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1

SLSF local fault safety experiment P4: summary and conclusions. [Sodium Loop Safety Facility  

SciTech Connect

Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment P4 in ETR was performed to investigate the consequences of an upper-bound or worse-than-worst case local fault configuration. P4 was intended to bound the consequences of credible subassembly faults by ejecting molten fuel into a 37-pin bundle of full-length Fast Test Reactor (FTR)-type pins and failing fuel with the potential for further cladding and fuel-pin damage. In addition to ejecting a large amount of molten fuel at or near full power, experiment objectives were to evaluate the severity of molten fuel-coolant interactions (MFCIs) and to demonstrate that any resulting blockage could either be tolerated during continued power operation or detected by global monitors in time to prevent significant fuel failure propagation.

Thompson, D.H.; Ragland, W.A.; Holland, J.W.; Dever, D.J.; Braid, T.H.; Baldwin, R.D.; Anderson, T.T.

1985-01-01

2

Freezing and Melting Phenomena in Finite Media, with Application to Molten Fuel Containment for SLSF Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiments are being conducted to furnish information concerning the behavior of fast reactor fuel elements under postulated off-normal or hypothesized loss-of-flow accident conditions. Such experiments involve meas...

M. S. El-Genk A. W. Cronenberg R. L. Moore

1978-01-01

3

Review of recent ANL safety experiments in SLSF and TREAT. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Among the recent significant in-pile experiments conducted by ANL are Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment P4 in the Engineering Test Facility (ETR) and TREAT experiments F3, F4, and J1. The P4 experiment, which had three heat-generating flow blockages each installed in six coolant channels in a 37-pin bundle of FTR (Fast Test Reactor)-type fuel elements, investigated the bounding consequences of severe local faults. The principal objectives were to eject molten fuel into the bundle geometry and, during subsequent extended operation, to characterize the behavior of (and response of instrumentation to) any subsequent blockage growth; secondary objectives included characterizing the severity of any molten-fuel/coolant interaction and the response of the coolant. The F3 and F4 experiments in TREAT were phenomenological tests to study the fuel-column disruption mode in loss-of-flow accidents. The J1 experiment was the first slow period (approx. 10 s) transient overpower experiment done in TREAT. Results of these experiments will be presented.

Klickman, A.E.; Thompson, D.H.; Ragland, W.A.; Wright, A.E.; Palm, R.G.; Page, R.J.

1982-01-01

4

Characterizing W-2 SLSF experiment temperature oscillations using computer graphics. [Sodium Loop Safety Facility  

SciTech Connect

The W-2 SLSF (Sodium Loop Safety Facility) experiment was an instrumented in-reactor test performed to characterize the failure response of full-length, preconditioned LMFBR prototypic fuel pins to slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions. Although the test results were expected to confirm analytical predictions of upper level failure and fuel expulsion, an axial midplane failure was experienced. Extensive post-test analyses were conducted to understand all of the unexpected behavior in the experiment. (1) The initial post-test effort focused on the temperature oscillations recorded by the 54 thermocouples used in the experiment. In order to synthesize the extensive data records and identify patterns of behavior in the data records, a computer-generated film was used to present the temperature data recorded during the experiment.

Smith, D.E.

1983-06-23

5

Post-test examination observations for the W-2 SLSF experiment. [Sodium Loop Safety Facility  

SciTech Connect

Gamma scanning measurements revealed that the axial power profile in these test trains was more peaked than expected based on pretest calculations and critical facility measurements. These results implied that the thermal flux incident on the test assembly was greater than expected, which was manifested in highly skewed and extensive fuel melting zones in the outer pin fuel pellets. Observations indicated that the extent of fuel melting near the midplane exceeded 90% of the pellet radius in some of the outer fuel pins toward the end of the overpower transient, with penetration of molten fuel to the cladding inner surface. It is postulated that this extensive fuel melting and penetration combined with bowing-induced high temperature oscillations to produce the initial disruptive failure in an outer pin at the midplane. Subsequent failure events were induced by the inrush of argon fill gas following rupture of the fluted duct tube. Up to one-third of the total fuel inventory was expelled from the test pin bundle into the coolant channels, with substantial upward sweepout of the ejected fuel noted in the post-test examination. The overall nature of the failure event was judged to be relatively nonviolent, based largely on the survival of unclad, free standing fuel pellet columns in the upper levels of the test section. The observed midplane failure in the W-2 experiment has been attributed to conditions unique to the test. These conditions would not exist in full-size LMFBR fuel assemblies, for which fuel pin failure under slow, unprotected TOP conditions would be expected by a different mode at a higher elevation.

Pitner, A.L.; Smith, D.E; Culley, G.E.

1983-09-01

6

DN detection during SLSF tests  

SciTech Connect

During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W2 and P4), two systems were operated to detect delayed neutrons from exposed fuel. One monitored directly the sodium in the in-pile loop with a transit delay from the flux region of approx.2 seconds; the other conducted a sample stream of sodium to external detectors with a transit delay which could be varied from approx.10 to approx. 40 seconds. Detectors of a wide range of sensitivity were operated in pulse and current mode; DN signals varying from <1 mm/sup 2/ recoil to many grams of molten fuel could be recorded reliably without saturation. During the W2 and P4 tests a continuous DN record was made. Massive fuel failure signals were observed during reactor transients in both tests, including events interpreted as fuel melting and exposure of large areas. The steady signal from the blockage in P4 was studied as a function of reactor power and sodium temperature.

Braid, T.H.; Harper, H.A.; Wilson, R.E.; Baldwin, R.D.; Gilbert, D.M.; Baxter, D.E.; Gillins, R.L.; Jeffries, G.L.

1982-01-01

7

Operation of cover-gas system during SLSF tests. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W1 and P4), high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to detect pin failure by observing radioactive fission product isotopes of Kr and Xe from exposed fuel. A continuous stream of argon cover gas from the in-pile loop was transferred to a shielded sample volume. Two germanium crystal spectrometers continuously recorded spectra

T. H. Braid; H. A. Harper; R. E. Wilson

1982-01-01

8

Operation of cover-gas system during SLSF tests. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W1 and P4), high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to detect pin failure by observing radioactive fission product isotopes of Kr and Xe from exposed fuel. A continuous stream of argon cover gas from the in-pile loop was transferred to a shielded sample volume. Two germanium crystal spectrometers continuously recorded spectra of gamma rays in the energy range 80 keV to approx. 2.7 MeV. A very wide range of signal strength was accommodated without saturation by dilution of the sample, reduction of the sample chamber volume and insertion of detecter collimators. The cover gas system provided an unambiguous indication of fuel failure during a series of boiling tests in W1. In P4, spectra were recorded after a power transient that released molten fuel and from a mass of exposed fuel at a range of reactor power levels. Gamma rays were observed from isotopes of Kr and Xe with half-lives from 3.8 m to 5.2 d.

Braid, T.H.; Harper, H.A.; Wilson, R.E.

1982-01-01

9

Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of the salary for motivation. Lessons learned from OPRAS can be utilized in the implementation of P4P and can enhance our knowledge on motivation and performance in the health services in low-income contexts such as Tanzania.

2012-01-01

10

P4 medicine and pediatric occupational therapy.  

PubMed

Pediatric occupational therapy practitioners face a complex and ever-changing health care environment, creating many challenges and opportunities. P4 medicine is a systems approach to health care that emphasizes proactive wellness over reactive acute care disease management. The four Ps of P4 medicine stand for predictive, personalized, preventive, and participatory, concepts that align well with the practice of pediatric occupational therapy. P4 medicine offers a model for pediatric occupational therapy practitioners to demonstrate the value of occupational therapy services. PMID:23791312

Persch, Andrew C; Braveman, Brent H; Metzler, Christina A

11

W-1 SLSF post-test data analysis. Part 1. Thermal hydraulic analysis. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Four types of tests were performed: (1) a decay heat transient test, (2) Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) tests, (3) Boiling Window Tests (BWT), and (4) a fuel pin dryout and failure test. In addition, preliminary tests were run to check systems performance, instrumentation performance and test section heat balance. The objective of the decay heat test was to determine the decay heat transfer characteristics of fresh fuel pins with subcooled sodium. The objective of the LOPI experiments was to test the thermal behavior of fuel pins with four different fuel conditions subjected to the same transient. The transient was designed to simulate a rapid flow decrease as a result of pipe rupture followed by a reactor scram. The objective of the Boiling Window Tests was to study boiling initiation and progression of boiling within the fuel pin bundle.

Knight, D.D.

1980-10-01

12

P4P4P: An Agenda for Research on Pay for Performance for Patients  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy behaviors are a major cause of poor health outcomes and high health care costs. In this Commentary, we describe an agenda for research to guide broader use of patient-targeted financial incentives either in conjunction with provider-targeted financial incentives (P4P) or in clinical contexts where provider-targeted approaches are unlikely to be effective. We discuss evidence of proven effectiveness and limitations of the existing evidence, reasons for underutilization of these approaches, and options for operationalizing wider use. Patient-targeted incentives have great potential, and systematic testing will help determine how they can best be used to improve population health.

Volpp, Kevin G.; Pauly, Mark V.; Loewenstein, George; Bangsberg, David

2012-01-01

13

Mutational analysis of a bacteriophage P4 late promoter.  

PubMed Central

Transcription from the late Psid promoter of satellite bacteriophage P4 is dependent on the bacterial RNA polymerase carrying the sigma 70 subunit and is positively regulated by the product of the P4 delta gene or the ogr gene of helper bacteriophage P2. Through deletion and mutational analyses of the Psid promoter, we identified mutations in the -10 region and in a region of hyphenated dyad symmetry centered around position -55 that inactivate Psid. Most of these mutations alter base pairs that are highly conserved in the five other delta-activated P4 and P2 late promoters. We propose that the P4 delta and P2 ogr gene products bind the -55 region of the P4 and P2 late promoters.

Van Bokkelen, G B; Dale, E C; Halling, C; Calendar, R

1991-01-01

14

P4 ATPases: Flippases in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

P4 ATPases catalyze the translocation of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of biological membranes, a process termed “lipid flipping”. Accumulating evidence obtained in lower eukaryotes points to an important role for P4 ATPases in vesicular protein trafficking. The human genome encodes fourteen P4 ATPases (fifteen in mouse) of which the cellular and physiological functions are slowly emerging. Thus far, deficiencies of at least two P4 ATPases, ATP8B1 and ATP8A2, are the cause of severe human disease. However, various mouse models and in vitro studies are contributing to our understanding of the cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases. This review summarizes current knowledge on the basic function of these phospholipid translocating proteins, their proposed action in intracellular vesicle transport and their physiological role.

van der Mark, Vincent A.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

2013-01-01

15

Bacteriophage P4 sut1: a mutation suppressing transcription termination.  

PubMed

In the Escherichia coli satellite phage P4, transcription starting from PLE is prevalently controlled via premature termination at several termination sites. We identified a spontaneous mutation, P4 sut1 (suppression of termination), in the natural stop codon of P4 orf151 that, by elongating translation, suppresses transcription termination at the downstream t151 site. Both the translational and the transcriptional profile of P4 sut1 differed from those of P4 wild-type. First of all, P4 sut1 did not express Orf151, but a higher molecular mass protein, compatible with the 303 codon open reading frame generated by the fusion of orf151, cnr and the intervening 138 nt. Moreover, after infection of E. coli, the mutant expressed a very low amount of the 1.3 and 1.7 kb transcripts originating at PLE and PLL promoters, respectively, and terminating at the intracistronic t151 site, whereas correspondingly higher amounts of the 4.1 and 4.5 kb RNAs arising from the same promoters and covering the entire operon were detected. Thus the sut1 mutation converts a natural stop codon into a sense codon, suppresses a natural intracistronic termination site and leads to overexpression of the downstream cnr and alpha genes. This correlates with the inability of P4 sut1 to propagate in the plasmid state. By cloning different P4 DNA fragments, we mapped the t151 transcription termination site within the 7633-7361 region between orf151 and gene cnr. A potential stem-loop structure, resembling the structure of a Rho-independent termination site, was predicted by mfold sequence analysis at 7414-7385. PMID:17325379

Terzano, Susanna; Oliva, Ilaria; Forti, Francesca; Sala, Claudia; Magnoni, Francesca; Dehò, Gianni; Ghisotti, Daniela

2007-03-01

16

Infection systems biology: from reactive to proactive (P4) medicine.  

PubMed

This short review establishes the conceptual bases and discusses the principal aspects of P4-shorthand for predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-medicine, in the framework of infectious diseases. P4 medicine is a new way to approach medical care; instead of acting when the patient is sick, physicians will be able to detect early warnings of disease to take early action. Furthermore, people might even be able to adjust their lifestyles to prevent disease. P4 medicine is fuelled by systems approaches to disease, including methods for personalized genome sequencing and new computational techniques for building dynamic disease predictive networks from massive amounts of data from a variety of OMICs. An excellent example of the effectiveness of the P4 medicine approach is the change in cancer treatments. Emphasis is placed on early detection, followed by genotyping of the patient to use the most adequate treatment according to the genetic background. Cardiovascular diseases and perhaps even neurodegenerative disorders will be the next targets for P4 medicine. The application of P4 medicine to infectious diseases is still in its infancy, but is a promising field that will provide much benefit to both the patients and the health-care system. PMID:22847266

Bengoechea, José A

2012-06-01

17

P4M: A Parallel Version Of P3M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a basic parallel implementation of the particle--particle/particle--mesh (P3M) code for cosmological simulations on the IBM RS/6000 SP distributed-memory supercomputer using explicit message passing (in the form of MPL). The resulting code (P4M) is tested and compared to the serial version. We examine performance issues and discuss applications and future modifications.

Brieu, Philippe P.; Evrard, August E.

1998-05-01

18

Tc with AsqTad and p4rhmc  

SciTech Connect

We present the ongoing analysis of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on the LLNL BG/L supercomputer. This installment includes the analysis of 12,000 trajectories from the MILC AsqTad code on a 32{sup 3} x 8 lattice and the time histories from the plaquette and {psi} - bar{psi} trajectories from the p4rhmc code.

Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Gupta, R

2007-06-20

19

Quasiresonant Excitation of Lithium 2p--4d and 2p--4s Transitions in Li-Cd Vapor Mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed quasiresonant laser excitation of Li-Cd vapor mixtures at 460.3 nm (2p-4d) and 497.2 nm (2p-4s). The initial population of the Li(2p) level is caused by three processes: collisional dissociation or photodissociation of the Li2(B1?u) molecules or energy transfer in Li2(B1?u) and Li(2s) collisions. The Li(4d,4s) atoms radiatively decay towards Li(3p), from which collisional population transfer to Cd(53PJ) occurs, followed by three-body reactive collisions which produce the LiCd(22?) excimer states

Miloševi?, S.

20

Payment for performance (P4P): any future in Italy?  

PubMed Central

Background Pay for Performance (P4P) programs, based on provision of financial incentives for service quality, have been widely adopted to enhance quality of care and to promote a more efficient use of health care resources whilst improving patient outcomes. In Italy, as in other countries, the growing concern over the quality of health services provided and the scarcity of resources would make P4P programs a useful means of improving their performance. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether it is possible to implement P4P programs in the Lombardy Region, in Italy, based on the existing data set. Methods Thirteen quality measures were identified regarding four clinical conditions (acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), ischemic stroke and hip and knee replacement) on the basis of an international literature review. Data was collected using the database of three institutions, which included hospital discharge records (Scheda di Dimissione ospedaliera-SDO-) and letters of discharge. The study population was identified using both the Principal ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and the discharge date. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program was used for the text analysis. Results It was possible to calculate almost all the parameters pertaining to the three hospitals as all the data required was available with the exception of inpatient mortality in two hospitals and smoking cessation advice/counseling in one hospital. Conclusions On the ground of this analysis, we believe that it is possible to implement a P4P program in the Lombardy Region. However, for this program to be initiated, all necessary data must be available in electronic format and uniformly collected. Moreover, several other factors must be assessed: which clinical conditions should be included, the threshold for each quality parameter, the amount of financial incentives offered and how they will be provided.

2011-01-01

21

P4M: a parallel version of P3M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a basic parallel version of the particle-particle/particle-mesh (P3M) code for cosmological simulations. The resulting code (P4M) uses explicit message passing in the form of MPL and was implemented in a pioneering 1995-1997 effort on the IBM RS/6000 SP distributed-memory supercomputer. We present tests and comparisons to the serial version. We examine performance issues and discuss applications and future modifications.

Brieu, Philippe P.; Evrard, August E.

2000-05-01

22

Nucleotide sequence of the essential region of bacteriophage P4.  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide sequence of one-third of the genome of coliphage P4 has been obtained and mutations virl, epsilon am104, cI405, sidl, and delta 35 identified. The epsilon gene likely encodes a 10 kd protein with epsilon am104 being located at the beginning of the gene. cI405, a proposed repressor gene mutation, is located in a sequence capable of coding for a 15 kd protein. A new class of P4 mutations, ash, is located in the neighborhood of cI405. Two TATA-like sequences are mapped 5' to this cI (ash) sequence. Virl is possibly a promoter-up mutation and is located near or within the replication origin, which is about 400 bp long and AT rich. A sidl mutation is amber that shortens the sid protein by 9 amino acids. The delta gene may encode a 17 kd protein and appears to be coupled with the sid gene translationally. In the 5' side of the sid gene a sequence of CACAAT is the best TATA-like sequence. Sequences of two possible genes that are previously unrecognized and part of the alpha and psu genes are also identified. Images

Lin, C S

1984-01-01

23

p4-Linda: A portable implementation of Linda  

SciTech Connect

Facilities such as interprocess communication and protection of shared resources have been added to operating systems to support multiprogramming and have since been adapted to exploit explicit multiprocessing within the scope of two models: the shared-memory model and the distributed (message-passing) model. When multiprocessors (or networks of heterogeneous processors) are used for explicit parallelism, the difference between these models is exposed to the programmer. The p4 tool set was originally developed to buffer the programmer from synchronization issues while offering an added advantage in portability, however two models are often still needed to develop parallel algorithms. We provide two implementations of Linda in an attempt to support a single high-level programming model on top of the existing paradigms in order to provide a consistent semantics regardless of the underlying model. Linda`s fundamental properties associated with generative communication eliminate the distinction between shared and distributed memory.

Butler, R.M.; Leveton, A.L. [University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States). Div. of Computer and Information Science; Lusk, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-07-01

24

Inversion by P4: polarization-picture post-processing.  

PubMed

Polarization may be sensed by imaging modules. This is done in various engineering systems as well as in biological systems, specifically by insects and some marine species. However, polarization per pixel is usually not the direct variable of interest. Rather, polarization-related data serve as a cue for recovering task-specific scene information. How should polarization-picture post-processing (P(4)) be done for the best scene understanding? Answering this question is not only helpful for advanced engineering (computer vision), but also to prompt hypotheses as to the processing occurring within biological systems. In various important cases, the answer is found by a principled expression of scene recovery as an inverse problem. Such an expression relies directly on a physics-based model of effects in the scene. The model includes analysis that depends on the different polarization components, thus facilitating the use of these components during the inversion, in a proper, even if non-trivial, manner. We describe several examples for this approach. These include automatic removal of path radiance in haze or underwater, overcoming partial semireflections and visual reverberations; three-dimensional recovery and distance-adaptive denoising. The resulting inversion algorithms rely on signal-processing methods, such as independent component analysis, deconvolution and optimization. PMID:21282167

Schechner, Yoav Y

2011-03-12

25

[Effects of propiverine hydrochloride (P-4) and its metabolites on urinary bladder function in anesthetized rats].  

PubMed

The effects of P-4 and its active metabolites, 1-methyl-4-piperidyl diphenylpropoxyacetate N-oxide[P-4(N----O)], 1-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate N-oxide [DPr-P-4 (N----O)] and 1-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate hydrochloride (DPr-P-4), on urinary bladder function were investigated in urethane anesthetized rats. By cystometrography, P-4 (2, 4 mg/kg, i.v.) and P-4 (N----O) (4 mg/kg, i.v.), which have direct action on smooth muscles, significantly increased the maximum vesical volume. As for rhythmic bladder contractions, P-4 (1,2,4 mg/kg, i.v.) and P-4 (N----O) (2, 4 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased the frequency with a slight decrease in the amplitude. On the other hand, DPr-P-4 (N----O) (0.1, 0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) and DPr-P-4 (0.01, 0.05 mg/kg, i.v.), which have anticholinergic effects, significantly inhibited the maximum vesical pressure on the cystometrograms, and DPr-P-4 (N----O) (0.1, 0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) and DPr-P-4 (0.005, 0.05 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly inhibited the amplitude of the rhythmic bladder contractions. The effects of flavoxate and papaverine were similar to those of P-4 and P-4 (N----O), but the effects of propantheline and atropine were similar to those of DPr-P-4 (N----O) and DPr-P-4 in these two experimental methods. These results suggest that the clinical effects of P-4 are based not only on the actions of P-4 itself but also on those of its active metabolites. PMID:2807073

Nomura, N; Kaneko, S; Hamakawa, T; Nagai, M; Iriki, M

1989-09-01

26

Caspase-3 binds diverse P4 residues in peptides as revealed by crystallography and structural modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Caspase-3 recognition of various P4 residues in its numerous protein substrates was investigated by crystallography, kinetics, and calculations on model complexes. Asp is the most frequent P4 residue in peptide substrates, although a wide variety of P4 residues are found in the cellular proteins cleaved by caspase-3. The binding of peptidic inhibitors with hydrophobic P4 residues, or no P4 residue, is illustrated by crystal structures of caspase-3 complexes with Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, and Boc-D(OMe)-Fmk at resolutions of 1.9-2.6 {angstrom}. The P4 residues formed favorable hydrophobic interactions in two separate hydrophobic regions of the binding site. The side chains of P4 Ile and Tyr form hydrophobic interactions with caspase-3 residues Trp206 and Trp214 within a non-polar pocket of the S4 subsite, while P4 Trp interacts with Phe250 and Phe252 that can also form the S5 subsite. These interactions of hydrophobic P4 residues are distinct from those for polar P4 Asp, which indicates the adaptability of caspase-3 for binding diverse P4 residues. The predicted trends in peptide binding from molecular models had high correlation with experimental values for peptide inhibitors. Analysis of structural models for the binding of 20 different amino acids at P4 in the aldehyde peptide Ac-XEVD-Cho suggested that the majority of hydrophilic P4 residues interact with Phe250, while hydrophobic residues interact with Trp206, Phe250, and Trp214. Overall, the S4 pocket of caspase-3 exhibits flexible adaptation for different residues and the new structures and models, especially for hydrophobic P4 residues, will be helpful for the design of caspase-3 based drugs.

Fang, Bin; Fu, Guoxing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.; (GSU)

2009-03-31

27

P(4-VP) based nanoparticles and composites with dual action as antimicrobial materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric 4-VP (p(4-VP)) particles were synthesized in an oil-in-water microemulsion system using various amounts of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker. The prepared p(4-VP) particles were chemically modified to obtain positively charged particles as polyelectrolytes. Furthermore, these p(4-VP) particles were used for in situ Ag and Cu metal nanoparticle syntheses to provide dual action with an additional advantage as bactericidal

Ozgur Ozay; Alper Akcali; Mü?erref Tatman Otkun; Coskun Silan; Nahit Aktas; Nurettin Sahiner

2010-01-01

28

Mechanisms of genome propagation and helper exploitation by satellite phage P4.  

PubMed Central

Temperate coliphage P2 and satellite phage P4 have icosahedral capsids and contractile tails with side tail fibers. Because P4 requires all the capsid, tail, and lysis genes (late genes) of P2, the genomes of these phages are in constant communication during P4 development. The P4 genome (11,624 bp) and the P2 genome (33.8 kb) share homologous cos sites of 55 bp which are essential for generating 19-bp cohesive ends but are otherwise dissimilar. P4 turns on the expression of helper phage late genes by two mechanisms: derepression of P2 prophage and transactivation of P2 late-gene promoters. P4 also exploits the morphopoietic pathway of P2 by controlling the capsid size to fit its smaller genome. The P4 sid gene product is responsible for capsid size determination, and the P2 capsid gene product, gpN, is used to build both sizes. The P2 capsid contains 420 capsid protein subunits, and P4 contains 240 subunits. The size reduction appears to involve a major change of the whole hexamer complex. The P4 particles are less stable to heat inactivation, unless their capsids are coated with a P4-encoded decoration protein (the psu gene product). P4 uses a small RNA molecule as its immunity factor. Expression of P4 replication functions is prevented by premature transcription termination effected by this small RNA molecule, which contains a sequence that is complementary to a sequence in the transcript that it terminates. Images

Lindqvist, B H; Deho, G; Calendar, R

1993-01-01

29

Evidence for Genetic Reassortment between Human Rotaviruses by Full Genome Sequencing of G3P[4] and G2P[4] Strains Co-circulating in India.  

PubMed

Rotavirus A causes severe diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. Many unusual combinations of G and P genotypes have been observed in rotaviruses circulating in developing countries. Mixed infection of a single individual with more than one strain is a mechanism by which genetic reassortants are formed with unusual G and P combinations. However, few studies have provided direct evidence for the formation of such unusual strains as a result of co-infection of co-circulating strains. Here, we used full-genome sequencing to re-analyze a G3P[4] strain (107E1B) and a G2P[4] strain (116E3D) detected in India in 1993 and showed that 107E1B had virtually an identical nucleotide sequence with 116E3D, except the VP7 gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 107E1B VP7 gene was of typical human rotavirus origin, with a 99.3% nucleotide sequence identity with another Indian G3 VP7 gene. Thus, this study provided robust evidence for the formation of the G3P[4] strain through genetic reassortment in which a G2P[4] strain with a typical DS-1 genogroup background acquired the VP7 gene from a co-circulating G3 human rotavirus strain. This study established a basis on which to facilitate full genome sequence analysis of an increasing number of G3P[4] strains in China and elsewhere in the world. PMID:23532829

Tran, T N Hoa; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu

2013-02-07

30

Evidence for Genetic Reassortment between Human Rotaviruses by Full Genome Sequencing of G3P[4] and G2P[4] Strains Co-circulating in India  

PubMed Central

Rotavirus A causes severe diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. Many unusual combinations of G and P genotypes have been observed in rotaviruses circulating in developing countries. Mixed infection of a single individual with more than one strain is a mechanism by which genetic reassortants are formed with unusual G and P combinations. However, few studies have provided direct evidence for the formation of such unusual strains as a result of co-infection of co-circulating strains. Here, we used full-genome sequencing to re-analyze a G3P[4] strain (107E1B) and a G2P[4] strain (116E3D) detected in India in 1993 and showed that 107E1B had virtually an identical nucleotide sequence with 116E3D, except the VP7 gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 107E1B VP7 gene was of typical human rotavirus origin, with a 99.3% nucleotide sequence identity with another Indian G3 VP7 gene. Thus, this study provided robust evidence for the formation of the G3P[4] strain through genetic reassortment in which a G2P[4] strain with a typical DS-1 genogroup background acquired the VP7 gene from a co-circulating G3 human rotavirus strain. This study established a basis on which to facilitate full genome sequence analysis of an increasing number of G3P[4] strains in China and elsewhere in the world.

Tran, T. N. Hoa; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu

2013-01-01

31

Antitumor activity of TMPyP4 interacting G-quadruplex in retinoblastoma cell lines.  

PubMed

To investigate the molecular mechanism of the antitumor activity of the cationic porphyrin 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) in retinoblastoma cell lines, Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cells were treated with TMPyP4 for 0-72 h, after which growth inhibition, modulation of the cell cycle and the induction of apoptosis were examined. In addition, the effect of TMPyP4 on the susceptibility to irradiation was evaluated in Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cells. In vitro telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay showed TMPyP4 (10-100 microM) directly blocked telomerase elongation, suggesting that TMPyP4 can form stable guanine (G)-quadruplexes in extending telomere repeats in substrate oligonucleotides. The antiproliferative activities of TMPyP4 assessed with the MTS assay and expressed in terms of IC(50): Y79 cells, 60 microM; WERI-Rb1 cells, 45 microM. Treatment with TMPyP4 at doses of 10, 20, 50 or 100 microM for 48 or 72 h significantly inhibited the growth of Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cells. Apoptosis, as assessed with CaspACE FITC-VAD-FMK, was induced by TMPyP4 in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of apoptosis by TMPyP4 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated DNA damage response factor H2AX (Ser139), phosphorylated p53 (Ser46) protein and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cells. Moreover, TMPyP4 significantly enhanced the susceptibility to irradiation in both cell lines. This study provides insight into the molecular mechanism of the antitumor effects of TMPyP4. G-quadruplex structure may be a potential therapeutic target in retinoblastoma. PMID:19328784

Mikami-Terao, Yoko; Akiyama, Masaharu; Yuza, Yuki; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Yamada, Osamu; Kawano, Takeshi; Agawa, Miyuki; Ida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hisashi

2009-03-27

32

P(4-vinyl pyridine) hydrogel use for the removal of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) from aqueous environments.  

PubMed

4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) based hydrogels with 2-hydroxyethylmetacrylate (HEMA) and magnetic composites were prepared and tested for use in the removal of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) ions from aqueous environments. It was found that the absorption of these metal ions from aqueous environments decreased with an increase in the amount of HEMA contained within p(4-VP-co-HEMA) hydrogels between 0.498 mmol for pure p(4-VP) and 0.027 mmol for pure p(HEMA). The characterization of the hydrogels was determined by swelling experiments, FT-IR and thermal analysis. The effects of initial metal ion concentration, hydrogel amount and the temperature of the medium on absorption of the ions were investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were constructed for the absorption of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+). Both isotherms demonstrated that these metal ions complied with monolayer absorption kinetics. PMID:21864974

Ozay, Ozgur; Ekici, Sema; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

2011-08-24

33

Phasmid P4: manipulation of plasmid copy number and induction from the integrated state.  

PubMed Central

"Phasmid" P4 is unusual in that it is capable of (i) temperate, (ii) lytic, helper-dependent, and (iii) plasmid modes of propagation. In this report we characterize most of the known P4 genetic functions as to their essential or nonessential roles in the stable maintenance of plasmid P4 vir1 (pP4 vir1 (pP4 vir1). We also identify growth conditions that can be used to stably maintain pP4 vir1 at any one of several different copy number levels (n = 1 to 3, n = 10 to 15, or n = 30 to 40). Analyses of a temperature-sensitive alpha derivative of pP4 vir1 show that shifting the temperature from 37 to 42 degrees C allows this mutant to maintain an integrated copy of the plasmid, whereas replication of free copies is repressed because of the nonpermissive condition for their DNA synthesis. Conversely, a shift from 42 to 37 degrees C can be used to reinstate plasmid propagation. The utility of the inducible states of pP4 vir1 is discussed with respect to its attributes as a vector with the potential for cloning inserts of DNA up to 33,000 base pairs in a wide range of bacterial hosts. Images

Lagos, R; Goldstein, R

1984-01-01

34

A Rho-Dependent Transcription Termination Site Regulated by Bacteriophage P4 RNA Immunity Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes required for replication of the temperate bacteriophage P4, which are coded by the phage left operon, are expressed from a constitutive promoter (PLE). In the lysogenic state, repression of the P4 replication genes is achieved by premature transcription termination. The leader region of the left operon encodes all the genetic determinants required for prophage immunity, namely: (i) the

Federica Briani; Sandro Zangrossi; Daniela Ghisotti; GIANNI Dehò

1996-01-01

35

The Helicase Domain of Phage P4 a Protein Overlaps the Specific DNA Binding Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication initiation depends on origin recognition, helicase, and primase activities. In phage P4, a second DNA region, the cis replication region (crr), is also required for replication initiation. The multifunctional a protein of phage P4, which is essential for DNA replication, combines the three aforementioned activities on a single polypeptide chain. Protein domains responsible for the activities were identified by

GUNTER ZIEGELIN; RICHARD CALENDAR; RUDI LURZ; ERICH LANKA

1997-01-01

36

Translation of Two Nested Genes in Bacteriophage P4 Controls Immunity-Specific Transcription Termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In phage P4, transcription of the left operon may occur from both the constitutive PLE promoter and the regulated PLL promoter, about 400 nucleotides upstream of PLE. A strong Rho-dependent termination site, timm, is located downstream of both promoters. When P4 immunity is expressed, transcription starting at PLE is efficiently terminated at timm, whereas transcription from PLL is immunity insensitive

FRANCESCA FORTI; SIMONA POLO; ERICH W. SIX; GIANPIERO SIRONI; GIANNI DEHO; DANIELA GHISOTTI

1999-01-01

37

p-(4-Azipentyl)-propofol: A Potent Photoreactive General Anesthetic Derivative of Propofol  

PubMed Central

We synthesized 2,6-Diisopropyl-4-[3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-propyl]-phenol (p-(4-azipentyl)-propofol), or p-4-AziC5-Pro, a novel photoactivable derivative of the general anesthetic propofol. p-4-AziC5-Pro has an anesthetic potency similar to propofol. Like propofol, the compound potentiates inhibitory GABAA receptor current responses and allosterically modulates binding to both agonist and benzodiazepine sites, assayed on heterologously expressed GABAA receptors. p-4-AziC5-Pro inhibits excitatory current responses of nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and photoincorporates into native nACh receptor-enriched Torpedo membranes. Thus p-4-AziC5-Pro is a functional general anesthetic that both modulates and photoincorporates into Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, making it an excellent candidate for use in identifying propofol binding sites.

Stewart, Deirdre S.; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Dostalova, Zuzana; Chiara, David C.; Ge, Rile; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohne, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Bruzik, Karol S.; Miller, Keith W.

2013-01-01

38

Diagnostic differences in mandibular P4 shape between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans.  

PubMed

This study uses elliptical Fourier analysis to quantify shape differences observed in the P(4) crown of Neandertals and anatomically modern humans. Previously, P(4) shape was assessed qualitatively, and results suggested marked differences between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans (Bailey [2002] New Anat. 269:148-156). The goal of this study was to investigate the P(4) shape in more detail, quantifying it in order to determine its utility for taxonomic classification and phylogenetic analysis. A comparison of mean shapes confirms that the mesiolingual portion of the P(4) is truncated in Neandertals, and that this produces a distinctively asymmetrical P(4). A randomization test confirms that the shape difference between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans is significant. Principal component and discriminant function analyses indicate that the relative size of the lingual portion of the tooth also affects tooth shape, with the lingual portion of the Neandertal P(4) being narrower than that of anatomically modern humans. Classification of P(4) crown shapes using discriminant functions analysis is far from perfect. While 86.4% of the teeth were correctly classified, classification was much better for anatomically modern humans (98.1%) than it was for Neandertals (65%). Fortunately, crown shape is but one of several diagnostic characters of the P(4) crown. P(4) crown asymmetry can be added to the growing list of dental morphological characters distinguishing Neandertals from anatomically modern humans. Moreover, based on a comparison of mean tooth shapes in fossil and recent humans, symmetry, rather than asymmetry, appears to be the primitive state, and the high frequency of P(4) asymmetry is likely derived in Neandertals. PMID:15386225

Bailey, Shara E; Lynch, John M

2005-03-01

39

QED corrections to the 4p-4d transition energies of copperlike heavy ions  

SciTech Connect

Quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to 4p-4d transition energies of several copperlike ions with Z=70-92 are calculated nonperturbatively in strong external fields to all orders in binding corrections. Dirac-Kohn-Sham potentials are used to account for screening and core-relaxation effects. For the 4p{sub 1/2}-4d{sub 3/2} transition in copperlike bismuth, thorium, and uranium, results are in good agreement with empirical QED corrections deduced from differences between transition energies obtained from recent high-precision electron-beam ion-trap measurements and those calculated with the relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT). These comparisons provide sensitive tests of QED corrections for high-angular-momentum states in many-electron heavy ions and illustrate the importance of core-relaxation corrections. Comparisons are also made with other theories and with experiments on the 4s-4p transition energies of high-Z Cu-like ions as accuracy checks of the present RMBPT and QED calculations.

Chen, M. H.; Cheng, K. T.; Johnson, W. R.; Sapirstein, J. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2006-10-15

40

Synthesis of cubic zirconium and hafnium nitride having Th3P4 structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure synthesis is a powerful method for the preparation of novel materials with high elastic moduli and hardness. Additionally, such materials may exhibit interesting thermal, optoelectronic, semiconductuing, magnetic or superconducting properties. Here, we report on the high-pressure synthesis of zirconium and hafnium nitrides with the stoichiometry M3N4, where M = Zr, Hf. Synthesis experiments were performed in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 18 GPa and temperatures up to 3,000 K. We observed formation of cubic Zr3N4 and Hf3N4 (c-M3N4) with a Th3P4-structure, where M-cations are eightfold coordinated by N anions. The c-M3N4 phases are the first binary nitrides with such a high coordination number. Both compounds exhibit high bulk moduli around 250 GPa, which indicates high hardness. Moreover, the new nitrides, c-Zr3N4 and c-Hf3N4, may be the first members of a larger group of transition metal and/or lanthanide nitrides with interesting ferromagnetic or superconducting behaviour.

Zerr, Andreas; Miehe, Gerhard; Riedel, Ralf

2003-03-01

41

Synthesis of cubic zirconium and hafnium nitride having Th3P4 structure.  

PubMed

High-pressure synthesis is a powerful method for the preparation of novel materials with high elastic moduli and hardness. Additionally, such materials may exhibit interesting thermal, optoelectronic, semiconductuing, magnetic or superconducting properties. Here, we report on the high-pressure synthesis of zirconium and hafnium nitrides with the stoichiometry M3N4, where M = Zr, Hf. Synthesis experiments were performed in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 18 GPa and temperatures up to 3,000 K. We observed formation of cubic Zr3N4 and Hf3N4 (c-M3N4) with a Th3P4-structure, where M-cations are eightfold coordinated by N anions. The c-M3N4 phases are the first binary nitrides with such a high coordination number. Both compounds exhibit high bulk moduli around 250 GPa, which indicates high hardness. Moreover, the new nitrides, c-Zr3N4 and c-Hf3N4, may be the first members of a larger group of transition metal and/or lanthanide nitrides with interesting ferromagnetic or superconducting behaviour. PMID:12612677

Zerr, Andreas; Miehe, Gerhard; Riedel, Ralf

2003-03-01

42

Pentose Phosphate Pathway Function Affects Tolerance to the G-Quadruplex Binder TMPyP4  

PubMed Central

G-quadruplexes form in guanine-rich regions of DNA and the presence of these structures at telomeres prevents the activity of telomerase in vitro. Ligands such as the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 stabilise G-quadruplexes and are therefore under investigation for their potential use as anti-cancer drugs. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of TMPyP4 in vivo, we carried out a genome-wide screen in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that deletion of key pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) genes increased the sensitivity of yeast to the presence of TMPyP4. The PPP plays an important role in the oxidative stress response and sensitivity to TMPyP4 also increased when genes involved in the oxidative stress response, CCS1 and YAP1, were deleted. For comparison we also report genome wide-screens using hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress, RHPS4, another G-quadruplex binder and hydroxyurea, an S phase poison. We found that a number of TMPyP4-sensitive strains are also sensitive to hydrogen peroxide in a genome-wide screen. Overall our results suggest that treatment with TMPyP4 results in light-dependent oxidative stress response in budding yeast, and that this, rather than G-quadruplex binding, is the major route to cytotoxicity. Our results have implications for the usefulness and mechanism of action of TMPyP4.

Andrew, Elizabeth J.; Merchan, Stephanie; Lawless, Conor; Banks, A. Peter; Wilkinson, Darren J.; Lydall, David

2013-01-01

43

Antitumor activity of TMPyP4 interacting G-quadruplex in retinoblastoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of the antitumor activity of the cationic porphyrin 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) in retinoblastoma cell lines, Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cells were treated with TMPyP4 for 0–72 h, after which growth inhibition, modulation of the cell cycle and the induction of apoptosis were examined. In addition, the effect of TMPyP4 on the susceptibility to irradiation was

Yoko Mikami-Terao; Masaharu Akiyama; Yuki Yuza; Takaaki Yanagisawa; Osamu Yamada; Takeshi Kawano; Miyuki Agawa; Hiroyuki Ida; Hisashi Yamada

2009-01-01

44

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mRNA Isoforms are Altered in Bovine Granulosa Cells (GC) by Circulating Progestin Concentrations (P4) and May Indicate Follicle Status and Oocyte Competence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously, Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) fed for 14 d (0.5mg/cow/d; < 1 ng/ml P4) resulted in persistent follicles with increased size, decreased number of GC/follicular fluid (FF) volume, and less fertile oocytes. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of circulating P4 on amount of mRNA fo...

45

Genome Analysis of Bovine-Mastitis-Associated Escherichia coli O32:H37 Strain P4  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli is a major pathogen of bovine intramammary infections. Here we report the first draft of the genome sequence of the E. coli O32:H37 P4 strain, which is widely used in experimental bovine mastitis studies.

Sela, Noa; Heller, Elimelech D.; Sela, Shlomo; Leitner, Gabriel

2012-01-01

46

Ferrenberg Swendsen Analysis of LLNL and NYBlue BG\\/L p4rhms Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG\\/L. These results are from the Ferrenberg-Swendsen analysis [?] of the combined data from LLNL and NYBlue BG\\/L runs for 32³ x 8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP-MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi). The jobs include beta values ranging from 3.525 to 3.535 with an alternate

2007-01-01

47

Shedding light on the interaction between TMPyP4 and human telomeric quadruplexes.  

PubMed

The nature of the binding mode and stoichiometry of the TMPyP4 cationic porphyrin to G-quadruplex structures continues to be controversial, with no consensus model to date, especially for intramolecular G-quadruplexes from human telomeric sequences. Those sequences possess intricate polymorphism in solution that appears to be reduced under molecular crowding conditions in which the parallel structure appears to be the most populated one. We have performed a systematic study, in dilute solution and under molecular crowding conditions, of the binding reactions between TMPyP4 and four G-quadruplexes formed by different truncations of human telomeric DNA, with 5'- or 3'-flanking bases, using isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism. The results clearly indicate that all of these G-quadruplexes are able to bind up to four TMPyP4 molecules. CD studies show that interaction with TMPyP4 promotes the conversion of the hybrid structures to an antiparallel conformation in dilute solution, while under molecular crowding conditions the interaction does not promote any conformational change. ITC reveals in both cases that the binding process comprises two sequential events, a first in which one molecule of TMPyP4 interacts with the quadruplex structures and a second in which three other molecules bind to the structures. The selectivity of TMPyP4 for the quadruplex relative to duplex DNA was also investigated under molecular crowding conditions showing that TMPyP4 has enhanced selectivity for quadruplex DNA compared to the duplex structure. This finding reinforces the potential applications of TMPyP4. PMID:19824637

Martino, Luigi; Pagano, Bruno; Fotticchia, Iolanda; Neidle, Stephen; Giancola, Concetta

2009-11-01

48

Antitumor effects of telomerase inhibitor TMPyP4 in osteosarcoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Telomere studies in carcinomas have been extensively reported for prognostic utility and effective methods for targeting telomerase therapy has been described, but efficacy of telomerase inhibitor remained unknown in sarcoma cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of telomerase inhibitor cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 on telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth, and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines. TMPyP4 significantly inhibited telomerase activity in telomerase positive HOS and Saos-2, but not in MG-63. TMPyP4 significantly induced telomere shortening, and inhibition of the cell growth in HOS and Saos-2 with over 17% apoptosis rates. In terms of MG-63, TMPyP4 did not induce inhibition of both telomerase activity and cell growth, although it induced significant telomere shortening. Telomere length after treatment was 5.60?kb in HOS, 4.00?kb in Saos-2, and 9.89?kb in MG-63. These results may suggest that both telomerase activity loss and sufficient telomere shortening are necessary to inhibit cell growth in telomerase positive osteosarcoma cells. TMPyP4 did not induced telomere shortening but significantly inhibited the growth with 22.6% apoptosis rate in telomerase negative with extremely longer telomere-U2OS, may indicating the antitumor effect of TMPyP4 may be related to DNA damage including telomere dysfunction through G-quadruplex stabilization, independent on telomere length. PMID:21590716

Fujimori, Jun; Matsuo, Toshihiro; Shimose, Shoji; Kubo, Tadahiko; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ochi, Mitsuo

2011-05-16

49

The influence of G-quadruplex structure on DNA-based asymmetric catalysis using the G-quadruplex-bound cationic porphyrin TMPyP4·Cu.  

PubMed

The DNA G-quadruplex-binding porphyrin TMPyP4·Cu was found to form efficient hybrid catalysts for DNA-based asymmetric catalysis when bound to DNA G-quadruplexes. Nucleobase substitution experiments using human telomere-derived G-quadruplex sequences suggest binding of the porphyrin on the 3'-face. PMID:23959382

Wilking, Michael; Hennecke, Ulrich

2013-09-25

50

BaAu2P4: layered zintl polyphosphide with infinite ?(1)(P–) chains.  

PubMed

Barium gold polyphosphide BaAu2P4 was synthesized from elements and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. BaAu2P4 crystallizes in a new structure type, in the orthorhombic space group Fddd (No. 70) with a = 6.517(1) Å, b = 8.867(2) Å, c = 21.844(5) Å. The crystal structure of BaAu2P4 consists of Au–P layers separated by layers of Ba atoms. Each Au–P layer is composed of infinite ?(1)(P–) chains of unique topology linked together by almost linearly coordinated Au atoms. According to Zintl–Klemm formalism, this compound is charge balanced assuming closed shell d10 configuration for Au: Ba2+(Au+)2(P–)4. Magnetic and solid state NMR measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal diamagnetic and semiconducting behavior for the investigated polyphosphide, which is as expected for the charged balanced Zintl phase. Electron localization function and crystal orbital Hamilton population analyses reveal strong P–P and Au–P bonding and almost nonbonding Au–Au interactions in BaAu2P4. PMID:23734787

Fulmer, James; Kaseman, Derrick C; Dolyniuk, Juli-Anna; Lee, Kathleen; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kovnir, Kirill

2013-06-04

51

Pluto's P4 and P5: Latest Results for Pluto's Tiniest Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the discovery and subsequent analyses of "P4" and "P5", Pluto's fourth and fifth known moons (officially designated S/2011 (134340) 1 and S/2012 (134340) 1). P4 was discovered in Hubble Space Telescope images from June-July 2011. Numerous pre-discovery detections have now been identified in the Hubble archive, spanning 2005-2011. These detections provide a long time baseline for determining the body's orbital elements. Based on a preliminary analysis, P4 has an orbital period P = 32.17 ± 0.01 days, placing it at a semimajor axis a 59,500 km, between the orbits of Nix and Hydra. It appears to fit the general trend of orbital elements in the Pluto system, with Nix near the 1:4 mean motion resonance with Charon, P4 near the 1:5, and Hydra near the 1:6. The size of P4 depends on the assumed geometric albedo: diameter = 14 km if its albedo 0.35, comparable to that of Charon, or 40 km if it has a much darker albedo 0.04, which would be more typical of other Trans-Neptunian Objects. P5 was discovered in Hubble images from June-July 2012 and is roughly half as bright as P4. It orbits interior to Nix with P = 20.2 ± 0.1 days or a 42,000 km, raising the possibility of an association with Charon's 1:3 resonance. This configuration of five moons in co-planar, near-circular, near-resonant orbits suggests that the bodies formed in place and/or have undergone significant orbital evolution. We will also report on the search for faint rings and additional moons.

Showalter, Mark R.; Weaver, H. A.; Stern, A.; Steffl, A. J.; Hamilton, D. P.; Buie, M. W.; Merline, W. J.; Young, L. A.; Mutchler, M.; Soummer, R.; Throop, H. B.

2012-10-01

52

Translation of Two Nested Genes in Bacteriophage P4 Controls Immunity-Specific Transcription Termination  

PubMed Central

In phage P4, transcription of the left operon may occur from both the constitutive PLE promoter and the regulated PLL promoter, about 400 nucleotides upstream of PLE. A strong Rho-dependent termination site, timm, is located downstream of both promoters. When P4 immunity is expressed, transcription starting at PLE is efficiently terminated at timm, whereas transcription from PLL is immunity insensitive and reads through timm. We report the identification of two nested genes, kil and eta, located in the P4 left operon. The P4 kil gene, which encodes a 65-amino-acid polypeptide, is the first translated gene downstream of the PLE promoter, and its expression is controlled by P4 immunity. Overexpression of kil causes cell killing. This gene is the terminal part of a longer open reading frame, eta, which begins upstream of PLE. The eta gene is expressed when transcription starts from the PLL promoter. Three likely start codons predict a size between 197 and 199 amino acids for the Eta gene product. Both kil and eta overlap the timm site. By cloning kil upstream of a tRNA reporter gene, we demonstrated that translation of the kil region prevents premature transcription termination at timm. This suggests that P4 immunity might negatively control kil translation, thus enabling transcription termination at timm. Transcription starting from PLL proceeds through timm. Mutations that create nonsense codons in eta caused premature termination of transcription starting from PLL. Suppression of the nonsense mutation restored transcription readthrough at timm. Thus, termination of transcription from PLL is prevented by translation of eta.

Forti, Francesca; Polo, Simona; Lane, Kirk B.; Six, Erich W.; Sironi, Gianpiero; Deho, Gianni; Ghisotti, Daniela

1999-01-01

53

Pluto's "p4" And The Search For Additional Moons And Rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the discovery and subsequent analysis of "P4", Pluto's fourth known moon (officially designated S/2011 (134340) 1). P4 was discovered in Hubble Space Telescope images from June and July 2011, and recovered in follow-up observations during September 2011. Numerous pre-discovery detections have now been identified in the Hubble archive, spanning 2005-2011. These detections provide a long time baseline for determining the body's orbital elements. Based on a preliminary analysis of the 2011 data, the body has an orbital period of 32.1 days, placing it at a semimajor axis near 59,000 km, between thte orbits of Nix and Hydra. It appears to fit the general trend of orbital elements in the Pluto system, with Nix near the 1:4 orbital resonance with Charon, P4 near the 1:5, and Hydra near the 1:6. All orbits are coplanar and nearly circular. This configuration suggests that the bodies formed in place rather than as captured objects. The diameter of P4 depends on the assumed geometric albedo: 14 km if its albedo 0.35, comparable to that of Charon, or 40 km if it has a much darker albedo 0.04, which would be more typical of other Trans-Neptunian Objects. We also report on the search for rings of Pluto. We can exclude any faint rings comparable in reflectivity to the Jovian ring, orbiting anywhere near or beyond the orbit of Charon.

Showalter, Mark R.; Hamilton, D. P.; Weaver, H. A.; Stern, S. A.; Steffl, A. J.; Young, L. A.

2012-05-01

54

Pluto's "P4" and the Search for Additional Rings and Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the discovery and subsequent analysis of "P4", Pluto's fourth known moon (officially designated S/2011 (134340) 1). P4 was discovered in Hubble Space Telescope images from June and July 2011, and recovered in follow-up observations during September 2011. Numerous pre-discovery detections have now been identified in the Hubble archive, spanning 2005-2011. These detections provide a long time baseline for determining the body's orbital elements. Based on a preliminary analysis of the 2011 data, the body has an orbital period of 32.1 days, placing it at a semimajor axis near 59,000 km, between thte orbits of Nix and Hydra. It appears to fit the general trend of orbital elements in the Pluto system, with Nix near the 1:4 orbital resonance with Charon, P4 near the 1:5, and Hydra near the 1:6. All orbits are coplanar and nearly circular. This configuration suggests that the bodies formed in place rather than as captured objects. The diameter of P4 depends on the assumed geometric albedo: 14 km if its albedo ~ 0.35, comparable to that of Charon, or 40 km if it has a much darker albedo ~ 0.04, which would be more typical of other Trans-Neptunian Objects. We also report on the search for rings of Pluto. We can exclude any faint rings comparable in reflectivity to the Jovian ring, orbiting anywhere near or beyond the orbit of Charon.

Showalter, M. R.; Hamilton, D. P.; Weaver, H. A.; Stern, S. A.; Steffl, A. J.; Young, L. A.

2012-04-01

55

Genome Sequence of the Quorum-Sensing-Signal-Producing Nonpathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain P4  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium tumefaciens P4 is a quorum-sensing-signal-producing bacterium that has been isolated from the tobacco rhizosphere. This strain belongs to genomospecies 1 of the A. tumefaciens complex; it is avirulent on various putative host plants, devoid of the Ti plasmid, and contains a luxI homolog on the At plasmid.

Mondy, Samuel; Lalouche, Ouaghlis; Dessaux, Yves

2013-01-01

56

Ferrenberg Swendsen Analysis of LLNL and NYBlue BG/L p4rhms Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG/L. These results are from the Ferrenberg-Swendsen analysis of the combined data from LLNL and NYBlue BG/L runs for 32(sup 3)x8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP MPI.X (semi-optomi...

R. Soltz

2007-01-01

57

Genome Sequence of the Quorum-Sensing-Signal-Producing Nonpathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain P4.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens P4 is a quorum-sensing-signal-producing bacterium that has been isolated from the tobacco rhizosphere. This strain belongs to genomospecies 1 of the A. tumefaciens complex; it is avirulent on various putative host plants, devoid of the Ti plasmid, and contains a luxI homolog on the At plasmid. PMID:24092790

Mondy, Samuel; Lalouche, Ouaghlis; Dessaux, Yves; Faure, Denis

2013-10-03

58

Incorporation of scaffolding protein gpO in bacteriophages P2 and P4.  

PubMed

Scaffolding proteins act as chaperones for the assembly of numerous viruses, including most double-stranded DNA bacteriophages. In bacteriophage P2, an internal scaffolding protein, gpO, is required for the assembly of correctly formed viral capsids. Bacteriophage P4 is a satellite phage that has acquired the ability to take control of the P2 genome and use the P2 capsid protein gpN to assemble a capsid that is smaller than the normal P2 capsid. This size determination is dependent on the P4 external scaffolding protein Sid. Although Sid is sufficient to form morphologically correct P4-size capsids, the P2 internal scaffolding protein gpO is required for the formation of viable capsids of both P2 and P4. In most bacteriophages, the scaffolding protein is either proteolytically degraded or exits intact from the capsid after assembly. In the P2/P4 system, however, gpO is cleaved to an N-terminal fragment, O(*), that remains inside the mature capsid after DNA packaging. We previously showed that gpO exhibits autoproteolytic activity, which is abolished by removal of the first 25 amino acids. Co-expression of gpN with this N-terminally truncated version of gpO leads to the production of immature P2 procapsid shells. Here, we use protein analysis and mass spectroscopy to show that P2 and P4 virions as well as procapsids isolated from viral infections contain O(*) and that cleavage occurs between residues 141 and 142 of gpO. By co-expression of gpN with truncated gpO proteins, we show that O(*) binds to gpN and retains the proteolytic activity of gpO and that the C-terminal 90 residues of gpO (residues 195-284) are sufficient to promote the formation of P2-size procapsids. Using mass spectrometry, we have also identified the head completion protein gpL in the virions. PMID:17931675

Chang, Jenny R; Poliakov, Anton; Prevelige, Peter E; Mobley, James A; Dokland, Terje

2007-11-01

59

Physician-level P4P—DOA? Can Quality-based Payment Be Resuscitated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

he current enthusiasm for physician-level pay for perform- ance (P4P) is misplaced. Most proposed schemes are not based on sound business principles, and the accumulated scientific evidence suggests that these efforts, as currently constituted, may well result in more harm than benefit. Why is such a seemingly simple concept—the linking of provider-level financial incen- tives to patient outcomes—so wrongheaded in

Laurence F. McMahon; Timothy P. Hofer; Rodney A. Hayward

60

Cytoarchitecture of the spinal cord of the postnatal (P4) mouse.  

PubMed

Interpretation of the new wealth of gene expression and molecular mechanisms in the developing mouse spinal cord requires an accurate anatomical base on which data can be mapped. Therefore, we have assembled a spinal cord atlas of the P4 mouse to facilitate direct comparison with the adult specimens and to contribute to studies of the development of the mouse spinal cord. This study presents the anatomy of the spinal cord of the P4 C57Bl/6J mouse using Nissl and acetyl cholinesterase-stained sections. It includes a detailed map of the laminar organization of selected spinal cord segments and a description of named cell groups of the spinal cord such as the central cervical (CeCv), lateral spinal nucleus, lateral cervical, and dorsal nuclei. The motor neuron groups have also been identified according to the muscle groups they are likely to supply. General features of Rexed's laminae of the P4 spinal cord showed similarities to that of the adult (P56). However, certain differences were observed with regard to the extent of laminae and location of certain cell groups, such as the dorsal nucleus having a more dispersed structure and a more ventral and medial position or the CeCv being located in the medial part of lamina 5 in contrast to the adult where it is located in lamina 7. Motor neuron pools appeared to be more tightly packed in the P4 spinal cord. The dorsal horn was relatively larger and there was more white matter in the P56 spinal cord. PMID:22454209

Sengul, Gulgun; Puchalski, Ralph B; Watson, Charles

2012-03-27

61

On the Clique-Width of Graphs with Few P 4 s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Babel and Olariu (1995) introduced the class of (q; t) graphs inwhich every set of q vertices has at most t distinct induced P 4 s.Graphs of clique-width at most k were introduced by Courcelle, Engelfrietand Rozenberg (1993) as graphs which can be defined by k-expressions based on graph operations which use k vertex labels.In this paper we study the

J. a. Makowsky; U. Rotics

1998-01-01

62

Significance of hydrophobic S4-P4 interactions in subtilisin 309 from Bacillus lentus.  

PubMed

The subtilisins have an extended substrate binding cleft comprising at least 8 subsites. Two pockets at the S1 and S4 sites are particularly conspicuous, and the interactions between substrate and these two pockets are very important for the substrate specificity. Phe residues have mutationally been introduced at one of positions 102, 128, 130, and 132 of the subtilisin Savinase from Bacillus lentus to investigate the effects of introducing bulky groups along the rim of the S4 binding pocket. It is shown that the marked P4 preference of wild-type Savinase for aromatic groups is eliminated by the Gly102-->Phe and Ser128-->Phe mutations, indicating that bulky groups at positions 102 and 128 block the S4 binding site. In contrast, the activity toward hydrophilic P4 residues is not nearly as affected by these mutations, suggesting that the binding mode of the P4 side chain is dependent on its properties. Introduction of a bulky -CH2-S-CH2-CH2-pyridyl group at position 128, by mutational incorporation of Cys followed by chemical modification with 2-vinylpyridine, has essentially the same effect. The Ser130-->Phe mutation hardly affects the activity of the enzyme while the Ser-->Phe mutation at position 132 renders the preference for hydrophobic groups in P4 even more pronounced. This mutation furthermore affects the size of the S4 pocket. An analysis of double mutants at positions 132 and 104 suggests that the S4 region is flexible and is adjusted upon binding of substrates. PMID:8457550

Bech, L M; Sørensen, S B; Breddam, K

1993-03-23

63

Aminobenzisoxazoles with biaryl P4 moieties as potent, selective, and orally bioavailable factor Xa inhibitors.  

PubMed

We have previously reported on a series of aminobenzisoxazoles as potent, selective, and orally bioavailable factor Xa inhibitors, which culminated in the discovery of razaxaban. Herein, we describe another approach to improve factor Xa inhibitory potency and pharmacokinetic profile by incorporating basic and water soluble functionalities on the terminal ring of the P4 biaryl group found in our earlier Xa inhibitors. This approach resulted in a series of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable factor Xa inhibitors. PMID:16434195

Quan, Mimi L; Han, Qi; Fevig, John M; Lam, Patrick Y S; Bai, Steve; Knabb, Robert M; Luettgen, Joseph M; Wong, Pancras C; Wexler, Ruth R

2006-01-24

64

Topological analysis of tetraphosphorus oxides (P4O 6+n (n?=?0-4)).  

PubMed

Quantum chemical calculations were used to analyze the chemical bonding and the reactivity of phosphorus oxides (P4O6+n (n?=?0-4)). The chemical bonding was studied using topological analysis such as atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and the reactivity using the Fukui function. A classification of the P-O bonds formed in all structures was done according to the coordination number in each P and O atoms. It was found that there are five P-O bond types and these are distributed among the five phosphorus oxides structures. Results showed that there is good agreement among the evaluated properties (length, bond order, density at the critical point, and disynaptic population) and each P-O bond type. It was found that regardless of the structure in which a P-O bond type is present the topological and geometric properties do not have a significant variation. The topological parameters electron density and Laplacian of electron density show excellent linear correlation with the average length of P-O bond in each bond type for each structure. From the Fukui function analysis it was possible to predict that from P4O6 until P4O8 the most reactive regions are basins over the P. PMID:23090501

Acelas, Nancy Y; López, Diana; Mondragón, Fanor; Tiznado, William; Flórez, Elizabeth

2012-10-23

65

Influence of anticarcinogenic metalloporphyrin Cu(II)TOEPyP(4) on DNA thermostability in vitro.  

PubMed

The influence of a new anticarcinogenic compound Cu(II)TOEPyP(4) (Cu(II)-Meso-tetra(4-N-oxyethylpyridyl) porphyrin) (the analogue of TMPy4[tetra(N-mrthyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin chloride] - an inhibitor of telomerase activity - on the thermostability of calf thymus DNA in vitro has been studied. It has been shown that Cu(II)TOEPyP(4) is a stronger stabilizing DNA agent, which is expressed with an increase of its thermostability by 20 degrees C. It was determined that complex formation does not disturb the DNA double-helix, and the melting enthalpy (DeltaHm) remains unchanged and it is equal to 11.6+/-1.0 cal/gDNA in the range 0.002P(4) with DNA. This result is extremely important for pharmacology, because many citostatics used at present even in microg quantities damage DNA to a significant degree. Hence, this is the reason for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PMID:19893128

Monaselidze, J; Kiladze, M; Gorgoshidze, M; Khachidze, D; Lomidze, E

2009-10-01

66

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) promotes extracellular matrix remodeling under hypoxic conditions by inducing P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 expression in fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, organization, and compliance provide both architectural and chemical cues that modulate tissue structure and function. ECM produced by stromal fibroblasts plays a key role in breast cancer invasion and metastasis, which are also stimulated by intratumoral hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a critical regulator of ECM remodeling by fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. HIF-1 activates expression of genes encoding collagen prolyl (P4HA1 and P4HA2) and lysyl (PLOD2) hydroxylases. P4HA1 and P4HA2 are required for collagen deposition, whereas PLOD2 is required for ECM stiffening and collagen fiber alignment. Together P4HA1, P4HA2, and PLOD2 mediate remodeling of ECM composition, alignment, and mechanical properties in response to hypoxia. HIF-1-dependent ECM remodeling by hypoxic fibroblasts induces changes in breast cancer cell morphology, adhesion, and motility that promote invasion and metastasis. PMID:23423382

Gilkes, Daniele M; Bajpai, Saumendra; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Wirtz, Denis; Semenza, Gregg L

2013-02-19

67

Quasi-two-dimensional electronic properties of the monophosphate tungsten bronzes NaxP4W8O32 and NaxP4W12O44: Crystal growth, physical properties, and electronic band structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium monophosphate tungsten bronzes Na1.6P4W8O32 and Na2P4W12O44 were synthesized, and electrical resistivities and magnetic susceptibilities were measured. These bronzes were found to be quasi-two-dimensional metals and to exhibit weak anomalies in their electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The possible origin of these anomalies was examined in terms of the tight-binding band electronic structures calculated for the W4O16 and W6O22 slabs of Na1.6P4W8O32 and Na2P4W12O44, respectively.

Wang, Enoch; Greenblatt, Martha; Rachidi, Idris El-Idrissi; Canadell, Enric; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

1989-08-01

68

P1,P4-Dithio-P2,P3-monochloromethylene diadenosine 5?,5?-P1,P4-tetraphosphate: A novel antiplatelet agent  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated in a series of searches for antithrombotic agents that diadenosine 5?,5?-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (AppppA) and its analogues are competitive inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Among various analogues, the P2,P3-monochloromethylene analog of AppppA (AppCHClppA) is superior to unmodified AppppA in its antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects. In this communication, we compare the antiplatelet potency of five newly synthesized agents with that of AppCHClppA. The five new agents include four diadenosine polyphosphate analogues [ApspCHClppsA (ps indicates a thiophosphate), dAppCHClppdA, dApspCHClppsdA, and AppCHClpCHClppA], and an adenosine tetraphosphate analogue (AppCHClpCHClp). When tested for their inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation by ADP, the most promising agent among them was ApspCHClppsA. Both molecular and functional integrity of this compound proved to be stable in blood at 37°C for at least 3 h. It also showed an excellent heat stability. This agent inhibits a number of aspects of ADP-induced platelet activation—e.g., release reaction, cytoplasmic calcium mobilization, thromboxane production, fibrinogen binding sites, and platelet factor 3 activity. Moreover, platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP—e.g., arachidonic acid, collagen, and epinephrine—was inhibited partially by ApspCHClppsA. It is concluded that (i) ApspCHClppsA is a promising antiplatelet agent; (ii) it is resistant to blood phosphodiesterases and stable to heat treatment; (iii) platelet aggregation induced by collagen, epinephrine, or arachidonic acid is also inhibited in part by this agent; and (iv) specificity of the inhibitory effects is presented by unmodified adenosine moieties of the agent. Resistance to phosphodiesterases raises the possibility of oral administration.

Chan, Samuel W.; Gallo, Steven J.; Kim, Byung K.; Guo, Mao J.; Blackburn, G. Michael; Zamecnik, Paul C.

1997-01-01

69

Electronic instabilities of the quasi-two-dimensional monophosphate tungsten bronze P4W12O44  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of electrical resistivity, Hall effects, and magnetic susceptibility measurements on oriented single crystals of P4W12O44, which suggest that P4W12O44 has two resistivity anomalies arising from charge-density-wave instabilities. Tight-binding electronic-band-structure calculations on the W6O22 slab of P4W12O44 support the above suggestion.

Wang, Enoch; Greenblatt, Martha; Rachidi, Idris El-Idrissi; Canadell, Enric; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Vadlamannati, S.

1989-06-01

70

Antitumor activity of G-quadruplex–interactive agent TMPyP4 in K562 leukemic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 can bind to and stabilize DNA guanine-quadruplexes. We investigated the molecular mechanism of the antitumor activity of TMPyP4 in K562 cells and human telomere reverse transcriptase subunit (hTERT)-transfected K562 cells in which telomerase activity, followed by telomere elongation, was enhanced. Treatment with 100?M TMPyP4 significantly inhibited the growth of both types of cell, with decreases of

Yoko Mikami-Terao; Masaharu Akiyama; Yuki Yuza; Takaaki Yanagisawa; Osamu Yamada; Hisashi Yamada

2008-01-01

71

Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB): a new generation of resorbable medical devices for tissue repair and regeneration.  

PubMed

Abstract Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) is a thermoplastic, linear polyester, produced by recombinant fermentation, that can be converted into a wide range of resorbable medical devices. P4HB fibers are exceptionally strong, and can be designed to provide prolonged strength retention in vivo. In 2007, the FDA cleared a monofilament suture made from P4HB for general soft tissue approximation and/or ligation. Subsequently, surgical mesh devices for hernia repair, tendon and ligament repair, and plastic and reconstructive surgery have been introduced for clinical use. This review describes the unique properties of P4HB, its clinical applications, and potential uses that are under development. PMID:23979121

Williams, Simon F; Rizk, Said; Martin, David P

2013-10-01

72

Enhanced G4-DNA binding of 5,10,15,20 (N-propyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (TPrPyP4): a comparative study with TMPyP4.  

PubMed

The cationic porphyrin TPrPyP4, with four propyl substituents in the pyridinium rings, is evaluated in vitro by spectroscopic and polymerase-stop assays as a G4-DNA ligand and in cultured cells as a modulator of gene transcription. A comparison with the widely used TMPyP4 is presented. PMID:20820515

Cogoi, Susanna; Xodo, Luigi E

2010-09-06

73

Mineralization of dentin induced by treatment with bioactive glass S53P4 in vitro.  

PubMed

Dentin hypersensitivity can be managed to occlude dentin tubules, but none of the agents used are components of natural dentin. Using a calcium phosphate precipitation (CPP) method, dentin tubules can be occluded with a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer similar to the major inorganic component of dentin. The CPP method utilizes acidic pH conditions, such as etching of dentin, over the course of several dental treatments. A gentler method can be used to produce a CaP layer on the surface of dentin. By treating with bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG), or regular commercial glass (CG), mineralization occurs in physiologically neutral solutions such as simulated body fluid (SBF) and remineralization solution (RMS). After a short period of immersion, silica is dissolved from both types of glass, but the amount of silica released is much greater from BAG than from CG. The dissolved silica is adsorbed on the surface of dentin during the pretreatment procedure and enhances the mineralization of dentin in SBF. After 14 days' mineralization the dentin is fully covered by the CaP layer, but after 14 days' immersion in RMS decalcification of the dentin occurs. Pretreatment with BAG decreases the degree of decalcification of dentin during the mineralization process. These findings suggest that bioactive glass S53P4 can be used as a therapeutic material for mineralization of dentin and its tubules in a physiological environment. PMID:15124778

Forsback, Ari-Pekka; Areva, Sami; Salonen, Jukka I

2004-02-01

74

Ta4P4S29: A new tunnel structure with inserted polymeric sulfur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ta4P4S29 was prepared from the elements heated together in stoichiometric proportions in an evacuated Pyrex tube for 10 days at 500°C. The crystal symmetry is tetragonal, space group P43212, with the cell parameters: a = b = 15.5711(7) Å, c = 13.6516(8) Å, V = 3309.9(5) Å3, and Z = 4. The structure calculations were conducted from 2335 reflections and 146 variables, leading to R = 0.033. The structure basic framework, corresponding to the chemical composition [TaPS6], is made of biprismatic bicapped [Ta2S12] units (average dTa-S = 2.539 Å), including sulfur pairs (average dS-S = 2.039 Å), bonded to each other through [PS4] tetrahedral groups (average dP-S = 2.044 Å) sharing sulfurs. This framework leaves large tunnels running along the c axis of the cell and in which (S10)? sulfur chains are found to be inserted (average dS-S = 2.052 Å and S-S-S = 105.75°). Diamagnetic and semiconducting Ta4P4S29 can be formulated: TaV4PV4(S-II)16(S-II2)4(S05).

Evain, M.; Queignec, M.; Brec, R.; Rouxel, J.

1985-02-01

75

Assembly of bacteriophage P2 and P4 procapsids with internal scaffolding protein.  

PubMed

Assembly of the E. coli bacteriophage P2 into an icosahedral capsid with T = 7 symmetry is dependent on the gpN capsid protein, the gpQ connector protein and the gpO internal scaffolding protein. In the presence of the P4-encoded protein Sid, the same proteins are assembled into a smaller capsid with T = 4 symmetry. Although gpO has long been expected to act as an internal scaffolding protein, it has not been possible to produce P2 procapsids efficiently in vitro or in vivo due to a failure to express gpO at high levels. In this study, we find that full-length gpO undergoes proteolytic degradation within 1 h of induction of expression. However, a truncated version of gpO lacking the N-terminal 25 amino acids (Odelta25) is stably expressed at high levels and is able to direct the formation of P2 size procapsids. In the presence of Sid, Odelta25 is incorporated into P4 procapsids, showing that Sid overrides the effect of gpO on capsid size determination. PMID:16457867

Wang, Sifang; Chang, Jenny R; Dokland, Terje

2006-02-07

76

Differential Pathogenicity of SHIVSF162 P4 Infection in Pig-tailed and Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Differential pathogenicity has been observed in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques following primate lentivirus infection. However, little is known about the comparative susceptibility of pig-tailed macaques to lentivirus infection and diseases. Methods We compared the in vivo infectivity and pathogenicity of a CCR5-tropic SHIVSF162 P4 after intravenous, intravaginal or intrarectal inoculation in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques. Plasma viral load, peripheral blood CD4+ T cell counts and clinical signs were monitored. Results Both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques are similarly susceptible to SHIVSF162 P4 infection by intravenous and mucosal routes. However, SHIV replication was significantly more robust in pig-tailed macaques than in rhesus, resulting in persistent viremia in 9/21 pig-tails vs. 2/24 rhesus (p<0.013) and severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in 2/21 pig-tails (vs. none in rhesus). Conclusions Together with earlier observations, our findings underscore the importance of considering host genetic and immunological factors when comparing vaccine efficacy in different macaque species.

Polacino, Patricia; Larsen, Kay; Galmin, Lindsey; Suschak, John; Kraft, Zane; Stamatatos, Leonides; Anderson, David; Barnett, Susan W.; Pal, Ranajit; Bost, Kristen; Bandivdekar, A. H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hu, Shiu-Lok

2009-01-01

77

Measurement of ^3He(^3He,2p)^4He Reactions in an IEC Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device has been used to measure ^3He(^3He,2p)^4He reactions. The experimental setup consists of a spherical vacuum vessel approximately 61 cm in diameter held at ground potential and a spherical cathode centered within the vessel that can be biased from 0 to -200kV. The ion source is an externally mounted high-density helicon source which provides a beam of up to ˜ 6*10^16 ions/s. This source allows for IEC operation to occur at ^3He background pressures of < 0.02 Pa, reducing atomic effects and allowing for more straightforward code validation. An integral equation approach models atomic physics processes and nuclear reactions in order to predict the energy spectrum of the ^3He ions(details in poster by Emmert and Santarius, this conference). The integral equation is solved numerically by finite differences. The ^3He(^3He,2p)^4He fusion reaction rates measured experimentally will be compared to those generated by the computer code.

Piefer, Gregory R.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Santarius, John F.

2006-10-01

78

Lattice QCD Thermodynamcis : P4 Action for new beta and MILC Nt=6  

SciTech Connect

These results are from the continuing Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on BG/L. We show analyzed thermodynamics results for 6-10k trajectories ({beta} dependent), of the 32{sup 3}{chi}8 runs with the p4rhmc v2.0 QMP{_}MPI.X (semi-optimized p4 code using qmp over mpi). These jobs had a number of omitted trajectories, due to zero size and over-sized data files. For this interim report these errors were removed from the output to save space. The results also include the output of a new ''histogram.perl'' script, used to plot the gauge action < S{sub g} >= 10*(1- < plaq >)-(1- < rect >) for three values of {beta}=3.51, 3.54, 3.57. This output will be used to determine the new {beta} values that will be run to define the critical temperature. We also show a preliminary analysis on the first 5,000 trajectories of the 32{sup 3}{chi}6 runs for the milc code, using the new su3{_}rhmc{_}susc{_}eos.3g1f.qmp-bgl2 faster RHMC algorithm.

Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Gupta, R

2007-05-07

79

The cyclo-tetra-phosphate Cd(2)P(4)O(12), a member of the isotypic series M(2)P(4)O(12) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu).  

PubMed

The title compound, Cd(2)P(4)O(12), dicadmium cyclo-tetra-phosphate, crystallizes isotypically with the members of the series M(II) (2)P(4)O(12), where M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni or Cu. Two CdO(6) octa-hedra, one with 2 and one with symmetry, share corners with the centrosymmetric P(4)O(12) (4-) ring anion that is built up from four corner-sharing PO(4) tetra-hedra. The isolated ring anions are arranged in layers parallel to (10) with the CdO(6) octa-hedra situated between these layers. The main difference between the individual M(II) (2)P(4)O(12) structures pertains to the different sizes of the MO(6) octa-hedra whereas the geometric parameters of all cyclo-P(4)O(12) (4-) anions are very similar. PMID:21588790

Weil, Matthias

2010-10-13

80

Study on Neutron Interactions with Protons and Carbon Nuclei at p=4.2 GeV/c.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of neutrons with p=4.2 GeV/c in d(C/sub 3/H/sub 8/) collisions and their interaction with proton and carbon nuclei are studied. The experimental material has been obtained using the 2m propane bubble chamber irradiated by deuterons with p=4...

R. N. Bekmirzaev M. M. Muminov M. U. Sultanov O. V. Grishina J. Dolejsi

1988-01-01

81

A personal view on systems medicine and the emergence of proactive P4 medicine: predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory.  

PubMed

Systems biology and the digital revolution are together transforming healthcare to a proactive P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory. Systems biology - holistic, global and integrative in approach - has given rise to systems medicine, a systems approach to health and disease. Systems medicine promises to (1) provide deep insights into disease mechanisms, (2) make blood a diagnostic window for viewing health and disease for the individual, (3) stratify complex diseases into their distinct subtypes for a impedance match against proper drugs, (4) provide new approaches to drug target discovery and (5) generate metrics for assessing wellness. P4 medicine, the clinical face of systems medicine, has two major objectives: to quantify wellness and to demystify disease. Patients and consumers will be a major driver in the realization of P4 medicine through their participation in medically oriented social networks directed at improving their own healthcare. P4 medicine has striking implications for society - including the ability to turn around the ever-escalating costs of healthcare. The challenge in bringing P4 medicine to patients and consumers is twofold: first, inventing the strategies and technologies that will enable P4 medicine and second, dealing with the impact of P4 medicine on society - including key ethical, social, legal, regulatory, and economic issues. Managing the societal problems will pose the most significant challenges. Strategic partnerships of a variety of types will be necessary to bring P4 medicine to patients. PMID:22450380

Hood, Leroy; Flores, Mauricio

2012-03-18

82

Highly efficacious factor Xa inhibitors containing alpha-substituted phenylcycloalkyl P4 moieties.  

PubMed

We previously disclosed a series of highly potent FXa inhibitors bearing alpha-substituted (CH(2)NR(1)R(2)) phenylcyclopropyl P4 moieties in the pyrazolodihydropyridone core system. Herein, we describe our continuous SAR efforts in this series. Effects of the C-3 substitution of the pyrazolodihydropyridone core and the alpha-substitution (R group) of the cyclopropyl ring on FXa binding affinity (FXa K(i)), human plasma anticoagulant activity (PT EC(2x)) and permeability are discussed. A set of compounds obtained from optimization of the R group and the C-3 substituent were orally bioavailable in dogs. Furthermore, representative compounds were highly efficacious in the rabbit arterio-venous shunt thrombosis model (EC(50)s=29-81nM). PMID:19046881

Qiao, Jennifer X; King, Sarah R; He, Kan; Wong, Pancras C; Rendina, Alan R; Luettgen, Joseph M; Xin, Baomin; Knabb, Robert M; Wexler, Ruth R; Lam, Patrick Y S

2008-11-18

83

Evidence for the formation of a highly excited hadronic blob in p¯4He annihilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of charged kaons in p¯ 4He annihilation at rest into four and five charged prongs (?±?-?+K?, 2?K-K+ with and without an additional proton with momentum ?300 MeV/c) is studied experimentally. Annihilations with and without ?0 production and with baryonic number B=0 and B?1 are identified. The data on He are compared with similar data obtained on a hydrogen NTP gas target with the same apparatus (the magnetic spectrometer Obelix exposed to the p¯ beam extracted from the LEAR accelerator at CERN) and analyzed with the same criteria. Strangeness production on 4He from B?1 annihilations without ?0 turns out to be six times higher than on hydrogen. Our results agree with some theoretical predictions based on the assumption that annihilation develops through the formation and the statistical decay of a highly excited hadronic gas. According to these predictions, nearly all nucleons in He are directly involved in the annihilation process.

Panzarasa, A.; Salvini, P.; Bendiscioli, G.; Montagna, P.; Zappa, N.

2005-01-01

84

Immobilization of metalloporphyrins on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 by the quaternarization reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(4vinylpyridine-co-styrene) (P(4VP-co-St)) was grafted on silica gel particles in the manner of "grafting from", and the grafting particle P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was gained. The chloromethylation reaction for the tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) was performed using a chloromethylation reagent, 1,4-bis(chloromethyoxy)butane which was uncarcinogenic, and the tetra-chloromethylphenyl-porphyrin (TMCPP) was prepared. Then, the quaternization reaction between the benzyl chloride groups on TMCPP and pyridine groups of the grafted P(4VP-co-St) macromolecules occurred and the bonding of TMCPP on the particles P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was realized, resulting in the functional composite-type particles TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. Subsequently, the metallation of the bonded particles TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 was carried out via the coordination reaction between TMCPP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 and metal salt, resulting in the supported metalloporphyrin (MP) catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2. The supported catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectra. The effects of various factors on the bonding process of TMCPP on P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 were studied in detail. In addition, the catalytic activity of the supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 have been studied in oxidation process of ethyl benzene with molecular oxygen to acetophenone without the use of sacrificial co-reductant. The experimental results showed that the tetra-chloromethylphenyl-porphyrin (TMCPP) could be successfully bonded onto the P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 surfaces by means of the quaternization reaction between TMCPP and the pyridine groups on grafted P(4VP-co-St) macromolecules. The supported catalysts MP-P(4VP-co-St)/SiO 2 exhibited the fine catalytic activity. Moreover, the supported cobalt porphyrin was more active than the supported iron and manganese porphyrins.

Wang, Ruixin; Jiao, Weizhou; Gao, Baojiao

2010-08-01

85

Interaction surface of bacteriophage P4 protein Psu required for complex formation with the transcription terminator Rho.  

PubMed

Rho-dependent transcription termination is an essential function in prokaryotes, and the transcription terminator Rho is highly conserved among different species. The bacteriophage P4 capsid-decoration protein, Psu, interacts specifically with and inhibits the function of Escherichia coli Rho. The interaction surface of Psu involved in interacting with Rho is not known, but knowledge of this is important to understand the mechanism of its action and will be useful to design peptide inhibitor(s) for Rho. We have isolated and characterized seven Psu mutants defective in interacting with Rho and in exerting anti-Rho activity. Conformational probing of Psu revealed that the N-terminal region of the protein folds over onto its central part, forming a globular domain and leaving a solvent-exposed "tail" in the C-terminus. The mutations are located in both of these domains. N-terminal mutants are instrumental in disrupting the N- to C-terminal "cross-talk" in Psu that is required for its structural integrity and its function. Site-specific cross-linking experiments showed that the C-terminal tail preferentially cross-links to Rho and this region of Psu is protected from limited proteolysis when bound to Rho. Therefore, the mutations in this region may have affected the direct interaction of Psu with Rho. We propose that the globular N-terminal domain of Psu confers structural integrity to the functionally important C-terminal tail, which interacts directly with the hexameric Rho. PMID:19409394

Pani, Bibhusita; Ranjan, Amitabh; Sen, Ranjan

2009-05-03

86

Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitro  

SciTech Connect

The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4) is responsible for the replication of the viral RNA genome. In infected cells, nsP4 is localized in a replication complex along with the other viral non-structural proteins. nsP4 has been difficult to homogenously purify from infected cells due to its interactions with the other replication proteins and the fact that its N-terminal residue, a tyrosine, causes the protein to be rapidly turned over in cells. We report the successful expression and purification of Sindbis nsP4 in a bacterial system, in which nsP4 is expressed as an N-terminal SUMO fusion protein. After purification the SUMO tag is removed, resulting in the isolation of full-length nsP4 possessing the authentic N-terminal tyrosine. This purified enzyme is able to produce minus-strand RNA de novo from plus-strand templates, as well as terminally add adenosine residues to the 3' end of an RNA substrate. In the presence of the partially processed viral replicase polyprotein, P123, purified nsP4 is able to synthesize discrete template length minus-strand RNA products. Mutations in the 3' CSE or poly(A) tail of viral template RNA prevent RNA synthesis by the replicase complex containing purified nsP4, consistent with previously reported template requirements for minus-strand RNA synthesis. Optimal reaction conditions were determined by investigating the effects of time, pH, and the concentrations of nsP4, P123 and magnesium on the synthesis of RNA.

Rubach, Jon K. [Life Sciences Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, 210 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wasik, Brian R.; Rupp, Jonathan C. [Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E. Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Kuhn, Richard J. [Markey Center for Structural Biology and Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 W. State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Hardy, Richard W. [Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E. Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Smith, Janet L. [Life Sciences Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, 210 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: JanetSmith@umich.edu

2009-02-05

87

Studies on the Site and Mode of TMPyP4 Interactions with Bcl2 Promoter Sequence G-Quadruplexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

TMPyP4 (Mesotetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine) is known to have a high affinity for G-quadruplex DNA. However, there is still some controversy over the exact site(s) and mode(s) of TMPyP4 binding to G-quadruplex DNA. We examined TMPyP4 interactions with seven G-quadruplex forming oligonucleotides. The parent oligonucleotide is a 27-mer with a wild-type (WT) G-rich sequence of the Bcl-2 P1 promoter mid-region (5?-d(CGG GCG CGG GAG

Narayana Nagesh; Robert Buscaglia; Jamie M. Dettler; Edwin A. Lewis

2010-01-01

88

Initiation of transcription from the minute virus of mice P4 promoter is stimulated in rat cells expressing a c-Ha-ras oncogene.  

PubMed Central

Transformation of FR3T3 rat fibroblasts by a c-Ha-ras oncogene but not by bovine papillomavirus type 1 is associated with an increase in the abundance of mRNAs from prototype strain MVMp of infecting minute virus of mice, an oncosuppressive parvovirus. This differential parvovirus gene expression correlates with the reported sensitization of ras- but not bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed cells to the killing effect of MVMp (N. Salomé, B. van Hille, N. Duponchel, G. Meneguzzi, F. Cuzin, J. Rommelaere, and J. Cornelis, Oncogene 5:123-130, 1990). Experiments were performed to determine at which level parvovirus expression is up-regulated in ras transformants. An MVMp "attenuation" sequence responsible for the premature arrest of RNA elongation was either placed or not placed in front of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and brought under the control of MVMp early promoter P4. Although the MVMp attenuator reduced P4-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression, the extent of attenuation was similar in normal and ras-transformed cells. Moreover, the analysis of P4-directed viral RNAs in MVMp-infected cultures by RNase protection and nuclear run-on assays also revealed a transcription elongation block of a similar amplitude in both types of cells. In addition, the stabilities of the three major parvoviral mRNAs did not vary significantly between normal and ras-transformed cells. Hence, it is concluded that the ras-induced increase in the accumulation of parvoviral mRNAs is mainly controlled at the level of transcription. Consistently, the TATA motif of the P4 promoter proved to have a differential photoreactivity when tested by in vivo UV footprinting assays in ras-transformed versus normal cells. Images

Spegelaere, P; van Hille, B; Spruyt, N; Faisst, S; Cornelis, J J; Rommelaere, J

1991-01-01

89

3H(p-->,?)4He reaction below Ep=80 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3H(p-->,?)4He reaction was studied at incident energies of Ep=40 and 80 keV at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using beams from a polarized ion source. The present study was the logical progression of a previous study of the 2H(p-->,?)3He reaction done by the radiative capture group at TUNL. The angular distributions of the cross section, ?(?), and the analyzing power, Ay(?), were measured at incident proton beam energies of 40 keV and 80 keV. In both cases the beam was stopped in the target. The magnetic dipole transition strength was determined from the results of a TME analysis. A comparison of the M1 strength with that seen in similar reactions in the three-nucleon case made it possible to infer the meson-exchange current origin of most of this strength. Previous measurements of the absolute cross section extended down to beam energies of 100 keV. The present study extends the measured cross section data to lower energies and is consistent with the previous results. A parametrization of the astrophysical S factor including both data sets was performed.

Canon, R. S.; Nelson, S. O.; Sabourov, K.; Wulf, E.; Weller, H. R.; Prior, R. M.; Spraker, M.; Kelley, J. H.; Tilley, D. R.

2002-04-01

90

Leishmania pifanoi Amastigote Antigen P-4: Epitopes Involved in T-Cell Responsiveness in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental murine cutaneous leishmaniasis, the purified Leishmania pifanoi amastigote protein P-4 has been shown to induce significant protection against infection. Further, recent studies examining the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Leishmania braziliensis-infected human patients have demonstrated that the P-4 protein selectively elicits a significant TH1-like response. Because a TH1-like re- sponse is associated with cure, epitope

JESSICA E. HABERER; ALDA MARIA DA-CRUZ; LYNN SOONG; MANOEL P. OLIVEIRA-NETO; LUIS RIVAS; DIANE MCMAHON-PRATT; SERGIO G. COUTINHO

1998-01-01

91

First report of human rotavirus G8P[4] gastroenteritis in India: evidence of ruminants-to-human zoonotic transmission.  

PubMed

Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to close proximity of human and cattle in rural areas of developing countries like India, interspecies transmission or zoonotic transmission is a major source of rapid generation of reassortants and genetic or antigenic variants. Previously, many human group A rotaviruses were found with porcine or bovine characteristics from eastern and north-eastern India. In this study, four unusual human G8P[4] strains were identified which had artiodactyl-like origins. During an ongoing community based surveillance for epidemiological profiling of diarrheal pathogens, these unusual human group A rotavirus G8P[4] strains were detected from the stool samples of 3-14 months old children with acute diarrhea in Sonarpur, eastern India. Analysis of eleven complete and/or partial gene segments of these unusual G8P[4] strains were done by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) followed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The VP7 nucleotide sequences revealed a close phylogenetic relationship to the G8P[7] porcine strain D-1 and bovine strain KJ59-2 from South Korea. Whereas the VP4 gene segments were also related closely to human rotavirus prototype strain DS-1. Other nine gene segments of these G8P[4] rotaviruses were related closely to either animal or animal-derived rotavirus members of the DS-1-like family. These results suggest that origin of these G8P[4] strains might have been resulted from multiple reassortment events between artiodactyls and ruminant-derived reassortant human rotaviruses. To date, this is the first report of G8P[4] rotavirus from India and the first genomic analysis of G8P[4] strains from Asian continent. PMID:23280762

Mukherjee, Anupam; Mullick, Satarupa; Deb, Alok Kumar; Panda, Samiran; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

2012-12-21

92

Control of transcription termination by an RNA factor in bacteriophage P4 immunity: identification of the target sites.  

PubMed Central

Prophage P4 immunity is elicited by a short, 69-nucleotide RNA (CI RNA) coded for within the untranslated leader region of the same operon it controls. CI RNA causes termination of transcription that starts at the promoter PLE and prevents the expression of the distal part of the operon that codes for P4 replication functions (alpha operon). In this work, we identify two sequences in the untranslated leader region of the alpha operon, seqA and seqC, that are the targets of the P4 immunity factor. seqA and seqC exhibit complementarity to a sequence internal to the CI RNA (seqB). Mutations in either seqA or seqC that alter its complementarity to seqB abolished or reduced P4 lysogenization proficiency and delayed the shutoff of the long transcripts originating from PLE that cover the entire operon. Both seqA and seqC single mutants were still sensitive to P4 prophage immunity, whereas P4 seqA seqC double mutants showed a virulent phenotype. Thus, both functional sites are necessary to establish immunity upon infection, whereas a single site appears to be sufficient to prevent lytic gene expression when immunity is established. A mutation in seqB that restored complementarity to both seqA and seqC mutations also restored premature termination of PLE transcripts, thus suggesting an important role for RNA-RNA interactions between seqB and seqA or seqC in P4 immunity.

Sabbattini, P; Forti, F; Ghisotti, D; Deho, G

1995-01-01

93

Nqrs Data for C32H100Al4Cl4O32P4 [C24H72Al4O28P4·4(C2H6O)·4(ClH)] (Subst. No. 1631)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C32H100Al4Cl4O32P4 [C24H72Al4O28P4·4(C2H6O)·4(ClH)] (Subst. No. 1631)

Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

94

Reinterpretation of the recently measured absolute generalized oscillator strength for the Ar 3p-4p transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent experimental observation of the absolute generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for the Ar 3p-(4p,4p') nondipole transition has been interpreted as a manifestation of quadrupole excitation [X. W. Fan and K. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A 62, 062703 (2000)]. Contrary to the experimentalists' assignment, on the grounds of our random-phase-approximation with exchange (RPAE) calculation, we attribute the measured GOS to combined monopole, the dominant component, and quadrupole contributions. Our RPAE GOS's for the Ar dipole 3p-4s and 3p-3d,5s and the lowest nondipole transitions are compared with the measurements. The results could have significant implications for other similar transitions, previously interpreted as quadrupole excitation and for interpreting other discrete transitions.

Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Chen, Z.; Chernysheva, L. V.

2002-05-01

95

Monopole Contribution to the Recently Measured Absolute Generalized Oscillator Strength for Ar 3p-4p Transition^.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent first experimental observation of the absolute generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for Ar 3p-(4p,4p^') nondipole transition has been interpreted as a manifestation of quadrupole excitation [1]. Contrary to the experimentalits' assignment, on the ground of our random phase approximation with exchange (RPAE) calculation, we attribute the measured GOS to combined monopole , the dominant component, and quadrupole contributions. Our RPAE GOS's for the Ar dipole 3p-4s and 3p-3d,5s and the lowest nondipole transitions are compared with measurements. The results could have significant implications for other similar transitions, previously interpreted as quadrupole excitation and for interpreting other discrete transitions. 1. X. W. Fan and K. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A62, 062703 (2000). ^Research supported by NSF and DoE Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research.

Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Chen, Z.; Chernysheva, L. V.

2002-05-01

96

Development of macrocyclic inhibitors of HCV NS3/4A protease with cyclic constrained P2-P4 linkers.  

PubMed

A series of macrocyclic compounds containing a cyclic constraint in the P2-P4 linker region have been discovered and shown to exhibit excellent HCV NS3/4a genotype 3a and genotype 1b R155K, A156T, A156V, and D168V mutant activity while maintaining high rat liver exposure. The effect of the constraint is most dramatic against gt 1b A156 mutants where ~20-fold improvements in potency are achieved by introduction of a variety of ring systems into the P2-P4 linker. PMID:23084906

Rudd, Michael T; McIntyre, Charles J; Romano, Joseph J; Butcher, John W; Holloway, M Katharine; Bush, Kimberly; Nguyen, Kevin T; Gilbert, Kevin F; Lyle, Terry A; Liverton, Nigel J; Wan, Bang-Lin; Summa, Vincenzo; Harper, Steven; Rowley, Michael; Vacca, Joseph P; Carroll, Steven S; Burlein, Christine; DiMuzio, Jillian M; Gates, Adam; Graham, Donald J; Huang, Qian; Ludmerer, Steven W; McClain, Stephanie; McHale, Carolyn; Stahlhut, Mark; Fandozzi, Christine; Taylor, Anne; Trainor, Nicole; Olsen, David B; McCauley, John A

2012-10-02

97

Studies on the site and mode of TMPyP4 interactions with Bcl-2 promoter sequence G-Quadruplexes.  

PubMed

TMPyP4 (Mesotetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine) is known to have a high affinity for G-quadruplex DNA. However, there is still some controversy over the exact site(s) and mode(s) of TMPyP4 binding to G-quadruplex DNA. We examined TMPyP4 interactions with seven G-quadruplex forming oligonucleotides. The parent oligonucleotide is a 27-mer with a wild-type (WT) G-rich sequence of the Bcl-2 P1 promoter mid-region (5'-d(CGG GCG CGG GAG GAA GGG GGC GGG AGC-3')). This sequence folds into at least three unique loop isomer quadruplexes. The two mutant oligonucleotides used in this study are shorter (23-mer) sequences in which nonquadruplex core bases were eliminated and two different (-G-G-) --> (-T-T-) substitutions were made to restrict the folding complexity. The four additional mutant oligonucleotides were labeled by substituting a 2-aminopurine (2-AP) base for an A or G in either the first three-base lateral loop or the second five- or seven-base lateral loop (depending on the G-->T mutation positions). Spectroscopic and microcalorimetric studies indicate that four molecules of TMPyP4 can be bound to a single G-quadruplex. Binding of the first two moles of TMPyP4 appears to occur by an end or exterior mode (K approximately 1 x 10(7) M(-1)), whereas binding of the third and fourth moles of TMPyP4 appears to occur by a weaker, intercalative binding mode (K approximately 1 x 10(5) M(-1)). As the mid-loop size decreases from seven to five bases, end binding occurs with significantly increased affinity. 2-AP-labeled Bcl-2 promoter region quadruplexes show increased fluorescence of the 2-AP base on addition of TMPyP4. The change in fluorescence for 2-AP bases in the second half of the TMPyP4 titration lends support to our previous speculation regarding the intercalative nature of the weaker binding mode. PMID:20513407

Nagesh, Narayana; Buscaglia, Robert; Dettler, Jamie M; Lewis, Edwin A

2010-06-01

98

Studies on the Site and Mode of TMPyP4 Interactions with Bcl-2 Promoter Sequence G-Quadruplexes  

PubMed Central

Abstract TMPyP4 (Mesotetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine) is known to have a high affinity for G-quadruplex DNA. However, there is still some controversy over the exact site(s) and mode(s) of TMPyP4 binding to G-quadruplex DNA. We examined TMPyP4 interactions with seven G-quadruplex forming oligonucleotides. The parent oligonucleotide is a 27-mer with a wild-type (WT) G-rich sequence of the Bcl-2 P1 promoter mid-region (5?-d(CGG GCG CGG GAG GAA GGG GGC GGG AGC-3?)). This sequence folds into at least three unique loop isomer quadruplexes. The two mutant oligonucleotides used in this study are shorter (23-mer) sequences in which nonquadruplex core bases were eliminated and two different (-G-G-) ? (-T-T-) substitutions were made to restrict the folding complexity. The four additional mutant oligonucleotides were labeled by substituting a 2-aminopurine (2-AP) base for an A or G in either the first three-base lateral loop or the second five- or seven-base lateral loop (depending on the G?T mutation positions). Spectroscopic and microcalorimetric studies indicate that four molecules of TMPyP4 can be bound to a single G-quadruplex. Binding of the first two moles of TMPyP4 appears to occur by an end or exterior mode (K ? 1 × 107 M?1), whereas binding of the third and fourth moles of TMPyP4 appears to occur by a weaker, intercalative binding mode (K ? 1 × 105 M?1). As the mid-loop size decreases from seven to five bases, end binding occurs with significantly increased affinity. 2-AP-labeled Bcl-2 promoter region quadruplexes show increased fluorescence of the 2-AP base on addition of TMPyP4. The change in fluorescence for 2-AP bases in the second half of the TMPyP4 titration lends support to our previous speculation regarding the intercalative nature of the weaker binding mode.

Nagesh, Narayana; Buscaglia, Robert; Dettler, Jamie M.; Lewis, Edwin A.

2010-01-01

99

Bcl-2 Promoter Sequence G-Quadruplex Interactions with Three Planar and Non-Planar Cationic Porphyrins: TMPyP4, TMPyP3, and TMPyP2.  

PubMed

The interactions of three related cationic porphyrins, TMPyP4, TMPyP3 and TMPyP2, with a WT 39-mer Bcl-2 promoter sequence G-quadruplex were studied using Circular Dichroism, ESI mass spectrometry, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, and Fluorescence spectroscopy. The planar cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 (5, 10, 15, 20-meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine) is shown to bind to a WT Bcl-2 G-quadruplex via two different binding modes, an end binding mode and a weaker mode attributed to intercalation. The related non-planar ligands, TMPyP3 and TMPyP2, are shown to bind to the Bcl-2 G-quadruplex by a single mode. ESI mass spectrometry experiments confirmed that the saturation stoichiometry is 4:1 for the TMPyP4 complex and 2:1 for the TMPyP2 and TMPyP3 complexes. ITC experiments determined that the equilibrium constant for formation of the (TMPyP4)1/DNA complex (K1 = 3.7 × 10(6)) is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the equilibrium constant for the formation of the (TMPyP2)1/DNA complex, (K1 = 7.0 × 10(4)). Porphyrin fluorescence is consistent with intercalation in the case of the (TMPyP4)3/DNA and (TMPyP4)4/DNA complexes. The non-planar shape of the TMPyP2 and TMPyP3 molecules results in both a reduced affinity for the end binding interaction and the elimination of the intercalation binding mode. PMID:23977303

Le, Vu H; Nagesh, Narayana; Lewis, Edwin A

2013-08-20

100

Synthesis of cubic zirconium and hafnium nitride having Th3P4 structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure synthesis is a powerful method for the preparation of novel materials with high elastic moduli and hardness. Additionally, such materials may exhibit interesting thermal, optoelectronic, semiconductuing, magnetic or superconducting properties. Here, we report on the high-pressure synthesis of zirconium and hafnium nitrides with the stoichiometry M3N4, where M = Zr, Hf. Synthesis experiments were performed in a laser-heated diamond

Andreas Zerr; Gerhard Miehe; Ralf Riedel

2003-01-01

101

Interactions between the bioactive glass S53P4 and the atrophic rhinitis-associated microorganism klebsiella ozaenae.  

PubMed

In an aqueous environment, ions are released from a bioactive glass (BAG) and the pH rises in its vicinity. This may influence both growth and colonization of microorganisms. We studied the effects of the BAG S53P4 on the atrophic rhinitis-associated microorganism Klebsiella ozaenae. The glass was used in the form of granules or discs. Growth inhibition was studied using an agar plate test. Adhesion was studied by incubating bacterial suspension with the glass. The effect of the presence of the bacteria on the formation of the Si-rich layer on the bioactive glass was also analyzed. Furthermore, a follow up study of 19-74 months with ozena patients surgically treated with the BAG S53P4 was performed. The bioactive glass showed no clear growth inhibition of K. ozaenae in the agar plate test. K. ozaenae showed low adherence to the BAG S53P4. No growth of the microbe was seen on the glass during the 8 h incubations and the Si-rich layer was formed normally. The clinical follow-up study showed no infections of the implants and the symptoms of the patients were markedly reduced. Thus, the BAG S53P4 did not favor adhesion and colonization of K. ozaenae, in vitro, which is supported by the in vivo findings showing no BAG-associated infections or reinfections. PMID:10556853

Stoor, P; Söderling, E; Grenman, R

1999-01-01

102

Oscillator Strengths for the 3d-4p and 4p-4d Transitions in Sodium-Like Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear charge expansion method is used in conjunction with a modified screening approximation to predict oscillator strengths, correct through first order in the perturbation for 3d-4p and 4p-4d transitions in the sodium isoelectronic sequence. (Modi...

C. Laughlin M. N. Lewis Z. J. Horak

1972-01-01

103

Structure and size determination of bacteriophage P2 and P4 procapsids: function of size responsiveness mutations.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage P4 is dependent on structural proteins supplied by a helper phage, P2, to assemble infectious virions. Bacteriophage P2 normally forms an icosahedral capsid with T=7 symmetry from the gpN capsid protein, the gpO scaffolding protein and the gpQ portal protein. In the presence of P4, however, the same structural proteins are assembled into a smaller capsid with T=4 symmetry. This size determination is effected by the P4-encoded protein Sid, which forms an external scaffold around the small P4 procapsids. Size responsiveness (sir) mutants in gpN fail to assemble small capsids even in the presence of Sid. We have produced large and small procapsids by co-expression of gpN with gpO and Sid, respectively, and applied cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to visualize these procapsids. gpN has an HK97-like fold and interacts with Sid in an exposed loop where the sir mutations are clustered. The T=7 lattice of P2 has dextro handedness, unlike the laevo lattices of other phages with this fold observed so far. PMID:22508104

Dearborn, Altaira D; Laurinmaki, Pasi; Chandramouli, Preethi; Rodenburg, Cynthia M; Wang, Sifang; Butcher, Sarah J; Dokland, Terje

2012-04-09

104

Crystal structure and a giant magnetoresistance effect in the new Zintl compound Eu3Ga2P4.  

PubMed

Single-crystalline samples of a new Zintl compound, Eu(3)Ga(2)P(4), have been synthesized by a Ga-flux method. Eu(3)Ga(2)P(4) is found to crystallize in a monoclinic unit cell, space group C2/c, isostructural to Ca(3)Al(2)As(4). The structure is composed of a pair of edge-shared GaP(4) tetrahedra, which link by corner-sharing to form Ga(2)P(4) two-dimensional layers, separated by Eu(2+) ions. Magnetic susceptibility showed a Curie-Weiss behavior with an effective magnetic moment consistent with the value for Eu(2+) magnetic ions. Below 15 K, ferromagnetic ordering was observed and the saturation magnetic moment was 6.6 ?(B). Electrical resistivity measurements on a single crystal showed semiconducting behavior. Resistivity in the temperature range between 280 and 300 K was fit by an activation model with an energy gap of 0.552(2) eV. The temperature dependence of the resistivity is better described by the variable-range-hopping model for a three-dimensional conductivity, suggesting that Eu-P bonds are involved in the conductivity. A large magnetoresistance, up to -30%, is observed with a magnetic field H = 2 T at T = 100 K, suggesting strong coupling of carriers with the Eu(2+) magnetic moment. PMID:22339060

Tsujii, Naohito; Uvarov, Catherine A; Klavins, Peter; Yi, Tanghong; Kauzlarich, Susan M

2012-02-16

105

Structure and size determination of bacteriophage P2 and P4 procapsids: function of size responsiveness mutations  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage P4 is dependent on structural proteins supplied by a helper phage, P2, to assemble infectious virions. Bacteriophage P2 normally forms an icosahedral capsid with T=7 symmetry from the gpN capsid protein, the gpO scaffolding protein and the gpQ portal protein. In the presence of P4, however, the same structural proteins are assembled into a smaller capsid with T=4 symmetry. This size determination is effected by the P4-encoded protein Sid, which forms an external scaffold around the small P4 procapsids. Size responsiveness (sir) mutants in gpN fail to assemble small capsids even in the presence of Sid. We have produced large and small procapsids by co-expression of gpN with gpO and Sid, respectively, and applied cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to visualize these procapsids. gpN has an HK97-like fold and interacts with Sid in an exposed loop where the sir mutations are clustered. The T=7 lattice of P2 has dextro handedness, unlike the laevo lattices of other phages with this fold observed so far.

Dearborn, Altaira D.; Laurinmaki, Pasi; Chandramouli, Preethi; Rodenburg, Cynthia M.; Wang, Sifang; Butcher, Sarah J.; Dokland, Terje

2012-01-01

106

Seeking operational flexibility and pollution prevention under Title V of the Clean Air Act: EPA's P4 program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require thousands of major industrial sources of air pollution to seek operating permits from local or state authorities. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Pollution Prevention in Permitting Program (P4), begun in 1993 under Title V, seeks to encourage, through a structured process of permit negotiations, the technological innovations required to

Michael Crow; Amy Pfeiffer; Lawrence Susskind

2000-01-01

107

cw Laser Action in Acentric NdAl3(BO3)4 and KNdP4O12.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-threshold, room-temperature, cw lasing in two new high-Nd-concentration materials, NdAl3(BO3)4 and KNdP4O12, the first ones with acentric space groups is reported. For both materials, thresholds below 1 mW and slope power conversion efficiencies excee...

S. R. Chinn H. Y. P. Hong

1975-01-01

108

Sphingosine 1-phosphate analogue recognition and selectivity at S1P4 within the endothelial differentiation gene family of receptors  

PubMed Central

Synergistic computational and experimental studies provided previously unforeseen details concerning the structural basis of S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) recognition by the S1P4 G-protein-coupled receptor. Similarly to reports on the S1P1 receptor, cationic and anionic residues in the third transmembrane domain (R3.28 and E3.29 at positions 124 and 125) form ion pairs with the phosphate and ammonium of S1P, and alanine mutations at these positions abolished specific S1P binding, S1P-induced receptor activation and cell migration. Unlike findings on the S1P1 receptor, no cationic residue in the seventh transmembrane domain interacts with the phosphate. Additionally, two previously undiscovered interactions with the S1P polar headgroup have been identified. Trp186 at position 4.64 in the fourth transmembrane domain interacts by a cation-? interaction with the ammonium group of S1P. Lys204 at position 5.38 forms an ion pair with the S1P. The S1P4 and S1P1 receptors show differences in binding-pocket shape and electrostatic distributions that correlate with the published structure–activity relationships. In particular, the binding pocket of mS1P4 (mouse S1P4) has recognition sites for the anionic phosphate and cationic ammonium groups that are equidistant from the end of the non-polar tail. In contrast, the binding pocket of hS1P1 (human S1P4) places the ammonium recognition site 2 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) closer to the end of the non-polar tail than the phosphate recognition site.

Inagaki, Yuichi; Pham, TrucChi T.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Kohno, Takayuki; Osborne, Daniel A.; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Tigyi, Gabor; Parrill, Abby L.

2005-01-01

109

ORBITAL ORIENTATIONS OF EXOPLANETS: HAT-P-4b IS PROGRADE AND HAT-P-14b IS RETROGRADE  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for two exoplanetary systems, revealing the orientations of their orbits relative to the rotation axes of their parent stars. HAT-P-4b is prograde, with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of {lambda} = -4.9 {+-} 11.9 deg. In contrast, HAT-P-14b is retrograde, with {lambda} = 189.1 {+-} 5.1 deg. These results conform with a previously noted pattern among the stellar hosts of close-in giant planets: hotter stars have a wide range of obliquities and cooler stars have low obliquities. This, in turn, suggests that three-body dynamics and tidal dissipation are responsible for the short-period orbits of many exoplanets. In addition, our data revealed a third body in the HAT-P-4 system, which could be a second planet or a companion star.

Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Mail Code 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysics and NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shporer, Avi [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.; Holman, Matthew J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-02-15

110

Carbohydrates as additives for the formation of isoporous PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer membranes.  

PubMed

Highly porous polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer membranes are prepared using carbohydrates as additives. Therefore ?-cyclodextrine, ?-(D)-glucose, and saccharose (cane sugar) are tested for the membrane formation of three different PS-b-P4VP polymers. The addition of the carbohydrates leads to an increasing viscosity of the membrane solutions due to hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates and pyridine units of the block copolymer. In all cases, the membranes made from solution with carbohydrates have higher porosity, an improved narrow pore distribution on the surface and a higher water flux as membranes made without carbohydrates with the same polymer, solvent ratio, and polymer concentration. PMID:23225180

Clodt, Juliana Isabel; Rangou, Sofia; Schröder, Anne; Buhr, Kristian; Hahn, Janina; Jung, Adina; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

2012-12-07

111

Enhanced beam currents of P2+, P3+, and P4+ for use in semiconductor ion implanters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerably enhanced yields of P2+ (8.6 pmA), P3+ (1.9 pmA), and P4+ (0.12 pmA) were obtained using a modified Bernas-Calutron ion source. The source design, experimental layout, and results of extensive optimization studies are described. The improved production of multiply charged ions is of particular interest for applications in semiconductor ion implantation facilities.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Poole, H. J.; Svarovsky, A. Ya.

2005-08-01

112

P4 capped amides and lactams as HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with improved potency and DMPK profile  

SciTech Connect

SAR studies on the extension of P3 unit of Boceprevir (1, SCH 503034) with amides and lactams and their synthesis is described. Extensive SAR studies resulted in the identification of 36 bearing 4,4-dimethyl lactam as the new P4 cap unit with improved potency (K*{sub i}, EC 90 = 70 nM) and pharmacokinetic properties (Rat AUC (PO) = 3.52 {micro}M h) compared to 1.

Nair, Latha G.; Sannigrahi, Mousumi; Bogen, Stephane; Pinto, Patrick; Chen, Kevin X.; Prongay, Andrew; Tong, Xiao; Cheng, K.-C.; Girijavallabhann, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George (Merck)

2010-09-03

113

Double-Stranded RNA Bacteriophage f6 Protein P4 Is an Unspecific Nucleoside Triphosphatase Activated by Calcium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded RNA bacteriophage f6 has an envelope surrounding the nucleocapsid (NC). The NC is composed of a surface protein, P8, and proteins P1, P2, P4, and P7, which form a dodecahedral polymerase complex enclosing the segmented viral genome. Empty polymerase complex particles (procapsids) package positive-sense viral single-stranded RNAs provided that energy is available in the form of nucleoside triphos- phates(NTPs).PhotoaffinitylabellingofboththeNCandtheprocapsidhasearlierbeenusedtoshowthatATP

ANJA O. PAATERO; JUHANI E. SYVAOJA; ANDDENNIS H. BAMFORD

1995-01-01

114

Interaction Surface of Bacteriophage P4 Protein Psu Required for Complex Formation with the Transcription Terminator Rho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rho-dependent transcription termination is an essential function in prokaryotes, and the transcription terminator Rho is highly conserved among different species. The bacteriophage P4 capsid-decoration protein, Psu, interacts specifically with and inhibits the function of Escherichia coli Rho. The interaction surface of Psu involved in interacting with Rho is not known, but knowledge of this is important to understand the mechanism

Bibhusita Pani; Amitabh Ranjan; Ranjan Sen

2009-01-01

115

The extended elastic model III: the nuclear fusion for the reaction 7 Li(p,?) 4 He  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A different procedure to determine the parameters which appear in the extended elastic model II for the sub-barrier fusion\\u000a is suggested. A comparison between the values of fusion cross-section obtained by using the extended elastic model II and\\u000a those obtained by using the new approach is shown. In the framework of the new model the reaction7Li(p,?)4He is investigated.

A. Scalia

1991-01-01

116

Effect of PTSA on the electrical conductivity of I 2 doped poly-4-vinyl pyridine (P4VP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of P-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) on the DC conductivity of iodine doped poly(4vinylpyridine) (P4VP) thick films for various dopant concentrations has been reported. P-toluene sulfonic acid is used as a counter ion and found to be a good stabilizer and plasticizer. DC conductivity of these films has been studied as a function of temperature and conduction mechanisms have

Vijayalakshmi Rao; P. V Ashokan; M. H Shridhar

2000-01-01

117

p-4He scattering: New data and a phase-shift analysis between 30 and 72 MeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the differential cross section dsigma\\/dOmega and the analyzing power Ay in the elastic p-4He scattering at 71.9 MeV. These data, together with all other existing data between 30 and 65 MeV, were subjected to a phase-shift analysis. New fixed energy solutions were found, which typically exhibit lower chi2 values than existing solutions and are consistent with a

S. Burzynski; J. Campbell; M. Hammans; R. Henneck; W. Lorenzon; M. A. Pickar; I. Sick

1989-01-01

118

PHILOSOPHY FOR CHILDREN E SCIENZE MOTORIE : UNA CONCILIAZIONE IMPOSSIBILE ? IL CORPO E IL MOVIMENTO NEL CURRICOLO DELLA P4C  

Microsoft Academic Search

La presente ricerca è indirizzata all'individuazione di una possibile area di intersezione fra il curricolo della P4C e il mondo delle scienze motorie. Il percorso è tracciato sostanzialmente su due filoni. Quello principale è rivolto all'analisi della persona intesa come corpo vivente, come corpo proprio che si estrinseca attraverso movimenti caratterizzati da razionalità e intenzionalità. In particolar modo ci si

Stefano Scarpa

119

The Klein correspondence of line congruences immersed in an elliptic space S 3 onto the hyperquadric P 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is devoted to the investigation and the construction of the Klein correspondence of line congruences referred to a specialized moving frame in a 3-dimensional elliptic spaceS3 to the hyperquadricP4 of the Klein 5-dimensional elliptic spaceS5. The Klein correspondence is given and characterized by Theorems 1, 2. The methods adapted here are based on Cartan's differential calculus [1], [6].

M. A. Soliman; S. F. Hassanien

1986-01-01

120

DNA Immunization with the Gene Encoding P4 Nuclease of Leishmania amazonensis Protects Mice against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 27 May 2003\\/Returned for modification 4 July 2003\\/Accepted 8 August 2003 Infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis can cause diverse clinical forms of leishman- iasis. Immunization with purified P4 nuclease protein has been shown to elicit a protective response in mice challenged with L. amazonensis and L. pifanoi. To explore the potential of a DNA-based vaccine, we tested

Kimberly Campbell; Hong Diao; Jiaxiang Ji; Lynn Soong

2003-01-01

121

Bright upconversion emission of Nd 3+ in LiLa 1? x Nd x P 4O 12 nanocrystalline powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upconversion emission of Nd3+ doped LiLa1?xNdxP4O12 nanocrystals powders upon irradiation with 808nm laser diode has been investigated. This emission of bright orange color was dependent on concentration and excitation incident light intensity. It was found that this emission was threshold phenomenon characterized by long build-up times which were dependent on energy of upconversion emission, concentration of active ions, size of

L. Marciniak; W. Strek; A. Bednarkiewicz; A. Lukowiak; D. Hreniak

2011-01-01

122

Energies and the radiative and Auger transition rates of 1s2p4 resonances of B-like ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy levels and the radiative and Auger transition rates of the 1s2p4 2,4L (L=S, P, D) resonances in the boron isoelectronic sequence are calculated using the saddle-point variation and saddle-point complex-rotation methods. Large-scale wave functions are used to saturate the functional space. Relativistic and mass polarization corrections are included by the first-order perturbation theory. The Auger branching ratios of the important decay channels for these core-excited states are calculated. The reliable transition wavelengths and Auger electron energies are used to identify available x-ray spectra and Auger electron spectra. Identifications of several unknown experimental lines from 1s2p4 resonances are reported. The total radiative rates and total Auger rates of these 1s2p4 resonances are also reported and discussed along with the increase of atomic number Z. It is found that the total Auger rates are several orders of magnitude greater than the total radiative rates in these low-Z ions.

Sun, Yan; Gou, Bing Cong; Chen, Chao

2013-03-01

123

Raman studies of and <P4> of some homologous nematic liquid crystals with small optical anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of Raman studies of the order parameters and <P4> for some liquid crystalline cyanophenylcyclohexanes (PCH-3, PCH-5 and PCH-7), which, in contrast to most data available in the literature, are in remarkably close accordance with predictions by the mean-field theories for the nematic order. Furthermore our measurements do not reveal a significant dependence on the molecular length. The PCHs differ from materials for which the theory is not capable of reproducing the experimental findings on <P4>, by their rather low optical and dielectrical anisotropy. In our opinion, this difference seems to be the key for the solution of the <P4> problem of the Raman scattering technique. Due to the lack of a proper theory, the influence of the anisotropic local electric field on the depolarization ratios of the Raman intensities has been neglected in the past in the formalism developed to evaluate the order parameters from the measurements. It will be shown that this disregard cannot be correct generally, with the error becoming larger with increasing anisotropy. In the light of this concept our verification of the theoretical predictions is a consequence of the very small local field anisotropy in the PCH series. The magnitude of the local field effect is estimated by means of a two-dimensional model.

Seeliger, R.; Haspeklo, H.; Noack, F.

124

Identification of the Orthopoxvirus p4c Gene, Which Encodes a Structural Protein That Directs Intracellular Mature Virus Particles into A-Type Inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orthopoxvirus gene p4c has been identified in the genome of the vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. This gene encodes the 58-kDa structural protein P4c present on the surfaces of the intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. The gene is disrupted in the genome of cowpox virus Brighton Red (BR), demonstrating that although the P4c protein may be advantageous for virus

Terry A. McKelvey; Stanley C. Andrews; Sara E. Miller; Caroline A. Ray; David J. Pickup

2002-01-01

125

p-4He scattering: New data and a phase-shift analysis between 30 and 72 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the differential cross section d?/d? and the analyzing power Ay in the elastic p-4He scattering at 71.9 MeV. These data, together with all other existing data between 30 and 65 MeV, were subjected to a phase-shift analysis. New fixed energy solutions were found, which typically exhibit lower ?2 values than existing solutions and are consistent with a continuous energy dependence. An energy-dependent analysis with a quadratic energy dependence reproduced the trend of the single-energy solutions, but yielded large ?2 values.

Burzynski, S.; Campbell, J.; Hammans, M.; Henneck, R.; Lorenzon, W.; Pickar, M. A.; Sick, I.

1989-01-01

126

2LEV-D2P4: a package of high-performance preconditioners for scientific and engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a package of parallel preconditioners which implements one-level and two-level Domain Decomposition algorithms\\u000a on the top of the PSBLAS library for sparse matrix computations. The package, named 2LEV-D2P4 (Two-LEVel Domain Decomposition\\u000a Parallel Preconditioners Package based on PSBLAS), currently includes various versions of additive Schwarz preconditioners\\u000a that are combined with a coarse-level correction to obtain two-level preconditioners. A pure

Alfredo Buttari; Pasqua D’Ambra; Daniela Di Serafino; Salvatore Filippone

2007-01-01

127

High-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and analysis of the ?3 fundamental band of P 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first high-resolution infrared absorption study of the ?3 fundamental of white phosphorus, P 4. This spectrum has been analyzed using the STDS (Spherical Top Data System) software. The band center lies at 466.286 cm -1. With the approximation ( B?) 3=- B0/2, we found that the ground-state bond length is r0=219.58 pm. This value is consistent with that of ab initio studies reported previously but significantly different from a value obtained from a Raman study.

Boudon, V.; Mkadmi, E. B.; Bürger, H.; Pierre, G.

1999-05-01

128

Phosphorous acid analogs of novel P2-P4 macrocycles as inhibitors of HCV-NS3 protease.  

PubMed

HCV-NS3 protease is essential for viral replication and NS3 protease inhibitors have shown proof of concept in clinical trials. Novel P2-P4 macrocycle inhibitors of NS3/4A comprising a P1 C-terminal carboxylic acid have recently been disclosed. A series of analogs, in which the carboxylic residue is replaced by phosphorous acid functionalities were synthesized and found to be inhibitors of the NS3 protease. Among them the methylphosphinate analogue showed nanomolar level of enzyme inhibition and sub-micromolar potency in the replication assay. PMID:19328685

Pompei, Marco; Francesco, Maria Emilia Di; Koch, Uwe; Liverton, Nigel J; Summa, Vincenzo

2009-03-17

129

Genomic tagging reveals a random association of endogenous PtdIns5P 4-kinases II? and II? and a partial nuclear localization of the II? isoform  

PubMed Central

PtdIns5P 4-kinases II? and II? are cytosolic and nuclear respectively when transfected into cells, including DT40 cells [Richardson, Wang, Clarke, Patel and Irvine (2007) Cell. Signalling 19, 1309–1314]. In the present study we have genomically tagged both type II PtdIns5P 4-kinase isoforms in DT40 cells. Immunoprecipitation of either isoform from tagged cells, followed by MS, revealed that they are associated directly with each other, probably by heterodimerization. We quantified the cellular levels of the type II PtdIns5P 4-kinase mRNAs by real-time quantitative PCR and the absolute amount of each isoform in immunoprecipitates by MS using selective reaction monitoring with 14N,13C-labelled internal standard peptides. The results suggest that the dimerization is complete and random, governed solely by the relative concentrations of the two isoforms. Whereas PtdIns5P 4-kinase II? is >95% nuclear, as expected, the distribution of PtdIns4P 4-kinase II? is 60% cytoplasmic (all bound to membranes) and 40% nuclear. In vitro, PtdIns5P 4-kinase II? was 2000-fold more active as a PtdIns5P 4-kinase than the II? isoform. Overall the results suggest a function of PtdIns5P 4-kinase II? may be to target the more active II? isoform into the nucleus.

Wang, Minchuan; Bond, Nicholas J.; Letcher, Andrew J.; Richardson, Jonathan P.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Irvine, Robin F.; Clarke, Jonathan H.

2010-01-01

130

Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

131

Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

132

The Production Cross-Sections for the Process {e^ +} ({P1}) + {e^ - }({P3}) -> Hi^ + ({P2}) + Hi^ - ({P4}) + ˜ \\chi l0({P5)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross-section, in electron (e-) positron (e+) collision, are calculated over range of center of mass energy for the process. {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }({P3}) -> Hi + ({P2}) + Hi - ({P4}) + ˜ \\chi l0(P5) Four different group of Feynman diagrams are taken into consideration depending on the type of the propagator: i - Production of ?0 and H± when z0 and H0 are the propagators exchange. ii - Production of ?0 and H± when ?0 is a leg from electron or positron, and ? is the propagator. iii - Production of ?0 and H± when ?0 is a leg from electron and positron, and Z0 is the propagator. iv - Production of ?0 and H± when ?0 is a leg from electron or positron, and H0 is the propagator. Where (i, j = 1,2,3, and = 1,2,3,4) The cross section for each group is calculated according to a carefully selected set of parameters. These different possible (1155) situations are graphed and tabulated. The production mechanisms can be detected as: {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }(P3 - {P5}) -> {? 0(P2) + P4 -> Hi ^ + ({P2}) + Hi - ({P4}) {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }(P3 - {P5}) -> {Z0(P2 + P4) -> Hi + ({P2}) + Hi - ({P4}) {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }(P3 - {P5}) -> H0(P2 + {P4}) -> Hi + ({P2}) + Hi - ({P4}) {e^ + }({P1}) + {e^ - }({P3}) -> Hi + ({P2}) + Hi - P4.

Ahmed, M. M.; Nous, M. H.; Yehia, Sherif; Asmaa, A. A.

2011-06-01

133

Phase characterization, thermal stability, high-temperature transport properties, and electronic structure of rare-earth Zintl phosphides Eu3M2P4 (M = Ga, In).  

PubMed

Two rare-earth-containing ternary phosphides, Eu3Ga2P4 and Eu3In2P4, were synthesized by a two-step solid-state method with stoichiometric amounts of the constitutional elements. Refinements of the powder X-ray diffraction are consistent with the reported single-crystal structure with space group C2/c for Eu3Ga2P4 and Pnnm for Eu3In2P4. Thermal gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) measurements reveal high thermal stability up to 1273 K. Thermal diffusivity measurements from room temperature to 800 K demonstrate thermal conductivity as low as 0.6 W/m·K for both compounds. Seebeck coefficient measurements from room temperature to 800 K indicate that both compounds are small band gap semiconductors. Eu3Ga2P4 shows p-type conductivity and Eu3In2P4 p-type conductivity in the temperature range 300-700 K and n-type conductivity above 700 K. Electronic structure calculations result in band gaps of 0.60 and 0.29 eV for Eu3Ga2P4 and Eu3In2P4, respectively. As expected for a valence precise Zintl phase, electrical resistivity is large, approximately 2600 and 560 m?·cm for Eu3Ga2P4 and Eu3In2P4 at room temperature, respectively. Measurements of transport properties suggest that these Zintl phosphides have potential for being good high-temperature thermoelectric materials with optimization of the charge carrier concentration by appropriate extrinsic dopants. PMID:23517094

Yi, Tanghong; Zhang, Gaigong; Tsujii, Naohito; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Zevalkink, Alex; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Kauzlarich, Susan M

2013-03-21

134

Subresonantly excited Nd3+ fluorescence in LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd3+ fluorescence of LiNdP4O12 nanocrystals was observed upon subresonant excitation with the 1064 nm wavelength of LD laser at room temperature. It was found that the 4F3/2 fluorescence was temperature dependent. The distribution of intensities between the respective Stark sublevels of 4F3/2(R1, R2) ? 4I9/2(Z1-5) transition band was substantially different in comparison to the resonant excitation with the 514 nm line of argon laser. A mechanism of subresonant Nd3+ fluorescence was investigated. It was concluded that it is associated with a high thermal population of 4I11/2 term stimulated by cooperative Nd-Nd interion interaction.

Marciniak, Lukasz; Strek, Wieslaw; Hreniak, Dariusz

2013-09-01

135

Phage ?29 Regulatory Protein p4 Stabilizes the Binding of the RNA Polymerase to the Late Promoter in a Process Involving Direct Protein-Protein Contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transcription from the late promoter, PA3, of Bacillus subtilis phage ?29 is activated by the viral regulatory protein p4. A kinetic analysis of the activation process has revealed that the role of protein p4 is to stabilize the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter as a closed complex without significantly affecting further steps of the initiation process. Electrophoretic band-shift assays performed with a DNA fragment spanning only the protein p4 binding site showed that RNA polymerase could efficiently retard the complex formed by protein p4 bound to the DNA. Similarly, when a DNA fragment containing only the RNA polymerase-binding region of PA3 was used, p4 greatly stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA. These results strongly suggest that p4 and RNA polymerase contact each other at the PA3 promoter. In the light of current knowledge of the p4 activation mechanism, we propose that direct contacts between the two proteins participate in the activation process.

Nuez, Beatriz; Rojo, Fernando; Salas, Margarita

1992-12-01

136

Ab initio investigations of the electronic structures and chemical bonding in LiCo6P4 and Li2Co12P7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structures of the metal-rich phosphides LiCo6P4 and Li2Co12P7 were studied by DFT calculations. Both phosphides consist of three-dimensional [Co6P4] and [Co12P7] polyanionic networks which leave hexagonal channels for the lithium atoms. COOP data show strong Co–P and Co–Co bonding within the polyanions. The lithium atoms have trigonal prismatic phosphorus coordination. Total energy calculations indicate stability upon de-lithiation towards the Co6P4 and Co12P7 substructures

Matar, Samir F.; Al-Alam, Adel; Ouaini, Naïm; Pöttgen, Rainer

2013-06-01

137

Properties and exposure chemistry of a soluble polydiacetylene (P4BCMU) used as a negative electron-beam resist  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of the polydiacetylene with urethane substituents (P4BCMU) has been investigated under electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation. A thin, O(100 nm), coating can be applied to a silicon wafer by spin coating from a solution in chloroform. E-beam exposure of around 20 ..mu..C/cm/sup 2/ renders the polymer insoluble and resistant to both a CF/sub 4//O/sub 2/ plasma etch and a reactive ion etch (RIE) with freon 112. Features down to 0.2 ..mu..m in width have been drawn and replicated into silicon in this way. Thus, the material has been demonstrated to act as a negative resist in standard e-beam lithographic procedures without recourse to an image reversal step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates only a slight change in stoichiometry after e-beam exposure and suggests the irradiated polymer has tertiary amide characteristics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies indicate that the unsaturated carbon bonds in the backbone of the polymer are not destroyed by e-beam irradiation. Rather the main changes occur in the N--H and the C--O (carbonyl) bonds of the urethane group.

Colton, R.J.; Marrian, C.R.K.; Snow, A.; Dilella, D.

1987-09-01

138

The involvement of diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate in cell cycle arrest and regulation of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap(n)A) have been proposed to function as intracellular and extracellular signaling molecules in animal cells. Here, we have examined the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis by diadenosine 5',5"'-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A). We have shown a dose-dependent apoptotic response in cells treated with Ap(4)A. Flow cytometric analysis indicated an involvement of Ap(4)A at an early stage of G1/S arrest. No difference in the amount of p21(waf1) was observed in HL60 cells treated with Ap(4)A compared to control cells. The level of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) dropped dramatically when apoptosis was extensive. The cleavage of pRb was abrogated if Ap(4)A-treated cells were incubated with general caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Ap(4)A also induced a profound decrease in the level of the Bcl-2 protein. The lack of effect of Ap(4)A on CDK1 activity indicated that Ap(4)A is not involved in "aberrant mitosis". We suggest that in vivo Ap(4)A may play a significant role in tumor growth suppression by inducing apoptosis. PMID:12504798

Vartanian, Amalia A; Suzuki, H; Poletaev, Andrey I

2003-01-15

139

Immunohistochemical study on the localization of the epitope defined by a human saliva-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A novel mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C) has been developed which recognizes the core portion of the protein carrying ABO(H) blood group antigens in human saliva. This proved to be specific for human saliva using immunochemical investigations such as enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, Ouchterlony method and counter-immunoelectrophoresis. By licht and electron microscope studies with immunohistochemical techniques using this human saliva-Specific P4-5C

T. Ohshima; T. Nagano; A. Kimura; F. Matsumura; K. Sodesaki; T. Tsuji; H. Maeda

1991-01-01

140

Expression of OsBiP4 and OsBiP5 is highly correlated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in rice.  

PubMed

Binding protein (BiP) is a chaperone protein involved in the folding of secretory proteins in the ER lumen. OsBiP1 is constitutively expressed in various tissues, whereas the expression of OsBiP4 and OsBiP5 (OsBiP4&5) is not detected in any tissue under normal conditions. However, expression of OsBiP4&5 was highly and specifically activated under ER stress conditions induced by DTT treatment, OsBiP1 knockdown, OsBiP1 overexpression, OsIRE1 overexpression, or various exogenous recombinant proteins in transgenic rice. In contrast, OsBiP4&5 did not accumulate in OsIRE1 knockdown transgenic rice even after DTT treatment. When the subcellular localization of OsBiP4&5 was investigated in seed endosperm cells under the ER stress condition, OsBiP4&5 were localized to the ER, but did not participate in ER-derived protein body (PB-I) formation in a different manner to OsBiP1. These results indicate that OsBiP4&5 levels were positively correlated with stress levels in the ER. Taken together, these results suggest that OsBiP4&5 are ER stress-related BiP proteins that are regulated by OsIRE1/OsbZIP50 pathway and that they may have a distinct function from that of OsBiP1 in rice. PMID:22824965

Wakasa, Yuhya; Hayashi, Shimpei; Takaiwa, Fumio

2012-07-24

141

Upstream CREs participate in the basal activity of minute virus of mice promoter P4 and in its stimulation in ras-transformed cells.  

PubMed Central

The activity of the P4 promoter of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (prototype strain MVMp) is stimulated in ras-transformed FREJ4 cells compared with the parental FR3T3 line. This activation may participate in the oncolytic effect of parvoviruses, given that P4 drives a transcriptional unit encoding cytotoxic nonstructural proteins. Our results suggest that the higher transcriptional activity of promoter P4 in FREJ4 cells is mediated at least in part by upstream CRE elements. Accordingly, mutations in the CRE motifs impair P4 function more strongly in the FREJ4 derivative than in its FR3T3 parent. Further evidence that these elements contribute to hyperactivity of the P4 promoter in the ras transformant is the fact that they form distinct complexes with proteins from FREJ4 and FR3T3 cell extracts. This difference can be abolished by treating the FREJ4 cell extracts with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or treating original cultures with a PKA activator. These findings can be linked with two previously reported features of ras-transformed cells: the activation of a PKA-inhibited protein kinase cascade and the reduction of PKA-induced protein phosphorylation. In keeping with these facts, P4-directed gene expression can be up- or downmodulated in vivo by exposing cells to known inhibitors or activators of PKA, respectively.

Perros, M; Deleu, L; Vanacker, J M; Kherrouche, Z; Spruyt, N; Faisst, S; Rommelaere, J

1995-01-01

142

Bacteria-induced protein P4 (hemolin) from Manduca sexta: a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which can inhibit hemocyte aggregation.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a number of hemolymph proteins is induced in insects in response to bacterial infections. The major induced hemolymph protein in larvae of Manduca sexta is a glycoprotein of Mr = 48,000 known as P4. We have isolated a clone for P4 from a fat body cDNA library constructed from RNA isolated from larvae injected with bacteria. The cDNA has an open reading frame encoding a 411 residue polypeptide with a hydrophobic NH2-terminal sequence, which appears to be a signal peptide. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence shows that P4 is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily, and is composed largely of four C2 type Ig domains. The M. sexta P4 amino acid sequence is 60% identical with hemolin (P4) from Hyalophora cecropia. The name "hemolin" has also been adopted for the M. sexta P4 protein. Hemolin mRNA levels in fat body begin to increase within 1 h after injection of bacteria into fifth instar larvae and within 4 h after injection of adults. Hemolin associates with the surface of hemocytes and inhibits hemocyte aggregation responses, suggesting a role for the protein in modulating hemocyte adhesion during recognition and response to bacterial infections in insects. PMID:1790333

Ladendorff, N E; Kanost, M R

1991-01-01

143

Role of DNA-DNA Interactions on the Structure and Thermodynamics of Bacteriophages Lambda and P4  

PubMed Central

Electrostatic interactions play an important role in both packaging of DNA inside bacteriophages and its release into bacterial cells. While at physiological conditions DNA strands repel each other, the presence of polyvalent cations such as spermine and spermidine in solutions leads to the formation of DNA condensates. In this study, we discuss packaging of DNA into bacteriophages P4 and Lambda under repulsive and attractive conditions using a coarse-grained model of DNA and capsids. Packaging under repulsive conditions leads to the appearance of the coaxial spooling conformations; DNA occupies all available space inside the capsid. Under the attractive potential both packed systems reveal toroidal conformations, leaving the central part of the capsids empty. We also present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of packaging and show that the forces required to pack the genomes in the presence of polyamines are significantly lower than those observed under repulsive conditions. The analysis reveals that in both the repulsive and attractive regimes the entropic penalty of DNA confinement has a significant non-negligible contribution into the total energy of packaging. Additionally we report the results of simulations of DNA condensation inside partially packed Lambda. We found that at low densities DNA behaves as free unconfined polymer and condenses into the toroidal structures; at higher densities rearrangement of the genome into toroids becomes hindered, and condensation results in the formation of non-equilibrium structures. In all cases packaging in a specific conformation occurs as a result of interplay between bending stresses experienced by the confined polymer and interactions between the strands.

Petrov, Anton S.; Harvey, Stephen C.

2010-01-01

144

A Putative Plant Aminophospholipid Flippase, the Arabidopsis P4 ATPase ALA1, Localizes to the Plasma Membrane following Association with a ?-Subunit  

PubMed Central

Plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells display asymmetric lipid distributions with aminophospholipids concentrated in the inner leaflet and sphingolipids in the outer leaflet. This unequal distribution of lipids between leaflets is, amongst several proposed functions, hypothesized to be a prerequisite for endocytosis. P4 ATPases, belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily of pumps, are involved in establishing lipid asymmetry across plasma membranes, but P4 ATPases have not been identified in plant plasma membranes. Here we report that the plant P4 ATPase ALA1, which previously has been connected with cold tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana, is targeted to the plasma membrane and does so following association in the endoplasmic reticulum with an ALIS protein ?-subunit.

Lopez-Marques, Rosa L.; Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Palmgren, Michael G.

2012-01-01

145

A new ?(0)-thalassemia mutation (codon 102, AAC>ATCAC) in coexistence with a heterozygous P4.2 Nippon gene.  

PubMed

A new ?-thalassemia (?-thal) frameshift mutation was found at codon 102 (AAC>ATCAC) in a 17-year-old Japanese male and his 14-year-old sister. Both demonstrated a more severe phenotype than the usual ?-thal minor with mild hemolytic involvement. No mRNA derived from the thalassemic allele, or ?(T)mRNA, was detected in the sequencing analysis of the whole mRNA (cDNA). However, the ?(T)mRNA from the whole ?mRNA was specifically amplified by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), and was actually found to be present. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) demonstrated a negligible amount of ?(T)mRNA. Thus, their more severe phenotype was not caused by the "dominant type" ?-thal in which a considerable amount of the ?(T)mRNA would be expected. In fact, our proband had a total ?mRNA level that was mostly normal. Thus, the cause of a ?-thal phenotype by the frameshift mutation was ascribed to the reduced amount of mRNA. We further searched for the cause of their severe phenotype. However, factors that exacerbated the phenotype of ?-thal, such as ?-globin gene triplication, coexisting iron deficiency and infection were not found. Finally, we noticed that the red cell morphology revealed ovalocytosis and small numbers of stomatocytes that were seen in the hereditary spherocytosis (HS), especially by P4.2 mutations. The sequence of the P4.2 gene disclosed heterozygous P4.2 Nippon, or missense mutation at codon 142 (GCT>ACT) on exon 3, the most common mutation of Japanese HS. Frequent mutations of other membrane proteins, Band 3 and ankyrin that are common cause of HS in the Japanese population, other than P4.2, were not detected. When HS by P4.2 Nippon develops it is homozygous, and no P4.2 protein is observed in sodium dodecilsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), while in our case the amount of the P4.2 was almost normal in the SDS-PAGE. However, there are several reports that revealed more severe phenotypes of ?-thal by the coexisting abnormality of membrane protein. It is uncertain, but the presence of heterozygous P4.2 Nippon may be associated with the exacerbation of the phenotype of ?-thal minor. PMID:23600595

Adhiyanto, Chris; Yamashiro, Yasuhiro; Hattori, Yukio; Nitta, Takenori; Hino, Minako; Matar, Maryam; Takagi, Fumiya; Kimoto, Masafumi

2013-04-22

146

Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state in magnesium  

SciTech Connect

Two-photon above-threshold ionization (ATI) relative cross sections from the 3 {sup 1}P state of Mg have been measured using two-color ionization in the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and have been calculated using the Green's-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L{sup 2}-integrable close-coupling approach, with a basis of L{sup 2}-integrable B-spline functions. We report these cross sections in the region of 3d4p {sup 1}F{sup o} autoionizing state, with photon energies of 3.3-3.6 eV. This is one of the few direct comparisons between ab initio theory and experiments in ATI in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the relative total cross sections.

Reber, A.; Baynard, T.; Berry, R.S. [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bachau, H. [Centre des Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 du CNRS-CEA-Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence (France)

2005-05-15

147

The cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 destabilizes the tetraplex form of the fragile X syndrome expanded sequence d(CGG)n.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited mental retardation, is instigated by dynamic expansion of a d(CGG) trinucleotide repeat in the 5'-untranslated region of the first exon of the FMR1 gene, resulting in its silencing. The expanded d(CGG)(n) tract readily folds into hairpin and tetraplex structures which may contribute to the blocking of FMR1 transcription. In this work, we report that the cationic porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphin (TMPyP4) effectively destabilizes in vitro the G'2 bimolecular tetraplex structure of d(CGG)(n) while it stabilizes the G'2 tetraplex form of the telomeric sequence d(TTAGGG)(2). Similarly to TMPyP4, the hnRNP-related protein CBF-A also destabilizes G'2 tetrahelical d(CGG)(n) while binding and stabilizing tetraplex telomeric DNA. We report that relative to each agent individually, successive incubation of G'2 d(CGG)(n) with TMPyP4 followed by exposure to CBF-A results in a nearly additive extent of disruption of this tetraplex form of the repeat sequence. Our observations open up the prospect of unfolding secondary structures of the expanded FMR1 d(CGG)(n) tract of fragile X cells by their exposure to low molecular size drugs or to proteins such as TMPyP4 or CBF-A. PMID:12853612

Weisman-Shomer, Pnina; Cohen, Esther; Hershco, Inbal; Khateb, Samer; Wolfovitz-Barchad, Orit; Hurley, Laurence H; Fry, Michael

2003-07-15

148

Large-Scale Relativistic Configuration Interaction Calculation for the 4s-4p and 4p-4d Transition Energies of Copperlike Heavy Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 4s - 4p and 4p - 4d transition energies for high-Z copperlike ions are calculated using the relativistic configuration-interaction (RCI) method. Mass polarization (MP) and quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections are also evaluated. For the 4s - 4p tr...

K. T. Cheng M. H. Chen

2005-01-01

149

Function of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in splicing group I introns: an induced-fit model for binding to the P4-P6 domain based on analysis of mutations at the junction of the P4-P6 stacked helices 1 1 Edited by D. Draper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used an Escherichia coli genetic assay based on the phage T4 td intron to test the ability of the Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (CYT-18 protein) to suppress mutations that cause structural defects around its binding site in the P4-P6 domain of the group I intron catalytic core. We analyzed all possible combinations of nucleotides at either P4 bp-1

Xin Chen; Robin R. Gutell; Alan M. Lambowitz

2000-01-01

150

Optical investigation of the quasi two-dimensional monophosphate tungsten bronzes K x P 4 W 8 O 32 (x = 0 - 1.57)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potassium doped monophosphate tungsten bronzes KxP4W8O32 are two-dimensional metals which show a metal-to-metal transition at a critical temperature which depends on the doping level. The metal-to-metal transition is accompanied by the formation of a commensurate charge density wave with wave vector (?/b,0) which is independent of the doping level. Undoped P4W8O32, on the other hand, has two metal-to-metal transitions which are connected to the formation of incommensurate charge density waves. We measured the infrared reflectivity of the series KxP4W8O32 (x = 0 - 1.57) in the spectral range from 100 to 10 000 cm-1 for room temperature and well below the critical temperature. Polarization-dependent infrared spectra find a two-dimensional behavior in the normal and the charge density wave state and show signatures of hybridization between one- and two-dimensional conduction bands. In undoped P4W8O32 the essentials of the charge density wave state can be understood from the nesting vectors of the calculated Fermi surface and two gaps are observed in the infrared spectra. The gap sizes are a factor of about 2.5 bigger than the predictions from mean-field theory in the weak-coupling limit which suggests medium- or strong electron-phonon coupling. For potassium doped KxP4W8O32 one gap is observed in the charge density wave state. The energetics of the charge density formation may be dominated by the energy required for the lattice modulation.

Haffner, S.; Dressel, M.; Groult, D.; Schlenker, C.

2001-11-01

151

Novel P2-P4 macrocyclic inhibitors of HCV NS3/4A protease by P3 succinamide fragment depeptidization strategy.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C represents a serious worldwide health-care problem. Recently, we have disclosed a novel class of P2-P4 macrocyclic inhibitors of NS3/4A protease containing a carbamate functionality as capping group at the P3 N-terminus. Herein we report our work aimed at further depeptidizing the P3 region by replacement of the urethane function with a succinamide motif. This peptidomimetic approach has led to the discovery of novel P2-P4 macrocyclic inhibitors of HCV NS3/4A protease with sub-nanomolar enzyme affinities. In addition to being potent inhibitors of HCV subgenomic replication, optimized analogues within this series have also presented attractive PK properties and showed promising liver levels in rat following oral administration. PMID:19932966

Pompei, Marco; Di Francesco, Maria Emilia; Pesci, Silvia; Koch, Uwe; Vignetti, Sue Ellen; Veneziano, Maria; Pace, Paola; Summa, Vincenzo

2009-11-10

152

Tandem genomic arrangement of a G protein ( Gna15) and G protein-coupled receptor ( s1p 4 \\/ lp C1 \\/ Edg6) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genomic analysis of the s1p4\\/lpC1\\/Edg6 mouse sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) G protein-coupled receptor gene revealed it to be located on central chromosome 10 and to consist of two exons with an intronless coding region. Surprisingly, we found the gene encoding the promiscuously coupling G?15 protein (Gna15) located in tandem just upstream, an arrangement conserved in the human genome (on chromosome 19p13.3).

James J. A Contos; Xiaoqin Ye; Valerie P Sah; Jerold Chun

2002-01-01

153

Differential expression of the TFF-peptides xP1 and xP4 in the gastrointestinal tract of Xenopus laevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

TFF-peptides (formerly P-domain peptides, trefoil factors) represent major secretory products of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. A molecular cloning approach revealed the existence of two TFF-peptides, xP1 and xP4, also in the stomach of Xenopus laevis. Here, the localization of these two peptides by Western blot analysis as well as immunohistochemistry is presented. xP1 is found predominantly in the surface mucous

Wolfgang Jagla; Antje Wiede; Sabine Kölle; W. Hoffmann

1997-01-01

154

Endophilin\\/SH3p4 Is Required for the Transition from Early to Late Stages in Clathrin-Mediated Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophilin\\/SH3p4 is a protein highly enriched in nerve terminals that binds the GTPase dynamin and the polyphosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin, two proteins implicated in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. We show here that antibody-mediated disruption of endophilin function in a tonically stimulated synapse leads to a block in the invagination of clathrin-coated pits adjacent to the active zone and therefore to a block

Niels Ringstad; Helge Gad; Peter Löw; Gilbert Di Paolo; Lennart Brodin; Oleg Shupliakov; Pietro De Camilli

1999-01-01

155

Synthesis, structure, and properties of Cs(4)Th(4)P(4)Se(26): a quaternary thorium selenophosphate containing the (P(2)Se(9))(6-) anion.  

PubMed

Orange crystals of Cs(4)Th(4)P(4)Se(26) were grown from the reaction of (232)Th and P in a Cs(2)Se(3)/Se molten salt flux at 750 degrees C. Cs(4)Th(4)P(4)Se(26) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with the unit cell parameters: a = 12.0130(6), b = 14.5747(7), c = 27.134(1) A; Z = 8. The compound exhibits a three-dimensional structure, consisting of dimeric [Th(2)Se(13)] polyhedral units. The two crystallographically independent, nine-coordinate, bicapped trigonal prismatic thorium atoms share a triangular face to form the dimer, and each dimer edge-shares two selenium atoms with two other dimers to form kinked chains along the [010] direction. While this structure shares features of the previously reported Rb(4)U(4)P(4)Se(26), including phosphorus in the 5+ oxidation state, careful inspection of the structure reveals that the selenophosphate anion that knits the structure together in three directions in both compounds is a unique (P(2)Se(9))(6-) anion. The formula may be described best as [Cs(2)Th(2)(P(2)Se(9))(Se(2))(2)](2). The (P(2)Se(9))(6-) anion features a nearly linear Se-Se-Se backbone with an angle of 171 degrees and Se-Se distances that are approximately 0.2-0.3 A longer than the typical single Se-Se bond. Magnetic studies confirm that this phase contains Th(IV). Raman data for this compound is reported, and structural comparisons will be drawn to its uranium analogue, Rb(4)U(4)P(4)Se(26). PMID:11531433

Briggs Piccoli, P M; Abney, K D; Schoonover, J D; Dorhout, P K

2001-09-10

156

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo proximal interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p (4p15.2?p14).  

PubMed

We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo proximal interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p (4p15.2?p14) and molecular cytogenetic characterization of the deletion using uncultured amniocytes. We review the phenotypic abnormalities of previously reported patients with similar proximal interstitial 4p deletions, and we discuss the functions of the genes of RBPJ, CCKAR, STIM2, PCDH7 and ARAP2 that are deleted within this region. PMID:23948085

Chen, Chih-Ping; Lee, Meng-Ju; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shan; Wang, Wayseen

2013-08-13

157

Signal interactions in pathogen and insect attack: expression of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitor II, and pathogenesis-related protein P4 in the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and insects can elicit different sets of plant host responses, supporting the hypothesis for control by different signaling pathways. To evaluate the potential for signal interaction in plants attacked by pathogens and insects, the mRNA abundance for lipoxygenase (LOX), a wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor (PINII), and a pathogenesis-related protein (P4) was evaluated in tomato leaves following challenge with a variety

A. L. Fidantsef; M. J. Stout; J. S. Thaler; S. S. Duffey; R. M. Bostock

1999-01-01

158

Association of a retroelement with a P4-like cryptic prophage (retronphage phi R73) integrated into the selenocystyl tRNA gene of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A new multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA-Ec73) was found in a clinical strain of Escherichia coli. Retron-Ec73, consisting of an msDNA-coding region and the gene for reverse transcriptase (RT), was found to be a part of a 12.7-kb foreign DNA fragment flanked by 29-bp direct repeats and integrated into the gene for selenocystyl-tRNA (selC) at 82 min on the E. coli chromosome. Except for the 2.4-kb retron region, the integrated DNA fragment showed remarkable homology to most of the bacteriophage P4 genome. Among the phage genes found in this element, however, the integrase gene had very low identity (40%) to P4 integrase, indicating that the cryptic prophage associated with the retroelement has its own unique site-specific integrase different from P4 integrase. Recently, we have shown that P2 phage can act as a helper to excise the cryptic prophage and to package its genome into an infectious virion. The newly formed phage (retronphage phi R73) can also lysogenize a new host strain, reintegrating its genome into the selC gene and enabling the newly formed lysogen to produce msDNA-Ec73 (S. Inouye, M. G. Sunshine, E. W. Six, and M. Inouye, Science 252:969-971, 1991).

Sun, J; Inouye, M; Inouye, S

1991-01-01

159

Analyses of pion-nucleon elastic scattering amplitudes up to O(p4) in the extended-on-mass-shell subtraction scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the analysis of elastic pion-nucleon scattering up to O(p4) level using the extended-on-mass-shell subtraction scheme within the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Numerical fits to partial wave phase shift data up to s=1.13GeV are performed to pin down the free low energy constants. A good description of the existing phase shift data is achieved. We find a good convergence for the chiral series at O(p4), considerably improved with respect to the O(p3)-level analyses found in previous literature. Also, the leading order contribution from explicit ?(1232) resonance and partially-included ?(1232) loop contribution are included to describe the phase shift data up to s=1.20GeV. As phenomenological applications, we investigate chiral corrections to the Goldberger-Treiman relation and find that it converges rapidly, and the O(p3) correction is found to be very small: ?0.2%. We also get a reasonable prediction of the pion-nucleon sigma term ??N up to O(p4) by performing fits including both the pion-nucleon partial wave phase shift data and the lattice QCD data. We report that ??N=52±7MeV from the fit without ?(1232), and ??N=45±6MeV from the fit with explicit ?(1232).

Chen, Yun-Hua; Yao, De-Liang; Zheng, H. Q.

2013-03-01

160

Function of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in splicing group I introns: an induced-fit model for binding to the P4-P6 domain based on analysis of mutations at the junction of the P4-P6 stacked helices.  

PubMed

We used an Escherichia coli genetic assay based on the phage T4 td intron to test the ability of the Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (CYT-18 protein) to suppress mutations that cause structural defects around its binding site in the P4-P6 domain of the group I intron catalytic core. We analyzed all possible combinations of nucleotides at either P4 bp-1 or P6 bp-1, which together form the junction of the P4-P6 stacked helices, and looked for synergistic effects in double mutants. Most mutations at either position inhibit self-splicing, but can be suppressed by CYT-18. CYT-18 can compensate efficiently for mutations that disrupt base-pairing at either P4 bp-1 or P6 bp-1, for mutations at P6 bp-1 that disrupt the base-triple interaction with J3/4-3, and for nucleotide substitutions at either position that are predicted to be suboptimal for base stacking, based on the analysis of DNA four-way junctions. However, CYT-18 has difficulty suppressing combinations of mutations at P4 bp-1 and P6 bp-1 that simultaneously disrupt base-pairing and base stacking. Thermal denaturation and Fe(II)-EDTA analysis showed that mutations at the junction of the P4-P6 stacked helices lead to grossly impaired tertiary-structure formation centered in the P4-P6 domain. CYT-18-suppressible mutants bind the protein with K(d) values up to 79-fold higher than that for the wild-type intron, but in all cases tested, the k(off) value for the complex remains within twofold of the wild-type value, suggesting that the binding site can be formed properly and that the increased K(d) value reflects primarily an increased k(on) value for the binding of CYT-18 to the misfolded intron. Our results indicate that the P4/P6 junction is a linchpin region, where even small nucleotide substitutions grossly disrupt the catalytically-active group I intron tertiary structure, and that CYT-18 binding induces the formation of the correct structure in this region, leading to folding of the group I intron catalytic core. PMID:10926509

Chen, X; Gutell, R R; Lambowitz, A M

2000-08-11

161

Interactions between meso-tetrakis(4-( N -methylpyridiumyl))porphyrin TMPyP4 and DNA G-quadruplex of telomeric repeated sequence TTAGGG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding properties between meso-tetrakis(4-(N-methylpyridiumyl))porphyrin (TMPyP4) and the parallel DNA G-quadruplex (G4) of telomeric repeated sequence 5?-TTAGGG-3? have\\u000a been characterized by means of circular dichroism, steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence and picosecond time-resolved\\u000a fluorescence spectroscopies. The binding constant and the saturated binding number were determined as 1.29×106 (mol\\/L)?1 and 3, respectively, according to steady-state absorption spectroscopy. Based on the findings by

HuiJuan Zhang; XueFei Wang; Peng Wang; SiPing Pang; XiCheng Ai; JianPing Zhang

2008-01-01

162

Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPase ALA3 Reduces Adaptability to Temperature Stresses and Impairs Vegetative, Pollen, and Ovule Development  

PubMed Central

Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to help create asymmetry in lipid bilayers by flipping specific lipids between the leaflets of a membrane. This asymmetry is believed to be central to the formation of vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a P4-ATPase associated with the trans-Golgi network (ALA3) was previously reported to be important for vegetative growth and reproductive success. Here we show that multiple phenotypes for ala3 knockouts are sensitive to growth conditions. For example, ala3 rosette size was observed to be dependent upon both temperature and soil, and varied between 40% and 80% that of wild-type under different conditions. We also demonstrate that ala3 mutants have reduced fecundity resulting from a combination of decreased ovule production and pollen tube growth defects. In-vitro pollen tube growth assays showed that ala3 pollen germinated ?2 h slower than wild-type and had approximately 2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length. In genetic crosses under conditions of hot days and cold nights, pollen fitness was reduced by at least 90-fold; from ?18% transmission efficiency (unstressed) to less than 0.2% (stressed). Together, these results support a model in which ALA3 functions to modify endomembranes in multiple cell types, enabling structural changes, or signaling functions that are critical in plants for normal development and adaptation to varied growth environments.

McDowell, Stephen C.; Lopez-Marques, Rosa L.; Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Palmgren, Michael G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.

2013-01-01

163

Stabilization of a G-Quadruplex from Unfolding by Replication Protein A Using Potassium and the Porphyrin TMPyP4  

PubMed Central

Replication protein A (RPA) plays an essential role in DNA replication by binding and unfolding non-canonical single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) structures. Of the six RPA ssDNA binding domains (labeled A-F), RPA-CDE selectively binds a G-quadruplex forming sequence (5?-TAGGGGAAGGGTTGGAGTGGGTT-3? called Gq23). In K+, Gq23 forms a mixed parallel/antiparallel conformation, and in Na+ Gq23 has a less stable (TM lowered by ?20°C), antiparallel conformation. Gq23 is intramolecular and 1D NMR confirms a stable G-quadruplex structure in K+. Full-length RPA and RPA-CDE-core can bind and unfold the Na+ form of Gq23 very efficiently, but complete unfolding is not observed with the K+ form. Studies with G-quadruplex ligands, indicate that TMPyP4 has a thermal stabilization effect on Gq23 in K+, and inhibits complete unfolding by RPA and RPA-CDE-core. Overall these data indicate that G-quadruplexes present a unique problem for RPA to unfold and ligands, such as TMPyP4, could possibly hinder DNA replication by blocking unfolding by RPA.

Prakash, Aishwarya; Kieken, Fabien; Marky, Luis A.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.

2011-01-01

164

Stabilization of a G-Quadruplex from Unfolding by Replication Protein A Using Potassium and the Porphyrin TMPyP4.  

PubMed

Replication protein A (RPA) plays an essential role in DNA replication by binding and unfolding non-canonical single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) structures. Of the six RPA ssDNA binding domains (labeled A-F), RPA-CDE selectively binds a G-quadruplex forming sequence (5'-TAGGGGAAGGGTTGGAGTGGGTT-3' called Gq23). In K(+), Gq23 forms a mixed parallel/antiparallel conformation, and in Na(+) Gq23 has a less stable (T(M) lowered by ?20°C), antiparallel conformation. Gq23 is intramolecular and 1D NMR confirms a stable G-quadruplex structure in K(+). Full-length RPA and RPA-CDE-core can bind and unfold the Na(+) form of Gq23 very efficiently, but complete unfolding is not observed with the K(+) form. Studies with G-quadruplex ligands, indicate that TMPyP4 has a thermal stabilization effect on Gq23 in K(+), and inhibits complete unfolding by RPA and RPA-CDE-core. Overall these data indicate that G-quadruplexes present a unique problem for RPA to unfold and ligands, such as TMPyP4, could possibly hinder DNA replication by blocking unfolding by RPA. PMID:21772995

Prakash, Aishwarya; Kieken, Fabien; Marky, Luis A; Borgstahl, Gloria E O

2011-06-16

165

Evidence suggesting a need for fundamental changes in scattering theory obtained from a comparison of the data of the scatterings ? + +p ? ? + +p, 4 He(p, p) 4 He, 3 He(p, p) 3 He, 2 H(p, p) 2 H  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  When the data sets ofk\\u000a 2 d?\\/d?(?) in4He(p, p)4He and ?++p ? ? ?++p are compared at c.m. momenta related byp\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a =4p\\u000a 4, wherep\\u000a 4 is the momentum of4He(p, p)4He andp\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a is the momentum of the ?+p scattering, a correlation between them is found over most of thep\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a range from 125MeV\\/c to 1125MeV\\/c. This correlation is most

LeRoy W. Morrow

1992-01-01

166

Abundant amounts of diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate are present and releasable, but metabolically inactive, in human platelets.  

PubMed Central

Diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) may be formed in the back reaction of the amino acid-activation reaction [Zamecnik, Stephenson, Janeway & Randerath (1966) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 24, 91-98]. On the basis of a number of observations of the properties of Ap4A it has been suggested that it may have a signal function for the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells] Grummt (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 371-375]. In the present paper human platelets have been shown to contain relatively large amounts of Ap4A. The compound is apparently metabolic inactive in platelets, but it is almost quantitatively released when platelets are activated to aggregate by treatment with thrombin. The results are discussed in connection with the known growth-stimulating activity of platelets.

Flodgaard, H; Klenow, H

1982-01-01

167

Ab initio many-body calculations of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions.  

PubMed

We apply the ab initio no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method approach to calculate the cross sections of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions. These are important reactions for the big bang nucleosynthesis and the future of energy generation on Earth. Starting from a selected similarity-transformed chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction that accurately describes two-nucleon data, we performed many-body calculations that predict the S factor of both reactions. Virtual three-body breakup effects are obtained by including excited pseudostates of the deuteron in the calculation. Our results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data and pave the way for microscopic investigations of polarization and electron-screening effects, of the (3)H(d,?n)(4)He bremsstrahlung and other reactions relevant to fusion research. PMID:22400830

Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

2012-01-24

168

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Thermotoga maritima CheA P3-P4-P5 domains in complex with CheW  

PubMed Central

The CheA–CheW complex plays a key role in bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction by initiating phosphotransfer to response regulators via coupling to the chemoreceptors. CheA (P3-P4-P5 domains) and CheW from Thermotoga maritima were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized as a complex at 298?K using ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to ?8?Å resolution at 100?K using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 184.2, b = 286.4, c = 327.7?Å. The asymmetric unit may contain six to ten CheA–CheW molecules.

Park, SangYoun; Kim, Keon Young; Kim, Sunmin; Crane, Brian R.

2012-01-01

169

Analysis of the Vibrational Spectra of P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyclic phosphazene trimer P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and the related cyclic tetramer P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8 have been proposed as the major low-to-medium temperature pyrolysis products of the parent polyphosphazene (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n. Recently, both molecules have been synthesized, isolated and their vapour-phase vibrational spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR instrument. The interpretation of these spectra is achieved primarily by comparison with the results of high-quality density functional calculations, which enable the principal absorption features to be assigned and conclusions to be drawn regarding the geometries and conformations adopted by both molecules. These in turn allow interesting comparisons to be made with analogous cyclic halo-phosphazenes such as P_3N_3Cl_6 and P_4N_4Cl_8. Work to record in situ the spectra of the vapour-phase pyrolysis products of (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n and to analyse these results in terms of the tetramer and trimer spectra will also be presented. S. V. Peddada and J. H. Magill Macromolecules 16 (1983) 1258-1264. H. R. Allcock, G. S. McDonnell, G. H. Riding, and I. Manners Chem. Mater. 2 (1990) 425-432. T. R. Manley and D. A. Williams Spectrochimica Acta 23A (1966) 149-165. V. Varma, J. R. Fernandez and C. N. R. Rao J. Mol. Struct. 198 (1989) 403-412.

King, Adrian K.; Plant, David F.; Golding, Peter; Lawson, Michael A.; Davies, Paul B.

2011-06-01

170

The porphyrin TmPyP4 unfolds the extremely stable G-quadruplex in MT3-MMP mRNA and alleviates its repressive effect to enhance translation in eukaryotic cells  

PubMed Central

We report that the cationic porphyrin TmPyP4, which is known mainly as a DNA G-quadruplex stabilizer, unfolds an unusually stable all purine RNA G-quadruplex (M3Q) that is located in the 5?-UTR of MT3-MMP mRNA. When the interaction between TmPyP4 and M3Q was monitored by UV spectroscopy a 22-nm bathochromic shift and 75% hypochromicity of the porphin major Soret band was observed indicating direct binding of the two molecules. TmPyP4 disrupts folded M3Q in a concentration-dependent fashion as was observed by circular dichroism (CD), 1D 1H NMR and native gel electrophoresis. Additionally, when TmPyP4 is present during the folding process it inhibits the M3Q RNA from adopting a G-quadruplex structure. Using a dual reporter gene construct that contained the M3Q sequence alone or the entire 5?-UTR of MT3-MMP mRNA, we report here that TmPyP4 can relieve the inhibitory effect of the M3Q G-quadruplex. However, the same concentrations of TmPyP4 failed to affect translation of a mutated construct. Thus, TmPyP4 has the ability to unfold an RNA G-quadruplex of extreme stability and modulate activity of a reporter gene presumably via the disruption of the G-quadruplex.

Morris, Mark J.; Wingate, Katherine L.; Silwal, Jagannath; Leeper, Thomas C.; Basu, Soumitra

2012-01-01

171

The porphyrin TmPyP4 unfolds the extremely stable G-quadruplex in MT3-MMP mRNA and alleviates its repressive effect to enhance translation in eukaryotic cells.  

PubMed

We report that the cationic porphyrin TmPyP4, which is known mainly as a DNA G-quadruplex stabilizer, unfolds an unusually stable all purine RNA G-quadruplex (M3Q) that is located in the 5'-UTR of MT3-MMP mRNA. When the interaction between TmPyP4 and M3Q was monitored by UV spectroscopy a 22-nm bathochromic shift and 75% hypochromicity of the porphin major Soret band was observed indicating direct binding of the two molecules. TmPyP4 disrupts folded M3Q in a concentration-dependent fashion as was observed by circular dichroism (CD), 1D (1)H NMR and native gel electrophoresis. Additionally, when TmPyP4 is present during the folding process it inhibits the M3Q RNA from adopting a G-quadruplex structure. Using a dual reporter gene construct that contained the M3Q sequence alone or the entire 5'-UTR of MT3-MMP mRNA, we report here that TmPyP4 can relieve the inhibitory effect of the M3Q G-quadruplex. However, the same concentrations of TmPyP4 failed to affect translation of a mutated construct. Thus, TmPyP4 has the ability to unfold an RNA G-quadruplex of extreme stability and modulate activity of a reporter gene presumably via the disruption of the G-quadruplex. PMID:22266651

Morris, Mark J; Wingate, Katherine L; Silwal, Jagannath; Leeper, Thomas C; Basu, Soumitra

2012-01-20

172

Anomalous high amplitude ratios of P5KP/PKPab and P4KP/P(S)cP observed globally around 1 Hz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplitude ratio of 30 short-period conspicuous P5KP and PKPab phases from five intermediate depth or deep events in Fiji-Tonga recorded at European stations around 150° distance shows a mean value two to three times the ratio of the synthetic amplitudes obtained by the normal-mode theory (and ak135 model) or by full-wave theory (and PREM). There is a large variance in the results, also observed in five amplitude ratios from one event in Argentina observed at temporary stations in China around 156°. Global recordings of three major deep earthquakes in Fiji, Bonin, and Western Brazil observed at ASAR, WRA, and ZRNK arrays, at 59 North America stations and at six South Pole stations displayed conspicuous P4KP and PcP (or ScP) phases. The amplitude ratio values of P4KP vs P(S)cP are sometimes almost one order of magnitude larger than the corresponding values of the synthetics. In both cases, arrival times and slowness values (corrected for ellipticity and station elevation) at the distances up to 23° beyond the A cutoff point predicted by ray theory match both the synthetics, suggesting the observations are the AB branch of PmKP ( m = 4, 5) around 1 Hz. In disagreement to ray theory, no reliable BC branch is observed neither on the recordings nor on the normal-mode synthetics. The high amplitude ratio values cannot be explained by realistic perturbations of the velocity or attenuation values of the global models in the proximity of the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB). We speculate that the focusing effects and/or strong scattering most likely associated to some anomalous velocity areas of the lowermost mantle are responsible for that. The results suggest limitations of the previous evaluations of the short-period attenuation in the outer core from PmKP amplitudes ( m ? 3), irrespective of the fact that they are obtained by using ray theory, normal-mode or full-wave synthetics. Attempts to use PmKP arrival times in order to refine velocity structure in the proximity of CMB should be also regarded with care if the propagation times have been computed with ray theory.

Ivan, Marian; Wang, Rongjiang

2013-04-01

173

Ab initio prediction on ferrotoroidic and electronic properties of olivine Li4MnFeCoNiP4O16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles calculations predict that olivine Li4MnFeCoNiP4O16 has a large toroidal moment and ferrimagnetic configuration with a magnetic moment of 1.99?B per formula unit. Density functional theory plus U (DFT + U) shows an indirect band gap of 0.65 eV in this hypothetical material. The band gap is not simply related to the electronic conductivity when it is used as cathode material in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Based on the orbital-resolved density of states for the transition-metal ions in the hypothetical material, Co, Ni and Mn are in the high-spin configuration while Fe is in the low-spin configuration, which leads to a large resulting toroidal moment deriving from the Co and Ni ions. The spin configuration of the transition-metal ions in the system breaks the space- and time-inversion symmetry and leads to the magnetoelectric property simultaneously. The ferrotoroidic domain, the fourth form of ferroic, is observed in this new material, as in the case of LiCoPO4 reported recently.

Feng, Hong-Jian; Liu, Fa-Min

2009-06-01

174

Feasibility study of the proton yield from the reaction D(3He,p)4 He as a possible tool for radiotherapy treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent achievements in proton and carbon ions therapy have shown the importance of the hadron therapy methods. Aiming at radiotherapy applications such as dermatological and intra-operative procedures, where a short range treatment is needed, we have studied the use of nuclear reactions induced by low energy ions from small accelerators. A very suitable reaction is D(3He,p)4He, using 3He+ ions with energies of about 800 keV. The resulting protons have energies above 17 MeV and could deliver significant radiation dose depending on the accelerator 3He+ beam current and the irradiation time. The deuterium containing target was prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium in Ar and Ar + D2 radiofrequency plasma on a substrate of Silicon. The Ti-Dx stoichiometry and deuterium content was determined by Ion Beam Analysis. The accelerated 3He+ beam was provided by the 2.5MV Van de Graaff accelerator at the National Laboratories of Legnaro, INFN, Italy. Proton yield as a function of the beam current at different forward scattering angles has been studied for the energies of the incoming 3He+ in the 700keV - 800keV energy interval. The irradiated volume and the radiation dose in biological tissues as a function of the proton energy and proton yield has been estimated. Possible applications in small animal treatment studies as well as potential clinical radiotherapy applications are discussed.

Uzunov, N. M.; Liguori, N.; Fontana, C. L.; Baneva, Y.; Atroshchenko, K.; Bello, M.; Moschini, G.; Rosato, A.; Rigato, V.; Doyle, B.; Rossi, P.

2012-12-01

175

Preparation of RSn(I)-Sn(I)R with two unsymmetrically coordinated Sn(I) atoms and subsequent gentle activation of P4.  

PubMed

This article reports the reduction of [{2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)NC(CH(3))}(2)C(6)H(3)SnCl] (1) with potassium graphite to afford a new distannyne [{2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)NC(CH(3))}(2)C(6)H(3)Sn](2) (2) with a Sn-Sn bond. The most striking phenomenon of 2 is the presence of two differently coordinated Sn atoms (one is three-coordinated, the other is four-coordinated). The Sn-Sn bond length in 2 is 2.8981(9) Å, which is very close to that of a Sn-Sn single bond (2.97-3.06 Å). To elucidate the nature of the Sn-Sn bond, DFT calculation is carried out that shows there is no multiple bond character in 2. Furthermore, the reaction of 2 with white P(4) affords the tetraphosphabicylobutane derivative 3. This is the first example of gentle activation of white phosphorus by a compound with low valent Sn atoms. Note that, unlike 2, in 3 both Sn atoms are four-coordinated. PMID:21958040

Khan, Shabana; Michel, Reent; Dieterich, Johannes M; Mata, Ricardo A; Roesky, Herbert W; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Lange, Adam; Stalke, Dietmar

2011-10-18

176

Evaluation of Heterologous Vaginal SHIV SF162p4 Infection Following Vaccination with a Polyvalent Clade B Virus-Like Particle Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Abstract The vast diversity of HIV-1 infections has greatly impeded the development of a successful HIV-1/AIDS vaccine. Previous vaccine work has demonstrated limited levels of protection against SHIV/SIV infection, but protection was observed only when the challenge virus was directly matched to the vaccine strain. As it is likely impossible to directly match the vaccine strain to all infecting strains in nature, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. In this study we investigated the ability of polyvalent and consensus vaccines to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with ConB or PolyB virus-like particle vaccines. All vaccines were highly immunogenic with high titers of antibody found in all vaccinated groups against SIV Gag. Antibody responses were also observed against a diverse panel of clade B envelopes. Following vaccination nonhuman primates (NHPs) were challenged via the vaginal route with SHIVSF162p4. The PolyB vaccine induced a 66.7% reduction in the rate of infection as well as causing a two log reduction in viral burden if infection was not blocked. ConB vaccination had no effect on either the infection rate or viral burden. These results indicate that a polyvalent clade-matched vaccine is better able to protect against a heterologous challenge as compared to a consensus vaccine.

McBurney, Sean P.; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N.

2012-01-01

177

Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus infection: CHIKV nsP4 suppresses eIF2? phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis (SINV) are arboviruses belonging to the alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family. They cause frequent epidemics of febrile illness and long-term arthralgic sequelae that affect millions of people each year. Both viruses replicate prodigiously in infected patients and in vitro in mammalian cells, suggesting some level of control over the host cellular translational machinery that senses and appropriately directs the cell's fate through the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR involves BIP (or GRP78), the master sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) together with the three downstream effector branches: inositol-requiring ser/thr protein kinase/endonuclease (IRE-1), PKR-like ER resident kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6). Through careful analysis of CHIKV and SINV infections in cell culture we found that the former selectively activates ATF-6 and IRE-1 branches of UPR and suppresses the PERK pathway. By separately expressing each of the CHIKV proteins as GFP-fusion proteins, we found that non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), which is a RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, suppresses the serine-51 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor, alpha subunit (eIF2?), which in turn regulates the PERK pathway. This study provides insight into a mechanism by which CHIKV replication responds to overcome the host UPR machinery. PMID:23356742

Rathore, Abhay P S; Ng, Mah-Lee; Vasudevan, Subhash G

2013-01-28

178

Cast iron (CI) based soft magnetic BMG Ci88.3Al2Ga1P4.35B4.35  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal stability, structure, and magnetic properties of bulk type Ci88.3Al2Ga1P4.35B4.35 alloy in ribbon form have been studied using differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Results reveal that crystallization peak temperature (Tx) and Curie temperature (Tc) of the as-cast alloy are respectively 513 and 370 °C. Crystallization of the specimen starts after annealing at 460 °C and ?-Fe is precipitated out. Annealing at temperatures higher than 515 °C, produces apart from ?-Fe, hard magnetic precipitants (Fe2B, Fe3B), which deteriorate the soft magnetic properties. Lowest coercive field - 9.8 A/m, highest saturation of induction - 1.55 Tesla and best losses - 0.42 W/kg (at 50 Hz and 0.4 kA/m) were obtained for as-cast specimen. Observed good soft magnetic properties of these low cost cast-iron based alloys suggest perspective applications of these soft magnetic alloys as an alternative to the conventional Fe-Si electrical steel and Mn-Zn ferrites.

Kane, S. N.; Lee, H. J.; Jeong, Y. H.; Varga, L. K.

2009-01-01

179

Association of the genus Acinetobacter with the decomposition of a swine carcass and the isolation and characterization of a novel strain of Acinetobacter sp. P4.  

PubMed

Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and a selective and differential medium, Acinetobacter numbers were enumerated over the time course of decomposition, from fresh to putrid/dry, of a swine carcass. In addition, Acinetobacter diversity and succession were also characterized. Acinetobacter bacterial counts were observed to be the lowest before exposure (undetectable) and increased to their highest during active decay then decreased and leveled during advanced decay through putrid/dry. FISH analysis revealed Acinetobacter cells were mostly clustered together, which is consistent with growth in a non-mixed environment, such as soil. The abundance of Acinetobacter cells decreased from active decomposition to putrid/dry. BLAST analysis using the 16S rRNA-gene sequence identified the isolates as one of the following Acinetobacter spp: A. baumannii, A. haemolyticus, A. junii, A. johnsonii, and A. gerneri. Phenotypic description of the identified isolates closely matched those of known genomic species. One isolate, P4, was observed to be unique in its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics and was more closely related to A. sp E10. The isolates from this study displayed multi-antibiotic resistance. The results from the study revealed the association of Acinetobacter spp. with that of carrion which adds to our knowledge of the ecology of this genus along with the potential implications of infection for this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:21987059

Howard, Gary T; Norton, William N; Stroot, Peter G; Bailey, Kathryn L; Watson, Erin J

2011-10-11

180

CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.  

SciTech Connect

The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

Sung, Yixing (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA); Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R. (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA)

2011-12-01

181

Relativistic effects on the hyperfine structures of 2p4(3P)3p2Do,4Do, and 4Po in 19F i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hyperfine interaction constants of the 2p4(3P)3p 2D3/2,5/2o, 4D1/2-7/2o, and 4P1/2-5/2o levels in neutral fluorine are investigated theoretically. Large-scale calculations are carried out using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) and Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) methods. In the framework of the MCHF approach, the relativistic effects are taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation using nonrelativistic orbitals. In the fully relativistic approach, the orbitals are optimized using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian with correlation models inspired by the nonrelativistic calculations. Higher-order excitations are captured through multireference configuration interaction calculations including the Breit interaction. In a third (intermediate) approach, the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized in a relativistic configuration space built with nonrelativistic MCHF radial functions converted into Dirac spinors using the Pauli approximation. The magnetic dipole hyperfine-structure constants calculated with the three relativistic models are consistent and reveal unexpectedly large effects of relativity for 2D5/2o, 4P3/2o, and 4P5/2o. The agreement with the few available experimental values is satisfactory. The strong J dependence of relativistic corrections on the hyperfine constants is investigated through the detailed analysis of the orbital, spin-dipole, and contact relative contributions calculated with the nonrelativistic magnetic dipole operator.

Carette, Thomas; Nemouchi, Messaoud; Li, Jiguang; Godefroid, Michel

2013-10-01

182

W-1 SLSF Post-Test Data Analysis. Part 1. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four types of tests were performed: (1) a decay heat transient test, (2) Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) tests, (3) Boiling Window Tests (BWT), and (4) a fuel pin dryout and failure test. In addition, preliminary tests were run to check systems performanc...

D. D. Knight

1980-01-01

183

Molecular gallium arsenide phosphide clusters prepared from AsP(3), P(4), and [{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)].  

PubMed

Treatment of AsP(3) with 0.75?equivalents of [{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)] resulted in selective insertion of three equivalents of {GaC(SiMe(3))(3)} into the three As--P bonds to give [As{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(3)P(3)] (1-As) with an intact cyclo-P(3) ring. This yellow compound has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, combustion analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, UV/Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (THF, 0.2?M [TBA][B(C(6)F(5))(4)]; TBA=tetrabutyl ammonium). Computational models of 1-As and the isomeric [P{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(3)AsP(2)] (1-P) have been investigated as well, revealing several interesting electronic features of these cage molecules. Following from the cyclic voltammetry studies of 1-As that highlight an irreversible two-electron reduction at -2.2?V versus Fc/Fc(+), treatment with one equivalent of [Mg(C(14)H(10))(thf)(3)] resulted in two-electron reduction to provide [As{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(3)P(3)Mg(thf)(3)] (2), in which the Mg(2+) ion has inserted into one of the P--P bonds of the cyclo-P(3) ring. It was also found that treatment of AsP(3) or P(4) with one equivalent of [{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)] resulted in formation of the quadruple insertion products [As{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)P(3)] (3) and [P{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)P(3)] (4), respectively. PMID:20859969

Cossairt, Brandi M; Cummins, Christopher C

2010-11-01

184

The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus contains both diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (asymmetrical) pyrophosphohydrolase and phosphorylase activities.  

PubMed Central

Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorylase and Ap4A pyrophosphohydrolase activities have been purified from extracts of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Both activities were also detected in Scenedesmus brasiliensis, Scenedesmus quadricauda and in Chlorella vulgaris. This is the first time that both types of enzyme have been detected in the same species. The Ap4A phosphorylase has a molecular mass of 46-48 kDa, a broad pH optimum between 7.5 and 9.5, and requires a divalent ion for activity (Mg2+ > Co2+ > Ca2+ = Mn2+ = Cd2+ > Zn2+). It degrades substrates with at least four phosphate groups and always produces a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate product. The Km values for Ap4A and Pi are 5.3 microM and 160 microM, respectively, and kcat. = 1.8 s-1. Arsenate, vanadate, molybdate, chromate and tungstate can substitute for phosphate. The enzyme also catalyses Ap4A synthesis (Keq. = [Ap4A] [Pi]/[ATP][ADP] = 9 x 10(-4)) and ADP arsenolysis. The Ap4A hydrolase has a molecular mass of 26-28 kDa, an alkaline pH optimum of 8.8-9.8, and prefers Zn2+ as the stimulatory ion (Zn2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Co2+ > Cd2+). It degrades substrates with at least four phosphate groups, having a slight preference for Ap5A, and always produces a nucleoside 5'-triphosphate product. The Km value for Ap4A is 6.6 microM and kcat. = 1.3 s-1. It is inhibited competitively by adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (Ki = 0.67 microM) and non-competitively by fluoride (Ki = 150 microM). A 50-54 kDa dinucleoside 5',5'''-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) pyrophosphohydrolase was also detected in S. obliquus, S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris. The corresponding enzyme in S. brasiliensis (> 100 kDa) may be a dimer Images Figure 2

McLennan, A G; Mayers, E; Hankin, S; Thorne, N M; Prescott, M; Powls, R

1994-01-01

185

Accumulation and metabolism of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in muscarinic-receptor-stimulated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of M3 muscarinic receptors expressed by SH-SY5Y cells induced a dose- and time-related increase in the mass of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (basal 38.3 +/- 5.8 pmol/mg of protein) and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 (basal 6.1 +/- 1.2 pmol/mg of protein). Comparison of radioreceptor mass assays with [3H]inositol labelling showed higher-fold stimulations with the former protocol. The later accumulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 mass was dependent upon extracellular Ca2+.

Lambert, D G; Challiss, R A; Nahorski, S R

1991-01-01

186

Study on the Fast Neutron Production (P sub n Greater Than or Equal to 1 GeV/c) in pp and p sup 12 C Interactions at p sub p =4.2 GeV/c.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multiplicity, momentum and angular distributions for secondary fast neutrons (N/sub n//sup F/) in pp and p/sup 12/C interactions at P=4.2 GeV/c have been obtained by analyzing the secondary neutral stars generated by neutrons with p greater than or equal ...

R. N. Bekmirzaev V. G. Grishin O. V. Grishina

1987-01-01

187

Thermal analysis of a six-channel heat-generating blockage in an LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study of the temperature fields within and around a six-channel blockage designed as a molten-fuel-release initiator in SLSF-P4, an in-reactor experiment (37-mixed-oxide pin bundle) planned for February, 1981, irradiation. To meet the experiment objectives, a minimum of ten grams of molten UO/sub 2/ must be ejected into the sodium stream from one, two, or three such blockages. The temperature fields of the electrodeposited-nickel blockage filled with a mixture of UO/sub 2/ powder, stainless steel, and gas are found at intervals of full power. The SS content, type of gas, and porosity were parameters varied in this study which used the computer codes THYME-B, SABRE-1, and ANL's version of THTB. State-of-the-art treatments of the conductivity of the mixture and the gas-gap conductance are included. The contrived-blockage design has been found to maintain structural integrity until sufficient molten fuel exists to release, challenge the subassembly, and be detected by delayed-neutron and fission-product monitors. This will serve to resolve lingering questions on rapid pin-to-pin propagation, blockage propagation, and other local-fault issues.

Warinner, D.K.; Chao, D.H.Y.

1980-01-01

188

Influence of pH, temperature and the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 on the stability of the i-motif formed by the 5'-(C3TA2)4-3' sequence of the human telomere.  

PubMed

The influence of pH, temperature and the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 on the conformational equilibria of the cytosine-rich strand of the human telomeric sequence 5'-(C(3)TA(2))(4)-3', as well as those of the sequence 5'-(C(3)TT(2))(4)-3', was studied. The presence of adenine bases at the loops causes the formation of two different intramolecular i-motif structures with a pH-transition midpoint around 4.6, which stability is lower than the i-motif formed by the sequence 5'-(C(3)TT(2))(4)-3'. The stoichiometries of the complexes formed by these i-motif structures with TMPyP4 are also influenced by the presence of adenine at the loops. PMID:21777611

Fernández, Sergio; Eritja, Ramon; Aviñó, Anna; Jaumot, Joaquim; Gargallo, Raimundo

2011-07-12

189

Testing for Archaic Hominin Admixture on the X Chromosome: Model Likelihoods for the Modern Human RRM2P4 Region From Summaries of Genealogical Topology Under the Structured Coalescent  

PubMed Central

A 2.4-kb stretch within the RRM2P4 region of the X chromosome, previously sequenced in a sample of 41 globally distributed humans, displayed both an ancient time to the most recent common ancestor (e.g., a TMRCA of ?2 million years) and a basal clade composed entirely of Asian sequences. This pattern was interpreted to reflect a history of introgressive hybridization from archaic hominins (most likely Asian Homo erectus) into the anatomically modern human genome. Here, we address this hypothesis by resequencing the 2.4-kb RRM2P4 region in 131 African and 122 non-African individuals and by extending the length of sequence in a window of 16.5 kb encompassing the RRM2P4 pseudogene in a subset of 90 individuals. We find that both the ancient TMRCA and the skew in non-African representation in one of the basal clades are essentially limited to the central 2.4-kb region. We define a new summary statistic called the minimum clade proportion (pmc), which quantifies the proportion of individuals from a specified geographic region in each of the two basal clades of a binary gene tree, and then employ coalescent simulations to assess the likelihood of the observed central RRM2P4 genealogy under two alternative views of human evolutionary history: recent African replacement (RAR) and archaic admixture (AA). A molecular-clock-based TMRCA estimate of 2.33 million years is a statistical outlier under the RAR model; however, the large variance associated with this estimate makes it difficult to distinguish the predictions of the human origins models tested here. The pmc summary statistic, which has improved power with larger samples of chromosomes, yields values that are significantly unlikely under the RAR model and fit expectations better under a range of archaic admixture scenarios.

Cox, Murray P.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Pilkington, Maya Metni; Kingan, Sarah B.; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Strassmann, Beverly I.; Hammer, Michael F.

2008-01-01

190

Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

2004-10-01

191

Rb(3)Ti(3)(P(4)S(13))(PS(4))(3) and Cs(2)Ti(2)(P(2)S(8))(PS(4))(2): two polar titanium thiophosphates with complex one-dimensional tunnels.  

PubMed

The reactions of Ti with in situ formed polythiophosphate fluxes of A(2)S(3) (A = Rb, Cs), P(2)S(5), and S at 500 degrees C result in the formation of two new quaternary titanium thiophosphates with compositions Rb(3)Ti(3)(P(4)S(13))(PS(4))(3) (1) and Cs(2)Ti(2)(P(2)S(8))(PS(4))(2) (2). Rb(3)Ti(3)(P(4)S(13))(PS(4))(3) (1) crystallizes in the chiral hexagonal space group P6(3) (No. 173) with lattice parameters a = 18.2475(9) Angstrom, c = 6.8687(3) Angstrom, V = 1980.7(2) Angstrom(3), Z = 2. Cs(2)Ti(2)(P(2)S(8))(PS(4))(2) (2) crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric monoclinic space group Cc (No. 9) with a = 21.9709(14) Angstrom, b = 6.9093(3) Angstrom, c = 17.1489(10) Angstrom, beta = 98.79(1) degrees, V = 2572.7(2) Angstrom(3), Z = 4. In the structure of 1 TiS(6) octahedra, three [PS(4)] tetrahedra, and the hitherto unknown [P(4)S(13)](6-) anion are joined to form two different types of helical chains. These chains are connected yielding two different helical tunnels being directed along [001]. The tunnels are occupied by the Rb+ ions. The [P(4)S(13)](6-) anion is generated by three [PS(4)] tetrahedra sharing corners with one [PS(4)] group in the center of the starlike anion. The P atoms of the three [PS(4)] tetrahedra attached to the central [PS(4)] group define an equilateral triangle. The [P(4)S(13)](6-) anion may be regarded as a new member of the [P(n)S(3n+1)]((n+2)-) series. The structure of Cs(2)Ti(2)(P(2)S(8))(PS(4))(2) (2) consists of the one-dimensional polar tunnels containing the Cs(+) cations. The rare [P(2)S(8)](4-) anion which is composed of two [PS(4)] tetrahedra joined by a S(2)(2-) anion is a fundamental building unit in the structure of 2. One-dimensional undulated chains being directed along [100] are joined by [PS(4)] tetrahedra to form the three-dimensional network with polar tunnels running along [010]. The compounds are characterized with IR, Raman spectroscopy, and UV/vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. PMID:17583338

Wu, Yuandong; Bensch, Wolfgang

2007-06-21

192

Repeatable experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All experiments performed by scientists should be able to be repeated by any other scientist with the same outcome. This experiment with celery in four different water environments is a simple experiment you can perform at home. You will achieve the same results.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-08

193

Influence of pH, temperature and the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 on the stability of the i-motif formed by the 5?-(C 3TA 2) 4-3? sequence of the human telomere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of pH, temperature and the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 on the conformational equilibria of the cytosine-rich strand of the human telomeric sequence 5?-(C3TA2)4-3?, as well as those of the sequence 5?-(C3TT2)4-3?, was studied. The presence of adenine bases at the loops causes the formation of two different intramolecular i-motif structures with a pH-transition midpoint around 4.6, which stability is

Sergio Fernández; Ramon Eritja; Anna Aviñó; Joaquim Jaumot; Raimundo Gargallo

2011-01-01

194

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

195

Simulated Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment in which a programmable calculator is employed as a data generating system for simulated laboratory experiments. The example used as an illustration is a simulated conductimetric titration of an aqueous solution of HC1 with an aqueous solution of NaOH. (Author/EB)

Snadden, R. B.; Runquist, O.

1975-01-01

196

Shared experience.  

PubMed

An innovative parenting programme in Luton is supporting vulnerable families by helping mothers to interact positively with their children and recognise the past experiences that have influenced their parenting styles. Nurses who facilitate the programme's group sessions are required to share personal experiences with the other participants and reflect on their own parenting. PMID:22953402

Agnew, Thelma

197

Crystal structure, spectroscopic, magnetic and electronic structure studies of a novel Cu(II) amino acid complex [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]2(P4O12)·8H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of a novel copper (II) complex with the amino acid L-arginine (L-arg) and cyclotetraphosphate, [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]2(P4O12)·8H2O, were prepared in aqueous solution and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance, UV–vis and IR) and thermal analysis. Magnetic measurements and electronic structure calculations were also performed. Crystal structure determination reveals that this compound has a nonsymmetrical atomic arrangement, containing mainly a binuclear [Cu(L-arg)2(H2O)]24+ cation and an uncoordinated cyclotetraphosphate counter-anion (P4O124?). The tetravalent cation contains two independent Cu(II) ions in two different chemical environments. This compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic (AFM) to paramagnetic (PM) phase transition at a temperature (TN) lower than 2 K. The values of paramagnetic Curie–Weiss temperature (?cw) and the exchange parameter (J/KB) emphasize the existence of an antiferromagnetic interaction between the neighboring copper ions.

Hemissi, H.; Nasri, M.; Abid, S.; Al-Deyab, S. S.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.; Rzaigui, M.

2012-12-01

198

New mercury-contained cationic frameworks stabilized by (GaCl4)(-) unit via weak electrostatic forces in supramolecular compounds (Hg11P4)(GaCl4)4 and (Hg3AsS)(GaCl4).  

PubMed

Two new inorganic supramolecular compounds, (Hg11P4)(GaCl4)4 () and (Hg3AsS)(GaCl4) (), have been prepared by the solid-state reactions. Their structures are characterized by mercury-containing cationic hosts and discrete (GaCl4)(-) guests, which is a derivative of a very strong Lewis acid. The three-dimensional cationic framework of , (Hg11P4)(4+), is marvellously extended by Hg2(2+) and Hg3(2+) groups as well as Hg(2+) ions to form two large tunnels with different sizes each embedded with two columns of (GaCl4)(-) anions. Compound features a layered structure with (GaCl4)(-) tetrahedra being intercalated between two-dimensional (Hg3AsS)(+) layers and it is the first mercury pnictidechalcohalide. It is found that the weak electrostatic forces between hosts and guests play a key role in the stabilization of the whole structures of and , which is strikingly different from almost all the reported metal pnictidehalide and chalcohalide supramolecular compounds. Optical dielectric constants calculations show that both and possess strong dielectric anisotropy. PMID:24022795

Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Xiao-Guo; Fan, Yu-Hang; Liu, Bin-Wen; Zeng, Hui-Yi; Guo, Guo-Cong

2013-10-15

199

Targeting the G-quadruplex-forming region near the P1 promoter in the human BCL-2 gene with the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 and with the complementary C-rich strand.  

PubMed

The B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) gene contains a region that has been implicated in the regulation of bcl-2 gene expression. This region can form G-quadruplex structures in solution [J.X. Dai, T.S. Dexheimer, D. Chen, M. Carver, A. Ambrus, R.A. Jones, D.Z. Yang, An intramolecular G-quadruplex structure with mixed parallel/antiparallel G-strands formed in the human BCL-2 promoter region in solution, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 1096-1098.]. Here, we examined the acid-base and conformational equilibria of this G-quadruplex-forming region (BCL2G), as well as its interaction with both the porphyrin TMPyP4 and with the complementary C-rich strand. We used molecular absorption and circular dichroism techniques, in tandem with multivariate analysis tools. The results revealed the formation of an interaction complex BCL2G:TMPyP4 with a stoichiometry of 1:2 and an equilibrium constant equal to 5.0 (+/-2.3) x 10(13) M(-2). Addition of the complementary C-rich strand to BCL2G induces the predominant formation of the Watson-Crick double-helix with an equilibrium constant equal to 10(7.7) M(-1) (at pH 7.1). Finally, the pH-induced formation of quadruplex structures from the Watson-Crick double-helix is characterized. PMID:19401211

Del Toro, Miquel; Bucek, Pavel; Aviñó, Anna; Jaumot, Joaquim; González, Carlos; Eritja, Ramon; Gargallo, Raimundo

2009-05-03

200

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

201

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)|

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

202

Chlorine Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by the American Chemistry Council's Science Center. The first experiment is called Sunscreen and Light Energy, which shows how chlorine is an ingredient in sunscreen and how it helps protect people from the sun's damage. The other experiment, called Antifreeze and the Freezing Point of Water, teaches how chlorine is an important component in antifreeze. Using antifreeze, foam cups, glass vials, and other simple ingredients, students learn how the liquid helps keep cars and other engines running during winter.

2008-01-01

203

Control experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is a type of experiment in which a scientist uses a control variable approach. All conditions in the experiment will be the same except for one variable. When testing water tolerance of barley plants, for example, you could not water one plant, over-water one plant, under-water another plant, and water the last plant with the optimal amount of water and observe the results.

Peggy Greb (USDA;ARS)

2006-05-23

204

Not all G-quadruplexes are created equally: an investigation of the structural polymorphism of the c-Myc G-quadruplex-forming sequence and its interaction with the porphyrin TMPyP4.  

PubMed

G-quadruplexes, DNA tertiary structures highly localized to functionally important sites within the human genome, have emerged as important new drug targets. The putative G-quadruplex-forming sequence (Pu27) in the NHE-III(1) promoter region of the c-Myc gene is of particular interest as stabilization of this G-quadruplex with TMPyP4 has been shown to repress c-Myc transcription. In this study, we examine the Pu27 G-quadruplex-forming sequence and its interaction with TMPyP4. We report that the Pu27 sequence exists as a heterogeneous mixture of monomeric and higher-order G-quadruplex species in vitro and that this mixture can be partially resolved by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) separation. Within this ensemble of configurations, the equilibrium can be altered by modifying the buffer composition, annealing procedure, and dialysis protocol thereby affecting the distribution of G-quadruplex species formed. TMPyP4 was found to bind preferentially to higher-order G-quadruplex species suggesting the possibility of stabilization of the junctions of the c-Myc G-quadruplex multimers by porphyrin end-stacking. We also examined four modified c-Myc sequences that have been previously reported and found a narrower distribution of G-quadruplex configurations compared to the parent Pu27 sequence. We could not definitively conclude whether these G-quadruplex structures were selected from the original ensemble or if they are new G-quadruplex structures. Since these sequences differ considerably from the wild-type promoter sequence, it is unclear whether their structures have any actual biological relevance. Additional studies are needed to examine how the polymorphic nature of G-quadruplexes affects the interpretation of in vitro data for c-Myc and other G-quadruplexes. The findings reported here demonstrate that experimental conditions contribute significantly to G-quadruplex formation and should be carefully considered, controlled, and reported in detail. PMID:23108607

Le, Huy T; Miller, M Clarke; Buscaglia, Robert; Dean, William L; Holt, Patrick A; Chaires, Jonathan B; Trent, John O

2012-10-29

205

Wavelengths for 4s-4p, 5p; 4p-5d; 4p-5s; transition in potassium-like ions with additional charges +/- 1/3e, +/- 2/3e  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the K-like ions (Z=19+/-1/3, +/-2/3) wavelengths for 4s-4p, 5p; 4p-5d; 4p-5s; transition have been calculated by the Dirac-Fock method. The differences between the theoretical Dirac-Fock values and experimental values for known transitions for Z=19-22 exhibit Z-dependent regularities. By interpolation of these differences to Z=19+/-1/3, +/-2/3 the theoretical Dirac-Fock values are further corrected. These values agree very well with values obtained by interpolation of experimental values. A number of transitions are found in the region of visible light which could serve as signatures in an optical search for ``quark atoms'' i.e. atoms with fractionally charged nuclei.

Rashid, Khalid; Ahmad, Nisar

1992-10-01

206

Inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease with basic amine functionality at the P3-amino acid N-terminus: discovery and optimization of a new series of P2-P4 macrocycles.  

PubMed

In a follow-up to our recent disclosure of P2-P4 macrocyclic inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease (e.g., 1, Chart 1), we report a new but related compound series featuring a basic amine at the N-terminus of the P3-amino acid residue. Replacement of the electroneutral P3-amino acid capping group (which is a feature of almost all tripeptide-like inhibitors of NS3 reported to date) with a basic group is not only tolerated but can result in advantageous cell based potency. Optimization of this new class of P3-amine based inhibitors gave compounds such as 25 and 26 that combine excellent cell based activity with pharmacokinetic properties that are attractive for an antiviral targeting HCV. PMID:19624135

Harper, Steven; Ferrara, Marco; Crescenzi, Benedetta; Pompei, Marco; Palumbi, Maria Cecilia; DiMuzio, Jillian M; Donghi, Monica; Fiore, Fabrizio; Koch, Uwe; Liverton, Nigel J; Pesci, Silvia; Petrocchi, Alessia; Rowley, Michael; Summa, Vincenzo; Gardelli, Cristina

2009-08-13

207

SANE experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) is a measurement of parallel and near-perpendicular double spin asymmetries in an inclusive electron scattering. The main goal of the experiment was to measure A? and A80 and extract the spin asymmetries of the proton Ap1, Ap2 and spin structure functions gp1 and gp2. Using the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's polarized electron beam and the University of Virginia's polarized frozen ammonia (14NH3) target in Hall C, the experiment ran in 2009, collecting data in a Q2 region from 2.5 to 6.5 GeV2 and between Bjorken x of 0.3 to 0.8. Particle detection was accomplished using the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA), a novel non-magnetic detector. This talk will address the progress of the analysis designed to extract the proton spin asymmetries and structure functions. Preliminary results will be presented.

Baghdasaryan, H.; Sane Collaboration

2012-02-01

208

Brightness experiments.  

PubMed

This chapter presents an overview of quantitative fluorescence brightness experiments with special emphasis on single-color measurements of protein homo-interactions inside living cells. We discuss practical considerations in the choice of the fluorescent labels and the calibration measurements necessary for quantitative interpretation of brightness experiments. Methods to identify and avoid common pitfalls, such as bleaching and saturation, are addressed. We examine the interpretation of brightness data with moment analysis. In particular, we focus on how to avoid or correct for undersampling, as well as how to characterize and adjust for photon detector effects. We conclude by describing brightness titration experiments which determine the binding curve and stoichiometry of a protein from apparent brightness data. PMID:24108651

Macdonald, Patrick J; Johnson, Jolene; Chen, Yan; Mueller, Joachim D

2014-01-01

209

Determinacy experience.  

PubMed

In this article we concisely describe our theoretical framework, determinacy grammar (DG), including accounts of the determinacy data matrix (DM) and determinancy analysis (DA), together with the associated notions of determinacy accuracy (I) and determinacy completeness (C). The topic of the article is determinacy experience (DE), which we bifurcate into (1) the determinacy of experience [D(E)] and (2) the experience of determinacy [E(D)]. Crucially, the relations involved are held to be frequentative rather than either temporal or spatial. Moreover, there is a need for a priori knowledge in the DM, namely, knowledge of determinacy form (DF), in particular, form which is frequentative rather than temporal or spatial. Finally, questions of knowledge acquisition, attrition (whether in normalcy or pathology), and variation are discussed. We conclude with a conspectus of the contents and some suggestions for further research. PMID:7866456

Luelsdorff, P A

1994-01-01

210

Rutherford Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The simulation below shows an interaction between two "particles." The interaction force is a 1/r2 force; that is, the interaction force varies as 1/r2 where r is the distance between them. However, it only "exists" when the particles are less than 0.2 m apart. This collision is similar to the type of collisions that occurred between alpha particles and gold nuclei in the famous Rutherford experiment. This experiment showed that the very massive nuclei is very small compared to the size of the atom.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

211

Aesthetic experience.  

PubMed

An initial clinical question, 'Why does an analysand talk about his/her relationship with an aesthetic object?' opens an investigation into the nature of aesthetic experience. Three principal aspects of the psychoanalytic approach are presented: sublimation, a Freudian concept concerning the vicissitudes of the drives; reparation, a Kleinian concept linked to depressive anxiety; and transformation, a concept of object-relations theory about primitive ego-states. The article discusses the psychic function of aesthetic feelings in mastering anxiety as related to ego, id and superego. The transformation of the experience of passivity is a common link underlying these aspects. Such transformation relies on tolerating ambiguous and contrary feelings within the self, fostered by contact with an aesthetic object. This balance can, however, be upset: two excessive forms of aesthetic experience ensue, namely, fascination and bewitchment. The first belongs to the experience of awe; the second can lead to claustrophobic anxiety. The initial clinical question requires an elaboration of aesthetic transference, a variant of the narcissistic transference, whereby the analysand invites the analyst to share his/her internal state as a common unspoken object. PMID:18290795

Sirois, François J

2008-02-01

212

Brazilian Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation discusses the technology and experience of Petrobras in the development of deep-water exploitation off the coast of Brazil. The company recently found important oil deposits in waters over 300 m deep in Campos Basin, the main petroleum p...

A. C. S. Agostini

1998-01-01

213

Multiwell experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multiwell Experiment is a research-oriented field laboratory. Its overall objectives are to characterize lenticular, low-permeability gas reservoirs and to develop technology for their production. This field laboratory has been established at a site in the east-central Piceance basin, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types

A. R. Sattler; N. R. Warpinski; J. C. Lorenz; C. M. Hart; P. T. Branagan

1985-01-01

214

SANE experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) is a measurement of parallel and near-perpendicular double spin asymmetries in an inclusive electron scattering. The main goal of the experiment was to measure A{sub {parallel}} and A{sub 80} and extract the spin asymmetries of the proton A{sub 1}{sup p}, A{sub 2}{sup p} and spin structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 2}{sup p}. Using the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's polarized electron beam and the University of Virginia's polarized frozen ammonia ({sup 14}NH{sub 3}) target in Hall C, the experiment ran in 2009, collecting data in a Q{sup 2} region from 2.5 to 6.5 GeV{sup 2} and between Bjorken x of 0.3 to 0.8. Particle detection was accomplished using the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA), a novel non-magnetic detector. This talk will address the progress of the analysis designed to extract the proton spin asymmetries and structure functions. Preliminary results will be presented.

H. Baghdasaryan, SANE Collaboration

2012-04-01

215

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative sensor histidine kinase domain: the C--terminal domain of HksP4 from Aquifex aeolicus VF5  

PubMed Central

The histidine kinase domain of the cytoplasmic protein HksP4 from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus VF5, located in the C-terminal half of the protein, was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or adenosine 5?-­(?,?-imido)triphosphate (AMPPNP) by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The crystals obtained in the presence of ATP and AMPPNP diffracted X-rays to 3.1 and 2.9?Å resolution, respectively, on BL-5A at Photon Factory (Ibaraki, Japan) and were found to belong to the same space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.2, b = 105.5, c = 122.0?Å and a = 81.5, b = 105.5, c = 130.9?Å, respectively. Their Matthews coefficients (V M = 2.74 and 2.51?Å3?Da?1, respectively) indicated that both crystals contained four protein molecules per asymmetric unit.

Horita, Shoichiro; Yamanaka, Yosuke; Yamamura, Akihiro; Okada, Akitoshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

2011-01-01

216

Pharmacology of INS37217 [P(1)-(uridine 5')-P(4)- (2'-deoxycytidine 5')tetraphosphate, tetrasodium salt], a next-generation P2Y(2) receptor agonist for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

INS37217 [P(1)-(uridine 5')-P(4)-(2'-deoxycytidine 5')tetraphosphate, tetrasodium salt] is a deoxycytidine-uridine dinucleotide with agonist activity at the P2Y(2) receptor. In primate lung tissues, the P2Y(2) receptor mRNA was located by in situ hybridization predominantly in epithelial cells and not in smooth muscle or stromal tissue. The pharmacologic profile of INS37217 parallels that of UTP, leading to increased chloride and water secretion, increased cilia beat frequency, and increased mucin release. The combined effect of these actions was confirmed in an animal model of tracheal mucus velocity that showed that a single administration of INS37217 significantly enhanced mucus transport for at least 8 h after dosing. This extended duration of action is consistent with the ability of INS37217 to resist metabolism by airway cells and sputum enzymes. The enhanced metabolic stability and resultant increased duration of improved mucociliary clearance may confer significant advantages to INS37217 over other P2Y(2) agonists in the treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:12183642

Yerxa, B R; Sabater, J R; Davis, C W; Stutts, M J; Lang-Furr, M; Picher, M; Jones, A C; Cowlen, M; Dougherty, R; Boyer, J; Abraham, W M; Boucher, R C

2002-09-01

217

Enhancement of the 1s2s2p ^4P State Associated with Electron Transfer in 1-2 MeV/u C^4,5+ + He and Ne Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auger electron emission spectra produced in collisions of 0.5, 1.5, and 2 MeV/u C^4,5+ with He and Ne targets were investigated. The measurements were conducted at Western Michigan University using the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. Auger electrons emitted at zero degrees were detected using a high-resolution parallel-plate electron spectrometer located downstream from the target cell. Intensities of the autoionizing metastable (1s2s2p) ^4P state were found to be strongly enhanced relative to the similarly configured (1s2s2p) ^2P- and (1s2s2p) ^2P+ states in single and double electron transfer to C^4+(1s2s ^3S) and C^5+(1s^2), respectively, in agreement with earlier results for ˜1 MeV/u F^7,8+ ions^1. For single transfer the 1s2s2p intensities produced in the mixed-state beam C^4+(1s^2+1s2s ^3S) were compared with the intensities for the ground-state beam C^4+(1s^2) to extract the contribution due solely to the 1s2s ^3S metastable beam. The role of Pauli exchange^1 in leading to enhancement of the ^4P state is considered along with other mechanisms. ^1J.A. Tanis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133201 (2004).

Strohschein, D.; Garvin, D.; Baran, J.; Tanis, J. A.

2006-05-01

218

Disruption and overexpression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe aph1 gene and the effects on intracellular diadenosine 5',5'''-P1, P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A), ATP and ADP concentrations.  

PubMed

Diadenosine oligophosphates are ubiquitous compounds that were discovered over 30 years ago. Diadenosine 5',5"'-P(1), P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) is the most studied member of this family, and its function in yeast is unknown. To investigate possible functions, we changed the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration in Schizosaccharomyces pombe via disruption and overexpression of the aph1 gene, which encodes an Ap(4)A hydrolase (Aph1). S. pombe Aph1 is 52% identical with a human tumour suppressor protein, Fhit, in a core region of 109 amino acids. Disruption of aph1 resulted in an 85% decrease in Ap(4)A hydrolase activity and a 290-fold increase in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration. The disruption and subsequent increase in intracellular Ap(4)A concentration had no significant effect on the growth of S. pombe. Overexpression of the S. pombe aph1 gene, resulting in 17- and 84-fold increases in Ap(4)A hydrolase activity above wild-type levels, resulted in 60 and 80% decreases respectively in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration. This represents the first report of a decrease in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration in response to overexpression of a degradative enzyme in any eukaryotic organism. We describe a new S. pombe expression plasmid, pPOX, which was used to achieve the largest increase in expression of aph1. Overexpression of aph1 at the highest level resulted in a 46% increase in generation time in comparison with the control strain. Neither overexpression nor disruption had any effect on the intracellular ATP or ADP concentrations. This is the first report of ADP and ATP concentrations in S. pombe. These data also indicate that Aph1 functions in vivo to degrade Ap(4)A, and that high-level overexpression of this enzyme reduces the growth rate. PMID:10970777

Ingram, S W; Barnes, L D

2000-09-15

219

Disruption and overexpression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe aph1 gene and the effects on intracellular diadenosine 5',5'''-P1, P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A), ATP and ADP concentrations.  

PubMed Central

Diadenosine oligophosphates are ubiquitous compounds that were discovered over 30 years ago. Diadenosine 5',5"'-P(1), P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) is the most studied member of this family, and its function in yeast is unknown. To investigate possible functions, we changed the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration in Schizosaccharomyces pombe via disruption and overexpression of the aph1 gene, which encodes an Ap(4)A hydrolase (Aph1). S. pombe Aph1 is 52% identical with a human tumour suppressor protein, Fhit, in a core region of 109 amino acids. Disruption of aph1 resulted in an 85% decrease in Ap(4)A hydrolase activity and a 290-fold increase in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration. The disruption and subsequent increase in intracellular Ap(4)A concentration had no significant effect on the growth of S. pombe. Overexpression of the S. pombe aph1 gene, resulting in 17- and 84-fold increases in Ap(4)A hydrolase activity above wild-type levels, resulted in 60 and 80% decreases respectively in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration. This represents the first report of a decrease in the intracellular Ap(4)A concentration in response to overexpression of a degradative enzyme in any eukaryotic organism. We describe a new S. pombe expression plasmid, pPOX, which was used to achieve the largest increase in expression of aph1. Overexpression of aph1 at the highest level resulted in a 46% increase in generation time in comparison with the control strain. Neither overexpression nor disruption had any effect on the intracellular ATP or ADP concentrations. This is the first report of ADP and ATP concentrations in S. pombe. These data also indicate that Aph1 functions in vivo to degrade Ap(4)A, and that high-level overexpression of this enzyme reduces the growth rate.

Ingram, S W; Barnes, L D

2000-01-01

220

Modification of the 5' terminus of Sindbis virus genomic RNA allows nsP4 RNA polymerases with nonaromatic amino acids at the N terminus to function in RNA replication.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that Sindbis virus RNA polymerase requires an N-terminal aromatic amino acid or histidine for wild-type or pseudo-wild-type function; mutant viruses with a nonaromatic amino acid at the N terminus of the polymerase, but which are otherwise wild type, are unable to produce progeny viruses and will not form a plaque at any temperature tested. We now show that such mutant polymerases can function to produce progeny virus sufficient to form plaques at both 30 and 40 degrees C upon addition of AU, AUA, or AUU to the 5' terminus of the genomic RNA or upon substitution of A for U as the third nucleotide of the genome. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that (i) 3'-UA-5' is required at the 3' terminus of the minus-strand RNA for initiation of plus-strand genomic RNA synthesis; (ii) in the wild-type virus this sequence is present in a secondary structure that can be opened by the wild-type polymerase but not by the mutant polymerase; (iii) the addition of AU, AUA, or AUU to the 5' end of the genomic RNA provides unpaired 3'-UA-5' at the 3' end of the minus strand that can be utilized by the mutant polymerase, and similarly, the effect of the U3A mutation is to destabilize the secondary structure, freeing 3'-terminal UA; and (iv) the N terminus of nsP4 may directly interact with the 3' terminus of the minus-strand RNA for the initiation of the plus-strand genomic RNA synthesis. This hypothesis is discussed in light of our present results as well as of previous studies of alphavirus RNAs, including defective interfering RNAs. PMID:12551967

Shirako, Yukio; Strauss, Ellen G; Strauss, James H

2003-02-01

221

Cloning of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) asymmetrical hydrolase: sequence similarity with the histidine triad (HIT) protein family.  

PubMed Central

Diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) asymmetric hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.17) is a specific catabolic enzyme of Ap4A found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We have previously described the partial purification of Ap4A hydrolase from S. pombe [Robinson, de la Peña and Barnes (1993) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1161, 139-148]. We determined the sequence of the N-terminal 20 amino acids of Ap4A hydrolase and designed two degenerate PCR primers based on the sequence. The 60 bp DNA fragment obtained by PCR, which is specific to Ap4A hydrolase, was used to isolate the Ap4A hydrolase gene, aph1, from S. pombe by screening a genomic DNA library in a multicopy plasmid. Ap4A hydrolase activity from the crude supernatant of a positive S. pombe transformant was about 25-fold higher than the control. There was no detectable stimulation of enzymic activity by phosphate. The aph1 gene from S. pombe contains three introns. The intron boundaries were confirmed by sequencing the cDNA of the aph1 gene from a S. pombe cDNA library. The deduced open reading frame of the aph1 gene codes for 182 amino acids. Two regions of significant local similarity were identified between the Ap4A hydrolase and the histidine triad (HIT) protein family [Séraphin (1992) DNA Sequence 3, 177-179]. HIT proteins are present in prokaryotes, yeast, plants and mammals. Their functions are unknown, except that the bovine protein inhibits protein kinase C in vitro. All four histidine residues which are conserved among the HIT proteins, including the HxHxH putative Zn(2+)-binding motif, are conserved in the Ap4A hydrolase. In addition, there are two regions of similarity between the Ap4A phosphorylases I and II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Ap4A hydrolase from S. pombe. These regions overlap with the HIT protein similarity regions. The aph1 gene from S. pombe is the first asymmetrical Ap4A hydrolase gene to be cloned and sequenced. Images Figure 3

Huang, Y; Garrison, P N; Barnes, L D

1995-01-01

222

Near-death experience as mystical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-death experience exhibits many attributes of mystical awareness. Assessing the mystical quality of psychedelic experience, Walter Pahnke identified a nine-category typology of mystical experience. It is used here to illustrate the mystical nature of near-death experience. The typology also describes the self-transformation which follows the mystical state of consciousness. Self-transformation results from near-death experience. Pahnke's mystical typology characterizes the near-death

John Pennachio

1986-01-01

223

An Invitation to Experiment with an Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project-type experiment in which students each try to find the color indicator present in a particular flower. The philosophy of conducting such an experiment and procedures used are included. (JN)

Phanstiel, Otto

1985-01-01

224

Homonuclear correlation experiments for quadrupolar nuclei, spinning away from the magic angle.  

PubMed

We present a set of homonuclear correlation experiments for half-integer quadrupolar spins in solids. In all these exchange-type experiments, the dipolar interaction is retained during the mixing time by spinning the sample at angles other than the "regular magic angle" (54.7 degrees celsius). The second-order quadrupolar interaction is averaged by different strategies for the different experiments. The multiple-quantum off magic angle spinning (MQOMAS) exchange experiment is essentially a regular MQMAS experiment where the quadrupolar interaction is averaged by combining magic angle spinning with a multiple- to single-quantum correlation scheme. The sample is spun at the magic angle at all times except during the mixing time which is added to establish homonuclear correlation. In the multiple-quantum P4 magic angle spinning (MQP4MAS) exchange experiment, the sample is spun at one of the angles at which the fourth-order Legendre polynomial vanishes (P4 magic angle), the remaining second-order quadrupolar interaction now governed by a second-rank tensor is refocussed by the multiple to single-quantum correlation scheme. In the dynamic angle spinning (DAS) exchange experiment, the second-order quadrupolar interaction is averaged by correlating the evolution from two complementary angles. These experiments are demonstrated and compared, in view of their specific advantages and disadvantages, for 23Na in the model compound Na2SO3. PMID:15388182

Ajithkumar, T G; van Eck, E R H; Kentgens, A P M

225

Theory of Spin-Orbit Coupling in Atoms. II. Comparison of Theory with Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of calculations of the spin-orbit coupling constant for 2p, 3p, 4p, and 3d shell ions and atoms are presented. The calculations are based on a theory developed in a previous paper. Excellent agreement of this theory with experiment is obtained for the 2p and 3d shell ions, while calculations using the familiar expression for the coupling constant lie 10

M. Blume; R. E. Watson

1963-01-01

226

Synthesis, crystal structures and ionic conductivities of Bi 14P 4O 31 and Bi 50V 4O 85. Two members of the series Bi 18?4 mM 4 m O 27+4 m ( M=P, V) related to the fluorite-type structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two hitherto unknown compounds Bi14P4O31 and Bi50V4O85 were prepared by the direct solid-state reaction of Bi2O3 and (NH4)H2PO4 or V2O5, respectively. Bi14P4O31 crystallizes in a C-centred monoclinic symmetry (C2\\/c space group) with the unit-cell parameters: a=19.2745(2)Å, b=11.3698(1)Å, c=52.4082(2)Å and ?=93.63(1)° (Z=16). The symmetry of Bi50V4O85 is also monoclinic (I2\\/m space group) with lattice parameters of a=11.8123(3)Å, b=11.7425(2)Å, c=16.5396(2)Å and

F. Mauvy; J. C. Launay; J. Darriet

2005-01-01

227

Excitation-energy dependence of the resonant Auger transitions to the 4p4(D1)np (n=5,6) states across the 3d3/2-15p and 3d5/2-16p resonances in Kr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy dependencies of the intensities and angular distribution parameters ? of the resonant Auger final states 4p4(D1)np (n=5,6) of Kr were determined experimentally in the excitation-energy region of the overlapping 3d3/2-15p and 3d5/2-16p resonances. The experimental results were compared with the outcome of multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Combining experimental and calculated results allowed us to study interference effects between the direct and several resonant channels that populate the 4p4(D1)np states. The inclusion of the direct channel was crucial in order to reproduce the observed energy behavior of the angular distribution parameters. It was also important to take into account experimentally observed shake transitions.

Sankari, A.; Alitalo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Nikkinen, J.; Kivimäki, A.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.

2007-08-01

228

Experiments in Electrochemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Fun Science Gallery, Experiments in Electrochemistry offers both teachers and students documentation for seven simple experiments to investigate conductors, batteries, potentials, and galvanic deposition. Each experiment is accompanied by a list of materials, explanatory text, and at least one figure that facilitates a scientific understanding of the experiment.

Carboni, Giorgio.

1998-01-01

229

The Social Experiment Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social experiments, individuals, households, or organizations are randomly assigned to two or more policy interventions. Elsewhere, we have summarized 143 experiments completed by autumn 1996. Here, we use the information we have gathered on these experiments and findings from informal telephone interviews to investigate the social experiment market--the buyers and sellers in the market that governs the production of

David Greenberg; Mark Shroder; Matthew Onstott

1999-01-01

230

The User Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

Schmidt, Aaron

2010-01-01

231

The User Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

Schmidt, Aaron

2010-01-01

232

Modelling Owner Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the findings of research that seeks to construct and test an owner experience index. By doing so, the relationships among stage of firm, years of management experience (stock) and breadth (diversity) of experience are also examined. The latent structure of experience is best described by a six-factor solution, the dimensions of which include: small firm, operational,

Barbara Orser; Marzena Cedzynski; Roland Thomas

233

Co-experience: user experience as interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

User experience is becoming a key term in the world of interactive product design. The term itself lacks proper theoretical definition and is used in many different, even contradictory, ways. This paper reviews various existing approaches to understanding user experience and describes three main approaches and their differences. A missing perspective is noted in all three: their focus is on

KATJA BATTARBEE; ILPO KOSKINEN

2005-01-01

234

A Pharmacogenetics Service Experience for Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows  

PubMed Central

Objective. To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. Design. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Assessment. Students’, residents’, and fellows’ achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. Conclusion. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics.

Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R.; Wong, Shan S.; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A.

2013-01-01

235

Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The various activities and findings of a NASA/FAA/COMSAT/INMARSAT collaborative aeronautical mobile satellite experiment are detailed. The primary objective of the experiment was to demonstrate and evaluate an advanced digital mobile satellite terminal de...

T. C. Jedrey K. I. Dessouky N. E. Lay

1990-01-01

236

First Impressions Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the first impressions experiment. This study allows participants to experience the formation of initial impressions and the roles minority/majority status and positive/negative attributes play in that formation process.

237

Mental Rotation Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Mental Rotation Experiment. This experiment presents 16 different pairs of three dimensional objects. Users judge whether the objects are the same or different. Responses are timed.

238

Adaptive structures flight experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight

Maurice Martin

1992-01-01

239

Viscosity Of Liquids - Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom experiment to illustrate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring how quickly pebbles sink through them. The site describes all of the required material for the experiment and also gives a detailed chart for recording the results of the experiment. Altogether, the site is a great activity for the classroom.

2008-10-07

240

LACE Flight Dynamics Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) is scheduled for launch in late 1989 into a 556 km altitude circular orbit of 43 deg inclination. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is an experiment secondary to the primary LACE mission. The purp...

S. Fisher

1989-01-01

241

Theme: Supervised Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes "It's Time to Stop Quibbling over the Acronym" (Cox); "Information Rich--Experience Poor" (Elliot et al.); "Supervised Agricultural Experience Selection Process" (Yokum, Boggs); "Point System" (Fraze, Vaughn); "Urban Diversity Rural Style" (Morgan, Henry); "Nonoccupational Supervised Experience" (Croom); "Reflecting Industry" (Miller);…

Cox, David E.; And Others

1991-01-01

242

Experience and Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREENOUGH, WILLIAM T.; BLACK, JAMES E.; and WALLACE, GHRISTOPHER S. Experience and Brain Development. GHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1987, 58, 539-559. This article considers how experience can influence the developing and mature brain and proposes a new categorization scheme based upon the type of information stored and the brain mechanisms that appear to be involved in storing it. In this scheme, experience-expectant

William T. Greenough; James E. Black; Christopher S. Wallace

1987-01-01

243

Virtual Clone Fish Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual clone fish experimental system is designed and set up. The system simulates the clone fish experiment process using the technique of virtual reality based on behavior model. Through the experiment, users can further observe the results and make conclusion more conveniently and quickly. The virtual clone fish experiment can reduce unnecessary waste caused in a reality clone fish

Qian Xu; Wen-Yong Wang; Shao-Chun Zhong; Xiao-lin Quan; Qingrong Zhang; Ying Liang

2006-01-01

244

Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus, a novel Avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, reveals its relationship to other poxviruses. The genes corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L were sequenced and phylogenetic trees (Neighbour-Joining and UPGMA) constructed from MUSCLE nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the equivalent sequences from several different poxviruses. Based on this analysis, PEPV was confirmed to belong to the genus Avipoxvirus, specifically, clade A, subclade A2 and to be most closely related to Turkeypox virus (TKPV), Ostrichpox virus (OSPV)and Pigeonpox virus (PGPV).

Carulei, Olivia; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

2009-01-01

245

Einstein-Maxwell dynamics as a P(4) affine theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Newtonian mechanics the energy of a particle is defined only up to an arbitrary additive constant. By using affine functions to model the Newtonian energy we show that it is possible to reformulate arbitrary time- and velocity-independent forces as R¹ affine gauge potentials. Solutions of Newton's second law then define R¹ affine energy geodesics, and the R¹ flat gauge

L. Norris

1985-01-01

246

Einstein-Maxwell dynamics as a P(4) affine theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Newtonian mechanics the energy of a particle is defined only up to an arbitrary additive constant. By using affine functions to model the Newtonian energy we show that it is possible to reformulate arbitrary time- and velocity-independent forces as R1 affine gauge potentials. Solutions of Newton's second law then define R1 affine energy geodesics, and the R1 flat gauge

L. K. Norris

1985-01-01

247

Experiments on Submarine Knickpoints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a laboratory study on the upstream migration of submarine knickpoints are presented. The main goal of this research was to obtain the formation of these features at laboratory scale. In order to achieve the objective, eight experiments using different materials were conducted in a flume at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota. The sediment used in these experiments was: kaolin clay, silica flour and fine sand. Silica flour and fine sand were used as single sediment in four experiments. The other four experiments consisted of a combination of the previous materials. The total sediment concentration in the experiments was 5% (one experiment) and 10% (seven experiments) by volume. The discharge ranged from 0.011 to 0.055 l/s. The experiment started with an initial slope in the channel bed of 15%. The bed deposit inside the flume was built up as the experiment progressed. Knickpoints were observed in six of the eight experiments. They were formed when one material or a combination of them was used in the tests. Initial calculations on the upstream migration velocity indicate values in the vicinity of 0.5 mm/s.

Toniolo, H.; Cantelli, A.

2004-12-01

248

Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

2012-02-01

249

Further examples of the P-O-P connection in borophosphates: synthesis and characterization of Li2Cs2B2P4O15, LiK2BP2O8, and Li3M2BP4O14 (M = K, Rb).  

PubMed

A new series of anhydrous mixed alkali-metal borophosphates--Li(2)Cs(2)B(2)P(4)O(15) (1), LiK(2)BP(2)O(8) (2), Li(3)K(2)BP(4)O(14) (3), and Li(3)Rb(2)BP(4)O(14) (4)--have been successfully synthesized by using the conventional solid-state reaction method. Compound 1 contains a novel fundamental building unit (FBU), [B(4)P(8)O(30)], with B/P = 1:2. Compound 2 contains an FBU of [B(2)P(4)O(16)] with B/P = 1:2. Compounds 3 and 4 are isotypic, and they have a [B(P(2)O(7))(2)] unit as their FBU. In all four compounds, their FBUs are connected through corner sharing to generate layered anionic partial structures, and then further linked with metallic polyhedra to form three-dimensional (3D) frameworks. Most interestingly, three of the four compounds contain direct P-O-P connections in their structures, which is extremely rare among borophosphates. Thermal analyses, IR spectroscopy, and UV/Vis/near-IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy have also been performed on the four title compounds. PMID:22887000

Wang, Ying; Pan, Shilie; Shi, Yunjing

2012-08-07

250

Berkeley CMB Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the status of four CMB cosmology experiments which are currently being developed by the Berkeley group. These include the APEXSZ and South Pole Telescope searches for clusters of galaxies using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and the Polar Bear and EBEX CMB polarization anisotropy experiments. These experiments exploit new detector technologies with Superconducting TES bolometers and frequency domain output multiplexing, which has been developed at Berkeley.

Richards, P. L.

251

Experiments in Electroanalytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers educators a set of eight classical electroanalytical experiments suitable for use in a quantitative analysis, instrumental analysis, or electrochemistry course. The materials should be useful for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Experiments include coulometric, conductometric, and potentiometric titrations, stripping analysis, flow injection analysis, and polarography. It is important to note that several of the experiments use mercury or mercury coated electrodes which present safety concerns.

2011-05-30

252

Double Beta Decay Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, neutrinoless double beta decay is perhaps the only experiment that can tell us whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. Given the significance of the 0???, there is a widespread interest for these rare event studies employing a variety of novel techniques. This paper describes the current status of DBD experiments. The Indian effort for an underground NDBD experiment at the upcoming INO laboratory is also presented.

Nanal, Vandana

2011-11-01

253

Future Neutrino Experiments  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of future neutrino experiments addressing fundamental questions about the neutrino and about what the neutrino can tell us about the universe. A class of these experiments are long baseline neutrino oscillation v{sub e} appearance searches which can measure the final unknowns of the 3x3 neutrino mixing matrix and look for CP violation in the neutrino sector. The massive detectors needed for these experiments can also search for proton decay and measure extra-terrestrial neutrino sources. There are a number of efforts worldwide to launch these experiments. These efforts, with a focus on US plans, are described.

Fleming, B. T. [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 60510 (United States)

2009-12-17

254

Franklin: User Experiences  

SciTech Connect

The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

2008-05-07

255

Varieties of Musical Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

2006-01-01

256

Instrumental Analysis Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features laboratory experiments for undergraduate instrumental analysis. Topics include data acquisition, control of instrumentation (gas chromatography, polarography, voltammetry, atomic absorption, robots), infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Extensive use of LabView, Excel, and computers. Experiments are available for download in PDF format.

Walters, John P.

2011-04-20

257

Some Novel Fieldwork Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes results and experiences of four field-course experiments designed to explore the relationships between animals and their physical environment. Reports on the response of animals to flow rate of water, relationship between size and rate of locomotion, and mathematical and physical techniques used to study how animals live. (RT)|

Vincent, Julian F. V.; Kitchener, Andrew C.

1988-01-01

258

The Pinwheel Experiment Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical point hypothesis explains the origin of some cardiac arrhythmias, and the bidomain model describes electrical stimulation of the heart. In this paper, the critical point hypothesis is combined with the bidomain model. The result is four new predictions about the pinwheel experiment, a fundamental experiment in cardiac electrophysiology. These are: (1) The duration of the vulnerable period during

Bradley J. Roth

1998-01-01

259

A Column Dispersion Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)|

Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

1982-01-01

260

Undergraduate Infrared Spectroscopy Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights procedures and results of an experiment using atomic absorption spectroscope to illustrate a fundamental chemical concept. The experiment demonstrates the dependence of the solubility product of lead sulfate on ionic strength in the presence of a slight excess of anion. (Author/JN)|

MacCarthy, Patrick; Bowman, Susan J.

1982-01-01

261

Investigational Adverse Experience Reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion centers on the adverse experience reporting techniques and governmental requirements for investigational products (Phases I-III). The adverse experience reporting rate for investigational products has steadily increased over the past six years. To meet this increased reporting rate, the computer systems at Merck have become highly sophisticated. The specific governmental AE reporting requirements for investigational products of North America

Robert A. Michalak

1987-01-01

262

Shusterman on Somatic Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

Maattanen, Pentti

2010-01-01

263

Experiments with microwave sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent European experience with microwave sensors is reviewed. Results using facilities of the Netherlands, France, Germany, and Denmark are examined. European initiatives using non-European sensors, including the work of the SURGE group, the Marine Remote Sensing Experiment, and the SAR 580 campaign are considered.

Krul, L.; de Loor, G. P.

1992-05-01

264

Shusterman on Somatic Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

Maattanen, Pentti

2010-01-01

265

Stratospheric Balloon Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three stratospheric balloon-borne experiments were conducted at the Tenente Rodolfo Marsh and Comandante Ferraz Stations in the Antarctic region to study the x-ray and gamma ray atmospheric background. The first experiment was flown in January 1984 to mea...

U. B. Jayanthi J. Braga C. D. Pritsopoulo F. S. Blanco R. V. Correa

1986-01-01

266

Experience with MODSIM II  

SciTech Connect

We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project.

Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

1992-02-01

267

The Overseas Internship Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the Overseas Internship Experience, a program designed expressly for undergraduate business students who wish to have an overseas experience but are either unable or unwilling to participate in traditional study-abroad programs. The program, in operation since 1996, includes a 6-week supervised summer internship in Oxford, England; a variety of cultural heritage visits; supervised travel to neighboring countries;

Mark F. Toncar; Brian V. Cudmore

2000-01-01

268

Miller-Urey Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, from the University of California at San Diego, offers a simulation of the classic origin of life experiment as originally performed by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey in 1953. The user selects chemicals, activates a spark, and finds out what was produced in the resulting "soup." The site also offers two video explanations of the original experiments by Stanley Miller.

2008-06-06

269

DNA dynamics - Experiment proposals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that a breather wave, describing DNA dynamics, behaves like a real soliton. We rely on a Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois (PBD) model. In addition, we propose a couple of experiments to confirm or reject this statement. These experiments should study solitonic interactions using micromanipulation technique. Also, we suggest how to measure a solitonic width and its amplitude.

Zdravkovi?, Slobodan; Satari?, Miljko V.

2009-12-01

270

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

271

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

272

Near-death experiences.  

PubMed Central

Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct.

Blackmore, S J

1996-01-01

273

THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT  

SciTech Connect

The PHENIX experiment at RHIC is currently under construction with data collection planned to start in 1999. The heavy ion and spin physics goals of PHENIX are described. The authors discuss the experiment's capabilities to address these physics goals. Highlights of the present status of construction and installation are presented.

READ,K.F. FOR THE PHENIX COLLABORATIO.

1999-01-09

274

REACTOR LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exposition is presented comprising a basic set of experiments in ; reactor physics, engineering, and technology developed by the International ; Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering. Twenty-two experiments are ; included in a program which may be divided into groups associated with the ; Argonaut Reactor, the AGN-201 Reactor, and with other reactors or auxiliary ; equipment. (J.R.D.);

Sturm; W. J. ed

1961-01-01

275

Voyager imaging experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this experiment is exploratory reconnaissance of Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites, and Saturn's rings. Such reconnaissance, at resolutions and phase angles unobtainable from Earth, can be expected to provide much new data relevant to the atmospheric and\\/or surface properties of these bodies. The experiment also has the following specific objectives:

B. A. Smith; G. A. Briggs; G. E. Danielson; A. F. Cook; M. E. Davies; G. E. Hunt; H. Masursky; L. A. Soderblom; T. C. Owen; C. Sagan; V. E. Suomi

1977-01-01

276

The Jumping Ring Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

2009-01-01

277

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes briefly three experiments, which are presented by three physics teachers to share their ideas with other teachers and readers. These experiments are: (1) a simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment; (2) the speed of light; and (3) the ball-bearing electric motor. (HM)|

Physics Education, 1980

1980-01-01

278

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

279

Social Balance Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Social Balance Experiment. In this experiment, participants are asked to imagine that they are in a situation in which they have one of five feelings (love, like, neutral, dislike or hate) toward another person named Bill.

280

Influence of the Onsite Experience on Recreation Experience preference Judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the impact of actual experience on experience preference. Experience preference measurements were taken be- fore and after a hiking experience. A shift between pre-activity and post- activity experience preference judgments was hypothesized due to the effect of psychological adjustment to reduce dissonance between pre-activity ex- perience preference and the actual experience. Subjects were divided

William P. Stewart

2001-01-01

281

Rubidium uranyl phosphates and arsenates with polymeric tetrahedral anions: Syntheses and structures of Rb 4[(UO 2) 6(P 2O 7) 4(H 2O)], Rb 2[(UO 2) 3(P 2O 7)(P 4O 12)] and Rb[(UO 2) 2(As 3O 10)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three new framework Rb uranyl phosphates and arsenates with anionic parts based on different type of polymeric anions have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state reactions: Rb4[(UO2)6(P2O7)4(H2O)] (1), Rb2[(UO2)3(P2O7)(P4O12)] (2), Rb[(UO2)2(As3O10)] (3). The crystal structures of the synthesized compounds have been solved by direct methods: 1—monoclinic P21\\/c, a=9.672(1)Å, b=12.951(1)Å, c=32.231(3)Å, ?=90.116(4)°, V=4037.3(6)Å3, Z=4, R1=0.0926 for 6351 unique reflections with |F0|?4?F;

Evgeny V. Alekseev; Sergey V. Krivovichev; Wulf Depmeier

2009-01-01

282

Laser Frequency-Modulated Spectroscopy of a Laser-Guided Plasma in Sodium Vapor: Line Positions for NaH (A1Sigma+-X1Sigma+), Na (9-13d and 11-14s), and Ar (5p-4s)  

PubMed

Laser frequency-modulated (FM) spectroscopy has been used as an axial probe of a laser-guided electric discharge in sodium-argon vapor contained in an optically accessible metal heat pipe oven. Absorption measurements in the region 23 106-23 881 cm-1 provided accurate line positions (±<0.006 cm-1) for 141 transitions in the v' = 3-8 <-- v" = 0 and v' = 5-9 <-- v" = 1 bands of NaH (A1Sigma+-X1Sigma+). In addition, 18 transitions of Na (3p to 9-13d and 11-14s) and 10 of argon (5p-4s) were measured. Analysis of the spectrum indicates that perhaps all absorption signals are due to neutrals NaH, Na, and Ar and are observed via "population" modulation. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press PMID:9446760

Bahns; Tsai; Ji; Kim; Zhao; Stwalley; Bloch; Field

1997-12-01

283

Public Goods Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, students must decide how to divide their "endowment" of a good between private consumption and a public good. The private consumption provides a benefit (earnings) to only the individual and the public good provides a benefit to each person in the group, even those who do not contribute to the public good. This hand-run experiment is suitable for use in small classes in the range of 5 to 40 students. Some variations on this basic experiment are also described.

Swarthout, Todd

284

Isotope Correlation Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ESARDA working group on Isotopic Correlation Techniques (ICT) and Reprocessing Input Analysis performed an Isotope Correlation Experiment (ICE) to check the feasibility of the new technique. Ten input batches of the reprocessing of the KWO fuel at the...

L. Koch S. Schoof

1983-01-01

285

Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)|

Goh, S. H.

1975-01-01

286

Experimenting with Apostatic Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed is some of the experimental evidence for apostatic selection from work with artificial prey. Guidelines for further experiments are suggested including experimental design, analysis, variables, and selection in the wild. (Author/CW)

Allen, J. A.; Cooper, J. M.

1988-01-01

287

Oregon Seismic Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Geological Survey (USGS), with support from the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy, will be conducting an active seismic experiment in central Oregon using nine large explosions during the last week of August 1984. A major goal of this experiment is to detect kilometersize magma chambers in the upper crust below Newberry Volcano (Figure 1). The planned experiment is a small-scale version of one type of seismic-imaging experiment proposed by the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCL). Because of the required density of the recording array, the USGS recording effort will be concentrated in and around the summit caldera and leave ample opportunity for additional recording of the large shots, by interested parties, to study the rest of the volcano and surrounding geologic provinces.

Stauber, Douglas

1984-04-01

288

Stella experiment: hardware issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Staged Electron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment is currently being assembled and tested at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The existing BNL inverse free electron laser (IFEL) has been positioned upstream of the inverse Cerenkov acceler...

Kusche Campbell Gottschalk Kimura Quimby Robinson Steinhauer Babzien Ben-Zvi Gallardo Pogorelsky Skaritka Van Steenbergen Yakimenko Cline He Liu Fiorito

1998-01-01

289

Progress on Stella Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported on the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment, which has been assembled on the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The primary goal of STELLA is to demonstrate staging of the laser acceleration process by using the BN...

W. D. Kimura L. P. Campbell S. C. Gottschalk D. C. Quimby K. E. Robinson L. C. Steinhauer M. Babzien I. Ben-Zvi J. C. Gallardo K. P. Kusche I. V. Pogoprelsky

1999-01-01

290

Chaos - Chaotic Pendulum Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website containing LabVIEW programs, student writeup and auxiliary material for an experiment on a chaotic pendulum. The writeup includes instructions for the acquisition, display, analysis, and simulation of chaotic data sets.

Deserio, Robert

2008-08-04

291

International Sodar Intercomparison Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents preliminary results from the International Sodar Intercomparison Experiment (ISIE) conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in September 1988. Twenty-minute mean wind speeds and directions from a variety of sodar systems compare...

J. E. Gaynor C. B. Baker J. C. Kaimal

1990-01-01

292

Designing Microarray Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gene expression microarrays have become an important exploratory tool in many screening experiments that aim to discover the genes that change expression in two or more biological conditions and can be used to build molecular profiles for both diagnostic and prognostic use. The still very high costs of microarrays and the difficulty in generating the biological samples are critical issues of microarraybased screening experiments, and the experimental design plays a crucial role in how informative an experiment is going to be. In this chapter, we describe some of the major issues related to the design of either randomized control trials or observational studies and discuss the choice of powerful sample sizes, the selection of informative experimental conditions, and experimental strategies that can minimize confounding. We conclude with a discussion of some of the open problems in the design and analysis of microarray experiments that need further research.

Sebastiani, Paola; Milton, Jacqui; Wang, Ling

293

A Colorful Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment, mixing solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate to give a bright yellow lead iodide precipitate, often leads students into other topics such as making paint from the precipitate. (BB)|

Hunter, C. Bruce

1978-01-01

294

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how to demonstrate the following: the hysteresis effect and the existence of domains in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate); diffraction experiments using a slide with multiple slits; and an analogue technique for learning terminal velocity. (GA)|

Physics Education, 1979

1979-01-01

295

Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Doppler radar data acquired during the 1981 Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment are presented. Pulse-pair processed reflectivity factor and Doppler spectrum mean data collected during volume scan periods are displayed over constant height surfaces at aircr...

A. R. Bohne

1983-01-01

296

Nova target experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Nova laser, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides unique opportunities for target experiments. It has unprecedented energy on target and significant flexibility. The paper presented by John Hunt described the capabilities and the status of Nova. This paper discusses plans for future experiments using Nova, and the present status of target experiments. We plan to perform high-quality physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of Nova. Because this is our goal, we are fielding an extensive array of well-characterized target diagnostics to measure the emissions from the target. The first section of this paper discusses the basic target diagnostics. We are also taking care to quantify the performance of the laser.

Drake, R.P.

1985-11-01

297

K-meson experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief review of the status of K-meson interactions with nuclei. Emphasis is placed on 1s shell nuclei with representative examples drawn from experiments on heavier nuclear systems. Directions for future developments are discussed.

Hungerford, E.V.

1980-01-01

298

Virtual Chemistry Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry applets simulate various experiments, apparatus, and chemical processes. The display and operation of an applet can be controlled by the user through the PARAM options in the APPLET tag and through JavaScript commands.

Blauch, David N.

299

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes four physics experiments including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)|

Physics Education, 1988

1988-01-01

300

The Brain Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational component of the CMB polarization, the so-called B-modes, is one of the major topic for next generation CMB experiments. This signal traces the effect on the CMB due to primordial gravitational waves produced during the inflationary epoch, probing the physics of the very early universe at GUT energy scales. This is a challenge, being the expected amplitude of B-mode polarization ~ 0.1?K. In this paper we describe the BRAIN experiment, a bolometric interferometer which combines high sensitivity bolometric detectors with the excellent control of systematic effects proper of interferometers. Being a ground based experiment, we identified Dome Charlie in Antarctica as the best site for such measurements. In order to validate the goodness of the site, as well as some of the implemented technical solutions, we built a pathfinder experiment which has been successfully operated during last Antarctic summer, and we report about preliminary results obtained.

Polenta, G.; Calvo, M.; Conversi, L.; de Bernardis, P.; Giordano, C.; Iacoangeli, A.; Maiello, M.; Marini-Bettolo, C.; Masi, S.; Nati, F.; Nati, L.; Peterzen, S.; Piacentini, F.; Sordini, R.; Veneziani, M.; Bartlett, J.; Bréelle, E.; Dufour, C.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghribi, A.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Guglielmi, L.; Hamilton, J. C.; Kaplan, J.; Piat, M.; Gervasi, M.; Sironi, G.; Spinelli, S.; Tartari, A.; Zannoni, M.; Maffei, B.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Ade, P.; Orlando, A.; Savini, G.; Brossard, J.; Giard, M.; Landé, J.; Bergé, L.; Dumoulin, L.; Juillard, A.; Marnieros, S.; Pajot, F.; Rosset, C.

2008-09-01

301

Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

Goh, S. H.

1975-01-01

302

Planetary OGC Interoperability Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an ongoing effort to promote Internet protocols for sharing data and resources, several planetary facilities will conduct an Open Geospatial Consortium Interoperability Experiment to assess the benefits and limitations of current mapping standards.

Hare, T. M.; Plesea, L.; Akins, S. W.

2011-03-01

303

Experiments in Animal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)|

Polt, James M.

1971-01-01

304

Foraging Experiences with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)|

Russell, Helen Ross

1976-01-01

305

Experimenting with Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)|

Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

1977-01-01

306

John Tyndall's Radiation Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the recently published ``Life and Work of John Tyndall'' no alteration has been made in his explanation of his experiment on radiation through a solution of iodine in carbon disulphide, rendering platinized platinum foil white hot.

T. H. Muras

1946-01-01

307

Input: A Communication Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on Project Input at the Hoffman, Minnesota High School which gives students experience in using oral language with residents in a nursing home, retarded children and adults, and pupils in an elementary school. (RB)

Westbrock, Leon

1973-01-01

308

Experiments with Random Projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical work has identified random projection as a promising dimensionality reduc- tion technique for learning mixtures of Gaus- sians. Here we summarize these results and il- lustrate them by a wide variety of experiments on synthetic and real data.

Sanjoy Dasgupta

2000-01-01

309

Recent Experiments with INQUERY.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Past TREC experiments by the University of Massachusetts have focused primarily on ad hoc query creation. Substantial effort was directed towards automatically translating TREC topics into queries using a set of simple heuristics and query expansion. Less...

J. Allan J. P. Callan L. Ballesteros W. B. Croft Z. Lu

1995-01-01

310

Experiments with a sunbird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical description of the sunbird, a drinking bird without any external liquid, is compared with experiment. The transient times and the periods of oscillation given by a simulation of the dynamics agree with the measured values.

Güémez, J.; Valiente, R.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

2003-12-01

311

Optimal Experience Across Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we will contextualize the investigation of optimal experience across culture within the theoretical framework\\u000a of cultural studies. In the last few decades, psychological studies evolved from an ethnocentric western perspective to a\\u000a broader view that takes into account the role of culture in shaping human behavior and experience. This allowed for the development\\u000a of different approaches, such

Antonella Delle Fave; Fausto Massimini; Marta Bassi

312

Practical Experience in Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Often flagged as an origin of empiricism, experience has a range of meanings in the context of early modern natural philosophy\\u000a and medicine. It has been aligned with practical knowledge, knowledge of contingent effects, and the un-theorized perception\\u000a of phenomena accessible to the senses. In the realm of anatomical inquiry, experience joined reason to constitute (according\\u000a to Galen, Mondino, Berengario

Cynthia Klestinec

313

CANDOS EXPERIMENT OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Communications and Navigation Demonstration On Shuttle (CANDOS) experiment will be onboard STS-107 as part of the Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research (FREESTAR) HitchHiker Payload. The flight hardware consists of a first generation Low Power Transceiver (LPT) integrated with a commercial processor board functioning as the flight computer, along with an S-Band High Gain Transmit Antenna,

David J. Zillig

314

Spacelab J experiment descriptions  

SciTech Connect

Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Miller, T.Y.

1993-08-01

315

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology: Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE) is a collection of peer-reviewed, classroom/ field-tested teaching materials sponsored by the Ecological Society of America. Among these "scientifically sound and pedagogically innovative" teaching materials are a number of particularly well-designed ecology labs for field and classroom. As of February 2003, two of the seven labs on the Web site are complete and ready to download: Ecology of Habitat Contrasts and Environmental Correlates of Leaf Stomata Density. Both are designed for college level courses. Five other labs covering a range of ecology topics will eventually be available, and users may also take advantage of an earlier set of labs from 1993. The resources and materials provided for each lab are incredibly comprehensive. Suffice to say, this Web site is definitely one to bookmark and check frequently for updates.

1969-12-31

316

Understanding customer experience.  

PubMed

Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

2007-02-01

317

The BLAST experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow details of the reaction mechanism, such as the role of final state interactions, pion production, and resonances to be studied. The experiment used: a longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Storage Ring; a highly polarized, isotopically pure, internal gas target of hydrogen or deuterium provided by an atomic beam source; and a symmetric, general purpose detector based on a toroidal spectrometer with tracking, time-of-flight, Cherenkov, and neutron detectors. Details of the experiment and operation are presented.

Hasell, D.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J. R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Degrush, A.; Dow, K.; Dutta, D.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hersman, W.; Holtrop, M.; Ihloff, E.; Karpius, P.; Kelsey, J.; Kohl, M.; Kolster, H.; Krause, S.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Sindile, A.; Širca, S.; Smith, T.; Sobczynski, S.; Tanguay, M.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Laan, J.; Wang, F.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Ziskin, V.; Zwart, T.

2009-05-01

318

Electrophoresis experiments for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been hoped that space could alleviate the problems of large-scale, high-capacity electrophoresis. Support media and reduced chamber dimensions of capillary electrophoresis have established the physical boundaries for Earth-based systems. Ideally, electrophoresis conducted in a virtual weightless environment in an unrestricted ``free'' fluid should have great potential. The electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing experiments done in the reduced gravity over the past twenty-five years have demonstrated the absence of thermal convection and sedimentation as well as the presence of electrohydrodynamics that requires careful control. One commercial venture produced gram amounts of an electrophoretically purified protein during seven Space Shuttle flights but the market disappeared in the six years between experiment conception and performance on the Space Shuttle. Our accumulated experience in microgravity plus theoretical models predict improvements that should be possible with electrophoresis if past problems are considered and both invention of new technologies and innovation of procedures on the Space Station are encouraged. .

Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

2000-01-01

319

Results of space experiments.  

PubMed

Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program. PMID:7480627

Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schäfer, M

1995-08-01

320

Experiments in mixed reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

2010-02-01

321

G0 experiment status  

SciTech Connect

The G0 project is a parity violation experiment dedicated to the measurement of the proton weak and axial form factors by means of elastic electron scattering. Combining these weak form factors with the known electromagnetic ones makes possible the extraction of the contribution of strange quarks to the charge and magnetization distributions in the nucleon. After introducing the physics case, this paper describes the G0 apparatus and the measurements planned. An engineering run of this experiment took place recently ; first results are presented.

G. Batigne

2004-02-01

322

Laboratory Dynamo Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic physics of a dynamo have been addressed utilizing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and liquid metal experiments to determine the requirements for the excitation, sustainment, and saturation of magnetic fields generated from turbulent flows. The more challenging problem of addressing plasma physics effects will require experiments with unmagnetized plasmas. An experimental facility utilizing cusp field confinement to produce a hot, steadystate unmagnetized plasma would provide the necessary conditions for studying effects beyond MHD (such as two-fluid and kinetic effects) in a turbulent dynamo.

Nornberg, M. D.; Forest, C. B.; Brown, B. P.; Zweibel, E. G.; Wallace, J. B.; Clark, M.; Spence, E. J.; Taylor, N. Z.; Kaplan, E. J.; Rahbarnia, K.

2011-05-01

323

Crucial Experiments in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is based mainly on the talk given at the Symposium 124 "Observational Cosmology" in Beijing, August 25 - 30, 1986. A current problem of determining the fundamental constants of the Universe - H0, q0, ?, ?, hidden matter and primordial perturbation parameters - is considered. A new look at the ?T/T problem on large scales, which appeared after the Davies' experiment in 5 - 15° (1986), is discussed. The authors also formulate the theory requirements for the future large-scale experiment in ?T/T.

Lukash, V. N.; Novikov, I. D.

324

Gas Chromatography Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document describes a Gas Chromatography experiment involving the separation and quantitation of four butyl alcohol isomers. It has a complete background about the components of a GC instrument (with labeled pictures) and their functions. The exercise includes a section devoted to the measurement of response factors of the detector in use (here an FID). This would be a good experiment for a new faculty member to use as is, with slight modification to make it relevant to the particular GC system to be used.

2011-05-20

325

The VIP Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is a basic principle of Quantum Mechanics, and its validity has never been seriously challenged. However, given its importance, it is very important to check it as thoroughly as possible. Here we describe the VIP (Violation of PEP) experiment, an improved version of the Ramberg and Snow experiment (Ramberg and Snow, Phys. Lett. B238 (1990) 438) VIP shall be performed at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, and aims to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to ?2/2 ~ 10-30.

Bartalucci, S.; Bertolucci, S.; Bragadireanu, M.; Bucci, C.; Cargnelli, M.; Catitti, M.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; di Matteo, S.; Egger, J.-P.; Ferrari, N.; Fuhrmann, H.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Ponta, T.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

2006-01-01

326

Development Experience Clearinghouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Agency for International Development's Development Experience Clearinghouse has recently made its Development Experience System (DEXS) available via the web. DEXS "is a family of bibliographic databases that contains records for about 100,000 Agency technical and program documents" from 1942 to the present. The database is split into two parts, 1942-86, and 1987-present. Information can be searched on any of ten variables or browsed. Retrieval includes basic bibliographic information, and may also include media, pricing, and ordering information. Of the total number of records in this staggering database, over 96,000 are available in microfiche for on-demand reproduction.

1998-01-01

327

Science Experiments at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, offers many fun, easy chemistry experiments at this website. Through the utilization of a few household materials, users can learn about pressure, acids and bases, chemiluminescent chemical reactions, and more. The activities are filled with thought provoking questions along with concise explanations about the topic presented. The website provides links to activities dealing with topics in physics as well. Anyone interested in partaking in simple, yet exciting, science experiments with their family and friends at home should visit this website.

2007-12-12

328

Experiences with biosynthetic dressings.  

PubMed

Almost all documented clinical experience shows that occlusively dressed wounds heal more quickly and with less pain, tenderness, and swelling than undressed wounds. Clinical experience with occlusive skin dressings on acute and chronic wounds, on diseased skin, and on normal skin is reviewed. This report presents the effects of some of the newest oxygen-permeable and oxygen-nonpermeable occlusive dressings: three polyurethane adhesive films (Bioclusive, Op-Site, and Tegaderm), a polyethylene oxide hydrogel dressing (Vigilon), and a hydroactive polymer dressing (DuoDerm). PMID:3973143

Eaglstein, W H

1985-02-01

329

Experiments with. lambda. hypernuclei  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations of hypernuclear bound states in experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternate Gradient Synchrotron are described. Gamma rays from hypernuclei have been observed in coincidence with a (K/sup -/,..pi../sup -/) energy difference spectrum. The energy resolution and purity of the (K/sup -/,..pi../sup -/) spectrum demonstrates the hypernuclear origin of the gamma rays. The case of /sub ..lambda..//sup 7/Li is discussed in detail as it represents the first successful application of the technique. Experiments of this kind can benefit greatly from the increased kaon beam intensity that will be available at LAMPF II.

May, M.

1982-01-01

330

Experiments with. lambda. hypernuclei  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations of hypernuclear bound states in experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternate Gradient Synchrotron are described. Gamma rays from hypernuclei have been observed in coincidence with a (K/sup -/,..pi../sup -/) energy difference spectrum. The energy resolution and purity of the (K/sup -/,..pi../sup -/) spectrum demonstrate unambiguously the hypernuclear origin of the gamma rays. The case of ..lambda../sup 7/Li is discussed in detail as it represents the first successful application of the technique. Experiments in progress at Brookhaven on other hypernuclei and prospects for the future are discussed.

May, M.

1982-01-01

331

Differential partitioning of extended experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the effect of the perceived cohesiveness of experiences, whether composed of single or multiple parts, on their overall hedonic evaluations. Four experiments demonstrate the effects of partitioning on decision makers’ evaluation of extended experiences. First, patterns (i.e., improving vs. deteriorating trends) strongly influence how experiences are evaluated. Second, increased partitioning of an experience reduces the effect

Dan Ariely; Gal Zauberman

2003-01-01

332

Seven Characteristics of Mystical Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on classic studies by William James and F.C. Happold, as well as personal experience, this paper explores seven characteristics of mystical experiences: 1) ineffability (inability to capture the experience in ordinary language), 2) noetic quality (the notion that mystical experiences reveal an otherwise hidden or inaccessible knowledge), 3) transiency (the simple fact that mystical experiences last for a relatively

Douglas W. Shrader

333

AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

Depken, J.C.

1991-04-01

334

Antibody Responses Elicited in Macaques Immunized with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) SF162-Derived gp140 Envelope Immunogens: Comparison with Those Elicited during Homologous Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIVSF162P4 and Heterologous HIV-1 Infection†  

PubMed Central

The antibody responses elicited in rhesus macaques immunized with soluble human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Env gp140 proteins derived from the R5-tropic HIV-1 SF162 virus were analyzed and compared to the broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses elicited during chronic infection of a macaque with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) expressing the HIV-1 SF162 Env, SHIVSF162P4, and humans infected with heterologous HIV-1 isolates. Four gp140 immunogens were evaluated: SF162gp140, ?V2gp140 (lacking the crown of the V2 loop), ?V3gp140 (lacking the crown of the V3 loop), and ?V2?V3gp140 (lacking both the V2 and V3 loop crowns). SF162gp140 and ?V2gp140 have been previously evaluated by our group in a pilot study, but here, a more comprehensive analysis of their immunogenic properties was performed. All four gp140 immunogens elicited stronger anti-gp120 than anti-gp41 antibodies and potent homologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that primarily targeted the first hypervariable region (V1 loop) of gp120, although SF162gp140 also elicited anti-V3 NAbs. Heterologous NAbs were elicited by SF162gp140 and ?V2gp140 but were weak in potency and narrow in specificity. No heterologous NAbs were elicited by ?V3gp140 or ?V2?V3gp140. In contrast, the SHIVSF162P4-infected macaque and HIV-infected humans generated similar titers of anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 antibodies and NAbs of significant breadth against primary HIV-1 isolates, which did not target the V1 loop. The difference in V1 loop immunogenicity between soluble gp140 and virion-associated gp160 Env proteins derived from SF162 may be the basis for the observed difference in the breadth of neutralization in sera from the immunized and infected animals studied here.

Derby, Nina R.; Kraft, Zane; Kan, Elaine; Crooks, Emma T.; Barnett, Susan W.; Srivastava, Indresh K.; Binley, James M.; Stamatatos, Leonidas

2006-01-01

335

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces three physics experiments for high school and college classes. Topics include measuring the ratio of heat capacities using a microcomputer and a glass syringe, producing large electric sparks using a variation of a Leyden bucket, and observing transmission line behavior using television signals. Includes descriptions of materials and…

Bligh, P. H.; And Others

1988-01-01

336

An NMR Kinetics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines advantages of and provides background information, procedures, and typical student data for an experiment determining rate of hydration of p-methyoxyphenylacetylene (III), followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction rate can be adjusted to meet time framework of a particular laboratory by altering concentration of…

Kaufman, Don; And Others

1982-01-01

337

Exploratory backdraft experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a qualitative exploration of backdraft phenomena. Backdraft is defined as a rapid deflagration following the introduction of oxygen into a compartment filled with accumulated excess pyrolyzates. A scenario describing the physical and chemical fundamentals underlying backdraft phenomena is presented. A half-scale apparatus, designed to avoid dangerous overpressures, was used to obtain data from backdraft experiments. A gas

Charles M. Fleischmann; Patrick J. Pagni; R. Brady Williamson

1993-01-01

338

Enhancing grocery shopping experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report the results of our experiment aiming at shopper's decision aid at a physical grocery store by introducing a context-aware system embedded with shopping carts. While 'context-awareness' is understood in a lot of ways, we made much of shopper's cognitive process. We discovered that a grocery shopping process is basically consisted of three phases, so that

Hiroshi Tamura; Tamami Sugasaka; Kazuhiro Ueda

2008-01-01

339

A Simple Adsorption Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

2011-01-01

340

Beam and experiments: summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from

A. Blondel; A. Bueno; M. Campanelli; A. Cervera; D. B. Cline; J. Collot; M. de Jong; A. Donini; F. Dydak; R. Edgecock; M. B. Gavela; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia; P. Gruber; D. A. Harris; P. Hernández; Y. Kuno; P. J. Litchfield; K. McFarland; O. Mena; P. Migliozzi; V. Palladino; J. Panman; I. M. Papadopoulos; A. Para; P. Perez; S. Rigolin; A. Romanino; A. Rubbia; P. Strolin; S. Wojcicki

2000-01-01

341

NASSC: A Businessman's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From a businessman's viewpoint, the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) offers a singular opportunity to help this nation create a Saturn-like experience for education, school by school. As Saturn revolutionized the way cars are built, NASDC can revolutionize the way children are taught. The 11 winning projects have real…

Rundell, C. Reid

1992-01-01

342

Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

1983-01-01

343

The CUNY Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vice-Chancelor for Administration of the City University of New York (CUNY) gives an anecdotal account of the experience at CUNY, the first major university to negotiate and enter into a contractual relationship with its faculty. Emphasis is on the problems encountered, their ultimate resolution, and questions that remain unresolved. (JT)

Mintz, Bernard

1971-01-01

344

The Airplane Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

1991-01-01

345

TIMED Solar EUV experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) selected for the NASA Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission will measure the solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral irradiance from 0.1 to 200 nm. To cover this wide spectral range two different types of instruments are used: a grating spectrograph for spectra above 25 nm and a set of silicon soft x-ray

Thomas N. Woods; Scott Bailey; Frank Eparvier; George Lawrence; Judith Lean; Bill McClintock; Raymond Roble; Gary J. Rottman; Stanley C. Solomon; W. Kent Tobiska

2000-01-01

346

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the purposes, laboratory set-ups, and procedures of four classroom experiments: ultrasound speedometer; vibrating-bar depth gauge; folding three-dimensional model of equipotential surfaces; and a simple optical system for the reconstruction of images from computer-generated holograms. Diagrams and pictures are provided. (YP)

Physics Education, 1989

1989-01-01

347

Project Gasbuggy operational experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health physics aspects of Project Gasbuggy, the first experiment ; conducted in the Plowshare underground engineering program are discussed. The ; project involved emplacement and detonation of the nuclear explosives, followed ; by a drillback into the gas formation and subsequent flow testing of the gas well. ; The health physics program was based on the preshot hazards analysis.

K. R. Kase; N. A. Greenhouse; W. J. Silver; G. R. Norman; C. A. Willis

1972-01-01

348

Multiwell experiment: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This field laboratory has been established about 7 mi southwest of Rifle, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three

J. C. Lorenz; A. R. Sattler; N. R. Warpinski; B. J. Thorne; P. T. Branagan

1987-01-01

349

The Ninth Grade Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several districts have taken a radical approach to middle/high school transitions, removing ninth-graders from the mix to give them the attention needed to succeed in high school. Three ninth-grade-only schools with 720 to 750 students in Virginia, Texas, and Pennsylvania are profiled. Students experience less social pressure from upper-classmen.…

Rourke, James R.

2001-01-01

350

Chlorine solar neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect

The chlorine solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine is described and the results obtained with the chlorine detector over the last fourteen years are summarized and discussed. Background processes producing /sup 37/Ar and the question of the constancy of the production rate of /sup 37/Ar are given special emphasis.

Rowley, J.K.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.

1984-01-01

351

Experimenting with Guitar Strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a nonmathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

Lopresto, Michael C.

2006-11-01

352

The MAJORANA Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

Guiseppe, V.E. [Univ S Dakota; Keller, C. [Univ S Dakota; Mei, D-M [Univ S Dakota; Perevozchikov, O. [Univ S Dakota; Perumpilly, G. [Univ S Dakota; Thomas, K. [Univ S Dakota; Xiang, W. [Univ S Dakota; Zhang, C. [Univ S Dakota; Aalseth, C.E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Aguayo, E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Ely, J. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Fast, J.E. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Hossbach, T.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Keillor, M. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Kephart, J.D. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Kouzes, R. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Miley, H.S. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Mizouni, L. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Myers, A.W. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Reid, D. [Pacific NW Natl Lab Richland, WA; Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Bergevin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Chan, Y-D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Detwiler, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Loach, J.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Martin, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Poon, A.W.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Prior, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yaver, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Avignone, F.T. III [University of South Carolina; Creswick, R. [University of South Carolina; Farach, H. [University of South Carolina; Mizouni, L. [University of South Carolina; Avignone, Frank Titus [ORNL; Bertrand Jr, Fred E [ORNL; Capps, Gregory L [ORNL; Cooper, Reynold J [ORNL; Radford, David C [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Wilkerson, John F [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL; Back, H.O. [University of North Carolina; Leviner, L. [North Carolina State University; Young, A.R. [North Carolina State University; Back (et al.), H.O. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC; Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Hong, H. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Medlin, D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Sobolev, V. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Barabash, A.S. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Konovalov, S.I. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Vanyushin, I. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Yumatov, V. [Inst Theort & Expt Phys, Moscow, Russia; Barbeau, P.S. [University of Chicago; Collar, J.I. [University of Chicago; Fields, N. [University of Chicago; Boswell (et al.), M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Gusey, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Kochetov, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Timkin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Yakushev, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Efremenko, M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burritt (et al.), T.H. [University of Washington, Ctr Expt Nucle Phys & Astrophys; Burritt (et al.), T.H. [University of Washington, Dept Phys, Seattle, WA; Busch, M. [Duke University; Esterline, J. [Duke University; Swift, G. [Duke University; Tornow, W. [Duke University/TUNL; Ejiri, H. [Osaka University; Hazama, R. [Osaka University; Nomachi, M. [Osaka University; Shima, T. [Osaka University; Finnerty (et al.), P. [University of North Carolina; et al.

2011-01-01

353

Experiments in Ice Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)|

Martin, P. F.; And Others

1978-01-01

354

User Experience: Beyond Usability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface is a communication tool between man-made machines and humans. The interaction that takes place in this interface is a personalized experience for each individual. The interaction occurs in different ways depending on how users interpret or understand the interface. Immediately clicking an icon or menu without hesitation does not always mean that the user understands the interface. Also,

Sunghyun Ryoo KANG

355

Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microgravity experiments on the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVB, are being developed for the International Space Station. In particular, we present results of a precursory experimental and theoretical study of the vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble in the Earth's environment. A novel non-isothermal experimental setup was designed and built to study the transport processes in an ethanol\\/quartz vertical CVB system.

Shripad Gokhale; Joel Plawsky; Peter C. Wayner Jr.; Ling Zheng; Ying-Xi Wang

2002-01-01

356

Experiments in Free Fall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

Art, Albert

2006-01-01

357

Nanostructures in laser experiments  

SciTech Connect

The results of experiments devoted to the excitation of fluorescence and Raman scattering in matter near a nanotip are analysed. The possibilities of practical application of nanotip-enhanced radiative effects are discussed. A brief introduction to the principles underlying the operation of various microscopes with a scanning tip is presented. (invited paper)

Zuev, V S [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Frantsesson, A V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2001-02-28

358

Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) is designed to monitor from space absorption by trace gases in the Earth atmosphere. The instrument will take spectra of the backscattered solar radiation in the spectral range 240 to 790 nm, with a spatial resolu...

A. Mariani

1992-01-01

359

DATATRAN design and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

computational techniques for analysis of nuclear systems; Ann Arbor, ; Michigan, USA (8 Apr 1973). analysis of nuclear systems. data management system ; designed for a modular computer program network. DATATRAN statements are ; compatible with FORTRAN and supplement FORTRAN input\\/output features. Over six ; years of KAPL experience has demonstrated that input preparers, scientists and ; engineers, and programmers

H. J. Kopp; W. E. Schilling; D. S. Selengut; R. G. Stieglitz

1973-01-01

360

EXPERIMENTS IN SOUND LOCALIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without going into the controversy regarding the question of the binaural ratio, we attempted to indicate the influence of relative intensity in the localization of sound under conditions that should guard against certain psychological errors of which experimental research on the part of physicists is not always free. The four observers who took part in the experiment never realized that

C. A. Ruckmick

1921-01-01

361

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

362

DRAGON reactor operating experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS>From international nuclear industries fair; Basel, Switzerland (16 ; Oct 1972). Although the primary purpose of the Dragon Reactor is to irradiate ; experimental HTR fuels, these activities generate a great deal of useful ; experience in operational areas such as helium utilization, the design and ; maintenance of helium components and circuits, and the behavior of radioactive ; species.

1972-01-01

363

Stern-Gerlach Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The classic Stern-Gerlach Experiment shows that atoms have a property called spin. Spin is a kind of intrinsic angular momentum, which has no classical counterpart. When the z-component of the spin is measured, one always gets one of two values: spin up or spin down.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Mckagan, Sam; Wieman, Carl

2006-10-01

364

Hazardous chemicals detection experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment involving the production and measurement of chemical vapors released from two volatile liquid solvents and a toxic gas was conducted on December 9, 1992 at a remote site near Sacramento, California. During this experiment, measured quantities of liquid diethyl ether and acetone and hydrogen chloride gas were released under controlled conditions inside a mobile-home-type structure. Vapor concentrations of the two solvents and the gas were measured both inside and outside the structure with a variety of techniques. Measurement equipment included a Bruel & Kjaer Type 1302 multi-gas monitor, Miran Foxboro 1BX portable ambient air analyzer, and Microtip photoionization detectors. Supporting meteorology data was also collected. Chemical vapor and meteorological measurements have been correlated and present a limited understanding of plume dynamics for this particular release scenario and difficult weather conditions. These experiments were carried out under high- humidity conditions just after heavy rain. The data has been plotted to show the concentration dispersion over the period of chemical vapor presence for the known release quantities and exhaust rates. Typical concentrations measured were less than 1 ppm for diethyl ether and HCL and from 0.5 to 5 ppm for acetone at a distance of ten to twenty meters from the release point. The results of this experiment provide a quantitative description of low-concentration hazardous chemical releases that can be used to validate chemical plume models as well as determine the necessity, viability, and sensitivity of remote-sensing detection concepts.

Carlson, Rowena M.; Bunney, Laura; Williams, Donald N.

1994-03-01

365

Experiences with poker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience from over five years of building nonshared memory parallel programs using the Poker Parallel Programming Environment has positioned us to evaluate our approach to defining and developing parallel programs. This paper presents the more significant results of our evaluation of Poker. The evaluation is driving our next effort in parallel programming environment; many of the results should be sufficiently

David Notkin; Lawrence Snyder; David Socha; Mary L. Bailey; Bruce Forstall; Kevin Gates; Ray Greenlaw; Willian G. Griswold; Thomas J. Holman; Richard Korry; Gemini Lasswell; Robert Mitchell; Philip A. Nelson

1988-01-01

366

Experiences with Poker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience from over five years of building nonshared memory parallel programs using the Poker Parallel Programming Environment has positioned the authors to evaluate their approach to defining and developing parallel programs. This paper presents the more-significant results of the authors evaluation of Poker. This evaluation is driving the next effort in parallel programming environments; many of the results should be

David Notkin; Lawrence Snyder; David Socha; Mary L. Bailey; Bruce Forstall; Kevin Gates; Raymond Greenlaw; William G. Griswold; Thomas J. Holman; Richard Korry; Gemini Lasswell; Robert Mitchell; Philip A. Nelson

1988-01-01

367

Relay mirror experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originating out of a SDIO-funded, Phase 1 study effort, two ground systems and an orbiting EO payload\\/spacecraft were the primary equipment for the RME. The RME was originally conceived to be a shuttle deployed experiment. Shortly after program start, the Challenger disaster occurred, with the promise of extensive delays. A completely new space segment was to be designed incorporating a

David L. Begley

1996-01-01

368

Caretaker's Experiences of RPL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognition of prior learning (RPL) involves an idea of "making learning visible"--of valuing knowledge irrespective of how, when and where it is learnt. This is a phenomenographic analysis of how a group of caretakers from a Swedish property management company experience participation in an RPL initiative focusing on their vocational competence.…

Andersson, Per

2006-01-01

369

Experiences of Collaborative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration,…

Kahneman, Daniel

2003-01-01

370

Nirenberg performing experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nirenberg, along with several other scientists, deciphered the genetic code. They used radioactive amino acids to discover this in their experiments. Their work was helped by the confirmation of Watson and Crick that the genetic code is based on non-overlapping triplets of bases.

N. MacVicar (National Institutes of Health;)

2008-03-06

371

Long pulse diode experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A diode employing a thermionic cathode has produced 80 A beams at 200 kV for at least 6 (mu)s. Moreover, the diode operates at rates as high as 1 Hz. EGUN simulations of the experimental geometry agree with the experiments. Finally, simulation of a propos...

C. R. McClenahan G. J. Weber M. W. O'Malley J. Stewart L. F. Rinehart

1990-01-01

372

Learning: A Multifarious Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science education has often struggled to determine effective teaching methodologies and learning strategies. One promising field of research has been that of alternative frameworks. The research described in this paper describes how immersion in an unfamiliar environment and culture affected teacher learning, some of the significant experiences

Furuness, Linda B.; Cohen, Michael R.

373

Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

1994-01-01

374

Virtual Inquiry Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits…

Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

2011-01-01

375

SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment Shin-ichi Sobue, Yukio Yamamoto, Hayato Okumura, Tatsuaki Okada and Iku Shinohara SELENE (whose Japanese Nickname is 'KAGUYA' from Japanese old story) is the most sophisticated lunar exploration mission in the post-Apollo Era. SELENE consists of the main orbiter and two small satellites - the Relay satellite 'OKINA' and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA'. The main orbiter will

Shinichi Sobue; Iku Shinohara; Yukio Yamamoto; Tatsuaki Okada; Hayato Okumura

2008-01-01

376

[Near-death experiences].  

PubMed

Near-death experiences (NDE) are lucid events that take place when a person is so physically compromised that he would die if its condition does not improve. He is unconscious, without heartbeats and breath, and with a flat-line electroencephalogram. NDE may include some of the following elements: Out of the body experiences or separation of consciousness from the physical body, increase in sensory perception and intense emotions, travel into or through a tunnel, encounter with a brilliant light and mystical beings, deceased relatives or friends, a sense of alteration in time and space, visualization of unworldly realms and a special knowledge, encounter with a barrier or boundary, and a return to the body, either voluntary or involuntary. The fact that children NDE are similar to adult NDE is an evidence that these experiences are real and not due to pre-existing beliefs, cultural influences or previous experiences in the present life. The characteristics of NDE are similar worldwide. No evidence supports the physiological, psychological, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical hypothesis proposed to explain the NDE. Multifactorial models, based on the combination of all of them (brain anoxia or hypoxia, release of serotonin, endorphins and ketamine-like compounds) have also been proposed. Although physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors could interact in the NDE, the hypothesis proposed consist essentially in unsupported speculations about what might be happening during the NDE. PMID:21614815

Bonilla, Ernesto

2011-03-01

377

The Mentoring Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dialogue with Canadian family practice faculty and teachers indicates that the mentorship experience is one that cannot be assigned to a learner. Examines aspects of a mentorship that can be ascribed and explored in a family practice residency training program. (LZ)

Longhurst, Mark F.

1994-01-01

378

The Huck Finn Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes "The Huck Finn Experience," a high motivation interdisciplinary unit that takes students on a 6-week journey back to the life and times of Mark Twain through the fictional character of Huckleberry Finn. The unit described in the paper was designed for eighth-grade students but could be easily adapted to be successful with…

Levesque, Bonnie; And Others

379

Antimatter gravity experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequent...

R. E. Brown J. B. Camp T. W. Darling

1990-01-01

380

Exploring user experience in \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video game players often learn to map their physical actions (e.g., pressing buttons) onto their on-screen avatars' actions (e.g., wielding swords) in order to play. We explored the experience resulted from eliminating this mapping by modeling the screen as a \\

David F. Huynh; Yan Xu; Shuo Wang

2006-01-01

381

FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

2007-01-01

382

The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab…

Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

2008-01-01

383

Enhance Your Twitter Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author has been encouraging teachers, students, and others to join Twitter and build their personal learning networks (PLNs) ever since she delved into this great social networking site. In this article, she offers a few other tools and tips that can improve the Twitter experience of those who have opened up an account and dabbled a bit but…

Miller, Shannon McClintock

2010-01-01

384

Respiration: An Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a gas chromatograph may be used to determine the amount of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. The experiment has been used as part of a demonstration exercise at a local science fair and proved of interest to all age groups. (Author/BB)

Stott, P. A.

1978-01-01

385

A Substitute for Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Acknowledges that many basic writing students have few personal experiences that translate into telling examples and effective supports in their writing. Suggests that teachers encourage students to fabricate in their narratives, since such structured lying gives students sufficient objectivity to revise--a significant step toward good writing.…

Lang, Frederick K.

1986-01-01

386

The Doppler Pendulum Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

2011-01-01

387

DHS Research Experience Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

I learned a great deal during my summer internship at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). I plan to continue a career in research, and I feel that my experience at LLNL has been formative. I was exposed to a new area of research, as part of the Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) group, and I had the opportunity to

Venkatachalam

2008-01-01

388

The Majorana Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

C. E. Aalseth; E. Aguayo; M. Amman; F. T. Avignone; H. O. Back; X. Bai; A. S. Barabash; P. S. Barbeau; M. Bergevin; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; W. Bugg; T. H. Burritt; M. Busch; G. Capps; Y.-D. Chan; J. I. Collar; R. J. Cooper; R. Creswick; J. A. Detwiler; J. Diaz; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. Ely; J. Esterline; H. Farach; J. E. Fast; N. Fields; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkle; V. M. Gehman; G. K. Giovanetti; M. Green; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusey; A. L. Hallin; G. C. Harper; R. Hazama; R. Henning; A. Hime; H. Hong; E. W. Hoppe; T. W. Hossbach; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; R. A. Johnson; K. J. Keeter; M. Keillor; C. Keller; J. D. Kephart; M. F. Kidd; A. Knecht; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. H. LaRoque; L. Leviner; J. C. Loach; P. N. Luke; S. Macmullin; M. G. Marino; R. D. Martin; D. Medlin; D.-M. Mei; H. S. Miley; M. L. Miller; L. Mizouni; A. W. Myers; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; D. Peterson; D. G. Phillips; A. W. P. Poon; O. Perevozchikov; G. Perumpilly; G. Prior; D. C. Radford; D. Reid; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; L. Rodriguez; M. C. Ronquest; H. Salazar; A. G. Schubert; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; V. Sobolev; D. Steele; J. Strain; G. Swift; K. Thomas; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; T. D. Van Wechel; I. Vanyushin; R. L. Varner; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; J. F. Wilkerson; B. A. Wolfe; W. Xiang; E. Yakushev; H. Yaver; A. R. Young; C.-H. Yu; V. Yumatov; C. Zhang

2011-01-01

389

The Doppler Pendulum Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

2011-01-01

390

Notes on Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the following: use and construction of a lens-pinhole spatial filter assembly to produce expanded beams; how to modify a unilab V. L. F. oscillator to give variable frequencies between .1 Hz and 10 Hz; to use Crookes radiometer quantitatively; and an externally located, movable probe for plasma physics experiments, using conventional…

Physics Education, 1979

1979-01-01

391

Solar Energy Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment demonstrates that energy from the Sun can be collected and stored in a variety of ways. Using plastic bottles painted black and white and capped with balloons, students will see that the black bottle becomes warmer, heating the air inside it and blowing up the balloon.

392

DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

Cunningham, B

1998-10-01

393

Staying Warm Winter Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These experiments use simple materials to prove that a lot of one's body heat escapes from one's head and that wearing a hat stops some of this heat loss. In addition, students consider how sitting directly on cold ground will cause one to lose heat faster than sitting on insulating material.

394

Ganges valley aerosol experiment.  

SciTech Connect

In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

2011-08-01

395

MOLTEN PLUTONIUM PUMP EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Plutonium Pump Experiment was a subcritical mock-up of a ; reactor core in which a plutonium-iron alloy was circulated by means of a sodium ; lift pump. Sodium for the lift pumping was circulated by an E. M. pump in an ; isothermal loop at 500 deg C. The purpose of the test was to study pump ;

J. E. Deverall; G. L. Caldwell

1962-01-01

396

Respiration: An Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how a gas chromatograph may be used to determine the amount of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. The experiment has been used as part of a demonstration exercise at a local science fair and proved of interest to all age groups. (Author/BB)|

Stott, P. A.

1978-01-01

397

[Colorectal carcinoma: our experience].  

PubMed

The authors report their experience for 158 cases of colon rectum cancer, surgically treated on surgical department of USL 1 Marche. Evaluated short term and long term results they conclude that the only possibility to improve presently the survival of this disease resides on early diagnosis depending to secondary prevention programs. PMID:1298975

Degli Albizi, S; Pillitu, A; Terzi, G; Durzi, S; Menghini, L; Carletti, N

398

Experiments with Aspirin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a series of experiments that can be used to demonstrate how aspirin can be synthesized and characterized, how the hydrolysis of aspirin can be used as an introduction to kinetics, and how coordination chemistry (chelation) can be introduced by preparing and characterizing the copper complexes of aspirin and salicylic acid. (Contains over…

Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward

2000-01-01

399

Experiments with Dipole Antennas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2009-01-01

400

An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the

John M. Risley

1996-01-01

401

Experiments with Dipole Antennas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2009-01-01

402

Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.…

Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

1970-01-01

403

Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

1994-01-01

404

A Harmonic Motion Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)|

Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

2010-01-01

405

An NMR Kinetics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines advantages of and provides background information, procedures, and typical student data for an experiment determining rate of hydration of p-methyoxyphenylacetylene (III), followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction rate can be adjusted to meet time framework of a particular laboratory by altering concentration of…

Kaufman, Don; And Others

1982-01-01

406

Personal Experiences of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen…

Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

2010-01-01

407

Word Recognition Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

408

Be A Juror Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page to participate in the be a juror experiment. Participants are in one of three treatment conditions (a) no eyewitness, (b) unrefuted eyewitness, and (c) discredited eyewitness. Participants in this study rate their belief about the defendant's guilt. The rating scale ranges from a 1 (definitely not guilty) to a 7 (definitely guilty).

409

Implicit Association Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Implicit Association Experiment. Greenwald, McGhee and Schwartz (1998) pioneered the use of implicit association tests. Implicit association tests (IATs) measure the relative ease with which people are able to make associations between certain groups of people (e.g., older adults) and the concepts of "good" and "bad."

410

Gender Perception Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the gender perception experiment. Participants view photographs of faces and only the mouth and chin regions are visible. Participants are asked to identify the gender of each stimulus and to indicate their confidence in their judgment.

411

Electronics for Satellite Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tracking detector for the LAT science instrument on the GLAST mission is an example of a large-scale particle detection system built primarily by particle physicists for space flight within the context of a NASA program. The design and fabrication model in most ways reflected practice and experience from particle physics, but the quality assurance aspects were guided by NASA.

Robert P. Johnson

2006-01-01

412

The Majorana Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

2011-08-01

413

Young's Interference Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a simulation of Young's double slit experiment. The simulation allows the user to change all usual parameters like wavelength and source separation. Most noteworthy, is the simulation's illustration of the path difference, and how it relates to the wavelength, for each of the points on the screen.

Fowler, Michael; Ching, Jacquie H.

2008-07-30

414

The Doppler pendulum experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler formula.

Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

2011-07-01

415

An Experiment with Bilingualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the history of the St. Lambert bilingual education experiment in Montreal, Canada, and bilingual education in general. The experimental project was begun because parents did not feel that the traditional language classes were successful in teaching their children French. The belief that native language skills would suffer,…

Holden, Lynn

1974-01-01

416

Ireland's EU Referendum Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it surveys Ireland's European Union referendum experience, tracing the key actors, issues and political dynamics of seven European referendums from 1973 to 2008. It unpicks the institutional rules of the referendum game in Ireland stemming from the McKenna and Coughlan judgements, the operation of the Referendum Commission and the effect of this

Jane OMahony

2009-01-01

417

Transformations of emotional experience.  

PubMed

In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

2013-06-01

418

Energies and E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates for states of the 2s22p4, 2s2p5, and 2p6 configurations in oxygen-like ions between F II and Kr XXIX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on relativistic wave functions from multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations, E1, M1, E2, M2 transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are evaluated for the states of the (1s2)2s22p4,2s2p5, and 2p6 configurations in all oxygen-like ions between F II and Kr XXIX. Valence and core-valence correlation effects were accounted for through single-double multireference (SD-MR) expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. Computed energies are compared with the NIST recommended values, generally differing by less than 600 cm-1. For some spectra, significantly larger differences are found and our results are in better agreement with Edlén interpolated values. For levels where experimental lifetimes are available, the agreement is within experimental uncertainty for all but a few lowly ionized spectra. Complete Online tables of energy levels and transition data are available. Tables 8 and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A136

Rynkun, P.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Froese Fischer, C.

2013-09-01

419

Experiments with probe masses  

PubMed Central

It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational “charges” on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented.

Braginsky, V. B.

2007-01-01

420

The NO ?A experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO?A is a long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study ? ? ?? e and overline ?_{?} to overline ?_e oscillations. It will measure the neutrino mixing angles ? 13 and ? 23 with high precision, probe the neutrino mass hierarchy, and search for CP violation in neutrino oscillations. The experiment consists of two detectors. The Near Detector will be located at Fermilab close to the source of the neutrino beam. The Far Detector is being built at Ash River in northern Minnesota. It is positioned 14 mrad off the neutrino beam axis where the neutrinos have an energy distribution with a narrow peak around 2 GeV, and where the transition probability of ? ? ?? e is close to its maximum.

Ehrlich, Ralf

2013-03-01

421

Chemical Kiloton Experiment schedules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will conduct a large chemical explosion (CE) called the Chemical Kiloton Experiment (CKE) in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test site. The explosion will involve a 30/70 Emulsion-to-ANFO blend of 1,147,000 kg to supply 1 kt, and is scheduled for January 29. It will be heavily instrumented with close-in, free-field surface seismic and regional seismic measurements. The CKE is located near several DNA-sponsored nuclear explosions (NEs) and will provide a unique opportunity for fundamental studies on explosion phenomenology (for example, CE/NE equivalence), scaling with CEs and NEs, and integration of multiple monitoring methods. This experiment will also address some critical proliferation monitoring problems such as CE masking of NEs, CEs as false alarms, CEs for regional calibration, and on-site inspection.

422

LASL fast liner experiment  

SciTech Connect

The LASL Fast Liner Experiment explores a fusion concept in which a prepared plasma is adiabatically compressed to thermonuclear temperatures and densities by a rapidly imploding solid metal liner. A prepared plasma having ..beta.. > 1 is in contact with the liner and end plugs, and contains an embedded magnetic field to inhibit thermal conduction. Cylindrical liners are magnetically imploded by a large axial current carried in the liner shell. Theoretical estimates indicate an implosion velocity of at least 10/sup 6/ cm/s is necessary for this geometry if the plasma heating rate is to be greater than the cross-field thermal conduction loss rate. Experimental work to develop this concept involves attempts to provide a suitable preplasma for liner implosions as well as studies of magnetically driven liner implosions. In the plasma preparation experiments a coaxial plasma gun was used to inject plasma into a simulated liner geometry.

Sherwood, A.R.; Cantrell, E.L.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.

1980-01-01

423

The WITCH experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WITCH experiment aims to study a possible admixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in [beta]-decay by determining the [beta]-[nu] angular correlation from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The installation period was completed and intensive commissioning of the set-up was performed already. The lay-out of the WITCH set-up and results of commissioning tests performed until now are described here, showing that the full set-up up to the spectrometer is now operational, although several efficiencies are still to be improved. Due to its feature of being able to measure the energy spectrum for recoil ions, the WITCH experiment also opens possibilities for other observables.

Kozlov, V. Yu.; Severijns, N.; Beck, D.; Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Delauré, B.; Lindroth, A.; Kopecky, S.; Delahaye, P.; Wenander, F.; Golovko, Ve V.; Kraev, I. S.; Phalet, T.

2006-04-01

424

Experiments in statistical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experiments designed to illustrate the basic concepts of statistical mechanics using a gas of ``motorized molecules.'' Two molecular motion machines are constructed. The pressure fluctuation machine (mechanical interaction simulator) is a working model of two gases separated by a movable piston. The Boltzmann machine (canonical simulator) is a working model of a two-level quantum system in a temperature bath. Dynamical probabilities (fraction of time) are measured using mechanical devices, such as stop watches and motion sensors. Statistical probabilities (fraction of states) are calculated using physical statistics, such as microcanonical and canonical statistics. The experiments enable one to quantitatively test the fundamental principles of statistical mechanics, including the fundamental postulate, the ergodic hypothesis, and the statistics of Boltzmann.

Prentis, Jeffrey J.

2000-12-01

425

Make and Take Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this experiment on concrete in construction. The experiment focuses on developing an understanding of concrete as a construction material. Concrete products will be designed and constructed. Students will use two different sized containers that fit concentrically inside one another to create an enlarged crucible or planter box shape. Concrete will then be poured into that container and the concrete part will be allowed to cure. No testing will be done with this part, it is simply and exercise used to practice the preparation and execution of making concrete structures.The lesson includes a step by step explanation of the laboratory procedure, teacher notes and a link to a video clip. The exercise should take about 45 minutes of class time.

2012-11-13

426

Some professional experiences  

PubMed Central

This narrative of some of my professional experiences attempts to present circumstances in which I arrived at certain conclusions like: (a) Subjective personal experiences can be valid contributors to integration of a professional's world-view. (b) Concepts and constructs relating to diagnosis and other systems of understanding and practice are useful only as reference-systems. Rigidity in their use can be counter-productive. (c) Mental health profession is not always indispensable to patient's well being. Professional pride is an obstacle to learning. (d) Psychotherapy is not consciously done, but is a natural consequence of therapist's efforts to understand the patient and his/her predicament. Therapist's qualities play a predominant role. (e) Usefulness of therapeutic methods and techniques is dependent entirely on how the therapist uses them. (f) Absolute therapeutic effectiveness is a myth. (g) Indian mythology can offer a system of “Psycho-pathology,” a system of explanation and management, parallel to existing systems.

Shamasundar, C.

2008-01-01

427

Electronics for Satellite Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The tracking detector for the LAT science instrument on the GLAST mission is an example of a large-scale particle detection system built primarily by particle physicists for space flight within the context of a NASA program. The design and fabrication model in most ways reflected practice and experience from particle physics, but the quality assurance aspects were guided by NASA. Similarly, most of the electronics in the LAT as a whole were designed and built by staff at a particle physics lab. This paper reports on many of the challenges and lessons learned in the experience of designing and building the tracking detector and general LAT electronics for use in the NASA GLAST mission.

Johnson, Robert P.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2006-05-16

428

Antimatter gravity experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development.

Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

1990-01-01

429

The Cuban Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive learning site--a semifinalist in the 1998 ThinkQuest Internet competition (discussed in the December 5, 1997 Scout Report) --provides a comprehensive overview of this Latin American country. The Cuban Experience, thoroughly explores Cuban culture, history, politics, people, places, and current affairs. Interactive modules include a trivia contest with real prizes, a virtual tour of Cuba, and a simulation of the Cuban missile crisis.

430

Acculturation and Optimal Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In today’s rapidly changing environment, multicultural societies are gradually replacing monocultural ones. This poses several\\u000a issues as concerns the coexistence of different traditions and belief systems, and the opportunities for adjustment and integration\\u000a of immigrants and minorities within a dominant culture. In order to investigate the impact of these phenomena on the quality\\u000a of experience and on psychological selection, we

Antonella Delle Fave; Fausto Massimini; Marta Bassi

431

Active Seismic Imaging Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 1985 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct an active seismic experiment in the Medicine Lake area of northern California. The work is supported by the Geothermal Research Program of USGS and by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. We invite interested organizations or individuals to record our explosions from Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding areas not covered by the USGS-LLNL array.

Berge, Patricia A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Evans, John R.

432

A Cartesian Diver Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOST of us are familiar with the lecture-table experiment known as the Cartesian Diver. A variation of this is shown in Fig. 1a. In this apparatus the diver is replaced by a test-tube T floating upside down in the water, being buoyed up by just the right quantity of air, A. The tall jar is nearly filled with water, and

John Satterly

1928-01-01

433

The Aeroassist Flight Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key design drivers for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment are discussed and a description is given of the flight test vehicle, its flight conditions, and instrumentation. The aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) operates at higher velocities than the Space Shuttle and at higher altitudes than Apollo. Issues such as the effect of shock-layer nonequilibrium on the levels of radiative and convective heating and of viscous and real-gas effects on vehicle aerodynamic characteristics are mentioned.

Walberg, G. D.; Siemers, P. M., III; Calloway, R. L.; Jones, J. J.

1987-10-01

434

Recent dielectronic recombination experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

New recombination experiments with merged cold beams of electrons and atomic ions have been carried out at the storage ring\\u000a facilities TSR in Heidelberg, ESR in Darmstadt, and CRYRING in Stockholm. A brief overview is given on the recent activities\\u000a in which the Giessen group was engaged. Topics of this research were dielectronic recombination (DR) of astrophysically relevant\\u000a ions, recombination

A. Müller; T. Bartsch; C. Brandau; A. Hoffknecht; H. Knopp; S. Schippers; O. Uwira; J. Linkemann; A. A. Saghiri; M. Schmitt; D. Schwalm; A. Wolf; F. Bosch; B. Franzke; C. Kozhuharov; P. H. Mokler; F. Nolden; M. Steck; T. Stöhlker; T. Winkler; H. Danared; D. R. DeWitt; H. Gao; H. Lebius; R. Schuch; W. Spies; W. Zong; G. H. Dunn; W. G. Graham; J. A. Tanis; J. Doerfert; D. Savin; Z. Stachura

1998-01-01

435

Apollo lunar sounder experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

Phillips, R. J.; Adams, G. F.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Eggleton, R. E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W. I.; Peeples, W. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W. R.; Thompson, T. W.; Ward, S. H.; Zelenka, J. S.

1973-01-01

436

Bean Bag Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 21-22 of PDF), learners explore inclined planes. Learners conduct an experiment using a large beanbag chair (or trash bag filled with coats or pillows) and a set of stairs to see how inclined planes make work easier. Learners discover that it requires less force to roll the bean bag down an inclined plane than throwing it between students.

Museum, Chicago C.

2012-06-26

437

Experiences of collaborative research.  

PubMed

The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration, with the economist Richard Thaler, played a role in the development of behavioral economics. Procedures to make controversies more productive and constructive are suggested. PMID:14584989

Kahneman, Daniel

2003-09-01

438

Experiment and theory building  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the role of inference from experiment in theory building. What are the options open to the scientific community\\u000a when faced with an experimental result that appears to be in conflict with accepted theory? I distinguish, in Laudan’s (1977),\\u000a Nickels’s (1981), and Franklin’s (1993) sense, between the context of pursuit and the context of justification of a scientific\\u000a theory.

Lydia Patton

439

Stress and Strain Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop (MAST) provides this experiment as an introduction to stress and strain. The lesson allows students the opportunity to "design and make a concrete cylinder and beam that can withstand the greatest applied load." The concepts of comprehensive and tensile stress are incorporated into the lesson plan. Links to useful video clips, diagrams and discussion questions are included. The exercise should take about 90 minutes of class time.

2012-12-24

440

Localized wave pulse experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

1999-06-01

441

TFTR DT experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a large tokamak which has performed experiments with 50:50 deuterium - tritium fuelled plasmas. Since 1993, TFTR has produced about 1090 D - T plasmas using about 100 grams of tritium and producing about 1.6 GJ of D - T fusion energy. These plasmas have significant populations of 3.5 MeV alphas (the charged

J. D. Strachan; S. Batha; M. Beer; M. G. Bell; R. E. Bell; A. Belov; H. Berk; S. Bernabei; M. Bitter; B. Breizman; N. L. Bretz; R. Budny; C. E. Bush; J. Callen; S. Cauffman; C. S. Chang; Z. Chang; C. Z. Cheng; D. S. Darrow; R. O. Dendy; W. Dorland; H. Duong; P. C. Efthimion; D. Ernst; H. Evenson; N. J. Fisch; R. Fisher; R. J. Fonck; E. D. Fredrickson; G. Y. Fu; H. P. Furth; N. N. Gorelenkov; V. Ya Goloborod'ko; B. Grek; L. R. Grisham; G. W. Hammett; R. J. Hawryluk; W. Heidbrink; H. W. Herrmann; M. C. Herrmann; W A Houlberg; J. Hogan; B. Hooper; J. C. Hosea; M. Hughes; D. L. Jassby; F. C. Jobes; D. W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S. Kaye; J. Kesner; J. S. Kim; M. Kissick; A. V. Krasilnikov; H. Kugel; A. Kumar; N. T. Lam; P. Lamarche; B. Leblanc; F. M. Levinton; C. Ludescher; J. Machuzak; R. P. Majeski; J. Manickam; D. K. Mansfield; M. Mauel; E. Mazzucato; J. McChesney; D. C. McCune; G. McKee; K. M. McGuire; D. M. Meade; S. S. Medley; D. R. Mikkelsen; S. V. Mirnov; D. Mueller; Y. Nagayama; G. A. Navratil; R. Nazikian; M. Okabayashi; M. Osakabe; D. K. Owens; H. K. Park; S. F. Paul; M. P. Petrov; C. K. Phillips; M. Phillips; P. Phillips; A. T. Ramsey; B. Rice; M. H. Redi; G. Rewoldt; S. Reznik; A. L. Roquemore; J. Rogers; E. Ruskov; S. A. Sabbagh; M. Sasao; G. Schilling; G. L. Schmidt; S. D. Scott; I. Semenov; T. Senko; C. H. Skinner; T. Stevenson; E. J. Strait; B. C. Stratton; W. Stodiek; E. Synakowski; H. Takahashi; W. Tang; G. Taylor; M. E. Thompson; S. von Goeler; A. von Halle; R. T. Walters; S. Wang; R. White; R. M. Wieland; M. Williams; J. R. Wilson; K. L. Wong; G. A. Wurden; M. Yamada; V. Yavorski; K. M. Young; L. Zakharov; M. C. Zarnstorff; S. J. Zweben

1997-01-01

442

Air Gun Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video shows an impact experiment of a high-speed impact into a frozen comet-like material (dust, ice, window cleaner and Worcestershire sauce) over a highly porous target (garden perlite). The impact makes a small hole in the comet, simulating a strength-controlled crater, but a large crater grows below and peals back the surface crust like petals of a flower. The result is similar to a deeply buried explosion.

Nasa

443

Multiphase-flowmeter experience  

SciTech Connect

Multiphase-flowmeters (MPFM`s) are finding increasing acceptance offshore, where operators are becoming more comfortable with the technology after several years of familiarization. Meters are being used in well testing, well management, and allocation of production. Since the first deliveries of the Framo engineering A/S meter in 1993, significant experience has been gained in both topside and subsea applications of the devices. The paper describes purposes, technology, Framo`s meter, applications, performance verification, and operational problems.

NONE

1998-04-01

444

Composite flywheel balance experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high performance composite flywheels which have properties useful in reducing the total energy requirements for automobiles were examined. This requires high rotational speeds and solution to the accompanying problems of fatigue and vibration control through balancing of the rotor. Demonstrated that composite flywheels, require significant balancing and expenses to meet the minimum balance requirements practiced in industry. Flywheels experience balance changes with speed changes.

Steele, R. S.

1981-04-01

445

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

446

Mirror Drawing Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participation in the Mirror Drawing Experiment. This study is designed to demonstrate that for right-handed people, who comprise over 90% of the population, the right hemisphere performs visual spatial tasks better than the left hemisphere. For most right-handers, whereas the left hemisphere excels in verbal and analytical tasks, the right hemisphere specializes in emotional, nonverbal, and visual-spatial tasks.

Mccarthy, Maureen

2006-01-18

447

Dichotic Listening Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the dichotic listening experiment. Each person responds to a series of trials and the analysis is conducted to compare how well an individual can distinguish sounds based on whether they received the information to the left or right ear. The independent variable is sound presentation (right or left ear) and the dependent variable is ability to correctly distinguish the sound.

448

Art and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This three-part dissertation is on the double role of experience in art: as a subject matter, and as the vehicle for our evaluations. It argues (Part three, Chs. 7, 8) for the inclusion within contemporary analytical ‘cognitivism’ (Part one, Chs. 1-3) of certain arguments from the founding fathers of aesthetics, Baumgarten and Kant (Part two, Chs. 4-6). I argue...\\u000a1.

R. C. H. M. van Gerwen

1996-01-01

449

Prototype Plasma Dynamo Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) is under construction to explore the self-excitation processes of a range of astrophysical dynamos. NIMROD simulations of von K'arm'an flow, in which the upper and lower hemispheres of the plasma are spun in opposite directions, have shown that the resulting two vortex flow can produce a dynamo when the magnetic Reynolds number is sufficiently high. This poster discusses prototype experiments on the Plasma Couette Experiment (PCX) to create von K'arm'an flow. The PCX (like the MPDX) uses an axisymmetric multicusp plasma confinement scheme that works in tandem with electrodes of alternating bias to create flow at the plasma boundary via ExB drift. This poster will review the theory with an emphasis on requirements on the plasma parameters and then show that the measured plasma parameters (ne 10^17 m-3, Te˜ 10 eV) and flow speeds of 10 km/sec are high enough to self-excite, but are in a regime in which Hall MHD will likely be important. Higher densities (possible with higher power LaB6 cathodes) will be required to operate in the MHD regime. Work supported by NSF.

Weisberg, David; Forest, Cary; Collins, Cami; Katz, Noam; Khalzov, Ivan; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike

2010-11-01

450

Relay mirror experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Originating out of a SDIO-funded, Phase 1 study effort, two ground systems and an orbiting EO payload/spacecraft were the primary equipment for the RME. The RME was originally conceived to be a shuttle deployed experiment. Shortly after program start, the Challenger disaster occurred, with the promise of extensive delays. A completely new space segment was to be designed incorporating a free-flying spacecraft. During the midphase of the program, a variety of launch vehicles were envisioned to replace the shuttle, requiring the BASD team to design accommodations for Delta, Atlas, and Titan, with a Delta launch being the final solution. The ground systems tracked the spacecraft and illuminated it with green and blue beacon lasers. The Payload Experiment Package (PEP) housed the bisection tracker, a key innovation central to the experiment. The bisection tracker acquired both beacons and controlled steerable mirrors to accomplish fine tracking of the two cooperative beacons. In the process, the relay mirror was precisely positioned to enable a successful relay of a third infrared laser between the two ground sites via the orbiting spacecraft. Many of the key technologies employed in the PEP were originally developed for Ball laser communications research and development programs and other laser pointing efforts. The WAVE sensor package, built by ATA and integrated by Ball, measured the vibrations of the optical base structure on which it was mounted. These spacecraft vibration data are critical to the accurate pointing of space laser communication terminals.

Begley, David L.

1996-04-01

451

Critical experiment data archiving  

SciTech Connect

Critical experiment facilities produced a large number of important data during the past 45 years; however, many useful data remain unpublished. The unpublished material exists in the form of experimenters' logbooks, notes, photographs, material descriptions, etc., This data could be important for computer code validation, understanding the physics of criticality, facility design, or for setting process limits. In the past, criticality specialists have been able to obtain unpublished details by direct contact with the experimenters. Obviously, this will not be possible indefinitely. Most of the US critical experiment facilities are now closed, and the experimenters are moving to other jobs, retiring, or otherwise becoming unavailable for this informal assistance. Also, the records are in danger of being discarded or lost during facility closures, cleanup activities, or in storage. A project was begun in 1989 to ensure that important unpublished data from critical experiment facilities in the United States are archived and made available as a resource of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS). The objective of this paper is to summarize the project accomplishments to date and bring these activities to the attention of those who might be aware of the location of source information needed for archiving and could assist in getting the materials included in the archive.

Koponen, B.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Clayton, E.D.; Doherty, A.L. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-01-01

452

The Katrin Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the confirmation of neutrino oscillations it is known that neutrinos possess a non-zero rest mass. This has far reaching implications for the standard model of particle physics and for cosmology. The KArlsruhe TRitium Neutrino mass experiment, KATRIN, aims to search for the mass of the electron neutrino with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV (90% C.L.) and a detection limit of 0.35 eV (5 sigma). Even a null-result of KATRIN will exclude many theoretical models with degenerate neutrino masses and will give new input for particle astrophysics and cosmology. At KATRIN the same measurement principle is utilized as in the previous neutrino mass experiments in Mainz and Troitsk. These experiments search for a deviation in the spectrum of the electrons in the beta-decay of tritium near the endpoint, that will be caused by a non-zero neutrino mass. The beta-spectrum is measured using a MAC-E filter. KATRIN is being set up at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany. The principle and present status of KATRIN are presented.

Beck, M.

2007-11-01

453

Detonation Shock Radius Experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation shock dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation shock radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the main charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial shock radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation Shock Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).

Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee

2007-06-01

454

The LHCf experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment has performed measurements of the neutral particles emitted to the very forward region of proton-proton collisions at LHC. This experiment is designed to explore very forward interaction at very high energy, which is relevant to interpretation of the data from cosmic-ray experiments. LHCf detector is well optimized to measure photons in the multi-TeV energy range, and to reconstruct neutral pions with two photons. It can also measure neutrons. The data acquisitions at 0.9 TeV and 7 TeV were completed in 2010. In this paper, single photon energy spectra obtained at 0.9 TeV and transverse energy spectra of neutral pions obtained at 7 TeV will be presented. The results are compared with expectations by hadronic interaction models used for air-shower simulations. We found none of these models agree with the obtained data in the photon energy spectra, while EPOS shows a good agreement in the transverse energy spectra of neural pions. Impacts on cosmic-ray and QCD physics are also discussed.

Noda, Koji [INFN Section of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Collaboration: LHCf Collaboration

2012-10-23

455

The MATERHORN Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive field experimental program is planned to study flow over mountainous terrain. This experiment is a part of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) program, funded under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Program, to improve mountain terrain weather forecasting. The participants include the University of Notre Dame, Naval Research Laboratory, Naval Post Graduate School, University of California, Berkeley, University of Utah, University of Virginia, and US Army Dugway Proving Ground. The experiments will be conducted at the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Science Testbed (GMAST) at the US Army Dugway Proving Ground. GMAST is conceivably the most heavily instrumented test bed for studying atmospheric processes within complex-terrain. In addition to the vast array of permanent monitoring devices located at GMAST, several pieces of sophisticated remote and in-situ atmospheric measurement devices will be installed in the vicinity of Granite Mountain. The first of the two field campaigns will take place during spring 2012 focusing on moist soil conditions and frequent synoptic disturbances. The second field campaign will take place during fall 2012 under drier and more quiescent conditions. These studies aim to characterize surface conditions related to mountain winds, investigate the planetary boundary layer in complex-terrain, study surface exchange processes, and to observe the interaction of flows across a wide range of space-time scales. Data collected will be used for model evaluation and data assimilation. The design of the experiment will be described in this paper.

Retallack, C.; Fernando, H.; Pardyjak, E.; De Wekker, S.; Pace, J. C.

2011-12-01

456

PsychExperiments: Psychology Experiments on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PsychExperiments is a collection of online cognitive psychology and social psychology experiments, accompanied by a cumulative data archive and download utilities for both data and experiment source code. Students collect data using one or more of the experiments and download it for analysis. The experiments include demonstrations, lab experiments for collecting data for in-class analysis, and research experiments in which participants take part and contribute data to an archive. Topics include the psychology of jurors, facial recognition, learning and memory, perception of gender, reaction time, and many others. Other resources include downloadable Excel macros for analyzing data from the experiments, and support materials for those who want to use and/or develop experiments at the site. A training manual for creating experiments in Authorware is available for purchase.

457

A pharmacogenetics service experience for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows.  

PubMed

Objective. To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. Design. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Assessment. Students', residents', and fellows' achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. Conclusion. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics. PMID:24159216

Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R; Wong, Shan S; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A; Cavallari, Larisa H

2013-10-14

458

A Model for Debriefing Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Debriefing is a process of guiding reflection on experience. Ideally, facilitators conduct debriefing sessions frequently and in proximity to the experience location. Includes a model "debriefing funnel" into which the facilitators pour experiences, pass those experiences through five reflective filters, and distill a learning change in…

Priest, Simon; Naismith, Mindee

1993-01-01

459

Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "raw data" that aesthetics is meant to explain is the aesthetic experience. People have experiences that they class off from other experiences and label, as a class, the aesthetic ones. Aesthetic experience is basic, and all other things aesthetic--aesthetic properties, aesthetic objects, aesthetic attitudes--are secondary in their importance…

Fenner, David E. W.

2003-01-01

460

AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

Depken, J.C.

1992-02-01

461

AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

Depken, J.C.

1992-02-01

462

Student Teaching: The Keystone Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the experience of student teaching experience for future music educators. Discusses the importance of the student teaching placement, critical in determining a successful experience. Addresses the challenges during the transition from student to teacher. Provides stories about the student teaching experiences of Susan, Samantha, and…

Fallin, Jana; Royse, David

2000-01-01

463

Demarcating User eXperience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This panel discusses the scoping of user experience as a research field. User experience is a crossing point of several disciplines, each of which tends to define user experience from their own perspective. The distinguished panelists from academia and industry represent the different perspectives to user experience: Traditional human-computer interaction, Psychology, Cognitive psychology, and Design. The goal of the panel is to get one step closer to a shared understanding of the concept of user experience.

Roto, Virpi

464

Multiwell experiment: Overview  

SciTech Connect

This field laboratory has been established about 7 mi southwest of Rifle, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Their 110 to 215 ft separation at depth is less than the nominal dimensions of the lenses in the area. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. Comprehensive logging and core analysis programs were conducted. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. These definitions are further enhanced by the fact that most data will come from closely spaced wells. Thus, spatial variations in reservoir properties can be quantified. 10 refs.

Lorenz, J.C.; Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Thorne, B.J.; Branagan, P.T.

1987-01-01

465

Experience the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

2011-10-01

466

PROGRESS ON STELLA EXPERIMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment, which has been assembled on the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The primary goal of STELLA is to demonstrate staging of the laser acceleration process by using the BNL inverse free electron laser (IFEL) as a prebuncher, which generates {approx} 1-{micro}m long microbunches, and accelerating these microbunches using an inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) stage. Experimental runs are underway to recommission the IFEL and ICA systems separately, and reestablish the: microbunching process. Staging will then be examined by running both the IFEL and ICA systems together.

KIMURA,W.D.; CAMPBELL,L.P.; GOTTSCHALK,S.C.; QUIMBY,D.C.; ROBINSON,K.E.; STEINHAUER,L.C.; BABZIEN,M.; BEN-ZVI,I.; GALLARDO,J.C.; KUSCHE,K.P.; POGORELSKY,I.V.; SKARITKA,J.; VAN STEENBERGEN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.; CLINE,D.B.; HE,P.; LIU,Y.; FIORITO,R.B.; PANTELL,R.H.; RULE,D.W.; SANDWEISS,J.

1999-03-01

467

Large lithium loop experience  

SciTech Connect

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

1981-10-01

468

Experiences with solar power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience with solar thermal plants is reviewed. The component and subsystems development of the last decade and particularly the receiver, collector and heliostat field development is a technical success. Solar specific problems on the system and component level arose, when off the shelf solutions of fossile fired plants were transferred uncritically. It is shown that concentrated solar radiation is a relatively cheap high quality fuel. Other uses than electricity generation are high temperature processes and the production of solar fuels and chemicals. A technical and economic comparison of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is made.

Kesselring, P.

1985-11-01

469

Fundamental experiments in velocimetry  

SciTech Connect

One can understand what velocimetry does and does not measure by understanding a few fundamental experiments. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is an interferometer that will produce fringe shifts when the length of one of the legs changes, so we might expect the fringes to change whenever the distance from the probe to the target changes. However, by making PDV measurements of tilted moving surfaces, we have shown that fringe shifts from diffuse surfaces are actually measured only from the changes caused by the component of velocity along the beam. This is an important simplification in the interpretation of PDV results, arising because surface roughness randomizes the scattered phases.

Briggs, Matthew Ellsworth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shinas, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

470

Experiences with Science Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If you're addicted to West Wing or NPR, or if you read the newspapers and want to do something about the way politicians use science, a career in science policy might be for you. In the last few years, I went from academic science to being a staffer for a Congressman to