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1

W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment centerline fuel thermocouple performance. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment is the fifth in a series of experiments sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the National Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Safety Assurance Program. The experiments are being conducted under the direction of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The irradiation phase of the W-1 SLSF experiment was conducted between May 27 and July 20, 1979, and terminated with incipient fuel pin cladding failure during the final boiling transient. Experimental hardware and facility performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and test objectives. This paper focuses on high temperature in-fuel thermocouples and discusses their development, fabrication, and performance in the W-1 experiment.

Meyers, S.C.; Henderson, J.M.

1980-05-01

2

P4p: provider portal for applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As peer-to-peer (P2P) emerges as a major paradigm for scalable network application design, it also exposes significant new chal- lenges in achieving efficient and fair utilization of Internet network resources. Being largely network-oblivious, many P2P applications may lead to inefficient network resource usage and\\/or low applica- tion performance. In this paper, we propose a simple architecture called P4P to allow

Haiyong Xie; Yang Richard Yang; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Yanbin Grace Liu; Abraham Silberschatz

2008-01-01

3

Extending the coordination chemistry of molecular P(4)S(3): the polymeric Ag(P(4)S(3))(+) and Ag(P(4)S(3))(2)(+) cations.  

PubMed

Upon reacting P(4)S(3) with AgAl(hfip)(4) and AgAl(pftb)(4) [hfip = OC(H)(CF(3))(2); pftb = OC(CF(3))(3)], the compounds Ag(P(4)S(3))Al(hfip)(4) 1 and Ag(P(4)S(3))(2)(+)[Al(pftb)(4)](-) 2 formed in CS(2) (1) or CS(2)/CH(2)Cl(2) (2) solution. Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determinations, Raman and solution NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. One-dimensional chains of [Ag(P(4)S(3))(x)](infinity) (x = 1, 1; x = 2, 2) formed in the solid state with P(4)S(3) ligands that bridge through a 1,3-P,S, a 2,4-P,S, or a 3,4-P,P eta(1) coordination to the silver ions. Compound 2 with the least basic anion contains the first homoleptic metal(P(4)S(3)) complex. Compounds 1 and 2 also include the long sought sulfur coordination of P(4)S(3). Raman spectra of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of DFT calculations of related species. The influence of the silver coordination on the geometry of the P(4)S(3) cage is discussed, additionally aided by DFT calculations. Consequences for the frequently observed degradation of the cage are suggested. An experimental silver ion affinity scale based on the solid-state structures of several weak Lewis acid base adducts of type (L)AgAl(hfip)(4) is given. The affinity of the ligand L to the silver ion increases according to P(4) < CH(2)Cl(2) < P(4)S(3) < S(8) < 1,2-C(2)H(4)Cl(2) < toluene. PMID:12059236

Adolf, Ariane; Gonsior, Marcin; Krossing, Ingo

2002-06-19

4

P4P4P: An Agenda for Research on Pay for Performance for Patients  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy behaviors are a major cause of poor health outcomes and high health care costs. In this Commentary, we describe an agenda for research to guide broader use of patient-targeted financial incentives either in conjunction with provider-targeted financial incentives (P4P) or in clinical contexts where provider-targeted approaches are unlikely to be effective. We discuss evidence of proven effectiveness and limitations of the existing evidence, reasons for underutilization of these approaches, and options for operationalizing wider use. Patient-targeted incentives have great potential, and systematic testing will help determine how they can best be used to improve population health. PMID:19124872

Volpp, Kevin G.; Pauly, Mark V.; Loewenstein, George; Bangsberg, David

2012-01-01

5

Preparative parallel protein purification (P4).  

PubMed

In state of the art drug discovery, it is essential to gain structural information of pharmacologically relevant proteins. Increasing the output of novel protein structures requires improved preparative methods for high throughput (HT) protein purification. Currently, most HT platforms are limited to small-scale and available technology for increasing throughput at larger scales is scarce. We have adapted a 10-channel parallel flash chromatography system for protein purification applications. The system enables us to perform 10 different purifications in parallel with individual gradients and UV monitoring. Typical protein purification applications were set up. Methods for ion exchange chromatography were developed for different sample proteins and columns. Affinity chromatography was optimized for His-tagged proteins using metal chelating media and buffer exchange by gel filtration was also tested. The results from the present system were comparable, with respect to resolution and reproducibility, with those from control experiments on an AKTA purifier system. Finally, lysates from 10 E. coli cultures expressing different His-tagged proteins were subjected to a three-step parallel purification procedure, combining the above-mentioned procedures. Nine proteins were successfully purified whereas one failed probably due to lack of expression. PMID:15722038

Strömberg, Patrik; Rotticci-Mulder, Joke; Björnestedt, Robert; Schmidt, Stefan R

2005-04-15

6

P4 ATPases: Flippases in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

P4 ATPases catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of biological membranes, a process termed “lipid flipping”. Accumulating evidence obtained in lower eukaryotes points to an important role for P4 ATPases in vesicular protein trafficking. The human genome encodes fourteen P4 ATPases (fifteen in mouse) of which the cellular and physiological functions are slowly emerging. Thus far, deficiencies of at least two P4 ATPases, ATP8B1 and ATP8A2, are the cause of severe human disease. However, various mouse models and in vitro studies are contributing to our understanding of the cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases. This review summarizes current knowledge on the basic function of these phospholipid translocating proteins, their proposed action in intracellular vesicle transport and their physiological role. PMID:23579954

van der Mark, Vincent A.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

2013-01-01

7

Unified P4 (PowerUnified P4 (Power--PerformancePerformance--ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)  

E-print Network

Unified P4 (PowerUnified P4 (Power--PerformancePerformance-- ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic t It iprediction is challenging due to many parasitic effects. It is crucial to be able to predict parasitic effects for accurate performance. (Parasitic) GLSVLSI 2009 performance. (Parasitic) 5/12/2009 3 #12;Novel

Mohanty, Saraju P.

8

Unified P4 (power-performance-process-parasitic) fast optimization of a Nano-CMOS VCO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design of a P4 (Power-Performance- Process-Parasitic) aware voltage controlled oscillator ( VCO) at nano- CMOS technologies. Through simulations, we have shown that parasitics and process have a drastic effect on the performance (cen- ter frequency) of the VCO. For process variation analysis, we pro- pose a methodology called Design of Experiments-Monte Carlo (DOE-MC), which

Dhruva Ghai; Saraju P. Mohanty; Elias Kougianos

2009-01-01

9

Tc with AsqTad and p4rhmc  

SciTech Connect

We present the ongoing analysis of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on the LLNL BG/L supercomputer. This installment includes the analysis of 12,000 trajectories from the MILC AsqTad code on a 32{sup 3} x 8 lattice and the time histories from the plaquette and {psi} - bar{psi} trajectories from the p4rhmc code.

Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Gupta, R

2007-06-20

10

Athens Journal New York Times, Feb. 15, 2007, p.4  

E-print Network

a European Union directive aimed at reducing the volume of waste in dumps, and it has been the scene of firesAthens Journal New York Times, Feb. 15, 2007, p.4 Greeks Have a Waste Problem, and No Hercules, too, is brimming, and trash is being dumped in a new landfill that has been set up alongside it

Columbia University

11

First LQCD Physics Runs with MILC and P4RHMC  

SciTech Connect

An initial series of physics LQCD runs were submitted to the BG/L science bank with the milc and p4rhmc. Both runs were for lattice dimensions of 32{sup 2} x 8. The p4 calculation was performed with v2.0 QMP{_}MPI.X (semioptomized p4 code using qmp over mpi) and milc v7.2, also using RHMC, but not specifically optimized for BlueGene. Calculations were performed along lines of constant physics, with the light quark masses 2-3 times their physics values and the strange quark mass set by m{sub ud} = 0.1m{sub s}. Job submissions was performed using the standard milc and p4 scripts provided on the ubgl cluster. Initial thermalized lattices for each code were also provided in this way. The only modifications for running on BG/L were to the directory names and the mT parameter which determines job durations (24 hrs on BG/L vs. 4 hrs on ubgl). The milc scripts were set to resubmit themselves 10 times, and the p4 scripts were submitted serially using the ''psub -d'' job dependency option. The runp4rhmc.tcsh could not be used to resubmit due to the 30m time limit imposed on interactive jobs. Most jobs were submitted to the smallest, 512 node partitions, but both codes could also run on the 1024 node partitions with a gain of only 30-50%. The majority of jobs ran without error. Stalled jobs were often indicative of a communication gap within a partition that LC was able to fix quickly. On some occasion a zero-length lattice file was deleted to allow jobs to restart successfully. Approximately 1000 trajectories were calculated for each beta value, see Table . The analysis was performed with the standard analysis scripts for each code, make{_}summary.pl for milc and analysis.tcsh for p4rhmc. All lattices, log files, and job submission scripts have been archived to permanent storage for subsequent analysis.

Soltz, R; Gupta, R

2007-01-18

12

Dissolution and crystallization of KTiOPO 4 in the flux system of K 6 P 4 O 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystallization temperatures of KTiOPO4(KTP), KTP : Nb and RbTiOPO4(RTP) in the flux systems, K6P4O13 (K6) or Rb6P4O13 (R6), were determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The systems have a large tendency to supercool, which could be greatly reduced by the top-seeding technique. Seed-testing experiments were used to study the dissolution kinetics. The diffusion equation under steady state conditions was used to

C. CHEN; B. E Watts; R. C. C Ward; B. M Wanklyn

1998-01-01

13

LQCD Phase 1 Runs with P4RHMC  

SciTech Connect

These results represent the first set of runs of 10 {beta} values ranging from 2000-7000 trajectories with the p4rhmc code. This initial run sequence spanned roughly 2-weeks in late January and Early February, 2007. To manage the submission of dependent jobs: subSet.pl--submits a set of dependent jobs for a single run; rmSet.pl--removes a set of dependent jobs in reverse order of submission; and statSet.pl--runs pstat command and prints parsed output along with directory contents. The results of running the statSet.pl command are printed for three different times during the start up the next sequence of runs using the milc code.

Soltz, R; Gupta, R

2007-02-13

14

The function of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase ? (PI5P4K?) explored using a specific inhibitor that targets the PI5P-binding site.  

PubMed

NIH-12848 (NCGC00012848-02), a putative phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase ? (PI5P4K?) inhibitor, was explored as a tool for investigating this enigmatic, low activity, lipid kinase. PI5P4K assays in vitro showed that NIH-12848 inhibited PI5P4K? with an IC50 of approximately 1 ?M but did not inhibit the ? and ? PI5P4K isoforms at concentrations up to 100 ?M. A lack of inhibition of PI5P4K? ATPase activity suggested that NIH-12848 does not interact with the enzyme's ATP-binding site and direct exploration of binding using hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX)-MS (HDX-MS) revealed the putative PI5P-binding site of PI5P4K? to be the likely region of interaction. This was confirmed by a series of mutation experiments which led to the identification of a single PI5P4K? amino acid residue that can be mutated to its PI5P4Ks ? and ? homologue to render PI5P4K? resistant NIH-12848 inhibition. NIH-12848 (10 ?M) was applied to cultured mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells which, we show, express PI5P4K? that increases when the cells grow to confluence and polarize. NIH-12848 inhibited the translocation of Na+/K+-ATPase to the plasma membrane that occurs when mpkCCD cells grow to confluence and also prevented reversibly their forming of 'domes' on the culture dish. Both these NIH-12848-induced effects were mimicked by specific RNAi knockdown of PI5P4K?, but not that of PI5P4Ks ? or ?. Overall, the data reveal a probable contribution of PI5P4K? to the development and maintenance of epithelial cell functional polarity and show that NIH-12848 is a potentially powerful tool for exploring the cell physiology of PI5P4Ks. PMID:25495341

Clarke, Jonathan H; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Burke, John E; Williams, Roger L; Maloney, David J; Marugan, Juan; Irvine, Robin F

2015-03-01

15

Inversion by P4: polarization-picture post-processing.  

PubMed

Polarization may be sensed by imaging modules. This is done in various engineering systems as well as in biological systems, specifically by insects and some marine species. However, polarization per pixel is usually not the direct variable of interest. Rather, polarization-related data serve as a cue for recovering task-specific scene information. How should polarization-picture post-processing (P(4)) be done for the best scene understanding? Answering this question is not only helpful for advanced engineering (computer vision), but also to prompt hypotheses as to the processing occurring within biological systems. In various important cases, the answer is found by a principled expression of scene recovery as an inverse problem. Such an expression relies directly on a physics-based model of effects in the scene. The model includes analysis that depends on the different polarization components, thus facilitating the use of these components during the inversion, in a proper, even if non-trivial, manner. We describe several examples for this approach. These include automatic removal of path radiance in haze or underwater, overcoming partial semireflections and visual reverberations; three-dimensional recovery and distance-adaptive denoising. The resulting inversion algorithms rely on signal-processing methods, such as independent component analysis, deconvolution and optimization. PMID:21282167

Schechner, Yoav Y

2011-03-12

16

Caspase-3 binds diverse P4 residues in peptides as revealed by crystallography and structural modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Caspase-3 recognition of various P4 residues in its numerous protein substrates was investigated by crystallography, kinetics, and calculations on model complexes. Asp is the most frequent P4 residue in peptide substrates, although a wide variety of P4 residues are found in the cellular proteins cleaved by caspase-3. The binding of peptidic inhibitors with hydrophobic P4 residues, or no P4 residue, is illustrated by crystal structures of caspase-3 complexes with Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, and Boc-D(OMe)-Fmk at resolutions of 1.9-2.6 {angstrom}. The P4 residues formed favorable hydrophobic interactions in two separate hydrophobic regions of the binding site. The side chains of P4 Ile and Tyr form hydrophobic interactions with caspase-3 residues Trp206 and Trp214 within a non-polar pocket of the S4 subsite, while P4 Trp interacts with Phe250 and Phe252 that can also form the S5 subsite. These interactions of hydrophobic P4 residues are distinct from those for polar P4 Asp, which indicates the adaptability of caspase-3 for binding diverse P4 residues. The predicted trends in peptide binding from molecular models had high correlation with experimental values for peptide inhibitors. Analysis of structural models for the binding of 20 different amino acids at P4 in the aldehyde peptide Ac-XEVD-Cho suggested that the majority of hydrophilic P4 residues interact with Phe250, while hydrophobic residues interact with Trp206, Phe250, and Trp214. Overall, the S4 pocket of caspase-3 exhibits flexible adaptation for different residues and the new structures and models, especially for hydrophobic P4 residues, will be helpful for the design of caspase-3 based drugs.

Fang, Bin; Fu, Guoxing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.; (GSU)

2009-03-31

17

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mRNA Isoforms are Altered in Bovine Granulosa Cells (GC) by Circulating Progestin Concentrations (P4) and May Indicate Follicle Status and Oocyte Competence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously, Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) fed for 14 d (0.5mg/cow/d; < 1 ng/ml P4) resulted in persistent follicles with increased size, decreased number of GC/follicular fluid (FF) volume, and less fertile oocytes. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of circulating P4 on amount of mRNA fo...

18

P(4-vinyl pyridine) hydrogel use for the removal of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) from aqueous environments.  

PubMed

4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) based hydrogels with 2-hydroxyethylmetacrylate (HEMA) and magnetic composites were prepared and tested for use in the removal of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) ions from aqueous environments. It was found that the absorption of these metal ions from aqueous environments decreased with an increase in the amount of HEMA contained within p(4-VP-co-HEMA) hydrogels between 0.498 mmol for pure p(4-VP) and 0.027 mmol for pure p(HEMA). The characterization of the hydrogels was determined by swelling experiments, FT-IR and thermal analysis. The effects of initial metal ion concentration, hydrogel amount and the temperature of the medium on absorption of the ions were investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were constructed for the absorption of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+). Both isotherms demonstrated that these metal ions complied with monolayer absorption kinetics. PMID:21864974

Ozay, Ozgur; Ekici, Sema; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

2011-12-01

19

The Top 10 Things I LOVE about p4c Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, Dr. Thomas Jackson, or Dr. J as the author and her colleagues affectionately call him, spoke to the faculty at Waikiki Elementary. He described philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i and encouraged them to try P4C if something about it "resonated" with them. In the beginning, Dr. J held a p4t (philosophy for teachers) after-school seminar…

Ikeda, Jolyn

2012-01-01

20

Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in n-hexadecane compounds assimilation in the hydrocarbon degrading Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain.  

PubMed

The petroleum-derived degrading Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 recently had its genome sequenced and annotated. This allowed employing the data on genes that are involved in the degradation of n-alkanes. To examine the physiological behavior of strain P4 in the presence of n-alkanes, the strain was grown under varying conditions of pH and temperature. D. cinnamea P4 was able to grow at pH 7.0-9.0 and at temperatures ranging from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. Experiments of gene expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR throughout the complete growth cycle clearly indicated the induction of the regulatory gene alkU (TetR family) during early growth. During the logarithmic phase, a large increase in transcriptional levels of a lipid transporter gene was noted. Also, the expression of a gene that encodes the protein fused rubredoxin-alkane monooxygenase was enhanced. Both genes are probably under the influence of the AlkU regulator. PMID:24294263

Procópio, Luciano; de Cassia Pereira e Silva, Michele; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

2013-01-01

21

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1 autoionizing state in magnesium  

E-print Network

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1 Fo autoionizing state in magnesium A. Reber,1 T. Baynard ionization of magnesium from the 3 1 P state in the region of the 3p4d 1 Fo autoionizing resonance, in which of magnesium atoms just inside the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer MBS 13 . One laser is tuned

Berry, R. Stephen

22

The response regulator PhoP4 is required for late developmental events in Myxococcus xanthus  

E-print Network

The response regulator PhoP4 is required for late developmental events in Myxococcus xanthus Vinh D Myxococcus xanthus, and requires at least four two-component systems (TCSs). Here, the identification and quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that PhoP4 is also required for appropriate expression of the predicted

Singer, Mitchell

23

p-(4-Azipentyl)-propofol: A Potent Photoreactive General Anesthetic Derivative of Propofol  

PubMed Central

We synthesized 2,6-Diisopropyl-4-[3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-propyl]-phenol (p-(4-azipentyl)-propofol), or p-4-AziC5-Pro, a novel photoactivable derivative of the general anesthetic propofol. p-4-AziC5-Pro has an anesthetic potency similar to propofol. Like propofol, the compound potentiates inhibitory GABAA receptor current responses and allosterically modulates binding to both agonist and benzodiazepine sites, assayed on heterologously expressed GABAA receptors. p-4-AziC5-Pro inhibits excitatory current responses of nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and photoincorporates into native nACh receptor-enriched Torpedo membranes. Thus p-4-AziC5-Pro is a functional general anesthetic that both modulates and photoincorporates into Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, making it an excellent candidate for use in identifying propofol binding sites. PMID:22029276

Stewart, Deirdre S.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Dostalova, Zuzana; Chiara, David C.; Ge, Rile; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohne, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Miller, Keith W.

2013-01-01

24

Ordering of PS-b-P4VP on patterned silicon surfaces.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a method to fabricate high-quality patterned micelle arrays using poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer. Long-range order of the PS-b-P4VP micelle in hexagonal arrays was induced by topographic grating patterns during solvent annealing. The size and row spacing of block copolymer micelle arrays created in this way were uniform. By controlling the thickness of the polymer on the crests and in the troughs of the grating patterns, we prepared PS-b-P4VP micelle arrays having different sizes. PMID:19206303

Park, Soojin; Kim, Bokyung; Yavuzcetin, Ozgur; Tuominen, Mark T; Russell, Thomas P

2008-07-01

25

Lipoprotein e (P4) of Haemophilus influenzae: Role in heme utilization and pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Lipoprotein e (P4) of Haemophilus influenzae is a phosphomonoesterase, encoded by the hel gene, that has been implicated in the acquisition of heme by this fastidious organism. However, lipoprotein e (P4) is also involved in the utilization of NAD and NMN. Some reports have concluded that the reported heme-related growth defect actually reflects a growth defect for NAD. In the current study hel insertion mutants were constructed and a role for e (P4) in heme acquisition was demonstrated independent of its role in NAD or NMN acquisition. In addition a rat model of infection demonstrated a role for e (P4) in the pathogenesis of invasive disease. PMID:17548224

Morton, Daniel J.; Smith, Ann; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Whitby, Paul W.; Stull, Terrence L.

2007-01-01

26

77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae AGENCY: Technology Transfer...vaccine conjugate for prevention of Streptococcus pneumonia infection in humans...entitled ``Functional Epitopes of Streptococcus Pneumoniae PsaA Antigen and Uses...

2012-05-02

27

Plasma Diagnostic Potential of 2p4f in N+—Accurate Wavelengths and Oscillator Strengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative emission lines from nitrogen and its ions are often observed in nebula spectra, where the N2 + abundance can be inferred from lines of the 2p4f configuration. In addition, intensity ratios between lines of the 2p3p-2p3s and 2p4f-2p3d transition arrays can serve as temperature diagnostics. To aid abundance determinations and plasma diagnostics, wavelengths and oscillator strengths were calculated with high precision for electric dipole (E1) transitions from levels in the 2p4f configuration of N+. Electron correlation and relativistic effects, including the Breit interaction, were systematically taken into account within the framework of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. Except for the 2p4f-2p4d transitions with quite large wavelengths and the two-electron-one-photon 2p4f-2s2p 3 transitions, the uncertainties of the present calculations were controlled to within 3% and 5% for wavelengths and oscillator strengths, respectively. We also compared our results with other theoretical and experimental values when available. Discrepancies were found between our calculations and previous calculations due to the neglect of relativistic effects in the latter.

Shen, Xiaozhi; Li, Jiguang; Jönsson, Per; Wang, Jianguo

2015-03-01

28

Diet-induced alterations in hepatic progesterone (P4) catabolic enzyme activity and P4 clearance rate in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Elevated rates of steroid clearance may lead to lower reproductive success in several mammalian species. Cytochrome P450 (EC 1.14.14.1) and aldo-keto reductases (AKR; EC 1.1.1.145-151) are involved in the first phase of steroid inactivation, before second phase conjugation and excretion of the steroid metabolite. The current objectives were to determine liver blood flow (LBF), hepatic enzyme activity, and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of progesterone (P(4)) in dairy cows consuming isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets formulated to cause divergent insulin secretion. Insulin concentrations increased by 22% in cows fed the high cornstarch diet, and both cytochrome P450 2C and cytochrome P450 3A activities were decreased (P<0.05) by approximately 50%, while AKR1C tended (P<0.10) to be lower in cows fed the high cornstarch diet. LBF was similar between the two diets (1891+/-91 l/h). MCR of P(4) tended (P<0.10) to be lower in cows fed the high cornstarch diet (25+/-5 l/hxBW(0.75)) versus the high fiber diet (40+/-6 l/hxBW(0.75)). The half-life of P(4) was increased (P<0.05) in cows fed the high cornstarch diet (73+/-10 min) versus the high fiber diet (24+/-10 min). In summary, cows with elevated insulin concentrations and lower enzyme activity showed a decrease in P(4) clearance without any changes in LBF. This dietary relationship with hepatic enzyme activity may explain some of the observed alterations in steroid profiles during the estrous cycle or gestation of the high producing dairy cow. PMID:20223860

Lemley, C O; Vonnahme, K A; Tager, L R; Krause, K M; Wilson, M E

2010-06-01

29

Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition  

PubMed Central

Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

2014-01-01

30

Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition.  

PubMed

Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

2014-12-01

31

Double-striped metallic patterns from PS-b-P4VP nanostrand templates.  

PubMed

A new nanometallic pattern, characterized by randomly disposed double or twin one-dimensional stripes and that adds to the nanotechnology toolbox, has been obtained from a unique template possessing the nanostrand morphology. This morphology had previously been shown to form in Langmuir-Blodgett films made from a polystyrene-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-P4VP) diblock copolymer blended with 3-n-pentadecylphenol (PDP). The nanostrand backbone is composed of PS, and it is bordered along both sides by a P4VP monolayer, visualized for the first time by high resolution atomic force microscopy. The exposed P4VP alongside the nanostrands serves as sites for depositing compounds attracted selectively to P4VP. Here, both gold ions (HAuCl4·3H2O) and gold nanoparticles (AuNP, 12 nm in diameter, stabilized with sodium citrate) were complexed to the P4VP. Plasma treatment of the gold ions led to double stripes of monolayer metallic gold. To obtain dense deposition of AuNP in double rows, it was necessary to acidify the AuNP aqueous solution (pH 5.2 here). The achievement of the metallic double-stripe patterns also confirms the composition of the nanostrand morphology, which up to now had been deduced indirectly. The double-stripe pattern has possible applications for plasmonic lasers, energy transport, and biosensors. PMID:25260097

Chen, Ximin; Perepichka, Iryna I; Bazuin, C Geraldine

2014-10-22

32

Biochemical Characterization of P4-ATPase Mutations Identified in Patients with Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the P4-ATPase ATP8B1 cause the inherited liver disease progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Several of these mutations are located in conserved regions of the transmembrane domain associated with substrate binding and transport. Assays for P4-ATPase-mediated transport in living yeast cells were developed and used to characterize the specificity and kinetic parameters of this transport. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis mutations were introduced into the yeast plasma membrane P4-ATPase Dnf2p, and the effect of these mutations on its catalysis of phospholipid transport were determined. The results of these measurements have implications for the basis of the disease and for the mechanism of phospholipid transit through the enzyme during the reaction cycle. PMID:23060447

Stone, Alex; Chau, Christopher; Eaton, Christian; Foran, Emily; Kapur, Mridu; Prevatt, Edward; Belkin, Nathan; Kerr, David; Kohlin, Torvald; Williamson, Patrick

2012-01-01

33

Higher proportion of G2P[4] rotaviruses in vaccinated hospitalized cases compared with unvaccinated hospitalized cases, despite high vaccine effectiveness against heterotypic G2P[4] rotaviruses.  

PubMed

The overall vaccine effectiveness of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine in an observational, prospective, multicentre, hospital-based case-control study in Belgium (RotaBel) was 90%. However, rotavirus genotype and co-infecting pathogens are important parameters to take into account when assessing vaccine effectiveness. In this study we specifically investigated the effect of rotavirus genotypes and co-infecting pathogens on vaccine effectiveness of the monovalent vaccine. In addition, we also investigated the effect of co-infecting pathogens on disease severity. From February 2008 to June 2010 stool samples of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases of a random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals were collected and subsequently genotyped. Fisher's exact tests were performed to investigate the relationships between rotavirus genotype, co-infecting pathogens and disease severity. The vaccine effectiveness of a full series of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine against hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1P[8] rotavirus strains was 95% (95% CI 77.5-98.7). Against G2P[4], the vaccine effectiveness was 85% (95% CI: 63.7-93.8). G4P[8]- and G3P[8]-specific vaccine effectiveness was 90% (95% CI 19.2-98.7) and 87% (95% CI -5.2 to 98.4), respectively. A post-hoc analysis showed that the genotype distribution was significantly related to the vaccination status (p <0.001), whereby G2P[4] strains were proportionally more prevalent in vaccinated cases than in unvaccinated cases. No statistical associations were found between co-infection status and vaccination status, Vesikari severity score or rotavirus genotype. The high vaccine effectiveness against the individual genotypes implies robust protection of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine against hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the major human rotavirus genotypes. The prevalence of G2P[4] requires continued monitoring. PMID:24580887

Matthijnssens, J; Zeller, M; Heylen, E; De Coster, S; Vercauteren, J; Braeckman, T; Van Herck, K; Meyer, N; Pirçon, J-Y; Soriano-Gabarro, M; Azou, M; Capiau, H; De Koster, J; Maernoudt, A-S; Raes, M; Verdonck, L; Verghote, M; Vergison, A; Van Damme, P; Van Ranst, M

2014-10-01

34

Molecular epidemiology of human G2P[4] rotaviruses in Taiwan, 2004-2011.  

PubMed

In 2006, two rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) became available on the private market in Taiwan. Although vaccine coverage is currently low, molecular surveillance of rotavirus strains can provide pertinent information for evaluation of the potential impact of vaccine introduction and infection control. During January 2008-December 2011, children aged <5 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled from sentinel surveillance hospitals in three geographic areas of Taiwan. Fecal specimens collected from enrolled patients were tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. For genotyping, gene specific primer sets were used to amplify and sequence the genes encoding the neutralization antigens, VP7 and VP4. The resulting sequences were then subjected to phylogenetic analysis. In brief, a total of 4,052 fecal specimens were tested and 742 (18%) samples were positive for rotavirus. The annual range of rotavirus positive specimens varied between 16% and 20.7%. Of all specimens, genotype G1P[8] (63.3%) was the predominant strain, followed by G2P[4] (12.5%), G3P[8] (11.7%), and G9P[8] (5.1%). Uncommon strains were also detected in low percentages. We observed that the rotavirus positivity rate steadily decreased from 21% to 16% during 2008-2010, then slightly increased to 20% in 2011, when an increase in the number of G2P[4] cases was observed. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis was carried out to help understand any potential changes of G2P[4] rotaviruses over time. A number of G2P[4] strains collected between 2004 and 2011 were analyzed in detail and our analyses showed marked genetic and antigenic variability in the VP7 and VP4 genes. The Taiwanese strains could be classified into two major G2 VP7 lineages (IV and V) and two major P[4] VP4 lineages (IV and V) and several minor sublineages within lineage IV. Lineage V within both G2 and P[4] represented newly recognized genetic variants of the respective genotypes. The distribution of individual combinations of the G2 and P[4] (sub)lineages showed some temporal variations. This study provides further evidence for the great genetic diversity among G2P[4] strains and helps understand the epidemiological trends of these strains among children in Taiwan. PMID:25281207

Wu, Fang-Tzy; Bányai, Krisztián; Jiang, Baoming; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Hsieh-Cheng; Fehér, Enik?; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Huang, Fu-Chen; Hsiung, Chao A; Huang, Jason C; Wu, Ho-Sheng

2014-12-01

35

Outer membrane protein P4 is not required for virulence in the human challenge model of Haemophilus ducreyi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial lipoproteins often play important roles in pathogenesis and can stimulate protective immune responses. Such lipoproteins are viable vaccine candidates. Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, expresses a number of lipoproteins during human infection. One such lipoprotein, OmpP4, is homologous to the outer membrane lipoprotein e (P4) of H. influenzae. In H. influenzae, e (P4) stimulates production of bactericidal and protective antibodies and contributes to pathogenesis by facilitating acquisition of the essential nutrients heme and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that, like its homolog, H. ducreyi OmpP4 contributes to virulence and stimulates production of bactericidal antibodies. Results We determined that OmpP4 is broadly conserved among clinical isolates of H. ducreyi. We next constructed and characterized an isogenic ompP4 mutant, designated 35000HPompP4, in H. ducreyi strain 35000HP. To test whether OmpP4 was necessary for virulence in humans, eight healthy adults were experimentally infected. Each subject was inoculated with a fixed dose of 35000HP on one arm and three doses of 35000HPompP4 on the other arm. The overall parent and mutant pustule formation rates were 52.4% and 47.6%, respectively (P?=?0.74). These results indicate that expression of OmpP4 in not necessary for H. ducreyi to initiate disease or progress to pustule formation in humans. Hyperimmune mouse serum raised against purified, recombinant OmpP4 did not promote bactericidal killing of 35000HP or phagocytosis by J774A.1 mouse macrophages in serum bactericidal and phagocytosis assays, respectively. Conclusions Our data suggest that, unlike e (P4), H. ducreyi OmpP4 is not a suitable vaccine candidate. OmpP4 may be dispensable for virulence because of redundant mechanisms in H. ducreyi for heme acquisition and NAD utilization. PMID:24961160

2014-01-01

36

5-1924-01-P4 DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES FOR THE TEXAS  

E-print Network

5-1924-01-P4 DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES FOR THE TEXAS ACCELERATED PAVEMENT TEST CENTER (TXAPT Research The University of Texas at Austin 3208 Red River, Suite 200 Austin, Texas 78705-2650 Sponsoring Organization: Texas Department of Transportation Research and Technology Implementation Office P.O. Box 5080

Texas at Austin, University of

37

COMP 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Assignment P4  

E-print Network

COMP 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Assignment P4 Due Date: March 31 Purpose It (base 10) to binary (base 2) and vice-versa. Along the way, you will need repetition statements as well of 1034 is 10000001010 All done! #12;COMP 115 Robots, Games, and Problem Solving Spring 2011 Specifics

Gousie, Michael B.

38

From integrative disease modeling to predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine  

PubMed Central

With the significant advancement of high-throughput technologies and diagnostic techniques throughout the past decades, molecular underpinnings of many disorders have been identified. However, translation of patient-specific molecular mechanisms into tailored clinical applications remains a challenging task, which requires integration of multi-dimensional molecular and clinical data into patient-centric models. This task becomes even more challenging when dealing with complex diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Integrative disease modeling is an emerging knowledge-based paradigm in translational research that exploits the power of computational methods to collect, store, integrate, model and interpret accumulated disease information across different biological scales from molecules to phenotypes. We argue that integrative disease modeling will be an indispensable part of any P4 medicine research and development in the near future and that it supports the shift from descriptive to causal mechanistic diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases. For each ‘P’ in predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine, we demonstrate how integrative disease modeling can contribute to addressing the real-world issues in development of new predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory measures. With the increasing recognition that application of integrative systems modeling is the key to all activities in P4 medicine, we envision that translational bioinformatics in general and integrative modeling in particular will continue to open up new avenues of scientific research for current challenges in P4 medicine. PMID:24195840

2013-01-01

39

A P4VT (PowerA P4VT (Power--PerformancePerformance--ProcessProcess --A P4VT (PowerA P4VT (Power--PerformancePerformance--ProcessProcess --ParasiticParasitic--VoltageVoltage--Temperature) AwareTemperature) Aware  

E-print Network

Nano--CMOS VCOCMOS VCO Saraju P. Mohanty, Dhruva Ghai and Elias Kougianos VLSI Design and CAD Laboratory (VDCL Aware Design Flow Logical Design of VCOLogical Design of VCO PVT Variation Analysis of VCO P4VT l d i f th ti i d A dual-threshold physical design of the optimized VCO is presented. Mohanty 5 1

Mohanty, Saraju P.

40

Ferrenberg Swendsen Analysis of LLNL and NYBlue BG/L p4rhms Data  

SciTech Connect

These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG/L. These results are from the Ferrenberg-Swendsen analysis [?] of the combined data from LLNL and NYBlue BG/L runs for 32{sup 3} x 8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP-MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi). The jobs include beta values ranging from 3.525 to 3.535 with an alternate analysis extending to 3.540. The NYBlue data sets are from 9k trajectories from Oct 2007, and the LLNL data are from two independent streams of {approx}5k each, taking from the July 2007 runs. The following outputs are produced by the fs-2+1-chiub.c program. All outputs have had checksums produced by addCks.pl and checked by the checkCks.pl perl script after scanning.

Soltz, R

2007-12-05

41

Synthesis and SAR of acyclic HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with novel P4-benzoxaborole moieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized and evaluated a new series of acyclic P4-benzoxaborole-based HCV NS3 protease inhibitors. Structure–activity relationships were investigated, leading to the identification of compounds 5g and 17 with low nanomolar potency in the enzymatic and cell-based replicon assay. The linker-truncated compound 5j was found to exhibit improved absorption and oral bioavailability in rats, suggesting that further reduction of molecular

Xianfeng Li; Suoming Zhang; Yong-Kang Zhang; Yang Liu; Charles Z. Ding; Yasheen Zhou; Jacob J. Plattner; Stephen J. Baker; Wei Bu; Liang Liu; Wieslaw M. Kazmierski; Maosheng Duan; Richard M. Grimes; Lois L. Wright; Gary K. Smith; Richard L. Jarvest; Jing-Jing Ji; Joel P. Cooper; Matthew D. Tallant; Renae M. Crosby; Katrina Creech; Zhi-Jie Ni; Wuxin Zou; Jon Wright

2011-01-01

42

Outer Membrane Lipoprotein e (P4) of Haemophilus influenzae Is a Novel Phosphomonoesterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemophilus influenzae exists as a commensal of the upper respiratory tract of humans but also causes infections of contiguous structures. We describe the identification, localization, purification, and character- ization of a novel, surface-localized phosphomonoesterase from a nontypeable H. influenzae strain, R2866. Sequences obtained from two CNBr-derived fragments of this protein matched lipoprotein e (P4) within the H. influenzae sequence database.

THOMAS J. REILLY; DEBORAH L. CHANCE; ARNOLD L. SMITH

1999-01-01

43

P4Well concept to empower self-management of psychophysiological wellbeing and load recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic health problems related to mental wellbeing are rapidly growing, calling for novel solutions focusing on individual as a psychophysiological being. We describe a novel technology-based concept for empowering citizen towards holistic self-management of her wellbeing: “P4Well” (Pervasive Personal and PsychoPhysiological management of WELLness). The primary focus of the concept is on management of stress and recovery from stress caused

Antti P. Happonen; Elina Mattila; M.-L. Kinnunen; V. Ikonen; T. Myllyma?ki; K. Kaipainen; H. Rusko; R. Lappalainen; I. Korhonen

2009-01-01

44

Cole-Carpenter Syndrome Is Caused by a Heterozygous Missense Mutation in P4HB.  

PubMed

Cole-Carpenter syndrome is a severe bone fragility disorder that is characterized by frequent fractures, craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis, hydrocephalus, and distinctive facial features. To identify the cause of Cole-Carpenter syndrome in the two individuals whose clinical results were presented in the original description of this disorder, we performed whole-exome sequencing of genomic DNA samples from both individuals. The two unrelated individuals had the same heterozygous missense mutation in exon 9 of P4HB (NM_000918.3: c.1178A>G [p.Tyr393Cys]), the gene that encodes protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In one individual, the P4HB mutation had arisen de novo, whereas in the other the mutation was transmitted from the clinically unaffected father who was a mosaic carrier of the variant. The mutation was located in the C-terminal disulfide isomerase domain of PDI, sterically close to the enzymatic center, and affected disulfide isomerase activity in vitro. Skin fibroblasts showed signs of increased endoplasmic reticulum stress, but despite the reported importance of PDI for collagen type I production, the rate of collagen type I secretion appeared normal. In conclusion, Cole-Carpenter syndrome is caused by a specific de novo mutation in P4HB that impairs the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI. PMID:25683117

Rauch, Frank; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Majewski, Jacek; Carrot-Zhang, Jian; Boudko, Sergei; Glorieux, Francis; Mort, John S; Bächinger, Hans-Peter; Moffatt, Pierre

2015-03-01

45

Mammalian P4-ATPases and ABC Transporters And Their Role in Phospholipid Transport  

PubMed Central

Transport of phospholipids across cell membranes plays a key role in a wide variety of biological processes. These include membrane biosynthesis, generation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry, cell and organelle shape determination, phagocytosis, vesicle tranfficking, blood coagulation, lipid homeostasis, regulation of membrane protein function, apoptosis among others. P4-ATPases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two principal classes of membranes proteins that actively transport phospholipids across cellular membranes. P4-ATPases utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to flip aminophospholipids from the exocytoplasmic (extracellular/lumen) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes generating membrane lipid asymmetry and lipid imbalance which can induce membrane curvature. Many ABC transporters play crucial roles in lipid homeostasis by actively transporting phospholipids from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes or exporting phospholipids to protein acceptors or micelles. Recent studies indicate that some ABC proteins can also transport phospholipids in the opposite direction. The importance of P4-ATPases and ABC transporters is evident from the findings that mutations in many of these transporters are responsible for severe human genetic diseases linked to defective phospholipid transport. PMID:23103747

Coleman, Jonathan A.; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S.

2012-01-01

46

Physician-level P4P--DOA? Can quality-based payment be resuscitated?  

PubMed

Unlike many areas of the economy where value is relatively easy to measure and reward, healthcare is "messy." Patients bring both clinical heterogeneity and illness-severity complexities to the interchange with their physician. The measurable outcomes or process measures are as likely to be due to patient characteristics as they are to be due to the actions (or inactions) of the patient's provider. Moreover, data suggest that the simplest fix for providers with bad metrics is to "dump" their sickest patients. Perhaps the most pernicious consequence of physician-level pay-for-performance (P4P) systems is how these systems can affect the neediest patients and their providers. As patient characteristics (eg, illness severity, preferences, resources) are more likely to be an issue in our poorer and minority communities, these patients' physicians will be at a financial disadvantage in a P4P system. It is likely that the widespread adoption of P4P systems will further limit these necessary resources. PMID:17488186

McMahon, Laurence F; Hofer, Timothy P; Hayward, Rodney A

2007-05-01

47

Positive selection in AvrP4 avirulence gene homologues across the genus Melampsora  

PubMed Central

Pathogen genes involved in interactions with their plant hosts are expected to evolve under positive Darwinian selection or balancing selection. In this study a single copy avirulence gene, AvrP4, in the plant pathogen Melampsora lini, was used to investigate the evolution of such a gene across species. Partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequences were obtained to establish phylogenetic relationships among the Melampsora species. We amplified AvrP4 homologues from species pathogenic on hosts from different plant families and orders, across the inferred phylogeny. Translations of the AvrP4 sequences revealed a predicted signal peptide and towards the C-terminus of the protein, six identically spaced cysteines were identified in all sequences. Maximum likelihood analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates indicated that positive selection played a role in the evolution of the gene during the diversification of the genus. Fourteen codons under significant positive selection reside in the C-terminal 28 amino acid region, suggesting that this region interacts with host molecules in most sequenced accessions. Selection pressures on the gene may be either due to the pathogenicity or avirulence function of the gene or both. PMID:19457888

Van der Merwe, Marlien M.; Kinnear, Mark W.; Barrett, Luke G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Ericson, Lars; Thrall, Peter H.; Burdon, Jeremy J.

2009-01-01

48

Synthesis and SAR of acyclic HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with novel P4-benzoxaborole moieties.  

PubMed

We have synthesized and evaluated a new series of acyclic P4-benzoxaborole-based HCV NS3 protease inhibitors. Structure-activity relationships were investigated, leading to the identification of compounds 5g and 17 with low nanomolar potency in the enzymatic and cell-based replicon assay. The linker-truncated compound 5j was found to exhibit improved absorption and oral bioavailability in rats, suggesting that further reduction of molecular weight and polar surface area could result in improved drug-like properties of this novel series. PMID:21353550

Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Suoming; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Liu, Yang; Ding, Charles Z; Zhou, Yasheen; Plattner, Jacob J; Baker, Stephen J; Bu, Wei; Liu, Liang; Kazmierski, Wieslaw M; Duan, Maosheng; Grimes, Richard M; Wright, Lois L; Smith, Gary K; Jarvest, Richard L; Ji, Jing-Jing; Cooper, Joel P; Tallant, Matthew D; Crosby, Renae M; Creech, Katrina; Ni, Zhi-Jie; Zou, Wuxin; Wright, Jon

2011-04-01

49

Novel Metabolic Transformation Pathway for Cyclic Imides in Blastobacter sp. Strain A17p-4  

PubMed Central

The metabolic transformation pathway for cyclic imides in microorganisms was studied in Blastobacter sp. strain A17p-4. This novel pathway involves, in turn, hydrolytic ring opening of a cyclic imide to yield a monoamidated dicarboxylate, hydrolytic deamidation of the monoamidated dicarboxylate to yield a dicarboxylate, and dicarboxylate transformation similar to that in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The initial step is catalyzed by a novel enzyme, imidase. Imidase and subsequent enzymes involved in this metabolic pathway are induced by some cyclic imides, such as succinimide and glutarimide. Induced cells metabolize various cyclic imides. PMID:16535426

Ogawa, J.; Soong, C. L.; Honda, M.; Shimizu, S.

1996-01-01

50

Postmodification of PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer membranes by ARGET ATRP.  

PubMed

The surfaces of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer membranes were modified in order to obtain polymer brushes by using surface-initiated activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP). Isoporous membranes were prepared by the combination of self-assembly of PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers and the nonsolvent induced phase separation process, also known as "phase inversion". In order to allow further functionalization, the membranes were modified with an ATRP initiator, 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB). Therefore, the mussel-inspired poly(dopamine) coating was used to attach BIBB on the membranes surface. In the next step the coated membranes were postmodified by using surface-initiated ARGET ATRP with the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). HEMA as a hydrophilic methacrylate was chosen for the modification in order to enhance the membrane characteristics and to obtain a surface with antifouling properties. The surface-initiated ARGET ATRP reaction was carried out using different reaction times and environments. PHEMA could successfully incorporate on the membrane surface as confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. Furthermore, stability tests against heat and solvents were performed, and water flux was measured for the raw and modified membranes. Stability against heat and hydrophilicity could be increased with this type of modification for diblock copolymer membranes. PMID:24948370

Keskin, Damla; Clodt, Juliana I; Hahn, Janina; Abetz, Volker; Filiz, Volkan

2014-07-29

51

Experimental and bioinformatic evidence that raspberry leaf blotch emaravirus P4 is a movement protein of the 30K superfamily.  

PubMed

Emaravirus is a recently described genus of negative-strand RNA plant viruses. Emaravirus P4 protein localizes to plasmodesmata, suggesting that it could be a viral movement protein (MP). In the current study, we showed that the P4 protein of raspberry leaf blotch emaravirus (RLBV) rescued the cell-to-cell movement of a defective potato virus X (PVX) that had a deletion mutation in the triple gene block 1 movement-associated protein. This demonstrated that RLBV P4 is a functional MP. Sequence analyses revealed that P4 is a distant member of the 30K superfamily of MPs. All MPs of this family contain two highly conserved regions predicted to form ?-strands, namely ?1 and ?2. We explored by alanine mutagenesis the role of two residues of P4 (Ile106 and Asp127) located in each of these strands. We also made the equivalent substitutions in the 29K MP of tobacco rattle virus, another member of the 30K superfamily. All substitutions abolished the ability to complement PVX movement, except for the I106A substitution in the ?1 region of P4. This region has been shown to mediate membrane association of 30K MPs; our results show that it is possible to make non-conservative substitutions of a well-conserved aliphatic residue within ?1 without preventing the membrane association or movement function of P4. PMID:23761405

Yu, Chulang; Karlin, David G; Lu, Yuwen; Wright, Kathryn; Chen, Jianping; MacFarlane, Stuart

2013-09-01

52

Biosynthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer of p(3-hydroxypropionate)-block-p(4-hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) is a highly elastic polymer, whereas poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a polymer with enormous tensile strength. This study aimed to biosynthesize a block copolymer consisting of soft P4HB block with a strong P3HP block to gain unique and excellent material properties. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain that produces homopolymers of P3HP and P4HB was employed for the block copolymer synthesis. When the strain was grown in the presence of 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as a 4HB precursor, P4HB block was formed. Sequential supplementation of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) as a 3HP precursor allowed the strain to produce P3HP block. Thermal, NMR, fractionation, and mechanical characterizations confirmed the resulting polymer as a block copolymer of P3HP-b-P4HB. Two block copolymers were formed from this study, including the P3HP-b-29% P4HB and P3HP-b-37% P4HB, they showed superior properties over random copolymers P(3HP-co-4HB). The block copolymers had two glass transition temperatures (Tg) and two melting temperatures (Tm). In comparison to the homopolymers P3HP and P4HB, incorporation of block microstructure resulted in the lowering of Tm, block copolymers were revealed with higher Young's modulus, yield strengths, and tension strengths much better than the previously reported random copolymers of similar compositions. Block copolymerization of P3HP and P4HB adds a new vision on PHA polymerization by generation of new polymers with superior properties. PMID:23351169

Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Meng, Dechuan; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

2013-03-11

53

Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitro.  

PubMed

The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4) is responsible for the replication of the viral RNA genome. In infected cells, nsP4 is localized in a replication complex along with the other viral non-structural proteins. nsP4 has been difficult to homogenously purify from infected cells due to its interactions with the other replication proteins and the fact that its N-terminal residue, a tyrosine, causes the protein to be rapidly turned over in cells. We report the successful expression and purification of Sindbis nsP4 in a bacterial system, in which nsP4 is expressed as an N-terminal SUMO fusion protein. After purification the SUMO tag is removed, resulting in the isolation of full-length nsP4 possessing the authentic N-terminal tyrosine. This purified enzyme is able to produce minus-strand RNA de novo from plus-strand templates, as well as terminally add adenosine residues to the 3' end of an RNA substrate. In the presence of the partially processed viral replicase polyprotein, P123, purified nsP4 is able to synthesize discrete template length minus-strand RNA products. Mutations in the 3' CSE or poly(A) tail of viral template RNA prevent RNA synthesis by the replicase complex containing purified nsP4, consistent with previously reported template requirements for minus-strand RNA synthesis. Optimal reaction conditions were determined by investigating the effects of time, pH, and the concentrations of nsP4, P123 and magnesium on the synthesis of RNA. PMID:19036396

Rubach, Jon K; Wasik, Brian R; Rupp, Jonathan C; Kuhn, Richard J; Hardy, Richard W; Smith, Janet L

2009-02-01

54

Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of the low- and high-temperature forms of octahalo cyclic phosphazene tetramers, P 4N 4Cl 8 and P 4N 4F 8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a study of the Raman and infrared spectra, normal vibrations of the low-temperature skew-tub ( S4) and high-temperature Ci or C 2h (skew-chair) forms of P 4N 4Cl 8 have been assigned. A temperature variation study of the Raman spectra has shown the coexistence of both the forms of P 4N 4Cl 8 in the phase transition region. Preliminary assignments of the Raman and infrared spectra of the low- and high-temperature forms of P 4N 4F 8 are presented. One of the low-frequency Raman modes softens through the phase transition of P 4N 4F 8 at 199 K.

Varma, Vijay; Fernandes, J. R.; Rao, C. N. R.

1989-07-01

55

Excision of a P4-like cryptic prophage leads to Alp protease expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli K-12 alpA gene product, when overproduced from a multicopy plasmid, leads to suppression of the capsule overproduction and UV sensitivity phenotypes of cells mutant for the Lon ATP-dependent protease. This suppression has previously been shown to correlate with increased in vivo activity of a previously unknown energy-dependent proteolytic activity capable of degrading Lon substrates, the Alp protease. We show in an accompanying paper that alpA, which has homology to a short open reading frame in bacteriophage P4, acts as a positive transcriptional regulator of slpA, a gene linked to alpA and necessary for suppression of lon mutants (J. E. Trempy, J. E. Kirby, and S. Gottesman, J. Bacteriol. 176:2061-2067). The sequence of slpA suggests that it encodes an integrase gene closely related to P4 int and that both alpA and slpA are part of a cryptic P4-like prophage. AlpA expression increases SlpA synthesis. Increased SlpA leads, in turn, to the excision and loss of the cryptic prophage. Excision is dependent on integration host factor as well as on SlpA. Prophage excision is necessary but not sufficient for full expression of the Alp protease. A second function (named AHA) allows full protease expression; this function can be provided by the kanamycin resistance element from Tn903 when the element is present on a multicopy plasmid. Excision and loss of the cryptic prophage apparently allow expression of the Alp protease by inactivating a small stable RNA (10Sa RNA) encoded by the ssrA gene. The precursor of this RNA has its 3' end within the cryptic prophage; the mature 3' end lies within the prophage attL site. Inactivation of ssrA by insertional mutagenesis is sufficient to allow expression of the suppressing Alp protease, even in the presence of the cryptic prophage. Therefore, 10Sa RNA acts as a negative regulator of protease synthesis or activity, and prophage excision must inactivate this inhibitory function of the RNA. Images PMID:7511583

Kirby, J E; Trempy, J E; Gottesman, S

1994-01-01

56

Use of aglepristone for the treatment of P4 induced insulin resistance in dogs  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance (IR) in dogs is suspected when hyperglycemia is present despite administration of insulin doses greater than 1.0 to 1.5 UI/kg. IR is caused by increases in counter regulatory hormones concentrations (glucagon, glucocorticoids, catecholamines and growth hormone). This study was conducted to investigate the use of aglepristone (RU 46534), a P4 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of IR diabetes mellitus in bitches during the luteal phase. All animals were treated with porcine insulin zinc suspension (Caninsulin) and aglepristone (Alizin) 10 mg/kg subcutaneously at day 1, 2, 9 and 17 from diagnosis. At day 5, no significant variation in glycemia was shown. At day 12 and 20, serum glucose concentrations were significant lower (p < 0.05). From day 12 the insulin dose was reduced to 0.8 IU BID. Insulin was reduced in the following weeks and glycemia was controlled. PMID:24378588

Bresciani, Carla; Callegari, Daniela; Di Ianni, Francesco; Morini, Giorgio; Parmigiani, Enrico; Bianchi, Ezio

2014-01-01

57

Systems cancer medicine: towards realization of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine.  

PubMed

A grand challenge impeding optimal treatment outcomes for patients with cancer arises from the complex nature of the disease: the cellular heterogeneity, the myriad of dysfunctional molecular and genetic networks as results of genetic (somatic) and environmental perturbations. Systems biology, with its holistic approach to understanding fundamental principles in biology, and the empowering technologies in genomics, proteomics, single-cell analysis, microfluidics and computational strategies, enables a comprehensive approach to medicine, which strives to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms of diseases, identify disease biomarkers and begin thinking about new strategies for drug target discovery. The integration of multidimensional high-throughput 'omics' measurements from tumour tissues and corresponding blood specimens, together with new systems strategies for diagnostics, enables the identification of cancer biomarkers that will enable presymptomatic diagnosis, stratification of disease, assessment of disease progression, evaluation of patient response to therapy and the identification of reoccurrences. Whilst some aspects of systems medicine are being adopted in clinical oncology practice through companion molecular diagnostics for personalized therapy, the mounting influx of global quantitative data from both wellness and diseases is shaping up a transformational paradigm in medicine we termed 'predictive', 'preventive', 'personalized', and 'participatory' (P4) medicine, which requires new strategies, both scientific and organizational, to enable bringing this revolution in medicine to patients and to the healthcare system. P4 medicine will have a profound impact on society - transforming the healthcare system, turning around the ever escalating costs of healthcare, digitizing the practice of medicine and creating enormous economic opportunities for those organizations and nations that embrace this revolution. PMID:22142401

Tian, Q; Price, N D; Hood, L

2012-02-01

58

Fine Structure and Ionization Energy of the 1 s 2 s 2 p 4P State of the Helium Negative Ion He-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fine structure and ionization energy of the 1 s 2 s 2 p 4P state of the helium negative ion He- are calculated in Hylleraas coordinates, including relativistic and QED corrections up to O (?4m c2) , O ((? /M )?4m c2) , O (?5m c2) , and O ((? /M )?5m c2) . Higher order corrections are estimated for the ionization energy. A comparison is made with other calculations and experiments. We find that the present results for the fine structure splittings agree with experiment very well. However, the calculated ionization energy deviates from the experimental result by about 1 standard deviation. The estimated theoretical uncertainty in the ionization energy is much less than the experimental accuracy.

Wang, Liming; Li, Chun; Yan, Zong-Chao; Drake, G. W. F.

2014-12-01

59

First report of human rotavirus G8P[4] gastroenteritis in India: evidence of ruminants-to-human zoonotic transmission.  

PubMed

Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to close proximity of human and cattle in rural areas of developing countries like India, interspecies transmission or zoonotic transmission is a major source of rapid generation of reassortants and genetic or antigenic variants. Previously, many human group A rotaviruses were found with porcine or bovine characteristics from eastern and north-eastern India. In this study, four unusual human G8P[4] strains were identified which had artiodactyl-like origins. During an ongoing community based surveillance for epidemiological profiling of diarrheal pathogens, these unusual human group A rotavirus G8P[4] strains were detected from the stool samples of 3-14 months old children with acute diarrhea in Sonarpur, eastern India. Analysis of eleven complete and/or partial gene segments of these unusual G8P[4] strains were done by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) followed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The VP7 nucleotide sequences revealed a close phylogenetic relationship to the G8P[7] porcine strain D-1 and bovine strain KJ59-2 from South Korea. Whereas the VP4 gene segments were also related closely to human rotavirus prototype strain DS-1. Other nine gene segments of these G8P[4] rotaviruses were related closely to either animal or animal-derived rotavirus members of the DS-1-like family. These results suggest that origin of these G8P[4] strains might have been resulted from multiple reassortment events between artiodactyls and ruminant-derived reassortant human rotaviruses. To date, this is the first report of G8P[4] rotavirus from India and the first genomic analysis of G8P[4] strains from Asian continent. PMID:23280762

Mukherjee, Anupam; Mullick, Satarupa; Deb, Alok Kumar; Panda, Samiran; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

2013-03-01

60

Efficient biomimetic aerobic oxidation of phenylethane catalyzed by P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2-supported metalloporphyrins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, three kinds of metalloporphyrins (CoPs, FePs, and MnPs) were immobilized on the grafting particles P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 through the axial coordination reaction, respectively, and the supported biomimetic catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 (M = Co, Fe and Mn) were prepared. The catalytic performances of various supported biomimetic catalysts for the oxidation of phenylethane in the absence of any reductant and solvent were investigated and compared detailedly. The experimental results show that the supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 can effectively activate dioxygen, and obviously catalyze the oxidation of phenylethane to hypnone. When MPs are immobilized on the supports P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2, the catalytic activity of MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 is improved greatly. Also the catalytic activities of MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 differ among the different metals, according to the following series: Co(II) > Fe(III) > Mn(III). Under the reaction conditions of 393 K and the ordinary pressure of oxygen, the catalyst CoP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 gave wonderful results with 24 mol% yield and 95% selectivity to the main product hypnone, and the another product, ?-phenylethanol was few. All these results indicate that the grafting particles P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 can not only protect metalloporphyrin from oxidation, but also promote it to activate O 2. Additionally, some rules were specially found in the studies: (1) CoPs as a biomimetic catalyst had an optimum used amount, and excess addition would make the catalyst activity worse; (2) the immobilization density of CoPs on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 surface still had the high-point; (3) the catalyst activity trended to steady during nine cycle.

Wang, Ruixin; Jiao, Weizhou; Gao, Baojiao

2009-06-01

61

Growth, Structure, Thermal Properties and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Nd3+-Doped KGdP4O12 Crystal  

PubMed Central

A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG?SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a?=?7.812(2) Å, b?=?12.307(3) Å, c?=?10.474(2) Å, ??=?110.84(3)° and Z?=?4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920°C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 ?s and a high quantum efficiency of 96%. PMID:24968165

Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

2014-01-01

62

Growth, structure, thermal properties and spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal.  

PubMed

A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG-SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a?=?7.812(2) Å, b?=?12.307(3) Å, c?=?10.474(2) Å, ??=?110.84(3)° and Z?=?4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920°C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 ?s and a high quantum efficiency of 96%. PMID:24968165

Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

2014-01-01

63

Pentacoordinate phosphorus in a high-pressure polymorph of phosphorus nitride imide P4N6(NH).  

PubMed

Coordination numbers higher than usual are often associated with superior mechanical properties. In this contribution we report on the synthesis of the high-pressure polymorph of highly condensed phosphorus nitride imide P4 N6 (NH) representing a new framework topology. This is the first example of phosphorus in trigonal-bipyramidal coordination being observed in an inorganic network structure. We were able to obtain single crystals and bulk samples of the compound employing the multi-anvil technique. ?-P4 N6 (NH) has been thoroughly characterized using X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthesis of ?-P4 N6 (NH) gives new insights into the coordination chemistry of phosphorus at high pressures. The synthesis of further high-pressure phases with higher coordination numbers exhibiting intriguing physical properties seems within reach. PMID:25124527

Baumann, Dominik; Schnick, Wolfgang

2014-12-22

64

Human G3P[4] rotavirus obtained in Japan, 2013, possibly emerged through a human-equine rotavirus reassortment event.  

PubMed

Two novel G3P[4] rotavirus strains were detected from children with acute diarrhea in Sendai, Japan, identified as a G3-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation by whole-genome sequence analysis. The VP7 gene of the two strains displayed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (91 %) and showed a close genetic relationship (99 % bootstrap value) to an equine rotavirus reported in India. The other gene segments were related to human group A rotaviruses. This report suggests a possible reassortment event between human and equine rotaviruses. PMID:25352228

Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mayuko; Suzuki, Akira; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Nukiwa-Soma, Nao; Tohma, Kentaro; Liu, Xiaofang; Okamoto, Michiko; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Dapat, Clyde; Kawamura, Kazuhisa; Kayama, Yasuko; Masago, Yoshifumi; Omura, Tatsuo; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2015-02-01

65

Accelerator-driven modular aneutronic production of tritium from D+D?T+p+4MeV in self-colliding beams of deuterons (without target or blanket)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of neutralized Self-Colliders(SC) has opened the way for collision rates or ‘‘luminosity’’ L, (reaction rate for ?=1), orders of magnitude greater than obtained in colliding beams or beam-on-target experiments, L?1×1041 cm?2 s?1, This facilitates direct production of tritium in self-colliding beams in the reaction d+d?T+p+4 MeV. The tritons are extracted as a beam, decelerated, neutralized, and stored as

Bogdan C. Maglich; Tsuey-Fen Chang; Dan Arthur Gross

1995-01-01

66

The miR-124-Prolyl Hydroxylase P4HA1-MMP1 axis plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression  

PubMed Central

Collagen prolyl hydroxylases (C-P4HAs) are a family of enzymes involved in collagen biogenesis. One of the isoforms of P4HA, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I (P4HA1), catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential for the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Here, we show the overexpression of P4HA1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray demonstrated that P4HA1 expression was correlated with prostate cancer progression. Using in vitro studies, we showed that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer cell growth and tumor progression. Expression profiling studies using P4HA1-modulated prostate cells suggested regulation of Matrix metalloprotease 1. The invasive properties of P4HA1 overexpressing cells were reversed by blocking MMP1. Our studies indicate P4HA1 copy number gain in a subset of metastatic prostate tumors and its expression is also regulated by microRNA-124. MiR-124 in turn is negatively regulated by transcriptional repressors EZH2 and CtBP1, both of which are overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mice xenograft investigations show that P4HA1 is required for tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Our observations suggest that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and could serve as a viable therapeutic target. PMID:25115393

Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V. S. K.; Cie?lik, Marcin; Zheng, Heng; Nallasivam, Sivakumar; Arekapudi, Subramanyeswara R.; Jing, Xiaojun; Siddiqui, Javed; Athanikar, Jyoti; Carskadon, Shannon L.; Lonigro, Robert J.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

2014-01-01

67

Isolation, characterization, and inactivation of the APA1 gene encoding yeast diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate phosphorylase.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorylase from yeast was isolated from a lambda gt11 library. The DNA sequence of the coding region was determined, and more than 90% of the deduced amino acid sequence was confirmed by peptide sequencing. The Ap4A phosphorylase gene (APA1) is unique in the yeast genome. Disruption experiments with this gene, first, supported the conclusion that, in vivo, Ap4A phosphorylase catabolizes the Ap4N nucleotides (where N is A, C, G, or U) and second, revealed the occurrence of a second Ap4A phosphorylase activity in yeast cells. Finally, evidence is provided that the APA1 gene product is responsible for most of the ADP sulfurylase activity in yeast extracts. Images PMID:2556364

Plateau, P; Fromant, M; Schmitter, J M; Buhler, J M; Blanquet, S

1989-01-01

68

A P4VT (Power-Performance-Process-Parasitic-Voltage-Temperature) Aware Dual-VT h Nano-CMOS VCO  

E-print Network

and temperature have a drastic effect on the performance (center frequency) of the VCO. A design optimization-controlled oscillator or VCO is an electronic oscillator designed to be controlled in oscillation frequency by a voltage-CMOS VCO. 3. Design of a P4VT-optimal 90nm VCO. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Related

Mohanty, Saraju P.

69

Orbital Orientations of Exoplanets: Hat-p-4b is Prograde and Hat-p-14b is Retrograde  

E-print Network

We present observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for two exoplanetary systems, revealing the orientations of their orbits relative to the rotation axes of their parent stars. HAT-P-4b is prograde, with a sky-projected ...

Winn, Joshua Nathan

70

Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of Fennoscandian cowpox virus isolates based on the p4c and atip genes  

PubMed Central

Background Cowpox virus (CPXV), a rodent-borne Orthopoxvirus (OPV) that is indigenous to Eurasia can infect humans, cattle, felidae and other animals. Molecular characterization of CPXVs isolated from different geographic locations is important for the understanding of their biology, geographic distribution, classification and evolution. Our aim was to characterize CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia on the basis of A-type inclusion (ATI) phenotype, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of atip gene fragment amplicon, and phylogenetic tree topology in conjunction with the patristic and genetic distances based on full length DNA sequence of the atip and p4c genes. Methods ATI phenotypes were determined by transmission electron microcopy and RFLP profiles were obtained by restriction enzyme digestion of the atip gene fragment PCR product. A 6.2 kbp region spanning the entire atip and p4c genes of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates was amplified and sequenced. The phylogenetic affinity of Fennoscandian CPXV isolates to OPVs isolated from other geographic regions was determined on the basis of the atip and p4c genes. Results Fennoscandian CPXV isolates encoded full length atip and p4c genes. They produce wild type V+ ATI except for CPXV-No-H2. CPXVs were resolved into six and seven species clusters based on the phylogeny of the atip and p4c genes respectively. The CPXVs isolated from Fennoscandia were grouped into three distinct clusters that corresponded to isolates from Norway, Sweden and Finland. Conclusion CPXV is a polyphyletic assemblage of six or seven distinct clusters and the current classification in which CPXVs are united as one single species should be re-considered. Our results are of significance to the classification and evolution of OPVs. PMID:24972911

2014-01-01

71

Carbohydrates as additives for the formation of isoporous PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer membranes.  

PubMed

Highly porous polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer membranes are prepared using carbohydrates as additives. Therefore ?-cyclodextrine, ?-(D)-glucose, and saccharose (cane sugar) are tested for the membrane formation of three different PS-b-P4VP polymers. The addition of the carbohydrates leads to an increasing viscosity of the membrane solutions due to hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates and pyridine units of the block copolymer. In all cases, the membranes made from solution with carbohydrates have higher porosity, an improved narrow pore distribution on the surface and a higher water flux as membranes made without carbohydrates with the same polymer, solvent ratio, and polymer concentration. PMID:23225180

Clodt, Juliana Isabel; Rangou, Sofia; Schröder, Anne; Buhr, Kristian; Hahn, Janina; Jung, Adina; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

2013-01-25

72

Synthesis and biological evaluations of P4-benzoxaborole-substituted macrocyclic inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We disclose here a series of P4-benzoxaborole-substituted macrocyclic HCV protease inhibitors. These inhibitors are potent against HCV NS3 protease, their anti-HCV replicon potencies are largely impacted by substitutions on benzoxaborole ring system and P2? groups. P2? 2-thiazole-isoquinoline provides best replicon potency. The in vitro SAR studies and in vivo PK evaluations of selected compounds are described herein.

Charles Z. Ding; Yong-Kang Zhang; Xianfeng Li; Yang Liu; Suoming Zhang; Yasheen Zhou; Jacob J. Plattner; Stephen J. Baker; Liang Liu; Maosheng Duan; Richard L. Jarvest; Jingjing Ji; Wieslaw M. Kazmierski; Matthew D. Tallant; Lois L. Wright; Gary K. Smith; Renae M. Crosby; Amy A. Wang; Zhi-Jie Ni; Wuxin Zou; Jon Wright

73

Synthesis and biological evaluations of P4-benzoxaborole-substituted macrocyclic inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease.  

PubMed

We disclose here a series of P4-benzoxaborole-substituted macrocyclic HCV protease inhibitors. These inhibitors are potent against HCV NS3 protease, their anti-HCV replicon potencies are largely impacted by substitutions on benzoxaborole ring system and P2? groups. P2? 2-thiazole-isoquinoline provides best replicon potency. The in vitro SAR studies and in vivo PK evaluations of selected compounds are described herein. PMID:21067923

Ding, Charles Z; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Li, Xianfeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Suoming; Zhou, Yasheen; Plattner, Jacob J; Baker, Stephen J; Liu, Liang; Duan, Maosheng; Jarvest, Richard L; Ji, Jingjing; Kazmierski, Wieslaw M; Tallant, Matthew D; Wright, Lois L; Smith, Gary K; Crosby, Renae M; Wang, Amy A; Ni, Zhi-Jie; Zou, Wuxin; Wright, Jon

2010-12-15

74

The extended elastic model III: the nuclear fusion for the reaction 7 Li(p,?) 4 He  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A different procedure to determine the parameters which appear in the extended elastic model II for the sub-barrier fusion\\u000a is suggested. A comparison between the values of fusion cross-section obtained by using the extended elastic model II and\\u000a those obtained by using the new approach is shown. In the framework of the new model the reaction7Li(p,?)4He is investigated.

A. Scalia

1991-01-01

75

Mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in weighted P 4 and extensions of Landau-Ginzburg theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently two groups have listed all sets of weights k = (kl,…, k5) such that the weighted projective space P4k admits a transverse Calabi-Yau hypersurface. It was noticed that the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifolds do not form a mirror symmetric set since some 850 of the 7555 manifolds have Hodge numbers (b11, b21) whose mirrors do not occur in the list.

Philip Candelas; Xenia de la Ossa; Sheldon Katz

1995-01-01

76

The in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass and gentamicin impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis is a disease that is still difficult to treat, with considerable morbidity and associated costs. The current "gold standard" in treatment - debridement and implantation of antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads - presents the disadvantage of a second surgical intervention required for the removal of the beads. We comparatively investigated the in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass (BAG) and gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads. Bacterial viability was assessed hourly by Standard Plate Count during 24 hours of incubation, by determining the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both tested materials showed an antibacterial effect on all studied bacteria. In case of S. aureus, BAG granules were almost as effective as gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads, with no statistically significant differences. In contrast, PMMA beads had a superior antibacterial effect on S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial effect of BAG was greatly influenced by granule size and contact time. There was a statistically significant correlation between pH values and the number of CFU in the case of S53P4 BAG granules. As a biocompatible and biodegradable bone substitute, S53P4 bioactive glass can be a good alternative in the local management of osteomyelitis. PMID:24939683

Gergely, István; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Man, Adrian; Zuh, Sándor György; Pop, Tudor Sorin

2014-06-01

77

New high-pressure polymorph of In2S3 with defect Th3P4-type structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high pressure behavior of ?-In2S3 (I41/amd and Z=16) has been studied by in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction combined with diamond anvil cell up to 71.7 GPa. Three pressure-induced phase transitions are evidenced at ~6.6 GPa, ~11.1 GPa at room temperature and 35.6 GPa after the high-temperature annealing using a portable laser heating system. The new polymorph of In2S3 at 35.6 GPa is assigned to the denser cubic defect Th3P4 structure (I4bar3d and Z=5.333), whose unit-cell parameters are a=7.557(1) Å and V=431.6(2) Å3. The Th3P4-type phase can be stable at least up to 71.7 GPa and cannot be preserved at ambient pressure. The pressure-volume relationship is well described by the second-order Birch-Murnaghan Equation of State, which yields B0=63(3) GPa and B0?=4 (fixed) for the ?-In2S3 phase and B0=87(3) GPa and B0?=4 (fixed) for the defect Th3P4-type phase respectively.

Lai, Xiaojing; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Ye; Huang, Rong; Wu, Xiang; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ke; Qin, Shan

2014-02-01

78

Evolutionarily conserved structural changes in phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (PI5P4K) isoforms are responsible for differences in enzyme activity and localization  

PubMed Central

Mammals have genes coding for three PI5P4Ks (PtdIns5P 4-kinases), and these have different cellular localizations, tissue distributions and lipid kinase activities. We describe in the present paper a detailed molecular exploration of human PI5P4Ks ?, ? and ?, as well as their fly and worm homologues, to understand how and why these differences came to be. The intrinsic ATPase activities of the three isoforms are very similar, and we show that differences in their G-loop regions can account for much of their wide differences in lipid kinase activity. We have also undertaken an extensive in silico evolutionary study of the PI5P4K family, and show experimentally that the single PI5P4K homologues from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are as widely different in activity as the most divergent mammalian isoforms. Finally we show that the close association of PI5P4Ks ? and ? is a true heterodimerization, and not a higher oligomer association of homodimers. We reveal that structural modelling is consistent with this and with the apparently random heterodimerization that we had earlier observed between PI5P4K? and PI5P4K? [Wang, Bond, Letcher, Richardson, Lilley, Irvine and Clarke (2010), Biochem. J. 430, 215–221]. Overall the molecular diversity of mammalian PI5P4Ks explains much of their properties and behaviour, but their physiological functionality remains elusive. PMID:23758345

Clarke, Jonathan H.; Irvine, Robin F.

2013-01-01

79

The Cross Section of 3He(3He,2p)4He measured at Solar Energies  

E-print Network

We report on the results of the \\hethet\\ experiment at the underground accelerator facility LUNA (Gran Sasso). For the first time the lowest projectile energies utilized for the cross section measurement correspond to energies below the center of the solar Gamow peak ($E_{\\rm 0}$=22 keV). The data provide no evidence for the existence of a hypothetical resonance in the energy range investigated. Although no extrapolation is needed anymore (except for energies at the low-energy tail of the Gamow peak), the data must be corrected for the effects of electron screening, clearly observed the first time for the \\hethet\\ reaction. The effects are however larger than expected and not understood, leading presently to the largest uncertainty on the quoted $S_{\\rm b}(E_{\\rm 0})$ value for bare nuclides (=5.40 MeV b).

The LUNA Collaboration; M. Junker; A. D'Alessandro; S. Zavatarelli; C. Arpesella; E. Bellotti; C. Broggini; P. Corvisiero; G. Fiorentini; A. Fubini; G. Gervino; U. Greife; C. Gustavino; J. Lambert; P. Prati; W. S. Rodney; C. Rolfs; F. Strieder; H. P. Trautvetter; D. Zahnow

1998-02-06

80

A novel method for immobilization of Co tetraphenylporphyrins on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2: Efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, poly(4vinylpyridine-co-styrene) (P(4VP-co-St)) was grafted on silica gel particles in the manner of "grafting from", and the grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was gained. The grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 is a novel kind of supports for immobilizing metalloporphyrin catalysts. Then, the immobilization of cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin (CoTPP) on the supports P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was carried out via the axial coordination reaction between CoTPP and the pyridine groups of the grafted P(4VP-co-St), resulting in the heterogenised catalysts CoTPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by FTIR and the axial coordination process between CoTPP and the grafted P(4VP-co-St) was confirmed by UV-vis. The effects of various factors on the immobilization reaction of CoTPP were studied in detail. Finally, the catalytic performance of CoTPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 in the catalytic oxidation process of ethyl benzene was investigated. The experimental results show that the axial coordination reaction is a very easy and novel method for favorably immobilizing CoTPP onto the P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 surfaces. During the immobilization process of CoTPP on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2, the most bonding amount of CoTPP (0.19 g/g) is obtained under the lower temperature (5 °C) and the higher concentration of CoTPP(6.0 mg/ml) lasting 4 h. Moreover, the supported catalyst CoTPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 can effectively activate the dioxygen, and obviously catalyze the transform of ethylbenzene into acetophenone. So it exhibits the fine catalytic activity.

Wang, Ruixin; Gao, Baojiao; Jiao, Weizhou

2009-01-01

81

P4 medicine: how systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society  

PubMed Central

Ten years ago, the proposition that healthcare is evolving from reactive disease care to care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory was regarded as highly speculative. Today, the core elements of that vision are widely accepted and have been articulated in a series of recent reports by the US Institute of Medicine. Systems approaches to biology and medicine are now beginning to provide patients, consumers and physicians with personalized information about each individual’s unique health experience of both health and disease at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. This information will make disease care radically more cost effective by personalizing care to each person’s unique biology and by treating the causes rather than the symptoms of disease. It will also provide the basis for concrete action by consumers to improve their health as they observe the impact of lifestyle decisions. Working together in digitally powered familial and affinity networks, consumers will be able to reduce the incidence of the complex chronic diseases that currently account for 75% of disease-care costs in the USA. PMID:25342952

Glusman, Gustavo; Brogaard, Kristin; Price, Nathan D; Hood, Leroy

2014-01-01

82

P4 medicine: how systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society.  

PubMed

Ten years ago, the proposition that healthcare is evolving from reactive disease care to care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory was regarded as highly speculative. Today, the core elements of that vision are widely accepted and have been articulated in a series of recent reports by the US Institute of Medicine. Systems approaches to biology and medicine are now beginning to provide patients, consumers and physicians with personalized information about each individual's unique health experience of both health and disease at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. This information will make disease care radically more cost effective by personalizing care to each person's unique biology and by treating the causes rather than the symptoms of disease. It will also provide the basis for concrete action by consumers to improve their health as they observe the impact of lifestyle decisions. Working together in digitally powered familial and affinity networks, consumers will be able to reduce the incidence of the complex chronic diseases that currently account for 75% of disease-care costs in the USA. PMID:25342952

Flores, Mauricio; Glusman, Gustavo; Brogaard, Kristin; Price, Nathan D; Hood, Leroy

2013-01-01

83

WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b  

E-print Network

We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 ?m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are ...

Todorov, Kamen O.

84

Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

85

Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

86

Phase characterization, thermal stability, high-temperature transport properties, and electronic structure of rare-earth Zintl phosphides Eu3M2P4 (M = Ga, In).  

PubMed

Two rare-earth-containing ternary phosphides, Eu3Ga2P4 and Eu3In2P4, were synthesized by a two-step solid-state method with stoichiometric amounts of the constitutional elements. Refinements of the powder X-ray diffraction are consistent with the reported single-crystal structure with space group C2/c for Eu3Ga2P4 and Pnnm for Eu3In2P4. Thermal gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) measurements reveal high thermal stability up to 1273 K. Thermal diffusivity measurements from room temperature to 800 K demonstrate thermal conductivity as low as 0.6 W/m·K for both compounds. Seebeck coefficient measurements from room temperature to 800 K indicate that both compounds are small band gap semiconductors. Eu3Ga2P4 shows p-type conductivity and Eu3In2P4 p-type conductivity in the temperature range 300-700 K and n-type conductivity above 700 K. Electronic structure calculations result in band gaps of 0.60 and 0.29 eV for Eu3Ga2P4 and Eu3In2P4, respectively. As expected for a valence precise Zintl phase, electrical resistivity is large, approximately 2600 and 560 m?·cm for Eu3Ga2P4 and Eu3In2P4 at room temperature, respectively. Measurements of transport properties suggest that these Zintl phosphides have potential for being good high-temperature thermoelectric materials with optimization of the charge carrier concentration by appropriate extrinsic dopants. PMID:23517094

Yi, Tanghong; Zhang, Gaigong; Tsujii, Naohito; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Zevalkink, Alex; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Kauzlarich, Susan M

2013-04-01

87

Formation of sub-7 nm feature size PS-b-P4VP block copolymer structures by solvent vapour process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanometer range structure produced by thin films of diblock copolymers makes them a great of interest as templates for the microelectronics industry. We investigated the effect of annealing solvents and/or mixture of the solvents in case of symmetric Poly (styrene-block-4vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer to get the desired line patterns. In this paper, we used different molecular weights PS-b-P4VP to demonstrate the scalability of such high ? BCP system which requires precise fine-tuning of interfacial energies achieved by surface treatment and that improves the wetting property, ordering, and minimizes defect densities. Bare Silicon Substrates were also modified with polystyrene brush and ethylene glycol self-assembled monolayer in a simple quick reproducible way. Also, a novel and simple in situ hard mask technique was used to generate sub-7nm Iron oxide nanowires with a high aspect ratio on Silicon substrate, which can be used to develop silicon nanowires post pattern transfer.

Chaudhari, Atul; Ghoshal, Tandra; Shaw, Matthew T.; Cummins, Cian; Borah, Dipu; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

2014-03-01

88

Production of high energy and low flux protons using 2D(3He,p)4He for space detector calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we want to demonstrate that besides the conventional use for elemental analysis and depth profiling by ion beam analysis (IBA), particles generated through ion-solid interactions in IBA may find other novel and important applications. Specifically, we use Rutherford backscattered and nuclear reaction produced high energy proton particles to calibrate an energetic particle subsystem (called ZEP) of the Space and Atmospheric Burst Reporting System (SABRS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To simulate low radiation flux in the space, we have devised an experiment that uses an ultrathin (?51.8 nm) self-support gold foil to scatter a proton beam from a 3 MV Tandem accelerator into the ZEP subsystem. Direct backscattering from the thin gold foil produces proton particles with tunable energies of 0.2-6.0 MeV and desired counting rates of <10 kHz. To extend the proton particle energy beyond the Tandem's limit of 6 MeV, a high Q-value nuclear reaction, 2D + 3He ? p + 4He + 18.352 MeV, was used. This reaction allows us to obtain as high as 25.6 MeV proton particles on our 3 MV tandem accelerator, more than 4 times as high as the accelerator's maximum proton beam energy, and has greatly extended our proton energy range for this calibration activity. Preliminary ZEP subsystem calibration results are presented.

Wang, Y. Q.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Tesmer, J. R.

2014-08-01

89

[The calculation of transitions 4s(2)4p-4s4p(2), 4s(2)4p-4s(2)5s, 4s(2)4p-4s(2)4d, 4s4p(2)-4p(3) and 4p(3)-4s(2)5s energy levels, wavelengths and oscillator strengthes in Ga-like ions from Z X-Rh XV].  

PubMed

In this paper, the 4s(2)4p, 4s(2)4d, 4s4p(2), 4p(3) and 4s(2)5s configuration's energy level structures, and configuration interactions in Ga-Like from Ga I-Xe XXIV ions are analysed in theory. The law of isoelectronic series is given. By using our fitted formula, the energies of Tc XIII ion 4s(2)4p, 4s4p(2) and 4s(2)5s configurations are predicted by interpolation, the energies of Tc IIIX-Rh XV ions 4p(3) and 4s(2)4d configurations are predicted by extrapolation. Wavelengths and oscillator strengthes (HXR theoretical calculation) of transitions 4s(2)4p-4s(2)4d, 4s(2)4p-4s4p(2), 4s(2)4p-4s(2)5s, 4p(3)-4s(2)5s and 4s(2)4p-4p(3) are given. The deviations of predictive energy levels from ob served values are less than 100cm(-1). PMID:15810267

Cai, L; Li, X

1998-06-01

90

Study of polyphenyl ether fluid /5P4E/ in operating elastohydrodynamic contacts by infrared emission spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared emission spectra of 5P4E polyphenyl ether were obtained from an operating elastohydrodynamic sliding contact at different speeds and loads by Fourier emission microspectrophotometry. The spectra were found to be polarized with respect to the direction of the conjunction line, especially at high shear rates. Film and metal surface temperatures were calculated from the spectra, and film thicknesses were determined under various operating conditions. Changes of polarized band structure above a critical shear rate, at which the slope of the film temperature versus shear curve changes abruptly and at which the film thickness assumes a minimum value, are consistent with a transition of the lubricant from a viscous liquid to a viscoelastic liquid or to an elastic solid.

Lauer, J. L.

1979-01-01

91

Interactions of solute (3p, 4p, 5p and 6p) with solute, vacancy and divacancy in bcc Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solute-vacancy binding energy is a key quantity in understanding solute diffusion kinetics and phase segregation, and may help choice of alloy compositions for future material design. However, the binding energy of solute with vacancy is notoriously difficult to measure and largely unknown in bcc Fe. With first-principles method, we systemically calculate the binding energies of solute (3p, 4p, 5p and 6p alloying solutes are included) with vacancy, divacancy and solute in bcc Fe. The binding energy of Si with vacancy in the present work is in good consistent with experimental value available. All the solutes considered are able to form stable solute-vacancy, solute-divacancy complexes, and the binding strength of solute-divacancy is about two times larger than that of solute-vacancy. Most solutes could not form stable solute-solute complexes except S, Se, In and Tl. The factors controlling the binding energies are analyzed at last.

You, Yu-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Shan; Wu, Xue-Bang; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S.; Fang, Q. F.; Chen, J. L.; Luo, G.-N.; Wang, Zhiguang

2014-12-01

92

In-situ Lorentz microscopy of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure dependence of magnetic properties of soft magnetic Fe-Si-B-P-Cu nanocrystalline alloys were studied by using in-situ Lorentz microscopy in a transmission electron microscope equipped with a magnetizing system. In particular, we investigated in detail motion of magnetic domain walls in heat-treated Fe85Si12B6P4Cu1 amorphous ribbons. Smooth motion of domain walls was observed for the optimally heat-treated (at 430 °C) nano-crystalline alloy. Pinning of domain walls was observed for higher-temperature-heat-treated (470 °C) ribbons. Both ribbons showed a nanocrystalline structure containing ?-Fe crystallites of about 15 nm in size. Electron diffraction patterns indicated that the higher-temperature-heat-treated samples contained boride precipitates, which is considered to cause less smooth domain wall motion.

Akase, Zentaro; Aizawa, Shinji; Shindo, Daisuke; Sharma, Parmanand; Makino, Akihiro

2015-02-01

93

Critical role of a transmembrane lysine in aminophospholipid transport by mammalian photoreceptor P4-ATPase ATP8A2  

PubMed Central

ATP8A2 is a P4-ATPase (“flippase”) located in membranes of retinal photoreceptors, brain cells, and testis, where it mediates transport of aminophospholipids toward the cytoplasmic leaflet. It has long been an enigma whether the mechanism of P4-ATPases resembles that of the well-characterized cation-transporting P-type ATPases, and it is unknown whether the flippases interact directly with the lipid and with counterions. Our results demonstrate that ATP8A2 forms a phosphoenzyme intermediate at the conserved aspartate (Asp416) in the P-type ATPase signature sequence and exists in E1P and E2P forms similar to the archetypical P-type ATPases. Using the properties of the phosphoenzyme, the partial reaction steps of the transport cycle were examined, and the roles of conserved residues Asp196, Glu198, Lys873, and Asn874 in the transport mechanism were elucidated. The former two residues in the A-domain T/D-G-E-S/T motif are involved in catalysis of E2P dephosphorylation, the glutamate being essential. Transported aminophospholipids activate the dephosphorylation similar to K+ activation of dephosphorylation in Na+,K+-ATPase. Lys873 mutants (particularly K873A and K873E) display a markedly reduced sensitivity to aminophospholipids. Hence, Lys873, located in transmembrane segment M5 at a “hot spot” for cation binding in Ca2+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase, appears to participate directly in aminophospholipid binding or to mediate a crucial interaction within the ATP8A2-CDC50 complex. By contrast, Lys865 is unimportant for aminophospholipid sensitivity. Binding of Na+, H+, K+, Cl-, or Ca2+ to the E1 form as a counterion is not required for activation of phosphorylation from ATP. Therefore, phospholipids could be the only substrate transported by ATP8A2. PMID:22307598

Coleman, Jonathan A.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Molday, Robert S.; Vilsen, Bente; Peter Andersen, Jens

2012-01-01

94

In Situ GISAXS Study on Solvent Vapour Induced Orientation Switching in PS-b-P4VP Block Copolymer Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the orientation changes of cylindrical P4VP microdomains in PS-b-P4VP thin films upon annealing in different solvent vapours using the time-resolved in situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the first time. Swelling of perpendicular cylinders (C ?) in a non-selective solvent vapours (chloroform) leads to the orientation change to in-plane cylinders (C\\/\\/) and it occurs through a disordered

E. Bhoje Gowd; Marcus Böhme; Manfred Stamm

2010-01-01

95

Characterization of G2P[4] rotavirus strains causing outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in 1999, 2004 and 2009.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhea cause a large disease burden in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® has been associated with an increase in detection of G2P[4] strains in many countries. However, G2P[4] emergence has also been observed in vaccine-naive countries, suggesting a general global increase in the circulation of G2P[4] strains. A G2P[4] rotavirus outbreak occurred in 2009, 28 months after the introduction of the Rotarix® vaccine and 43 children were hospitalized. Pre-vaccine introduction, G2P[4] strains were observed associated with large outbreaks in 1999 and 2004. To determine the genetic relationship between these strains whole genome sequence analysis was conducted on representative strains from each of the G2P[4] outbreaks, in 1999, 2004 and 2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the majority of genes from 2009 outbreak strain clustered with contemporary global strains, while the VP7 gene clustered with contemporary and older strains and was antigenically distinct to the majority of contemporary global G2P[4] strains; suggesting the strain was an intragenogroup reassortant. The 1999 and 2009 strains appear to share similar evolutionary origins, and both had a high degree of genetic identity to previously identified Australian and global strains. Conversely, the 2004 outbreak strain was more divergent in comparison to Australian and global strains. The 1999 and 2004 outbreaks likely occurred due to the accumulation of immunologically naïve children in the population following low levels of G2P[4] rotavirus disease in the community in the years prior to each outbreak. The 2009 outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage in the population and vaccine efficacy against the strain was low. The circulation of this unusual strain in the population combined with low vaccine coverage and diminished vaccine efficacy likely contributed to the outbreak occurring in this population. PMID:25152486

Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Donker, Nicole C; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Snelling, Thomas L; Kirkwood, Carl D

2014-12-01

96

Activation of white phosphorus by low-valent group 5 complexes: formation and reactivity of cyclo-P4 inverted sandwich compounds.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis and comprehensive study of the electronic structure of a unique series of dinuclear group 5 cyclo-tetraphosphide inverted sandwich complexes. White phosphorus (P4) reacts with niobium(III) and tantalum(III) ?-diketiminate (BDI) tert-butylimido complexes to produce the bridging cyclo-P4 phosphide species {[(BDI)(N(t)Bu)M]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)} (1, M = Nb; 2, M = Ta) in fair yields. 1 is alternatively synthesized upon hydrogenolysis of (BDI)Nb(N(t)Bu)Me2 in the presence of P4. The trinuclear side product {[(BDI)NbN(t)Bu]3(?-P12)} (3) is also identified. Protonation of 1 with [HOEt2][B(C6F5)4] does not occur at the phosphide ring but rather involves the BDI ligand to yield {[(BDI(#))Nb(N(t)Bu)]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)}[B(C6F5)4]2 (4). The monocation and dication analogues {[(BDI)(N(t)Bu)Nb]2(?-?(3):?(3)P4)}{B(Ar(F))4}n (5, n = 1; 6, n = 2) are both synthesized by oxidation of 1 with AgBAr(F). DFT calculations were used in combination with EPR and UV-visible spectroscopies to probe the nature of the metal-phosphorus bonding. PMID:25469924

Camp, Clément; Maron, Laurent; Bergman, Robert G; Arnold, John

2014-12-17

97

Catabolism of diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate in procaryotes. Purification and properties of diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (symmetrical) pyrophosphohydrolase from Escherichia coli K12.  

PubMed

Enzymatic activity which hydrolyzes diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) yielding ADP has been identified in extracts of eubacteria, Escherichia coli and Acidaminococcus fermentans, and of a highly thermophilic archaebacterium, Pyrodictum occultum. Specific Ap4A (symmetric) pyrophosphohydrolase from Escherichia coli K12 has been purified almost 400-fold. The preparation was free of phosphatase, ATPase, phosphodiesterase, AMP-nucleosidase, and adenylate kinase. The Ap4A pyrophosphohydrolase molecular weight estimated by gel filtration is 27,000 +/- 1,000. Activity maximum is at pH 8.3. The Km value computed for Ap4A is 25 +/- 3 microM. The sulfhydryl group(s) is essential for enzyme activity. Metal chelators, EDTA, and o-phenanthroline, inhibit Ap4A hydrolysis; I0.5 values are 3 and 50 microM, respectively. Co2+ is a strong stimulator with an almost 100-fold increase in rate of Ap4A hydrolysis and a plateau in the range of 100-500 microM Co2+, when compared with the nonstimulated hydrolysis. Other transition metal ions, Mn2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+, stimulate by factors of 8, 3.5, and 3.5, respectively, with optimal concentrations in the range 200-500, 2-5, and 4-8 microM, respectively. Zn2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+, up to 30 microM, are without effect and they inhibit at higher concentrations. Mg2+ or Ca2+, in the absence of other divalent metal ions, are weak stimulators (1.5-fold stimulation occurs at 1-2 mM concentration), but act synergistically with Co2+ at its suboptimal concentrations. Stimulation in the presence of 10 microM Co2+ and either 1 mM MgCl2 or CaCl2 increases up to 75-fold. The same degree of synergy is found at 10 microM Co2+ and either 2-5 mM spermidine or 0.5-1.5 mM spermine. Besides Ap4A, bacterial Ap4A pyrophosphohydrolase hydrolyzes effectively Ap5A and Gp4G, and, to some extent, p4A, Ap6A, and Ap3A yielding in each case corresponding nucleoside diphosphate as one of the products. PMID:6317672

Guranowski, A; Jakubowski, H; Holler, E

1983-12-25

98

Cloning and expression of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate hydrolase from Lupinus angustifolius L.  

PubMed Central

The first isolation, cloning and expression of cDNA encoding an asymmetric diadenosine 5',5'''P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (Ap4A hydrolase) from a higher plant is described. Ap4A hydrolase protein was purified from seeds of both Lupinus luteus and Lupinus angustifolius and partially sequenced. The Ap4A hydrolase cDNA was cloned from L. angustifolius cotyledonary polyadenylated RNA using reverse transcription and PCR with primers based on the amino acid sequence. The cDNA encoded a protein of 199 amino acids, molecular mass 22982Da. When expressed in Escherichia coli fused to a maltose-binding protein, the enzyme catalysed asymmetric cleavage of Ap4A to AMP and ATP which was inhibited at concentrations of F- as low as 3 microM. These are properties characteristic of Ap4A hydrolase (asymmetrical) (EC 3.6.1. 17). Comparison of the Ap4A hydrolase sequences derived from the four known cDNAs from pig, human, lupin and fission yeast showed that, like the mammalian hydrolase, the lupin enzyme possesses a Mut T motif but no other significant similarities. No sequence similarity to the human fragile histidine triad protein, as found in the Ap4A hydrolase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was detected in the Ap4A hydrolase from lupin. PMID:9425114

Maksel, D; Guranowski, A; Ilgoutz, S C; Moir, A; Blackburn, M G; Gayler, K R

1998-01-01

99

Fast-electron-impact study on excitations of 4p, 4s, and 3d electrons of krypton  

SciTech Connect

Absolute optical oscillator strength densities for the excitations of the electrons 4p, 4s, and 3d have been measured. Their absolute optical oscillator strengths have also been obtained. An enhancement above the 4p ionization threshold in the photoabsorption spectrum was assigned as a delayed maximum which arises from the photoionization process of 4p{yields}{epsilon}d according to present Dirac-Slater calculation. In the energy region of 4s autoionization, we have observed several features that are absent in previous fast-electron-impact work, but exist in optical measurements. We clarify this discrepancy here. Two Rydberg series of optically forbidden transitions, i.e., 4s{sup -1}ns({sup 1}S) (n=5,6,7) and 4s{sup -1}nd({sup 1}D) (n=4,5,6,7) have been observed when the spectrometer worked at conditions with larger momentum transfers, namely, K{sup 2}=0.23 a.u. and 0.67 a.u. Furthermore, the absolute optical oscillator strengths for the 3d excitation have been obtained.

Yuan Zhensheng; Zhu Linfan; Liu Xiaojing; Li Wenbin; Cheng Huadong; Xu Kezun [Laboratory of Bond Selective Chemistry, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Zhong Zhiping [Department of Physics, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 3908, Beijing 100039 (China)

2002-12-01

100

Coherent lidar imaging of dust clouds: waveform comparison with the poly-phase (P4) modulation waveform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dust or aerosol cloud represents a convenient target to examine the capabilities of range-resolved Doppler and intensity (RRDI) or inverse synthetic aperture ladar (ISAR) imaging coherent laser radar, known as coherent "lidar" for optically thin targets. The poly-phase P4 ladar waveform and its RRDI images are described and compared with previous pulse-burst, linear-FM chirp pulse-compression, pseudo-random phase modulation waveforms, and several other waveforms which have not been utilized to date. A "dust cloud" has very many independently moving point scatterers with velocities that are approximately Gaussian randomly distributed in x,y,z with standard deviations of about 10% of the mean wind + aerosol velocity. This is contrary to a hard-target where the point scatterers are rigidly attached and moving together. The dust cloud produced speckle effects for the various ladar waveforms are compared. In addition, a reference set of four corner-cube retro-reflectors within the dust cloud further illustrates the differences in the various waveform capabilities and resolution.

Youmans, Douglas G.

2008-04-01

101

Effect of oestrus synchronization with PGF2?/eCG/hCG on luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts.  

PubMed

Administration of hormones to synchronize oestrus is a useful tool in animal breeding. However, exogenous ovarian stimulation may be detrimental to reproductive function. This study was aimed to examine whether an oestrus synchronization with PGF2?/eCG/hCG could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 9, 12 and 16 of pregnancy from gilts with natural (n = 16) and synchronized (n = 18) oestrus and analysed for (i) the expre-ssion of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide (CYP11A1), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?HSD); (ii) the concentration of P4 in the luteal tissue and blood; and (iii) the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors (LHR) and oestrogen receptors (ER? and ER?). Additionally, the effect of LH on P4 secretion from CL slices collected from synchronized and naturally ovulated animals has been studied in vitro. PGF2? /eCG/hCG administration increased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1, 3?HSD, and LHR on day 9 and CYP11A1 and LHR on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CYP11A1, 3?HSD, LHR, ER? and ER? proteins were not affected by synchronization; only StAR protein increased in hormonally treated animals (p = 0.017). The concentration of P4 in luteal tissue was greater on day 9 (p < 0.01), but lower on day 16 (p < 0.05) in gilts with hormonally induced oestrus compared with control animals. Blood serum levels of P4 were lower in synchronized than control gilts (p < 0.001). Synchronization did not affect LH-stimulated P4 secretion from luteal slices; however, greater basal concentration of P4 in incubation medium was detected for CLs collected from synchronized than control gilts (p < 0.05). In conclusion, synchronization of oestrus with PGF2?/eCG/hCG protocol in gilts did not impair the expression of luteal P4 synthesis system, although decreased P4 concentration in the blood. PMID:25292445

Szymanska, M; Morawska-Pucinska, E; Krawczynski, K; Kiewisz, J; Ziecik, A J; Blitek, A

2014-12-01

102

Comparing Student Experiences with Story Discussions in Dialogic versus Traditional Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the testimonials of 60 elementary school students about their experience during class discussions of assigned readings. They randomly assigned 12 classrooms to 2 treatments: Philosophy for Children (P4C) and Regular Instruction. P4C is an alternative educational environment that places dialogue at the center of its pedagogy.…

Reznitskaya, Alina; Glina, Monica

2013-01-01

103

Role of DNA-DNA Interactions on the Structure and Thermodynamics of Bacteriophages Lambda and P4  

PubMed Central

Electrostatic interactions play an important role in both packaging of DNA inside bacteriophages and its release into bacterial cells. While at physiological conditions DNA strands repel each other, the presence of polyvalent cations such as spermine and spermidine in solutions leads to the formation of DNA condensates. In this study, we discuss packaging of DNA into bacteriophages P4 and Lambda under repulsive and attractive conditions using a coarse-grained model of DNA and capsids. Packaging under repulsive conditions leads to the appearance of the coaxial spooling conformations; DNA occupies all available space inside the capsid. Under the attractive potential both packed systems reveal toroidal conformations, leaving the central part of the capsids empty. We also present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of packaging and show that the forces required to pack the genomes in the presence of polyamines are significantly lower than those observed under repulsive conditions. The analysis reveals that in both the repulsive and attractive regimes the entropic penalty of DNA confinement has a significant non-negligible contribution into the total energy of packaging. Additionally we report the results of simulations of DNA condensation inside partially packed Lambda. We found that at low densities DNA behaves as free unconfined polymer and condenses into the toroidal structures; at higher densities rearrangement of the genome into toroids becomes hindered, and condensation results in the formation of non-equilibrium structures. In all cases packaging in a specific conformation occurs as a result of interplay between bending stresses experienced by the confined polymer and interactions between the strands. PMID:21074621

Petrov, Anton S.; Harvey, Stephen C.

2010-01-01

104

Effect of MHC Haplotype on Immune Response upon Experimental SHIVSF162P4cy Infection of Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the effects of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) haplotypes on immunity to primate lentiviruses involving both acquired and innate immune responses. We present statistical evidence of the influence of MHC polymorphism on antiviral immunity of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM) following simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF162P4cy infection, involving the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and ?-defensins, which may modulate acquired immune responses. During the acute phase of infection, IL-10 correlated positively with viral load and negatively with CD4+T cell counts. Furthermore, ?-defensins production was directly correlated with plasma viral RNA, particularly at peak of viral load. When the effects of the MHC were analyzed, a significant association between lower anti-Env binding and neutralizing antibody levels with class IB M4 haplotype and with class IA, IB M4 haplotype, respectively, was observed in the post-acute phase. Lower antibody responses may have resulted into a poor control of infection thus explaining the previously reported lower CD4 T cell counts in these monkeys. Class II M3 haplotype displayed significantly lower acute and post-acute IL-10 levels. In addition, significantly lower levels of ?-defensins were detected in class IA M3 haplotype monkeys than in non-M3 macaques, in the post-acute phase of infection. These data indicate that the MHC could contribute to the delicate balance of pro-inflammatory mechanisms, particularly with regard to the association between IL-10 and ?-defensins in lentivirus infection. Our results show that host genetic background, virological and immunological parameters should be considered for the design and interpretation of HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies. PMID:24695530

Borsetti, Alessandra; Ferrantelli, Flavia; Maggiorella, Maria T.; Sernicola, Leonardo; Bellino, Stefania; Gallinaro, Alessandra; Farcomeni, Stefania; Mee, Edward T.; Rose, Nicola J.; Cafaro, Aurelio; Titti, Fausto; Ensoli, Barbara

2014-01-01

105

Knowledge-Based Personal Health System to empower outpatients of diabetes mellitus by means of P4 Medicine.  

PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and it imposes a large economic burden on healthcare systems. We present a web patient empowering system (PHSP4) that ensures continuous monitoring and assessment of the health state of patients with DM (type I and II). PHSP4 is a Knowledge-Based Personal Health System (PHS) which follows the trend of P4 Medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, and Participative). It provides messages to outpatients and clinicians about the achievement of objectives, follow-up, and treatments adjusted to the patient condition. Additionally, it calculates a four-component risk vector of the associated pathologies with DM: Nephropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic foot, and Cardiovascular event. The core of the system is a Rule-Based System which Knowledge Base is composed by a set of rules implementing the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (American Diabetes Association: http://www.diabetes.org/ ) clinical guideline. The PHSP4 is designed to be standardized and to facilitate its interoperability by means of terminologies (SNOMED-CT [The International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization: http://www.ihtsdo.org/snomed-ct/ ] and UCUM [The Unified Code for Units of Measure: http://unitsofmeasure.org/ ]), standardized clinical documents (HL7 CDA R2 [Health Level Seven International: http://www.hl7.org/index.cfm ]) for managing Electronic Health Record (EHR). We have evaluated the functionality of the system and its users' acceptance of the system using simulated and real data, and a questionnaire based in the Technology Acceptance Model methodology (TAM). Finally results show the reliability of the system and the high acceptance of clinicians. PMID:25417090

Bresó, Adrián; Sáez, Carlos; Vicente, Javier; Larrinaga, Félix; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

2015-01-01

106

Rotavirus A genotype P[4]G2: genetic diversity and reassortment events among strains circulating in Brazil between 2005 and 2009.  

PubMed

Group A rotaviruses (RV-A) are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. Due to the epidemiologic complexity of RV-A, especially in developing countries, it is important to determine which genotypes are circulating, principally after the introduction in March 2006 of the monovalent (P[8]G1) Rotarix® vaccine in Brazil by the National Immunization Program. In Phase III trials with Rotarix®, the prevalence of genotype P[4]G2 was extremely low, and therefore, evaluation of heterotypic immunization against this genotype was performed by meta-analysis statistics tests. Different studies have shown the re-emergence of genotype P[4]G2 in Brazil, since 2005, as well as in other countries, suggesting that it could be a continental phenomenon related to the temporal variability in the genotype's naturally occurring distribution. It is important to note that genotype P[4]G2 does not share VP4 or VP7 antigens with the vaccine strain. Therefore, we performed a phylogenetic analysis based on VP4 (VP8), VP7, VP6, and NSP4 genes of RV-A genotype P[4]G2 samples isolated from the five regions of Brazil between 2005 and 2009. This study revealed that different genetic variants of RV-A genotype P[4]G2 circulated in Brazil between 2005 and 2009, and that this variability is determined mainly by: occurrence of point mutations; reassortment events; and widespread global gene flow. The results obtained in this study are important to our understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of RV-A genotype P[4]G2 and demonstrate the importance of continuous monitoring and molecular characterization of RV-A strains circulating in human and animal populations. PMID:21503926

Gómez, Mariela Martínez; de Mendonça, Marcos César Lima; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Tort, Luis Fernando López; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Cristina, Juan; Leite, Jose Paulo Gagliardi

2011-06-01

107

Direct Observation of the Ground State of a 1/3 Quantum Magnetization Plateau in SrMn3P4O14 Using Neutron Diffraction Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We can directly investigate the ground state in magnetization-plateau fields (plateau ground state) by neutron diffraction measurements. We performed neutron diffraction measurements on the spin-5/2 trimer substance SrMn3P4O14 in magnetization-plateau fields. The integrated intensities of magnetic reflections calculated using an expectation value of each spin in a plateau ground state of an isolated-trimer model are in agreement with those obtained experimentally in the magnetization-plateau fields. We succeeded in the direct observation of a plateau ground state in SrMn3P4O14.

Hase, Masashi; Pomjakushin, Vladimir Yu.; Dönni, Andreas; Yang, Tao; Cong, Rihong; Lin, Jianhua

2014-10-01

108

The function of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase ? (PI5P4K?) explored using a specific inhibitor that targets the PI5P binding site  

E-print Network

5P4K?+, a mutant with specific activity close to that of the active PI5P4K? isoform [12], were harvested by binding to glutathione sepharose beads (GE Healthcare) and cleaved in situ with 50U of PreScission protease (GE Healthcare) for 4 hours... the lumen [9], and in zebra fish (Danio) it is highly expressed in the pro-nephric duct throughout development (ZFIN Database: ZDB- IMAGE-030829-506). One easily monitored parameter is the redistribution of Na+/K+ ATPase from the cytoplasm...

Clarke, Jonathan H.; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Burke, John E.; Williams, Roger L.; Maloney, David J.; Marugan, Juan; Irvine, Robin F.

2014-12-11

109

In Situ GISAXS Study on Solvent Vapour Induced Orientation Switching in PS-b-P4VP Block Copolymer Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the orientation changes of cylindrical P4VP microdomains in PS-b-P4VP thin films upon annealing in different solvent vapours using the time-resolved in situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the first time. Swelling of perpendicular cylinders (C ?) in a non-selective solvent vapours (chloroform) leads to the orientation change to in-plane cylinders (C//) and it occurs through a disordered state. On the other hand, swelling of perpendicular cylinders (C ?) in a selective solvent vapours (1,4-dioxane) leads the morphological change from cylindrical to BCC spherical morphology. Solvent evaporation results in shrinkage of the matrix in the vertical direction and subsequently merges the spheres into the perpendicularly aligned cylinders. The selectivity of the solvent to constituting blocks and the solvent evaporation rate may be mainly responsible for such orientation change of cylindrical P4VP microdomains in PS-b-P4VP thin films.

Bhoje Gowd, E.; Böhme, Marcus; Stamm, Manfred

2010-11-01

110

When incentives work too well: locally implemented pay for performance (P4P) and adverse sanctions towards home birth in Tanzania - a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite limited evidence of its effectiveness, performance-based payments (P4P) are seen by leading policymakers as a potential solution to the slow progress in reaching Millennium Development Goal 5: improved maternal health. This paper offers insights into two of the aspects that are lacking in the current literature on P4P, namely what strategies health workers employ to reach set targets, and how the intervention plays out when implemented by local government as part of a national programme that does not receive donor funding. Methods A total of 28 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 25 individuals were conducted in Mvomero district over a period of 15 months in 2010 and 2011, both before and after P4P payments. Seven facilities, including six dispensaries and one health centre, were covered. Informants included 17 nurses, three clinical officers, two medical attendants, one lab technician and two district health administrators. Results Health workers reported a number of strategies to increase the number of deliveries at their facility, including health education and cooperation with traditional health providers. The staff at all facilities also reported that they had told the women that they would be sanctioned if they gave birth at home, such as being fined or denied clinical cards and/or vaccinations for their babies. There is a great uncertainty in relation to the potential health impacts of the behavioural changes that have come with P4P, as the reported strategies may increase the numbers, but not necessarily the quality. Contrary to the design of the P4P programme, payments were not based on performance. We argue that this was due in part to a lack of resources within the District Administration, and in part as a result of egalitarian fairness principles. Conclusions Our results suggest that particular attention should be paid to adverse effects when using external rewards for improved health outcomes, and secondly, that P4P may take on a different form when implemented by local implementers without the assistance of professional P4P specialists. PMID:24438556

2014-01-01

111

Changing patterns of rotavirus strains circulating in Ireland: Re-emergence of G2P[4] and identification of novel genotypes in Ireland.  

PubMed

Worldwide, Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is recognized as the most common aetiological agent of acute diarrheal disease in children. One hundred and ninety seven positive faecal samples were obtained from patients between 2006 and 2008. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify the VP7 and VP4 gene segments of these samples, and G and P typing was carried out subsequently. The most common strain type was G1P[8], and the emergent global G9-type was identified in both years. RVA strain type G2P[4], previously reported in Ireland in 1999, was also detected. Genotypes G2 and G3 in combination with P[4] were detected in 2006-2007 only. There was also an emergence of strain types including G3P[4], G9P[4], G2P[4?+?8] and G2G4P[8] in this study. Molecular analysis of the VP7 genes revealed G1 strains circulating within lineage Ic as previously reported in Ireland. In addition, new sublineage within lineage I of G1 strains was also identified. Analysis of G4 strain NRVL-Hum-49 revealed similarity with other human G4 viruses in lineage Ib. G9 strain NRVL-Hum-74 clustered with a unique G9 strain, CIT-254, in lineage IIIc. This data supports the observations made that the profile of RVA strains in Ireland appears to be dynamic. This study demonstrates that the circulation of human rotavirus is changing continuously in Ireland, and continued surveillance of the circulating strains is needed to detect the appearance of new strains, or new variants which may lead to vaccine breakthrough. J. Med. Virol. 87:764-773, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25704492

Collins, P J; Mulherin, Emily; O'Shea, Helen; Cashman, Olivia; Lennon, Grainne; Pidgeon, Eugene; Coughlan, Suzie; Hall, William; Fanning, Séamus

2015-05-01

112

Bioactive glass BAG-S53P4 for the adjunctive treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones: an in vitro and prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of the bioglass BAG S53P4 against multi-resistant microorganisms commonly involved in osteomyelitis and to evaluate its use in surgical adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis. Methods In vitro antibacterial activity of BAG-S53P4 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates was evaluated by means of time kill curves, with colony counts performed after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. In vivo evaluation was performed by prospectively studying a cohort of 27 patients with a clinically and radiologically diagnosed osteomyelitis of the long bones in an observational study. Endpoints were the absence of infection recurrence/persistence at follow-up, no need for further surgery whenever during follow-up and absence of local or systemic side effects connected with the BAG use. Results In vitro tests regarding the antibacterial activity of BAG S53P4 showed a marked bactericidal activity after 24 hrs against all the tested species. This activity continued in the subsequent 24 hrs and no growth was observed for all strains after 72 hrs. Results of the clinical study evidenced no signs of infection in 24 patients (88.9%) at the follow-up, while 2 subjects showed infection recurrence at 6 months from index operation and one more needed further surgical procedures. BAG-S53P4 was generally well tolerated. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo findings reinforce previous observations on the efficacy of BAG-S53P4 for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones, also in the presence of multi-resistant strains and in immunocompromised hosts, without relevant side effects and without the need for locally adding antibiotics. Trial registration Deutschen Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS) unique identifier: DRKS00005332. PMID:24325278

2013-01-01

113

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state in magnesium  

SciTech Connect

Two-photon above-threshold ionization (ATI) relative cross sections from the 3 {sup 1}P state of Mg have been measured using two-color ionization in the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and have been calculated using the Green's-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L{sup 2}-integrable close-coupling approach, with a basis of L{sup 2}-integrable B-spline functions. We report these cross sections in the region of 3d4p {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state, with photon energies of 3.3-3.6 eV. This is one of the few direct comparisons between ab initio theory and experiments in ATI in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the relative total cross sections.

Reber, A.; Baynard, T.; Berry, R.S. [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bachau, H. [Centre des Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 du CNRS-CEA-Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence (France)

2005-05-15

114

Synthesis and resistance to enzymic hydrolysis of stereochemically-defined phosphonate and thiophosphate analogues of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate.  

PubMed Central

Novel analogues of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate, Ap4A (1), have been prepared with sulphur substituents at P1 and P4 and either oxygen or methylene bridges at the P2,P3-position. Separation of three isomers of the ApspCH2ppsA species has been achieved by a combination of mplc and hplc and the Rp,Rp, Rp,Sp, and Sp,Sp diastereoisomers identified on the basis of selective enzymatic hydrolysis using snake venom phosphodiesterase. Each of these three isomers is a strong competitive inhibitor of the specific Ap4Aase from Artemia and is highly resistant to the asymmetric cleavage normally catalysed by this enzyme. PMID:2821489

Blackburn, G M; Taylor, G E; Thatcher, G R; Prescott, M; McLennan, A G

1987-01-01

115

Construction of a non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on copolymer P4VP-co-PAN and Fe2O3 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

An electrochemical sensor based on a copolymer poly(4-vinylpyridine)-co-poly(acrylonitrile), P4VP-co-PAN, and Fe2O3 nanoparticle film modified glassy carbon electrode was developed for the determination of glucose. We studied the response of glucose with the proposed electrode, and determined the optimum conditions by changing the potential, pH and P4VP-co-PAN. The current response measurements were performed in PBS (c=0.1 M) with a potential of 0.7 V. The current response of this glucose sensor showed a linear relationship with the concentration in the range of 2.5 ?M-0.58 mM (r=0.997). The experimental results demonstrate that this method has such merits as simple operation, low cost, high sensitivity, long term stability and good reproducibility, with satisfactory results. PMID:24411396

Chen, Yuxing; Zhang, Huaihao; Xue, Huaiguo; Hu, Xiaoya; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Chengyin

2014-02-01

116

Integration of GPS and GLONASS satellite positioning Annie Biron (CRG, Pavillon Casault, Universit Laval, Qubec, Qc, G1K 7P4, Canada;  

E-print Network

, Université Laval, Québec, Qc, G1K 7P4, Canada; (418) 656-2131 ext.: 7149; e-mail: annie.biron@scg-mail: rock.santerre@scg.ulaval.ca) Introduction The use of combined GPS+GLONASS observations would improveKM is the difference between the two receiver clock biases in seconds. This clock parameter information, along

Santerre, Rock

117

Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a New Layered Aluminophosphate Intercalated with Triply-Protonated Triethylenetetramine [C 6H 21N 4][Al 3P 4O 16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new layered aluminophosphate [C6H21N4][Al3P4O16] has been synthesized solvothermally by using triethylenetetramine (tetam) as the structure-directing agent and ethylene glycol as the solvent. The structure of the compound was solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. [C6H21N4][Al3P4O16] crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a=9.550(1), b=24.064(1), c=9.601(1) Å, ?=97.99(1)°, V=2184.9(1) Å3 and Z=4 (R=0.057 and Rw=0.052), and its structure consists of [Al3P4O16]3- macroanionic sheets stacked in an AAAA sequence. As primary building units in the individual sheet, alternating PO4 with terminal P=O and AlO4 tetrahedra are corner-shared to form elliptical eight-membered rings as well as four- and six-membered rings. The macroanionic sheets are held together through H bonds between the terminal P=O groups in the inorganic layers and the N atoms of the tetam molecules, which are triply-protonated.

Yao, You-Wei; Natarajan, Srinivasan; Chen, Jie-Sheng; Pang, Wen-Qin

1999-09-01

118

99mTc-3P4-RGD2 Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Lesions: Comparative Study with 99mTc-MIBI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the potential application of 99mTc-3P-Arg-Gly-Asp (99mTc-3P4-RGD2) scintimammography (SMM) and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) SMM for the differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions. Method Thirty-six patients with breast masses on physical examination and/or suspicious mammography results that required fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-MIBI SMM were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 60 min and 20 min respectively after intravenous injection of 738±86 MBq radiotracers on a separate day. Images were evaluated by the tumor to non-tumor localization ratios (T/NT). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on each radiotracer to calculate the cut-off values of quantitative indices and to compare the diagnostic performance for the ability to differentiate malignant from benign diseases. Results The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in benign lesions (3.54±1.51 vs. 1.83±0.98, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM were 89.3%, 90.9% and 89.7%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 2.40. The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-MIBI in malignant lesions was also significantly higher than that in benign lesions (2.86±0.99 vs. 1.51±0.61, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI SMM were 87.5%, 72.7% and 82.1%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 1.45. According to the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM (area?=?0.851) was higher than that for 99mTc-MIBI SMM (area?=?0.781), but the statistical difference was not significant. Conclusion 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM does not provide any significant advantage over the established 99mTc-MIBI SMM for the detection of primary breast cancer. The T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM was significantly higher than that of 99mTc-MIBI SMM. Both tracers could offer an alternative method for elucidating non-diagnostic mammograms. PMID:25250628

Gao, Shi; Ji, Tiefeng; Wen, Qiang; Song, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Xu, Zheli; Liu, Lin

2014-01-01

119

Accelerator-driven modular aneutronic production of tritium from D+D?T+p+4MeV in self-colliding beams of deuterons (without target or blanket)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of neutralized Self-Colliders(SC) has opened the way for collision rates or ``luminosity'' L, (reaction rate for ?=1), orders of magnitude greater than obtained in colliding beams or beam-on-target experiments, L?1×1041 cm-2 s-1, This facilitates direct production of tritium in self-colliding beams in the reaction d+d?T+p+4 MeV. The tritons are extracted as a beam, decelerated, neutralized, and stored as gas. Calculations, supported by experiments and a 3-dimensional Fokker Planck simulation on CRAY-2 of a strong focusing self-collider filled with 0.75 MeV deuterons of density 3.2×1014 cm-3, indicated that one cell would produce 10 grams of tritium per year in a 10 liter volume at an electricity cost of 42 MWh per gram (2,100 per gram). Laboratory benchmark test results with tritium production in SC are presented. Conceptual design of modular production plant units consisting of 10 cells and producing ?100 g/year will be described. This technique does not require tritium. Tritons are extracted with purity at the 1 ppm level, there is no lithium blanket and not tritium processing requirement for chemical extraction, purification or separation.

Maglich, Bogdan C.; Chang, Tsuey-Fen; Gross, Dan Arthur

1995-01-01

120

An innovative pay-for-performance (P4P) strategy for improving malaria management in rural Kenya: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background In high-resource settings, ‘pay-for-performance’ (P4P) programs have generated interest as a potential mechanism to improve health service delivery and accountability. However, there has been little or no experimental evidence to guide the development or assess the effectiveness of P4P incentive programs in developing countries. In the developing world, P4P programs are likely to rely, at least initially, on external funding from donors. Under these circumstances, the sustainability of such programs is in doubt and needs assessment. Methods/design We describe a cluster-randomized controlled trial underway in 18 health centers in western Kenya that is testing an innovative incentive strategy to improve management of an epidemiologically and economically important problem—diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The incentive scheme in this trial promotes adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines for laboratory confirmation of malaria before treatment, a priority area for the Ministry of Health. There are three important innovations that are unique to this study among those from other resource-constrained settings: the behavior being incentivized is quality of care rather than volume of service delivery; the incentives are applied at the facility-level rather than the individual level, thus benefiting facility infrastructure and performance overall; and the incentives are designed to be budget-neutral if effective. Discussion Linking appropriate case management for malaria to financial incentives has the potential to improve patient care and reduce wastage of expensive antimalarials. In our study facilities, on average only 25% of reported malaria cases were confirmed by laboratory diagnosis prior to the intervention, and the total treatment courses of antimalarials dispensed did not correspond to the number of cases reported. This study will demonstrate whether facility rather than individual incentives are compelling enough to improve case management, and whether these incentives lead to offsetting cost-savings as a result of reduced drug consumption. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number NCT01809873 PMID:23656836

2013-01-01

121

WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b  

SciTech Connect

We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

Todorov, Kamen O. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sada, Pedro V. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-06-20

122

An examination of the consistency of the published levels of the p2, p3 and p4 isoelectronic sequences using jj-relativistic expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We check the consistency of the known energy levels of the p2, p3 and p4 isoelectronic sequences tabulated at the NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Database. We used a screening parameter formulation using the Slater integrals arising from the jj-coupling relativistic expressions for the matrix elements. The general conclusion is that the use of the screening parameters is very adequate to check the consistency of level values along their isoelectronic sequences, more suitable than comparison of Slater integrals or other criteria, such as the widely used difference between theoretical and observed values.

Aguiar, Julio C.; Di Rocco, Héctor O.

2014-12-01

123

J- and H-aggregates of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin and interconversion in PEG-b-P4VP micelles.  

PubMed

Micellization of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PEG114-b-P4VP61) induced by 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin (TPPS) in acidic solutions were studied by dynamic and static light scattering, atomic force microscope, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The resultant complex micelles had a core-shell structure with the electrostatically complex TPPS/P4VP as the core and the soluble PEG as the shell. The anionic TPPS in the micellar core formed J-aggregates at pH 1.5-2.5 and H-aggregates at pH 3.0-4.0, respectively. Interconversion between the J-aggregates and the H-aggregates was carried out by adjusting the pH value of the micelle solutions. It is worth noting that the micelles showed strong split Cotton effect in the circular dichroism spectra although TPPS and the copolymer were all achiral. The resulting chirality sign could be selected by the hydrodynamic forces of a stirring vortex. Positive or negative chiral signals appeared when stirring clockwise or anticlockwise. PMID:18700742

Zhao, Lizhi; Ma, Rujiang; Li, Junbo; Li, Yan; An, Yingli; Shi, Linqi

2008-10-01

124

Structural and mechanistic basis of anti-termination of Rho-dependent transcription termination by bacteriophage P4 capsid protein Psu  

PubMed Central

The conserved bacterial transcription terminator, Rho, is a potent target for bactericidal agents. Psu, a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein, is capable of inducing anti-termination to the Rho-dependent transcription termination. Knowledge of structural and mechanistic basis of this anti-termination is required to design peptide-inhibitor(s) of Rho from Psu. Using suppressor genetics, cross-linking, protein foot-printing and FRET analyses, we describe a conserved disordered structure, encompassing 139–153 amino acids of Rho, as the primary docking site for Psu. Also a neighbouring helical structure, comprising 347–354 amino acids, lining its central channel, plays a supportive role in the Rho–Psu complex formation. Based on the crystal structure of Psu, its conformation in the capsid of the P4 phage, and its interacting regions on Rho, we build an energy-minimized structural model of the Rho:Psu complex. In this model, a V-shaped dimer of Psu interacts with the two diagonally opposite subunits of a hexameric Rho, enabling Psu to form a ‘lid’ on the central channel of the latter. We show that this configuration of Psu makes the central channel of Rho inaccessible, and it causes a mechanical impediment to its translocase activity. PMID:23703205

Ranjan, Amitabh; Sharma, Savita; Banerjee, Ramanuj; Sen, Udayaditya; Sen, Ranjan

2013-01-01

125

A transposon encoding the complete 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation pathway in the alkalitolerant strain Delftia acidovorans P4a.  

PubMed

The bacterial strain Delftia acidovorans P4a, isolated from an extreme environment (heavily contaminated with organochlorines, highly alkaline conditions in an aqueous environment), was found to mineralize 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid under alkaline conditions. Screening a genomic DNA library of the alkalitolerant strain for 2,4-D genes revealed the presence of the two 2,4-D gene clusters tfdCDEF and tfdC(II)E(II)BKA, tfdR genes being located in the vicinity of each tfd gene cluster. The results showed that the putative genes of the complete 2,4-D degradation pathway are organized in a single genomic unit. Sequence similarities to homologous gene clusters indicate that the individual tfd elements of strain P4a do not share a common origin, but were brought together by recombination events. The entire region is flanked by insertion elements of the IS1071 and IS1380 families, forming a transposon-like structure of about 30 kb, of which 28.4 kb were analysed. This element was shown to be located on the bacterial chromosome. The present study provides the first reported case of a chromosomally located catabolic transposon which carries the genes for the complete 2,4-D degradation pathway. PMID:12949179

Hoffmann, Doreen; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Müller, Roland H; Babel, Wolfgang

2003-09-01

126

Molecular Epidemiology of Contemporary G2P[4] Human Rotaviruses Cocirculating in a Single U.S. Community: Footprints of a Globally Transitioning Genotype  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the G/P types of locally circulating RVs can vary from year to year and differ depending upon geographical location, those with G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], and G12P[8] specificities typically dominate. Little is known about the evolution and diversity of G2P[4] RVs and the possible role that widespread vaccine use has had on their increased frequency of detection. To address these issues, we analyzed the 12 G2P[4] RV isolates associated with a rise in RV gastroenteritis cases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) during the 2010-2011 winter season. Full-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates had genotype 2 constellations typical of DS-1-like viruses (G2P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genome segments of the isolates were comprised of two or three different subgenotype alleles; this enabled recognition of three distinct clades of G2P[4] viruses that caused disease at VUMC in the 2010-2011 season. Although the three clades cocirculated in the same community, there was no evidence of interclade reassortment. Bayesian analysis of 328 VP7 genes of G2 viruses isolated in the last 39 years indicate that existing G2 VP7 gene lineages continue to evolve and that novel lineages, as represented by the VUMC isolates, are constantly being formed. Moreover, G2 lineages are characteristically shaped by lineage turnover events that introduce new globally dominant strains every 7 years, on average. The ongoing evolution of G2 VP7 lineages may give rise to antigenic changes that undermine vaccine effectiveness in the long term. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the diversity of cocirculating G2 rotaviruses and how their evolution may undermine the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines. To expand our understanding of the potential genetic range exhibited by rotaviruses circulating in postvaccine communities, we analyzed part of a collection of rotaviruses recovered from pediatric patients in the United States from 2010 to 2011. Examining the genetic makeup of these viruses revealed they represented three segregated groups that did not exchange genetic material. The distinction between these three groups may be explained by three separate introductions. By comparing a specific gene, namely, VP7, of the recent rotavirus isolates to those from a collection recovered from U.S. children between 1974 and 1991 and other globally circulating rotaviruses, we were able to reconstruct the timing of events that shaped their ancestry. This analysis indicates that G2 rotaviruses are continuously evolving, accumulating changes in their genetic material as they infect new patients. PMID:24429371

Dennis, Allison F.; McDonald, Sarah M.; Payne, Daniel C.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Chappell, James D.

2014-01-01

127

Discovery, synthesis and SAR analysis of novel selective small molecule S1P4-R agonists based on a (2Z,5Z)-5-((pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-3-alkyl-2-(alkylimino)thiazolidin-4-one chemotype.  

PubMed

High affinity and selective S1P(4) receptor (S1P(4)-R) small molecule agonists may be important proof-of-principle tools used to clarify the receptor biological function and effects to assess the therapeutic potential of the S1P(4)-R in diverse disease areas including treatment of viral infections and thrombocytopenia. A high-throughput screening campaign of the Molecular Libraries-Small Molecule Repository was carried out by our laboratories and identified (2Z,5Z)-5-((1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-3-methyl-2-(methylimino) thiazolidin-4-one as a promising S1P(4)-R agonist hit distinct from literature S1P(4)-R modulators. Rational chemical modifications of the hit allowed the identification of a promising lead molecule with low nanomolar S1P(4)-R agonist activity and exquisite selectivity over the other S1P(1-3,5)-Rs family members. The lead molecule herein disclosed constitutes a valuable pharmacological tool to explore the effects of the S1P(4)-R signaling cascade and elucidate the molecular basis of the receptor function. PMID:21982495

Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Velaparthi, Subash; Crisp, Melissa; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Brown, Steven; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward

2011-11-15

128

Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the C II Transitions 2s(exp 2)2p P-2(exp 0) yields 2s2p(exp 2) P-4, D-2, and S-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 2s(exp 2) 2p-2(exp 0) yield 2s2p(exp 2)P-4, D-2, and S-2 in C II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 2324 A (5.34 eV), 1335 x (9.29 eV), and 1036 A (11.97 eV), respectively. Use is made of electron energy-loss and merged beams methods. The energy range covered is from below each threshold (4 - 11 eV) to 15-24 eV. As in previous work with O II, care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction in the C II beam, to account for contributions from nearby energy-loss features, and to collect the full angular range of inelastically scattered electrons. A comparison is made for each transition between experiment and new 8-state R-matrix calculations. Subject headings: atomic data ultraviolet: general

Smith, Steven J.; Zuo, M.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Williams, I. D.

1996-01-01

129

Atomic packing and diffusion in Fe85Si2B9P4 amorphous alloy analyzed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the work reported in this paper, ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was performed on Fe85Si2B9P4 amorphous alloy. Preferred atomic environment of the elements was analyzed with Voronoi polyhedrons. It showed that B and P atoms prefer less neighbors compared with Fe and Si, making them structurally incompatible with Fe rich structure and repulsive to the formation of ?-Fe. However, due to the low bonding energy of B and P caused by low coordination number, the diffusion rates of them were considerably large, resulting in the requirement of fast annealing for achieving optimum nano-crystallization for its soft magnetic property. The simulation work also indicates that diffusion rate in amorphous alloy is largely determined by bonding energy rather than atomic size.

Wang, Yaocen; Takeuchi, Akira; Makino, Akihiro; Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

2015-05-01

130

K-shell photoionization spectra of atomic beryllium between 1s2s2 and 1s(2s2p3P)4s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoionization spectra of beryllium atoms in the region of 1s excitation have been measured by synchrotron radiation. The photon energy region reported in this article is between 1s2s2 and 1s(2s2p3P)4s corresponding to 122.3 and 127 eV, respectively. The configurations which have the unique characteristics due to the configuration mixing between 2s and 2p are discussed. Comparisons with the previous paper by L. VoKy et al. [Phys. Rev. A 46, 3945 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.3945] calculating the photoionization spectrum of this energy region were made and the assignments of the resonances were performed. The Fano parameters were also derived for the observed states.

Hasegawa, Shuichi; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Fumiko; Azuma, Yoshiro; Koike, Fumihiro; Nagata, Tetsuo

2014-09-01

131

Di(1,N6-ethenoadenosine)5', 5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate, a fluorescent enzymatically active derivative of Ap4A.  

PubMed

Di(1,N6-ethenoadenosine)5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate, epsilon-(Ap4A), a fluorescent analog of Ap4A has been synthesized by reaction of 2-chloroacetaldehyde with Ap4A. At neutral pH this Ap4A analog presents characteristics maxima at 265 and 274 nm, shoulders at ca 260 and 310 nm and moderate fluorescence (lambda exc 307 nm, lambda em 410 nm). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the phosphate backbone produced a slight hyperchromic effect but a notorious increase of the fluorescence emission. Cytosolic extracts from adrenochromaffin tissue as well as cultured chromaffin cells were able to split epsilon(Ap4A) and catabolize the resulting epsilon-nucleotide moieties up to epsilon-Ado. PMID:2013340

Rotilán, P; Ramos, A; Pintor, J; Torres, M; Miras-Portugal, M T

1991-03-25

132

Nano-crystallization and magnetic mechanisms of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 amorphous alloy by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-based amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys have attracted a growing interest due to their potential in the application of magnetic coil production. However, fundamental understanding of the nano-crystallization mechanisms and magnetic features in the amorphous structure are still lack of knowledge. In the present work, we performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to clarify the ionic and electronic structure in atomic scale, and to derive the origin of the good magnetic property of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 amorphous alloy. The simulation gave a direct evidence of the Cu-P bonding preference in the amorphous alloy, which may promote nucleation in nano-crystallization process. On the other hand, the electron transfer and the band/orbital features in the amorphous alloy suggests that alloying elements with large electronegativity and the potential to expand Fe disordered matrix are preferred for enhancing the magnetization.

Wang, Yaocen; Takeuchi, Akira; Makino, Akihiro; Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

2014-05-01

133

Ab initio many-body calculations of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions.  

PubMed

We apply the ab initio no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method approach to calculate the cross sections of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions. These are important reactions for the big bang nucleosynthesis and the future of energy generation on Earth. Starting from a selected similarity-transformed chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction that accurately describes two-nucleon data, we performed many-body calculations that predict the S factor of both reactions. Virtual three-body breakup effects are obtained by including excited pseudostates of the deuteron in the calculation. Our results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data and pave the way for microscopic investigations of polarization and electron-screening effects, of the (3)H(d,?n)(4)He bremsstrahlung and other reactions relevant to fusion research. PMID:22400830

Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

2012-01-27

134

Analysis of the Vibrational Spectra of P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyclic phosphazene trimer P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and the related cyclic tetramer P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8 have been proposed as the major low-to-medium temperature pyrolysis products of the parent polyphosphazene (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n. Recently, both molecules have been synthesized, isolated and their vapour-phase vibrational spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR instrument. The interpretation of these spectra is achieved primarily by comparison with the results of high-quality density functional calculations, which enable the principal absorption features to be assigned and conclusions to be drawn regarding the geometries and conformations adopted by both molecules. These in turn allow interesting comparisons to be made with analogous cyclic halo-phosphazenes such as P_3N_3Cl_6 and P_4N_4Cl_8. Work to record in situ the spectra of the vapour-phase pyrolysis products of (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n and to analyse these results in terms of the tetramer and trimer spectra will also be presented. S. V. Peddada and J. H. Magill Macromolecules 16 (1983) 1258-1264. H. R. Allcock, G. S. McDonnell, G. H. Riding, and I. Manners Chem. Mater. 2 (1990) 425-432. T. R. Manley and D. A. Williams Spectrochimica Acta 23A (1966) 149-165. V. Varma, J. R. Fernandez and C. N. R. Rao J. Mol. Struct. 198 (1989) 403-412.

King, Adrian K.; Plant, David F.; Golding, Peter; Lawson, Michael A.; Davies, Paul B.

2011-06-01

135

Critical roles of isoleucine-364 and adjacent residues in a hydrophobic gate control of phospholipid transport by the mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2  

PubMed Central

P4-ATPases (flippases) translocate specific phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine from the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane to the cytosolic leaflet, upholding an essential membrane asymmetry. The mechanism of flipping this giant substrate has remained an enigma. We have investigated the importance of amino acid residues in transmembrane segment M4 of mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 by mutagenesis. In the related ion pumps Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, M4 moves during the enzyme cycle, carrying along the ion bound to a glutamate. In ATP8A2, the corresponding residue is an isoleucine, which recently was found mutated in patients with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome. Our analyses of the lipid substrate concentration dependence of the overall and partial reactions of the enzyme cycle in mutants indicate that, during the transport across the membrane, the phosphatidylserine head group passes near isoleucine-364 (I364) and that I364 is critical to the release of the transported lipid into the cytosolic leaflet. Another M4 residue, N359, is involved in recognition of the lipid substrate on the exoplasmic side. Our functional studies are supported by structural homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggesting that I364 and adjacent hydrophobic residues function as a hydrophobic gate that separates the entry and exit sites of the lipid and directs sequential formation and annihilation of water-filled cavities, thereby enabling transport of the hydrophilic phospholipid head group in a groove outlined by the transmembrane segments M1, M2, M4, and M6, with the hydrocarbon chains following passively, still in the membrane lipid phase. PMID:24706822

Vestergaard, Anna L.; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Lemmin, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Molday, Laurie L.; Vilsen, Bente; Molday, Robert S.; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Andersen, Jens Peter

2014-01-01

136

The occurrence of amino acid substitutions D96N and S242N in VP7 of emergent G2P[4] rotaviruses in Nepal in 2004-2005: a global and evolutionary perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. Strains with G2P[4] have captured recent attention\\u000a because of its abrupt increase or re-emergence in many locations in the world. In Nepal, G2P[4] strains were detected at a\\u000a rate of 1% in 2003-2004, but increased to 33% in 2004-2005. Thus, the VP7 genes of 45 emergent G2 strains from

Y. H. Doan; T. Nakagomi; N. A. Cunliffe; B. D. Pandey; J. B. Sherchand; O. Nakagomi

137

X-ray wavelengths and Auger transition energies of 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances in B-like (Z = 6–18) ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Auger energies of the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances belonging to the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) ? 1s2 2p2 (1S, 1P, 1D) and to the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) ? 1s2 2s2p 1,3P transitions in B-like ions (Z = 6–18). X-ray wavelengths of the 1s2p4 (2S, 2P, 2D) resonances are also reported. The calculations are carried out in the framework of the screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. The present results for the core-excited 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances in B-like C+, O3+, Ne5+, Mg7+ and Si9+ ions agree well with recent saddle-point variation and saddle-point complex-rotation (SPCR) results (Sun et al 2013 Phys. Rev A 87 032509). The new Auger energies and wavelengths for the 1s 2p4 (2S, 2,4P, 2D) resonances in B-like N2+, F4+, Na6+, Al8+, P10+, S11+, Cl12+ and Ar13+ ions provide benchmarked values for future experimental and theoretical studies on these B-like ions in connection with the diagnostic of astrophysical and laboratory plasma.

Sakho, I.; Sow, M.; Wagué, A.

2015-04-01

138

Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

2004-10-01

139

Regulation of Ca2+-dependent Cl? conductance in a human colonic epithelial cell line (T84): cross-talk between Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 and protein phosphatases  

PubMed Central

We have studied the regulation of whole-cell chloride current in T84 colonic epithelial cells by inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(3,4,5,6)P4). New information was obtained using (a) microcystin and okadaic acid to inhibit serine/threonine protein phosphatases, and (b) a novel functional tetrakisphosphate analogue, 1,2-bisdeoxy-1,2-bisfluoro-Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 (i.e. F2-Ins(3,4,5,6)P4). Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) increased chloride current 20-fold. This current (ICl,CaMK) continued for 7 ± 1.2 min before its deactivation, or running down, by approximately 60%. This run-down was prevented by okadaic acid, whereupon ICl,CaMK remained near its maximum value for ? 14.3 ± 0.6 min. F2-Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 inhibited ICl,CaMK (IC50 = 100 ?m) stereo-specifically, since its enantiomer, F2-Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 had no effect at < = 500 ?m. Dose-response data (Hill coefficient = 1.3) showed that F2-Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 imitated only the non-co-operative phase of inhibition by Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, and not the co-operative phase. Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 was prevented from blocking ICl,CaMK by okadaic acid (IC50 = 1.5 nm) and microcystin (IC50 = 0.15 nm); these data lead to the novel conclusion that, in situ, protein phosphatase activity is essential for Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 to function. The IC50 values indicate that more than one species of phosphatase was required. One of these may be PP1, since F2-Ins(3,4,5,6)P4-dependent current blocking was inhibited by okadaic acid and microcystin with IC50 values of 70 nm and 0.15 nm, respectively. PMID:9660883

Xie, Weiwen; Solomons, Kevin R H; Freeman, Sally; Kaetzel, Marcia A; Bruzik, Karol S; Nelson, Deborah J; Shears, Stephen B

1998-01-01

140

Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus infection: CHIKV nsP4 suppresses eIF2? phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis (SINV) are arboviruses belonging to the alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family. They cause frequent epidemics of febrile illness and long-term arthralgic sequelae that affect millions of people each year. Both viruses replicate prodigiously in infected patients and in vitro in mammalian cells, suggesting some level of control over the host cellular translational machinery that senses and appropriately directs the cell’s fate through the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR involves BIP (or GRP78), the master sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) together with the three downstream effector branches: inositol-requiring ser/thr protein kinase/endonuclease (IRE-1), PKR-like ER resident kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6). Through careful analysis of CHIKV and SINV infections in cell culture we found that the former selectively activates ATF-6 and IRE-1 branches of UPR and suppresses the PERK pathway. By separately expressing each of the CHIKV proteins as GFP-fusion proteins, we found that non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), which is a RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, suppresses the serine-51 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor, alpha subunit (eIF2?), which in turn regulates the PERK pathway. This study provides insight into a mechanism by which CHIKV replication responds to overcome the host UPR machinery. PMID:23356742

2013-01-01

141

CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.  

SciTech Connect

The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

Sung, Yixing (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA); Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R. (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA)

2011-12-01

142

Analysis of p-4,6,8He and p-6,8,9,11Li scattering at 700 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Glauber model is used to analyze the elastic scattering of protons from He and Li isotopes at ˜700 MeV. The calculations require two inputs; the nucleon–nucleon (NN) amplitude and the nucleon density distributions for the target nuclei. The NN amplitude is taken from the available NN scattering data, and, for the target nuclei, we use some of the nucleon density distributions available in the literature. The emphasis, in this work, is to study the sensitivity of the calculated differential cross sections for p-4,6,8He scattering on the density distributions used, and to compare the results with some recent findings in view of assessing the suitability of nucleon density distributions for a given nucleus at relatively low and intermediate energies. The results demonstrate that the study of p-nucleus scattering could be helpful in providing useful information about the behavior of matter density distribution in the surface and interior regions of a nuclear medium. Further, we find that the phase of the NN amplitude plays a role in providing a better description of the experimental data in all the cases.

Chauhan, Deeksha; Khan, Z. A.; Usmani, A. A.

2015-02-01

143

Chikungunya virus nsP3 & nsP4 interacts with HSP-90 to promote virus replication: HSP-90 inhibitors reduce CHIKV infection and inflammation in vivo.  

PubMed

The global emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is alarming and currently there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral treatment available to mitigate this disease. CHIKV infection typically results in high viral load with an outcome of high fever, skin rashes, muscle pain, and sequelae of prolonged arthritis, which occurs in >90% of the infected cases. In this study, using biochemical pull-downs, mass-spectrometry, and microscopic imaging techniques, we have identified novel interactions between CHIKV nsP3 or nsP4 proteins with the host stress-pathway chaperone HSP-90 protein. Indeed, silencing of HSP-90 transcripts using siRNA disrupts CHIKV replication in cultured cells. Furthermore, drugs targeting HSP-90, such as commercially available geldanamycin, as well as other specific HSP-90 inhibitor drugs that had been obtained from a purinome mining approach (HS-10 and SNX-2112) showed dramatic reduction in viral titers and reduced inflammation in a CHIKV mouse model of severe infection and musculopathy. The detailed study of the underlying molecular mechanism of these viral and host protein interactions may provide a platform to develop novel therapeutics against CHIKV infection. PMID:24388965

Rathore, Abhay P S; Haystead, Timothy; Das, Pratyush K; Merits, Andres; Ng, Mah-Lee; Vasudevan, Subhash G

2014-03-01

144

Discovery of potent sulfonamide P4-capped ketoamide second generation inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles in preclinical species.  

PubMed

Hepatitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the liver, usually producing swelling and, in many cases, permanent damage to liver tissues. Viral hepatitis C (HCV), a small (+)-RNA virus, infects chronically 3% of the world's population. Boceprevir, SCH 503034, (1) our first generation HCV inhibitor, has already established proof-of- concept and is currently in late stage (phase III) clinical trials. In view of the positive data from our first generation compound, further work aimed at optimizing its overall profile was undertaken. Herein, we report that extension of our earlier inhibitor to the P(4) pocket by introducing a new sulfonamide moiety and optimization of the P1/P(1)' capping led to the discovery of a novel series of inhibitors of the HCV NS3 serine protease. Optimization of the P(1) residue significantly improved potency and selectivity. The combination of optimal moieties led to the discovery of compound 47 which, in addition to being a potent inhibitor of HCV subgenomic RNA replication, was also found to have good PK profile in rat, dog and monkey. PMID:20149666

Bogen, Stéphane L; Arasappan, Ashok; Velazquez, Francisco; Blackman, Melissa; Huelgas, Regina; Pan, Weidong; Siegel, Elise; Nair, Latha G; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Guo, Zhuyan; Doll, Ronald; Shih, Neng-Yang; Njoroge, F George

2010-03-01

145

Ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) prefers the parallel propeller-type human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over its other polymorphs.  

PubMed

The binding of ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) with telomeric and genomic G-quadruplex DNA has been extensively studied. However, a comparative study of interactions of TMPyP4 with different conformations of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA, namely, parallel propeller-type (PP), antiparallel basket-type (AB), and mixed hybrid-type (MH) G-quadruplex DNA, has not been done. We considered all the possible binding sites in each of the G-quadruplex DNA structures and docked TMPyP4 to each one of them. The resultant most potent sites for binding were analyzed from the mean binding free energy of the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were then carried out, and analysis of the binding free energy of the TMPyP4-G-quadruplex complex showed that the binding of TMPyP4 with parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA is preferred over the other two G-quadruplex DNA conformations. The results obtained from the change in solvent excluded surface area (SESA) and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) also support the more pronounced binding of the ligand with the parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:25526532

Ali, Asfa; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2015-01-01

146

Uridine 5'-polyphosphates (p4U and p5U) and uridine(5')polyphospho(5')nucleosides (Up(n)Ns) can be synthesized by UTP:glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

UTP:glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.9) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can transfer the uridylyl moiety from UDP-glucose onto tripolyphosphate (P(3)), tetrapolyphosphate (P(4)), nucleoside triphosphates (p(3)Ns) and nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates (p(4)Ns) forming uridine 5'-tetraphosphate (p(4)U), uridine 5'-pentaphosphate (p(5)U) and dinucleotides, such as Ap(4)U, Cp(4)U, Gp(4)U, Up(4)U, Ap(5)U and Gp(5)U. Unlike UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose was not a UMP donor and ADP was not a UMP acceptor. This is the first example of an enzyme that may be responsible for accumulation of dinucleoside tetraphosphates containing two pyrimidine nucleosides in vivo. Occurrence of such dinucleotides in S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli has been previously reported (Coste et al., J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 12096-12103). PMID:15013755

Guranowski, Andrzej; de Diego, Anabel; Sillero, Antonio; Günther Sillero, María Antonia

2004-03-12

147

Molecular identification of a G2 rotavirus that provided a G1P[4] mono-reassortant with a DS-1-like genotype constellation.  

PubMed

The segmented nature of the rotavirus genome provides an opportunity for the virus to reassort upon co-infection of more than one rotavirus strain. Previously, two G1P[4] strains isolated from children with diarrhoea, AU64, and AU67, were shown by RNA-RNA hybridization to be a VP7 mono-reassortant possessing a DS-1 genogroup background. However, the origin of the parental G2 strain was not sought for at that time. The aim of this study, therefore, was to identify the G2 strain that provided AU64/AU67 with the DS-1-like genotype constellation. By carefully comparing the genomic RNA migration patterns on polyacrylamide gels of strains circulating at the same and nearby geographic locations around the time of the mono-reassortant detection (1989), a G2 strain designated 88H449 was shown to possess 10 genome segments co-migrating with those of AU64. Sequencing of all genome segments of AU64 and 88H449 showed that those two strains were 99.6-100% identical at the nucleotide level in all except the VP7 gene, indicating that the parental G2 strain that provided AU64 with the 10 genome segments was a sibling of 88H449. Sequencing of the VP7 genes of 36 G1P[8] strains circulating locally between 1981 and 1990 revealed the presence of strains bearing diverse VP7 sequences among which the closest nucleotide identity to AU64 was 98.6% and the closest amino acid identity in the major antigenic regions was 100%. This unusual mono-reassortant was concluded to be the result of a contemporary reassosrtment event occurring between locally co-circulating strains. J. Med. Virol. 87:694-701, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25655811

Sasaki, Eriko; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Doan, Yen Hai; Gauchan, Punita; Kaneko, Miho; Nakagomi, Osamu

2015-04-01

148

Preparation of a diphosphine with persistent phosphinyl radical character in solution: characterization, reactivity with O2, S8, Se, Te, and P4, and electronic structure calculations.  

PubMed

A new, easily synthesized diphosphine based on a heterocyclic 1,3,2-diazaphospholidine framework has been prepared. Due to the large, sterically encumbering Dipp groups (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) on the heterocyclic ring, the diphosphine undergoes homolytic cleavage of the P-P bond in solution to form two phosphinyl radicals. The diphosphine has been reacted with O(2), S(8), Se, Te, and P(4), giving products that involve insertion of elements between the P-P bond to yield the related phosphinic acid anhydride, sulfide/disulfide, selenide, telluride, and a butterfly-type perphospha-bicyclobutadiene structure with a trans,trans-geometry. All molecules have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Variable-temperature EPR spectroscopy was utilized to study the nature of the phosphinyl radical in solution. Electronic structure calculations were performed on a number of systems from the parent diphosphine [H(2)P](2) to amino-substituted [(H(2)N)(2)P](2) and cyclic amino-substituted [(H(2)C)(2)(NH)(2)P](2); then, bulky substituents (Ph or Dipp) were attached to the cyclic amino systems. Calculations on the isolated diphosphine at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level show that the homolytic cleavage of the P-P bond to form two phosphinyl radicals is favored over the diphosphine by ~11 kJ/mol. Furthermore, there is a significant amount of relaxation energy stored in the ligands (52.3 kJ/mol), providing a major driving force behind the homolytic cleavage of the central P-P bond. PMID:23098074

Giffin, Nick A; Hendsbee, Arthur D; Roemmele, Tracey L; Lumsden, Michael D; Pye, Cory C; Masuda, Jason D

2012-11-01

149

Identification of chlorophyll ( with application of IRS-P4 OCM data and Geographical Information System - a case study of part of Bay of Bengal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As 60 - 70 % of the world's population live within 20 - 30 km of the coastline, coastal zone management and optimisation of ocean resources have grown in of importance. The study of the ocean encompasses its physical chemical, biological properties and its interaction with land and biological productivity. Mapping of coastal zone gives us insight about how to conserve its eco-balance and implement effective coastal zone management. Effective Coastal Zone Management will need accurate and comprehensive scientific data, on which decisions can be based. In the present study Ocean Color Monitor ( OCM ) data is used for identification of chlorophyll, which inturn indicates the presence of phytoplankton, which is the primary producer in the food chain, and also to fish . The study area is part of Bay of Bengal Sea near the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Remote sensing in optical region is found useful in understanding the spatial distribution of ocean water constituents, in which phytoplankton pigment which impart a green colour to the sea water, has a definite response in the visible region, which enables plant material to be distinguished from the other suspended matter. Normalised Differential Vegetative Index ( NDVI ), which is mainly used on land applications for the identification of vegetation based on chlorophyll absorption, is used on water surface in the present study. The positive value of NDVI is an indication of the presence of pigment concentration / chlorophyll / phytoplankton / fish. The successful launch of the IRS - P4 satellite which provides us a challenging opportunity to study ocean resources and its characteristics and see how best we can benefit, over a period of time, in several areas of human survival specifically related to food security on a sustained basis. This study is first of its kind in utilising the latest technology to explore the marine resources for mapping the fishing zones and the results, clearly indicate that NDVI can be utilised as an indicator for the presence of phytoplankton on water surface.

Pavan Dayaker, T.

2002-05-01

150

Control of morphology and corona composition in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers: effects of solvent, water content, and mixture composition.  

PubMed

The morphologies and corona compositions in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers are influenced by controllable assembly parameters such as water content, block copolymer molar ratios, and solvent effects as well as the hydrophilic block lengths and block length ratios. All these factors can affect the morphology of the aggregates as well as their corona composition, the latter especially in vesicles, where two interfaces are involved. The morphologies and corona compositions of the aggregates were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility, respectively. They depend, to a large extent, on the solubility of P4VP and PAA in the given organic solvent (e.g., DMF, THF, or dioxane), which influences the coil dimensions of the hydrophilic chains. The water content affects both the size and the shape of the block copolymer aggregates as well as the corona composition. Water acts as a precipitant for the hydrophobic block in the common solvent and, therefore, its progressive addition to the solution changes the interaction parameter with the hydrophobic block. The block copolymer molar ratio has an effect on both the morphology and the corona composition of the aggregates. With increasing PS-b-P4VP content in the mixture, the morphology transforms gradually from large compound micelles (LCMs), through coexistence of LCMs and small spherical micelles (SSMs), and eventually to vesicles. As expected, the corona composition of the aggregates is also affected by the block copolymer molar ratio, and changes progressively from pure PAA to a mixture of PAA and P4VP and to pure P4VP with increasing PS-b-P4VP content. It is clear that the use of mixtures of the soluble chains offers the opportunity of fine-tuning the corona composition in block copolymer aggregates under assembly conditions. PMID:25196970

Vyhnalkova, Renata; Müller, Axel H E; Eisenberg, Adi

2014-11-11

151

Repeatable experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All experiments performed by scientists should be able to be repeated by any other scientist with the same outcome. This experiment with celery in four different water environments is a simple experiment you can perform at home. You will achieve the same results.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-07-08

152

Field Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field observations and field experiences have traditionally been at the core of geoscience instruction. This session was designed to allow the entire GSA community to come together to share and discuss both traditional and emerging roles of field experiences in teaching geosciences. This site provides a searchable collection of posters about field experiences from a session at the 2004 GSA annual meeting.

153

Psychology Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

2001-01-01

154

The lppC gene of Streptococcus equisimilis encodes a lipoprotein that is homologous to the e (P4) outer membrane protein from Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed

We report the cloning, sequencing, and analysis of a novel chromosomal gene of Streptococcus equisimilis strain H46A that codes for a membrane lipoprotein, designated LppC. The lppC gene is located 3' adjacent to, and co-oriented with, the unrelated gapC gene that encodes the previously characterized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Sequencing of lppC revealed an 855-bp open reading frame that predicted a 32.4-kDa polypeptide possessing a potential lipoprotein signal sequence and modification site (VTGC). Signal sequence processing of LppC synthesized in the homologous host or expressed from plasmid pLPP2 in Escherichia coli was sensitive to globomycin, a selective inhibitor of lipoprotein-specific signal peptidase II. Subcellular localization of LppC using polyclonal antibodies raised to the hexahistidyl-tagged protein proved LppC to be tightly associated with the cytoplasmic membrane of S. equisimilis and with the outer membrane of E. coli JM109 (pLPP2). Southern, Northern and Western analyses indicated that lpp was conserved in S. pyogenes, and transcribed independently of gap as monocistronic 0.9-kb mRNA from a sigma 70-like consensus promoter. Database searches found homology of LppC to the hel gene-encoded outer membrane protein e (P4) from Haemophilus influenzae to which it exhibits 58% sequence similarity. However, unlike the hel gene, lppC was unable to complement hemA mutants of E. coli for growth on hemin as sole porphyrin source in aerobic conditions. Furthermore, neither the wild type nor an lppC insertion mutant of S. equisimilis could grow on hemin in iron-limited medium. These results, together with findings indicating that S. equisimilis H46A had no absolute requirement for iron, led us to conclude that lppC, in contrast to hel, is not involved in hemin utilization and has yet to be assigned a function. PMID:9255768

Gase, K; Liu, G; Bruckmann, A; Steiner, K; Ozegowski, J; Malke, H

1997-06-01

155

Identification of PRDX4 and P4HA2 as metastasis-associated proteins in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma by comparative tissue proteomics of microdissected specimens using iTRAQ technology.  

PubMed

Cervical lymph node metastasis represents the major prognosticator for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that are differentially expressed between microdissected primary and metastatic OSCC tumors. The selected candidates were examined in tissue sections via immunohistochemistry, and their roles in OSCC cell function investigated using RNA interference. Seventy-four differentially expressed proteins in nodal metastases, including PRDX4 and P4HA2, were identified. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly higher levels of PRDX4 and P4HA2 in tumor cells than adjacent non-tumor epithelia (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively), and even higher expression in the 31 metastatic tumors of lymph nodes, compared to the corresponding primary tumors (P = 0.060 and P = 0.002, respectively). Overexpression of PRDX4 and P4HA2 was significantly associated with positive pN status (P = 0.048 and P = 0.021, respectively). PRDX4 overexpression was a significant prognostic factor for disease-specific survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.034 and P = 0.032, respectively). Additionally, cell migration and invasiveness were attenuated in OEC-M1 cells upon in vitro knockdown of PRDX4 and P4HA2 with specific interfering RNA. Novel metastasis-related prognostic markers for OSCC could be identified by our approach. PMID:21859152

Chang, Kai-Ping; Yu, Jau-Song; Chien, Kun-Yi; Lee, Chien-Wei; Liang, Ying; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Ling-Ling; Liu, Shiau-Chin; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chi, Lang-Ming

2011-11-01

156

P4R.4 CHARACTERIZING TORNADOES IN MULTIPLE-DOPPLER RADAR DATA USING A LOW-ORDER Corey K. Potvin*, Alan Shapiro, Tian-You Yu, and Ming Xue  

E-print Network

of densely-spaced, adaptively scanning radars envisioned by the CASA (Collaborative Adaptive Sensing . J is evaluated over both space and time so that observations can be used at the time they wereP4R.4 CHARACTERIZING TORNADOES IN MULTIPLE-DOPPLER RADAR DATA USING A LOW-ORDER MODEL Corey K

Xue, Ming

157

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

158

Digestion Experiments  

E-print Network

I'EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULL -- -7 .ETIN NO. 291 FEBRUARY, 1922 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR CO_LTJ3GE STATION... 5 ......................... ................. Digestible protein : 5 Productive value ............................................ 5 Vitamines .................................................. 6...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1922-01-01

159

Field Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the field experience component of Hawaii's PETOM (Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities) program. Student teachers visit rural schools, becoming acquainted with their future students and schools. PETOM offers experience with many classrooms and teaching modules. Students are encouraged to reflect and analyze, thus developing…

Kent, Myra

1993-01-01

160

Herschel Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students replicate a version of the 1800 experiment in which a form of radiation other than visible light was discovered by the famous astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel. Students use glass prisms, thermometers, and sunlight to detect the increase in temperature beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, thus detecting infrared light.

161

Art Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four articles that examine the role of art experiences in early childhood education: "Educationally Appropriate Art Activities for Young Children," by Bernard Spodek; "Teachers and Children Together: Constructing New Learning," by Lella Gandini; "Fostering Experiences between Young Children and Clay," by Cathy Weisman Topal; and…

Spodek, Bernard; And Others

1996-01-01

162

TRIO experiment  

SciTech Connect

The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

1984-09-01

163

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

164

Poker Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the basic poker experiment of dealing 5 cards from a standard deck. The random variable of interest is the type of hand.

Kyle Siegrist

165

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

166

Experience Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, a tertiary chemistry teacher, spent a period of six weeks in a research project with an industrial firm. Describes his experience, the benefits and insight he gained from such an exchange. (GA)

Laslett, R. L.

1978-01-01

167

Multitasking in signal transduction by a promiscuous human Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) 1-kinase/Ins(1,3,4)P(3) 5/6-kinase.  

PubMed Central

We describe a human cDNA encoding 1-kinase activity that inactivates Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4), an inhibitor of chloride-channel conductance that regulates epithelial salt and fluid secretion, as well as membrane excitability. Unexpectedly, we further discovered that this enzyme has alternative positional specificity (5/6-kinase activity) towards a different substrate, namely Ins(1,3,4)P(3). Kinetic data from a recombinant enzyme indicate that Ins(1,3,4)P(3) (K(m)=0.3 microM; V(max)=320 pmol/min per microg) and Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) (K(m)=0.1 microM; V(max)=780 pmol/min per microg) actively compete for phosphorylation in vivo. This competition empowers the kinase with multitasking capability in several key aspects of inositol phosphate signalling. PMID:11042108

Yang, X; Shears, S B

2000-01-01

168

Testing for Archaic Hominin Admixture on the X Chromosome: Model Likelihoods for the Modern Human RRM2P4 Region From Summaries of Genealogical Topology Under the Structured Coalescent  

PubMed Central

A 2.4-kb stretch within the RRM2P4 region of the X chromosome, previously sequenced in a sample of 41 globally distributed humans, displayed both an ancient time to the most recent common ancestor (e.g., a TMRCA of ?2 million years) and a basal clade composed entirely of Asian sequences. This pattern was interpreted to reflect a history of introgressive hybridization from archaic hominins (most likely Asian Homo erectus) into the anatomically modern human genome. Here, we address this hypothesis by resequencing the 2.4-kb RRM2P4 region in 131 African and 122 non-African individuals and by extending the length of sequence in a window of 16.5 kb encompassing the RRM2P4 pseudogene in a subset of 90 individuals. We find that both the ancient TMRCA and the skew in non-African representation in one of the basal clades are essentially limited to the central 2.4-kb region. We define a new summary statistic called the minimum clade proportion (pmc), which quantifies the proportion of individuals from a specified geographic region in each of the two basal clades of a binary gene tree, and then employ coalescent simulations to assess the likelihood of the observed central RRM2P4 genealogy under two alternative views of human evolutionary history: recent African replacement (RAR) and archaic admixture (AA). A molecular-clock-based TMRCA estimate of 2.33 million years is a statistical outlier under the RAR model; however, the large variance associated with this estimate makes it difficult to distinguish the predictions of the human origins models tested here. The pmc summary statistic, which has improved power with larger samples of chromosomes, yields values that are significantly unlikely under the RAR model and fit expectations better under a range of archaic admixture scenarios. PMID:18202385

Cox, Murray P.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Pilkington, Maya Metni; Kingan, Sarah B.; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Strassmann, Beverly I.; Hammer, Michael F.

2008-01-01

169

31P Solid State NMR Studies of Metal Selenophosphates Containing [P2Se6]4-, [P4Se10]4-, [PSe4]3-, [P2Se7]4-, and [P2Se9]4-Ligands  

E-print Network

31P Solid State NMR Studies of Metal Selenophosphates Containing [P2Se6]4-, [P4Se10]4-, [PSe4]3-, [P2Se7]4-, and [P2Se9]4- Ligands Christian G. Canlas, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, and David P. Weliky P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 12 metal-containing selenophosphates have

Weliky, David

170

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP W W W . N I S T . G O V / M E P 1 -8 0 0 -M E P -4 M F G  

E-print Network

product had the capability for higher loading, an advantage in the new target market space. The company EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP W W W . N I S T . G O V / M E P · 1 - 8 0 0 - M E P - 4 M F G TECHNOLOGY-DRIVEN MARKET INTELLIGENCE Apr 2012 Real-World Market Insights for New Technology-Based Products and Markets Technology

171

Syntheses and characterizations of Cs2Cr3(BP4O14)(P4O13) and CsFe(BP3O11) compounds with novel borophosphate anionic partial structures.  

PubMed

Explorations of the A(I)-M(III)-B(III)-P(V)-O quinary system under solid-state reactions led to an anhydrous cesium-chromium borophosphate-phosphate and an anhydrous cesium-iron borophosphate, namely, Cs(2)Cr(3)(BP(4)O(14))(P(4)O(13)) (1) and CsFe(BP(3)O(11)) (2). They both feature complicated three-dimensional (3D) frameworks and represent the first examples of borophosphate frameworks with a P-O-P connection. Compound 1 contains a novel anionic borophosphate partial structure [B(P(2)O(7))(2)](5-) with B:P = 1:4 besides an isolated [P(4)O(13)](6-) anion. Its 3D structure is composed of a layer of [CrB(P(2)O(7))(2)](n)(2n-) and a neutral layer of [Cr(2)(P(4)O(13))](n) interconnected with the linking of P-O-Cr, and the Cs ions are located at the space. Compound 2 contains another novel borophosphate anionic unit of [B(PO(4))(P(2)O(7))](4-) with B:P = 1:3, which further bridges the Fe cations to constitute the whole structure. Both compounds are of high thermal stable and transparent in the range of 0.75-7.1 microm. Magnetic measurements indicate that there exist antiferromagnetic interactions in both compounds. PMID:20112999

Zhang, Weilong; Cheng, Wendan; Zhang, Hao; Geng, Lei; Li, Yeyu; Lin, Chensheng; He, Zhangzhen

2010-03-01

172

Experience matters 1 Experience matters  

E-print Network

Jonathan D. Nelson Max Planck Institute for Human Development Craig R. M. McKenzie University of California. Experiments 1 and 2 found that participants behaved differently when the standard method of verbally

Nelson, Jonathan D.

173

An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin ?v?3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both ?v?3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin ?v?3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin ?v?3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive expression (integrin ?v?3 negative). The preliminary application of 99mTc-RGD-BBN has demonstrated its powerful potential in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25849333

Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

2015-01-01

174

Towards accurate transition data for 3p2, 3p3, 3p4 levels of Fe, Co and Ni ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variational results of high accuracy are presented for electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole transitions between levels of the configurations 3pm, m = 2, 3, 4 for the ionized elements of Fe, Co and Ni. In each case, the accuracy of the wavefunction is evaluated by the agreement of the computed energy with observation and the agreement in the length and velocity form of the line strength for E2 transitions. It is shown that the line strength increases as more correlation effects are included and that semi-empirical methods may over-correct this increase. Transition rates computed from line strengths and observed transition energies result in lifetimes that decrease as more correlation is included in the wavefunction. Results are compared with other theory and experiment.

Froese Fischer, Charlotte

2010-04-01

175

Neutrino Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

McKeown, R. D. [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

2010-08-04

176

Weathering Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment is designed to allow students to observe and understand chemical and physical weathering of simulated "rocks". They will place the materials in plastic bags, one wet and one dry, and store them for 3-4 days. At the end of the storage period, they will observe the contents of both bags and answer some questions about what they see.

177

experiment, collaboration  

E-print Network

-Departamento Energias Renovables, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, E-04080 Almeria, Spain Departamento de Lenguajes y heliostats focus onto 4 large area Winston cones in central tower " eachWinston cone detects light of 13Mhz BW "Largest total mirror area of any current Cerenkov experiment (2500 m²) "Central tower detector

178

Birthday Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the birthday experiment: a sample of size n is chose at random and with replacement from the first m positive integers. The random variable of interest is the number of distinct sample values. The event of interest is that all sample values are distinct.

Kyle Siegrist

179

Ballot Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the ballot experiment: The votes in an election are randomly counted. The event of interest is that the winning candidate is always ahead in the vote count.

Kyle Siegrist

180

Bertrand's Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of Bertrand's experiment: a random chord on a cirle. The event of interest is whether the length of the chord is larger than the length of the inscribed equilateral triangle. Three models for generating the random chord can be used.

Kyle Siegrist

181

Triangle Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet llustrates the triangle experiment: A stick is broken randomly into three parts. The events of interest are that the pieces form an acute triangle, an obtuse triangle, or no triangle.

Kyle Siegrist

182

Feeding Experiment  

E-print Network

. ttonseedmeal ....................................... 35.76 53.06 1:l. .................................... age.. .- ......... 2.17 21.83 1: 10. rn ................................................. 8.37 d6.47 1: 9. y.... Dilley, Esq.. -Palestine .................................... Dr. J. D. Fields.. -Manor ............... Prof. L. L. McInnis, Secretary.. .College Station EXPERIMENT STATION COUNCIL. ........................ L. L. McInnis.. -Chairman of Faculty...

Gulley, F. A. (Frank Arthur)

1889-01-01

183

Biodiesel Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this classroom activity on biodiesel. The experiment involves using some chemicals which may be considered extremely dangerous; educators should be sure to practice laboratory safety when using this lesson. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Lawrence, Richard

184

Measurement of cross sections for the {sup 232}Th(P,4n){sup 229}Pa reaction at low proton energies  

SciTech Connect

The alpha-emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived {sup 229}Th(t{sub 1/2} = 7880y). {sup 229}Th can be produced by proton irradiation of {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into {sup 229}Th. To obtain excitation functions, {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of {sup 229}Pa and its daughter {sup 225}Ac from both {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th. Differential cross-sections for production of {sup 229}Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

Jost, C. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Griswold, J. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA and Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S. [Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Stracener, D. W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Williams, C. L. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2013-04-19

185

Soil experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

1987-01-01

186

Mendel's experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this web lab, Gregor Mendel directs students through interactive virtual experiments. Students experiment with pea plants to discover how the seven pairs of traits that Mendel studied are inherited. The lab can be completed linearly, or students can move to a particular segment using the Sections menu. After they observe pea plants and infer the number of traits present, students perform five plant crosses. Mendel instructs students to search for patterns in the transmission of traits. Next, students predict the outcome of a cross and are introduced to the terms dominant and recessive. Finally, students work with pedigrees, crossing plants to determine for each of the seven pairs of traits which characteristic is dominant or recessive. A notebook feature lets students check their answers. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education Development Center

2002-01-01

187

Voter Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the voter experiment, an interacting partile system that consists of a rectangular array of sites. At each discrete time unit, a site is chosen at random, a neighboring site is chosen, and the color of the first site is changed to that of the neighbor. The applet illustrates clustering of the colors and convergence to consensus.

Kyle Siegrist

188

Matching Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the matching experiment, which consists of a random permutation of the first n positive integers. The random variable of interest is the number of matches (the number of integers in the random permutation that are in their correct positions). The applet illustrates the distribution of the number of matches and the convergence to the Poisson distribution.

Kyle Siegrist

189

Weathering Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

Pete Stelling

190

Lift Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, learners investigate how the size of a wing affects lift. Learners count the number of pennies an egg crate plane wing can hold until the plane will no longer fly. Learners calculate the amount of weight/mass added to plane and conduct two more trials to find the average weight/mass lifted. This lesson guide includes a data table, conclusion questions, and extension ideas.

Shannon Ricles

2013-01-30

191

Taphonomy Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The taphonomy project is a semester-long experiment the students design and run themselves, using the decomposition studies area run by the Criminal Justice department on campus. Following a discussion of taphonomic processes during the first week, the students come up with original questions to test. Working in pairs, they design the experiment, including methods, materials, sampling interval, and taphonomic evaluation. The students set up the experiment in week 3 and monitor it over the course of the semester. They will be required to keep an experimental journal, data from which they will upload to a wiki page. The students will be required to periodically evaluate and comment on other student's projects. The professor will also periodically evaluate the groups' progress periodically through the wiki. The end result is a 20-minute presentation in the style of an oral paper at a conference given the week before finals. This project develops the students' skills in experimental design, data analysis and written, oral and visual communication.

Karen Koy

192

The structures of marialite (Me[subscript 6]) and meionite (Me[subscript 93]) in space groups P4[subscript 2]/n and I4/m, and the absence of phase transitions in the scapolite series  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structures of marialite (Me{sub 6}) from Badakhshan, Afghanistan and meionite (Me{sub 93}) from Mt. Vesuvius, Italy were obtained using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and Rietveld structure refinements. Their structures were refined in space groups I4/m and P42/n, and similar results were obtained. The Me{sub 6} sample has a formula Ca{sub 0.24}Na{sub 3.37}K{sub 0.24}[Al{sub 3.16}Si{sub 8.84}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.84}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.15}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.047555(7), c = 7.563210(6) {angstrom}, and V = 1097.751(1) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The average (T1-O) distances are 1.599(1) {angstrom} in I4/m and 1.600(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n, indicating that the T1 site contains only Si atoms. In P4{sub 2}/n, the average distances of (T2-O) = 1.655(2) and (T3-O) = 1.664(2) {angstrom} are distinct and are not equal to each other. However, the mean (T2,3-O) = 1.659(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n and is identical to the (T2-O) = 1.659(1) {angstrom} in I4/m. The (M-O) [7] = 2.754(1) {angstrom} (M site is coordinated to seven framework O atoms) and M-A = 2.914(1) {angstrom}; these distances are identical in both space groups. The Me{sub 93} sample has a formula of Na{sub 0.29}Ca{sub 3.76}[Al{sub 5.54}Si{sub 6.46}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.05}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.02}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.93}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.19882(1), c = 7.576954(8) {angstrom}, and V = 1127.535(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}. A similar examination of the Me{sub 93} sample also shows that both space groups give similar results; however, the C-O distance is more reasonable in P4{sub 2}/n than in I4/m. Refining the scapolite structure near Me{sub 0} or Me{sub 100} in I4/m forces the T2 and T3 sites (both with multiplicity 8 in P4{sub 2}/n) to be equivalent and form the T2' site (with multiplicity 16 in I4/m), but (T2-O) is not equal to (T3-O) in P4{sub 2}/n. Using different space groups for different regions across the series implies phase transitions, which do not occur in the scapolite series.

Antao, Sytle M.; Hassan, Ishmael (West Indies) [West Indies; (Calgary)

2014-05-28

193

NaxP4W14O50: The sodium m = 7 member of the monophosphate tungsten bronze series Ax(PO2)4(WO3)2m  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of Na1.7P4W14O50 was established by single crystal X-ray analysis. The compound is the m = 7 member of the family of monophosphate tungsten bronzes with hexagonal tunnels, Nax(PO2)4 (WO3)2m, characterized by ReO3-type slabs of various widths connected through PO4 tetrahedra. In order to compare with other members of the MPTBh family, a cell symmetry Al has been chosen

M. Lamire; Ph. Labbe; M. Goreaud; B. Raveau

1987-01-01

194

Quasirelativistic calculation of 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configuration spectroscopic parameters for the W$^{39+}$ ion  

E-print Network

The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectral parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions is used to derive spectral data for the 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configurations of the multicharged tungsten ion W$^{39+}$. The relativistic effects are taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation for the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock radial orbitals. The configuration interaction method is applied to include the electron correlation effects. Produced data are compared with existing experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.

Bogdanovich, P; Kisielius, R

2015-01-01

195

Synergistic extraction and spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II), iron(III), and tellurium(IV) at trace level by newly synthesized p -[4-(3,5-dimethylisoxazolyl)azophenylazo]calix(4)arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric method for the determination of palladium, iron and tellurium from nitric acid media after extraction\\u000a of their p-[4-(3,5-dimethylisoxazolyl)azophenylazo]calix(4)arene [DMIAPAC] complexes has been developed and possible synergistic effects\\u000a have been investigated. Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, 1,2-dichloroethane, toluene and xylene were used as\\u000a the diluents. The maximum enhancement was obtained in the presence of 30% 1,2-dichloroethane. The trace amounts of

Ashok Kumar; Pratibha Sharma; Lal Kumar Chandel; Bhagwan Lal Kalal

2008-01-01

196

Calculations and Analysis of the Electronic Structures of Transition-Metal Phosphosilicides Cu 4SiP 8, IrSi 3P 3, CoSi 3P 3, and FeSi 4P 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic structures of phosphosilicides Cu4SiP8, IrSi3P3, CoSi3P3, and FeSi4P4 were calculated using the extended Hückel tight-binding method and were analyzed in terms of a modified electron counting scheme. The d-block levels of these compounds appear well below the Fermi level, thereby indicating that the transition-metal atoms exist as d10 ions. Except for the case of IrSi3P3, the d-block energy levels

K.-S Lee; H.-J Koo; J Ren; M.-H Whangbo

1999-01-01

197

Calculations and Analysis of the Electronic Structures of Transition-Metal Phosphosilicides Cu4SiP8, IrSi3P3, CoSi3P3, and FeSi4P4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic structures of phosphosilicides Cu4SiP8, IrSi3P3, CoSi3P3, and FeSi4P4 were calculated using the extended Hückel tight-binding method and were analyzed in terms of a modified electron counting scheme. The d-block levels of these compounds appear well below the Fermi level, thereby indicating that the transition-metal atoms exist as d10 ions. Except for the case of IrSi3P3, the d-block energy levels

K.-S. Lee; H.-J. Koo; J. Ren; M.-H. Whangbo

1999-01-01

198

Chemistry Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

1999-01-01

199

Synthesis, crystal structures, and optical properties of two new layered quaternary tantalum thiophosphates and the thermal conversion of Cs4Ta4P4S24 into Cs2Ta2P2S12.  

PubMed

The reaction of Ta with an in situ formed polythiophosphate melt of Cs2S3, P2S5, and S yields the two new quaternary tantalum thiophosphates Cs2Ta2P2S12 (I) and Cs4Ta4P4S24 (II). Both compounds were obtained with the same stoichiometric ratio but at different reaction temperatures. Compound I was prepared at 873 K and crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c (No. 14) with a = 8.862(2) A, b = 12.500(3) A, c = 17.408(4) A, beta = 99.23(3) degrees, and Z = 4. Compound II was prepared at 773 K and crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n (No. 14) with a = 14.298(3) A, b = 17.730(4) A, c = 16.058(3) A, beta = 106.19(3) degrees, and Z = 4. The two structures are closely related and exhibit two-dimensional anionic layers consisting of dimeric [Ta2S11] units which are linked by two tetradentate and two tridentate [PS4] tetrahedra. The significant difference between these two compounds is the orientation of the [Ta2S11] units in infinite [Ta2S4(PS4)]x chains which are subunits of both structures. The specific orientation of the [Ta2S11] blocks in compound I leads to the formation of one cavity in the 2(infinity)[Ta2P2S12]2- layers, whereas in compound II two types of cavities are observed in the 2(infinity)[Ta4P4S24]4- layers. The Cs+ ions are located between the layers above and below the cavities. The compounds were characterized with infrared spectroscopy in the MIR region, Raman spectroscopy, and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. When Cs4Ta4P4S24 (II) is heated at the synthesis temperature of compound I it is fully converted into compound I. PMID:15106990

Gutzmann, Andreas; Näther, Christian; Bensch, Wolfgang

2004-05-01

200

Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment - Experiment Implementation Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment (MISTE) is a candidate experiment competitively peer reviewed and selected for flight definition from the 1996 Fundamental Physics NASA Research Announcement (NRA).

Hahn, I.; Weilert, M.

1999-01-01

201

Structure of human factor VIIa/tissue factor in complex with a peptide-mimetic inhibitor: high selectivity against thrombin by introducing two charged groups in P2 and P4  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of human factor VIIa/soluble tissue factor (FVIIa/sTF) in complex with a highly selective peptide-mimetic FVIIa inhibitor which shows 1670-fold selectivity against thrombin inhibition has been solved at 2.6?Å resolution. The inhibitor is bound to FVIIa/sTF at the S1, S2 and S3 sites and at the additional S1 subsite. Two charged groups, the amidino group in P2 and the carboxylate group in P4, form ionic interactions with Asp60 and Lys192 of FVIIa, respectively. Structural comparisons between factor VIIa and thrombin show that thrombin has oppositely charged residues, Lys60F and Glu192, in the S2 site and the S1 subsites, respectively. These data suggest that the utilization of the differences of charge distribution in the S2 site and the S1 subsites between FVIIa and thrombin is critical for achieving high selectivity against thrombin inhibition. These results will provide valuable information for the structure-based drug design of specific inhibitors for FVIIa/TF. PMID:16510984

Kadono, Shojiro; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Kikuchi, Yasufumi; Oh-eda, Masayoshi; Yabuta, Naohiro; Koga, Takaki; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Haramura, Masayuki; Kodama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yoshiyuki; Esaki, Toru; Sato, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Susumu; Ohta, Masateru; Kozono, Toshiro

2005-01-01

202

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience  

E-print Network

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

Thomas, David D.

203

Experiences and Experiments - There is a Difference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students have had many experiences in science and have participated in and designed simple investigations. This lesson directs students in identifying the steps of experimentation. While microorganisms are the topic and the subject of the experimentation, the emphasis and learning should center on scientific steps and processes of scientific experiments. Designing and conducting an experiment involves an integration or combining of science process skills.

Teresa Hislop & amp; KIRSTIN REED

2011-09-19

204

Swine Feeding Experiments.  

E-print Network

Experiment IT. Dried Buttermilk for Growing Pigs PART I1 Experiment 111. Cottonseed and Cottonseed Meal for Fattening Pigs Experiment IV. Peanut Grazing and Seif-Feeders for Fattening Pigs Experiment V. Protein Supplements in Fattening Rations for Pigs...; Objects; Pigs Used 25 .......................... Feeds ; Method of Procedure .25. 26 ........................................ Summary Tables 26 .................................... Shrinkage ; Summary 21 Experiment IV: Peanut Grazing and Self...

Warren, G. R. (George Russell); Williams, D. W. (David Willard)

1923-01-01

205

Recent magneto-inertial fusion experiments on the field reversed configuration heating experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) approaches take advantage of an embedded magnetic field to improve plasma energy confinement by reducing thermal conduction relative to conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF reduces required precision in the implosion and the convergence ratio. Since 2008 (Wurden et al 2008 IAEA 2008 Fusion Energy Conf. (Geneva, Switzerland, 13-18 October) IC/P4-13 LA-UR-08-0796) and since our prior refereed publication on this topic (Degnan et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 80), AFRL and LANL have developed further one version of MIF. We have (1) reliably formed, translated, and captured field reversed configurations (FRCs) in magnetic mirrors inside metal shells or liners in preparation for subsequent compression by liner implosion; (2) imploded a liner with interior magnetic mirror field, obtaining evidence for compression of a 1.36 T field to 540 T (3) performed a full system experiment of FRC formation, translation, capture, and imploding liner compression operation; (4) identified by comparison of 2D-MHD simulation and experiments factors limiting the closed-field lifetime of FRCs to about half that required for good liner compression of FRCs to multi-keV, 1019 ion cm-3, high energy density plasma (HEDP) conditions; and (5) designed and prepared hardware to increase that closed-field FRC lifetime to the required amount. Those lifetime experiments are now underway, with the goal of at least doubling closed-field FRC lifetimes and performing FRC implosions to HEDP conditions this year. These experiments have obtained imaging evidence of FRC rotation, and of initial rotation control measures slowing and stopping such rotation. Important improvements in fidelity of simulation to experiment have been achieved, enabling improved guidance and understanding of experiment design and performance.

Degnan, J. H.; Amdahl, D. J.; Domonkos, M.; Lehr, F. M.; Grabowski, C.; Robinson, P. R.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W. M.; Wurden, G. A.; Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Waganaar, W. J.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Makhin, V.; Roderick, N. F.; Gale, D. G.; Kostora, M.; Lerma, A.; McCullough, J. L.; Sommars, W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Bauer, B.; Fuelling, S. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Lynn, A. G.; Turchi, P. J.

2013-09-01

206

Does the Frequency of Pay-for-Performance Payment Matter?—Experience from a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effects of incentive payment frequency on quality measures in a physician-specific pay-for-performance (P4P) experiment. Study Setting A multispecialty physician group practice. Study Design In 2007, all primary care physicians (n=179) were randomized into two study arms differing by the frequency of incentive payment, either four quarterly bonus checks or a single year-end bonus (maximum of U.S.$5,000/year for both arms). Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were extracted from electronic health records. Quality measure scores between the two arms over four quarters were compared. Principal Findings There was no difference between the two arms in average quality measure score or in total bonus amount earned. Conclusions Physicians' responses to a P4P program with a small maximum bonus do not differ by frequency of bonus payment. PMID:20059568

Chung, Sukyung; Palaniappan, Latha; Wong, Eric; Rubin, Haya; Luft, Harold

2010-01-01

207

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) experiments using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity experiments involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of experiments. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)

Physics Education, 1984

1984-01-01

208

Phase transition from fcc to bcc structure of the Cu-clusters during nanocrystallization of Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 soft magnetic alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A role of Cu on the nanocrystallization of an Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 alloy was investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Cu K-edge XAFS results show that local structure around Cu is disordered for the as-quenched sample whereas it changes to fcc-like structure at 613 K. The fcc Cu-clusters are, however, thermodynamically unstable and begin to transform into bcc structure at 638 K. An explicit bcc structure is observed for the sample annealed at 693 K for 600 s in which TEM observation shows that precipitated bcc-Fe crystallites with ˜12 nm are homogeneously distributed. The bcc structure of the Cu-clusters transforms into the fcc-type again at 973 K, which can be explained by the TEM observations; Cu segregates at grain boundaries between bcc-Fe crystallites and Fe3(B,P) compounds. Combining the XAFS results with the TEM observations, the structure transition of the Cu-clusters from fcc to bcc is highly correlated with the preliminary precipitation of the bcc-Fe which takes place prior to the onset of the first crystallization temperature, Tx1 = 707 K. Thermodynamic analysis suggests that an interfacial energy density ? between an fcc-Cu cluster and bcc-Fe matrix dominates at a certain case over the structural energy between fcc and bcc Cu, ?Gfcc - bcc, which causes phase transition of the Cu clusters from fcc to bcc structure.

Nishijima, Masahiko; Matsuura, Makoto; Takenaka, Kana; Takeuchi, Akira; Ofuchi, Hironori; Makino, Akihiro

2014-05-01

209

Experiments in Electrochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Fun Science Gallery, Experiments in Electrochemistry offers both teachers and students documentation for seven simple experiments to investigate conductors, batteries, potentials, and galvanic deposition. Each experiment is accompanied by a list of materials, explanatory text, and at least one figure that facilitates a scientific understanding of the experiment.

Carboni, Giorgio.

1998-01-01

210

Radiometer experiment for the aeroassist flight experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forthcoming NASA flight experiment is described that provides an opportunity to obtain a large base of radiometric data for high-altitude, high-velocity thermochemically nonequilibrated-flow conditions. As a preliminary to the design of a radiometer for this experiment, an approximate method for predicting both equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiative surface fluxes is described. Spectral results for one trajectory state, a velocity of 10 km/sec at an altitude of 85 km, are presented. These results are then used to develop some of the instrument parameters that will be needed for designing of the three genre of radiometers that are proposed for this experiment.

Davy, W. C.; Park, C.; Arnold, J. O.; Balakrishnan, A.

1985-06-01

211

Biomedical experiments. Part A: Biostack experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biostack experiment is described which was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the earth. Specifically, the biostack experiment was designed to promote research on the effects of high energy/high Z particles of galactic cosmic radiation on a broad spectrum of biologic systems, from the molecular to the highly organized and developed forms of life. The experiment was considered unique and scientifically meritorious because of its potential yield of information - currently unavailable on earth - on the interaction of biologic systems with the heavy particles of galactic cosmic radiation.

Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Scheuermann, W.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cuer, P.; Kaiser, R.

1972-01-01

212

Experience and perception  

E-print Network

To what extent can experience shape perception? In what ways does perception vary across people or even within the same person at different times? This thesis presents three lines of research examining the role of experience ...

Witthoft, Nathan (Nathan S.)

2007-01-01

213

Experiments in Magnetohydrodynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three student experiments in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these experiments, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)

Rayner, J. P.

1970-01-01

214

Buffon's Coin Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's coin experiment. The radius of the coin can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, events, probability, and relative frequency.

Kyle Siegrist

215

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes apparatus needed and instructions for conducting four experiments. Experiments focus on light waves, measurement of contact resistance, demonstration of longitudinal waves, and a simple method of measuring the refractive indices of transparent plates and liquids. (JM)

Physics Education, 1984

1984-01-01

216

Experiences of Hunting  

E-print Network

Experiences of Hunting Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) U rgyan dbang phyung describes his personal hunting experiences. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Interview Name of recorder (if different from...

Bkra shis bzang po

2009-11-05

217

Experience and content  

E-print Network

The ‘content view’, in slogan form, is ‘Perceptual experiences have representational content’. I explain why the content view should be reformulated to remove any reference to ‘experiences’. I then argue, against Bill ...

Byrne, Alex

218

Experience and Content  

E-print Network

The 'content view', in slogan form, is 'Perceptual experiences have representational content'. I explain why the content view should be reformulated to remove any reference to 'experiences'. I then argue, against Bill ...

Byrne, Alex

219

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

220

First Impressions Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the first impressions experiment. This study allows participants to experience the formation of initial impressions and the roles minority/majority status and positive/negative attributes play in that formation process.

221

STEP Experiment Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

Brumfield, M. L. (compiler)

1984-01-01

222

ACTS Aeronautical Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses a series of aeronautical experiments that utilize the advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS). As part of the ongoing effort to investigate commercial applications of ACTS technologies, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and various industry/government partners have developed a series of experiments that utilize the ACTS mobile terminal (AMT) and the broadband aeronautical terminal to investigate aeronautical uses of the ACTS. This paper discusses these experiments including the experiment configurations, technologies, results and future implications.

Agan, Martin J.; Nakamura, Daniel I.; Campbell, Alan D.; Sternowski, Robert H.; Whiting, Wendy A.; Shameson, Leon

1996-01-01

223

The ITALSAT experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some information is given on the ITALSAT millimetric waves propagation experiment, which is to be conducted with the ITALSAT satellite, whose launch is foreseen for the middle of 1990. The purpose of the experiment is one of experimenting with advanced technologies and techniques employing the 20/30 GHz bands in wideband telecommunications. Among the most qualified features of this system are the multispot antenna and the exchange function performed directly onboard. Details of the experiment are given.

Paraboni, A.

1989-01-01

224

The Concerned Observer Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

Rabiger, Michael

1991-01-01

225

The Experience of Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author outlines the experiences of disability and demonstrates that generally unpleasant experiences are the direct result of a basic and false assumption on the part of society. Experiences of the disabled are discussed in areas the author categorizes as exclusion or segregation, deprivation, prejudice, poverty, frustration, and…

Hastings, Elizabeth

1981-01-01

226

Experience and Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREENOUGH, WILLIAM T.; BLACK, JAMES E.; and WALLACE, GHRISTOPHER S. Experience and Brain Development. GHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1987, 58, 539-559. This article considers how experience can influence the developing and mature brain and proposes a new categorization scheme based upon the type of information stored and the brain mechanisms that appear to be involved in storing it. In this scheme, experience-expectant

William T. Greenough; James E. Black; Christopher S. Wallace

1987-01-01

227

Viscosity Of Liquids - Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom experiment to illustrate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring how quickly pebbles sink through them. The site describes all of the required material for the experiment and also gives a detailed chart for recording the results of the experiment. Altogether, the site is a great activity for the classroom.

228

Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

2012-02-01

229

Gyroscope relativity experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

Decher, R.

1971-01-01

230

Spinning Rods: Experiment & Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing and transport properties of the fluid motion induced by a slender rod attached to a plane sweeping out a cone are examined in a table- top experiment. This experiment is used to validate an exact solution for the motion of a spheroid sweeping out a double cone in free space and an asymptotic solution for a slender body attached to a plane. Validation of the theory is used to examine mixing and transport of the same experiment on the microscale.

Toledo, Jonathan; McLaughlin, Richard M.; Camassa, Roberto; Leiterman, Terry Jo; Superfine, Richard; Hao, Jing; Vicci, Leandra; Brooks, Adam

2006-03-01

231

Microgravity Experiments On Animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

1991-01-01

232

Experiments in Electroanalytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers educators a set of eight classical electroanalytical experiments suitable for use in a quantitative analysis, instrumental analysis, or electrochemistry course. The materials should be useful for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Experiments include coulometric, conductometric, and potentiometric titrations, stripping analysis, flow injection analysis, and polarography. It is important to note that several of the experiments use mercury or mercury coated electrodes which present safety concerns.

233

SEDS experiment design definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Expendable-tether Deployment System (SEDS) was developed to design, build, integrate, fly, and safely deploy and release an expendable tether. A suitable concept for an on-orbit test of SEDS was developed. The following tasks were performed: (1) Define experiment objectives and requirements; (2) Define experiment concepts to reach those objectives; (3) Support NASA in experiment concept selection and definition; (4) Perform analyses and tests of SEDS hardware; (5) Refine the selected SEDS experiment concept; and (6) Support interactive SEDS system definition process. Results and conclusions are given.

Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.; Oldson, John C.

1990-01-01

234

Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)

Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.

1975-01-01

235

Measuring mediated communication experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of our daily communication is technology-mediated and ranges from phone discussions to negotiations in sophisticated video conferences. We studied the mediated communication interaction and experience in three experimental setups: high quality video conferencing, Skype calls with webcam and audio conferencing. The communication experience was studied with a statistically developed five-dimensional measure. The differences were analysed with a

Viljakaisa Aaltonen; Jari Takatalo; Jukka Häkkinen; Miikka Lehtonen; Göte Nyman; Martin Schrader

2009-01-01

236

Undergraduate Infrared Spectroscopy Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights procedures and results of an experiment using atomic absorption spectroscope to illustrate a fundamental chemical concept. The experiment demonstrates the dependence of the solubility product of lead sulfate on ionic strength in the presence of a slight excess of anion. (Author/JN)

MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J.

1982-01-01

237

Instrumental Analysis Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

Walters, John P.

238

Advancing the Mnoa Experience  

E-print Network

future for our university. #12;A multicultural global experience in a Hawaiian place of learning 2 Our multicultural global experience in a Hawaiian place of learning." One example is our Kabuki theatre ­ an 87-year research success which is highly relevant to Hawai`i and the Pacific Islands involves a major grant

Wang, Yuqing

239

Context, Situation, and Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses contextualization in the TESL classroom. Starting from the statement that fluency and comprehension are more important than absolute accuracy, and that to know how to use language students must "experience context in situations," a definition is attempted of the terms "context,""situation," and "experience." Situation is…

Palmer, Joe Darwin

240

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes briefly three experiments, which are presented by three physics teachers to share their ideas with other teachers and readers. These experiments are: (1) a simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment; (2) the speed of light; and (3) the ball-bearing electric motor. (HM)

Physics Education, 1980

1980-01-01

241

The Jumping Ring Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

2009-01-01

242

Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), an experiment with the objective of investigating critical vehicle design and environmental technologies applicable to the design of aeroassisted space transfer vehicles. Information is given on design, simulation, flight regime, mission requirements and objectives, instrumentation, and the project schedule.

Siemers, Paul M., III

1988-01-01

243

Shusterman on Somatic Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

Maattanen, Pentti

2010-01-01

244

Die Coin Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the experiment of rolling a die and then tossing a coin the number of times shown on the die. The die distribution and the probability of heads can be specified. The applet illustrates a two-stage experiment.

Kyle Siegrist

245

Buffon's Needle Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's needle experiment and the corresponding approximation of pi. The event of interest is that the needle crosses a crack. The length of the needle can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, probability, and relative frequency.

Kyle Siegrist

246

The Student Athlete Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…

Gayles, Joy Gaston

2009-01-01

247

Nonparametric identification experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following constitutes a summary of this paper: on-orbit identification methodology starts with nonparametric techniques for a priori system identification; development of the nonparametric identification and model determination experiment software has been completed; the validation experiments to be performed on the JPL Control and Identification Technology Validation Laboratory have been designed.

Yam, Yeung

1988-01-01

248

Real-World Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

Borja, Rhea R.

2006-01-01

249

Laser experiments producing melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initiative is underway at the Omega, Vulcan and Helen lasers to produce and detect melt transitions in targets using decaying shock waves. We present data and analysis for experiments performed at Vulcan and Helen to detect melt in Al, Pb and Fe. We show an analytic study and of diamond melt experiments performed at the Omega laser. For the

Jon Eggert; David Bradley; Damien Hicks; Steve Moon; Gilbert Collins; Peter Celliers; Jave Kane; Walter Unites; Tom Beat; Alan Jankowski; Jeff Hayes; Steve Rothman; Andrew Evans

2002-01-01

250

Corn blight watch experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

1974-01-01

251

A Column Dispersion Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

1982-01-01

252

Ball Collision Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments are described on collisions between two billiard balls and between a bat and a ball. The experiments are designed to extend a student's understanding of collision events and could be used either as a classroom demonstration or for a student project.

Cross, R.

2015-01-01

253

Experiment with Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to give students the opportunity to ?think like a scientist,? making hypotheses, doing experiments, making observations, and analyzing data. Students are encouraged to construct and conduct their own experiments with ecosystems comprising grass, rabbits, and up to two predator species: hawks and foxes. (Evolution Readiness Activity 10 of 10.)

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

254

Franklin: User Experiences  

SciTech Connect

The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

2008-05-07

255

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) two experiments using a laser (resonant cavity for light and pinhole camera effect with a hologram); (2) optical differaction patterns displayed by microcomputer; and (3) automating the Hall effect (with comments on apparatus needed and computer program used); and (4) an elegant experiment in mechanical equilibrium. (JN)

Physics Education, 1985

1985-01-01

256

Voyager imaging experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this experiment is exploratory reconnaissance of Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites, and Saturn's rings. Such reconnaissance, at resolutions and phase angles unobtainable from Earth, can be expected to provide much new data relevant to the atmospheric and\\/or surface properties of these bodies. The experiment also has the following specific objectives:

B. A. Smith; G. A. Briggs; G. E. Danielson; A. F. Cook; M. E. Davies; G. E. Hunt; H. Masursky; L. A. Soderblom; T. C. Owen; C. Sagan; V. E. Suomi

1977-01-01

257

Social Balance Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Social Balance Experiment. In this experiment, participants are asked to imagine that they are in a situation in which they have one of five feelings (love, like, neutral, dislike or hate) toward another person named Bill.

258

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

259

The Overseas Internship Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the Overseas Internship Experience, a program designed expressly for undergraduate business students who wish to have an overseas experience but are either unable or unwilling to participate in traditional study-abroad programs. The program, in operation since 1996, includes a 6-week supervised summer internship in Oxford, England; a variety of cultural heritage visits; supervised travel to neighboring countries;

Mark F. Toncar; Brian V. Cudmore

2000-01-01

260

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

261

Solid Surface Combustion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), designed to supply information on flame spread over solid fuel surfaces in the reduced-gravity environment of space, is pictured during Day 4 operations. The middeck experiment measured the rate of spreading, the solid-phase temperature, and the gas-phase temperature of flames spreading over rectangular fuel beds.

1994-01-01

262

Online Physics Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colorado State University's Hands-On Science Outreach Program, Little Shop of Physics, contains several dozen online experiments that can be done at home, in the classroom, or directly on a computer. The Amazing Physics section offers directions on completing the classic imploding pop can experiment and other experiments using common household items. The other two sections, Computer Stuff and Shockwave Stuff, allows users to try interactive activities like the headshrinker experiment. After staring at the animation of moving circles for a minute and then looking at a friend's head, it strangely appears to be shrinking. Each detailed experiment provides clear and straightforward directions as well as an explanation of what is actually happening, making this site an excellent resource for teachers and parents in helping kids understand physics.

1998-01-01

263

USML-1 Glovebox experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

Naumann, Robert J.

1995-01-01

264

Dulye Leadership Experience The Ultimate Professional Development Experience  

E-print Network

Dulye Leadership Experience The Ultimate Professional Development Experience: Dulye Leadership Experience Do YOU have what it takes to join the team? Find out more at dle.dulye.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DulyeLeadershipExperience Twitter: DLE4SU #12;Dulye Leadership Experience Program Overview Dulye Leadership Experience The Dulye

Crowston, Kevin

265

The Neutron EDM Experiment  

E-print Network

The neutron EDM experiment has played an important part over many decades in shaping and constraining numerous models of CP violation. This review article discusses some of the techniques used to calculate EDMs under various theoretical scenarios, and highlights some of the implications of EDM limits upon such models. A pedagogical introduction is given to the experimental techniques employed in the recently completed ILL experiment, including a brief discussion of the dominant systematic uncertainties. A new and much more sensitive version of the experiment, which is currently under development, is also outlined.

P. G. Harris

2007-12-05

266

Advanced biostack experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

Buecker, H.

1981-01-01

267

Public Goods Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students must decide how to divide their "endowment" of a good between private consumption and a public good. The private consumption provides a benefit (earnings) to only the individual and the public good provides a benefit to each person in the group, even those who do not contribute to the public good. This hand-run experiment is suitable for use in small classes in the range of 5 to 40 students. Some variations on this basic experiment are also described.

Todd Swarthout

268

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

269

ROCSAT-1 telecommunication experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses a telecommunication payload project approved by the R.O.C. NSPO's ROCSAT-1 space program. This project will enable several innovative experiments via the low-earth-orbit satellite ROCSAT-1, including multipath fading channel characterization, ionospheric scintillation measurement, real-time voice communications, and CDMA data communications. A unified L/S-band transponder payload is proposed for conducting these experiments in an efficient way. The results of these experiments would provide the evolving mobile communication communities with fruitful information.

Chang, J. F.; Taur, R. R.; Chu, T. H.; Li, H. S.; Su, Y. T.; Kiang, Y. W.; Su, S. L.; Shih, M. P.; Lin, H. D.; Chung, C. D.

1993-01-01

270

Industrial application experiment series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

Bluhm, S. A.

1981-01-01

271

Russian Grouting Experience  

SciTech Connect

The final report on Russian Grouting experience provided an opportunity for international cooperation and access to Russian grouting/waste form experience. the data on radiolytic gas generation from grout mixtures was already used in evaluation of the source of hydrogen and methane generation detected in the sampling ports around the SRS high-level waste tanks in 2002. The concept of venting the radiolytic gases from a waste form by adding porous aggregate is being considered for future cement-based TRU waste forms at SRS. The objectives of this work were to document the Russian experience on grouting for waste forms and tank closures or other decommissioning applications.

Langton, C.A.

2002-10-15

272

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three experiments: (1) "Liquid Flow from Orifices"; (2) "Microcomputer-Controlled Investigation of Battery Discharge and Recovery"; and (3) "Measurement of the Speed of Sound." Drawings and diagrams accompany each. (RT)

Physics Education, 1988

1988-01-01

273

Virtual Chemistry Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry applets simulate various experiments, apparatus, and chemical processes. The display and operation of an applet can be controlled by the user through the PARAM options in the APPLET tag and through JavaScript commands.

David N. Blauch

274

Early Experiences in Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical concepts and experiences are recalled and organized in a flow chart format. The power of unifying ideas in mathematics often causes this sequence to be forgotten or assigned less importance than it should be. (SD)

Thornton, E. B. C.

1975-01-01

275

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduced are two experiments: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)

Physics Education, 1989

1989-01-01

276

Input: A Communication Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on Project Input at the Hoffman, Minnesota High School which gives students experience in using oral language with residents in a nursing home, retarded children and adults, and pupils in an elementary school. (RB)

Westbrock, Leon

1973-01-01

277

A Sea Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a teacher education program organized by the Sea Education Association in Woods Hole (Massachusetts). The experience, including activities and examples of studies conducted, is discussed. Contact information for future cruises is included. (CW)

Glickstein, Neil

1989-01-01

278

Foraging Experiences with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

Russell, Helen Ross

1976-01-01

279

Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Keynote Presentation exported as a clickable quicktime movie. This presentation develops Millikan's Oil Drop experiment. The presentation is animated and the learner or Instructor can click their way through the presenation. The mathematical theory is fully developed.

Mr. Tony DiMauro

2009-01-12

280

Electrophoresis experiment for space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

1976-01-01

281

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four physics experiments including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)

Physics Education, 1988

1988-01-01

282

Designing Microarray Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene expression microarrays have become an important exploratory tool in many screening experiments that aim to discover the genes that change expression in two or more biological conditions and can be used to build molecular profiles for both diagnostic and prognostic use. The still very high costs of microarrays and the difficulty in generating the biological samples are critical issues of microarraybased screening experiments, and the experimental design plays a crucial role in how informative an experiment is going to be. In this chapter, we describe some of the major issues related to the design of either randomized control trials or observational studies and discuss the choice of powerful sample sizes, the selection of informative experimental conditions, and experimental strategies that can minimize confounding. We conclude with a discussion of some of the open problems in the design and analysis of microarray experiments that need further research.

Sebastiani, Paola; Milton, Jacqui; Wang, Ling

283

The Brain Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational component of the CMB polarization, the so-called B-modes, is one of the major topic for next generation CMB experiments. This signal traces the effect on the CMB due to primordial gravitational waves produced during the inflationary epoch, probing the physics of the very early universe at GUT energy scales. This is a challenge, being the expected amplitude of B-mode polarization ~ 0.1?K. In this paper we describe the BRAIN experiment, a bolometric interferometer which combines high sensitivity bolometric detectors with the excellent control of systematic effects proper of interferometers. Being a ground based experiment, we identified Dome Charlie in Antarctica as the best site for such measurements. In order to validate the goodness of the site, as well as some of the implemented technical solutions, we built a pathfinder experiment which has been successfully operated during last Antarctic summer, and we report about preliminary results obtained.

Polenta, G.; Calvo, M.; Conversi, L.; de Bernardis, P.; Giordano, C.; Iacoangeli, A.; Maiello, M.; Marini-Bettolo, C.; Masi, S.; Nati, F.; Nati, L.; Peterzen, S.; Piacentini, F.; Sordini, R.; Veneziani, M.; Bartlett, J.; Bréelle, E.; Dufour, C.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghribi, A.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Guglielmi, L.; Hamilton, J. C.; Kaplan, J.; Piat, M.; Gervasi, M.; Sironi, G.; Spinelli, S.; Tartari, A.; Zannoni, M.; Maffei, B.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Ade, P.; Orlando, A.; Savini, G.; Brossard, J.; Giard, M.; Landé, J.; Bergé, L.; Dumoulin, L.; Juillard, A.; Marnieros, S.; Pajot, F.; Rosset, C.

2008-09-01

284

A 500-year experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charles Cockell and colleagues describe an experiment that started in 2014 and will finish in 2514. It will document how long desiccated microbes can survive, with implications for life in the planetary crust and in space.

Cockell, Charles

2015-02-01

285

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to demonstrate the following: the hysteresis effect and the existence of domains in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate); diffraction experiments using a slide with multiple slits; and an analogue technique for learning terminal velocity. (GA)

Physics Education, 1979

1979-01-01

286

Experimenting with Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

1977-01-01

287

A Colorful Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment, mixing solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate to give a bright yellow lead iodide precipitate, often leads students into other topics such as making paint from the precipitate. (BB)

Hunter, C. Bruce

1978-01-01

288

ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

1993-01-01

289

Germany's Solar Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOVA video podcast is about Germany's solar experiment. Munich's solar panel farm lines the Autobahn and countryside in a massive effort to prove solar's feasibility as a practical renewable energy source.

NOVA

290

Experiments in Animal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

Polt, James M.

1971-01-01

291

The Mock Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A full understanding of the mechanisms behind and the importance of scientific research is invaluable to all college students. The Mock Experiment can be used to introduce science and nonscience majors to the scientific process, presentation of research,

Leeann Sticker

2002-02-01

292

Status of RENO Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) experiment is under construction to measure the smallest neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} using anti-neutrinos emitted from the Yonggwang nuclear power plant in Korea. The experiment is planning to start data-taking in early 2011 with two identical 16-ton Gadolinium loaded liquid scintillator detectors located near and far from the center of the reactor array. The estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%. Based on three years of data, the expected statistical error is about 0.3% and it would be sensitive to measure the neutrino mixing angle in the range, sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 13})> 0.02. In this talk, the overview and status of RENO experiment are described.

Jang, Jee-Seung [Institute for Universe and Elementary Particles, Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, Kwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-06

293

A Tasty Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct an experiment to determine whether or not the sense of smell is important to being able to recognize foods by taste. They do this by attempting to identify several different foods that have similar textures. For some of the attempts, students hold their noses and close their eyes, while for others they only close their eyes. After they have conducted the experiment, they create bar graphs showing the number of correct and incorrect identifications for the two different experimental conditions tested.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

294

ISE structural dynamic experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

1988-01-01

295

Surface electrical properties experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

1973-01-01

296

Spacelab J experiment descriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

Miller, Teresa Y. (editor)

1993-01-01

297

Coin Die Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the experiment that consists of tossing a coin and then rolling either a red die or a green die, depending on the outcome of the coin toss. The probability of heads and the distributions of the two dice can be specified. The applet illustrates a two-stage experiment.

Kyle Siegrist

298

Heat pipe flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OAO 3 heat pipe flight experiments to check out weightlessness behavior are reported. Tested were a hollow channel screen system with helical grooves, a heat pipe with a wicking system of horizontal grooves, and a spiral artery pipe with multichannel fluid return to the evaporator. Flight experiment data proved that all heat pipe geometries containing wicking systems provided uninterrupted fluid return to the condensators during weightlessness and sufficient cooling for isothermalizing optical instruments onboard OAO.

Ollendorf, S.

1973-01-01

299

The jumping ring experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are used, but the effect of using copper rings is briefly discussed.

Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

2009-01-01

300

Spacelab J experiment descriptions  

SciTech Connect

Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Miller, T.Y.

1993-08-01

301

Object Location Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Object Location Experiment. The experiment begins with a description of the object location memory task that the participants will complete. Participants learn that they will study an array of objects for a designated period of time; the array of objects will then disappear; and then the array of objects will reappear, but some of the objects will have exchanged positions.

302

LACE flight dynamics experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) is scheduled for launch in late 1989 into a 556 km altitude circular orbit of 43 deg inclination. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is an experiment secondary to the primary LACE mission. The purpose of the experiment is to provide on-orbit systems identification of the LACE spacecraft. The structure of the LACE spacecraft is of special interest to the CSI community. It incorporates 3 deployable/retractable booms of maximum length 45.72 m (150 ft) mounted on a rectangular parallelepiped bus of mass 1,200 kg. The zenith directed gravity gradient boom is mounted on the top of the bus; the retroreflector boom is mounted forward and deployed along the velocity vector, the balance boom is mounted and pointed aft. Attitude stabilization is accomplished by means of gravity gradient torques and by a momentum wheel. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is designed to measure modal frequencies, damping ratios, and oscillation amplitudes of the LACE spacecraft, as well as the vibration intensity generated by boom deployments and retractions. It is anticipated that this experiment will provide an opportunity for improvements in the accuracy of computer simulations of flexible structures and multibody dynamics.

Fisher, Shalom

1989-01-01

303

Experiments in Computing: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general. PMID:24688404

Moisseinen, Nella

2014-01-01

304

Modal identification experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) is a proposed on-orbit experiment being developed by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology wherein a series of vibration measurements would be made on various configurations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) during its on-orbit assembly phase. The experiment is to be conducted in conjunction with station reboost operations and consists of measuring the dynamic responses of the spacecraft produced by station-based attitude control system and reboost thrusters, recording and transmitting the data, and processing the data on the ground to identify the natural frequencies, damping factors, and shapes of significant vibratory modes. The experiment would likely be a part of the Space Station on-orbit verification. Basic research objectives of MIE are to evaluate and improve methods for analytically modeling large space structures, to develop techniques for performing in-space modal testing, and to validate candidate techniques for in-space modal identification. From an engineering point of view, MIE will provide the first opportunity to obtain vibration data for the fully-assembled structure because SSF is too large and too flexible to be tested as a single unit on the ground. Such full-system data is essential for validating the analytical model of SSF which would be used in any engineering efforts associated with structural or control system changes that might be made to the station as missions evolve over time. Extensive analytical simulations of on-orbit tests, as well exploratory laboratory simulations using small-scale models, have been conducted in-house and under contract to develop a measurement plan and evaluate its potential performance. In particular, performance trade and parametric studies conducted as part of these simulations were used to resolve issues related to the number and location of the measurements, the type of excitation, data acquisition and data processing, effects of noise and nonlinearities, selection of target vibration modes, and the appropriate type of data analysis scheme. The purpose of this talk is to provide an executive-summary-type overview of the modal identification experiment which has emerged from the conceptual design studies conducted to-date. Emphasis throughout is on those aspects of the experiment which should be of interest to those attending the subject utilization conference. The presentation begins with some preparatory remarks to provide background and motivation for the experiment, describe the experiment in general terms, and cite the specific technical objectives. This is followed by a summary of the major results of the conceptual design studies conducted to define the baseline experiment. The baseline experiment which has resulted from the studies is then described.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1992-01-01

305

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology: Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE) is a collection of peer-reviewed, classroom/ field-tested teaching materials sponsored by the Ecological Society of America. Among these "scientifically sound and pedagogically innovative" teaching materials are a number of particularly well-designed ecology labs for field and classroom. As of February 2003, two of the seven labs on the Web site are complete and ready to download: Ecology of Habitat Contrasts and Environmental Correlates of Leaf Stomata Density. Both are designed for college level courses. Five other labs covering a range of ecology topics will eventually be available, and users may also take advantage of an earlier set of labs from 1993. The resources and materials provided for each lab are incredibly comprehensive. Suffice to say, this Web site is definitely one to bookmark and check frequently for updates.

1969-12-31

306

Cryogenic fluid management experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

1981-01-01

307

FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

1998-01-01

308

Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the /sup 8/B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of /sup 98/Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an understanding of stellar processes because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy may lie in the properties of neutrinos (neutrino oscillations or massive neutrinos) or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the /sup 8/B neutrino flux in current times and does not address possible temporal variations in the interior of the sun, which are also not considered in the standard model. In the molybdenum experiment, we plan to measure /sup 98/Tc (4.2 Myr), also produced by /sup 8/B neutrinos, and possibly /sup 97/Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos.

Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G.A.; Bryant, E.A.; Daniels, K.S.; Downey, S.W.; Haxton, W.C.; Niesen, V.G.; Nogar, N.S.; Miller, C.M.; Rokop, D.J.

1984-01-01

309

AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

Depken, J.C.

1987-01-01

310

AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

Depken, J.C.

1991-04-01

311

Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

2003-01-01

312

Droplet Combustion Experiment movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

2003-01-01

313

Future Experiments in Astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement methodologies of astrophysics experiments reflect the enormous variation of the astrophysical radiation itself. The diverse nature of the astrophysical radiation, e.g. cosmic rays, electromagnetic radiation, and neutrinos, is further complicated by the enormous span in energy, from the 1.95 Kappa relic neutrino background to cosmic rays with energy greater than 10(exp 20)eV. The measurement of gravity waves and search for dark matter constituents are also of astrophysical interest. Thus, the experimental techniques employed to determine the energy of the incident particles are strongly dependent upon the specific particles and energy range to be measured. This paper summarizes some of the calorimetric methodologies and measurements planned by future astrophysics experiments. A focus will be placed on the measurement of higher energy astrophysical radiation. Specifically, future cosmic ray, gamma ray, and neutrino experiments will be discussed.

Krizmanic, John F.

2002-01-01

314

Droplet Combustion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (199KB JPEG, 1311 x 1477 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300165.html.

2003-01-01

315

Droplet Combustion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (120KB JPEG, 655 x 736 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300167.html.

2003-01-01

316

Results of space experiments.  

PubMed

Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program. PMID:7480627

Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schäfer, M

1995-08-01

317

The VIP Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is a basic principle of Quantum Mechanics, and its validity has never been seriously challenged. However, given its importance, it is very important to check it as thoroughly as possible. Here we describe the VIP (Violation of PEP) experiment, an improved version of the Ramberg and Snow experiment (Ramberg and Snow, Phys. Lett. B238 (1990) 438); VIP shall be performed at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, and aims to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to {beta}2/2 {approx_equal} 10-30.

Bartalucci, S.; Bertolucci, S.; Catitti, M.; Curceanu, C.; Di Matteo, S.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Pietreanu, D.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell'INFN-LNF, CP 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bragadireanu, M.; Ponta, T. ['Horia Holubei' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Atomistilor no.407, P.O.BOX MG-6, Bucharest - Magurele (Romania); Bucci, C.; Ferrari, N.; Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso dell'INFN-LNGS, S.S. 17 bis Km. 18.910, 67010 - ASSERGI (AQ) (Italy); Cargnelli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J. ['Stefan Meyer' Institute for Subatomic Physics, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)] (and others)

2006-01-04

318

The VIP Experiment  

E-print Network

The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is a basic principle of Quantum Mechanics, and its validity has never been seriously challenged. However, given its importance, it is very important to check it as thoroughly as possible. Here we describe the VIP (Violation of PEP) experiment, an improved version of the Ramberg and Snow experiment (Ramberg and Snow, Phys. Lett. B238 (1990) 438); VIP shall be performed at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, and aims to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to $\\frac{\\beta^2}{2} \\sim 10^{-30}$

S. Bartalucci; S. Bertolucci; M. Bragadireanu; C. Bucci; M. Cargnelli; M. Catitti; C. Curceanu; S. Di Matteo; J. -P. Egger; N. Ferrari; H. Fuhrmann; C. Guaraldo; M. Iliescu; T. Ishiwatari; M. Laubenstein; J. Marton; E. Milotti; D. Pietreanu; T. Ponta; D. Sirghi; F. Sirghi; L. Sperandio; E. Widmann; J. Zmeskal

2005-08-23

319

Gas Chromatography Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document describes a Gas Chromatography experiment involving the separation and quantitation of four butyl alcohol isomers. It has a complete background about the components of a GC instrument (with labeled pictures) and their functions. The exercise includes a section devoted to the measurement of response factors of the detector in use (here an FID). This would be a good experiment for a new faculty member to use as is, with slight modification to make it relevant to the particular GC system to be used.

320

Science Experiments at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, offers many fun, easy chemistry experiments at this website. Through the utilization of a few household materials, users can learn about pressure, acids and bases, chemiluminescent chemical reactions, and more. The activities are filled with thought provoking questions along with concise explanations about the topic presented. The website provides links to activities dealing with topics in physics as well. Anyone interested in partaking in simple, yet exciting, science experiments with their family and friends at home should visit this website.

2007-12-12

321

World Ocean Circulation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

Clarke, R. Allyn

1992-01-01

322

Experiments in autonomous robotics  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is performing basic research in autonomous robotics for energy-related applications in hazardous environments. The CESAR research agenda includes a strong experimental component to assure practical evaluation of new concepts and theories. An evolutionary sequence of mobile research robots has been planned to support research in robot navigation, world sensing, and object manipulation. A number of experiments have been performed in studying robot navigation and path planning with planar sonar sensing. Future experiments will address more complex tasks involving three-dimensional sensing, dexterous manipulation, and human-scale operations.

Hamel, W.R.

1987-01-01

323

The TRIO-01 experiment  

SciTech Connect

The TRIO-01 experiment is a comprehensive test of in-situ tritium recovery from a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. Other solid breeder blanket performance factors such as thermal hydraulics, tritium permeation, and gas phase chemistry will be tested as well. The capsule assembly is irradiated in the A2 core position of the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR). Tritium release and recovery is tested by passing a He sweep gas through the solid breeder capsule measuring and collecting the tritium in the sweep stream. The TRIO-01 experiment has extensive on-line monitoring including sweep gas analysis, temperatures, neutron flux, and tritium permeation.

Clemmer, R.G.; Malecha, R.F.

1983-09-01

324

Chondrule Crystallization Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given the great diversity of chondrules, laboratory experiments are invaluable in yielding information on chondrule formation process(es) and for deciphering their initial conditions of formation together with their thermal history. In addition, they provide some critical parameters for astrophysical models of the solar system and of nebular disk evolution in particular (partial pressures, temperature, time, opacity, etc). Most of the experiments simulating chondrules have assumed formation from an aggregate of solid grains, with total pressure of no importance and with virtually no gain or loss of elements from or to the ambient environment. They used pressed pellets attached to wires and suffered from some losses of alkalis and Fe.

Hweins, R. H.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lofgren, G. E.; Libourel, G.

2004-01-01

325

Photon mass experiment  

SciTech Connect

A Coulomb null experiment is described that enables physics students to obtain rigorous upper bounds on photon mass. The experimenter searches for subnanovolt signals that would escape a closed shell were photon mass to be positive. The approach can be adapted for several college levels. At the simplest level, a ''miniature'' low-cost experiment allows a student to verify the exponent ''-2'' in Coulomb's law to eight or more decimal places. An advanced student given a full-size apparatus (at greater cost) can obtain mass bounds very close to the established laboratory limit.

Crandall, R.E.

1983-08-01

326

Solifluction: a model experiment.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments that subjected soil to repeated freeze-thaw cycles in an inclined container revealed every process of solifluction, especially of frost creep. Multiple slope-angle effects on the amount of particle movement on the soil surface in every cycle are interpreted by several characteristic processes of frost creep. Gelifluction was found to occur in thicker layers of soil, owing to the excess water retained in soil after thawing. For further development of the problem, a similarity law for the model experiment was derived from thermal considerations. PMID:17834556

Higashi, A; Corte, A E

1971-02-01

327

Child Psychology Experiences Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

Walla Walla Coll., WA.

328

Enhance Your Twitter Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has been encouraging teachers, students, and others to join Twitter and build their personal learning networks (PLNs) ever since she delved into this great social networking site. In this article, she offers a few other tools and tips that can improve the Twitter experience of those who have opened up an account and dabbled a bit but…

Miller, Shannon McClintock

2010-01-01

329

Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

1991-01-01

330

A Degrading Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to learn about how different types of marine debris degrade and how weather and sunlight affect the rate of degradation. Learners discover that debris made from natural materials, while biodegradable, can still be considered pollutants and can still harm the marine environment.

Seba Sheavly

2014-05-28

331

Review of PEP experiments  

SciTech Connect

Recent physics results from four PEP experiments: Mark II, MAC, DELCO, and TPC are presented herewith. The topics discussed deal with flavor tagging of charmed and bottom quarks, tau and D/sup 0/ lifetimes, Electroweak interference effects, searches for new particles and dE/dx measurements.

Goldhaber, G.

1983-03-01

332

The OLYMPUS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OLYMPUS experiment was designed to measure the ratio between the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross-sections, with the goal of determining the contribution of two-photon exchange to the elastic cross-section. Two-photon exchange might resolve the discrepancy between measurements of the proton form factor ratio, ?pGEp/GMp, made using polarization techniques and those made in unpolarized experiments. OLYMPUS operated on the DORIS storage ring at DESY, alternating between 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams incident on an internal hydrogen gas target. The experiment used a toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight detectors to measure rates for elastic scattering over the polar angular range of approximately 25°-75°. Symmetric Møller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29° and telescopes of GEM and MWPC detectors at 12° served as luminosity monitors. A total luminosity of approximately 4.5 fb-1 was collected over two running periods in 2012. This paper provides details on the accelerator, target, detectors, and operation of the experiment.

Milner, R.; Hasell, D. K.; Kohl, M.; Schneekloth, U.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Andreev, V. A.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bernauer, J. C.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Buck, B.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; De Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hauschildt, J.; Henderson, B. S.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ice, L. D.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Khaneft, D.; Klassen, P.; Kiselev, A.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; O'Connor, C.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Russell, R. L.; Schmidt, A.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.

2014-03-01

333

Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113–432 nm with a wavelength

C. W. Hord; A. I. F. Stewart; C. A. Barth; L. W. Esposito; G. E. Thomas; B. R. Sandel; D. M. Hunten; A. L. Broadfoot; D. E. Shemansky; J. M. Ajello; R. A. West

1992-01-01

334

Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength

C. W. Hord; W. E. McClintock; A. I. F. Stewart; C. A. Barth; L. W. Esposito; G. E. Thomas; B. R. Sandel; D. M. Hunten; A. L. Broadfoot; D. E. Shemansky

1992-01-01

335

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station  

E-print Network

as well as managing insects that impact humans. We introduce you to a new superior bahiagrass for cattle and their needs. IFAS researchers are the vanguard, the point, the lead in seeking answers to serve and improve the quality of lives. Welcome to the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Mark R. McLellan Dean

Jawitz, James W.

336

FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

2007-01-01

337

Electrical Resistance Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this experiment on electrical resistance and glass. The module involves breaking the glass from a light bulb and then measuring the resistance across the bulb's electrodes. The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure and a link to a video clip.

338

Experiments with Dipole Antennas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2009-01-01

339

Experiences of Collaborative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration,…

Kahneman, Daniel

2003-01-01

340

SAMBA Project Experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the SAMBA project, running from January 2007 to February 2009, was to create a framework for allowing local communities and citizens (including low income population) to access community-oriented content and services by means of iDTV channels, specifically MHP over DVB-T. This paper summarises the project and the experiences gained from it.

Fuhrhop, Christian; Vaidya, Raju; Mayora, Oscar; Furtado, Elizabeth

341

Improving the Student Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shifts in funding and a worldwide trend towards marketising higher education have led to a new emphasis on the quality of the student experience. In the UK this trend finds its strongest expression in recent policy proposals to simultaneously increase student fees and student choice so that students themselves become the drivers of higher…

Staddon, Elizabeth; Standish, Paul

2012-01-01

342

The Airplane Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

1991-01-01

343

Experiment design Conditions  

E-print Network

Experiment design Conditions: Motor control vs. dark Lshape/HMD Empty physical room vs. empty virtual room model each with synchronous/asynchronous stroking own body vs. moving avatar fake body vs Fragebogen: Verzögerung von 200ms - asynchrones Streicheln positiver bewertet als synchrones Streicheln

Beckhaus, Steffi

344

Popper's experiment and communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We comment on an analysis by Qureshi of an experiment proposed by Popper and show that an analysis based solely on conventional nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is sufficient to exclude the possibility of subluminal or superluminal communication. That is, local operations cannot be employed to transmit information.

Gerjuoy, Edward; Sessler, Andrew M.

2006-07-01

345

The Experience of Menarche.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines reactions to menarche and the subsequent effects of this experience as a function of preparation for and timing of menarche. A questionnaire including measures of responses about first menstruation, current symptoms, and self-image was completed by 639 girls in fifth through twelfth grades. (Author/MP)

Ruble, Diane N.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

1982-01-01

346

NASSC: A Businessman's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a businessman's viewpoint, the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) offers a singular opportunity to help this nation create a Saturn-like experience for education, school by school. As Saturn revolutionized the way cars are built, NASDC can revolutionize the way children are taught. The 11 winning projects have real potential…

Rundell, C. Reid

1992-01-01

347

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment on cooling by convection, holographic processes achieved using optical fibers and observation of magnetic domains are described. Also describes four demonstrations: mechanical resonance on air track, independence of horizontal/vertical motion, motion of sphere in fluid medium, and light scattering near the critical point. (JN)

Physics Education, 1983

1983-01-01

348

The NEXT experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrinoless double beta decay measurements are the most promising experiments both to reveal the Majorana nature of the neutrino and to set a value for its mass. The NEXT project propose to build a High pressure Xenon TPC in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Huesca, Spain) to measure double-beta decay of 136Xe, both normal and neutrinoless, with a source mass of

J. Díaz; N. Yahlali; M. Ball; J. A. S. Barata; F. I. G. M. Borges; E. Calvo; S. Cárcel; J. M. Carmona; S. Cebrián; A. Cervera; X. Cid; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; T. H. V. T. Dias; L. M. P. Fernandes; E. Ferrer-Ribas; E. D. C. Freitas; J. Galán; A. Gil; I. Gil; I. Giomataris; H. Gómez; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; F. Granena; J. A. Hernando-Morata; F. J. Iguaz; I. Irastorza; J. A. M. Lopes; D. Martínez; C. M. B. Monteiro; J. Muñoz-Vidal; C. Palomares; M. Lázaro; T. Lux; G. Luzón; J. Martín-Albo; F. Monrabal; J. Morales; F. Nova; P. Novella; D. Nygren; L. Ripoll; A. Rodríguez; J. Ruz; N. F. Sánchez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. Dos Santos; L. Serra; M. Sorel; L. M. N. Távora; A. Tomás; J. F. C. A. Veloso; A. Verdugo

2009-01-01

349

Sleuth: An Audio Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline the design, prototyping, and evaluation of an immersive audio game, Sleuth: An Audio Experience. We examine related applications based on wearable computing and augmented reality technologies, and discuss the game audio design and user interaction issues. The game environment was prototyped using VRML 2.0 and Java.

Thomas M. Drewes; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Maribeth Gandy

2000-01-01

350

Experiments with Aspirin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of experiments that can be used to demonstrate how aspirin can be synthesized and characterized, how the hydrolysis of aspirin can be used as an introduction to kinetics, and how coordination chemistry (chelation) can be introduced by preparing and characterizing the copper complexes of aspirin and salicylic acid. (Contains over…

Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward

2000-01-01

351

Finite Order Statistic Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the experiment of selecting n objects at random from the first m positive integers. The random variables of interest are the order statistics. The applet illustrates the distributions of the order statistics.

Kyle Siegrist

352

Experiments in Ice Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

Martin, P. F.; And Others

1978-01-01

353

Investigating the Human Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project entitled "Investigating the Human Experience," which was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, enables the College of DuPage to conduct a series of free films in various off-campus facilities. Documentaries and recent TV specials are shown, followed by a group discussion moderated by an instructor from the college.…

Ducote, Richard L.; Peterson, Robert E.

1975-01-01

354

Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the final experiment report for the TCSE and summarizes many years of hardware development and analyses. Also included are analyses presented in a number of TCSE papers that were prepared and given at scientific conferences including three LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposiums.

Wilkes, D. R.

1999-01-01

355

A Harmonic Motion Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

2010-01-01

356

The ALARM Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment was conducted over three recent semesters of an introductory calculus course to test whether it was possible to quantify the effect that difficulty with basic algebraic and arithmetic computation had on individual performance. Points lost during the term were classified as being due to either algebraic and arithmetic mistakes…

Gerhardt, Ira

2015-01-01

357

Understanding Popper's experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment proposed by Karl Popper is considered by many to be a crucial test of quantum mechanics. Although many loopholes in the original proposal have been pointed out, they are not crucial to the test. We use only the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics to point out what is fundamentally wrong with the proposal, and demonstrate that Popper's basic premise was faulty.

Qureshi, Tabish

2005-06-01

358

Remote Agent Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

359

Experiments in Free Fall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

Art, Albert

2006-01-01

360

Experiments with Retraining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Armour and Company faced a shutdown of six plants, it joined in a cooperative program of vocational retraining with two labor unions; an Automation Fund Committee was formed, with representation from management, the unions, and "public" (college professors); and an experimental program in Oklahoma City provided experience which was applied in…

Shultz, George P.; Weber, Arnold R.

361

Northland Support Wilderness Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northland Support Wilderness Experience (NSWE) was a bicultural (White and Maori) wilderness therapy program that operated in New Zealand from 1985 to 1990. NSWE conducted 11 wilderness expeditions per year with approximately 10 participants each, and provided 18-month followups for participants, parents, and significant others. Participants were…

Ringer, Martin

362

Relay mirror experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originating out of a SDIO-funded, Phase 1 study effort, two ground systems and an orbiting EO payload\\/spacecraft were the primary equipment for the RME. The RME was originally conceived to be a shuttle deployed experiment. Shortly after program start, the Challenger disaster occurred, with the promise of extensive delays. A completely new space segment was to be designed incorporating a

David L. Begley

1996-01-01

363

The Huck Finn Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes "The Huck Finn Experience," a high motivation interdisciplinary unit that takes students on a 6-week journey back to the life and times of Mark Twain through the fictional character of Huckleberry Finn. The unit described in the paper was designed for eighth-grade students but could be easily adapted to be successful with…

Levesque, Bonnie; And Others

364

Ice forming experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low gravity experiment to assess the effect of the presence of supercooled cloud droplets on the diffusional growth rate of ice crystals is described. The theoretical work and the feasibility studies are summarized. The nucleation of ice crystals in supercooled clouds is also discussed.

Vali, G.

1982-01-01

365

Experimenting with Electric Trains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

2007-01-01

366

My experience with helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author recounts his experiments with helicopters. The object of his investigations was to remain stationary in the air for five minutes and to make a closed flight at low altitude. Some of the topics discussed include stabilization, horizontal flight, and directional control.

Oemichen, Etienne

1923-01-01

367

Global Health Field Experience  

E-print Network

Global Health Field Experience Guide Yale College Center for International and Professional in global health and looking for guidance on where to begin. It provides valuable information about choosing of global health field work. With the suggestions and tools listed here, we hope that students new to global

368

Experiments with Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a hands-on experiment that covers many areas of high school mathematics. Included are the notions of patterns, proof, triangular numbers and various aspects of problem solving. The problem involves the arrangements of a school of fish using split peas or buttons to represent the fish. (Contains 4 figures.)

de Mestre, Neville

2008-01-01

369

Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

1994-01-01

370

Personal Experiences of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen…

Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

2010-01-01

371

Cotton and Corn Experiments.  

E-print Network

and Seed Co., Augusta, Ga. Texas Oak-M. G. Smith, Lightfoot. Ga. CORN AND COTTON EXPERIMENTS. 979 VARIETY AND DISTANCE TESTS. The question of the proper distance between the rows and in the drills to plant cotton has at some time agitated the mind...

Pittuck, B. C.

1897-01-01

372

Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

2003-01-01

373

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the following: use and construction of a lens-pinhole spatial filter assembly to produce expanded beams; how to modify a unilab V. L. F. oscillator to give variable frequencies between .1 Hz and 10 Hz; to use Crookes radiometer quantitatively; and an externally located, movable probe for plasma physics experiments, using conventional…

Physics Education, 1979

1979-01-01

374

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

375

Staying Warm Winter Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These experiments use simple materials to prove that a lot of one's body heat escapes from one's head and that wearing a hat stops some of this heat loss. In addition, students consider how sitting directly on cold ground will cause one to lose heat faster than sitting on insulating material.

376

Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2007-01-01

377

Learning: A Multifarious Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education has often struggled to determine effective teaching methodologies and learning strategies. One promising field of research has been that of alternative frameworks. The research described in this paper describes how immersion in an unfamiliar environment and culture affected teacher learning, some of the significant experiences

Furuness, Linda B.; Cohen, Michael R.

378

Carbon monoxide pollution experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiment is designed to obtain data for the investigation of mechanisms by which CO is removed from the earth's atmosphere. The approach uses an orbiting platform to remotely map global CO concentrations and determine vertical CO profiles using a correlation interferometer measurement technique. The instrument is capable of measuring CO over the range of expected atmospheric burdens and of measuring trace atmospheric constituents.

Bortner, M. H.; Dick, R.; Goldstein, H. W.; Grenda, R. N.

1975-01-01

379

The Doppler Pendulum Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

2011-01-01

380

Microgravity ignition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to develop a flight-ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCAN 2 program. The microgravity ignition experiment is designed to study how a microgravity environment affects the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. A microgravity environment will result in a decrease in the heat transferred from the sample due to a lack of convection currents, which would decrease time to ignition. A lack of convection current would also cause the oxygen supply at the sample not to be renewed, which could delay or even prevent ignition. When this experiment is conducted aboard GASCAN 2, the dominant result of the lack of ignition will be determined. The experiment consists of four canisters containing four thermocouples and a sensor to detect ignition of the paper sample. This year the interior of the canister was redesigned and a mathematical model of the heat transfer around the sample was developed. This heat transfer model predicts an ignition time of approximately 5.5 seconds if the decrease of heat loss from the sample is the dominant factor of the lack of convection currents.

Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith; Marcotte, Ryan

1992-01-01

381

Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

1996-01-01

382

Implicit Association Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Implicit Association Experiment. Greenwald, McGhee and Schwartz (1998) pioneered the use of implicit association tests. Implicit association tests (IATs) measure the relative ease with which people are able to make associations between certain groups of people (e.g., older adults) and the concepts of "good" and "bad."

383

Word Recognition Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

384

Gender Perception Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the gender perception experiment. Participants view photographs of faces and only the mouth and chin regions are visible. Participants are asked to identify the gender of each stimulus and to indicate their confidence in their judgment.

385

Be A Juror Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page to participate in the be a juror experiment. Participants are in one of three treatment conditions (a) no eyewitness, (b) unrefuted eyewitness, and (c) discredited eyewitness. Participants in this study rate their belief about the defendant's guilt. The rating scale ranges from a 1 (definitely not guilty) to a 7 (definitely guilty).

386

Self managing experiment resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

Stagni, F.; Ubeda, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Roiser, S.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.

2014-06-01

387

Microheater Array Boiling Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. Data from KC-135 and sounding rocket experiments indicate little effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble, surrounded by smaller satellite bubbles, moved over the surface, occasionally causing nucleation. Once formed, the primary bubble size remained constant for a given superheat, indicating evaporation at the bubble base is balanced with condensation on the bubble cap. The primary bubble's size increased with wall superheat. Most heaters under the primary bubble had low heat transfer rates, suggesting liquid dryout. Strong Marangoni convection developed in microgravity, forming a 'jet' into the bulk liquid that forced the bubble onto the heater. An experiment is being designed for the. Microgravity Science Glovebox. This experiment uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 and 7.0 mm in size. These heaters are individually controlled to operate at a constant temperature, measuring local heat fluxes as a function of time and space. Most boiling experiments operate at constant wall heat flux with larger heaters, allowing only time and space-averaged measurements. Each heater is about the bubble departure size in normal gravity, but significantly smaller than the bubble departure size in reduced gravity.

Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

2002-01-01

388

An NMR Kinetics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines advantages of and provides background information, procedures, and typical student data for an experiment determining rate of hydration of p-methyoxyphenylacetylene (III), followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction rate can be adjusted to meet time framework of a particular laboratory by altering concentration of…

Kaufman, Don; And Others

1982-01-01

389

Nirenberg performing experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nirenberg, along with several other scientists, deciphered the genetic code. They used radioactive amino acids to discover this in their experiments. Their work was helped by the confirmation of Watson and Crick that the genetic code is based on non-overlapping triplets of bases.

N. MacVicar (National Institutes of Health; )

2008-03-06

390

Reconstructing Playschool Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was conducted with groups of first grade children (aged six years) in two primary schools in Reykjavik in an endeavour to ascertain how they recalled and reconstructed their playschool experiences. The children's playschool teachers were co-researchers participating in the data generation; they were, at the same time participants…

Einarsdottir, Johanna

2011-01-01

391

collection: thought experiments  

E-print Network

collection: thought experiments of the day #12;"Suppose now that there were two such magic rings be unjust, there he is unjust." The Ring #12;Suppose you can select a lawmaking body by randomly selecting choices by rolling many-faced dice. Would the process be fair? Would it be wise? #12;The Coin Suppose you

Wolfe, Patrick J.

392

DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

Cunningham, B

1998-10-01

393

The Japanese containerless experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

Azuma, Hisao

1990-01-01

394

Kelp growth experiments  

SciTech Connect

Harvest yields obtainable from giant kelp plants that are adequately fertilized were investigated. The following topics are discussed: desirable characteristics in a candidate macroalga, and giant kelp as a candidate macroalga for ocean farming. Nutrient requirements, field experiments, and approaches to acquiring yield data are reviewed. (MHR)

North, W.J.

1980-01-01

395

Transformations of emotional experience.  

PubMed

In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

2013-06-01

396

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

397

PsychExperiments: Psychology Experiments on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PsychExperiments is a collection of online cognitive psychology and social psychology experiments, accompanied by a cumulative data archive and download utilities for both data and experiment source code. Students collect data using one or more of the experiments and download it for analysis. The experiments include demonstrations, lab experiments for collecting data for in-class analysis, and research experiments in which participants take part and contribute data to an archive. Topics include the psychology of jurors, facial recognition, learning and memory, perception of gender, reaction time, and many others. Other resources include downloadable Excel macros for analyzing data from the experiments, and support materials for those who want to use and/or develop experiments at the site. A training manual for creating experiments in Authorware is available for purchase.

398

Stirling machine operating experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

1991-01-01

399

Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dentrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle flights (STS-62, STS-75, and STS-87) of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dentrites. Shown here is a cutaway of the isothermal bath containing its growth cell at the heart of the TDSE. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Note: an Acrobat PDF version is available from http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery

2000-01-01

400

Modeling Mendel's Pea Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This modeling activity allows learners to discover for themselves what Mendel uncovered in his famous pea experiments. By modeling Mendel's pea experiments, learners will form their own explanations for the result of crossing a true-breeding round pea plant with a true-breeding wrinkled pea plant (the F1 generation) and for the results of allowing an F1 pea plant to self pollinate (the F2 generation). They will then compare their explanations to Mendel's own conclusions. This is an excellent introduction to Mendelian genetics which generates discussion and stimulates interest in Mendel's principles. Learners are encouraged to use the same observation and critical thinking skills that Mendel used. This activity can be instructor-led as a demonstration or conducted by groups of learners.

2013-01-04

401

Electronics for Satellite Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The tracking detector for the LAT science instrument on the GLAST mission is an example of a large-scale particle detection system built primarily by particle physicists for space flight within the context of a NASA program. The design and fabrication model in most ways reflected practice and experience from particle physics, but the quality assurance aspects were guided by NASA. Similarly, most of the electronics in the LAT as a whole were designed and built by staff at a particle physics lab. This paper reports on many of the challenges and lessons learned in the experience of designing and building the tracking detector and general LAT electronics for use in the NASA GLAST mission.

Johnson, Robert P.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2006-05-16

402

Gross decontamination experiment report  

SciTech Connect

A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

1983-07-01

403

Make and Take Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this experiment on concrete in construction. The experiment focuses on developing an understanding of concrete as a construction material. Concrete products will be designed and constructed. Students will use two different sized containers that fit concentrically inside one another to create an enlarged crucible or planter box shape. Concrete will then be poured into that container and the concrete part will be allowed to cure. No testing will be done with this part, it is simply and exercise used to practice the preparation and execution of making concrete structures.The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure, teacher notes and a link to a video clip. The exercise should take about 45 minutes of class time.

404

JT-60 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last year, ohmic heating experiments were performed in JT-60 for about three months; May-June 1985 and March 1986. The major experimental effort has been concentrated on the divertor configuration in anticipation of H-mode operation of JT-60 in high power supplementary heating experiments starting in August 1986. Stable discharges with a divertor have been obtained at Ip = 1.85 MA and overlinene = 5.7 × 10 19m -3. Radiated power from the main plasma in divertor discharges is reduced to one third of that in material limiter discharges. The electron density has a broad radial profile and the effective safety reaches qeff = 2.5. The neutral gas pressure in the divertor chamber becomes significantly high and the control of particle recycling has been attempted.

Abe, T.; Aikawa, H.; Akaoka, N.; Akasaka, H.; Akiba, M.; akino, N.; Akiyama, T.; Ando, T.; Anno, K.; Aoyagi, T.; Arai, T.; Arakawa, K.; Araki, M.; Azumi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Ebisawa, N.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukuda, T.; Furukawa, H.; Hamamatsu, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Hayashi, K.; Hiratsuka, H.; Hirayama, T.; lida, K.; Hiroki, S.; Hiruta, K.; Hitomi, N.; Honda, M.; Horiike, H.; Hosoda, R.; Hosogane, N.; Ichige, H.; Iida, S.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, T.; Inami, H.; Aisaji, N.; Isaka, M.; Ishihara, M.; Itoh, H.; Itoh, Y.; Kanai, T.; Katoh, T.; Kawai, M.; Kawamata, Y.; Kihara, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Kimura, H.; Kimura, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Kitahara, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kutsunezaki, A.; Kiyono, K.; Kodama, K.; Koide, Y.; Koike, T.; Komata, M.; Kondo, I.; Konoshima, S.; Kubo, H.; Kunieda, S.; Kurakada, S.; Kurihara, K.; Kuriyama, M.; Kuroda, T.; Maeno, M.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, M.; Matsukawa, T.; Matsuo, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Miya, N.; Miyachi, K.; Miyo, Y.; Mizuhashi, K.; Mizuno, M.; Murakami, Y.; Mutoh, M.; Nagami, M.; Nagashima, A.; Nagashima, K.; Nagaya, S.; Nakamura, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Nagashima, T.; Nemoto, M.; Neyatani, Y.; Niikura, S.; Ninomiya, H.; Nishitani, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Nomata, H.; Noshiroya, S.; Ogiwara, N.; Ohasa, K.; Ohga, T.; Ohhara, H.; Ohkubo, M.; Ohmori, K.; ohmori, S.; Ohmori, Y.; ohsato, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Ohta, M.; Ohara, Y.; Ohuchi, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Otsu, K.; Oikawa, A.; Ozeki, T.; Saigusa, M.; Sakamoto, K.; Sakasai, A.; Sakata, S.; Sato, M.; Sawahata, M.; Shibanuma, K.; Shibata, T.; Seimiya, M.; Seki, M.; Seki, S.; Shitomi, M.; Shimada, R.; Shimizu, K.; Shimizu, M.; Shimomura, Y.; Shinozaki, S.; Shirai, H.; Shirakata, H.; Suganuma, K.; Sugawara, T.; Sugie, T.; Sunaoshi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, M.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Tahira, S.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Takatsu, H.; Takayasu, Y.; Takeda, S.; Takeuchi, H.; Takizua, T.; Tamura, S.; Tanaka, E.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, T.; Tani, K.; Terakado, T.; Tobita, K.; Tokutake, T.; Totsuka, T.; Toyoshima, N.; Tsugita, T.; Tsuji, S.; Tsukahara, Y.; Tsuneoka, M.; Uehara, K.; Uehara, M.; Ujiie, K.; Urakawa, H.; Uramoto, Y.; Ushigusa, K.; Usui, K.; Watanabe, K.; Yagyu, J.; Yamada, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamashita, O.; Yamashita, Y.; Yano, K.; Yokokura, K.; Yokomizo, H.; Yonekawa, I.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yoshino, R.

1987-02-01

405

Experiments with probe masses  

PubMed Central

It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational “charges” on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented. PMID:17296944

Braginsky, V. B.

2007-01-01

406

Apollo lunar sounder experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

1973-01-01

407

SSD operating experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-contained system called the SSD that uses the energy stored in a superconducting magnet to provide voltage support for large electrical loads was developed. Operating experience gained during the development and first two years of SSD field operation is reported. The SSD delivers energy from its superconducting magnet to a customer's load using a current-to-voltage converter which feeds an

M. A. Daugherty; W. E. Buckles; G. A. Knudtson; D. L. Mann; P. W. Stephenson

1993-01-01

408

Air Gun Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video shows an impact experiment of a high-speed impact into a frozen comet-like material (dust, ice, window cleaner and Worcestershire sauce) over a highly porous target (garden perlite). The impact makes a small hole in the comet, simulating a strength-controlled crater, but a large crater grows below and peals back the surface crust like petals of a flower. The result is similar to a deeply buried explosion.

NASA

409

Outdoor advertising as experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can outdoor advertising substantially influence in purchase rates? The answer in brief: the limited evidence from field experiments\\u000a indicates that outdoor advertising is likely to increase sales.\\u000a \\u000a The evidence from survey research studies in the form of verbal reports indicates substantial increases in shopper\\/visitor\\u000a traffic and purchase rates associated with the use of outdoor advertising signs. However, only two published

Arch G. Woodside

1990-01-01

410

STELLA Experiment - Microbunch Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

A microbunch diagnostic system is built at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) of Brookhaven National Laboratory for monitoring microbunches (10-fs bunch length) produced by the Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator in Staged Electron Laser Acceleration experiment. It is similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF. With greatly improved beam optics conditions higher order harmonic coherent transition radiation will be measurable to determine the microbunch length and shape.

He, P.; Liu, Y.; Cline, D. B.; Babzien, M.; Gallardo, J. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Skaritka, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.; Kimura, W. D.

1998-07-01

411

The NEXT experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinoless double beta decay measurements are the most promising experiments both to reveal the Majorana nature of the neutrino and to set a value for its mass. The NEXT project propose to build a High pressure Xenon TPC in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Huesca, Spain) to measure double-beta decay of 136Xe, both normal and neutrinoless, with a source mass of 100 kg of enriched xenon.

Díaz, J.; Yahlali, N.; Ball, M.; Barata, J. A. S.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Calvo, E.; Cárcel, S.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Cid, X.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T. H. V. T.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Galán, J.; Gil, A.; Gil, I.; Giomataris, I.; Gómez, H.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Granena, F.; Hernando-Morata, J. A.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Martínez, D.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Muñoz-Vidal, J.; Palomares, C.; Irastorza, I.; Lázaro, M.; Lux, T.; Luzón, G.; Martín-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.; Morales, J.; Nova, F.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sánchez, N. F.; Santos, F. P.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Sorel, M.; Távora, L. M. N.; Tomás, A.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Verdugo, A.

2009-07-01

412

The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

2008-01-01

413

Monty Hall Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet is a simulation of the Monty Hall experiment: a car is behind one door, goats are behind the other two doors. The player chooses a door and then the host opens another door. The player is given the option of switching to the remaining door. The stochastic behavior of the host and the probability of the player switching can be specified.

Kyle Siegrist

414

Red and Black Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the red and black experiment in which a player bets on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until a target fortune is reached or the player is ruined. The initial fortune, target fortune, and trial win probability can be varied, and the user can select either of two basic strategies: timid play or bold play.

Kyle Siegrist

415

TFTR DT experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a large tokamak which has performed experiments with 50:50 deuterium - tritium fuelled plasmas. Since 1993, TFTR has produced about 1090 D - T plasmas using about 100 grams of tritium and producing about 1.6 GJ of D - T fusion energy. These plasmas have significant populations of 3.5 MeV alphas (the charged

J. D. Strachan; S. Batha; M. Beer; M. G. Bell; R. E. Bell; A. Belov; H. Berk; S. Bernabei; M. Bitter; B. Breizman; N. L. Bretz; R. Budny; C. E. Bush; J. Callen; S. Cauffman; C. S. Chang; Z. Chang; C. Z. Cheng; D. S. Darrow; R. O. Dendy; W. Dorland; H. Duong; P. C. Efthimion; D. Ernst; H. Evenson; N. J. Fisch; R. Fisher; R. J. Fonck; E. D. Fredrickson; G. Y. Fu; H. P. Furth; N. N. Gorelenkov; V. Ya Goloborod'ko; B. Grek; L. R. Grisham; G. W. Hammett; R. J. Hawryluk; W. Heidbrink; H. W. Herrmann; M. C. Herrmann; W A Houlberg; J. Hogan; B. Hooper; J. C. Hosea; M. Hughes; D. L. Jassby; F. C. Jobes; D. W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S. Kaye; J. Kesner; J. S. Kim; M. Kissick; A. V. Krasilnikov; H. Kugel; A. Kumar; N. T. Lam; P. Lamarche; B. Leblanc; F. M. Levinton; C. Ludescher; J. Machuzak; R. P. Majeski; J. Manickam; D. K. Mansfield; M. Mauel; E. Mazzucato; J. McChesney; D. C. McCune; G. McKee; K. M. McGuire; D. M. Meade; S. S. Medley; D. R. Mikkelsen; S. V. Mirnov; D. Mueller; Y. Nagayama; G. A. Navratil; R. Nazikian; M. Okabayashi; M. Osakabe; D. K. Owens; H. K. Park; S. F. Paul; M. P. Petrov; C. K. Phillips; M. Phillips; P. Phillips; A. T. Ramsey; B. Rice; M. H. Redi; G. Rewoldt; S. Reznik; A. L. Roquemore; J. Rogers; E. Ruskov; S. A. Sabbagh; M. Sasao; G. Schilling; G. L. Schmidt; S. D. Scott; I. Semenov; T. Senko; C. H. Skinner; T. Stevenson; E. J. Strait; B. C. Stratton; W. Stodiek; E. Synakowski; H. Takahashi; W. Tang; G. Taylor; M. E. Thompson; S. von Goeler; A. von Halle; R. T. Walters; S. Wang; R. White; R. M. Wieland; M. Williams; J. R. Wilson; K. L. Wong; G. A. Wurden; M. Yamada; V. Yavorski; K. M. Young; L. Zakharov; M. C. Zarnstorff; S. J. Zweben

1997-01-01

416

IRTube: Infrared Imaging Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of easy-to-do experiments which use an affordable handheld IR camera (under $900) to visualize invisible energy flows and transformations. Using this "desktop remote sensing" approach, thermal energy can be readily "seen." Other types of energy that convert into thermal energy can be inferred from thermal signals. Hence, many invisible physical, chemical, and biological processes that absorb or release heat can be visualized, discovered, and investigated.

The Concord Consortium

417

Delivering ideal employee experiences.  

PubMed

Employee-centric strategies have moved from employee satisfaction and brand awareness to employee "affinity" or "attachment." In today's marketplace, occupational health nurses understand that differentiation (i.e., the perception of uniqueness) is the direct result of superior employee interactions, which lead to better employee care, enduring employee relationships, loyal employees, and satisfied employers. What drives employees to occupational health nurse attachment? The answer is a passion for rising above the competition to create ideal employee experiences. PMID:19492760

Weiss, Marjorie D; Tyink, Steve; Kubiak, Curt

2009-05-01

418

The NASA Experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projects assigned to: (1) Testing, fixing, and procuring enclosure systems and components for Kennedy Ground Controls Systems at launch pad B. (2) Organizational spreadsheets for all subsystems involved in the project. (Procurement, parts lists, drawings, purchase requests, etc) (3) Resolve is a project devoted to the lunar rover that will sample lunar soil in an effort to remove the moister and separate the metal from the oxygen to produce drinkable water. I helped with the humidity environmental generator for the experiment (moister detector).

Ramos, Alberto

2011-01-01

419

Localized wave pulse experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

1999-06-01

420

The Colorado FRC Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new experiment is under construction for the study of turbulence flow, stability and cross-field transport in a field-reversed configuration. The facility is a merged-spheromak device driven by magnetized coaxial plasma guns. Experimental emphasis is given to advanced diagnostic development, including high spatial resolution and high time resolution instruments for measurement of fluctuating quantities and bulk velocity in high ? plasmas. Details of the experimental facility status and planned studies will be presented.

Munsat, T.; Cardwell, D.; Ellison, C. L.; Handley, W.; Merino, E.; Willcockson, W.; Wurzel, S.

2006-10-01

421

The Colorado FRC Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experiment is under construction for the study of turbulence flow, stability and cross-field transport in a field-reversed configuration. The facility is a merged-spheromak device driven by magnetized coaxial plasma guns. Experimental emphasis is given to advanced diagnostic development, including high spatial resolution and high time resolution instruments for measurement of fluctuating quantities and bulk velocity in high beta

T. Munsat; D. Cardwell; C. L. Ellison; W. Handley; E. Merino; W. Willcockson; S. Wurzel

2006-01-01

422

The Colorado FRC Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experiment is under development for the study of turbulence, flow, and cross-field transport in a field-reversed configuration.\\u000a The facility is a merged-spheromak device driven by magnetized coaxial plasma guns. Experimental emphasis is given to advanced\\u000a diagnostic development, including high spatial resolution and high time resolution instruments for measurement of fluctuating\\u000a quantities and bulk velocity in high beta plasmas.

T. Munsat; C. L. Ellison; A. Light; J. Nuger; W. Willcockson; S. Wurzel

2008-01-01

423

Stress and Strain Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this experiment as an introduction to stress and strain. The lesson allows students the opportunity to "design and make a concrete cylinder and beam that can withstand the greatest applied load." The concepts of comprehensive and tensile stress are incorporated into the lesson plan. Links to useful video clips, diagrams and discussion questions are included. The exercise should take about 90 minutes of class time.

424

TRIO-01 experiment  

SciTech Connect

The TRIO-01 experiment was designed to test in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a candidate solid breeder, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The results showed that nearly all the tritium generated was recovered. Only <0.1 wppM tritium remained in the solid after irradiation testing. The heat transfer performance showed that temperature profiles can be effectively controlled.

Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Greenwood, L.R.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.; Fisher, P.W.

1984-02-10

425

FIRST EXPERIENCES WITH THE \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report about first results and experiences using this CIPA reference data set for digital close-range photogrammetry. Results derived with different commercial or educational packages are presented. These different software packages follow different photogrammetric strategies (e.g. number of images used, stereo\\/non-stereo, bundle adjustment). The involved software packages are Canoma, Photomodeler, and Tiphon-Arpenteur. The different results are summarised

André Streilein; Klaus Hanke; Pierre Grussenmeyer

426

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

427

Mirror Drawing Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Mirror Drawing Experiment. This study is designed to demonstrate that for right-handed people, who comprise over 90% of the population, the right hemisphere performs visual spatial tasks better than the left hemisphere. For most right-handers, whereas the left hemisphere excels in verbal and analytical tasks, the right hemisphere specializes in emotional, nonverbal, and visual-spatial tasks.

Maureen McCarthy

2006-01-18

428

Dichotic Listening Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the dichotic listening experiment. Each person responds to a series of trials and the analysis is conducted to compare how well an individual can distinguish sounds based on whether they received the information to the left or right ear. The independent variable is sound presentation (right or left ear) and the dependent variable is ability to correctly distinguish the sound.

429

Bean Bag Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 21-22 of PDF), learners explore inclined planes. Learners conduct an experiment using a large beanbag chair (or trash bag filled with coats or pillows) and a set of stairs to see how inclined planes make work easier. Learners discover that it requires less force to roll the bean bag down an inclined plane than throwing it between students.

Chicago Children's Museum

2012-06-26

430

Alloy undercooling experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research accomplished during 1995 can be organized into three parts. The first task involves analyzing the results of microgravity experiments carried out using TEMPUS hardware during the IML-2 mission on STS-65. The second part was to finalize ground-based experimentation which supported the above flight sample analysis. The final part was to provide technical support for post-flight mission activities specifically aimed at improving TEMPUS performance for potential future missions.

Flemings, Merton C.; Matson, Douglas M.

1995-01-01

431

The Maryland Centrifugal Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maryland Centrifugal Experiment(MCX) produces supersonically rotating plasmas in a mirror geometry with a radial electric field produced by a coaxial core biased at high voltage. MCX has achieved high density (n>10**20 m-3) fully ionized plasmas rotating with velocities of ˜100 km\\/sec for times exceeding 8 ms under a wide range of conditions. Ion temperatures are 30 eV and confinement

Richard Ellis; Adil Hassam

2009-01-01

432

ACTS broadband aeronautical experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last decade, the demand for reliable data, voice, and video satellite communication links between aircraft and ground to improve air traffic control, airline management, and to meet the growing demand for passenger communications has increased significantly. It is expected that in the near future, the spectrum required for aeronautical communication services will grow significantly beyond that currently available at L-band. In anticipation of this, JPL is developing an experimental broadband aeronautical satellite communications system that will utilize NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as a satellite of opportunity and the technology developed under JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) Task to evaluate the feasibility of using K/Ka-band for these applications. The application of K/Ka-band for aeronautical satellite communications at cruise altitudes is particularly promising for several reasons: (1) the minimal amount of signal attenuation due to rain; (2) the reduced drag due to the smaller K/Ka-band antennas (as compared to the current L-band systems); and (3) the large amount of available bandwidth. The increased bandwidth available at these frequencies is expected to lead to significantly improved passenger communications - including full-duplex compressed video and multiple channel voice. A description of the proposed broadband experimental system will be presented including: (1) applications of K/Ka-band aeronautical satellite technology to U.S. industry; (2) the experiment objectives; (3) the experiment set-up; (4) experimental equipment description; and (5) industrial participation in the experiment and the benefits.

Abbe, Brian S.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Estabrook, Polly; Agan, Martin J.

1993-01-01

433

Shared Experience: Art & War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of artistic expression to convey the experience of war and the battlefield has been around since antiquity, and has given rise to glorious poetry, epic stories, and more recently, paintings. This online exhibit created by the people at the Australian War Memorial presents the experiences of Australians, Britons, and Canadians in the Second World War through paintings created during this turbulent period. As the homepage suggests, "The men and women that feature in these works are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating". First-time visitors will want to start by reading the introductory essay by Roger Tolson titled "A Shared Experience". After doing so, they should feel free to browse around the paintings offered here, all of which are grouped into thematic categories that include "Casualties", "Work", and "Battle". There are a number of rather haunting and evocative paintings scattered across these categories, but visitors should be sure to take a look at the work "Battlefield burial of three NCOs" by Ivor Hele and "Airmen In A Village Pub Yorkshire" by Miller Brittain. The site is rounded by brief biographies for each of the artists whose work is included on the site.

2006-01-01

434

Past experience Skylab mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the Skylab missions, 1973 to 1974, was intended to exclude any direct handling of hazardous, toxic, or reactive materials. The materials processing facility and multipurpose furnace provided a contained environment for conducting metals melting, brazing, sphere forming, and crystal growth experiments. At the end of the third mission, following the completion of all other experiments, the materials processing facility was used for a series of flammability experiments. The flammability tests were done last because of the contamination expected from the burning of the materials within the facility. The flammability tests demonstrated a number of peculiar effects that have implications for future design (fire detection, location, and suppression/control). Although the results of the flammability tests contain lessons appropriate to planning, a number of events during the flight illustrate situations or conditions that pose considerations beyond the commonly accepted range of concern for safety-related matters. This presentation includes a discussion of: Skylab flammability studies and the implications for fire suppression/control; false fire alarms and the Skylab fire detection system; space environmental effects on materials that are normally benign; spills/release of contaminants; the detrimental effect that the release of non-hazardous materials have on detection systems; and the problem of locating sources/originating point of hazards.

Pogue, William

1990-01-01

435

Detonation Shock Radius Experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation shock dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation shock radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the main charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial shock radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation Shock Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).

Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee

2007-06-01

436

AMT experiment results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) experiments have provided a terminal technology testbed for the evaluation of K- and Ka-band mobile satellite communications (satcom). Such a system could prove to be highly beneficial for many different commercial and government mobile satcom users. Combining ACTS' highly concentrated spotbeams with the smaller, higher-gain Ka-band antenna technology, results in a system design that can support a much higher throughput capacity than today's commercial configurations. To date, experiments in such diverse areas as emergency medical applications, enhanced Personal Communication Services (PCS), disaster recovery assistance, military applications, and general voice and data services have already been evaluated. Other applications that will be evaluated over the next year include telemedicine, ISDN, and television network return feed. Baseline AMT performance results will be presented, including Bit Error Rate (BER) curves and mobile propagation data characterizing the K- and Ka-band mobile satcom channel. In addition, observations from many of the application-specific experiments will also be provided.

Abbe, Brian S.; Pinck, Deborah S.

1995-01-01

437

Relay mirror experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Originating out of a SDIO-funded, Phase 1 study effort, two ground systems and an orbiting EO payload/spacecraft were the primary equipment for the RME. The RME was originally conceived to be a shuttle deployed experiment. Shortly after program start, the Challenger disaster occurred, with the promise of extensive delays. A completely new space segment was to be designed incorporating a free-flying spacecraft. During the midphase of the program, a variety of launch vehicles were envisioned to replace the shuttle, requiring the BASD team to design accommodations for Delta, Atlas, and Titan, with a Delta launch being the final solution. The ground systems tracked the spacecraft and illuminated it with green and blue beacon lasers. The Payload Experiment Package (PEP) housed the bisection tracker, a key innovation central to the experiment. The bisection tracker acquired both beacons and controlled steerable mirrors to accomplish fine tracking of the two cooperative beacons. In the process, the relay mirror was precisely positioned to enable a successful relay of a third infrared laser between the two ground sites via the orbiting spacecraft. Many of the key technologies employed in the PEP were originally developed for Ball laser communications research and development programs and other laser pointing efforts. The WAVE sensor package, built by ATA and integrated by Ball, measured the vibrations of the optical base structure on which it was mounted. These spacecraft vibration data are critical to the accurate pointing of space laser communication terminals.

Begley, David L.

1996-04-01

438

Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) is investigating the self-generation of magnetic fields and related processes in a large, weakly magnetized, fast flowing, and hot (conducting) plasma. The dynamo re-creates conditions highly similar to many astrophysical plasmas. Stars and other planets have dynamos, and so do galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which makes it extremely crucial for researchers in the field to carry out experiments in this previously uninvestigated plasma regime, which will help for the development of a comprehensive theory of how magnetic fields are generated in planets, the Sun and other stars. MPDX is a laboratory astrophysical experiment where 200,000-degree Fahrenheit plasma is confined within a three-meter diameter spherical aluminum vacuum chamber with the help of multiple tracks of cusp magnets covering the inside shell. The dynamo utilizes six robotic insertion sweep probes that are programmed to find any point inside the sphere by given radial and angular coordinates. This innovative mechanical system allows us to take measurements of the state variables in key points in the plasma flow and to better investigate its cosmic-like plasma behavior. The probes are able to autonomously calculate coordinate transformations, move in a two dimensional plane, and return information about their relative position. This makes them an extremely useful, highly accurate, and easily controlled tool for plasma analysis.

Kostadinova, Evdokiya; Forest, C.; Cooper, C.; Coquerel, M.

2014-01-01

439

The LHCf experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment has performed measurements of the neutral particles emitted to the very forward region of proton-proton collisions at LHC. This experiment is designed to explore very forward interaction at very high energy, which is relevant to interpretation of the data from cosmic-ray experiments. LHCf detector is well optimized to measure photons in the multi-TeV energy range, and to reconstruct neutral pions with two photons. It can also measure neutrons. The data acquisitions at 0.9 TeV and 7 TeV were completed in 2010. In this paper, single photon energy spectra obtained at 0.9 TeV and transverse energy spectra of neutral pions obtained at 7 TeV will be presented. The results are compared with expectations by hadronic interaction models used for air-shower simulations. We found none of these models agree with the obtained data in the photon energy spectra, while EPOS shows a good agreement in the transverse energy spectra of neural pions. Impacts on cosmic-ray and QCD physics are also discussed.

Noda, Koji [INFN Section of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Collaboration: LHCf Collaboration

2012-10-23

440

Student Teaching: The Keystone Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the experience of student teaching experience for future music educators. Discusses the importance of the student teaching placement, critical in determining a successful experience. Addresses the challenges during the transition from student to teacher. Provides stories about the student teaching experiences of Susan, Samantha, and…

Fallin, Jana; Royse, David

2000-01-01

441

PiFEx propagation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the Pilot Field Experiments (PiFEx) performed under the Mobile Satellite Experiment Program (MSAT-X) on the performance of MSAT-X equipment and subsystems. A brief history of PiFEx and plans for future experiments are given. Some results from the satellite experiment held last August are discussed.

Emerson, Richard F.; Berner, Jeff B.; Ho, Loretta L. G.

1988-01-01

442

The Descriptive Experience Sampling method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) is a method for exploring inner experience. DES subjects carry a random beeper in natural environments; when the beep sounds, they capture their inner experience, jot down notes about it, and report it to an investigator in a subsequent expositional interview. DES is a fundamentally idiographic method, describing faithfully the pristine inner experiences of persons. Subsequently,

Russell T. Hurlburt; Sarah A. Akhter

2006-01-01

443

AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

Depken, J.C.

1992-02-01

444

AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

Depken, J.C.

1992-02-01

445

Teaching fractional factorial experiments via course delegate designed experiments.  

PubMed

Industrial experiments are fundamental in enhancing the understanding and knowledge of a process and product behavior. Designed industrial experiments assist people in understanding, investigating, and improving their processes. The purpose of a designed experiment is to understand which factors might influence the process output and then to determine those factor settings that optimize the process output. Teaching "design of experiments" using textbook examples does not fully shed light on how to identify and formulate the problem, identify factors, and determine the performance of the physical experiment. Presented here is an example of how to teach fractional factorial experiments in a course on designed experiments. Also presented is a practical, hands-on experiment that has been found to be extremely successful in instilling confidence and motivation in course delegates. The experiment provides a great stimulus to the delegates for the application of experimental design in their own work environment. PMID:10707375

Coleman, S; Antony, J

1999-01-01

446

Patterns for Success: Team Building (P4). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on team building is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

447

P 4k-1 -factorization of complete bipartite graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let Km,n be a complete bipartite graph with two partite sets having m and n vertices, respectively. A Pv-factorization of Km,n is a set of edge-disjoint Pv-factors of Km,n which partition the set of edges of Km,n. When v is an even number, Wang and Ushio gave a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of Pv-factorization of Km,n. When

Beiliang Du; Jian Wang

2005-01-01

448

Editorial p. 2 Modles pour la prvision p. 4  

E-print Network

est évidemment très fier de contribuer à la consolidation des bases scientifiques qui permettent d, incluant les résultats du modèle LMDZ de l'IPSL, consolide de façon générale l'hypothèse d'un réchauffement, qui s'est déroulée dans les Landes en juin 2005, a permis de mesurer à partir de systèmes d

Ribes, Aurélien

449

2169 steel waveform experiments.  

SciTech Connect

In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe - phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

2012-11-01

450

Situating emotional experience  

PubMed Central

Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life. PMID:24324420

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2013-01-01

451

Experience the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

2011-10-01

452

The NEXT experiment  

E-print Network

NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) is an experiment to search neutrinoless double beta decay processes (bb0nu) in Xe136. The NEXT technology is based in the use of time projection chambers operating at a typical pressure of 15 bar and using electroluminescence to amplify the signal (HPXE). The main advantages of the experimental technique are: a) excellent energy resolution; b) the ability to reconstruct the trajectory of the two electrons emitted in the decays, which further contributes to the suppression of backgrounds; c) scalability to large masses; and d) the possibility to reduce the background to negligible levels thanks to the barium tagging technology (BATA). The NEXT roadmap was designed in four stages: i) Demonstration of the HPXE technology with prototypes deploying a mass of natural xenon in the range of 1 kg, using the NEXT-DEMO (IFIC) and NEXT-DBDM (Berkeley) prototypes; ii) Characterisation of the backgrounds to the bb0nu signal and measurement of the bb2nu signal with the NEW detector, deploying 10 kg of enriched xenon and operating at the LSC; iii) Search for bb0nu decays with the NEXT-100 detector, which deploys 100 kg of enriched xenon; iv) Search for bb0nu decays with the BEXT detector, which will deploy masses in the range of the ton and will introduce two additional handles, only possible in a HPXE: a) A magnetic field, capable of further enhancing the topological signal of NEXT; and b) barium-tagging (a technique pioneered by the EXO experiment which is also accessible to NEXT).

Juan Jose Gomez-Cadenas

2014-11-10

453

Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the Initial Blood Storage Experiment (IBSE) was based upon a carefully controlled comparison between identical sets of human blood cell suspensions - red cells, white cell, and platelets - one set of which was transported aboard the Columbia on a 6 day 11 hour mission, and the other held on the ground. Both sets were carried inside stainless steel dewars within specially fabricated flight hardware. Individual bags of cell suspensions were randomly assigned with respect to ground vs orbit status, dewar chamber, and specific location within the dewar. To foster optimal preservation, each cell type was held under specific optimal conditions of pH, ionic strength, solute concentration, gas tension, and temperature. An added variable in this initial experiment was provided by the use of three different polymer/plasticizer formulations for the sealed bags which held the blood cells. At termination of the experiment, aliquots of the suspensions, identified only by code, were distributed to be assayed. Assays were selected to constitute a broad survey of cellular properties and thereby maximize the chances of detection of gravitational effects. A total of 74 different outcome measurements were reported for statistical analysis. When the measurements were completed, the results were entered into the IBSE data base, at which time the data were matched with the original blood bag numbers to determine their status with respect to polymer/plasticizer type, orbit status (orbit or ground), and storage position within the experimental hardware. The data were studied by analysis of variance. Initially, type of bag and orbital status were main factors; later more detailed analyses were made on specific issues such as position in the hardware and specific plastic. If the analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance at the 5 percent level the corresponding p-value was reported.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

1988-01-01

454

Results of railgun experiments  

SciTech Connect

During the 1979 Megagauss II conference the hypervelocity potential of railguns and the pulsed power technology needed to power them were discussed. Since then, many laboratories have initiated railgun R and D projects for a variety of potential applications. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories initiated a collaborative experimental railgun project which resulted in several successes in accelerating projectiles to high velocities, emphasized the limits on railgun operation, and indicated that the numerical modeling of railgun operation was in good agreement with the experiments.

Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.

1983-04-01

455

Soil mechanics experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 15 soil-mechanics experiment has offered greater opportunity for study of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil than previous missions, not only because of the extended lunar-surface stay time and enhanced mobility provided by the lunar roving vehicle (rover), but also because four new data sources were available for the first time. These sources were: (1) the self-recording penetrometer (SRP), (2) new, larger diameter, thin-walled core tubes, (3) the rover, and (4) the Apollo lunar-surface drill (ALSD). These data sources have provided the best bases for quantitative analyses thus far available in the Apollo Program.

Mitchell, J. K.; Bromwell, L. G.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.

1972-01-01

456

The double chooz experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Double Chooz experiment observed an indication of reactor ¯?e disappearance consistent with neutrino oscillations at 1050 m from two reactors. During the first 101 days of data taking, the ratio of observed to expected events assuming no oscillation amount to 0.944 ± 0.016 (stat) ± 0.040 (syst). Combined with energy spectrum information, this deficit leads to sin2(2?13) = 0.086±0.041(stat)±0.030(syst), excluding the no oscillation hypothesis at the 94.6% C.L.

Collin, A. P.; Double Chooz Collaboration

2013-10-01

457

Quantum frequency downconversion experiment  

E-print Network

We report the first quantum frequency downconversion experiment. Using the difference frequency generation process in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, we successfully observed the phase-preserved frequency downconversion of a coherent pulse train with an average photon number per pulse of $<$1, from the 0.7-$\\mu$m visible wavelength band to the 1.3-$\\mu$m telecom band. We expect this technology to become an important tool for flexible photonic quantum networking, including the realization of quantum repeater systems over optical fiber using atom-photon entanglement sources for the visible wavelength bands.

Hiroki Takesue

2010-06-02

458

NASA: Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has undertaken the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) to "demonstrate the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events, and to downlink only the highest value science data." The website features ASE updates, publications, and a list of the potential impacts of this research. Users can discover the autonomy software components that are aboard the ASE flight. The site includes links to information about the Artificial Intelligence Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its other projects.

459

Integrated Immune Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Integrated Immune Experiment. The objectives include: 1) Address significant lack of data regarding immune status during flight; 2) Replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; 3) Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation; 4) Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and 5) Determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

Crucian, Brian

2009-01-01

460

Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

1988-01-01

461

The LUX Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LUX, the Large Underground Xenon experiment, is a 300 kg xenon TPC, designed to directly detect elastic scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), located in the Davis Cavern at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. LUX has just successfully completed its surface run program and has begun underground deployment to begin its science run in late 2012. In this talk I will review the LUX detector, summarize the currently completed surface commissioning phase, and discuss deployment status and science goals for underground operations.

Phelps, Patrick

2012-10-01

462

Shuttle infrared imaging experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Imaging Experiment (IRIE) flown on Shuttle Mission 6 lC is reported. The infrared camera, which was operated in the 3.5- to 5-micron spectral band, replaced one of the visible CCTV cameras on the Shuttle. The camera employed a 160 x 244-element monolithic platinum-silicide area focal-plane array; array characteristics, camera electronics, optics, and focal plane cooling are summarized. The preplanned scenes for the IRIE are listed. A total of about 2.5 hours of data, including some preplanned scenes and unscheduled operation, were recorded. Several of the recorded scenes are mentioned specifically.

Aronson, A.; Cenker, R.; Gilmartin, H.

1986-01-01

463

Large lithium loop experience  

SciTech Connect

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

1981-10-01

464

Combustion Experiment Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

465

Fundamental experiments in velocimetry  

SciTech Connect

One can understand what velocimetry does and does not measure by understanding a few fundamental experiments. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is an interferometer that will produce fringe shifts when the length of one of the legs changes, so we might expect the fringes to change whenever the distance from the probe to the target changes. However, by making PDV measurements of tilted moving surfaces, we have shown that fringe shifts from diffuse surfaces are actually measured only from the changes caused by the component of velocity along the beam. This is an important simplification in the interpretation of PDV results, arising because surface roughness randomizes the scattered phases.

Briggs, Matthew Ellsworth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shinas, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

466

Muller Lyer Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Muller Lyer Experiment. The study contained in this collection is a variation of the original Müller-Lyer illusion, one which enables investigators to study the effect of changes in fin angle on the apparent length of lines. Participants in the study are presented with two lines, as in the standard Müller-Lyer presentation, but one of the lines has fins and one does not. The participant's task is to adjust the plain line (without fins) to make the lengths the same.

467

Energies and E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates for states of the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on relativistic wavefunctions from multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations, E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are evaluated for the states of the (1s2)2s22p3,2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in all nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX. The wavefunction expansions include valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects through single-double multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. The computed energies agree very well with experimental values, with differences of only 300-600 cm-1 for the majority of the levels and ions in the sequence. Computed transitions rates are in close agreement with available data from MCHF-BP calculations by Tachiev and Froese Fischer [G.I. Tachiev, C. Froese Fischer, A&A 385 (2002) 716].

Rynkun, P.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Froese Fischer, C.

2014-03-01

468

Transpiration Cooling Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transpiration cooling method was considered for a scram-jet engine to accommodate thermally the situation where a very high heat flux (200 Btu/sq. ft sec) from hydrogen fuel combustion process is imposed to the engine walls. In a scram-jet engine, a small portion of hydrogen fuel passes through the porous walls of the engine combustor to cool the engine walls and at the same time the rest passes along combustion chamber walls and is preheated. Such a regenerative system promises simultaneously cooling of engine combustor and preheating the cryogenic fuel. In the experiment, an optical heating method was used to provide a heat flux of 200 Btu/sq. ft sec to the cylindrical surface of a porous stainless steel specimen which carried helium gas. The cooling efficiencies by transpiration were studied for specimens with various porosity. The experiments of various test specimens under high heat flux have revealed a phenomenon that chokes the medium flow when passing through a porous structure. This research includes the analysis of the system and a scaling conversion study that interprets the results from helium into the case when hydrogen medium is used.

Song, Kyo D.; Ries, Heidi R.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Choi, Sang H.

1997-01-01

469

Droplet Combustion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid fuel combustion provides a major portion of the world's energy supply. In most practical combustion devices, liquid burns after being separated into a droplet spray. Essential to the design of efficient combustion systems is a knowledge of droplet combustion behavior. The microgravity environment aboard spacecraft provides an opportunity to investigate the complex interactions between the physical and chemical combustion processes involved in droplet combustion without the complications of natural buoyancy. Launched on STS-83 and STS-94 (April 4 and July 1, 1997), the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) investigated the fundamentals of droplet combustion under a range of pressures (0.25 to 1 atm), oxygen mole fractions (<0.5), and droplet sizes (1.5 to 5 mm). Principal DCE flight hardware features were a chamber to supply selected test environments, the use of crew-inserted bottles, and a vent system to remove unwanted gaseous combustion products. The internal apparatus contained the droplet deployment and ignition mechanisms to burn single, freely deployed droplets in microgravity. Diagnostics systems included a 35-mm high-speed motion picture camera (see the following sequence of photos) with a backlight to photograph burning droplets and a camcorder to monitor experiment operations. Additional diagnostics included an ultraviolet-light-sensitive CCD (charge couple discharge) camera to obtain flame radiation from hydroxyl radicals (see the final figure) and a 35-mm SLR (single-lens-reflex) camera to obtain color still photographs of the flames.

Nayagam, Vedha

1998-01-01

470

The Early Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

Garvey, Gerald

2013-04-01

471

Stirling machine operating experience  

SciTech Connect

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1994-09-01

472

[Laparoscopic appendectomy. Our experience].  

PubMed

The advantages and applications of the videolaparoscopic technique (VL) versus open surgery in the treatment of acute and complicated appendicitis are not well defined. Our study examined 150 patients, 67 males and 83 females. They underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in emergency. The choice between open or laparoscopic tecnique was due to patient's clinical conditions and surgeon's experience. Two of these patients had no infiammatory process. Eleven patients were affected by gynaecological diseases. The last 137 patients underwent surgery for acute appendicitis and the diagnosis was confirmed. Among them, 35 (25%) were affected by a complicated appendicitis with diffuse or clearly defined peritonitis. In 134 patients the surgery was completed laparoscopically. The conversion rate was 2%. Morbility rate was 3%, due to intra abdominal abscesses secondary to acute complicated appendicitis. The mean operative time was 76 min and the mean hospital stay was 4.8 days. The death rate was 0%. In our experience, laparoscopic appendectomy has significant advantages over traditional open surgery in both acute and complicated appendicitis, especially in young women. In this way, we can diagnose pelvic disease that could be characterized by the same symptoms of acute appendicitis, then we suggest laparoscopic appendectomy even just to complete the diagnostic iter. Laparoscopy is useful in terms of convalescence, postoperative pain, hospital stay, aesthetic outcome and an easier exploration of the peritoneal cavity. PMID:22595725

Pezzolla, Angela; Milella, Marialessia; Lattarulo, Serafina; Barile, Graziana; Pascazio, Bianca; Ialongo, Paolo; Fabiano, Gennaro; Palasciano, Nicola

2012-01-01

473

Olympus propagation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the activities of the OPEX (Olympus Propagation EXperimenters) group is given and some of the recent findings are presented. OLYMPUS, a telecommunication satellite owned by the European Space Agency, was launched on 12 June 1989. After the in-orbit tests were completed (in September 1989) the first propagation experiments started. Throughout 1990 the spacecraft functioned very well and a large number of experimenters received the beacon signals. On 29 May 1991 the spacecraft became inoperational after a major technical problem. With a series of complicated procedures OLYMPUS was recovered on 15 August 1991 - the first time in history that a civilian telecommunications satellite was brought back to service after losing power and telemetry. The propagation experiments were back on track. However, the recovery had used up so much fuel that the North-South station keeping had to be abandoned, which led to a natural increase of inclination at a rate of about 0.8 deg per year. On 10 October 1992 the second 30 GHz beacon tube failed, causing a loss of this beacon signal. The other two beacon frequencies continued to deliver a stable signal for more than two years. On 12 August 1993 the spacecraft experienced another problem with the altitude control, but this time there was not enough fuel left for a recovery maneuver and thus the mission came to an end.

Arbesser-Rastburg, Bertram

1994-01-01

474

Physics Teaching Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we saw in the January 2011 column, less than half of the teachers who teach high school physics have a degree in physics or physics education. However, this does not necessarily imply that the teachers are not qualified to teach physics. It is likely that some of the non-degreed physics teachers began teaching physics at the request of a principal or science department leader and liked it enough to seek additional training that did not lead to a formal degree. For example, some teachers have told us about NSF-funded summer programs that they attended that dramatically affected the way they teach physics. Furthermore, the teachers learn from experience. About two-thirds of physics teachers have taught physics for as many or more years than they have taught any other subject. The figure shows the relationship between a teacher's physics teaching experience and the type of physics degree they hold. In the April issue of The Physics Teacher, we will highlight demographics of high school physics teachers. If you have any questions or comments, please contact Susan White at swhite@aip.org. Susan is Research Manager in the Statistical Research Center at the American Institute of Physics and directs the high school survey.

2011-03-01

475

The Nucifer Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear reactors, a large number of antineutrinos are generated in the decay chains of the fission products; thus a survey of the antineutrino flux could provide valuable information related to the uranium and plutonium content of the core. This application generated interest by the IAEA in using antineutrino detectors as a potential safeguard tool. Here we present the Nucifer experiment, developed in France, by CEA and CNRS/IN2P3. The design of this new antineutrino detector has focused on safety, size reduction, reliability and high detection efficiency with a good background rejection. The Nucifer detector is currently taking data at the OSIRIS research reactor, inside CEA-Saclay. Presently, the ongoing analyses are considering the main sources of background for the antineutrino detection; the first antineutrino result is expected in 2013. A possible contribution to the understanding of the so called “reactor antineutrino anomaly” is also discussed. Finally, we present a brief description of the proposed experiments at very short baselines (VSBL) from reactors in France.

Cucoanes, A. S.

2014-06-01

476

Female physicist doctoral experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

2013-06-01

477

Rapid decisions from experience.  

PubMed

In many everyday decisions, people quickly integrate noisy samples of information to form a preference among alternatives that offer uncertain rewards. Here, we investigated this decision process using the Flash Gambling Task (FGT), in which participants made a series of choices between a certain payoff and an uncertain alternative that produced a normal distribution of payoffs. For each choice, participants experienced the distribution of payoffs via rapid samples updated every 50ms. We show that people can make these rapid decisions from experience and that the decision process is consistent with a sequential sampling process. Results also reveal a dissociation between these preferential decisions and equivalent perceptual decisions where participants had to determine which alternatives contained more dots on average. To account for this dissociation, we developed a sequential sampling rank-dependent utility model, which showed that participants in the FGT attended more to larger potential payoffs than participants in the perceptual task despite being given equivalent information. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of computational models of preferential choice and a more complete understanding of experience-based decision making. PMID:24549141

Zeigenfuse, Matthew D; Pleskac, Timothy J; Liu, Taosheng

2014-05-01

478

The majorana experiment  

SciTech Connect

The MAJORANA Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, MAJORANA aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype DEMONSTRATOR module are presented. Our proposed method uses the well-established technique of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay in high purity Ge-diode radiation detectors that play both roles of source and detector. The use of P-PC Ge detectors present advances in background rejection and a Significantly lower energy threshold than conventional Ge detector technologies. The lower energy threshold opens up a broader and exciting physics program including searches for dark matter and axions concurrent with the double-beta decay search. The DEMONSTRATOR should establish that the backgrounds are low enough to justify scaling to tonne-scale experiment, probe the neutrino effective mass region above 100 meV, and search the low energy region with a sensitivity to dark matter. The DEMONSTRATOR will be sited at the 4850-ft level (4200 m.w.e) of the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake and preparations for construction are currently underway.

Rielage, Keith R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boswell, Melissa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gehman, Victor M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kidd, Mary F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Roque, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronquest, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Harry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steele, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-13

479

POLARBEAR CMB Polarization Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

POLARBEAR is a ground-based experiment in the Atacama desert in hile, measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. One of the science goals of POLARBEAR is to detect the B-mode polarization pattern of the CMB produced by primordial gravitational waves from the epoch of inflation. The detection of the B-mode polarization provides strong evidence for inflationary cosmological models. POLARBEAR is expected to reach a sensitivity to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.025 at 95% confidence level, using the data from two years of observation. With a beam size of 3.5 arcminutes, POLARBEAR is also sensitive to B-mode polarization signals at small-angular scales produced by weak gravitational lensing of large-scale structure. POLARBEAR is expected to provide a constraint on the sum of neutrino masses because of their effect on the large-scale structure. POLARBEAR was deployed in late 2011 and started observing in early 2012 at 150 GHz with an array of 1,274 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The current status of the POLARBEAR experiment is reported.

Nishino, H.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapmann, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Fuller, G.; Ghribi, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaffe, A.; Jaehnig, G.; Kaneko, Y.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Kimura, N.; Kisner, T.; Lee, A. T.; Le Jeune, M.; Linder, E.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; O'Brient, R.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Quealy, E.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Shimizu, A.; Shimon, M.; Shimmin, C.; Sholl, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Tomaru, T.; Tucker, C.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.

480

Kinetic isolation tether experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress was made on the analysis of tether damping and on experimentation of the control system on the laboratory simulator. The damping analysis considers the dynamics of a long tether connecting two spacecraft in Earth orbit, one of the spacecraft having dominant mass. In particular, it considers the material damping of the tether. The results show that, with properly chosen tether material and braiding structure, longitudinal vibration of the tethered system is well damped. A particularly effective method of implementing attitude control for tethered satellites is to use the tether tension force to generate control torques by moving the tether attach point relative to the satellite center of mass. A scaled, one dimensional laboratory simulation of the KITE mission was built and preliminary experiments of the proposed attitude control system were performed. The simulator was built to verify theoretical predictions of attitude controllability, and to investigate the technological requirements in order to implement this concept. A detailed description of the laboratory apparatus is provided, and in addition, the results of the preliminary experiments are presented and discussed.

Powell, J. David; He, Xiaohua; Schoder, Robert

1988-01-01