid interactions in IBA may find other novel and important applications. Specifically, we use Rutherford backscattered and nuclear reaction produced high energy proton particles to calibrate an energetic particle subsystem (called ZEP) of the Space and Atmospheric Burst Reporting System (SABRS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To simulate low radiation flux in the space, we have devised an experiment that uses an ultrathin (?51.8 nm) self-support gold foil to scatter a proton beam from a 3 MV Tandem accelerator into the ZEP subsystem. Direct backscattering from the thin gold foil produces proton particles with tunable energies of 0.2-6.0 MeV and desired counting rates of <10 kHz. To extend the proton particle energy beyond the Tandem's limit of 6 MeV, a high Q-value nuclear reaction, 2D + 3He ? p + 4He + 18.352 MeV, was used. This reaction allows us to obtain as high as 25.6 MeV proton particles on our 3 MV tandem accelerator, more than 4 times as high as the accelerator's maximum proton beam energy, and has greatly extended our proton energy range for this calibration activity. Preliminary ZEP subsystem calibration results are presented.

Wang, Y. Q.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Tesmer, J. R.

2014-08-01

98

Selective P4 activation by an organometallic nickel(I) radical: formation of a dinuclear nickel(II) tetraphosphide and related di- and trichalcogenides.  

PubMed

The reaction of the 17e nickel(I) radical [CpNi(IDipp)] (1, IDipp = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) with P4 results in a nickel tetraphosphide [{CpNi(IDipp)}2(?-?(1):?(1)-P4)] with a butterfly-P4(2-) ligand; related chalcogenides [{CpNi(IDipp)}2(?-E2)] (E = S, Se, Te) and [{CpNi(IDipp)}2(?-E3)] (E = S, Se) are formed with S8, Se? and Te?. PMID:24849692

Pelties, Stefan; Herrmann, Dirk; de Bruin, Bas; Hartl, František; Wolf, Robert

2014-07-01

99

Immunohistochemical study on the localization of the epitope defined by a human saliva-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A novel mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C) has been developed which recognizes the core portion of the protein carrying ABO(H) blood group antigens in human saliva. This proved to be specific for human saliva using immunochemical investigations such as enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, Ouchterlony method and counter-immunoelectrophoresis. By licht and electron microscope studies with immunohistochemical techniques using this human saliva-Specific P4-5C

T. Ohshima; T. Nagano; A. Kimura; F. Matsumura; K. Sodesaki; T. Tsuji; H. Maeda

1991-01-01

100

Lifetime of the 2s^22p^4 ^1S0 Metastable Level of Ne^2+: A Technique to Determine Long Radiative Lifetimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the radiative lifetime of the 2s^22p^4 ^1S0 metastable level of Ne^2+ by observing the decay photons emitted at 181.5 nm and 179.3 nm by magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions between the ^1S0 metastable level and the 2s^22p^4 ^3P ground term. This is the first lifetime measurement for an excited term in the ground configuration of an

A. Daw; W. H. Parkinson; P. L. Smith; A. G. Calamai

1998-01-01

101

Nonspecific nucleoside triphosphatase P4 of double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi6 is required for single-stranded RNA packaging and transcription.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage phi6 has a segmented double-stranded RNA genome. The genomic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) precursors are packaged into a preformed protein capsid, the polymerase complex, composed of viral proteins P1, P2, P4, and P7. Packaging of the genomic precursors is an energy-dependent process requiring nucleoside triphosphates. Protein P4, a nonspecific nucleoside triphosphatase, has previously been suggested to be the prime candidate for the viral packaging engine, based on its location at the vertices of the viral capsid and its biochemical characteristics. In this study we were able to obtain stable polymerase complex particles that are completely devoid of P4. Such particles were not able to package ssRNA segments and did not display RNA polymerase (either minus- or plus-strand synthesis) activity. Surprisingly, a mutation in P4, S250Q, which reduced the level of P4 in the particles to about 10% of the wild-type level, did not affect RNA packaging activity or change the kinetics of packaging. Moreover, such particles displayed minus-strand synthesis activity. However, no plus-strand synthesis was observed, suggesting that P4 has a role in the plus-strand synthesis reaction also. PMID:12239286

Pirttimaa, Markus J; Paatero, Anja O; Frilander, Mikko J; Bamford, Dennis H

2002-10-01

102

Immunohistochemical study on the localization of the epitope defined by a human saliva-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C).  

PubMed

A novel mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C) has been developed which recognizes the core portion of the protein carrying ABO(H) blood group antigens in human saliva. This proved to be specific for human saliva using immunochemical investigations such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Ouchterlony method and counter-immunoelectrophoresis. By light and electron microscope studies with immunohistochemical techniques using this human saliva-specific P4-5C as primary antibody, it was shown that P4-5C reacted specifically and exclusively with mucus from the mucous gland cells of human salivary glands. P4-5C reacted neither with the mucous gland cells of other primates (hamadryas baboon, Japanese monkey and Rhesus monkey) and four mammals (dog, cat, rabbit and mouse) nor with other human tissues. The epitope on the core portion of the ABO(H)-carrying protein was defined by P4-5C and could be discriminated from the epitope of ABO(H) blood group antigens using immunoelectronmicroscopy, although these 2 epitopes were localized relatively close to each other. The P4-5C monoclonal antibody can be also used for morphological species identification of tissue specimens from submandibular glands. PMID:1716968

Ohshima, T; Nagano, T; Kimura, A; Matsumura, F; Sodesaki, K; Tsuji, T; Maeda, H

1991-01-01

103

On the contribution of stereochemistry to human ITPK1 specificity: Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 is not a physiologic substrate.  

PubMed

Ins(1,4,5,6)P4, a biologically active cell constituent, was recently advocated as a substrate of human Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 1-kinase (hITPK1), because stereochemical factors were believed relatively unimportant to specificity [Miller, G.J., Wilson, M.P., Majerus, P.W. and Hurley, J.H. (2005) Specificity determinants in inositol polyphosphate synthesis: crystal structure of inositol 1,3,4-triphosphate 5/6-kinase. Mol. Cell. 18, 201-212]. Contrarily, we provide three examples of hITPK1 stereospecificity. hITPK1 phosphorylates only the 1-hydroxyl of both Ins(3,5,6)P3 and the meso-compound, Ins(4,5,6)P3. Moreover, hITPK1 has >13,000-fold preference for Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 over its enantiomer, Ins(1,4,5,6)P4. The biological significance of hITPK1 being stereospecific, and not physiologically phosphorylating Ins(1,4,5,6)P4, is reinforced by our demonstrating that Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 is phosphorylated (K(m) = 0.18 microM) by inositolphosphate-multikinase. PMID:16376887

Riley, Andrew M; Deleu, Sandrine; Qian, Xun; Mitchell, Jennifer; Chung, Sung-Kee; Adelt, Stephan; Vogel, Günter; Potter, Barry V L; Shears, Stephen B

2006-01-01

104

A novel cobalt(II)-selective potentiometric sensor based on p-(4-n-butylphenylazo)calix[4]arene.  

PubMed

A new poly(vinyl chloride)-based membranes containing p-(4-n-butylphenylazo)calix[4]arene (I) as an electroactive material along with sodiumtetraphenylborate (NaTPB), and dibutyl(butyl)phosphonate in the ratio 10:100:1:200 (I:DBBP:NaTPB:PVC) (w/w) was used to fabricate a new cobalt(II)-selective sensor. It exhibited a working concentration range of 9.2 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-1)M, with a Nernstian slope of 29.0+/-1.0 mV/decade of activity and the response time of 25s. This sensor shows the detection limit of 4.0 x 10(-6)M. Its potential response remains unaffected of pH in the range, 4.0-7.2, and the cell assembly can be used successfully in partially non-aqueous medium (up to 10%, v/v) without significant change in the slope of working concentration range. The sensor has a lifetime of about 3 months and exhibits excellent selectivity over a number of mono-, bi-, and tri-valent cations including alkali, alkaline earth metal, heavy and transition metal ions. It can be used as an indicator electrode for the end point determination in the potentiometric titration of cobalt ions against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as for the determination of cobalt ion concentration in real samples. PMID:19064091

Kumar, Pankaj; Shim, Yoon-Bo

2009-01-15

105

Coherent lidar imaging of dust clouds: waveform comparison with the poly-phase (P4) modulation waveform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dust or aerosol cloud represents a convenient target to examine the capabilities of range-resolved Doppler and intensity (RRDI) or inverse synthetic aperture ladar (ISAR) imaging coherent laser radar, known as coherent "lidar" for optically thin targets. The poly-phase P4 ladar waveform and its RRDI images are described and compared with previous pulse-burst, linear-FM chirp pulse-compression, pseudo-random phase modulation waveforms, and several other waveforms which have not been utilized to date. A "dust cloud" has very many independently moving point scatterers with velocities that are approximately Gaussian randomly distributed in x,y,z with standard deviations of about 10% of the mean wind + aerosol velocity. This is contrary to a hard-target where the point scatterers are rigidly attached and moving together. The dust cloud produced speckle effects for the various ladar waveforms are compared. In addition, a reference set of four corner-cube retro-reflectors within the dust cloud further illustrates the differences in the various waveform capabilities and resolution.

Youmans, Douglas G.

2008-05-01

106

Identification of the endophilins (SH3p4/p8/p13) as novel binding partners for the ?1-adrenergic receptor  

PubMed Central

Several G-protein coupled receptors, such as the ?1-adrenergic receptor (?1-AR), contain polyproline motifs within their intracellular domains. Such motifs in other proteins are known to mediate protein–protein interactions such as with Src homology (SH)3 domains. Accordingly, we used the proline-rich third intracellular loop of the ?1-AR either as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in biochemical “pull-down” assays or as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system to search for interacting proteins. Both approaches identified SH3p4/p8/p13 (also referred to as endophilin 1/2/3), a SH3 domain-containing protein family, as binding partners for the ?1-AR. In vitro and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, SH3p4 specifically binds to the third intracellular loop of the ?1-AR but not to that of the ?2-AR. Moreover, this interaction is mediated by the C-terminal SH3 domain of SH3p4. Functionally, overexpression of SH3p4 promotes agonist-induced internalization and modestly decreases the Gs coupling efficacy of ?1-ARs in HEK293 cells while having no effect on ?2-ARs. Thus, our studies demonstrate a role of the SH3p4/p8/p13 protein family in ?1-AR signaling and suggest that interaction between proline-rich motifs and SH3-containing proteins may represent a previously underappreciated aspect of G-protein coupled receptor signaling.

Tang, Yuting; Hu, Liaoyuan A.; Miller, William E.; Ringstad, Niels; Hall, Randy A.; Pitcher, Julie A.; DeCamilli, Pietro; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

1999-01-01

107

New P-wave Velocity Images of the Lowermost Mantle from a Bayesian Inversion of PKP, PcP, and P4KP Differential Travel Times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the scale-length, magnitude, and distribution of chemical and thermal heterogeneities in the lowermost mantle is crucial to understanding whole mantle dynamics, and yet it remains a much debated and ongoing challenge in geophysics. Common shortcomings of current seismically-derived lowermost mantle models are often the result of a lack of access to and scrutiny in performing travel time measurements from waveform data, consequently incomplete raypath coverage, arbitrary model parameterization, inaccurate uncertainty estimates, and an inadequate definition of the misfit function in the optimization framework. In response, we present a new approach to global tomography where apart from improving the existing ray path coverage using only high quality cross-correlated waveform, the problem is addressed within a Bayesian framework and explicit regularization of model parameters is not required. Our results show that velocity heterogeneities exist on a variety of scales, with anomalies between 600 and 2900 km in lateral extent dominating the lowermost mantle heterogeneity pattern. This provides an important link between the very short-scale imaging achieved through scattering experiments and the long wave-length maps resulting from more traditional tomographic approaches. We also show that the power of heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle has an rms P-wave velocity variation of 0.88%, which is significantly larger than previous global-scale estimates, is fully justified by the data. Comparison of our P-wave velocity model with high-resolution S-wave velocity models refutes a purely thermal origin of mantle heterogeneity. The pattern of correlation between our model and S-wave models, combined with the characteristic scale-length and amplitude of heterogeneity revealed by this study, will help to significantly refine allowable models of thermo-chemical convection in the lowermost mantle. We obtain high resolution images of the lowermost mantle P-wave velocity structure using a hand-picked data set of PKPab-df, PKPbc-df, PcP-P, and P4KP-PcP differential traveltimes. By using differential travel times, the biases associated with event mislocation and lateral heterogeneity in the lithosphere are minimized. The inclusion of new PcP-P and P4KP-PcP data greatly improves the D'' coverage and further reduces unwanted mapping effects in the inversion. In addition, we focus on covering gaps in spatial sampling of the lowermost mantle from PKPab-df and PcP-P of previous studies. We use a probabilistic, Bayesian inversion scheme to invert for lowermost mantle structure and obtain an accurate representation of the complexity and amplitude of the P-wave velocity heterogeneity that is complete with uncertainty estimates. The advantage of such an inversion method is that the data variance along with the number, size, and distribution of spatial model parameters are treated as unknowns in the problem.

Young, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Bodin, T.; Sambridge, M.; Tanaka, S.; Rawlinson, N.

2012-12-01

108

Measurement of the plasma astrophysical S factor for the 3He(d,p)4He reaction in exploding molecular clusters.  

PubMed

The plasma astrophysical S factor for the 3He(d,p)4He fusion reaction was measured for the first time at temperatures of few keV, using the interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular deuterium clusters mixed with 3He atoms. Different proportions of D2 and 3He or CD4 and 3He were mixed in the gas target in order to allow the measurement of the cross section for the 3He(d,p)4He reaction. The yield of 14.7 MeV protons from the 3He(d,p)4He reaction was measured in order to extract the astrophysical S factor at low energies. Our result is in agreement with other S factor parametrizations found in the literature. PMID:24010431

Barbui, M; Bang, W; Bonasera, A; Hagel, K; Schmidt, K; Natowitz, J B; Burch, R; Giuliani, G; Barbarino, M; Zheng, H; Dyer, G; Quevedo, H J; Gaul, E; Bernstein, A C; Donovan, M; Kimura, S; Mazzocco, M; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Andreoli, P; Ditmire, T

2013-08-23

109

A Putative Plant Aminophospholipid Flippase, the Arabidopsis P4 ATPase ALA1, Localizes to the Plasma Membrane following Association with a ?-Subunit  

PubMed Central

Plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells display asymmetric lipid distributions with aminophospholipids concentrated in the inner leaflet and sphingolipids in the outer leaflet. This unequal distribution of lipids between leaflets is, amongst several proposed functions, hypothesized to be a prerequisite for endocytosis. P4 ATPases, belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily of pumps, are involved in establishing lipid asymmetry across plasma membranes, but P4 ATPases have not been identified in plant plasma membranes. Here we report that the plant P4 ATPase ALA1, which previously has been connected with cold tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana, is targeted to the plasma membrane and does so following association in the endoplasmic reticulum with an ALIS protein ?-subunit.

Lopez-Marques, Rosa L.; Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Palmgren, Michael G.

2012-01-01

110

Effect of CdSe nanoparticle addition on nanostructuring of PS-b-P4VP copolymer via solvent vapor exposure.  

PubMed

The surface morphology of poly(styrene-b-4 vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer thin films after solvent vapor annealing has been studied. Morphological features can be switched upon exposure to vapors of a solvent selective for one of the blocks. Self-assembled nanostructures such as hexagonal or striped morphologies were obtained varying vapor exposure time. In addition, the effect of the presence of CdSe nanoparticles located in the P4VP block on obtained nanostructures was analyzed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for morphological characterization of the block copolymer and the nanocomposites. AFM images showed that nanostructuring was different depending on the amount of CdSe nanoparticles, due to the decrease in P4VP chain mobility. PMID:24370397

Etxeberria, Haritz; Fernandez, Raquel; Zalakain, Iñaki; Mondragon, Iñaki; Eceiza, Arantxa; Kortaberria, Galder

2014-02-15

111

Bis-transannular Metallocenyl Cyclophosphazene. X-ray Crystal Structure of N4P4F4((eta-C5H4)2Ru)2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first example of a bis-transannular metallocenyl cyclophosphazene has been prepared by the reaction of dilithioruthenocene with 1,5-N4P4F6(eta)-C5H4)2Ru, and its structure was determined by spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. Keywords...

H. R. Allcock G. H. Riding K. D. Lavin M. Parvez

1986-01-01

112

CASL L1 Milestone Report: CASL.P4.01, Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabi...

B. M. Adams J. R. Secker Y. Sung

2011-01-01

113

Molecular characterization of human G8P[4] rotavirus strains in Italy: proposal of a more complete subclassification of the G8 genotype in three major lineages.  

PubMed

In 2011, two children with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis were hospitalized in Sardinia, Italy. Two RVA strains with G8P[4] genotype were detected in their stools, and were named SS56/2011 and SS65/2011. The aim of the study was to characterize these two rare strains, collected within a national RVA gastroenteritis surveillance program. Eight of the 11 RVA genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed. VP7 amino acid sequence was also analyzed. Sequencing of genes encoding the VP4, VP6, VP7, and NSP1-5 proteins classified both strains as G8-P[4]-I2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2, not detected previously in Italy. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most genes of Italian RVA strains were closely similar to typical DS-1 like strains circulating worldwide, whereas the VP7 gene was strictly related to G8 strains firstly reported in Africa. This finding of G8P[4] RVA strains with a DS-1 like genomic constellation also in a southern European country further confirms the wide circulation of this uncommon genotype in the world. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the VP7 capsid protein of the Italian G8P[4] RVA strains with sequences reported previously suggests that the G8 genotype should be divided into three major lineages. PMID:24252348

Ianiro, G; Delogu, R; Bonomo, P; Castiglia, P; Ruggeri, F M; Fiore, L

2014-01-01

114

Bioactive glass BAG-S53P4 for the adjunctive treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones: an in vitro and prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of the bioglass BAG S53P4 against multi-resistant microorganisms commonly involved in osteomyelitis and to evaluate its use in surgical adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis. Methods In vitro antibacterial activity of BAG-S53P4 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates was evaluated by means of time kill curves, with colony counts performed after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. In vivo evaluation was performed by prospectively studying a cohort of 27 patients with a clinically and radiologically diagnosed osteomyelitis of the long bones in an observational study. Endpoints were the absence of infection recurrence/persistence at follow-up, no need for further surgery whenever during follow-up and absence of local or systemic side effects connected with the BAG use. Results In vitro tests regarding the antibacterial activity of BAG S53P4 showed a marked bactericidal activity after 24 hrs against all the tested species. This activity continued in the subsequent 24 hrs and no growth was observed for all strains after 72 hrs. Results of the clinical study evidenced no signs of infection in 24 patients (88.9%) at the follow-up, while 2 subjects showed infection recurrence at 6 months from index operation and one more needed further surgical procedures. BAG-S53P4 was generally well tolerated. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo findings reinforce previous observations on the efficacy of BAG-S53P4 for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones, also in the presence of multi-resistant strains and in immunocompromised hosts, without relevant side effects and without the need for locally adding antibiotics. Trial registration Deutschen Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) unique identifier: DRKS00005332.

2013-01-01

115

Measurement of cross sections for the 232Th(P,4n)229Pa reaction at low proton energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-emitters 225Ac and 213Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived 229Th(t1/2 = 7880y). 229Th can be produced by proton irradiation of 232Th and 230Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into 229Th. To obtain excitation functions, 232Th and 230Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of 229Pa and its daughter 225Ac from both 232Th and 230Th. Differential cross-sections for production of 229Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

Jost, C. U.; Griswold, J. R.; Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S.; Stracener, D. W.; Williams, C. L.

2013-04-01

116

(NH 4) 4P 4O 12 · 2Te(OH) 6 · 2H 2O, the first example of a tetrametaphosphate-tellurate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonium tetrametaphosphate-tellurate dihydrate, (NH 4) 4P 4O 12 · 2Te(OH) 6 · 2H 2O, is triclinic with the following unit cell dimensions: a = 11.845(6), b = 8.554(5), c = 7.433(5) Å, ? = 66.28(5), ? = 95.91(5), ? = 76.00(5)° space group: P overline1 and Z = 1. The crystal structure has been determined with a final R value of 0.021. As in the previously described phosphate-tellurates, monophosphate-tellurate and trimetaphosphate-tellurates, the phosphoric anion (here the P 4O 12 ring) is independent of the octahedral Te(OH) 6 group. A complete pattern of the hydrogen bonds is given.

Durif, A.; Averbuch-Pouchot, M. T.; Guitel, J. C.

1982-02-01

117

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo proximal interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p (4p15.2?p14).  

PubMed

We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo proximal interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p (4p15.2?p14) and molecular cytogenetic characterization of the deletion using uncultured amniocytes. We review the phenotypic abnormalities of previously reported patients with similar proximal interstitial 4p deletions, and we discuss the functions of the genes of RBPJ, CCKAR, STIM2, PCDH7 and ARAP2 that are deleted within this region. PMID:23948085

Chen, Chih-Ping; Lee, Meng-Ju; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shan; Wang, Wayseen

2013-10-25

118

Cast iron (CI) based soft magnetic BMG Ci88.3Al2Ga1P4.35B4.35  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stability, structure, and magnetic properties of bulk type Ci88.3Al2Ga1P4.35B4.35 alloy in ribbon form have been studied using differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Results reveal that crystallization peak temperature (Tx) and Curie temperature (Tc) of the as-cast alloy are respectively 513 and 370 °C. Crystallization of the specimen starts after annealing at 460 °C and alpha-Fe is

S. N. Kane; H. J. Lee; Y. H. Jeong; L. K. Varga

2009-01-01

119

Cast iron (CI) based soft magnetic BMG Ci88.3Al2Ga1P4.35B4.35  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stability, structure, and magnetic properties of bulk type Ci88.3Al2Ga1P4.35B4.35 alloy in ribbon form have been studied using differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Results reveal that crystallization peak temperature (Tx) and Curie temperature (Tc) of the as-cast alloy are respectively 513 and 370 °C. Crystallization of the specimen starts after annealing at 460 °C and ?-Fe is

S N Kane; H J Lee; Y H Jeong; L K Varga

2009-01-01

120

P4ATPase Requirement for AP1\\/Clathrin Function in Protein Transport from the trans-Golgi Network and Early Endosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Drs2p is a resident type 4 P-type ATPase (P4-ATPase) and potential phospholipid translocase of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) where it has beenimplicated in clathrin function. However, precise protein transport pathways requiring Drs2p and how it contributes to clathrin- coated vesicle budding remain unclear. Here weshow,a functional co-dependence between Drs2p and the AP-1 clathrin adaptor in protein sorting at the

Ke Liu; Kavitha Surendhran; Steven F. Nothwehr; Todd R. Graham

2008-01-01

121

Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously

W. G. Johnson; A. DuBarton; S. Edwards; H. Drollinger

1992-01-01

122

Human diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase is a member of the MutT family of nucleotide pyrophosphatases.  

PubMed Central

The cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase have been determined with the aid of the GenBank Expressed Sequence Tag database. This enzyme possesses a modification of the MutT sequence motif found in certain nucleotide pyrophosphatases. It is unrelated to the enzymes of diadenosine tetraphosphate catabolism found in prokaryotes and fungi. Images Figure 1

Thorne, N M; Hankin, S; Wilkinson, M C; Nunez, C; Barraclough, R; McLennan, A G

1995-01-01

123

The P4 Screener: Evaluation of a Brief Measure for Assessing Potential Suicide Risk in 2 Randomized Effectiveness Trials of Primary Care and Oncology Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Depression is the most common mental disorder, and suicide is its most serious consequence. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate preliminary evidence for the P4 screener as a brief measure to assess potential suicide risk. Method: The P4 screener was prospectively evaluated in 2 randomized effectiveness trials of primary care (January 2005–June 2008; N = 250) and oncology patients (March 2006–August 2009; N = 309). Potential suicide ideation was assessed at 5 time points in both trials: baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The P4 screener asks about the “4 P’s”: past suicide attempts, suicide plan, probability of completing suicide, and preventive factors. Patients were classified as minimal, lower, and higher risk based upon responses to these 4 items. Results: A suicide assessment was triggered 1 or more times by 17.6% (44 of 250) of Stepped Care for Affective Disorders and Musculoskeletal Pain (SCAMP) participants and 16.5% (51 of 309) of Indiana Cancer Pain and Depression (INCPAD) participants at some point in the trial. Of the patients who triggered a suicide assessment, the majority (29 of 44 in SCAMP and 27 of 51 in INCPAD) were classified as minimal risk by the algorithm. Only 1 (0.4%) of the SCAMP participants and 5 (1.6%) of the INCPAD participants were classified as higher risk. Among the latter, the most common factors preventing patients from attempting suicide were the “4 F’s”: faith, family, future hope, and fear of failing in their attempt. Conclusions: Preliminary findings suggest that the P4 screener may be useful in assessing potential suicide risk in the clinical care of depressed patients as well as in clinical research. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00118430 (SCAMP) and NCT00313573 (INCPAD)

Dube, Priyanka; Bair, Matthew J.; Theobald, Dale; Williams, Linda S.

2010-01-01

124

Iodine-125 Radioprobing of Intramolecular Quadruplex Conformation of Human Telomeric DNA in the Presence of Cationic Porphyrin TMPyP4  

PubMed Central

Purpose A repeated, non-coding, DNA sequence d(TTAGGG)n is present in the telomeric ends of all human chromosomes. These repeats can adopt multiple inter- and intra-molecular non-B-DNA conformations that may play an important role in biological processes. We applied 125I -radioprobing to assess the conformation of the human telomeric DNA fragment in a complex with the quadruplex-specific drug - cationic porphyrin TMPyP4. Material and methods Synthetic DNA oligonucleotides containing the telomeric sequence were labeled with 125I. The probability of DNA breaks caused by decay of 125I is inversely related to the distance between the radionuclide and the sugar unit of the DNA backbone; hence, the conformation of the DNA backbone can be deduced from the distribution of breaks. Results The obtained data indicate that the telomeric oligonucleotides predominantly fold into an intramolecular quadruplex conformation in the presence of TMPyP4. We propose a mixed-type (3+1) conformation of telomeric quadruplex in a complex with the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 in solution. Binding of the porphyrin overrides the counterion effect on quadruplex conformation. Conclusions We have demonstrated that 125I radioprobing can be successfully applied not only to determine folding in G-quadruplexes, but also to reveal the mode of quadruplex interaction with small ligands.

Gaynutdinov, Timur I.; Neumann, Ronald D.; Panyutin, Igor G.

2008-01-01

125

Simulations of loss-of-flow accidents in an LMFBR with the Sodium Loop Safety Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF), a major facility in the US fast-reactor safety program, has been used to simulate an unprotected loss-of-flow accident in a sodium-cooled breeder reactor. A series of three SLSF experiments, conducted under prototypic thermal-hydraulic conditions, gives a sequential view of the fuel-bundle disruption during such an accident: the 19-pin experiment P2 ran to the point of extensive fuel motion; the 37-pin experiments P3A and P3 ran to initial fuel-pellet disruption and initial fuel motion, respectively. The experiments are summarized, and the conclusions drawn from the series are discussed.

Kraft, T.E.; Ragland, W.A.; Thompson, D.H.

1984-03-01

126

Effects of repeated transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspirations performed in anestrous and cyclic mares on P4 and E2 plasma levels and luteal function.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to verify how repeated ovum pick-up (OPU), performed in anestrous and cyclic mares, affect ovarian activity, measured by progesterone (P4) and 17ß-estradiol (E2) plasma levels. Ovum pick-up of all visible follicles was performed every 9 to 12 days, and four sessions were carried out during anestrous (A) and breeding season (BS). The number of aspirated follicles per mare at each session was not significantly different between the two periods (BS: 6.1 ± 2.4; A: 7.5 ± 4.4; P > 0.05), but the mean follicular diameter was significantly higher during BS (16.0 ± 7.1 vs. 10.2 ± 5.1 mm; P < 0.05); during A the number of aspirated follicles less than 15 mm in diameter resulted significantly higher than that registered in BS (5.1 ± 2.7 vs. 3.0 ± 1.8; P < 0.05). The total mean value of P4 was higher in BS than in A (6.3 ± 4.4 vs. 0.3 ± 1.8 ng/mL; P < 0.05), whereas the total mean level of E2 was not different between the two periods (3.8 ± 3.4 vs. 2.5 ± 2.7 pg/mL; P > 0.05). Estradiol plasma values resulted positively correlated, in A and BS, with diameter of follicles detected on the ovaries (R = 0.345 and R = 0.331, respectively), whereas a negative correlation was observed between P4 and follicular diameter in BS (R = -0.162). Both E2 and P4 presented a high individual variability during BS; in particular, in three of seven mares, P4 trend was compatible with a normal estrous cycle, and the interval between two consecutive peaks was 21 days. In two of seven mares, with CL at first OPU, P4 concentrations remained more than 3 ng/mL throughout the entire treatment period. Finally, in two of seven animals, P4 levels initially showed a similar pattern to that of a normal estrous cycle, then, after the second aspiration, they remained consistently higher than 3 ng/mL. When the procedure was carried out in cyclic animals, the influence of this technique on ovarian activity seemed to be related to individual variability although, according to progesterone values, structures observed on the ovaries after aspirations presented luteal function. Furthermore, the resumption of normal ovarian activity, after repeated OPU sessions, occurred in a period not much longer than the duration of a normal estrous cycle (25.4 ± 5.2 days). Data recorded during nonbreeding period showed that repeated OPU in anestrous mares do not affect ovarian activity and do not anticipate the resumption of ovarian cyclicity. However, based on the number of aspirated follicles in anestrous and cyclic mares, both types of subjects could be considered as oocyte donors. PMID:24780115

Iacono, E; Merlo, B; Rizzato, G; Mislei, B; Govoni, N; Tamanini, C; Mari, G

2014-07-15

127

An innovative pay-for-performance (P4P) strategy for improving malaria management in rural Kenya: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background In high-resource settings, ‘pay-for-performance’ (P4P) programs have generated interest as a potential mechanism to improve health service delivery and accountability. However, there has been little or no experimental evidence to guide the development or assess the effectiveness of P4P incentive programs in developing countries. In the developing world, P4P programs are likely to rely, at least initially, on external funding from donors. Under these circumstances, the sustainability of such programs is in doubt and needs assessment. Methods/design We describe a cluster-randomized controlled trial underway in 18 health centers in western Kenya that is testing an innovative incentive strategy to improve management of an epidemiologically and economically important problem—diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The incentive scheme in this trial promotes adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines for laboratory confirmation of malaria before treatment, a priority area for the Ministry of Health. There are three important innovations that are unique to this study among those from other resource-constrained settings: the behavior being incentivized is quality of care rather than volume of service delivery; the incentives are applied at the facility-level rather than the individual level, thus benefiting facility infrastructure and performance overall; and the incentives are designed to be budget-neutral if effective. Discussion Linking appropriate case management for malaria to financial incentives has the potential to improve patient care and reduce wastage of expensive antimalarials. In our study facilities, on average only 25% of reported malaria cases were confirmed by laboratory diagnosis prior to the intervention, and the total treatment courses of antimalarials dispensed did not correspond to the number of cases reported. This study will demonstrate whether facility rather than individual incentives are compelling enough to improve case management, and whether these incentives lead to offsetting cost-savings as a result of reduced drug consumption. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number NCT01809873

2013-01-01

128

Interactions between meso-tetrakis(4-( N -methylpyridiumyl))porphyrin TMPyP4 and DNA G-quadruplex of telomeric repeated sequence TTAGGG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding properties between meso-tetrakis(4-(N-methylpyridiumyl))porphyrin (TMPyP4) and the parallel DNA G-quadruplex (G4) of telomeric repeated sequence 5?-TTAGGG-3? have\\u000a been characterized by means of circular dichroism, steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence and picosecond time-resolved\\u000a fluorescence spectroscopies. The binding constant and the saturated binding number were determined as 1.29×106 (mol\\/L)?1 and 3, respectively, according to steady-state absorption spectroscopy. Based on the findings by

HuiJuan Zhang; XueFei Wang; Peng Wang; SiPing Pang; XiCheng Ai; JianPing Zhang

2008-01-01

129

Extending The P4P Agenda, Part 2: How Medicare Can Reduce Waste And Improve The Care Of The Chronically Ill  

PubMed Central

The care of Americans with severe chronic illnesses is disorganized, unnecessarily costly, and undisciplined by sound clinical science. The federal government should invest in a crash program to improve the scientific basis of managing chronic illness, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) should extend its pay-for-performance (P4P) agenda to ensure that within ten years all Americans with severe chronic illnesses have access to accountable health care organizations providing evidence-based prospective care. This paper recommends a strategy for achieving this goal.

Wennberg, John E.; Fisher, Elliott S.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bronner, Kristen K.

2008-01-01

130

WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b  

SciTech Connect

We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

Todorov, Kamen O. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sada, Pedro V. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-06-20

131

Reaction enthalpies for the hydrolysis of 3p, 4p and early 3d oxide bridges how unique are the oligophosphates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrolysis of M-O-M bridges in binuclear oxyhydroxides of the 3p, 4p and early 3d elements is investigated by quantum chemistry. The reaction enthalpies for the water addition reactions are compared. Hydrolysis of oxygen bridges is found endothermic for the Al-P, Ga-As and Sc-Mn species, but exothermic for the S, Se, Cl and Br species. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphoric acid is unique in displaying the reaction enthalpy, which is closest to zero. This fact is taken to explain why the oligophosphates are utilised in controlling cellular reactions, as the hydrolysis energetics rely entirely on local conditions.

Johnson, J. R. Tobias; Panas, Itai

2001-11-01

132

Isolation of InsP4 and InsP6 binding proteins from human platelets: InsP4 promotes Ca2+ efflux from inside-out plasma membrane vesicles containing 104 kDa GAP1IP4BP protein.  

PubMed Central

A low-density membrane fraction from human platelets contained the plasma membrane marker glycoprotein Ib (GpIb) and selective binding sites for InsP4 and InsP6. It was separated from the bulk of InsP3-receptor-containing membranes, but was heterogeneous, probably also containing surface-connected canalicular system and some lighter elements of the internal dense tubule system. After loading with calcium oxalate and re-centrifugation on Percoll gradients, this mixed fraction was subfractionated into light membranes containing all of the GpIb, high-affinity InsP4 binding sites (KD = 18 nM) and phosphate-stimulated Ca2+ transport activity. InsP4 (EC50 0.6 microM), but not InsP3 or InsP6, released up to 35% of the accumulated Ca2+ from these vesicles, which were shown to be inside-out plasma membrane vesicles by a biotinylation labelling technique and selective removal of right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles with streptavidin-agarose. Most of the InsP4, and all of the InsP6, binding was present in the much denser calcium oxalate-loaded subfractions, which were free of GpIb. InsP6 binding activity was chromatographically purified as a 116 kDa protein (KD for InsP6 = 5.9 nM), with an amino acid content and two internal peptide sequences identical to those of 116 kDa vinculin. A 104 kDa InsP4 binding protein (KD for InsP4 = 12 nM), probably identical to GAP1IP4BP described by Cullen, Hsuan, Truong, Letcher, Jackson, Dawson and Irvine [(1995) Nature (London) 376, 527-530], was also isolated. This InsP4 receptor may mediate Ca2+ influx in platelets that occurs subsequent to receptor-stimulated production of InsP3 and unloading of internal Ca2+ stores.

O'Rourke, F; Matthews, E; Feinstein, M B

1996-01-01

133

Structural and mechanistic basis of anti-termination of Rho-dependent transcription termination by bacteriophage P4 capsid protein Psu  

PubMed Central

The conserved bacterial transcription terminator, Rho, is a potent target for bactericidal agents. Psu, a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein, is capable of inducing anti-termination to the Rho-dependent transcription termination. Knowledge of structural and mechanistic basis of this anti-termination is required to design peptide-inhibitor(s) of Rho from Psu. Using suppressor genetics, cross-linking, protein foot-printing and FRET analyses, we describe a conserved disordered structure, encompassing 139–153 amino acids of Rho, as the primary docking site for Psu. Also a neighbouring helical structure, comprising 347–354 amino acids, lining its central channel, plays a supportive role in the Rho–Psu complex formation. Based on the crystal structure of Psu, its conformation in the capsid of the P4 phage, and its interacting regions on Rho, we build an energy-minimized structural model of the Rho:Psu complex. In this model, a V-shaped dimer of Psu interacts with the two diagonally opposite subunits of a hexameric Rho, enabling Psu to form a ‘lid’ on the central channel of the latter. We show that this configuration of Psu makes the central channel of Rho inaccessible, and it causes a mechanical impediment to its translocase activity.

Ranjan, Amitabh; Sharma, Savita; Banerjee, Ramanuj; Sen, Udayaditya; Sen, Ranjan

2013-01-01

134

NadN and e (P4) are essential for utilization of NAD and nicotinamide mononucleotide but not nicotinamide riboside in Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed

Haemophilus influenzae has an absolute requirement for NAD (factor V) because it lacks almost all the biosynthetic enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of that cofactor. Factor V can be provided as either nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), or nicotinamide riboside (NR) in vitro, but little is known about the source or the mechanism of uptake of these substrates in vivo. As shown by us earlier, at least two gene products are involved in the uptake of NAD, the outer membrane lipoprotein e (P4), which has phosphatase activity and is encoded by hel, and a periplasmic NAD nucleotidase, encoded by nadN. It has also been observed that the latter gene product is essential for H. influenzae growth on media supplemented with NAD. In this report, we describe the functions and substrates of these two proteins as they act together in an NAD utilization pathway. Data are provided which indicate that NadN harbors not only NAD pyrophosphatase but also NMN 5'-nucleotidase activity. The e (P4) protein is also shown to have NMN 5'-nucleotidase activity, recognizing NMN as a substrate and releasing NR as its product. Insertion mutants of nadN or deletion and site-directed mutants of hel had attenuated growth and a reduced uptake phenotype when NMN served as substrate. A hel and nadN double mutant was only able to grow in the presence of NR, whereas no uptake of NMN was observed. PMID:11395461

Kemmer, G; Reilly, T J; Schmidt-Brauns, J; Zlotnik, G W; Green, B A; Fiske, M J; Herbert, M; Kraiss, A; Schlör, S; Smith, A; Reidl, J

2001-07-01

135

Strontium magnesium phosphate, Sr(2+x)Mg(3-x)P4O15 (x ~ 0.36), from laboratory X-ray powder data.  

PubMed

The previously unknown crystal structure of strontium magnesium phosphate, Sr(2+x)Mg(3-x)P(4)O(15) (x ~ 0.36), determined and refined from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data, represents a new structure type. The title compound was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction and it crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm. It was earlier thought to be stoichiometric Sr(2)Mg(3)P(4)O(15), but our structural study indicates the nonstoichiometric composition. The asymmetric unit contains one Sr (site symmetry ..m on special position 8g), one M (= Mg 64%/Sr 36%; site symmetry 2/m.. on special position 4b), one Mg (site symmetry 2.. on special position 8e), two P (site symmetry m.. on special position 8f and site symmetry ..m on special position 8g), and six O sites [two on general positions 16h, two on 8g, one on 8f and one on special position 4c (site symmetry m2m)]. The nonstoichiometry is due to the mixing of magnesium and strontium ions on the M site. The structure consists of three-dimensional networks of MgO(4) and PO(4) tetrahedra, and MO(6) octahedra with the other strontium ions occupying the larger cavities surrounded by ten O atoms. All the polyhedra are connected by corner-sharing except the edge-sharing MO(6) octahedra forming one-dimensional arrangements along [001]. PMID:21206067

Hong, Jung-Hwa; Song, Seung-Wan; Hong, Seung-Tae

2011-01-01

136

Influence of microstructure on soft magnetic properties of low coreloss and high Bs Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure and magnetic properties of high Bs Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nano-crystalline alloy were tailored. The Bs ˜ 1.85 T and low coercivity Hc ˜ 6 A/m were obtained by conventional annealing (i.e., one step) at a heating rate of ˜400 °C/min. While one step annealing process produces a fairly stable nanostructure, for short times at temperatures <425 °C, the nanostructure and concomitant magnetic properties of this alloy are shown to be tunable by two step annealing process. Nanocrystalline ribbons with grain size (D) ranging from ˜15 to 32 nm, Hc ˜ 6 to 140 A/m and core-loss at 1.5 T, 50 Hz ˜ 0.39 ˜ 5.0 W/kg were obtained. The Hc of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy is shown to vary as D6, but a small deviation was noticed, which may be due to weak anisotropy.

Sharma, Parmanand; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Makino, Akihiro

2014-05-01

137

NadN and e (P4) Are Essential for Utilization of NAD and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide but Not Nicotinamide Riboside in Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae has an absolute requirement for NAD (factor V) because it lacks almost all the biosynthetic enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of that cofactor. Factor V can be provided as either nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), or nicotinamide riboside (NR) in vitro, but little is known about the source or the mechanism of uptake of these substrates in vivo. As shown by us earlier, at least two gene products are involved in the uptake of NAD, the outer membrane lipoprotein e (P4), which has phosphatase activity and is encoded by hel, and a periplasmic NAD nucleotidase, encoded by nadN. It has also been observed that the latter gene product is essential for H. influenzae growth on media supplemented with NAD. In this report, we describe the functions and substrates of these two proteins as they act together in an NAD utilization pathway. Data are provided which indicate that NadN harbors not only NAD pyrophosphatase but also NMN 5?-nucleotidase activity. The e (P4) protein is also shown to have NMN 5?-nucleotidase activity, recognizing NMN as a substrate and releasing NR as its product. Insertion mutants of nadN or deletion and site-directed mutants of hel had attenuated growth and a reduced uptake phenotype when NMN served as substrate. A hel and nadN double mutant was only able to grow in the presence of NR, whereas no uptake of NMN was observed.

Kemmer, Gabriele; Reilly, Thomas J.; Schmidt-Brauns, Joachim; Zlotnik, Gary W.; Green, Bruce A.; Fiske, Michael J.; Herbert, Mark; Kraiss, Anita; Schlor, Stefan; Smith, Arnold; Reidl, Joachim

2001-01-01

138

Comparing Student Experiences with Story Discussions in Dialogic versus Traditional Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the testimonials of 60 elementary school students about their experience during class discussions of assigned readings. They randomly assigned 12 classrooms to 2 treatments: Philosophy for Children (P4C) and Regular Instruction. P4C is an alternative educational environment that places dialogue at the center of its pedagogy.…

Reznitskaya, Alina; Glina, Monica

2013-01-01

139

Order parameters , <P4>, and of aligned nematic liquid-crystalline polymer as determined by numerical simulation of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra.  

PubMed

High rank order parameters may comprise substantial information about molecular orientational distribution of liquid-crystalline materials. There are few experimental procedures targeted at the determination of high rank order parameters. We suggest a procedure for the determination of order parameters of a spin probe by numerical simulation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. The procedure is based on revealing the molecular orientation axis of a spin probe. Order parameters , <P(4)>, and of the spin probe in aligned liquid-crystalline polymer have been measured by the suggested procedure. It was shown that the procedure gives more reliable and complete characteristics of molecular order than does polarized UV-visible spectroscopy. PMID:22537209

Yankova, T S; Bobrovsky, A Yu; Vorobiev, A Kh

2012-05-24

140

Nano-crystallization and magnetic mechanisms of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 amorphous alloy by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-based amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys have attracted a growing interest due to their potential in the application of magnetic coil production. However, fundamental understanding of the nano-crystallization mechanisms and magnetic features in the amorphous structure are still lack of knowledge. In the present work, we performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to clarify the ionic and electronic structure in atomic scale, and to derive the origin of the good magnetic property of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 amorphous alloy. The simulation gave a direct evidence of the Cu-P bonding preference in the amorphous alloy, which may promote nucleation in nano-crystallization process. On the other hand, the electron transfer and the band/orbital features in the amorphous alloy suggests that alloying elements with large electronegativity and the potential to expand Fe disordered matrix are preferred for enhancing the magnetization.

Wang, Yaocen; Takeuchi, Akira; Makino, Akihiro; Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

2014-05-01

141

Electronic band structure and Fermi surfaces of the quasi-two-dimensional monophosphate tungsten bronze, P4W12O44  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of quasi-two-dimensional monophosphate tungsten bronze, P4W12O44, has been investigated by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theoretical calculations. Experimental electron-like bands around \\Gamma point and Fermi surfaces have similar shapes as predicted by calculations. Fermi surface mapping at different temperatures shows a depletion of density of states at low temperature in certain flat portions of the Fermi surfaces. These flat portions of the Fermi surfaces satisfy the partial nesting condition with incommensurate nesting vectors q_1 and q_2 , which leads to the formation of charge density waves in this phosphate tungsten bronzes. The setting up of charge density wave in these bronzes can well explain the anomaly observed in its transport properties.

Paul, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sato, T.; Sarma, D. D.; Takahashi, T.; Wang, E.; Greenblatt, M.; Raj, S.

2014-02-01

142

The role of P4-P3' residues flanking Arg336 in facilitating activated protein C-catalyzed cleavage and inactivation of factor VIIIa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Activated protein C (APC) inactivates factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) through cleavages at Arg336 in the A1 subunit and Arg562 in the A2 subunit. Proteolysis at Arg336 occurs 25-fold faster than at Arg562. Replacing residues flanking Arg336 en bloc with the corresponding residues surrounding Arg562 markedly reduced the rate of cleavage at Arg336, indicating a role for these residues in the catalysis mechanism. Materials and Methods To assess the contributions of individual P4-P3’ residues flanking the Arg336 site to cleavage efficiency, point mutations were made based upon those flanking Arg562 of FVIIIa (Pro333Val, Gln334Asp, Leu335Gln, Met337Gly, Lys338Asn, Asn339Gln) and selected residues flanking Arg506 of FVa (Leu335Arg, and Lys338Ile). APC-catalyzed inactivation of the FVIII variants and cleavage of FVIIIa subunits were monitored by FXa generation assays and Western blotting. Results Specific activity values of the variants were 60–135% of the wild type (WT) value. APC-catalyzed rates of cleavage at Arg336 remained similar to WT for the Pro333Val and Lys338Ile variants and was modestly increased for the Asn339Gln variant; while rates were reduced ~2–3-fold for the Gln334Asp, Leu335Gln, Leu335Arg, and Lys338Asn variants, and 5-fold for the Met337Gly variant. Rates for cofactor inactivation paralleled cleavage at the A1 site. APC slowly cleaves Arg372 in FVIII, a site responsible for procofactor activation. Using FVIII as substrate for APC, the Met337Gly variant yielded significantly greater activation compared with WT FVIII. Conclusions These results show that individual P4-P3’ residues surrounding Arg336 are in general more favorable to cleavage than those surrounding the Arg562 site.

DeAngelis, Jennifer P.; Varfaj, Fatbardha; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Fay, Philip J.

2011-01-01

143

Analysis of the Vibrational Spectra of P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyclic phosphazene trimer P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and the related cyclic tetramer P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8 have been proposed as the major low-to-medium temperature pyrolysis products of the parent polyphosphazene (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n. Recently, both molecules have been synthesized, isolated and their vapour-phase vibrational spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR instrument. The interpretation of these spectra is achieved primarily by comparison with the results of high-quality density functional calculations, which enable the principal absorption features to be assigned and conclusions to be drawn regarding the geometries and conformations adopted by both molecules. These in turn allow interesting comparisons to be made with analogous cyclic halo-phosphazenes such as P_3N_3Cl_6 and P_4N_4Cl_8. Work to record in situ the spectra of the vapour-phase pyrolysis products of (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n and to analyse these results in terms of the tetramer and trimer spectra will also be presented. S. V. Peddada and J. H. Magill Macromolecules 16 (1983) 1258-1264. H. R. Allcock, G. S. McDonnell, G. H. Riding, and I. Manners Chem. Mater. 2 (1990) 425-432. T. R. Manley and D. A. Williams Spectrochimica Acta 23A (1966) 149-165. V. Varma, J. R. Fernandez and C. N. R. Rao J. Mol. Struct. 198 (1989) 403-412.

King, Adrian K.; Plant, David F.; Golding, Peter; Lawson, Michael A.; Davies, Paul B.

2011-06-01

144

Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the C II Transitions 2s(exp 2)2p P-2(exp 0) yields 2s2p(exp 2) P-4, D-2, and S-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 2s(exp 2) 2p-2(exp 0) yield 2s2p(exp 2)P-4, D-2, and S-2 in C II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 2324 A (5.34 eV), 1335 x (9.29 eV), and 1036 A (11.97 eV), respectively. Use is made of electron energy-loss and merged beams methods. The energy range covered is from below each threshold (4 - 11 eV) to 15-24 eV. As in previous work with O II, care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction in the C II beam, to account for contributions from nearby energy-loss features, and to collect the full angular range of inelastically scattered electrons. A comparison is made for each transition between experiment and new 8-state R-matrix calculations. Subject headings: atomic data ultraviolet: general

Smith, Steven J.; Zuo, M.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Williams, I. D.

1996-01-01

145

New P-wave Images of the Core Mantle Boundary Region from a Bayesian Inversion of PKP, PcP, and P4KP Differential Travel Times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core-mantle boundary is the most dramatic discontinuity within the Earth. The existence of both chemical and thermal heterogeneities on a variety of scales in the D'' region has been invoked to explain seismological observations and the Earth's dynamics. Understanding these heterogeneities is important in the context of whole mantle dynamics. Moreover, we need to be able to clearly see through the core-mantle boundary to properly understand the Earth's core. For example, in order to investigate anisotropy in the inner core, it is important to quantify the contribution to seismic travel times from the Earth's mantle. Furthermore, it is impossible to reconstruct the topography of the Earth's core without a full understanding of mantle heterogeneities. Currently, P-wave velocity maps of the lowermost mantle are rare in comparison to S-wave maps, yet both are needed to properly understand the physical and chemical state of the D" region. Here we map P-wave velocity structure of the lowermost mantle from a dataset of hand-picked PKPab-df, PKPbc-df, PcP-P, and P4KP-PcP differential travel times. We use data from sources of magnitude 5.6 or greater to compile a collection of more than 1750 PKPab-df, 1050 PKPbc-df, 1500 PcP-P, and 360 P4KP-PcP travel times. The PcP-P raypath geometry helps resolve source-receiver ambiguities associated with the use of PKP waves. The inclusion of P4KP-PcP data greatly improves the D'' coverage and further reduces unwanted mapping effects in the inversion. In addition, we focus on covering gaps in spatial sampling of the lowermost mantle from PKPab-df and PcP-P of previous studies. By using differential travel times, the biases associated with event mislocation and lateral heterogeneity in the crust are minimized. Travel time residuals are individually and simultaneously inverted for a map of P-wave velocity heterogeneities using a transdimensional approach. The model is composed of Voronoi P-wave velocity cells of variable shapes and number. In this sense, the approach lets us consider the issue of model parameterization as part of the inversion process. The problem is tackled within a Bayesian framework and explicit regularization of model parameters is not required. The advantage of this type of inversion is that both the number of model parameters and the data noise are treated as unknowns in the problem. A final solution model results from the averaging of an ensemble of models, which in turn also yields uncertainty estimates. We compare our results with previous structural models and discuss newly obtained images of the lowermost mantle in the context of mantle and core dynamics.

Young, M. K.; Tkalcic, H.; Bodin, T.; Tanaka, S.; Rawlinson, N.

2011-12-01

146

Anomalous high amplitude ratios of P5KP/PKPab and P4KP/P(S)cP observed globally around 1 Hz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplitude ratio of 30 short-period conspicuous P5KP and PKPab phases from five intermediate depth or deep events in Fiji-Tonga recorded at European stations around 150° distance shows a mean value two to three times the ratio of the synthetic amplitudes obtained by the normal-mode theory (and ak135 model) or by full-wave theory (and PREM). There is a large variance in the results, also observed in five amplitude ratios from one event in Argentina observed at temporary stations in China around 156°. Global recordings of three major deep earthquakes in Fiji, Bonin, and Western Brazil observed at ASAR, WRA, and ZRNK arrays, at 59 North America stations and at six South Pole stations displayed conspicuous P4KP and PcP (or ScP) phases. The amplitude ratio values of P4KP vs P(S)cP are sometimes almost one order of magnitude larger than the corresponding values of the synthetics. In both cases, arrival times and slowness values (corrected for ellipticity and station elevation) at the distances up to 23° beyond the A cutoff point predicted by ray theory match both the synthetics, suggesting the observations are the AB branch of PmKP ( m = 4, 5) around 1 Hz. In disagreement to ray theory, no reliable BC branch is observed neither on the recordings nor on the normal-mode synthetics. The high amplitude ratio values cannot be explained by realistic perturbations of the velocity or attenuation values of the global models in the proximity of the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB). We speculate that the focusing effects and/or strong scattering most likely associated to some anomalous velocity areas of the lowermost mantle are responsible for that. The results suggest limitations of the previous evaluations of the short-period attenuation in the outer core from PmKP amplitudes ( m ? 3), irrespective of the fact that they are obtained by using ray theory, normal-mode or full-wave synthetics. Attempts to use PmKP arrival times in order to refine velocity structure in the proximity of CMB should be also regarded with care if the propagation times have been computed with ray theory.

Ivan, Marian; Wang, Rongjiang

2013-04-01

147

Pam3CSK4/TLR2 signaling elicits neutrophil recruitment and restricts invasion of Escherichia coli P4 into mammary gland epithelial cells in a murine mastitis model.  

PubMed

Mastitis-inflammation of the mammary gland is an important disease affecting dairy animals worldwide. The disease is caused by mammary pathogenic bacteria, and Escherichia coli is frequently implicated. Intramammary challenge with bacterial LPS is sufficient to elicit the disease. However, using toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice, we previously found that mammary pathogenic E. coli is still able to elicit neutrophil recruitment, indicating the presence of bacterial virulence factors other than LPS. To date, no specific virulence factors have been identified in E. coli isolates associated with mastitis, and other microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), such as bacterial lipoproteins, are prime candidates. The synthetic analog of bacterial lipopeptides, Pam3CSK4, is recognized by TLR2 and mimics the proinflammatory properties of triacylated lipoproteins of Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of the present work was to determine the role of bacterial lipoproteins recognized by TLR2 on mammary cells as virulence factors in the mammary gland. Using the murine mastitis model, we previously showed that following intramammary LPS challenge, neutrophil recruitment is strictly dependent on alveolar macrophages. Thus, the role of alveolar macrophages in the response to intramammary bacterial lipoprotein challenge was also studied. Here, Pam3CSK4 infusion induced mastitis in wild-type mice, but not in TLR2-deficient mice. The wild-type phenotype was not restored by adoptive transfer of TLR2-expressing macrophages into the alveolar milk space of TLR2-deficient mice, indicating that cells other than alveolar macrophages are essential for Pam3CSK4/TLR2 signaling. In contrast to the Pam3CSK4 treatment, infection with E. coli P4 resulted in inflammation, even in the absence of TLR2 signaling, indicating that lipoproteins are sufficient, but not essential virulence factors in the pathogenesis of the intact bacteria. However, in the absence of TLR2, the infecting E. coli P4 invaded the alveolar epithelial cells and formed intracellular bacterial communities, indicating that intact lipoprotein/TLR2 signaling is essential to restricting bacterial invasion. PMID:23073139

Mintz, Michal; Mintz, Dvir; Ilia-Ezra, Raaya; Shpigel, Nahum Y

2013-03-15

148

Development of targeted therapy for bladder cancer mediated by a double promoter plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of H19 and IGF2-P4 regulatory sequences  

PubMed Central

Background The human IGF2-P4 and H19 promoters are highly active in a variety of human cancers (including bladder cancer), while existing at a nearly undetectable level in the surrounding normal tissue. Single promoter vectors expressing diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA) under the control regulation of IGF2-P4 or H19 regulatory sequences (IGF2-P4-DTA and H19-DTA) were previously successfully used in cell lines, animal models and recently in human patients with superficial cell carcinoma of the bladder (treated with H19-DTA). However this targeted medicine approach could be limited, as not all cancer patients express high levels of H19. Hence, a double promoter DTA-expressing vector was created, carrying on a single construct two separate genes expressing the diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA), from two different regulatory sequences, selected from the cancer-specific promoters H19 and IGF2-P4. Methods H19 and IGF2-P4 gene expression was tested in samples of Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder by in-situ hybridization (ISH) and by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). The therapeutic potential of the double promoter toxin vector H19-DTA-IGF2-P4-DTA was tested in TCC cell lines and in heterotopic and orthotopic animal models of bladder cancer. Results Nearly 100% of TCC patients highly expressed IGF2-P4 and H19, as determined by ISH and by qRT-PCR. The double promoter vector exhibited superior tumor growth inhibition activity compared to the single promoter expression vectors, in cell lines and in heterotopic and orthotopic bladder tumors. Conclusions Our findings show that bladder tumors may be successfully treated by intravesical instillation of the double promoter vector H19-DTA-P4-DTA. Overall, the double promoter vector exhibited enhanced anti-cancer activity relative to single promoter expression vectors carrying either gene alone.

2010-01-01

149

Contribution of the inelastic correction to the differential cross section dsigma\\/dt and the total cross section sigma for p-4He and pi-4He elastic scattering at high energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the influence of the inelastic correction to the differential cross section dsigma\\/dt in the p-4He elastic scattering from 146 GeV to 393 GeV. We compare Glauber differential cross sections to corrected cross sections and experimental results. We have also computed an inelastic correction Deltasigma for the p-4He and pi-4He elastic scattering at enrgies between 40 and 400

J. Proriol; S. Maury; B. Jargeaix

1982-01-01

150

Reducing Lattice Thermal Conductivity of the Thermoelectric Compound AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) by Lanthanum Substitution: Computational and Experimental Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed lattice dynamics first-principles calculations for the promising thermoelectric (TE) compound AgSbTe2, and estimated the stability of its three polymorphs over a wide temperature range from 0 to 600 K. We calculated the vibrational density of states of the AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) phase. The results suggested that formation of substitutional defects at Ag-sublattice sites impedes lattice vibrations, thereby reducing lattice thermal conductivity. We focused on calculations based on the Debye approximation for the compound La0.125Ag0.875SbTe2, and predicted reduction of the average sound velocity from 1684 to 1563 m s-1 as a result of La doping. This is manifested as a ca. 14% reduction in thermal conductivity. To confirm the results from computation we produced two Ag-Sb-Te-based alloys, a ternary alloy without La addition and a quaternary alloy containing La. We measured the thermal conductivity of both alloys by use of the laser flash analysis method, and, as a result of La alloying, observed a reduction in thermal conductivity from 0.92 to 0.71 W m-1 K-1 at 573 K, as calculated from first principles.

Amouyal, Yaron

2014-05-01

151

CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.  

SciTech Connect

The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

Sung, Yixing (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA); Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R. (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA)

2011-12-01

152

Evaluation of Heterologous Vaginal SHIV SF162p4 Infection Following Vaccination with a Polyvalent Clade B Virus-Like Particle Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Abstract The vast diversity of HIV-1 infections has greatly impeded the development of a successful HIV-1/AIDS vaccine. Previous vaccine work has demonstrated limited levels of protection against SHIV/SIV infection, but protection was observed only when the challenge virus was directly matched to the vaccine strain. As it is likely impossible to directly match the vaccine strain to all infecting strains in nature, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. In this study we investigated the ability of polyvalent and consensus vaccines to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with ConB or PolyB virus-like particle vaccines. All vaccines were highly immunogenic with high titers of antibody found in all vaccinated groups against SIV Gag. Antibody responses were also observed against a diverse panel of clade B envelopes. Following vaccination nonhuman primates (NHPs) were challenged via the vaginal route with SHIVSF162p4. The PolyB vaccine induced a 66.7% reduction in the rate of infection as well as causing a two log reduction in viral burden if infection was not blocked. ConB vaccination had no effect on either the infection rate or viral burden. These results indicate that a polyvalent clade-matched vaccine is better able to protect against a heterologous challenge as compared to a consensus vaccine.

McBurney, Sean P.; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N.

2012-01-01

153

Association of the genus Acinetobacter with the decomposition of a swine carcass and the isolation and characterization of a novel strain of Acinetobacter sp. P4.  

PubMed

Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and a selective and differential medium, Acinetobacter numbers were enumerated over the time course of decomposition, from fresh to putrid/dry, of a swine carcass. In addition, Acinetobacter diversity and succession were also characterized. Acinetobacter bacterial counts were observed to be the lowest before exposure (undetectable) and increased to their highest during active decay then decreased and leveled during advanced decay through putrid/dry. FISH analysis revealed Acinetobacter cells were mostly clustered together, which is consistent with growth in a non-mixed environment, such as soil. The abundance of Acinetobacter cells decreased from active decomposition to putrid/dry. BLAST analysis using the 16S rRNA-gene sequence identified the isolates as one of the following Acinetobacter spp: A. baumannii, A. haemolyticus, A. junii, A. johnsonii, and A. gerneri. Phenotypic description of the identified isolates closely matched those of known genomic species. One isolate, P4, was observed to be unique in its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics and was more closely related to A. sp E10. The isolates from this study displayed multi-antibiotic resistance. The results from the study revealed the association of Acinetobacter spp. with that of carrion which adds to our knowledge of the ecology of this genus along with the potential implications of infection for this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:21987059

Howard, Gary T; Norton, William N; Stroot, Peter G; Bailey, Kathryn L; Watson, Erin J

2012-01-01

154

Molecular Dynamic Simulation to Explore the Molecular Basis of Btk-PH Domain Interaction with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4  

PubMed Central

Bruton's tyrosine kinase contains a pleckstrin homology domain, and it specifically binds inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), which is involved in the maturation of B cells. In this paper, we studied 12 systems including the wild type and 11 mutants, K12R, S14F, K19E, R28C/H, E41K, L11P, F25S, Y40N, and K12R-R28C/H, to investigate any change in the ligand binding site of each mutant. Molecular dynamics simulations combined with the method of molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann solvent-accessible surface area have been applied to the twelve systems, and reasonable mutant structures and their binding free energies have been obtained as criteria in the final classification. As a result, five structures, K12R, K19E, R28C/H, and E41K mutants, were classified as “functional mutations,” whereas L11P, S14F, F25S, and Y40N were grouped into “folding mutations.” This rigorous study of the binding affinity of each of the mutants and their classification provides some new insights into the biological function of the Btk-PH domain and related mutation-causing diseases.

Lu, Dan; Jiang, Junfeng; Liang, Zhongjie; Sun, Maomin; Luo, Cheng; Shen, Bairong

2013-01-01

155

Mechanism of activation of phenylalanine and synthesis of P1, P4-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate by yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase.  

PubMed

The activation of L-phenylalanine by yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase using adenosine 5'-[(S)-alpha-17O,alpha,alpha-18O2]triphosphate is shown to proceed with inversion of configuration at P alpha of ATP. This observation taken together with the lack of positional isotope exchange when adenosine 5'-[beta,beta-18O2]triphosphate is incubated with the enzyme in the absence of phenylalanine and in the presence of the competitive inhibitor phenylalaninol indicates that activation of phenylalanine occurs by a direct "in-line" adenylyl-transfer reaction. In the presence of Zn2+, yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase also catalyzes the phenylalanine-dependent hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and the synthesis of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate (Ap4A). With adenosine 5'-[(S)-alpha-17O,alpha,alpha-18O2]triphosphate, the formation of AMP and Ap4A is shown to occur with inversion and retention of configuration, respectively. It is concluded that phenylalanyl adenylate is an intermediate in both processes, Zn2+ promoting AMP formation by hydrolytic cleavage of the C-O bond and Ap4A formation by displacement at phosphorus of phenylalanine by ATP. PMID:3893531

Harnett, S P; Lowe, G; Tansley, G

1985-06-01

156

Evaluation of heterologous vaginal SHIV SF162p4 infection following vaccination with a polyvalent Clade B virus-like particle vaccine.  

PubMed

The vast diversity of HIV-1 infections has greatly impeded the development of a successful HIV-1/AIDS vaccine. Previous vaccine work has demonstrated limited levels of protection against SHIV/SIV infection, but protection was observed only when the challenge virus was directly matched to the vaccine strain. As it is likely impossible to directly match the vaccine strain to all infecting strains in nature, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. In this study we investigated the ability of polyvalent and consensus vaccines to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with ConB or PolyB virus-like particle vaccines. All vaccines were highly immunogenic with high titers of antibody found in all vaccinated groups against SIV Gag. Antibody responses were also observed against a diverse panel of clade B envelopes. Following vaccination nonhuman primates (NHPs) were challenged via the vaginal route with SHIV(SF162p4). The PolyB vaccine induced a 66.7% reduction in the rate of infection as well as causing a two log reduction in viral burden if infection was not blocked. ConB vaccination had no effect on either the infection rate or viral burden. These results indicate that a polyvalent clade-matched vaccine is better able to protect against a heterologous challenge as compared to a consensus vaccine. PMID:22214267

McBurney, Sean P; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Ross, Ted M

2012-09-01

157

Principles of RNA compaction: insights from the equilibrium folding pathway of the P4-P6 RNA domain in monovalent cations.  

PubMed

Counterions are required for RNA folding, and divalent metal ions such as Mg(2+) are often critical. To dissect the role of counterions, we have compared global and local folding of wild-type and mutant variants of P4-P6 RNA derived from the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme in monovalent and in divalent metal ions. A remarkably simple picture of the folding thermodynamics emerges. The equilibrium folding pathway in monovalent ions displays two phases. In the first phase, RNA molecules that are initially in an extended conformation enforced by charge-charge repulsion are relaxed by electrostatic screening to a state with increased flexibility but without formation of long-range tertiary contacts. At higher concentrations of monovalent ions, a state that is nearly identical to the native folded state in the presence of Mg(2+) is formed, with tertiary contacts that involve base and backbone interactions but without the subset of interactions that involve specific divalent metal ion-binding sites. The folding model derived from these and previous results provides a robust framework for understanding the equilibrium and kinetic folding of RNA. PMID:15491606

Takamoto, Keiji; Das, Rhiju; He, Qin; Doniach, Sebastian; Brenowitz, Michael; Herschlag, Daniel; Chance, Mark R

2004-11-01

158

Novel Quinoline-Based P2-P4 Macrocyclic Derivatives As Pan-Genotypic HCV NS3/4a Protease Inhibitors.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the discovery of our P2-P4 macrocyclic HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitor MK-5172, which in combination with the NS5a inhibitor MK-8742 recently received a breakthrough therapy designation from the US FDA for treatment of chronic HCV infection. Our goal for the next generation NS3/4a inhibitor was to achieve pan-genotypic activity while retaining the pharmacokinetic profile of MK-5172. One of the areas for follow-up investigation involved replacement of the quinoxaline moiety in MK-5172 with a quinoline and studying the effect of substitution at 4-position of the quinoline. The rationale for this effort was based on molecular modeling, which indicated that such modifications would improve interactions with the S2 subsite, in particular with D79. We wish to report herein the discovery of highly potent inhibitors with pan-genotypic activity and an improved profile over MK-5172, especially against gt-3a and A156 mutants. PMID:24900818

Shah, Unmesh; Jayne, Charles; Chackalamannil, Samuel; Velázquez, Francisco; Guo, Zhuyan; Buevich, Alexei; Howe, John A; Chase, Robert; Soriano, Aileen; Agrawal, Sony; Rudd, Michael T; McCauley, John A; Liverton, Nigel J; Romano, Joseph; Bush, Kimberly; Coleman, Paul J; Grisé-Bard, Christiane; Brochu, Marie-Christine; Charron, Sylvie; Aulakh, Virender; Bachand, Benoit; Beaulieu, Patrick; Zaghdane, Helmi; Bhat, Sathesh; Han, Yongxin; Vacca, Joseph P; Davies, Ian W; Weber, Ann E; Venkatraman, Srikanth

2014-03-13

159

Identification of chlorophyll ( with application of IRS-P4 OCM data and Geographical Information System - a case study of part of Bay of Bengal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As 60 - 70 % of the world's population live within 20 - 30 km of the coastline, coastal zone management and optimisation of ocean resources have grown in of importance. The study of the ocean encompasses its physical chemical, biological properties and its interaction with land and biological productivity. Mapping of coastal zone gives us insight about how to conserve its eco-balance and implement effective coastal zone management. Effective Coastal Zone Management will need accurate and comprehensive scientific data, on which decisions can be based. In the present study Ocean Color Monitor ( OCM ) data is used for identification of chlorophyll, which inturn indicates the presence of phytoplankton, which is the primary producer in the food chain, and also to fish . The study area is part of Bay of Bengal Sea near the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Remote sensing in optical region is found useful in understanding the spatial distribution of ocean water constituents, in which phytoplankton pigment which impart a green colour to the sea water, has a definite response in the visible region, which enables plant material to be distinguished from the other suspended matter. Normalised Differential Vegetative Index ( NDVI ), which is mainly used on land applications for the identification of vegetation based on chlorophyll absorption, is used on water surface in the present study. The positive value of NDVI is an indication of the presence of pigment concentration / chlorophyll / phytoplankton / fish. The successful launch of the IRS - P4 satellite which provides us a challenging opportunity to study ocean resources and its characteristics and see how best we can benefit, over a period of time, in several areas of human survival specifically related to food security on a sustained basis. This study is first of its kind in utilising the latest technology to explore the marine resources for mapping the fishing zones and the results, clearly indicate that NDVI can be utilised as an indicator for the presence of phytoplankton on water surface.

Pavan Dayaker, T.

2002-05-01

160

Distribution and intraseasonal variability of rain over Indian Oceanic region from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-P4 Multifrequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifrequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) onboard Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P4) has been utilized for measurement of precipitation over Indian Oceanic region. MSMR-derived monthly rain rates for the month of August for three consecutive years are compared with that from TMI and PR. A reasonably good agreement is found. Rain distributions are presented for three seasons, namely, premonsoon (February-May), monsoon (June-September), and postmonsoon (October-January) for the entire period of MSMR from June 1999 to September 2001. The year-to-year difference in the three seasons is found in agreement with the weather reports. Latitudinal distribution of the MSMR-derived rain rate for the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and for the entire study area are analyzed and are found to be in good agreement with climatology. Furthermore, starting from 60°E longitude up to 95°E, at every 5° interval, latitudinal distribution of rain rate is plotted for the three monsoon seasons. It is found that the vigor of monsoon rain begins building up between 65° and 70°E and goes beyond 95°E. A time series and wavelet analysis of daily rain rate is presented for monsoon seasons of three consecutive years. Wavelet analysis clearly shows the presence of long waves of 30-60 and 10-20 day oscillations and also of synoptic scale of 3-6 day oscillations in the monsoon rain. Furthermore, Hovmoller diagrams of daily rain over the northern Bay of Bengal are analyzed for monsoon seasons of three years, and some northward propagation of rain is reported.

Pokhrel, Samir; Varma, A. K.; Gairola, R. M.; Agarwal, Vijay K.

2003-10-01

161

Zinc(II)-dependent synthesis of diadenosine 5', 5"' -P(1) ,P(4) -tetraphosphate by Escherichia coli and yeast phenylalanyl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetases.  

PubMed

A new activity of Escherichia coli and yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases, the conversion adenosine 5' -triphosphate into diadenosine 5' ,5"' -P(1) ,P(4) -tetraphosphate, is reported. This activity is followed by (31)P NMR and chromatography on poly(ethylenimine)-cellulose. It is revealed by the addition of ZnCl2 to a reaction mixture containing the enzyme, ATP-Mg(2+), L-phenylalanine, and pyrophosphatase It reflects the reaction enzyme-bound phenylalanyl adenylate with ATP instead of PPi and strongly depends on the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate in the assay medium. The zinc dependence of this reaction parallels that of the inhibition of tRNA(phe) aminoacylation which is described in the accompanying paper [Mayaux, J. F., & Blanquet, S. (1981) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)]. In the presence of an unlimiting pyrophosphatase activity, diadenosine tetraphosphate synthesis by E. coli and yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases occurs at maximal rates of 0.5 and 2 s-1, respectively (37 degrees C, pH 7.8, 150 mM KC1, 5 mM ATP, 10 mM MgCl2, 2 mM L-phenylalanine, and 80 muM ZnCl2). Under identical experimental conditions, E coli isoleucyl-, methionyl-, and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases produce small amounts of diadenosine tetraphosphate at rates 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than that achieved by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. In the case of E. coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, it is shown that the diadenosine tetraphosphate synthetase activity is accompanied by a diadenosinetetraphosphatase activity. This activity, actually supported by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, is responsible for the appearance of ADP in the assay medium. It requires also the presence of both ZnCl2 and L-phenylalanine. The formation of ADP from diadenosine tetraphosphate and its reaction with enzyme-bound aminoacyl adenylate account for the appearance in the reaction mixture of diadenosine 5' ,5"' -P(1) ,P(3)-triphosphate, after that of diadenosine tetraphosphate. The significance of these findings in the context of the role of diadenosine tetraphosphate in controlling cellular growth is discussed. PMID:7028092

Plateau, P; Mayaux, J F; Blanquet, S

1981-08-01

162

Measurement of cross sections for the {sup 232}Th(P,4n){sup 229}Pa reaction at low proton energies  

SciTech Connect

The alpha-emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived {sup 229}Th(t{sub 1/2} = 7880y). {sup 229}Th can be produced by proton irradiation of {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into {sup 229}Th. To obtain excitation functions, {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of {sup 229}Pa and its daughter {sup 225}Ac from both {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th. Differential cross-sections for production of {sup 229}Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

Jost, C. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Griswold, J. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA and Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S. [Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Stracener, D. W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Williams, C. L. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2013-04-19

163

Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

2004-10-01

164

Analysis of autism susceptibility gene loci on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q in Finnish multiplex families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of genetic factors in the etiology of the autistic spectrum of disorders has clearly been demonstrated. Ten chromosomal regions, on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q have potentially been linked to autism.1–8 We have analyzed these chromosomal regions in a total of 17 multiplex families with autism originating from the isolated Finnish

M Auranen; T Nieminen; S Majuri; R Vanhala; L Peltonen; I Järvelä

2000-01-01

165

Expression of the brain-specific membrane adapter protein p42 IP4\\/centaurin ?, a Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4\\/PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 binding protein, in developing rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inositolphosphates and phosphatidylinositides are important second messengers. Previously p42IP4, a protein with high affinity for both Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 has been characterized in our laboratory. In the present study mRNA levels of p42IP4 were quantified during development (ages: 7, 14, 21 days and adult) by means of ribonuclease protection assay in various rat brain regions (cerebellum, cortex, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus,

Michael Aggensteiner; Georg Reiser

2003-01-01

166

Accurate Lifetimes and Absolute Transition Rates for Ultraviolet Transitions from 3D5(4G) 4P and 3D5(4P) 4P levels in MN II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently developed, laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to measure the lifetimes of 14 3d5(4G)4p and 3d5(4P)4p levels in the Mn+ ion. Branching fractions for electric dipole transitions from these levels were measured with a vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer, using a hollow-cathode lamp and a Penning discharge source. Based on these new measurements, absolute electric dipole transition rates for

Rainer Kling; Roman Schnabel; Ulf Griesmann

2001-01-01

167

Effect of interchannel coupling on the partial and total autoionization widths: Application to the 1s3s3p 4Po and 1s3p2 4P states for Z=2-5, 10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have computed the partial and total widths with interchannel coupling for the 1s3s3p 4Po and 1s3p2 4P states for Z=2-5 and 10, by solving the corresponding complex matrix equations constructed from square-integrable N-electron functions with numerical and analytic real and complex orbitals. The correlated wave functions are computed by the state-specific method. Oscillator strengths for one- and two-electron transitions from the metastable 1s2s2p 4Po state suggest that the states are reachable in He- and in Li directly, (1s3p2 4P), or via the 1s2p2 4P state (1s3s3p 4Po). The effect of interchannel coupling on the partial widths in the case of the 4Po state is considerable. On the contrary, interchannel coupling has no significant effect on the total widths. This computational result is discussed formally.

Themelis, Spyros I.; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

1994-03-01

168

Thermal analysis of a six-channel heat-generating blockage in an LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study of the temperature fields within and around a six-channel blockage designed as a molten-fuel-release initiator in SLSF-P4, an in-reactor experiment (37-mixed-oxide pin bundle) planned for February, 1981, irradiation. To meet the experiment objectives, a minimum of ten grams of molten UO/sub 2/ must be ejected into the sodium stream from one, two, or three such blockages. The temperature fields of the electrodeposited-nickel blockage filled with a mixture of UO/sub 2/ powder, stainless steel, and gas are found at intervals of full power. The SS content, type of gas, and porosity were parameters varied in this study which used the computer codes THYME-B, SABRE-1, and ANL's version of THTB. State-of-the-art treatments of the conductivity of the mixture and the gas-gap conductance are included. The contrived-blockage design has been found to maintain structural integrity until sufficient molten fuel exists to release, challenge the subassembly, and be detected by delayed-neutron and fission-product monitors. This will serve to resolve lingering questions on rapid pin-to-pin propagation, blockage propagation, and other local-fault issues.

Warinner, D.K.; Chao, D.H.Y.

1980-01-01

169

Antiplatelet Activity, P2Y1 and P2Y12 Inhibition, and Metabolism in Plasma of Stereoisomers of Diadenosine 5?,5??-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate  

PubMed Central

Background Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), a constituent of platelet dense granules, and its P1,P4-dithio and/or P2,P3-chloromethylene analogs, inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. We recently reported that these compounds antagonize both platelet ADP receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12. The most active of those analogs, diadenosine 5?,5??-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate, (compound 1), exists as a mixture of 4 stereoisomers. Objective To separate the stereoisomers of compound 1 and determine their effects on platelet aggregation, platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor antagonism, and their metabolism in human plasma. Methods We separated the 4 diastereomers of compound 1 by preparative reversed-phase chromatography, and studied their effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation, P2Y1-mediated changes in cytosolic Ca2+, P2Y12-mediated changes in VASP phosphorylation, and metabolism in human plasma. Results The inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet aggregation and human platelet P2Y12 receptor, and stability in human plasma strongly depended on the stereo-configuration of the chiral P1- and P4-phosphorothioate groups, the SPSP diastereomer being the most potent inhibitor and completely resistant to degradation in plasma, and the RPRP diastereomer being the least potent inhibitor and with the lowest plasma stability. The inhibitory activity of SPRP diastereomers depended on the configuration of the pseudo-asymmetric carbon of the P2,P3-chloromethylene group, one of the configurations being significantly more active than the other. Their plasma stability did not differ significantly, being intermediate to that of the SPSP and the RPRP diastereomers. Conclusions The presently-described stereoisomers have utility for structural, mechanistic, and drug development studies of dual antagonists of platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors.

Chang, Hung; Yanachkov, Ivan B.; Dix, Edward J.; Yanachkova, Milka; Li, YouFu; Barnard, Marc R.; Wright, George E.; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger, Andrew L.

2014-01-01

170

Accurate Lifetimes and Absolute Transition Rates for Ultraviolet Transitions from 3D5(4G) 4P and 3D5(4P) 4P levels in MN II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed, laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to measure the lifetimes of 14 3d5(4G)4p and 3d5(4P)4p levels in the Mn+ ion. Branching fractions for electric dipole transitions from these levels were measured with a vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer, using a hollow-cathode lamp and a Penning discharge source. Based on these new measurements, absolute electric dipole transition rates for about 170 spectral lines in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet were determined. The uncertainty of the transition rates is less than 5% for the strong transitions.

Kling, Rainer; Schnabel, Roman; Griesmann, Ulf

2001-05-01

171

Higher excitations for an exponential multireference wavefunction Ansatz and single-reference based multireference coupled cluster Ansatz: Application to model systems H4, P4, and BeH2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports on the convergence of the exponential multireference wavefunction Ansatz (MRexpT) [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 84102 (2005)] and the single-reference based multireference coupled cluster Ansatz [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1229 (1991)] with respect to higher cluster excitations. The approaches are applied to the H4, P4, and BeH2 model systems according to the recently published analysis by Evangelista et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 154113 (2006)]. The results show both MRexpT and SRMRCC to be highly accurate although SRMRCC shows problems due to its lack of Fermi vacuum invariance (symmetry breaking).

Hanrath, Michael

2008-04-01

172

The Major Core Protein P4a (A10L Gene) of Vaccinia Virus Is Essential for Correct Assembly of Viral DNA into the Nucleoprotein Complex To Form Immature Viral Particles  

PubMed Central

The vaccinia virus (VV) A10L gene codes for a major core protein, P4a. This polypeptide is synthesized at late times during viral infection and is proteolytically cleaved during virion assembly. To investigate the role of P4a in the virus life cycle and morphogenesis, we have generated an inducer-dependent conditional mutant (VVindA10L) in which expression of the A10L gene is under the control of the Escherichia coli lacI operator/repressor system. Repression of the A10L gene severely impairs virus growth, as observed by both the inability of the virus to form plaques and the 2-log reduction of viral yields. This defect can be partially overcome by addition of the inducer isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Synthesis of viral proteins other than P4a occurred, although early shutoff of host protein synthesis and expression of viral late polypeptides are clearly delayed, both in the absence and in the presence of IPTG, compared with cells infected with the parental virus. Viral DNA replication and concatemer resolution appeared to proceed normally in the absence of the A10L gene product. In cells infected with VVindA10L in the absence of the inducer virion assembly is blocked, as defined by electron microscopy. Numerous spherical immature viral particles that appear devoid of dense viroplasmic material together with highly electron-dense regular structures are abundant in VVindA10L-infected cells. These regularly spaced structures can be specifically labeled with anti-DNA antibodies as well as with a DNase-gold conjugate, indicating that they contain DNA. Some images suggest that these DNA structures enter into spherical immature viral particles. In this regard, although it has not been firmly established, it has been suggested that DNA uptake occurs after formation of spherical immature particles. Overall, our results showed that P4a and/or its cleaved products are essential for the correct assembly of the nucleoprotein complex within immature viral particles.

Heljasvaara, Ritva; Rodriguez, Dolores; Risco, Cristina; Carrascosa, Jose L.; Esteban, Mariano; Rodriguez, Juan Ramon

2001-01-01

173

Charged-particle induced thermonuclear reaction rates of 3He(3He,2p)4He, 3He(4He, ?)7Be and 7Be(p, ?)8B by using the exact tunneling probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astrophysical S-factor of the experimental cross section data of the main reactions in the proton-proton chain, i.e. 3He(3He,2p)4He, 3He(4He, ?)7Be and 7Be(p, ?)8B, are reanalyzed by using the exact tunneling probability in nuclear reactions. Our goal is to test this treatment in finding the reaction rate per pair for non-resonant reactions. At low temperatures, the exact treatment is identical to the standard formalism but diverges at higher temperatures.

Yusof, Norhasliza; Kassim, Hasan Abu

2010-07-01

174

Dynamo Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long history of laboratory experiments on homogeneous dynamo action is delineated. It is worked out what sort of insight\\u000a can be expected from experiments, and what not. Special focus is laid on the principle and the main results of the Riga dynamo\\u000a experiment which is shown to represent a genuine hydromagnetic dynamo with a non-trivial saturation mechanism that relies

Agris Gailitis; Olgerts Lielausis; Gunter Gerbeth; Frank Stefani

2007-01-01

175

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

176

Crystal structure, spectroscopic, magnetic and electronic structure studies of a novel Cu(II) amino acid complex [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]2(P4O12)·8H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of a novel copper (II) complex with the amino acid L-arginine (L-arg) and cyclotetraphosphate, [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]2(P4O12)·8H2O, were prepared in aqueous solution and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance, UV-vis and IR) and thermal analysis. Magnetic measurements and electronic structure calculations were also performed. Crystal structure determination reveals that this compound has a nonsymmetrical atomic arrangement, containing mainly a binuclear [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]24+ cation and an uncoordinated cyclotetraphosphate counter-anion (P4O124-). The tetravalent cation contains two independent Cu(II) ions in two different chemical environments. This compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic (AFM) to paramagnetic (PM) phase transition at a temperature (TN) lower than 2 K. The values of paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature (?cw) and the exchange parameter (J/KB) emphasize the existence of an antiferromagnetic interaction between the neighboring copper ions.

Hemissi, H.; Nasri, M.; Abid, S.; Al-Deyab, S. S.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.; Rzaigui, M.

2012-12-01

177

Herschel Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students replicate a version of the 1800 experiment in which a form of radiation other than visible light was discovered by the famous astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel. Students use glass prisms, thermometers, and sunlight to detect the increase in temperature beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, thus detecting infrared light.

178

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

179

SYSTEM PARAMETERS, TRANSIT TIMES, AND SECONDARY ECLIPSE CONSTRAINTS OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEMS HAT-P-4, TrES-2, TrES-3, and WASP-3 FROM THE NASA EPOXI MISSION OF OPPORTUNITY  

SciTech Connect

As part of the NASA EPOXI Mission of Opportunity, we observed seven known transiting extrasolar planet systems in order to construct time series photometry of extremely high phase coverage and precision. Here we present the results for four 'hot-Jupiter systems' with near-solar stars-HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, and WASP-3. We observe 10 transits of HAT-P-4, estimating the planet radius R{sub p} = 1.332 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}, the stellar radius R{sub *} = 1.602 {+-} 0.061 R{sub sun}, the inclination i = 89.67 {+-} 0.30 deg, and the transit duration from first to fourth contact {tau} = 255.6 {+-} 1.9 minutes. For TrES-3, we observe seven transits and find R{sub p} = 1.320 {+-} 0.057 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.817 {+-} 0.022 R{sub sun}, i = 81.99 {+-} 0.30 deg, and {tau} = 81.9 {+-} 1.1 minutes. We also note a long-term variability in the TrES-3 light curve, which may be due to star spots. We observe nine transits of TrES-2 and find R{sub p} = 1.169 {+-} 0.034 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.940 {+-} 0.026 R{sub sun}, i = 84.15 {+-} 0.16 deg, and {tau} = 107.3 {+-} 1.1 minutes. Finally, we observe eight transits of WASP-3, finding R{sub p} = 1.385 {+-} 0.060 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 1.354 {+-} 0.056 R{sub sun}, i = 84.22 {+-} 0.81 deg, and {tau} = 167.3 {+-} 1.3 minutes. We present refined orbital periods and times of transit for each target. We state 95% confidence upper limits on the secondary eclipse depths in our broadband visible bandpass centered on 650 nm. These limits are 0.073% for HAT-P-4, 0.062% for TrES-3, 0.16% for TrES-2, and 0.11% for WASP-3. We combine the TrES-3 secondary eclipse information with the existing published data and confirm that the atmosphere likely does not have a temperature inversion.

Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku; Seager, Sara [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02159 (United States); Wellnitz, Dennis D.; A'Hearn, Michael F. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hampton, Don L. [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: jchristi@cfa.harvard.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

2011-01-10

180

Poker Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the basic poker experiment of dealing 5 cards from a standard deck. The random variable of interest is the type of hand.

Siegrist, Kyle

181

Muon Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the mean lifetime of the muon. A muon is a weakly interacting particle similar to an electron but differing in lepton number and mass (roughly 207 times as massive).

2012-02-03

182

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

183

Control experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is a type of experiment in which a scientist uses a control variable approach. All conditions in the experiment will be the same except for one variable. When testing water tolerance of barley plants, for example, you could not water one plant, over-water one plant, under-water another plant, and water the last plant with the optimal amount of water and observe the results.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

184

Chlorine Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by the American Chemistry Council's Science Center. The first experiment is called Sunscreen and Light Energy, which shows how chlorine is an ingredient in sunscreen and how it helps protect people from the sun's damage. The other experiment, called Antifreeze and the Freezing Point of Water, teaches how chlorine is an important component in antifreeze. Using antifreeze, foam cups, glass vials, and other simple ingredients, students learn how the liquid helps keep cars and other engines running during winter.

2008-01-01

185

A new nickel complex-templated layered aluminophosphate [Ni(C 4N 3H 13)(C 4N 3H 14)H 2O][Al 3P 4O 16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new layered aluminophosphate [Ni(C 4N 3H 13)(C 4N 3H 14)H 2O][Al 3P 4O 16] has been prepared from a hydrothermal system Al( i-PrO) 3sbnd Ni(OAc) 2sbnd H 3PO 4sbnd diethylenetriamine sbnd H 2O, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, ICP, CHN and TG analyses. Its structure is built up from the alternation of AlO 4 and PO 3( dbnd O) tetrahedra to from 4.6.8-net sheets stacked in an ABAB sequence. The nickel complex Ni(C 4N 3H 13)(C 4N 3H 14)H 2O that is formed under hydrothermal conditions locates in the interlayer region and interacts with the inorganic sheets through H-bonds.

Wang, Mei; Li, Jiyang; Pan, Qinhe; Yu, Jihong; Song, Xiaowei; Xu, Ruren

2006-09-01

186

Structure cristalline du cyclotétraphosphate triple de lithium sodium et d'éthylène diammonium trihydrate NaLi[NH 3?(CH 2) 2?NH 3]P 4O 12.3H 2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical methods extensively used for the synthesis of inorganic condensed phosphates are known to give compounds that are intermediate between inorganic and organic. We prepared the title compound to examine the possibility of using, in this new field, the ion exchange resin method. The cyclotetraphosphate is the first condensed phosphate associated with the ethylenediammonium ion and mixed monovalent cations. We describe its chemical preparation and crystal structure. The orthorhombic unit cell has the following dimensions: a = 13.135(3) Å, b = 7.737(2) Å, c = 15.478(4) Å, V = 1573(2)Å 3, Dm = 2.020 g/cm 3, Dx = 1.951 g/cm 3, ? = 0.297 mm -1, space group is Pcca with Z = 4. The crystal structure has been solved by using 2005 unique reflections with a final R value of 0.043 ( Rw = 0.045). The principal feature of this compound lies in its linear atomic arrangement of the monovalent cations with different coordination polyhedra. The lithium cation is statistically distributed on two general positions with 0.5 occupancy, or moves very rapidly between these two positions. The P 4O 4-12 ring anion is located around the twofold axis. The cohesiveness and the stability of the crystal result from two kinds of weak hydrogen bonds: N?H---O and O(W)?H---O. The structure of this compound is compared to that of Na 2[NH 3?(CH 2) 2?NH 3]P 4O 12.2H 2O; half the sodium positions are occupied by lithium cations.

Bdiri, Mohamed; Jouini, Amor

1989-12-01

187

Electron excitation cross sections for the 2s(2)2p(3)4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2D(O) (forbidden) and 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P (resonance) transitions in O II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the first forbidden transition 4S(O) -- 2S(2)2p(3) 2D(O) (lambda-lambda 3726, 3729) and the first allowed (resonance) transition 4S(O) -- 2s2p(4) 4P(lambda-833) in O II. Use is made of electron energy loss and merged-beams methods. The electron energy range covered is 3.33 (threshold) to 15 eV for the S -- D transition, and 14.9 (threshold) to 40 eV for the S -- P transition. Care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction of the O II beam. An electron mirror was designed and tested to reflect inelastically backscattered electrons into the forward direction to account for the full range of polar scattering angles. Comparisons are made between present experiments and 11-state R-matrix calculations. Calculations are also presented for the 4S(O) -- 2s(2)2p(3)2P(O) (lambda-2470) transition.

Zuo, M.; Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, I. D.; Tayal, S. S.; Mclaughlin, Brendan M.

1995-01-01

188

Brightness experiments.  

PubMed

This chapter presents an overview of quantitative fluorescence brightness experiments with special emphasis on single-color measurements of protein homo-interactions inside living cells. We discuss practical considerations in the choice of the fluorescent labels and the calibration measurements necessary for quantitative interpretation of brightness experiments. Methods to identify and avoid common pitfalls, such as bleaching and saturation, are addressed. We examine the interpretation of brightness data with moment analysis. In particular, we focus on how to avoid or correct for undersampling, as well as how to characterize and adjust for photon detector effects. We conclude by describing brightness titration experiments which determine the binding curve and stoichiometry of a protein from apparent brightness data. PMID:24108651

Macdonald, Patrick J; Johnson, Jolene; Chen, Yan; Mueller, Joachim D

2014-01-01

189

Vestibular experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacelab experiments designed to investigate space motion sickness, any associated changes in otolith-mediated responses occurring during weightlessness, and the carryover of any such changes to postflight conditions are described. The experiments aimed at assessing otolithic responses in space are intended to clarify presumed alterations in vestibular function during weightlessness. Vestibular function will be investigated at several levels: vestibulo-ocular reflexes, vestibulo-spinal pathways, cortical functions involving perception of motion and spatial orientation, visual vestibular interaction, and motion sickness susceptibility. A second major objective relates to space motion sickness and man's well-being and productivity in space.

Young, L. R.

1981-01-01

190

Rutherford Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The simulation below shows an interaction between two "particles." The interaction force is a 1/r2 force; that is, the interaction force varies as 1/r2 where r is the distance between them. However, it only "exists" when the particles are less than 0.2 m apart. This collision is similar to the type of collisions that occurred between alpha particles and gold nuclei in the famous Rutherford experiment. This experiment showed that the very massive nuclei is very small compared to the size of the atom.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

191

Biodiesel Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this classroom activity on biodiesel. The experiment involves using some chemicals which may be considered extremely dangerous; educators should be sure to practice laboratory safety when using this lesson. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Lawrence, Richard

2011-06-23

192

Triangle Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet llustrates the triangle experiment: A stick is broken randomly into three parts. The events of interest are that the pieces form an acute triangle, an obtuse triangle, or no triangle.

Siegrist, Kyle

193

Ballot Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the ballot experiment: The votes in an election are randomly counted. The event of interest is that the winning candidate is always ahead in the vote count.

Siegrist, Kyle

194

Birthday Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the birthday experiment: a sample of size n is chose at random and with replacement from the first m positive integers. The random variable of interest is the number of distinct sample values. The event of interest is that all sample values are distinct.

Siegrist, Kyle

195

Brazilian Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation discusses the technology and experience of Petrobras in the development of deep-water exploitation off the coast of Brazil. The company recently found important oil deposits in waters over 300 m deep in Campos Basin, the main petroleum p...

A. C. S. Agostini

1998-01-01

196

Mendel's experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this web lab, Gregor Mendel directs students through interactive virtual experiments. Students experiment with pea plants to discover how the seven pairs of traits that Mendel studied are inherited. The lab can be completed linearly, or students can move to a particular segment using the Sections menu. After they observe pea plants and infer the number of traits present, students perform five plant crosses. Mendel instructs students to search for patterns in the transmission of traits. Next, students predict the outcome of a cross and are introduced to the terms dominant and recessive. Finally, students work with pedigrees, crossing plants to determine for each of the seven pairs of traits which characteristic is dominant or recessive. A notebook feature lets students check their answers. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Center, Education D.

2002-01-01

197

Soil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

1987-01-01

198

Matching Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the matching experiment, which consists of a random permutation of the first n positive integers. The random variable of interest is the number of matches (the number of integers in the random permutation that are in their correct positions). The applet illustrates the distribution of the number of matches and the convergence to the Poisson distribution.

Siegrist, Kyle

199

Voter Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the voter experiment, an interacting partile system that consists of a rectangular array of sites. At each discrete time unit, a site is chosen at random, a neighboring site is chosen, and the color of the first site is changed to that of the neighbor. The applet illustrates clustering of the colors and convergence to consensus.

Siegrist, Kyle

200

Weathering Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

Stelling, Pete

201

Taphonomy Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The taphonomy project is a semester-long experiment the students design and run themselves, using the decomposition studies area run by the Criminal Justice department on campus. Following a discussion of taphonomic processes during the first week, the students come up with original questions to test. Working in pairs, they design the experiment, including methods, materials, sampling interval, and taphonomic evaluation. The students set up the experiment in week 3 and monitor it over the course of the semester. They will be required to keep an experimental journal, data from which they will upload to a wiki page. The students will be required to periodically evaluate and comment on other student's projects. The professor will also periodically evaluate the groups' progress periodically through the wiki. The end result is a 20-minute presentation in the style of an oral paper at a conference given the week before finals. This project develops the students' skills in experimental design, data analysis and written, oral and visual communication.

Koy, Karen

202

Cloning and characterization of the 5?-flanking region of the rat P4H? gene encoding the prolyl 4-hydroxylase ?(I) subunit 1 The sequence data of the rat prolyl 4-hydroxylase ?(I) gene, which we sequenced in the present study, has been deposited in GenBank under accession No. AF197928. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H), an ?2?2 tetramer, plays a crucial role in collagen synthesis. It catalyzes the hydroxylation of proline residues in X-Pro-Gly sequences to form 4-hydroxyproline. We isolated a genomic clone of the rat P4H?(I) gene. Approx. 0.6 kb of the fragment, which contained the 5?-flanking region, exon 1, and intron 1, was sequenced. Computer analysis revealed several motifs that

Shigeru Takahashi; Naoki Dohi; Yuji Takahashi; Takashi Miura

2002-01-01

203

Pharmacology of INS37217 [P(1)-(uridine 5')-P(4)- (2'-deoxycytidine 5')tetraphosphate, tetrasodium salt], a next-generation P2Y(2) receptor agonist for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

INS37217 [P(1)-(uridine 5')-P(4)-(2'-deoxycytidine 5')tetraphosphate, tetrasodium salt] is a deoxycytidine-uridine dinucleotide with agonist activity at the P2Y(2) receptor. In primate lung tissues, the P2Y(2) receptor mRNA was located by in situ hybridization predominantly in epithelial cells and not in smooth muscle or stromal tissue. The pharmacologic profile of INS37217 parallels that of UTP, leading to increased chloride and water secretion, increased cilia beat frequency, and increased mucin release. The combined effect of these actions was confirmed in an animal model of tracheal mucus velocity that showed that a single administration of INS37217 significantly enhanced mucus transport for at least 8 h after dosing. This extended duration of action is consistent with the ability of INS37217 to resist metabolism by airway cells and sputum enzymes. The enhanced metabolic stability and resultant increased duration of improved mucociliary clearance may confer significant advantages to INS37217 over other P2Y(2) agonists in the treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:12183642

Yerxa, B R; Sabater, J R; Davis, C W; Stutts, M J; Lang-Furr, M; Picher, M; Jones, A C; Cowlen, M; Dougherty, R; Boyer, J; Abraham, W M; Boucher, R C

2002-09-01

204

Injectable bioactive glass/biodegradable polymer composite for bone and cartilage reconstruction: concept and experimental outcome with thermoplastic composites of poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) and bioactive glass S53P4.  

PubMed

Injectable composites (Glepron) of particulate bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG) and Poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) as thermoplastic carrier matrix were investigated as bone fillers in cancellous and cartilagineous subchondral bone defects in rabbits. Composites were injected as viscous liquid or mouldable paste. The glass granules of the composites resulted in good osteoconductivity and bone bonding that occurred initially at the interface between the glass and the host bone. The bone bioactivity index (BBI) indicating bone contacts between BAG and bone, as well as the bone coverage index (BCI) indicating bone ongrowth, correlated with the amount of glass in the composites. The indices were highest with 70 wt % of BAG, granule size 90-315 microm and did not improve by the addition of sucrose as in situ porosity creating agent in the composite or by using smaller (<45 microm) glass granules. The percentage of new bone ingrowth into the composite with 70 wt % of BAG was 6-8% at 23 weeks. At the articular surface cartilage regeneration with chondroblasts and mature chondrocytes was often evident. The composites were osteoconductive and easy to handle with short setting time. They were biocompatible with low foreign body cellular reaction. Results indicate a suitable working concept as a filler bone substitute for subchondral cancellous bone defects. PMID:15516880

Aho, Allan J; Tirri, Teemu; Kukkonen, Juha; Strandberg, Niko; Rich, Jaana; Seppälä, Jukka; Yli-Urpo, Antti

2004-10-01

205

Effects of bioactive glass S53P4 or beta-tricalcium phosphate and bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells  

PubMed Central

The effects of bioactive glass S53P4 or beta-tricalcium phosphate; and bone morphogenetic proteins bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone morphogenetic protein-7, or bone morphogenetic protein-2 + 7 on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells were compared in control medium, osteogenic medium, and bone morphogenetic protein-supplemented osteogenic medium to assess suitability for bone tissue engineering. Cell amount was evaluated with qDNA measurements; osteogenic differentiation using marker gene expression, alkaline phosphate activity, and angiogenic potential was measured by vascular endothelial growth factor expression. As compared to beta-tricalcium phosphate, cell amount was significantly greater for bioactive glass in control medium after 7 days and in osteogenic medium after 14 days, and alkaline phosphate activity was always significantly greater for bioactive glass in control medium. However, alkaline phosphate activity increased for beta-tricalcium phosphate and decreased for bioactive glass granules in osteogenic medium. For both biomaterials, bone morphogenetic protein supplementation decreased cell amount and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells, and vascular endothelial growth factor expressions correlated with cell amounts. Effects of culture medium on human adipose stem cells are biomaterial dependent; bioactive glass in control medium enhanced osteogenic differentiation most effectively.

Patrikoski, Mimmi; Juntunen, Miia; Kujala, Kasperi; Kaariainen, Minna; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Sandor, George K; Vapaavuori, Outi; Suuronen, Riitta; Mannerstrom, Bettina; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Miettinen, Susanna

2012-01-01

206

Distinct Transmissibility Features of TSE Sources Derived from Ruminant Prion Diseases by the Oral Route in a Transgenic Mouse Model (TgOvPrP4) Overexpressing the Ovine Prion Protein  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a misfolded form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP). Some of them, such as classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (BSE), transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), kuru and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans, are acquired by the oral route exposure to infected tissues. We investigated the possible transmission by the oral route of a panel of strains derived from ruminant prion diseases in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4) overexpressing the ovine prion protein (A136R154Q171) under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Sources derived from Nor98, CH1641 or 87V scrapie sources, as well as sources derived from L-type BSE or cattle-passaged TME, failed to transmit by the oral route, whereas those derived from classical BSE and classical scrapie were successfully transmitted. Apart from a possible effect of passage history of the TSE agent in the inocula, this implied the occurrence of subtle molecular changes in the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) following oral transmission that can raises concerns about our ability to correctly identify sheep that might be orally infected by the BSE agent in the field. Our results provide proof of principle that transgenic mouse models can be used to examine the transmissibility of TSE agents by the oral route, providing novel insights regarding the pathogenesis of prion diseases.

Arsac, Jean-Noel; Baron, Thierry

2014-01-01

207

Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of Cultural Competence Encounters During Practice Experiences  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ perceptions regarding cultural competence training, cross-cultural experiences during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and perceived comfort levels with various cultural encounters. Methods. Fourth-year pharmacy (P4) students were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of their fourth APPE. Results. Fifty-two of 124 respondents (31.9%) reported having 1 or more cultural competence events during their APPEs, the most common of which was caring for a patient with limited English proficiency. Conclusion. Students reported high levels of comfort with specific types of cultural encounters (disabilities, sexuality, financial barriers, mental health), but reported to be less comfortable in other situations.

Cooper, Loren-Ashley; Vellurattil, Rosalyn Padiyara; Quinones-Boex, Ana

2014-01-01

208

Chemistry Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

1999-01-01

209

Funneling experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High intensity rf-accelerator concepts for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIIF) injectors require small emittance, high current and high energy beams. The high brightness in such a driver linac is achieved by several funneling stages at low energies, in which two identically bunched ion beams are combined into a single beam with twice the frequency, current and brightness. For the first stage of a Heavy Ion Driver we propose the use of a two-beam accelerator structure which provides two beams within one cavity and a single rf-deflector structure which bends the two beams to one common axis. The progress of the experiment and first beam-test results will be presented.

Schempp, A.

2001-05-01

210

Low core losses and magnetic properties of Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys with high B for power applications (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the energy crisis and the continued growth in electrical power generation strongly demand minimization of wasteful energy dissipation. Magnetic core loss (W) is the main source of energy dissipation in motors and transformers. This requires the development of soft magnetic materials with low coercivity (Hc) and high magnetic flux density (B). Fe-rich Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (at. %) alloy ribbons made from industrial raw materials (containing some impurities) with 6 mm in width have a heteroamorphous structure containing a large number of extremely small Fe grains (less than 3 nm), resulting from the unique effects of P and Cu addition in proper amounts. Crystallization of these alloys by annealing shows a uniform precipitation of ?-Fe, leading to a uniform nanocrystallized structure of ?-Fe grains, 16-19 nm in size, accompanied by an intergranular amorphous layer about 1 nm in width. The wide ribbons exhibit high B of 1.82-1.85 T (at 800 A/m), almost comparable to commercial oriented Fe-3 mass% Si alloys. Excellent magnetic softness (low Hc of 2.6-5.8 A/m, high permeability of 2.4-2.7 × 104 at 1 kHz and small saturation magnetostriction of 2.3-2.4 × 10-6) along with high electrical resistivity (0.67-0.74 ?? m) of these alloys result in superior frequency characteristics of core losses and a much lower W at 50 Hz up to the maximum induction of 1.75 T, in comparison to the silicon steels now in practical use for power applications.

Makino, Akihiro; Kubota, Takeshi; Yubuta, Kunio; Inoue, Akihisa; Urata, Akiri; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

2011-04-01

211

Control of Corona Composition and Morphology in Aggregates of Mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP Diblock Copolymers: Effects of pH and Block Length.  

PubMed

The corona compositions and morphologies in aggregates of mixtures of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) and polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers are influenced by controllable assembly parameters such as the hydrophilic block length and solution pH. The morphologies and corona compositions of the aggregates were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility, respectively. When mineral acids or bases are present during aggregate formation, they can exert a strong influence on the corona composition. Morphology changes were also seen with changing pH, as well as changes in corona composition, specifically for vesicles. Because of complications introduced by the presence of ions, the general hypothesis that the external corona of the vesicles is composed of the longer chains, while the shorter chains form the inner corona, which is valid only in mixtures containing only nonionic chains without any additives (no acids or bases) or within a well-defined narrow pH range. In addition to the numerical block lengths and the pH, the solubility of the hydrophilic blocks can also influence the morphology and as well as the interfacial composition of vesicles; as the numerically longer chains become less soluble, they can contract and move to the interior, while the numerically shorter but more soluble chains go to the external corona. A remarkable morphological feature of the pH continuum is that for some compositions vesicles are observed in four distinct pH regions, separated by pH ranges in which other morphologies dominate. The effect of pH and microion content on coil dimensions of the PVP and PAA chains in the block copolymers is most likely responsible for the observed behavior. PMID:24725167

Vyhnalkova, Renata; Müller, Axel H E; Eisenberg, Adi

2014-05-01

212

A comparative study of the use of bioactive glass S53P4 and antibiotic-loaded calcium-based bone substitutes in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis: a retrospective comparative study.  

PubMed

The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis often includes surgical debridement and filling the resultant void with antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate cement, bone grafts or bone substitutes. Recently, the use of bioactive glass to treat bone defects in infections has been reported in a limited series of patients. However, no direct comparison between this biomaterial and antibiotic-loaded bone substitute has been performed. In this retrospective study, we compared the safety and efficacy of surgical debridement and local application of the bioactive glass S53P4 in a series of 27 patients affected by chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones (Group A) with two other series, treated respectively with an antibiotic-loaded hydroxyapatite and calcium sulphate compound (Group B; n = 27) or a mixture of tricalcium phosphate and an antibiotic-loaded demineralised bone matrix (Group C; n = 22). Systemic antibiotics were also used in all groups. After comparable periods of follow-up, the control of infection was similar in the three groups. In particular, 25 out of 27 (92.6%) patients of Group A, 24 out of 27 (88.9%) in Group B and 19 out of 22 (86.3%) in Group C showed no infection recurrence at means of 21.8 (12 to 36), 22.1 (12 to 36) and 21.5 (12 to 36) months follow-up, respectively, while Group A showed a reduced wound complication rate. Our results show that patients treated with a bioactive glass without local antibiotics achieved similar eradication of infection and less drainage than those treated with two different antibiotic-loaded calcium-based bone substitutes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:845-50. PMID:24891588

Romanò, C L; Logoluso, N; Meani, E; Romanò, D; De Vecchi, E; Vassena, C; Drago, L

2014-06-01

213

Near-death experience as mystical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-death experience exhibits many attributes of mystical awareness. Assessing the mystical quality of psychedelic experience, Walter Pahnke identified a nine-category typology of mystical experience. It is used here to illustrate the mystical nature of near-death experience. The typology also describes the self-transformation which follows the mystical state of consciousness. Self-transformation results from near-death experience. Pahnke's mystical typology characterizes the near-death

John Pennachio

1986-01-01

214

G254 undergraduate experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the experiments on payload G254. Each experiment is accommodated in a spacepak and six experiments fly in a full canister. One of the experiments will be housed in a new Isospacepak structure, which will be described briefly. Five of the six experiments have dedicated controllers. The objective of each experiment is discussed. In addition, the operational scenario is provided.

Barton, Doran; Bogh, Karilyn; Evans, Brett; Folkman, Steve; Hammond, Marc; Hatch, Casey; Herr, Neva; Hubble, Tina; Humpherys, Jeff; Johnson, Steve

1992-01-01

215

Dynamic material balancing: A simplified least squares formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose a simplified least squares formulation (SLSF) for dynamic material balancing in chemical processes, which are often described by differential-algebraic equations. We compare the SLSF with traditional techniques, such as steady state data reconciliation (SSDR) and Kalman filter (KF). We also modify the SLSF when its assumptions can't be totally satisfied in some practical settings. Using

Hua Xu; Gang Rong; Yiping Feng

2010-01-01

216

Glacier Goo Erosion Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using a glacier proxy, students design an experiment to connect glacial erosion with glacial flow. Students choose from a variety of materials, determined what question they want their experiment or experiments to answer, design the procedure, test the experiment, and write up a lab report on the experiment.

Headley, Rachel

217

Thermogravimetric experiments with titanium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the process of preparing for pyrophoricity experiments involving uranium, we conducted hydriding and air-exposure experiments on titanium. In these experiments the hydriding reactions and response to air-exposure was generally within the range expected...

L. J. Porter G. R. Longhurst

1991-01-01

218

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) experiments using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity experiments involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of experiments. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)

Physics Education, 1984

1984-01-01

219

A Pharmacogenetics Service Experience for Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows  

PubMed Central

Objective. To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. Design. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Assessment. Students’, residents’, and fellows’ achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. Conclusion. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics.

Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R.; Wong, Shan S.; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A.

2013-01-01

220

Dynamics of User Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the consideration of changes in user experience over time. We define user experience as a multidimensional phenomenon, that consists both of the perception of different product qualities and related emotions. First we will introduce the reader to our conceptualization of user experience and report empirical findings with respect to dynamic interactions. Secondly, we describe an experiment that

Michael Minge

221

Emotion in mystical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a critique of three assumptions that have significantly shaped the neuropsychological study of mystical experience: (a) intense positive emotion, especially ecstasy, is the defining feature of mystical experience; (b) abnormal temporolimbic activity, particularly epileptiform activity, is the central mediating factor or cause of mystical experience; and (c) mystical experience resembles and is possibly the same as the

David T. Bradford

2012-01-01

222

Experiments in Electrochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Fun Science Gallery, Experiments in Electrochemistry offers both teachers and students documentation for seven simple experiments to investigate conductors, batteries, potentials, and galvanic deposition. Each experiment is accompanied by a list of materials, explanatory text, and at least one figure that facilitates a scientific understanding of the experiment.

Carboni, Giorgio.

1998-01-01

223

The User Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

Schmidt, Aaron

2010-01-01

224

Commercial Biomedical Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

2003-01-01

225

Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

2003-01-01

226

Biomedical experiments. Part A: Biostack experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biostack experiment is described which was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the earth. Specifically, the biostack experiment was designed to promote research on the effects of high energy/high Z particles of galactic cosmic radiation on a broad spectrum of biologic systems, from the molecular to the highly organized and developed forms of life. The experiment was considered unique and scientifically meritorious because of its potential yield of information - currently unavailable on earth - on the interaction of biologic systems with the heavy particles of galactic cosmic radiation.

Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Scheuermann, W.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cuer, P.; Kaiser, R.

1972-01-01

227

The Experience of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior.

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

2007-01-01

228

On generation of Alfvénic-like fluctuations by drift wave-zonal flow system in large plasma device experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to recent experiments, magnetically confined fusion plasmas with ``drift wave-zonal flow turbulence'' (DW-ZF) give rise to broadband electromagnetic waves. Sharapov et al. [Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 35th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Hersonissos, 2008, edited by P. Lalousis and S. Moustaizis (European Physical Society, Switzerland, 2008), Vol. 32D, p. 4.071] reported an abrupt change in the magnetic turbulence during L-H

W. Horton; C. Correa; G. D. Chagelishvili; V. S. Avsarkisov; J. G. Lominadze; J. C. Perez; J.-H. Kim; T. A. Carter

2009-01-01

229

On generation of Alfve´nic-like fluctuations by drift wave–zonal flow system in large plasma device experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to recent experiments, magnetically confined fusion plasmas with “drift wave–zonal flow turbulence” (DW-ZF) give rise to broadband electromagnetic waves. Sharapov &etal; [Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 35th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Hersonissos, 2008, edited by P. Lalousis and S. Moustaizis (European Physical Society, Switzerland, 2008), Vol. 32D, p. 4.071] reported an abrupt change in the magnetic turbulence during L-H transitions

W. Horton; C. Correa; G. D. Chagelishvili; V. S. Avsarkisov; J. G. Lominadze; J. C. Perez; J.-H. Kim; T. A. Carter

2009-01-01

230

Buffon's Coin Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's coin experiment. The radius of the coin can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, events, probability, and relative frequency.

Siegrist, Kyle

231

Experiments in Magnetohydrodynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three student experiments in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these experiments, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)

Rayner, J. P.

1970-01-01

232

Challenging Students with Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supports the use of a science experiment option in the high school curriculum to enhance student learning. Presents a science experiment rubric and connects the use of science projects with standards. (DDR)

Ambruso, Mark D.

2003-01-01

233

Advanced Process Control Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

1980-01-01

234

A Student's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes female college student's experience of sexual harassment. Experience focuses on teacher student relationship. Relates how the student responded to the harassment and the student's feeling of empowerment by taking action on her own behalf. (ABL)

Peters, Lori

1990-01-01

235

Digital Wave Processing Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of geophysical plasmas will be investigated by the Cluster mission. The digital wave processing (DWP) experiment implements the four ESA/NASA Cluster satellites as a component of the wave experiment consortium. The processing system within ...

L. J. C. Woolliscroft J. A. Thompson P. M. E. Decreau M. Parrot A. Egeland

1988-01-01

236

STEP Experiment Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

Brumfield, M. L. (compiler)

1984-01-01

237

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

238

First Impressions Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the first impressions experiment. This study allows participants to experience the formation of initial impressions and the roles minority/majority status and positive/negative attributes play in that formation process.

239

LITHIUM BATTERY SPACE EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Space Technology Experiments Program seleoted the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to conduct a Phase A study of the Lithium Battery Fxperirnent. The experiment will mark the first time a rechargeable lithium battery will be flown in space. The operation of the batlery irrvofves lithium deposition and dissolution processes. Micro gravity influences these processes significantly. The experiment will check the rate

Artur B. Chmlelewski; Subbarao Surampudl; Richard Bennett; Harvey Frank; Robert Mueller

240

Viscosity Of Liquids - Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom experiment to illustrate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring how quickly pebbles sink through them. The site describes all of the required material for the experiment and also gives a detailed chart for recording the results of the experiment. Altogether, the site is a great activity for the classroom.

2008-10-07

241

NASTRAN: Users' experiences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

1973-01-01

242

Work Experience Education Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was prepared to help work experience coordinators, school administrators, and counselors in Alberta organize and operate a program that provides meaningful learning experiences for high school students. The manual is organized in nine chapters. The first four chapters introduce the concept of work experience programs; state the…

1983

243

FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted dur- ing April-July 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influ- ences the evolution

J. A. Curry; P. V. Hobbs; M. D. King; D. A. Randall; P. Minnis; G. A. Isaac; J. O. Pinto; T. Uttal; A. Bucholtz; D. G. Cripe; H. Gerber; C. W. Fairall; T. J. Garrett; J. Hudson; J. M. Intrieri; C. Jakob; T. Jensen; P. Lawson; D. Marcotte; L. Nguyen; P. Pilewskie; A. Rangno; D. C. Rogers; K. B. Strawbridge; F. P. J. Valero; A. G. Williams; D. Wylie

2000-01-01

244

Using Experience for Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 articles on learning from experience and its relationship to adult learning and adult education. The introductory article, "Understanding Learning from Experience" (Boud, Cohen, Walker), examines five propositions about learning from experience. The following papers are organized into three sections that focus respectively on…

Boud, David, Ed.; And Others

245

Field Experiments in Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments have grown significantly in prominence over the past decade. In this essay, we provide a summary of the major types of field experiments, explore their uses, and describe a few examples. We show how field experiments can be used for both positive and normative purposes within economics. We also discuss more generally why data collection is useful in

David H. Reiley; John A. List

2007-01-01

246

Future Outlook: Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The personal view for the next to the next neutrino detector, the ultimate experiment, is discussed. Considering the size, cost and head winds against the basic science, the ultimate experiment will be the only experiment in the world. Here two such experiments one for the neutrino oscillation and the other for the double beta decay were discussed. The ultimate experiment needs to include a bread and butter science and to have a discovery potential for an unexpected phenomenon. There are many technical challenges and international co-operations are absolutely necessary.

Suzuki, Yoichiro

2008-11-01

247

On some Gorenstein loci in $\\\\Hilb_{6}(\\\\p 4)$  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let k be an algebraically closed field and let HaG(d) be the open locus inside H(d) (the Hilbert scheme of 0-dimensional length d subschemes of the projective (d-2)-space over k) corresponding to arithmetically Gorenstein subschemes. We prove the irreducibility and characterize the singularities of HaG(6). In order to achieve these results we also classify all Artinian, Gorenstein, not necessarily graded,

Gianfranco Casnati; Roberto Notari

2006-01-01

248

ACTS Experiments Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the ACTS Experiments Program is presented. ACTS is being developed and will flight test the advanced technologies associated with: a Ka-band multibeam antenna, onboard signal processing and switching as well as laser communications. A nominal 3 yr experiments program is planned. Through the experiments program, the capabilities of the ACTS system will be made available to U.S. industry, university and government experimenters to test, prove the feasibility and evaluate the key ACTS system technologies. Communication modes of operation using the baseband processor and microwave switch matrix are presented, along with the antenna coverage pattern. Potential experiment categories are also presented and briefly discussed. An overall schedule of activities associated with the experiments program is outlined. Results of the ACTS Experiments Program will provide information vital to successful industry implementation of ACTS technology in a future operational system.

Schertler, R. J.

1986-01-01

249

Gyroscope relativity experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

Decher, R.

1971-01-01

250

LES Validation from Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses issues relating to the validation of LES from experiments. It highlights the differences between large\\u000a eddy simulations (LES) and Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes simulations (RANS) and how LES puts higher demands on the validation\\u000a process than RANS. Some popular validation experiments are outlined, which are part of the Workshop on Turbulent Non-Premixed\\u000a Flames. Important features of validation experiments

Andreas M. Kempf

2008-01-01

251

Double Beta Decay Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, neutrinoless double beta decay is perhaps the only experiment that can tell us whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. Given the significance of the 0???, there is a widespread interest for these rare event studies employing a variety of novel techniques. This paper describes the current status of DBD experiments. The Indian effort for an underground NDBD experiment at the upcoming INO laboratory is also presented.

Nanal, Vandana

2011-11-01

252

Microgravity Experiments On Animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

1991-01-01

253

Michelson-Morley Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains a simulation that recreates the Michelson-Morley experiment. The main objective of this experiment was to prove the existence of the medium in which light propagated: the luminiferous aether. This simulation allows the user to experiment with the interferometer by changing the speed of light and rotating its plane. It also has the possibility to include the aether. At the bottom of the page a l;ink to the theory involved is provided.

Fowler, Michael; Ching, Jacquie H.

2008-07-30

254

Future Neutrino Experiments  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of future neutrino experiments addressing fundamental questions about the neutrino and about what the neutrino can tell us about the universe. A class of these experiments are long baseline neutrino oscillation v{sub e} appearance searches which can measure the final unknowns of the 3x3 neutrino mixing matrix and look for CP violation in the neutrino sector. The massive detectors needed for these experiments can also search for proton decay and measure extra-terrestrial neutrino sources. There are a number of efforts worldwide to launch these experiments. These efforts, with a focus on US plans, are described.

Fleming, B. T. [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 60510 (United States)

2009-12-17

255

SEDS experiment design definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Expendable-tether Deployment System (SEDS) was developed to design, build, integrate, fly, and safely deploy and release an expendable tether. A suitable concept for an on-orbit test of SEDS was developed. The following tasks were performed: (1) Define experiment objectives and requirements; (2) Define experiment concepts to reach those objectives; (3) Support NASA in experiment concept selection and definition; (4) Perform analyses and tests of SEDS hardware; (5) Refine the selected SEDS experiment concept; and (6) Support interactive SEDS system definition process. Results and conclusions are given.

Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.; Oldson, John C.

1990-01-01

256

Die Coin Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the experiment of rolling a die and then tossing a coin the number of times shown on the die. The die distribution and the probability of heads can be specified. The applet illustrates a two-stage experiment.

Siegrist, Kyle

257

Buffon's Needle Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's needle experiment and the corresponding approximation of pi. The event of interest is that the needle crosses a crack. The length of the needle can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, probability, and relative frequency.

Siegrist, Kyle

258

Hazardous chemicals detection experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment involving the production and measurement of chemical vapors released from two volatile liquid solvents and a toxic gas was conducted on December 9, 1992 at a remote site near Sacramento, California. During this experiment, measured quantities of liquid diethyl ether and acetone and hydrogen chloride gas were released under controlled conditions inside a mobile-home-type structure. Vapor concentrations of

Rowena M. Carlson; Laura Bunney; Donald N. Williams

1994-01-01

259

Solar experiment alignment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor system determines absolute alignment of optical axis of experiment package relative to solar vector and provides control information to permit pointing experiment anywhere on solar disc to absolute accuracy of the order of two arc seconds in center and five arc seconds on limb.

Fain, D. L.

1972-01-01

260

Stratospheric Balloon Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three stratospheric balloon-borne experiments were conducted at the Tenente Rodolfo Marsh and Comandante Ferraz Stations in the Antarctic region to study the x-ray and gamma ray atmospheric background. The first experiment was flown in January 1984 to mea...

U. B. Jayanthi J. Braga C. D. Pritsopoulo F. S. Blanco R. V. Correa

1986-01-01

261

Nonparametric identification experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following constitutes a summary of this paper: on-orbit identification methodology starts with nonparametric techniques for a priori system identification; development of the nonparametric identification and model determination experiment software has been completed; the validation experiments to be performed on the JPL Control and Identification Technology Validation Laboratory have been designed.

Yam, Yeung

1988-01-01

262

The Student Athlete Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…

Gayles, Joy Gaston

2009-01-01

263

Programmed French: An Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment in programed language instruction based on the "Basic French" method of T. Mueller and H. Niedzielski is reviewed in this paper. Seventy-two civil servants participated in the program which provided for 60 hours of taped instruction. Experiment description, objectives, modifications, and a review of the structuring of lessons 1-20…

Breton, Lucien

264

Boyle's Law Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

Hermens, Richard A.

1983-01-01

265

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) two experiments using a laser (resonant cavity for light and pinhole camera effect with a hologram); (2) optical differaction patterns displayed by microcomputer; and (3) automating the Hall effect (with comments on apparatus needed and computer program used); and (4) an elegant experiment in mechanical equilibrium. (JN)

Physics Education, 1985

1985-01-01

266

Experiment in Structural Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concern of the experiment is to find out the roles of abstraction and generalization in the learning of mathematical structures. The basic question is whether to generalize before abstracting or vice-versa in order to maximize transfer. The experiment involves four mathematical tasks and a transfer of activity. Experimental procedures are…

Diener, Z. P.

267

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

268

Shusterman on Somatic Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

Maattanen, Pentti

2010-01-01

269

Corn blight watch experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

1974-01-01

270

The Adventure Experience Paradigm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model to explain the adventure experience and to relate adventure experience to adventure education uses risk and competence as diagram axes with experimentation/exploration, adventure, peak adventure, misadventure, and disaster/devastation completing the framework. The model assumes that peak adventure, the point at which personal competence…

Priest, Simon; Martin, Peter

271

Experiences of puberty development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some of the findings from a study regarding sex education which I have conducted with 500, 14-16 year-old pupils in a school district in the southern part of Denmark. The specific focus of the paper is on the pupils' experiences of puberty development; both the physical and psychological transformations undergone and the differences in the experiences of

Lisbeth Shore

1984-01-01

272

Peak Experience Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

2010-01-01

273

A Column Dispersion Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

1982-01-01

274

Molybdenum Solar Neutrino Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the sup 8 B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of sup 98 Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an u...

K. Wolfsberg G. A. Cowan E. A. Bryant K. S. Daniels S. W. Downey

1984-01-01

275

Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molybdenum solar neutrino experiment goal is to deduce the (8)B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of (98)Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. It is important because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. It is suggested that

K. Wolfsberg; G. A. Cowan; E. A. Bryant; K. S. Daniels; S. W. Downey; W. C. Haxton; V. G. Niesen; N. S. Nogar; C. M. Miller; D. J. Rokop

1984-01-01

276

Franklin: User Experiences  

SciTech Connect

The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

2008-05-07

277

Infant and Toddler Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center, this book presents a model of infant and toddler child care. The purpose of the book is to offer caregivers and interested parents a repertoire of ways to respond to infants and toddlers that support individual development. Planned experiences and practical strategies for…

Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

278

Real-World Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

Borja, Rhea R.

2006-01-01

279

Social Balance Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Social Balance Experiment. In this experiment, participants are asked to imagine that they are in a situation in which they have one of five feelings (love, like, neutral, dislike or hate) toward another person named Bill.

280

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

281

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes briefly three experiments, which are presented by three physics teachers to share their ideas with other teachers and readers. These experiments are: (1) a simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment; (2) the speed of light; and (3) the ball-bearing electric motor. (HM)

Physics Education, 1980

1980-01-01

282

Extravehicular activity welding experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

Watson, J. Kevin

1989-01-01

283

Online Physics Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colorado State University's Hands-On Science Outreach Program, Little Shop of Physics, contains several dozen online experiments that can be done at home, in the classroom, or directly on a computer. The Amazing Physics section offers directions on completing the classic imploding pop can experiment and other experiments using common household items. The other two sections, Computer Stuff and Shockwave Stuff, allows users to try interactive activities like the headshrinker experiment. After staring at the animation of moving circles for a minute and then looking at a friend's head, it strangely appears to be shrinking. Each detailed experiment provides clear and straightforward directions as well as an explanation of what is actually happening, making this site an excellent resource for teachers and parents in helping kids understand physics.

2007-04-28

284

Space Experiment Module (SEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

Brodell, Charles L.

1999-01-01

285

USML-1 Glovebox experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

Naumann, Robert J.

1995-01-01

286

Triple-quantum correlation NMR experiments in solids using J-couplings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that triple-quantum–single-quantum (TQ–SQ) correlation spectra of crystalline and disordered solids can be obtained under MAS using pulse sequences based on through-bond J-couplings. The feasibility of the experiments in coupled spin-1\\/2 systems is demonstrated for fully 13C-labelled l-alanine and Pb3P4O13 crystalline compounds, considered as model three-spin and four-spin systems, respectively. In the case of phosphate glasses, we show that

Franck Fayon; Claire Roiland; Lyndon Emsley; Dominique Massiot

2006-01-01

287

Energies and E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates for states of the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on relativistic wavefunctions from multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations, E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are evaluated for the states of the (1s2)2s22p3,2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in all nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX. The wavefunction expansions include valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects through single-double multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. The computed energies agree very well with experimental values, with differences of only 300-600 cm-1 for the majority of the levels and ions in the sequence. Computed transitions rates are in close agreement with available data from MCHF-BP calculations by Tachiev and Froese Fischer [G.I. Tachiev, C. Froese Fischer, A&A 385 (2002) 716].

Rynkun, P.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Froese Fischer, C.

2014-03-01

288

IR and Raman spectra of two layered aluminium phosphates Co(en) 3Al 3P 4O 16 · 3H 2O and [NH 4] 3[Co(NH 3) 6] 3[Al 2(PO 4) 4] 2 · 2H 2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FT IR and FT Raman spectra of Co(en) 3Al 3P 4O 16 · 3H 2O (compound I) and [NH 4] 3[Co(NH 3) 6] 3[Al 2(PO 4) 4] 2 · 2H 2O (compound II) are recorded and analysed based on the vibrations of Co(en) 33+, Co(NH 3) 63+, NH 4+, Al?O?P, PO 3, PO 2 and H 2O. The observed splitting of bands indicate that the site symmetry and correlation field effects are appreciable in both the compounds. In compound I, the overtone of CH 2 deformation Fermi resonates with its symmetric stretching vibration. The NH 4 ion in compound II is not free to rotate in the crystalline lattice. Hydrogen bonding of different groups is also discussed.

John, Annamma; Philip, Daizy; Morgan, Keith R.; Devanarayanan, S.

2000-12-01

289

LDR structural experiment definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

1988-01-01

290

Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiochemical experiments have been crucial to solar neutrino research. Even today, they provide the only direct measurement of the rate of the proton-proton fusion reaction, p+p?d+e++?e, which generates most of the Sun's energy. We first give a little history of radiochemical solar neutrino experiments with emphasis on the gallium experiment SAGE - the only currently operating detector of this type. The combined result of all data from the Ga experiments is a capture rate of 67.6±3.7 SNU. For comparison to theory, we use the calculated flux at the Sun from a standard solar model, take into account neutrino propagation from the Sun to the Earth and the results of neutrino source experiments with Ga, and obtain 67.3-3.5+3.9 SNU. Using the data from all solar neutrino experiments we calculate an electron neutrino pp flux of ?pp?=(3.41-0.77+0.76)×1010/(cm-s), which agrees well with the prediction from a detailed solar model of ?pp?=(3.30-0.14+0.13)×1010/(cm-s). Four tests of the Ga experiments have been carried out with very intense reactor-produced neutrino sources and the ratio of observed to calculated rates is 0.88±0.05. One explanation for this unexpectedly low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. We end with consideration of possible time variation in the Ga experiments and an enumeration of other possible radiochemical experiments that might have been.

Gavrin, V. N.; Cleveland, B. T.

2011-12-01

291

Thermogravimetric experiments with titanium  

SciTech Connect

In the process of preparing for pyrophoricity experiments involving uranium, we conducted hydriding and air-exposure experiments on titanium. In these experiments the hydriding reactions and response to air-exposure was generally within the range expected based on work reported by others. One aberrant behavior was a sudden weight gain followed by a significant weight loss. We speculate that loss may be due to hydrogen evolution from the TiH{sub 2} resulting from local heating by oxidation reactions. We verified that titanium is not pyrophoric at temperatures less than 750{degree}C. 18 refs. 1 fig.

Porter, L.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

1991-02-01

292

The GBAR experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical Weak Equivalence Principle has not yet been tested using antimatter in matter gravitational fields. The GBAR (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest) experiment, recently approved by CERN, proposes to measure the free-fall acceleration of antihydrogen. In this experiment, positive antihydrogen ions will be produced, and subsequently cooled down using laser cooled Be+ ions. Then, when a temperature of around 20 ?K has been reached, the excess positron will be detached and the free-fall time will be measured using the antiproton annihilation products. An overview of the experiment will be given together with its present status.

van der Werf, D. P.

2014-05-01

293

ROCSAT-1 telecommunication experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses a telecommunication payload project approved by the R.O.C. NSPO's ROCSAT-1 space program. This project will enable several innovative experiments via the low-earth-orbit satellite ROCSAT-1, including multipath fading channel characterization, ionospheric scintillation measurement, real-time voice communications, and CDMA data communications. A unified L/S-band transponder payload is proposed for conducting these experiments in an efficient way. The results of these experiments would provide the evolving mobile communication communities with fruitful information.

Chang, J. F.; Taur, R. R.; Chu, T. H.; Li, H. S.; Su, Y. T.; Kiang, Y. W.; Su, S. L.; Shih, M. P.; Lin, H. D.; Chung, C. D.

1993-01-01

294

Russian Grouting Experience  

SciTech Connect

The final report on Russian Grouting experience provided an opportunity for international cooperation and access to Russian grouting/waste form experience. the data on radiolytic gas generation from grout mixtures was already used in evaluation of the source of hydrogen and methane generation detected in the sampling ports around the SRS high-level waste tanks in 2002. The concept of venting the radiolytic gases from a waste form by adding porous aggregate is being considered for future cement-based TRU waste forms at SRS. The objectives of this work were to document the Russian experience on grouting for waste forms and tank closures or other decommissioning applications.

Langton, C.A.

2002-10-15

295

ROCSAT-1 telecommunication experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses a telecommunication payload project approved by the R.O.C. NSPO's ROCSAT-1 space program. This project will enable several innovative experiments via the low-earth-orbit satellite ROCSAT-1, including multipath fading channel characterization, ionospheric scintillation measurement, real-time voice communications, and CDMA data communications. A unified L/S-band transponder payload is proposed for conducting these experiments in an efficient way. The results of these experiments would provide the evolving mobile communication communities with fruitful information.

Chang, J. F.; Taur, R. R.; Chu, T. H.; Li, H. S.; Su, Y. T.; Kiang, Y. W.; Su, S. L.; Shih, M. P.; Lin, H. D.; Chung, C. D.

296

The Minos Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to perform precision measurements of neutrino oscillations using muon neutrinos. The experiment will do this using a new, intense neutrino beam from the Main Injector at Fermilab and two large, magnetized neutrino detectors: a 1kt Near Detector at Fermilab and a 5.4kt Far detector at a distance of 735km in the Soudan Mine, Minnesota. This paper briefly describes the experiment and its physics aims, reviews the current status and presents some preliminary, non-beam, data from the Far Detector.

Pearce, G. F.

2005-04-01

297

Public Goods Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students must decide how to divide their "endowment" of a good between private consumption and a public good. The private consumption provides a benefit (earnings) to only the individual and the public good provides a benefit to each person in the group, even those who do not contribute to the public good. This hand-run experiment is suitable for use in small classes in the range of 5 to 40 students. Some variations on this basic experiment are also described.

Swarthout, Todd

298

Industrial application experiment series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

Bluhm, S. A.

1981-01-01

299

Gamma ray spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transearth coast period of the Apollo 16 mission provided an opportunity to study the astronomical sources of gamma radiation. This experiment was used to aid compositional identification for geochemical mapping of the lunar surface.

Arnold, J. R.; Metzger, A. E.; Peterson, L. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Trombka, J. I.

1972-01-01

300

Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

Goh, S. H.

1975-01-01

301

Germany's Solar Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOVA video podcast is about Germany's solar experiment. Munich's solar panel farm lines the Autobahn and countryside in a massive effort to prove solar's feasibility as a practical renewable energy source.

Nova

302

General Relativity and Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all the current experimental data are compatible with General Relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory...

T. Damour

1994-01-01

303

The monsoon experiment MONEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of monsoons in different parts of the world on the Earth's atmosphere were studied by MONEX, India's Monsoon Experiment program. Data were gathered from meteorological satellites, sounding rockets, aircraft, land and shipborne stations.

Das, P. K.

1979-01-01

304

Electrophoresis experiment for space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

1976-01-01

305

Input-Output Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the suggested Input-Output experiment was to determine the feasibility of using auroral phenomena to simulate the ionizing effects produced by high-altitude nuclear detonations. Present objectives are focused primarily on the measurement ...

R. E. Meyerott

1964-01-01

306

Experiments on Electroluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of recent observations of the properties of ZnS: Cu: Pb and ZnS: Cu: Pb: Mn electroluminescent phosphors is reported. The experiments include studies of the optical and electrical response of these phosphors dispersed in \\

John F. Waymouth; Francis Bitter

1954-01-01

307

A Colorful Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment, mixing solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate to give a bright yellow lead iodide precipitate, often leads students into other topics such as making paint from the precipitate. (BB)

Hunter, C. Bruce

1978-01-01

308

Experiments with planing surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments with planing surfaces are fundamental, hydrodynamic researches for the purpose of obtaining the most favorable forms for planing boats, flying boats, and seaplane floats, with respect to water resistance and seaworthiness.

Sottorf, W

1932-01-01

309

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three experiments: (1) "Liquid Flow from Orifices"; (2) "Microcomputer-Controlled Investigation of Battery Discharge and Recovery"; and (3) "Measurement of the Speed of Sound." Drawings and diagrams accompany each. (RT)

Physics Education, 1988

1988-01-01

310

CCF Experiment #1  

NASA Video Gallery

Images from CCF camera during Experiment #1, or EU#1, square groove geometry operations. The free surface, or gas/liquid interface, assumes a curved shape under subcritical flow conditions as its m...

311

Packed Bed Reactor Experiment  

NASA Video Gallery

The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

312

International Sodar Intercomparison Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents preliminary results from the International Sodar Intercomparison Experiment (ISIE) conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in September 1988. Twenty-minute mean wind speeds and directions from a variety of sodar systems compare...

J. E. Gaynor C. B. Baker J. C. Kaimal

1990-01-01

313

Experimenting with Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

1977-01-01

314

Quantum ghost imaging experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first experiment achieving quantum ghost imaging of an opaque object, performed by the authors at the Army Research Laboratory, ghost imaging research has increased. That physics experiment resulting in the image of toy soldier created a new imaging paradigm. Prior to that all images of opaque objects were made by receiving patterns of the object from reflection and scattering of the light into a camera. In the ghost imaging experiment light patterns only came from the light source and the image was made from coincidences of those and photon counts of reflected and scattered photons received from the object. Since that original ghost imaging experiment, approximately thirteen years after ghost imaging of transmissive objects was introduced, ghost imaging is providing a new and proweful quantum tool for future improved imaging missions in the environment.

Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.

2009-08-01

315

Basje Cerenkov Light Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiment was designed to measure the characteristics of the Cerenkov light in extensive air showers, and to derive information about the primary composition. The research indicates that the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 to the...

H. V. Bradt A. S. Krieger S. A. Rappaport

1969-01-01

316

Theory, Experiment of Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The scope of scientific work and the role of the Scientist-organizer; Assimilating (Mastering) the achievements of science and technology; Theory, experiment and practice; The unity of science and technology; The efficiency of scientific work; Q...

P. L. Kapitsa

1967-01-01

317

Chaos - Chaotic Pendulum Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website containing LabVIEW programs, student writeup and auxiliary material for an experiment on a chaotic pendulum. The writeup includes instructions for the acquisition, display, analysis, and simulation of chaotic data sets.

Deserio, Robert

2008-08-04

318

Photovoltaic Systems Performance Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photovoltaic power systems at Natural Bridges National Monument in southeastern Utah and at radio station WBNO in Bryan, Ohio, provide some early reliability experience and case histories on failures and repairs of large photovoltaic systems. They are...

F. J. Solman

1981-01-01

319

Designing Microarray Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene expression microarrays have become an important exploratory tool in many screening experiments that aim to discover the genes that change expression in two or more biological conditions and can be used to build molecular profiles for both diagnostic and prognostic use. The still very high costs of microarrays and the difficulty in generating the biological samples are critical issues of microarraybased screening experiments, and the experimental design plays a crucial role in how informative an experiment is going to be. In this chapter, we describe some of the major issues related to the design of either randomized control trials or observational studies and discuss the choice of powerful sample sizes, the selection of informative experimental conditions, and experimental strategies that can minimize confounding. We conclude with a discussion of some of the open problems in the design and analysis of microarray experiments that need further research.

Sebastiani, Paola; Milton, Jacqui; Wang, Ling

320

Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molybdenum solar neutrino experiment goal is to deduce the (8)B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of (98)Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. It is important because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. It is suggested that possible reasons for the discrepancy lie in the properties of neutrinos or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the (8)B neutrino flux in current times. In the molybdenum experiments, (98)Tc (4.2 Myr) are measured, which are produced by (8)B neutrinos, and possibly (97)Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos.

Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G. A.; Bryant, E. A.; Daniels, K. S.; Downey, S. W.; Haxton, W. C.; Niesen, V. G.; Nogar, N. S.; Miller, C. M.; Rokop, D. J.

321

Experimenting with Apostatic Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed is some of the experimental evidence for apostatic selection from work with artificial prey. Guidelines for further experiments are suggested including experimental design, analysis, variables, and selection in the wild. (Author/CW)

Allen, J. A.; Cooper, J. M.

1988-01-01

322

The Double Chooz Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment aims at observing the last neutrino oscillation not yet observed and at measuring the corresponding mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. A relatively big value of this angle will allow the measurement of CP violation in the leptonic sector by the next neutrino oscillation experiments. This disappearance experiment will precisely count the number of anti-neutrinos produced by the two nuclear reactors of the Chooz nuclear plant in France. In a first stage, Double Chooz will only use a far detector which could allow to give a sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13}) low limit of 0.06. Two years after, a near detector, identical to the far one, will be in operation and allow us to push this limit down to 0.03 by reducing the systematic errors. The status of this experiment is presented in this paper.

Dracos, Marcos [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)

2011-10-06

323

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduced are two experiments: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)

Physics Education, 1989

1989-01-01

324

Cadell's Mountain Building Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show reconstructions of Cadell's famous experiments in mountain building, performed at an open day of the British Geological Survey at Murchison House, Edinburgh. Various versions at different resolutions are available.

325

The DÃ Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provided information about the D-Zero Experiment located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois, USA. The research is focused on precise studies of interactions of protons and antiprotons at the highest available energies.

Laboratory, Fermi N.

2003-10-10

326

The Mock Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A full understanding of the mechanisms behind and the importance of scientific research is invaluable to all college students. The Mock Experiment can be used to introduce science and nonscience majors to the scientific process, presentation of research,

Sticker, Leeann

2002-02-01

327

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to demonstrate the following: the hysteresis effect and the existence of domains in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate); diffraction experiments using a slide with multiple slits; and an analogue technique for learning terminal velocity. (GA)

Physics Education, 1979

1979-01-01

328

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four physics experiments including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)

Physics Education, 1988

1988-01-01

329

Foraging Experiences with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

Russell, Helen Ross

1976-01-01

330

Antenna Height Gain Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of the antenna height gain experiment performed in the Chicago Region at four different sites. Two bands, VHF and UHF, are analyzed for their signal strength and occupancy variation versus antenna heights. These results are...

O. Efremov

1976-01-01

331

The MAJORANA Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

2011-10-01

332

ISE structural dynamic experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

1988-01-01

333

Developing experiment instrument packages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground-Support Equipment (GSE) system supports development, calibration, and testing of experiment packages. It is also used for "quick look" processing and in-progress data analysis. User interacts with incoming telemetry data, performs computations, and controls execution of procedures using versatile Experiment Command Interactive Language (ECIL). Program is implemented many ways with minimal modification. It is written in MARCO II and FORTRAN for DEC PDP-11/34 using the RSX-11M operating system.

Herreid, R.

1981-01-01

334

Object Location Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Object Location Experiment. The experiment begins with a description of the object location memory task that the participants will complete. Participants learn that they will study an array of objects for a designated period of time; the array of objects will then disappear; and then the array of objects will reappear, but some of the objects will have exchanged positions.

335

Surface electrical properties experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

1973-01-01

336

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology: Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE) is a collection of peer-reviewed, classroom/ field-tested teaching materials sponsored by the Ecological Society of America. Among these "scientifically sound and pedagogically innovative" teaching materials are a number of particularly well-designed ecology labs for field and classroom. As of February 2003, two of the seven labs on the Web site are complete and ready to download: Ecology of Habitat Contrasts and Environmental Correlates of Leaf Stomata Density. Both are designed for college level courses. Five other labs covering a range of ecology topics will eventually be available, and users may also take advantage of an earlier set of labs from 1993. The resources and materials provided for each lab are incredibly comprehensive. Suffice to say, this Web site is definitely one to bookmark and check frequently for updates.

1969-12-31

337

Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, and headmotion signals acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit are shown. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telemetered indication of sleep stage). Results indicate that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled eight-hour rest periods during extended space missions.

Frost, J. D., Jr.

1975-01-01

338

Modal identification experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) is a proposed on-orbit experiment being developed by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology wherein a series of vibration measurements would be made on various configurations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) during its on-orbit assembly phase. The experiment is to be conducted in conjunction with station reboost operations and consists of measuring the dynamic responses of the spacecraft produced by station-based attitude control system and reboost thrusters, recording and transmitting the data, and processing the data on the ground to identify the natural frequencies, damping factors, and shapes of significant vibratory modes. The experiment would likely be a part of the Space Station on-orbit verification. Basic research objectives of MIE are to evaluate and improve methods for analytically modeling large space structures, to develop techniques for performing in-space modal testing, and to validate candidate techniques for in-space modal identification. From an engineering point of view, MIE will provide the first opportunity to obtain vibration data for the fully-assembled structure because SSF is too large and too flexible to be tested as a single unit on the ground. Such full-system data is essential for validating the analytical model of SSF which would be used in any engineering efforts associated with structural or control system changes that might be made to the station as missions evolve over time. Extensive analytical simulations of on-orbit tests, as well exploratory laboratory simulations using small-scale models, have been conducted in-house and under contract to develop a measurement plan and evaluate its potential performance. In particular, performance trade and parametric studies conducted as part of these simulations were used to resolve issues related to the number and location of the measurements, the type of excitation, data acquisition and data processing, effects of noise and nonlinearities, selection of target vibration modes, and the appropriate type of data analysis scheme. The purpose of this talk is to provide an executive-summary-type overview of the modal identification experiment which has emerged from the conceptual design studies conducted to-date. Emphasis throughout is on those aspects of the experiment which should be of interest to those attending the subject utilization conference. The presentation begins with some preparatory remarks to provide background and motivation for the experiment, describe the experiment in general terms, and cite the specific technical objectives. This is followed by a summary of the major results of the conceptual design studies conducted to define the baseline experiment. The baseline experiment which has resulted from the studies is then described.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1992-01-01

339

Understanding customer experience.  

PubMed

Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

2007-02-01

340

FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

1998-01-01

341

Tribology Experiments in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brief history of tribology experiments in space is described. Tribological performance in a high vacuum was a great concern in early stage of space development, and it was urgent task to verify whether the actual space environment can be simulated using ground-based vacuum facilities from tribological viewpoint. Some friction tests as well as bearing tests were carried out on board satellites in 1960s, and the conclusion was that the results of space experiments was very similar to those of ground-based comparison experiments. In 1980s, however, Space Shuttle flown in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) revealed a new problem; oxidization by active atomic oxygen, which is more than 90% constituent in the environment. Some types of solid lubricants might be oxidized, and thus lost tribological effectiveness. Efforts to clarify the effect of LEO environment on solid lubricants, as well as to simulate LEO environment properly, have been devoted including space experiments. Recent tribology-related space experiments are briefly reviewed.

Suzuki, Mineo

342

Experiment Specific Expression Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential analysis of genes between microarrays from several experimental conditions or treatments routinely estimates which genes change significantly between groups. As genes are never regulated individually observed behavior may be a consequence of changes in other genes. Existing approaches like co-expression analysis aim to resolve such patterns from a wide range of experiments. The knowledge of such a background set of experiments can be used to compute expected gene behavior based on known links. It is particularly interesting to detect previously unseen specific effects in other experiments. Here, a new method to spot genes deviating from expected behavior (PAttern DEviation SCOring - Padesco ) is devised. It uses linear regression models learned from a background set to arrive at gene specific prediction accuracy distributions. For a given experiment it is then decided whether each gene is predicted better or worse than expected. This provides a novel way to estimate the experiment specificityof each gene. We propose a validation procedure to estimate the detection of such specific candidates and show that these can be identified with an average accuracy of about 85 percent.

Petri, Tobias; Küffner, Robert; Zimmer, Ralf

343

Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the /sup 8/B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of /sup 98/Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an understanding of stellar processes because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy may lie in the properties of neutrinos (neutrino oscillations or massive neutrinos) or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the /sup 8/B neutrino flux in current times and does not address possible temporal variations in the interior of the sun, which are also not considered in the standard model. In the molybdenum experiment, we plan to measure /sup 98/Tc (4.2 Myr), also produced by /sup 8/B neutrinos, and possibly /sup 97/Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos.

Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G.A.; Bryant, E.A.; Daniels, K.S.; Downey, S.W.; Haxton, W.C.; Niesen, V.G.; Nogar, N.S.; Miller, C.M.; Rokop, D.J.

1984-01-01

344

Plasma Dynamo Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) is under construction to explore the self-excitation processes of a range of astrophysical dynamos. Numerical simulations of von K'arm'an flow have shown that a two-vortex flow can produce a dynamo when the magnetic Reynolds number is sufficiently high, which, for a plasma, requires a large, hot, flowing and unmagnetized plasma. This poster discusses experimental plans for von K'arm'an flow in MPDX as well as prototype experiments on the Plasma Couette Experiment (PCX). The PCX is a cylindrical plasma experiment currently being used to optimize a multi-cusp magnetic confinement scheme for experiments on the magnetorotational instability. It also provides a platform for prototyping two types of plasma sources (electron cyclotron heating and LaB6 cathode) as well as an ExB stirring mechanism, diagnostics, and future MPDX dynamo scenarios. This poster will review recent findings from PCX involving the fabrication and operation of a new LaB6 electron source and its use in driving Dean flow. While currently attainable densities (ne 10^17 m-3, using electron cyclotron heating) require Hall MHD in calculating the plasma response to various flow profiles, the new LaB6 electron source may allow high enough densities to place the plasma in a purely MHD regime. Work supported by NSF.

Weisberg, David; Collins, Cami; Katz, Noam; Wallace, John; Khalzov, Ivan; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Forest, Cary

2011-11-01

345

Cryogenic fluid management experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

1981-01-01

346

Reactor antineutrino experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles ?12, ?23, ?13, and one CP phase. Both ?12 and ?23 are known from previous experiments. ?13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive non-zero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(? 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ? e mass-squared difference ? ? m2ee? = (2.59+0.19-0.20)× 10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of ?13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

Lu, Haoqi

2014-05-01

347

Droplet Combustion Experiment movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

2003-01-01

348

Electrophoresis experiments for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been hoped that space could alleviate the problems of large-scale, high-capacity electrophoresis. Support media and reduced chamber dimensions of capillary electrophoresis have established the physical boundaries for Earth-based systems. Ideally, electrophoresis conducted in a virtual weightless environment in an unrestricted ``free'' fluid should have great potential. The electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing experiments done in the reduced gravity over the past twenty-five years have demonstrated the absence of thermal convection and sedimentation as well as the presence of electrohydrodynamics that requires careful control. One commercial venture produced gram amounts of an electrophoretically purified protein during seven Space Shuttle flights but the market disappeared in the six years between experiment conception and performance on the Space Shuttle. Our accumulated experience in microgravity plus theoretical models predict improvements that should be possible with electrophoresis if past problems are considered and both invention of new technologies and innovation of procedures on the Space Station are encouraged. .

Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

2000-01-01

349

Results of space experiments.  

PubMed

Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program. PMID:7480627

Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schäfer, M

1995-08-01

350

An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell. Students are permitted to create their own fragrance based on the results of the experiment. Student response has been favorable. The experiment rectifies misconceptions students have about structure and odor, and gives positive reinforcement to the lecture material.

Risley, John M.

1996-12-01

351

The KATRIN Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KArslruhe TRltium Neutrino experiment, KATRlN will determine the neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 0.2 e V/c2 (90%CL) via a measurement of the T2 ?-spectrum near its endpoint at 18.57 keV. The experiment consists of a windowless gaseous Tritium source, a differential- and cryopumping section, the pre- and main-spectrometer, both of the MAC-E filter type and a pixelated silicon detector. A background of less than 10 mHz and an energy resolution of 0.93 eV are necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity within 1000 days of data-taking. The experiment is currently reaching its final commissioning phase. In these proceedings, we focus on the main-spectrometer and its inner wire electrode.

Prall, Matthias

2012-08-01

352

Droplet Combustion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (120KB JPEG, 655 x 736 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300167.html.

2003-01-01

353

Droplet Combustion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (199KB JPEG, 1311 x 1477 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300165.html.

2003-01-01

354

Experiments in mixed reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

2010-02-01

355

Fundamentals of LHC Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN represent our furthest excursion yet along the energy frontier of particle physics. The goal of probing physical processes at the TeV energy scale puts strict requirements on the performance of accelerator and experiment, dictating the awe-inspiring dimensions of both. These notes, based on a set of five lectures given at the 2010 Theoretical Advanced Studies Institute in Boulder, Colorado, not only review the physics considered as part of the accelerator and experiment design, but also introduce algorithms and tools used to interpret experimental results in terms of theoretical models. The search for new physics beyond the Standard Model presents many new challenges, a few of which are addressed in specific examples.

Nielsen, Jason

2012-11-01

356

The VIP Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is a basic principle of Quantum Mechanics, and its validity has never been seriously challenged. However, given its importance, it is very important to check it as thoroughly as possible. Here we describe the VIP (Violation of PEP) experiment, an improved version of the Ramberg and Snow experiment (Ramberg and Snow, Phys. Lett. B238 (1990) 438); VIP shall be performed at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, and aims to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to {beta}2/2 {approx_equal} 10-30.

Bartalucci, S.; Bertolucci, S.; Catitti, M.; Curceanu, C.; Di Matteo, S.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Pietreanu, D.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell'INFN-LNF, CP 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bragadireanu, M.; Ponta, T. ['Horia Holubei' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Atomistilor no.407, P.O.BOX MG-6, Bucharest - Magurele (Romania); Bucci, C.; Ferrari, N.; Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso dell'INFN-LNGS, S.S. 17 bis Km. 18.910, 67010 - ASSERGI (AQ) (Italy); Cargnelli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J. ['Stefan Meyer' Institute for Subatomic Physics, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)] (and others)

2006-01-04

357

Development Experience Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Agency for International Development's Development Experience Clearinghouse has recently made its Development Experience System (DEXS) available via the web. DEXS "is a family of bibliographic databases that contains records for about 100,000 Agency technical and program documents" from 1942 to the present. The database is split into two parts, 1942-86, and 1987-present. Information can be searched on any of ten variables or browsed. Retrieval includes basic bibliographic information, and may also include media, pricing, and ordering information. Of the total number of records in this staggering database, over 96,000 are available in microfiche for on-demand reproduction.

1998-01-01

358

Experiences of the dying.  

PubMed

It is often a mystery to us how we have come to know and believe in certain things. Beliefs are like guests who come up to a door. They come in only if the host opens it and invites them in. Otherwise they are turned away, unable to enter. LPNs/LVNs are invited to reflect on their experiences and expand their knowledge and beliefs. There is growing recognition that bedside talks of the dying, spirit travel and near-death events are real events for the people who experience them. LPNs/ LVNs are encouraged to expand their knowledge and beliefs about dying. PMID:23252027

Schoenbeck, Susan L

2011-01-01

359

Student experiments on Skylab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the background and experimental results of the Skylab student project, and assessment of its overall benefits. Virtually all of the objectives of the experiments adopted from student proposals were met. NASA benefited from the program by learning that meaningful experiments could be incorporated into a carry-on or suitcase concept at low cost and within very short time periods. The students benefited greatly from their association with the Skylab program by being afforded a learning opportunity and contact with the real world of research, normally beyond their reach. In addition, hometowns, states, and regions developed a close identification with space exploration.

Floyd, H. B.

1974-01-01

360

Disclosure of surgeon experience.  

PubMed

It is uncertain whether there is an ethical obligation to disclose surgical experience. This article explores the impact of principles including respect for patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, and justice, as well as professional duties including truth-telling on the decision-making relevant to the process of informed consent, taking into account surgeon experience, training, and the expected risk and uncertainty surrounding the disease process and operation. Issues such as the integrity of the doctor-patient relationship, difficulties with access to complex surgical services, and limitations in applying statistics to the future outcomes of individual surgeons are explored. PMID:24722865

Ganai, Sabha

2014-07-01

361

Experiment SPHERE status 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10-10 eV.

Shaulov, S. B.; Besshapov, S. P.; Kabanova, N. V.; Sysoeva, T. I.; Antonov, R. A.; Anyuhina, A. M.; Bronvech, E. A.; Chernov, D. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

2009-12-01

362

NOSL experiment support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical lightning detector was constructed and flown, along with Vinton cameras and a Fairchild Line Scan Spectrometer, on a U-2 during the summer of 1979. The U-2 lightning data was obtained in daylight, and was supplemented with ground truth taken at Langmuir Laboratory. Simulations were prepared as required to establish experiment operating procedures and science training for the astronauts who would operate the Night/Day Optical Survey of Thunderstorm Lightning (NOSL) equipment during the STS-2 NOSL experiment on the Space Shuttle. Data was analyzed and papers were prepared for publication.

Brook, M.

1986-01-01

363

Experiences with biosynthetic dressings.  

PubMed

Almost all documented clinical experience shows that occlusively dressed wounds heal more quickly and with less pain, tenderness, and swelling than undressed wounds. Clinical experience with occlusive skin dressings on acute and chronic wounds, on diseased skin, and on normal skin is reviewed. This report presents the effects of some of the newest oxygen-permeable and oxygen-nonpermeable occlusive dressings: three polyurethane adhesive films (Bioclusive, Op-Site, and Tegaderm), a polyethylene oxide hydrogel dressing (Vigilon), and a hydroactive polymer dressing (DuoDerm). PMID:3973143

Eaglstein, W H

1985-02-01

364

STELLA EXPERIMENT: HARDWARE ISSUES  

SciTech Connect

The Staged Electron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment is currently being assembled and tested at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The existing BNL inverse free electron laser (IFEL) has been positioned upstream of the inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) experiment on Beamline {number_sign}1. This beamline also features new quadrupoles and a new spectrometer capable of a {+-}20% energy acceptance. A new laser beam transport system has been installed to permit accurate control of the laser phase for the laser beams sent to the IFEL and ICA devices. Detection of the microbunches are performed using a coherent transition radiation (CTR) diagnostic similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF.

KUSCHE,K.P.; CAMPBELL,L.P.; GOTTSCHALK,S.C.; KIMURA,W.D.; QUIMBY,D.C.; ROBINSON,K.E.; STEINHAUER,L.C.; BABZIEN,M.; BEN-ZVI,I.; GALLARDO,J.C.; POGORELSKY,I.V.; SKARITKA,J.; VAN STEENBERGEN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.; CLINE,D.B.; HE,P.; LIU,Y.; FIORITO,R.B.

1998-07-06

365

STELLA experiment: Hardware issues  

SciTech Connect

The STaged ELectron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment is currently being assembled and tested at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The existing BNL inverse free electron laser (IFEL) has been positioned upstream of the inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) experiment on Beamline no. 1. This beamline also features new quadrupoles and a new spectrometer capable of a +/-20% energy acceptance. A new laser beam transport system has been installed to permit accurate control of the laser phase for the laser beams sent to the IFEL and ICA devices. Detection of the microbunches will be performed using a coherent transition radiation (CTR) diagnostic similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF.

Kusche, K. P. [STI Optronics, Inc., Bellevue, Washington 98004 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. C.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Skaritka, J.; Steenbergen, A. van; Yakimenko, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Campbell, L. P.; Gottschalk, S. C.; Kimura, W. D.; Quimby, D. C.; Robinson, K. E.; Steinhauer, L. C. [STI Optronics, Inc., Bellevue, Washington 98004 (United States); Cline, D. B.; He, P.; Liu, Y. [UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Fiorito, R. B. [Catholic University of America, Washington District of Columbia 20064 (United States); Pantell, R. H. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Rule, D. W. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, West Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States)] (and others)

1999-07-12

366

A Tasty Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct an experiment to determine whether or not the sense of smell is important to being able to recognize foods by taste. They do this by attempting to identify several different foods that have similar textures. For some of the attempts, the students hold their noses and close their eyes, while for others they only close their eyes. After they have conducted the experiment, they create a bar graph showing the number of correct and incorrect identifications for the two different experimental conditions tested.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

367

Microgravity ignition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

1992-01-01

368

Microwave PASER Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The PASER (Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) concept for particle acceleration entails the direct transfer of energy from an active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated for optical (laser) media; we are planning a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped X-band paramagnetic medium consisting of porphyrin or fullerene (C{sub 60}) derivatives in a toluene solution or polystyrene matrix. We discuss the background of this project and report on the status of the experiment to measure the acceleration of electrons using the microwave PASER.

Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, 1375 Piccard Dr Rockville MD 20850 (United States); Antipov, S.; Poluektov, O. [Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S Cass Ave Argonne IL 60439 (United States); Jing, C. [Euclid Techlabs, 1375 Piccard Dr Rockville MD 20850 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S Cass Ave Argonne IL 60439 (United States)

2009-01-22

369

G0 experiment status  

SciTech Connect

The G0 project is a parity violation experiment dedicated to the measurement of the proton weak and axial form factors by means of elastic electron scattering. Combining these weak form factors with the known electromagnetic ones makes possible the extraction of the contribution of strange quarks to the charge and magnetization distributions in the nucleon. After introducing the physics case, this paper describes the G0 apparatus and the measurements planned. An engineering run of this experiment took place recently ; first results are presented.

G. Batigne

2004-02-01

370

Chondrule Crystallization Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given the great diversity of chondrules, laboratory experiments are invaluable in yielding information on chondrule formation process(es) and for deciphering their initial conditions of formation together with their thermal history. In addition, they provide some critical parameters for astrophysical models of the solar system and of nebular disk evolution in particular (partial pressures, temperature, time, opacity, etc). Most of the experiments simulating chondrules have assumed formation from an aggregate of solid grains, with total pressure of no importance and with virtually no gain or loss of elements from or to the ambient environment. They used pressed pellets attached to wires and suffered from some losses of alkalis and Fe.

Hweins, R. H.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lofgren, G. E.; Libourel, G.

2004-01-01

371

Gas Chromatography Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document describes a Gas Chromatography experiment involving the separation and quantitation of four butyl alcohol isomers. It has a complete background about the components of a GC instrument (with labeled pictures) and their functions. The exercise includes a section devoted to the measurement of response factors of the detector in use (here an FID). This would be a good experiment for a new faculty member to use as is, with slight modification to make it relevant to the particular GC system to be used.

2011-05-20

372

Science Experiments at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, offers many fun, easy chemistry experiments at this website. Through the utilization of a few household materials, users can learn about pressure, acids and bases, chemiluminescent chemical reactions, and more. The activities are filled with thought provoking questions along with concise explanations about the topic presented. The website provides links to activities dealing with topics in physics as well. Anyone interested in partaking in simple, yet exciting, science experiments with their family and friends at home should visit this website.

2007-12-12

373

World Ocean Circulation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

Clarke, R. Allyn

1992-01-01

374

Lunar portable magnetometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Apollo 16 lunar portable magnetometer (LPM) experiment is to measure the permanent magnetic field at different geological sites on the lunar surface. The LPM field measurements are a vector sum of the steady remanent field from the lunar crust and of the time-varying ambient fields. The remanent magnetic fields measured in the Descartes region are the largest extraterrestrial fields yet measured in situ. These measurements show for the first time that the Descartes highlands have a stronger remanent magnetization than do the mare regions of the previous Apollo landing sites. The experimental technique used in the LPM experiment is described and the preliminary results obtained are discussed.

Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Sonett, C. P.; Dubois, R. L.; Simmons, G.

1972-01-01

375

Galileo Probe Nephelometer Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Nephelometer Experiment aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission is to explore the vertical structure and microphysical properties of the clouds and hazes in the atmosphere of Jupiter along the descent trajectory of the Probe (nominally from 0.1 to greater than 10 bars). The measurements, to be obtained at least every kilometer of the Probe descent,

B. Ragent; C. A. Privette; P. Avrin; J. G. Waring; C. E. Carlston; T. C. D. Knight; J. P. Martin

1992-01-01

376

Galileo Probe Nephelometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Nephelometer Experient aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission is to explore the vertical structure and microphysical properties of the clouds and hazes in the atmosphere of Jupiter along the descent trajectory of the Probe (nominally from 0.1 to > 10 bars). The measurements, to be obtained at least every kilometer of the Probe descent, will

B. Ragent; C. A. Privette; P. Avrin; J. G. Waring; C. E. Carlston; T. C. D. Knight; J. P. Martin

1992-01-01

377

Electrical Resistance Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this experiment on electrical resistance and glass. The module involves breaking the glass from a light bulb and then measuring the resistance across the bulb's electrodes. The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure and a link to a video clip.

2012-11-29

378

Experimenting with Liquid Membranes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlined are two experiments using liquid membranes that illustrate carrier-facilitated transport, where chemical species are ushered across the membrane by selective "carrier" molecules residing in the membrane. The use of liquid membranes as models for studying and describing biological transport mechanisms is explored. (CS)

Lamb, J. D.; And Others

1980-01-01

379

Large lithium loop experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters

R. Kolowith; T. J. Owen; J. D. Berg; J. M. Atwood

1981-01-01

380

Apollo window meteoroid experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo window meteoroid experiment for obtaining data from crater counts and analysis of meteoroid residue combined with fused glass in described. A preliminary estimate of the flux resulting from seven Apollo spacecraft is found to be in agreement with the Surveyor 3 data, but is lower than the model environment.

Cour-Palais, B. G.; Flaherty, R. E.; Brown, M. L.

1972-01-01

381

Improving the Student Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shifts in funding and a worldwide trend towards marketising higher education have led to a new emphasis on the quality of the student experience. In the UK this trend finds its strongest expression in recent policy proposals to simultaneously increase student fees and student choice so that students themselves become the drivers of higher…

Staddon, Elizabeth; Standish, Paul

2012-01-01

382

Experiences in Systemic Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This section describes the systemic change experiences in Norfolk Public Schools, Chugach School District, Indianapolis Metropolitan School District of Decatur Township, Ditmas Educational Complex, Georgia Systemic Teacher Education Program, Sun Microsystems, and Azerbaijan. It provides a description of the change process and discusses the…

Thompson, Scott; Clem, Joe; Battino, Wendy; Richter, Kurt; Reigeluth, Charles; Doll, Marcelle; Moore, Julie; Hoo, Janet; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

2006-01-01

383

Ganges valley aerosol experiment.  

SciTech Connect

In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

2011-08-01

384

Designing the spectator experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction is increasingly a public affair, taking place in our theatres, galleries, museums, exhibitions and on the city streets. This raises a new design challenge for HCI - how should spectators experience a performer's interaction with a computer? We classify public interfaces (including examples from art, performance and exhibition design) according to the extent to which a performer's manipulations of

Stuart Reeves; Steve Benford; Claire O'Malley; Mike Fraser

2005-01-01

385

Experiments with Fluorescent Lamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments described below show the irradiance and illuminance spectra of two fluorescent lamps in relation to their color temperatures, and the efficacy in comparison to that of an incandescent lamp. Spectra of ``warm white'' and ``cool daylight'' fluorescent lamps are demonstrated.

Yaakov Kraftmakher

2010-01-01

386

Experiments with Fluorescent Lamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiments described below show the irradiance and illuminance spectra of two fluorescent lamps in relation to their color temperatures, and the efficacy in comparison to that of an incandescent lamp. Spectra of ``warm white'' and ``cool daylight'' fluorescent lamps are demonstrated.

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2010-10-01

387

Experiences of Collaborative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration,…

Kahneman, Daniel

2003-01-01

388

Experiments with Aspirin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of experiments that can be used to demonstrate how aspirin can be synthesized and characterized, how the hydrolysis of aspirin can be used as an introduction to kinetics, and how coordination chemistry (chelation) can be introduced by preparing and characterizing the copper complexes of aspirin and salicylic acid. (Contains over…

Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward

2000-01-01

389

Finite Order Statistic Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the experiment of selecting n objects at random from the first m positive integers. The random variables of interest are the order statistics. The applet illustrates the distributions of the order statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

390

The Experience of Menarche.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines reactions to menarche and the subsequent effects of this experience as a function of preparation for and timing of menarche. A questionnaire including measures of responses about first menstruation, current symptoms, and self-image was completed by 639 girls in fifth through twelfth grades. (Author/MP)

Ruble, Diane N.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

1982-01-01

391

Respiration: An Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a gas chromatograph may be used to determine the amount of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. The experiment has been used as part of a demonstration exercise at a local science fair and proved of interest to all age groups. (Author/BB)

Stott, P. A.

1978-01-01

392

Relay mirror experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originating out of a SDIO-funded, Phase 1 study effort, two ground systems and an orbiting EO payload\\/spacecraft were the primary equipment for the RME. The RME was originally conceived to be a shuttle deployed experiment. Shortly after program start, the Challenger disaster occurred, with the promise of extensive delays. A completely new space segment was to be designed incorporating a

David L. Begley

1996-01-01

393

DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

Cunningham, B

1998-10-01

394

Microcomputer Controlled Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a microcomputer-controlled system which determines the current/voltage characteristics of a resistor, lamp, and diode, detailing system elements, construction, and providing printout of the program developed to provide control and arithmetic functions necessary to complete the experiment. (SK)

Kirkman, John; Knaggs, David

1982-01-01

395

Muon Decay Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An experiment to measure the mean lifetime of the muon. It was developed as an outreach activity of the Cosmic Ray Observation Project (CROP) at The University of Nebraska. CROP is a statewide outreach project which involves Nebraska high school students, teachers, and college undergraduates.

Struble, Tim; Neukirch, Levi

2012-03-08

396

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the following: use and construction of a lens-pinhole spatial filter assembly to produce expanded beams; how to modify a unilab V. L. F. oscillator to give variable frequencies between .1 Hz and 10 Hz; to use Crookes radiometer quantitatively; and an externally located, movable probe for plasma physics experiments, using conventional…

Physics Education, 1979

1979-01-01

397

Invisalign: early experiences.  

PubMed

This article describes the Invisalign technique. It is based on the author's personal experience of over 60 cases started in the private practice setting. The technology behind Invisalign and its development is reviewed. The Invisalign clinical technique is described, and the advantages and disadvantages of using Invisalign are highlighted. PMID:14634176

Joffe, L

2003-12-01

398

Biography of an Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biography of an Experiment website contains an ever-growing collection of influential papers in the natural sciencesâÂÂannotated by undergraduates who spend a semester critically evaluating the work and assessing the scientistsâ own perspectives.

Faculty and Students Haverford College (Haverford College;Biology)

2010-05-11

399

Staying Warm Winter Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These experiments use simple materials to prove that a lot of one's body heat escapes from one's head and that wearing a hat stops some of this heat loss. In addition, students consider how sitting directly on cold ground will cause one to lose heat faster than sitting on insulating material.

400

Learning: A Multifarious Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education has often struggled to determine effective teaching methodologies and learning strategies. One promising field of research has been that of alternative frameworks. The research described in this paper describes how immersion in an unfamiliar environment and culture affected teacher learning, some of the significant experiences

Furuness, Linda B.; Cohen, Michael R.

401

A Harmonic Motion Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

2010-01-01

402

The Doppler Pendulum Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

2011-01-01

403

Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.…

Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

1970-01-01

404

Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

1994-01-01

405

The MAJORANA Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

Guiseppe, V.E. [Univ S Dakota; Keller, C. [Univ S Dakota; Mei, D-M [Univ S Dakota; Perevozchikov, O. [Univ S Dakota; Perumpilly, G. [Univ S Dakota; Thomas, K. [Univ S Dakota; Xiang, W. [Univ S Dakota; Zhang, C. [Univ S Dakota; Aalseth, C.E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Aguayo, E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Ely, J. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Fast, J.E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Hossbach, T.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Keillor, M. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Kephart, J.D. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Kouzes, R. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Miley, H.S. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Mizouni, L. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Myers, A.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Reid, D. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Bergevin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Chan, Y-D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Detwiler, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Loach, J.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Martin, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Poon, A.W.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Prior, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yaver, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Avignone, F.T. III [University of South Carolina; Creswick, R. [University of South Carolina; Farach, H. [University of South Carolina; Mizouni, L. [University of South Carolina; Avignone, Frank Titus [ORNL; Bertrand Jr, Fred E [ORNL; Capps, Gregory L [ORNL; Cooper, Reynold J [ORNL; Radford, David C [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Wilkerson, John F [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL; Back, H.O. [University of North Carolina; Leviner, L. [North Carolina State University; Young, A.R. [North Carolina State University; Back (et al.), H.O. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC; Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Hong, H. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Medlin, D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Sobolev, V. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Barabash, A.S. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Konovalov, S.I. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Vanyushin, I. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Yumatov, V. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Barbeau, P.S. [University of Chicago; Collar, J.I. [University of Chicago; Fields, N. [University of Chicago; Boswell (et al.), M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Gusey, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Kochetov, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Timkin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Yakushev, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Efremenko, M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burritt (et al.), T.H. [University of Washington, Ctr Expt Nucle Phys & Astrophys; Burritt (et al.), T.H. [University of Washington, Dept Phys, Seattle, WA; Busch, M. [Duke University; Esterline, J. [Duke University; Swift, G. [Duke University; Tornow, W. [Duke University/TUNL; Ejiri, H. [Osaka University; Hazama, R. [Osaka University; Nomachi, M. [Osaka University; Shima, T. [Osaka University; Finnerty (et al.), P. [University of North Carolina; et al.

2011-01-01

406

The Majorana Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

2011-08-01

407

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment on cooling by convection, holographic processes achieved using optical fibers and observation of magnetic domains are described. Also describes four demonstrations: mechanical resonance on air track, independence of horizontal/vertical motion, motion of sphere in fluid medium, and light scattering near the critical point. (JN)

Physics Education, 1983

1983-01-01

408

Experiments in Ice Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

Martin, P. F.; And Others

1978-01-01

409

FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

2007-01-01

410

Reconstructing Playschool Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was conducted with groups of first grade children (aged six years) in two primary schools in Reykjavik in an endeavour to ascertain how they recalled and reconstructed their playschool experiences. The children's playschool teachers were co-researchers participating in the data generation; they were, at the same time participants…

Einarsdottir, Johanna

2011-01-01

411

Experiments in ESP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a phenomenon called Extrasensory Perception (ESP) whereby information is gained directly by the mind without the use of the ordinary senses. Experiments in ESP and the basic equipment and methods are presented. Statistical evaluation of ESP experimental results are also included. (HM)

Guerin, Stephen M.; Guerin, Clark L.

1979-01-01

412

Self managing experiment resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

Stagni, F.; Ubeda, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Roiser, S.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.

2014-06-01

413

Personal Experiences of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen…

Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

2010-01-01

414

Lead Radius Experiment PREX.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed PREX experiment at Jefferson Lab will measure the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV and a scattering angle of 6 degrees. Since the Z0 boson couples mainly to neutro...

R. M. Chaels

2006-01-01

415

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 4 years, instruments of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have been collecting data on two satellites. The first of these is the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). The second is the operational NOAA-9 satellite. In addition, ERBE has instruments on the operational NOAA-10. The NOAA-10 instruments have been collecting data for the last 2 years. The

Bruce R. Barkstrom; Edwin F. Harrison; Robert B. Lee III

1990-01-01

416

Rocket Motor Charging Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the effect of rocket engines on electrostatic charge accumulation was made. Experiments were conducted to measure short-circuit charging current and open-circuit voltage produced by 5-inch solid-fuel rocket motors during static firings at sea l...

E. F. Vance J. E. Nanevicz

1966-01-01

417

Experiments in Free Fall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

Art, Albert

2006-01-01

418

Experiments with Dipole Antennas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2009-01-01

419

Microgravity ignition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to develop a flight-ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCAN 2 program. The microgravity ignition experiment is designed to study how a microgravity environment affects the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. A microgravity environment will result in a decrease in the heat transferred from the sample due to a lack of convection currents, which would decrease time to ignition. A lack of convection current would also cause the oxygen supply at the sample not to be renewed, which could delay or even prevent ignition. When this experiment is conducted aboard GASCAN 2, the dominant result of the lack of ignition will be determined. The experiment consists of four canisters containing four thermocouples and a sensor to detect ignition of the paper sample. This year the interior of the canister was redesigned and a mathematical model of the heat transfer around the sample was developed. This heat transfer model predicts an ignition time of approximately 5.5 seconds if the decrease of heat loss from the sample is the dominant factor of the lack of convection currents.

Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith; Marcotte, Ryan

1992-01-01

420

Balloonborne Lidar Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this contract was to design a balloonborne lidar experiment capable of performing nightime atmospheric density measurements in the 10 to 40 km altitude domain with a resolution of 100 meters. The payload includes a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG l...

O. Shepherd G. Aurilio R. D. Bucknam R. W. Brooke A. G. Hurd

1980-01-01

421

Permeable membrane experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Permeable Membrane Experiment is to gather flight data on three areas of membrane performance that are influenced by the presence of gravity. These areas are: (1) Liquid/gas phase separation, (2) gas bubble interference with diffusion through porous membranes and (3) wetting characteristics of hydrophilic membrane surfaces. These data are important in understaning the behavior of membrane/liquid/gas interfaces where surface tension forces predominate. The data will be compared with 1-g data already obtained and with predicted micrograviity behavior. The data will be used to develop designs for phase separation and plant nutrient delivery systems and will be available to the life support community for use in developing technologies which employ membranes. A conceptual design has been developed to conduct three membrane experiments, in sequence, aboard a single Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) carrier to be carried in the Shuttle Orbiter payload bay. One experiment is conducted for each of the three membrane performance areas under study. These experiments are discussed in this paper.

Slavin, Thomas J.; Cao, Tuan Q.; Kliss, Mark H.

1993-01-01

422

Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2007-01-01

423

Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the final experiment report for the TCSE and summarizes many years of hardware development and analyses. Also included are analyses presented in a number of TCSE papers that were prepared and given at scientific conferences including three LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposiums.

Wilkes, D. R.

1999-01-01

424

Remote Agent Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

425

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces three physics experiments for high school and college classes. Topics include measuring the ratio of heat capacities using a microcomputer and a glass syringe, producing large electric sparks using a variation of a Leyden bucket, and observing transmission line behavior using television signals. Includes descriptions of materials and…

Bligh, P. H.; And Others

1988-01-01

426

Experiments with Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a hands-on experiment that covers many areas of high school mathematics. Included are the notions of patterns, proof, triangular numbers and various aspects of problem solving. The problem involves the arrangements of a school of fish using split peas or buttons to represent the fish. (Contains 4 figures.)

de Mestre, Neville

2008-01-01

427

The CUNY Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vice-Chancelor for Administration of the City University of New York (CUNY) gives an anecdotal account of the experience at CUNY, the first major university to negotiate and enter into a contractual relationship with its faculty. Emphasis is on the problems encountered, their ultimate resolution, and questions that remain unresolved. (JT)

Mintz, Bernard

1971-01-01

428

NASSC: A Businessman's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a businessman's viewpoint, the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) offers a singular opportunity to help this nation create a Saturn-like experience for education, school by school. As Saturn revolutionized the way cars are built, NASDC can revolutionize the way children are taught. The 11 winning projects have real potential…

Rundell, C. Reid

1992-01-01

429

Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

1991-01-01

430

[Environmental Education Experiences].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental/ecological experiences, appropriate for elementary grades, are presented in this compilation. Designed as individual units of study, they consider components of the natural environment and in particular the local environment of Burke County, North Carolina. Units are titled: Burke County in a Nutshell, Our Culture, A Tour of the…

Burke County Board of Education, Morganton, NC.

431

Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

2003-01-01

432

Photovoltaic systems performance experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photovoltaic power systems at Natural Bridges National Monument in southeastern Utah and at radio station WBNO in Bryan, Ohio, provided reliability experience and case histories on failures and repairs of large photovoltaic systems. The PV systems are used for illustration of potential sources of system outages and measures that can be taken to improve the reliability and repair economy

F. J. Solman

1981-01-01

433

Microheater Array Boiling Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. Data from KC-135 and sounding rocket experiments indicate little effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble, surrounded by smaller satellite bubbles, moved over the surface, occasionally causing nucleation. Once formed, the primary bubble size remained constant for a given superheat, indicating evaporation at the bubble base is balanced with condensation on the bubble cap. The primary bubble's size increased with wall superheat. Most heaters under the primary bubble had low heat transfer rates, suggesting liquid dryout. Strong Marangoni convection developed in microgravity, forming a 'jet' into the bulk liquid that forced the bubble onto the heater. An experiment is being designed for the. Microgravity Science Glovebox. This experiment uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 and 7.0 mm in size. These heaters are individually controlled to operate at a constant temperature, measuring local heat fluxes as a function of time and space. Most boiling experiments operate at constant wall heat flux with larger heaters, allowing only time and space-averaged measurements. Each heater is about the bubble departure size in normal gravity, but significantly smaller than the bubble departure size in reduced gravity.

Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

2002-01-01

434

Young's Interference Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a simulation of Young's double slit experiment. The simulation allows the user to change all usual parameters like wavelength and source separation. Most noteworthy, is the simulation's illustration of the path difference, and how it relates to the wavelength, for each of the points on the screen.

Fowler, Michael; Ching, Jacquie H.

2008-07-30

435

Experimenting with Electric Trains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

2007-01-01

436

Collaborative engagement experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts within the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) to provide a picture of the future of unmanned warfare. The Air Force Research

Katherine Mullens; Bradley Troyer; Robert Wade; Brian Skibba; Michael Dunn

2006-01-01

437

Demonstration Experiments in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book represents a "cookbook" for teachers of physics, a book of recipes for the preparation of demonstration experiments to illustrate the principles that make the subject of physics so fascinating. Illustrations and explanations of each demonstration are done in an easy-to-understand format. Each can be adapted to be used as a demonstration…

Sutton, Richard M.

2003-01-01

438

Categorizing My Leadership Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares his experience as a superintendent fortunate enough to be part of the Wallace Foundation's Project LEAD. Along with 11 other superintendents, he got to trade war stories with the likes of Ron Heifetz and other distinguished faculty members from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. The group's first…

Domenech, Daniel A.

2005-01-01

439

Fusion ignition experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion ignition experiment (IGNITEX) is described, the original concept for which was proposed by Rosenbluth, Weldon and Woodson. In this concept, a single-turn-coil tokamak device produces a self-sustained fusion reaction of the type T (d, n) ?. The basic idea is to employ a very high magnetic field and a very high plasma current to heat the plasma ohmically

R. Carrera; E. Montalvo

1990-01-01

440

FRTP fusion ignition experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Field-Reversed Theta Pinch (FRTP) represents a promising confinement approach to fusion power. This possibility has become more evident as a result of the favorable confinement scaling predicted by our studies of Loss-Cone Scattering Transport (LCST). Therefore, a step towards a FRTP prototype power reactor is proposed here that involves an ignition experiment designed to study confinement of a fusion

G. H. Miley; Q. T. Fang; J. G. Gilligan

1982-01-01

441

Experiments in free fall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses.

Art, Albert

2006-09-01

442

Implicit Association Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Implicit Association Experiment. Greenwald, McGhee and Schwartz (1998) pioneered the use of implicit association tests. Implicit association tests (IATs) measure the relative ease with which people are able to make associations between certain groups of people (e.g., older adults) and the concepts of "good" and "bad."

443

Gender Perception Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the gender perception experiment. Participants view photographs of faces and only the mouth and chin regions are visible. Participants are asked to identify the gender of each stimulus and to indicate their confidence in their judgment.

444

Be A Juror Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page to participate in the be a juror experiment. Participants are in one of three treatment conditions (a) no eyewitness, (b) unrefuted eyewitness, and (c) discredited eyewitness. Participants in this study rate their belief about the defendant's guilt. The rating scale ranges from a 1 (definitely not guilty) to a 7 (definitely guilty).

445

My experience with helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author recounts his experiments with helicopters. The object of his investigations was to remain stationary in the air for five minutes and to make a closed flight at low altitude. Some of the topics discussed include stabilization, horizontal flight, and directional control.

Oemichen, Etienne

1923-01-01

446

The Conference Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes five articles on conference experiences: preplanning for a library conference; top ten reasons to attend an AASL (American Association of School Librarians) national conference; why should you bother to fill out a conference evaluation form; a case for conferences; and AASL tours. (LRW)

Woolls, Blanche; Hartman, Linda; Corey, Linda; Marcoux, Betty; Jay, M. Ellen; England, Jennifer

2003-01-01

447

Experiments on Photoconductivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted experiments with CdS and CdSe photoresistors are described. The most important characteristics of the photoresistors are determined: (i) the spectral response, (ii) the photocurrent versus incident radiant power, (iii) the rise and decay time constants and (iv) the frequency response to modulated light. The photoconductivity gain…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2012-01-01

448

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the purposes, laboratory set-ups, and procedures of four classroom experiments: ultrasound speedometer; vibrating-bar depth gauge; folding three-dimensional model of equipotential surfaces; and a simple optical system for the reconstruction of images from computer-generated holograms. Diagrams and pictures are provided. (YP)

Physics Education, 1989

1989-01-01

449

Archimedes 1 Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results obtained by the participants in the Archimedes 1 experiment on remote sensing hydrocarbons at sea, which took place in October 1983 in Dutch coastal waters. These results were discussed in a series of meetings and workshop...

R. A. Gillot F. Toselli

1985-01-01

450

Transformations of emotional experience.  

PubMed

In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

2013-06-01

451

Galileo Probe Nephelometer Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Nephelometer Experiment aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission is to explore the vertical structure and microphysical properties of the clouds and hazes in the atmosphere of Jupiter along the descent trajectory of the Probe (nominally from 0.1 to greater than 10 bars). The measurements, to be obtained at least every kilometer of the Probe descent, will provide the bases for inferences of mean particle sizes, particle number densities (and hence, opacities, mass densities, and columnar mass loading) and, for nonhighly absorbing particles, for distinguishing between solid and liquid particles. These quantities, especially the location of the cloud bases, together with other quantities derived from this and other experiments aboard the Probe, will not only yield strong evidence for the composition of the particles, but, using thermochemical models, for species abundances as well. The measurements in the upper troposphere will provide 'ground truth' data for correlation with remote sensing instruments aboard the Galileo Orbiter vehicle.

Ragent, B.; Privette, C. A.; Avrin, P.; Waring, J. G.; Carlston, C. E.; Knight, T. C. D.; Martin, J. P.

1992-01-01

452

Antimatter gravity experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development.

Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

1990-01-01

453

LASL fast liner experiment  

SciTech Connect

The LASL Fast Liner Experiment explores a fusion concept in which a prepared plasma is adiabatically compressed to thermonuclear temperatures and densities by a rapidly imploding solid metal liner. A prepared plasma having ..beta.. > 1 is in contact with the liner and end plugs, and contains an embedded magnetic field to inhibit thermal conduction. Cylindrical liners are magnetically imploded by a large axial current carried in the liner shell. Theoretical estimates indicate an implosion velocity of at least 10/sup 6/ cm/s is necessary for this geometry if the plasma heating rate is to be greater than the cross-field thermal conduction loss rate. Experimental work to develop this concept involves attempts to provide a suitable preplasma for liner implosions as well as studies of magnetically driven liner implosions. In the plasma preparation experiments a coaxial plasma gun was used to inject plasma into a simulated liner geometry.

Sherwood, A.R.; Cantrell, E.L.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.

1980-01-01

454

Experiments with probe masses.  

PubMed

It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational "charges" on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented. PMID:17296944

Braginsky, V B

2007-03-01

455

Vibration isolation technology experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end of a shuttle-attached flexible structure such as MAST. The disturbance generator, located on top of the isolation system, will be energized at selected and broadband frequencies to simulate a typical spacecraft vibration environment. Sensors located on the isolation system and the flexible structures element will be used to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system.

Keckler, C. R.

1984-01-01

456

STELLA experiment: Hardware issues  

SciTech Connect

The STaged ELectron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment is currently being assembled and tested at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The existing BNL inverse free electron laser (IFEL) has been positioned upstream of the inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) experiment on Beamline {number_sign}1. This beamline also features new quadrupoles and a new spectrometer capable of a +/{minus}20{percent} energy acceptance. A new laser beam transport system has been installed to permit accurate control of the laser phase for the laser beams sent to the IFEL and ICA devices. Detection of the microbunches will be performed using a coherent transition radiation (CTR) diagnostic similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Kusche, K.P.; Campbell, L.P.; Gottschalk, S.C.; Kimura, W.D.; Quimby, D.C.; Robinson, K.E.; Steinhauer, L.C.; Yakimenko, V. [STI Optronics, Inc., Bellevue, Washington 98004 (United States); Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J.C.; Pogorelsky, I.V.; van Steenbergen, A.; Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); He, P.; Liu, L.Y. [UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)] [Catholic University of America, Washington District of Columbia 20064 (United States); Rule, D.W. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] Sandweiss, J. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, West Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States)] Sandweiss, J. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

1999-07-01

457

New Experiments with Antiprotons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermilab operates the world's most intense antiproton source. Recently proposed experiments can use those antiprotons either parasitically during Teva-tron Collider running or after the Tevatron Collider finishes in about 2011. For example, the annihilation of 8 GeV antiprotons might make the world's most intense source of tagged D0 mesons, and thus the best near-term opportunity to study charm mixing and search for new physics via its CP-violation signature. Other possible precision measurements include properties of the X(3872) and the charmonium system. An experiment using a Penning trap and an atom interferometer could make the world's first measurement of the gravitational force on antimatter. These and other potential measurements using antiprotons could yield a broad physics program at Fermilab in the post-Tevatron era.

Kaplan, D. M.

2011-12-01

458

The gravitational wave experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the optimum size of a gravitational wave detector is the wave length, interplanetary dimensions are needed for the mHz band of interest. Doppler tracking of Ulysses will provide the most sensitive attempt to date at the detection of gravitational waves in the low frequency band. The driving noise source is the fluctuations in the refractive index of interplanetary plasma. This dictates the timing of the experiment to be near solar opposition and sets the target accuracy for the fractional frequency change at 3.0 x 10 exp -14 for integration times of the order of 1000 sec. The instrumentation utilized by the experiment is distributed between the radio systems on the spacecraft and the seven participating ground stations of the Deep Space Network and Medicina. Preliminary analysis is available of the measurements taken during the Ulysses first opposition test.

Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Less, L.; Messeri, A.; Wahlquist, H. D.

1992-01-01

459

Electronics for Satellite Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The tracking detector for the LAT science instrument on the GLAST mission is an example of a large-scale particle detection system built primarily by particle physicists for space flight within the context of a NASA program. The design and fabrication model in most ways reflected practice and experience from particle physics, but the quality assurance aspects were guided by NASA. Similarly, most of the electronics in the LAT as a whole were designed and built by staff at a particle physics lab. This paper reports on many of the challenges and lessons learned in the experience of designing and building the tracking detector and general LAT electronics for use in the NASA GLAST mission.

Johnson, Robert P.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2006-05-16

460

Stirling machine operating experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

1991-01-01

461

Health Education Telecommunications Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment carried out with Applications Technology Satellite-6 is described. The experiment tested the effectiveness of color television broadcasts to over 120 low-cost receivers in rural areas. Five types of earth stations were involved: receive-only terminals (ROT), an intensive terminal consisting of the ROT plus a VHF transmitter and receiver; comprehensive S and C-band terminals having the capability of transmitting the video signal plus four audio channels; and the main originating stations. Additional supporting elements comprise 120 video receive terminals, 51 telephony transceivers, and 8 video originating terminals of 3 different parts. Technical parameters were measured to within 1 dB of the calculated values.

Whalen, A. A.

1975-01-01

462

The deconstructive experience.  

PubMed

Logocentrism was conceptualized by Jacques Derrida as connoting the assertion within Western philosophical traditions of certain assumed truths and the exclusion of alternative perspectives. In this paper, the author proposes that the concept of logocentrism may be usefully applied within the clinical situation to enrich understanding of splitting between idealized and devalued perceptions of self and others. He presents a case of a woman with borderline personality disorder to illustrate a logocentric self-structure, as well as how common psychotherapeutic models inadvertently risk reinforcing such structures through the hierarchical nature of the patient-therapist relationship. The process of deconstructing logocentric self-structures is facilitated by the patient experiencing the therapist paradoxically as an extension of the self that sometimes behaves contrary to expectations. Such a deconstructive experience challenges reified perceptions of self and others, serves to broaden the experience of self, and enhances qualities of self-reflection and empathy. PMID:16555459

Gregory, Robert J

2005-01-01

463

Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dentrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle flights (STS-62, STS-75, and STS-87) of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dentrites. Shown here is a cutaway of the isothermal bath containing its growth cell at the heart of the TDSE. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Note: an Acrobat PDF version is available from http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery

2000-01-01

464

The NO ?A experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO?A is a long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study ? ? ?? e and overline ?_{?} to overline ?_e oscillations. It will measure the neutrino mixing angles ? 13 and ? 23 with high precision, probe the neutrino mass hierarchy, and search for CP violation in neutrino oscillations. The experiment consists of two detectors. The Near Detector will be located at Fermilab close to the source of the neutrino beam. The Far Detector is being built at Ash River in northern Minnesota. It is positioned 14 mrad off the neutrino beam axis where the neutrinos have an energy distribution with a narrow peak around 2 GeV, and where the transition probability of ? ? ?? e is close to its maximum.

Ehrlich, Ralf

2013-03-01

465

Jovian electrodynamic tether experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case is made for an electrodynamic tether scientific platform to be put into orbit around Jupiter as a follow-on to the present series of earth-based Tethered Satellite System (TSS) experiments. Preliminary system trades are made to bound the amount of power (assuming 100 percent plasma contactor efficiency) that can be obtained from the orbiting Jovian tether. With magnetic field strengths of roughly 4 to 7 Gauss, power levels of the order of 100 kilowatts can be obtained with a thin 500 km long tether. This should suffice to power a Jovian scientific experiment package. The electrodynamic tether also affords a loitering capability as it can be operated as a thruster in addition to a power generator. Further study and research is needed to characterize the Jovian tether as to its electrodynamic and dynamic performance potential. Hollow cathode plasma contactor operation needs to be verified in near earth space.

Hammond, Walter E.; Freeman, Scott E.; Nave, Mark J.; Rupp, Charles C.

1991-01-01

466

Make and Take Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this experiment on concrete in construction. The experiment focuses on developing an understanding of concrete as a construction material. Concrete products will be designed and constructed. Students will use two different sized containers that fit concentrically inside one another to create an enlarged crucible or planter box shape. Concrete will then be poured into that container and the concrete part will be allowed to cure. No testing will be done with this part, it is simply and exercise used to practice the preparation and execution of making concrete structures.The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure, teacher notes and a link to a video clip. The exercise should take about 45 minutes of class time.

2012-11-13

467

NPB cesium space experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) weapons systems are planned to perform the ballistic missile defense functions of nuclear weapon/decoy discrimination and warhead kill at appropriate energy levels and ion currents. Negatively charged ions are produced in a specialized ion source and focused into a high quality particle beam. NPB linear accelerators accelerate and steer the negatively charged ions using electric and magnetic fields. After acceleration and steering the neutralizer system strips away extra electrons from ions to form the electrically neutral particle beam. The neutral beam then travels through space to the target unaffected by the Earth's magnetic fields. Continuing technological advances have greatly reduced the size and weight of NPB accelerator systems. Ion current production has been enhanced by over 100 percent with the intermittent addition of cesium at the NPB ion source device. This increase in current is essential to attain the most light weight, compact NPB platforms and minimize expensive launch costs. Addition of cesium into the ion source has been identified by the NPB community as the highest priority risk reduction space