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Sample records for small apple orchard

  1. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    PubMed

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards. PMID:25577700

  2. Soil-plant interaction monitoring: Small scale example of an apple orchard in Trentino, North-Eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cassiani, Giorgio; Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo; Putti, Mario; Fadda, Giuseppe; Majone, Bruno; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Accurate monitoring and modeling of soil-plant systems are a key unresolved issue that currently limits the development of a comprehensive view of the interactions between soil and atmosphere, with a number of practical consequences including the difficulties in predicting climatic change patterns. This paper presents a case study where time-lapse minimal-invasive 3D micro-electrical tomography (ERT) is used to monitor rhizosphere eco-hydrological processes in an apple orchard in the Trentino region, Northern Italy. In particular we aimed at gaining a better understanding of the soil-vegetation water exchanges in the shallow critical zone, as part of a coordinated effort towards predicting climate-induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean basins (EU FP7 CLIMB project). The adopted strategy relied upon the installation of a 3D electrical tomography apparatus consisting of four mini-boreholes carrying 12 electrodes each plus 24 mini-electrodes on the ground surface, arranged in order to image roughly a cubic meter of soil surrounding a single apple tree. The monitoring program was initially tested with repeated measurements over about one year. Subsequently, we performed three controlled irrigation tests under different conditions, in order to evaluate the water redistribution under variable root activities and climatic conditions. Laboratory calibration on soil samples allowed us to translate electrical resistivity variations into moisture content changes, supported also by in-situ TDR measurements. Richards equation modeling was used also to explain the monitoring evidence. The results clearly identified the effect of root water uptake and the corresponding subsoil region where active roots are present, but also marked the need to consider the effects of different water salinity in the water infiltration process. We also gained significant insight about the need to measure quantitatively the plant evapotranspiration in order to close the water balance and

  3. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  4. New Hampshire Apple Orchards as a Source of Arsenic Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Renshaw, C. E.; Feng, X.; Sturup, S.

    2002-05-01

    Concern about high trace metal contamination in New Hampshire water supplies has focused attention on the fate of both natural and anthropogenic trace metals in the environment. We investigate apple orchards as a possible source of As in surface water and groundwater of New Hampshire. Lead arsenate sprays were widely used as fungicides and insecticides in apple orchards for more than a century and they represent the largest single anthropogenic input of arsenic into the environment. The applied As may 1) have remained in the surface soil, 2) have moved downward in the soil column and become stored in deeper soil horizons and/or regional groundwater system, or 3) have been transported as a result of overland surface runoff and/or erosion to surface reservoirs. We examine these pathways using two types of samples collected from a Southern New Hampshire apple orchard: soil profiles from apple orchards having different pesticide application (sprayed or not sprayed with lead arsenate) and land use (tilled or untilled) history, and stream sediment cores that may have accumulated sediments transported from nearby apple orchards. Preliminary analyses provide the following observations. First, apple orchards which used lead arsenate pesticides contain significantly elevated As and Pb concentrations (up to 80æg/g and 600æg/g, and about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude above the background levels, respectively) in the surface soils. Second, As and Pb are generally limited to the upper 10-15 cm of soil, showing little evidence of downward transport. This suggests that As is largely chemically immobile in the soil environment and that the main mechanism for As removal from its source may be physical erosion. We hypothesize that, if left undisturbed, lead arsenate remains immobile in the soil column. However, any disturbances that increase physical erosion of the soil may mobilize the arsenic and lead and concentrate these metals in nearby stream and lake sediments. We test this

  5. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    depleted and consistent with the local meteoric water line, whereas ii) soil water and sap have values more enriched and deviated from the meteoric line. Soil water shows a clear evaporation signal that decreases with increasing soil depth. Sap isotopic data are inconsistent with groundwater data but reflect well soil water data in the first 40 cm. This suggests that apple trees absorb a mixture of rainfall and irrigation water which undergo partial evaporation in the shallow soil layer. Water table varies between 40 cm and 140 cm making groundwater not easily intercepted by tree roots, consistently with the small root apparatus of the apple trees grafted on M9 rootstocks. Results reveal also a marked intra-field spatial variability in the isotopic composition of soil water, and significant differences between the two fields, with the one close to the river showing significantly more depleted values compared to the one farther form the river. This difference, which is reflected by sap isotopic composition in summer, is likely related to the different radiation that hits the two fields, due to the shading effect played by steep slopes on the orchard closer to the river.

  6. [Carbon Source Utilization Characteristics of Soil Microbial Community for Apple Orchard with Interplanting Herbage].

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-fei; Fang, Kai-kai; Wang, Zhi-kang; Li, Hui-ke; Mao, Peng-juan; Zhang, Xiang-xu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    As soil fertility in apple orchard with clean tillage is declined continuously, interplanting herbage in orchard, which is a new orchard management model, plays an important role in improving orchard soil conditions. By using biolog micro-plate technique, this paper studied the functional diversity of soil microbial community under four species of management model in apple orchards, including clear tillage model, interplanting white clover model, interplanting small crown flower model and interplanting cocksfoot model, and the carbon source utilization characteristics of microbial community were explored, which could provide a reference for revealing driving mechanism of ecological process of orchard soil. The results showed that the functional diversity of microbial community had a significant difference among different treatments and in the order of white clover > small crown flower > cocksfoot > clear tillage. The correlation analysis showed that the average well color development (AWCD), Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index were all highly significantly positively correlated with soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, and Shannon index was significantly positively correlated with soil pH. The principal component analysis and the fingerprints of the physiological carbon metabolism of the microbial community demonstrated that grass treatments improved carbon source metabolic ability of soil microbial community, and the soil microbes with perennial legumes (White Clover and small crown flower) had a significantly higher utilization rate in carbohydrates (N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, D-Mannitol, β-Methyl-D-Glucoside), amino acids (Glycyl-L-Glutamic acid, L-Serine, L-Threonine) and polymers (Tween 40, Glycogen) than the soil microbes with clear tillage. It was considered that different treatments had the unique microbial community structure and peculiar carbon source utilization characteristics. PMID:26911017

  7. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  8. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Manu E.; Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639

  9. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639

  10. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p < 0.05). Species diversity was greater in the organic orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  11. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  12. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  13. SPATIAL PATTERNS OF WESTERN FLOWER THRIPS IN APPLE ORCHARDS AND ASSOCIATED FRUIT DAMAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a pest of apples in orchards of North America. Flower thrips causes damage (“pansy spot”) to apples by its egglaying activities during the bloom and post-bloom periods. Difficulties in monitoring this pest have complicated control ef...

  14. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  15. UAV based tree height estimation in apple orchards: potential of multiple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Tomelleri, Enrico; Vilardi, Andrea; Zebisch, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Canopy height, as part of vegetation structure, is ecologically important for ecological studies on biomass, matter flows or meteorology. Measuring the growth of canopy can be undertaken by the use multiple remote sensing techniques. In this study, we firstly use data generated from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) with a simultaneous consumer-grade RGB and modified IR cameras, configured in nadir and multi-angle views to generate 3D models for Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Models (DTM) in order to estimate tree height in apple orchards in South Tyrol, Italy. We evaluate the use of Ground Control Points (GCP) to minimize the error in scale and orientation. Then, we validate and compare the results of our primary data collection with data generated by geolocated field measurements over several selected tree species. Additionally, we compare DSM and DTM obtained from a recent 1-meter resolution LIDAR campaign (Light Detection and Ranging). The main purpose of this study is to contrast multiple estimation approaches and evaluate their utility for the estimation of canopy height, highlighting the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and non-expensive technique especially for small scale applications. The study is conducted in a homogenous tree canopy consisting of apple orchards located in Caldaro -South Tyrol, Italy. We end with proposing a potential low-cost and inexpensive application combining models for DSM from the UAV with DTM obtained from LIDAR for applications that should be updated frequently.

  16. Potential Dermal Exposure to Flonicamid and Risk Assessment of Applicators During Treatment in Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Ai; Yu, Aili; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-01-01

    Exposure and risk assessments of flonicamid for applicators were performed in apple orchards in Korea. Fifteen experiments were done with two experienced applicators under typical field conditions using a speed sprayer. In this study, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and dermal patches were used to monitor potential dermal exposure to flonicamid, and personal air samplers with XAD-2 resin and glass fiber filter were used to monitor potential inhalation exposure. The analytical methods were validated for the limit of detection, limit of quantitation, reproducibility, linearity of the calibration curve, and recovery of flonicamid from various exposure matrices. The results were encouraging and acceptable for an exposure study. The applicability of XAD-2 resin was evaluated via a trapping efficiency and breakthrough test. During the mixing/loading, the average total dermal exposure was 22.6 μg of flonicamid, corresponding to 4.5×10(-5)% of the prepared amount. For the spraying, the potential dermal exposure was 9.32 mg, and the ratio to applied amount was 1.9 × 10(-2%). The primary exposed body parts were the thigh (2.90 mg), upper arm (1.75 mg), and lower leg (1.66 mg). By comparison, absorbable quantity of exposure was small, only 1.62 μg (3.2×10(-6)%). The margin of safety (MOS) were calculated for risk assessment, in all sets of trials, MOS > 1, indicating the exposure level of flonicamid was considered to be safe in apple orchards. Although this was a limited study, it provided a good estimate of flonicamid exposure for orchard applicators. PMID:26011808

  17. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem. PMID:26385933

  18. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems. PMID:24550889

  19. Adjusting the Phenology Model of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in eight apple orchards in Washington State from 2003-2006 to characterize the seasonal cumulative curves of codling moth flight and the occurrence of fruit injury. Data from each generation were fit to logistic curves and these data were compared to a current widely-used mode...

  20. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  1. Progress in Brassicaceae seed meal formulation and application for replant disease control in organic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform or sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease. Trials were established at multiple sites (STM, SR and Tukey orchards) in Washington State to evaluate the efficacy of seed meal formulations for ...

  2. Evaluation of herbivore-induced plant volatiles for monitoring lacewings in Washington apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated five herbivore-induced plant volatiles plus a male-produced pheromone as attractants for adult lacewings in Washington apple orchards in 2008. We found that several of the attractants or combinations of attractants could be used to monitor three common lacewing species in our trials. ...

  3. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards. PMID:15765676

  4. Factors influencing the temporal and spatial patterns of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in newly planted apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of infestation by larval dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was studied during 2002–2004 in two newly planted apple orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards contained several rootstock-variety combinations grown under different cultural manage...

  5. Diversity and phenology of the generalist predator community in apple orchards of Central Washington State (insecta, araneae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predatory insects and spiders were collected from apple orchards in two geographic regions of Central Washington State to assess seasonal phenology and diversity of the generalist predator community. Arthropods were collected from orchard canopy every 3-7 d over two growing seasons (March-October) ...

  6. Spatial Distribution of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Injury at Harvest in Mid-Atlantic Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Stallings, Jonathan W; Leskey, Tracy C; Krawczyk, Greg; Polk, Dean; Butler, Bryan; Bergh, J Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), injury to late-season apple cultivars was measured at harvest in 2011 and 2012 in commercial orchards in four mid-Atlantic states. In each orchard block, a border zone (adjacent to woods), an interior zone (near orchard center), and an intermediate zone (between border and interior zones) comprised 1-3 tree rows per zone, depending on block size. Just before commercial harvest, 10 fruit were sampled from the upper, middle, and lower third of the canopy from five trees in each zone. After 3-5 wk in cold storage, fruit were examined for external and internal injury, and severity of internal injury (number of injury sites per fruit) from H. halys. A zero-inflated negative binomial model accounted for significant variation among the orchards and showed that apples from the upper canopy of border zone trees had the highest probability of experiencing external and internal injury. A minor interaction was detected among the orchards and zones for injury prevalence and severity, but there was no evidence of an orchard showing less expected injury in the border zone compared with other zones. Adjusting for orchard-to-orchard variation, differences in injury distributions among the zones and canopies were primarily due to injury prevalence rather than expected injury severity. The implications of these results to scouting and managing H. halys in eastern apple orchards are discussed. PMID:26309274

  7. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production. PMID:18330135

  8. Influence of mowing on dynamics of native phytoseiid mites and Tetranychus urticae in apple orchards in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Ken

    2016-09-01

    To support practical integrated pest management in commercial apple orchards, I investigated the influence of mowing on the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae and native phytoseiid mites in apple orchards sprayed with selective insecticides in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 2013 to 2015. The orchards were not mown in 2013, and unmown and mown plots were compared in 2014 and 2015. There were significantly fewer Typhlodromus vulgaris on apple leaves and Amblyseius tsugawai in the undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots in both years. Conversely, there were significantly more T. urticae on leaves and undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots. The reason for the decreased populations of these phytoseiid mites may be a lack of food (pollen) needed for reproduction on apple trees and in the undergrowth due to mowing. These results indicate that mowing strongly influences generalist phytoseiid mites in apple orchards. Moreover, mowing might increase the density of T. urticae in apple trees because increased nitrogen in the leaves increases fecundity; in addition, drought might promote the increase of mite numbers. Thus, retention of undergrowth suppresses T. urticae in apple orchards. PMID:27380500

  9. Streptomycin use in apple orchards did not increase abundance of mobile resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Brion; Holliger, Eduard; Walsh, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycin is used as a first-line defense and tetracycline as a second-line defense, in the fight against fire blight disease in apple and pear orchards. We have performed the first study to quantitatively analyze the influence of streptomycin use in agriculture on the abundance of streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes in apple orchards. Flowers, leaves, and soil were collected from three orchard sites in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Gene abundance distribution was analyzed using two-way anova and principal component analysis to investigate relationships between gene abundance data over time and treatment. The mobile antibiotic resistance genes, strA, strB, tetB, tetM, tetW, and the insertion sequence IS1133, were detected prior to streptomycin treatment in almost all samples, indicating the natural presence of these resistance genes in nature. Statistically significant increases in the resistance gene abundances were occasional, inconsistent, and not reproducible from one year to the next. We conclude that the application of streptomycin in these orchards was not associated with sustained increases in streptomycin or tetracycline resistance gene abundances. PMID:24164283

  10. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF LEPIDOPTERAN PESTS OF APPLE ORCHARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple and pear. Traditional control methods have been based predominantly on broad spectrum insecticides. Concerns over the safety, environmental impact, and sustainability of synthetic pesticides have stimulated development and use of softer c...

  11. Rootstock genotype succession influences apple replant disease and root-zone microbial community composition in an orchard soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a soil-borne disease complex that affects young apple trees in replanted orchards, resulting in stunted growth and reduced yields. New rootstock genotypes with resistance to ARD may help to control this disease. To determine the effects of rootstock genotype succession...

  12. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring. PMID:26548961

  13. Heavy metals in apple orchard soils and fruits and their health risks in Liaodong Peninsula, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Cheng, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in soils and fruits and their possible human health risk in apple orchards of Liaodong Peninsula-a well-known fruit-producing area of China. The soil pollution index (PI) and health risk assessment methods (daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI)) were employed to explore the soil pollution levels and the potential health hazards of heavy metals in fruits. The results showed that all orchard soils were with low PI values (PI ≤1) for Cd and Zn, while 2.78 and 5.56% of the soil samples exceeded the allowable levels of Cr and Cu for orchard soil, respectively. The Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations for the apple flesh samples were all lower than the national maximum permissible concentrations. While 6.34% of apple peel samples for Cd, 76.5% of apple peel samples and 65.6% of apple flesh samples for Cr, and 28.1% of apple peel samples for Zn exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. Furthermore, both the DIM and the HRI values for all the apple flesh samples were within the safe limits, indicating that no health risk was found for heavy metals in the fruits of the study area. In order to protect the consumers from fruits that might cause health risks, results from this study suggested that the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be conducted for the orchards of Liaodong Peninsula. PMID:25433544

  14. Phytoseiids in Washington commercial apple orchards: biodiversity and factors affecting abundance.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A; Beers, Elizabeth H; Crowder, David W

    2015-09-01

    Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is an important biological control agent of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Washington apple orchards. It was thought to be essentially the sole phytoseiid existing in this system, due in part to its resistance to commonly used orchard pesticides, and organophosphates in particular. To test this assumption, we conducted a survey of 102 commercial apple blocks in Washington to characterize the community of phytoseiid species. Seven phytoseiid species were found in our samples; G. occidentalis and Amblydromella caudiglans (Schuster) were found in the greatest abundance. We hypothesized that the gradual shift away from the use of organophosphates in recent decades may have caused the change in phytoseiid community structure. The survey data and information regarding the management, location, and surrounding habitat of each block were used to determine what factors affect phytoseiid abundances. Galendromus occidentalis abundance was positively affected by the use of conventional (vs. organic) spray programs, and the use of the acaricide bifenazate. Amblydromella caudiglans abundance was negatively affected by bifenazate use and positively affected by herbicide strip weediness; it was also less prevalent in 'Golden Delicious' blocks compared to other cultivars. These results indicate that A. caudiglans reaches higher abundances in orchards that lack certain agricultural disturbances, whereas G. occidentalis can survive in more disturbed environments. Surveys of this nature can provide valuable insight to potential drivers of community structure, allowing for the improvement of integrated pest management programs that incorporate conservation of newly recognized biological control agents such as A. caudiglans. PMID:26002311

  15. Windpowered irrigation system for small pecan orchards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goulden, D.R.

    1981-06-02

    A solution to the high installation and maintenance costs for small-orchard irrigation lies in the use of the windmill and a gravity-flow distribution system. Applying windpower for pumping and distributing water for irrigation of small pecan orchards is now economically feasible in many areas where pecans are grown. Because of its constant, moderate wind speeds, the central Oklahoma region lends itself well to such a system.

  16. Streptomycin application has no detectable effect on bacterial community structure in apple orchard soil.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Klimowicz, Amy K; Spear, Russell N; Linske, Matthew; Donato, Justin J; Hogan, Clifford S; McManus, Patricia S; Handelsman, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Streptomycin is commonly used to control fire blight disease on apple trees. Although the practice has incited controversy, little is known about its nontarget effects in the environment. We investigated the impact of aerial application of streptomycin on nontarget bacterial communities in soil beneath streptomycin-treated and untreated trees in a commercial apple orchard. Soil samples were collected in two consecutive years at 4 or 10 days before spraying streptomycin and 8 or 9 days after the final spray. Three sources of microbial DNA were profiled using tag-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes: uncultured bacteria from the soil (culture independent) and bacteria cultured on unamended or streptomycin-amended (15 μg/ml) media. Multivariate tests for differences in community structure, Shannon diversity, and Pielou's evenness test results showed no evidence of community response to streptomycin. The results indicate that use of streptomycin for disease management has minimal, if any, immediate effect on apple orchard soil bacterial communities. This study contributes to the profile of an agroecosystem in which antibiotic use for disease prevention appears to have minimal consequences for nontarget bacteria. PMID:23974143

  17. Streptomycin Application Has No Detectable Effect on Bacterial Community Structure in Apple Orchard Soil

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Ashley; Klimowicz, Amy K.; Spear, Russell N.; Linske, Matthew; Donato, Justin J.; Hogan, Clifford S.; McManus, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin is commonly used to control fire blight disease on apple trees. Although the practice has incited controversy, little is known about its nontarget effects in the environment. We investigated the impact of aerial application of streptomycin on nontarget bacterial communities in soil beneath streptomycin-treated and untreated trees in a commercial apple orchard. Soil samples were collected in two consecutive years at 4 or 10 days before spraying streptomycin and 8 or 9 days after the final spray. Three sources of microbial DNA were profiled using tag-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes: uncultured bacteria from the soil (culture independent) and bacteria cultured on unamended or streptomycin-amended (15 μg/ml) media. Multivariate tests for differences in community structure, Shannon diversity, and Pielou's evenness test results showed no evidence of community response to streptomycin. The results indicate that use of streptomycin for disease management has minimal, if any, immediate effect on apple orchard soil bacterial communities. This study contributes to the profile of an agroecosystem in which antibiotic use for disease prevention appears to have minimal consequences for nontarget bacteria. PMID:23974143

  18. [Controlling effects of dual mulching on soil moisture in an apple orchard].

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Suo, Gai-Di; Ding, Ya-Dong

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the controlling effects of dual mulching on soil moisture in an apple orchard on the Weibei rainfed highland, soil moisture in the 0-600 cm soil profile of the apple orchard was measured under four mulching treatments (plastic film plus straw, plastic film and straw mulches, as well as a non-mulching control) , and meanwhile the apple yield and branch growth increment were analyzed statistically. Results showed that the dual mulching treatment had the best effect on soil moisture conservation, and the soil water storage in such a soil profile was 6.7% higher than the control treatment. Long-term dual mulching could effectively alleviate soil desiccation occurring in deep soil layer in the region, and the monthly averaged soil water storage in stable layer (240-600 cm) was 64.22 mm higher than that of the control treatment. Both plastic film plus straw and plastic film mulches were able to reduce the temporal fluctuation of soil moisture in shallow soil (0-60 cm) and enhance the temporal stability of soil moisture in the layer. Compared with the single mulching treatments, the dual mulching treatment could effectively decrease the vertical variation of soil moisture in the profile and improve the stability of the vertical soil moisture distribution. The apple yield under the dual mulching treatment was evidently increased by 48.2%, as compared with the control treatment. All the analyses showed that dual mulching had more advantages in controlling soil moisture and improving apple yield than single mulching. PMID:25509080

  19. [Variation characteristic in soil respiration of apple orchard and its biotic and abiotic influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Liu, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Ru-Jian

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the orchard variability of soil respiration and the response of soil respiration to its influencing factors is helpful for a deep understanding about the effects of converting cropland to apple orchard. A field experiment was conducted in the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Station. Soil respiration, soil temperature, soil moisture and roots biomasses were periodically measured in a mature apple orchard during 2011 and 2012. Soil respiration decreased as the distance from the trunk increased. The cumulative soil respiration in the 0.5 m-distance from the trunk was 20% and 31% higher than that in the 2 m-distance from the trunk, respectively in 2011 and 2012. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was relatively lower in the 2 m-distance than that in the 0. 5 m-distance in both years. Soil temperature and soil moisture were slightly higher in the 2 m-distance, but there was no significant difference between the 2 m-distance and the 0. 5 m-distance. Soil respiration and soil temperature showed a significant exponential relationship, but there was no positive correlation between soil moisture and soil respiration. Soil temperature changes can explain seasonal variation of soil respiration well, but it could not explain its spatial variability. Root density was an important factor for the spatial variability of soil respiration and Q15. Variation of soil respiration coefficient was 23% -31%. Therefore, the distance from the trunk should be considered when estimating orchards soil respiration. PMID:25055686

  20. Factors promoting infestation of newly planted, nonbearing apple orchards by dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2005-12-01

    The initiation and level of infestation by dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was tracked over three consecutive years in two nonbearing apple (Malus spp.) orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards were planted on a number of rootstock-variety (approximately cultivar) combinations and grown using different cultural practices. Infestations were detected during the first season after planting and continued to increase annually. The amount of burr knot tissue had the greatest impact on dogwood borer populations, because increasing amounts of burr knot tissue resulted in higher infestation rates. The use of plastic spiral wrap tree guards seemed to increase the development of burr knot tissue, resulting in significantly greater infestation compared with trees without tree guards in the West Virginia orchard. Variety also had a significant effect, because 'Idared' trees on M.26 had significantly greater levels of infestation compared with 'Buckeye Gala' on M.26, with or without tree guards, in the Virginia orchard. Mounding soil around the rootstock to a height just above the graft union prevented or tremendously curtailed infestation by dogwood borer, but it led to scion rooting that seemed to have an impact on size-controlling features of dwarfing rootstocks. Removal of the mounds at the beginning of the third growing season resulted in infestation of the rooted tissue during the same season. As long as apple cultivars continue to be planted on size-controlling rootstocks, dogwood borer will likely remain a serious pest, requiring either chemical treatments or a behavioral control strategy, such as mating disruption, to protect trees from infestation and damage. PMID:16539141

  1. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions. PMID:27417503

  2. N2O Emissions from an Apple Orchard in the Coastal Area of Bohai Bay, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Baohua; Yu, Junbao; Zheng, Xunhua; Qu, Fanzhu; Xu, Yu; Lin, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Using static chambers and gas chromatography, nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from an apple orchard soil in the Bohai Bay region of China were measured from February 2010 to February 2011. In this study, two nitrogen (N) fertilizer treatments were designed—without (CK) or with (SN) synthetic N fertilizers (800 kg N ha−1). The annual cumulative N2O emissions from CK and SN were 34.6 ± 3.0 (mean ± standard error) and 44.3 ± 6.0 kg N2O–N ha−1, respectively. Such high emissions resulted from the intensive N fertilization in the experimental and previous years. The direct emission factor (EFd) of N2O induced by the applied synthetic N fertilizers was 1.2%. The EFd is within the range of previous studies carried out in other croplands, which suggests that it is reasonable to estimate regional N2O emissions from apple orchards using the EFd obtained in other croplands. In addition, significant positive correlations existed between N2O fluxes and soil temperatures or soil dissolved organic carbon contents. PMID:25050385

  3. Comparative Toxicities and Synergism of Apple Orchard Pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)

    PubMed Central

    Biddinger, David J.; Robertson, Jacqueline L.; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, James; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Joshi, Neelendra K.; Vaughn, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F) was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species) was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards. PMID:24039783

  4. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski).

    PubMed

    Biddinger, David J; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, James; Ashcraft, Sara A; Rajotte, Edwin G; Joshi, Neelendra K; Vaughn, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD₅₀ was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F) was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species) was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards. PMID:24039783

  5. Spatial heterogeneity, incidence-incidence, and incidence-lesion density relationship of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) in managed orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial pattern of apple scab was characterized using 10 years of disease incidence and lesion density data collected in commercial orchards located in Quebec, Canada. Distributional analyses indicated that scab incidence was better characterized by the beta-binomial than the binomial distribut...

  6. Response of Tortricid Moths and Non-Target Insects to Pheromone Trap Color in Commercial Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone traps are a widely used tool for monitoring pest activity in commercial apple orchards. Studies were conducted to evaluate delta-style traps painted with different colors (orange, red, yellow, green, blue, and white) for capture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris...

  7. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  8. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the Northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple orchards in the northeast, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need and timing of in...

  9. Effect of the width of the herbicide strip on mite dynamics in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hardman, J M; Franklin, J L; Bostanian, N J; Thistlewood, H M A

    2011-03-01

    Herbicide strips are used in apple orchards to promote tree growth and survival, to increase yield and to reduce the risk of rodent damage to tree bark. However, herbicide strips, particularly wider ones, may cause problems including soil erosion, reduced organic matter, leaching of nitrates into ground water and increased incidence of plant diseases and pests, including two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch. In this 2 year study we monitored mite dynamics in apple trees and used sticky bands on tree trunks to determine rates of T. urticae immigration into Nova Spy apple trees in plots with wide (2 m) or narrow (0.5 m) herbicide strips. Use of wider herbicide strips promoted two risk factors that could trigger outbreaks of tetranychid mites. First, concentrations of leaf N in apple trees were higher and those of P and K were lower with the wide strips. Such changes in nutritional quality of leaves would increase the potential for more rapid population growth of T. urticae, and to a lesser extent, the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch). Second, there were higher rates of T. urticae immigration from the ground cover vegetation into the trees. In 2006, and for most of 2007, densities of T. urticae were higher with wide herbicide strips, whereas densities of P. ulmi were not enhanced. However, by late August to early September in 2007, densities of both tetranychids were lower with wide herbicide strips. This is because both risk factors were counterbalanced, and eventually negated, by the enhanced action of phytoseiid predators, mostly Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten. From July through September 2006, ratios of phytoseiids to tetranychids were always several-fold lower with wide herbicide strips but in 2007, from mid-July onwards, predator-prey ratios were usually several-fold higher with wide strips. However, this numerical response of phytoseiids to prey density can only occur where the pesticide program in orchards is not too harsh on phytoseiids

  10. The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Russo, Laura; Park, Mia; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years. We used species rarefaction analyses to test for the completeness of sampling and the relationship between species richness and sampling effort, orchard size, and percent agriculture in the surrounding landscape. We performed more than 190 h of sampling, collecting 11,219 specimens representing 104 species. Despite the sampling intensity, we captured <75% of expected species richness at more than half of the sites. For most of these, the variation in bee community composition between years was greater than among sites. Species richness was influenced by percent agriculture, orchard size, and sampling effort, but we found no factors explaining the difference between observed and expected species richness. Competition between honeybees and wild bees did not appear to be a factor, as we found no correlation between honeybee and wild bee abundance. Our study shows that the pollinator fauna of agroecosystems can be diverse and challenging to thoroughly sample. We demonstrate that there is high temporal variation in community composition and that sites vary widely in the sampling effort required to fully describe their diversity. In order to maximize pollination services provided by wild bee species, we must first accurately estimate species richness. For researchers interested in providing this estimate, we recommend multiyear studies and rarefaction analyses to quantify the gap between observed and expected species richness. PMID:26380684

  11. Evaluation of pheromone-based management strategies for dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in commercial apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F; Zhang, Aijun

    2009-06-01

    The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and systematic documentation of the effect of a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone-based management strategies for this important pest. Here we evaluated the potential of pheromone-based mass trapping of males to reduce dogwood borer infestations and conducted preliminary evaluations of an antagonist-based pheromone blend for disruption of dogwood borer mate finding in commercial apple orchards in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. In the mass trapping study, treatments included a conventional trunk-drench application of chlorpyrifos, a low-density mass trapping regime of 5 traps/ha, a higher-density mass trapping regime of 20 traps/ha, and an untreated control. We removed large numbers of males from orchards at all locations, with 27,155, 8,418, and 7,281 removed from high-density trapping plots in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia, respectively, over 2 yr. After 2 yr under each of these treatment regimes, infestation in high- and low-density mass trapping plots was not reduced to the level of chlorpyrifos-treated plots. An antagonist-based dispenser deployed at a rate of 250/ha effectively disrupted mate-finding by male dogwood borer. In plots with mating disruption dispensers, captures in pheromone-baited traps were virtually eliminated, and no males were captured in traps baited with virgin females. PMID:19610423

  12. Water content determination of soil surface in an intensive apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riczu, Péter; Nagy, Gábor; Tamás, János

    2015-04-01

    Currently in Hungary, less than 100,000 hectares of orchards can be found, from which cultivation of apple is one of the most dominant ones. Production of marketable horticulture products can be difficult without employing advanced and high quality horticulture practices, which, in turn, depends on appropriate management and irrigation systems, basically. The got out water amount depend on climatic, edafic factors and the water demand of plants as well. The soil water content can be determined by traditional and modern methods. In order to define soil moisture content, gravimetry measurement is one of the most accurate methods, but it is time consuming and sometimes soil sampling and given results are in different times. Today, IT provides the farmers such tools, like global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). These tools develop in a great integration rapidly. RS methods are ideal to survey larger area quick and accurate. Laser scanning is a novel technique which analyses a real-world or object environment to collect structural and spectral data. In order to obtain soil moisture information, the Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial 3D laser scanner was used on an intensive apple orchard on the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, near Pallag. Previously, soil samples from the study area with different moisture content were used as reference points. Based on the return intensity values of the laser scanner can be distinguished the different moisture content areas of soil surface. Nevertheless, the error of laser distance echo were examined and statistically evaluated. This research was realized in the frames of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 "National Excellence Program - Elaborating and operating an inland student and researcher personal support system". The project was subsidized by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  13. [Vertical temperature distribution and its forecast for two tree structures of apple orchard during the blooming period in the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhen-jiang; Shang, Xiao-ning; Wang, Jing-hong; Liang, Yi; Gao, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Temperature is the most sensitive environment factor for the blooming period of apple. Temperatures at different levels were measured by automatic micro-climatic gradient system in the blooming periods from 2011 to 2014, in two Fuji apple orchards with two different tree ages and structures [small canopy open center shape (SMCOCS) and freedom spindle shape (FSS)], respectively, which were typical in the Loess Plateau. Variations of the temperature gradient in both canopy and tree body were analyzed in sunny, overcast, cloudy, and rainy weather conditions, and a predicting model was established that could predict the temperature of the canopy (TL) according to the temperature observed in nearby meteorological station (TM). The results showed that the vertical distribution of canopy temperature and its difference to the outside of orchard was mainly due to the tree structure, rather than the weather condition. The average temperature and daily minimum temperature increased while the daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range decreased from the bottom to the upper of the canopy. For SMCOCS, the diurnal temperature range reached its peak under the canopy in the clear days, and the diurnal temperature range was less than that for FSS in the middle and upper canopy in cloudy or overcast conditions. The daily variation of temperature difference between inside and outside the orchard behaved as a single peak-valley-peak for FSS but as a single peak for SMCOCS. The minimum temperature outside the orchard was closer to that in the middle of canopy, but higher than that in the bottom of the canopy. For SMCOCS, the minimum temperature in the bottom of its canopy was rather lower than that in the orchard outside, especially in cloudy or overcast day, while in the middle or upper canopy, the minimum temperature difference with the orchard outside was smaller than that for the FSS. The linear model was found to be able to predict the TL with absolute errors below

  14. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  15. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards. PMID:25234440

  16. Bats at risk? Bat activity and insecticide residue analysis of food items in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Peter; Brühl, Carsten A

    2012-07-01

    Although bats are reported as being threatened by pesticides, they are currently not considered in European Union pesticide risk assessments. The reason for that contradiction is probably related to the scarcity of information on bat activity in pesticide-treated fields and the pesticide residues on their food items. The authors recorded bat activity and measured pesticide residues on bat-specific food items following applications of two insecticides in an apple orchard. High activity levels of the common pipistrelle bat, a foraging habitat generalist, were detected. Airborne foragers and bats that take part of their food by gleaning arthropods from the vegetation were recorded frequently. The initial value and the decline of pesticide residues were found to depend on the arthropod type, their surface to volume ratio, their mobility, and the mode of action of the applied pesticide. The highest initial residue values were measured on foliage-dwelling arthropods. By following the toxicity-exposure ratio approaches of the current pesticide risk assessment, no acute dietary risk was found for all recorded bat species. However, a potential reproductive risk for bat species that include foliage-dwelling arthropods in their diet was indicated. The results emphasize the importance of adequately evaluating the risks of pesticides to bats, which, compared to other mammals, are potentially more sensitive due to their ecological traits. PMID:22505289

  17. Characterization of Osmotolerant Yeasts and Yeast-Like Molds from Apple Orchards and Apple Juice Processing Plants in China and Investigation of Their Spoilage Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huxuan; Hu, Zhongqiu; Long, Fangyu; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-08-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like fungal isolates were recovered from apple orchards and apple juice processing plants located in the Shaanxi province of China. The strains were evaluated for osmotolerance by growing them in 50% (w/v) glucose. Of the strains tested, 66 were positive for osmotolerance and were subsequently identified by 26S or 5.8S-ITS ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Physiological tests and RAPD-PCR analysis were performed to reveal the polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species. Further, the spoilage potential of the 66 isolates was determining by evaluating their growth in 50% to 70% (w/v) glucose and measuring gas generation in 50% (w/v) glucose. Thirteen osmotolerant isolates representing 9 species were obtained from 10 apple orchards and 53 target isolates representing 19 species were recovered from 2 apple juice processing plants. In total, members of 14 genera and 23 species of osmotolerant isolates including yeast-like molds were recovered from all sources. The commonly recovered osmotolerant isolates belonged to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida tropicalis, and Pichia kudriavzevii. The polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species was limited to 1 to 3 biotypes. The majority of species were capable of growing within a range of glucose concentration, similar to sugar concentrations found in apple juice products with a lag phase from 96 to 192 h. Overall, Z. rouxii was particularly the most tolerant to high glucose concentration with the shortest lag phase of 48 h in 70% (w/v) glucose and the fastest gas generation rate in 50% (w/v) glucose. PMID:26130165

  18. A simplified extraction schema to for the analytical characterization of apple orchard soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, soil analysis is mainly done to monitor available nutrients as well contaminants, in order to find the optimum fertilization resp. remediation strategy. Traditionally, available nutrients in soils have been obtained from a series of different extractions, some just for one single parameter. In order to simplify the entire procedures, multi-element techniques, like ICP-OES and ICP-MS, have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0,16M acetic acid and 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1+1 HCl. The results of total digestion could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The method was applied to 34 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0,9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. The Rare Earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Factor analysis was utilized to prove if the obtained fractions part into groups in a geochemically feasible way. The fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as

  19. Distribution of Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Transposons among Phylloplane Bacteria in Michigan Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Elise L.; Jones, Alan L.

    1999-01-01

    The extent and nature of tetracycline resistance in bacterial populations of two apple orchards with no or a limited history of oxytetracycline usage were assessed. Tetracycline-resistant (Tcr) bacteria were mostly gram negative and represented from 0 to 47% of the total bacterial population on blossoms and leaves (versus 26 to 84% for streptomycin-resistant bacteria). A total of 87 isolates were screened for the presence of specific Tcr determinants. Tcr was determined to be due to the presence of Tet B in Pantoea agglomerans and other members of the family Enterobacteriacae and Tet A, Tet C, or Tet G in most Pseudomonas isolates. The cause of Tcr was not identified in 16% of the isolates studied. The Tcr genes were almost always found on large plasmids which also carried the streptomycin resistance transposon Tn5393. Transposable elements with Tcr determinants were detected by entrapment following introduction into Escherichia coli. Tet B was found within Tn10. Two of eighteen Tet B-containing isolates had an insertion sequence within Tn10; one had IS911 located within IS10-R and one had Tn1000 located upstream of Tet B. Tet A was found within a novel variant of Tn1721, named Tn1720, which lacks the left-end orfI of Tn1721. Tet C was located within a 19-kb transposon, Tn1404, with transposition genes similar to those of Tn501, streptomycin (aadA2) and sulfonamide (sulI) resistance genes within an integron, Tet C flanked by direct repeats of IS26, and four open reading frames, one of which may encode a sulfate permease. Two variants of Tet G with 92% sequence identity were detected. PMID:10543801

  20. Susceptibility of Bonagota salubricola (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Insecticides in Brazilian Apple Orchards: Implications for Resistance Management.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Andreazza, Felipe; Arnaldo Batista Neto E Silva, Oscar; João Arioli, Cristiano; Omoto, Celso

    2016-08-01

    The Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) is a major pest in apple orchards in Brazil, and chemical control has been the primary tool for insect management. To support the development of an insect resistance management (IRM) program, baseline studies of the susceptibility of a reference (laboratory) B. salubricola population were conducted; seven wild B. salubricola populations were monitored for susceptibility to insecticide; and the toxicity of some new chemicals to third-instar larvae and adults was evaluated by a leaf dip and ingestion bioassay, respectively. Neonates from the susceptible (laboratory) population exposed to insecticide showed an LC50 ranging from 0.34 (spinetoram) to 30.19 (novaluron) µg of a.i. ml(-1) (88.8-fold variation), so the diagnostic concentrations for an IRM program in Brazil based on the LC99 were as follows: 19.0 µg of a.i./ml chlorantraniliprole, 510.0 novaluron, 72.0 phosmet, 4.1 spinetoram, 12.8 spinosad, and 110.0 tebufenozide. Based on the LC99, significant differences were not observed in the susceptibility of the field and laboratory populations to chlorantraniliprole, phosmet, spinetoram, spinosad, and tebufenozide insecticides, but there were significant differences in the survival rates of the two populations to novaluron insecticide (3.3%). All insecticides at the diagnostic concentrations showed high toxicity to third-instar larvae (mortality rates between 73 to 97%). Phosmet, spinetoram, and spinosad insecticides were toxic to B. salubricola adults (mortality >85%), while chlorantraniliprole, novaluron, and tebufenozide insecticides caused mortality below 5%. The evaluated insecticides showed high toxicity to different developmental stages of B. salubricola, so the diagnostic concentrations may be used in IRM programs in Brazil. PMID:27341888

  1. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes and transposons among phylloplane bacteria in Michigan apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, E L; Jones, A L

    1999-11-01

    The extent and nature of tetracycline resistance in bacterial populations of two apple orchards with no or a limited history of oxytetracycline usage were assessed. Tetracycline-resistant (Tc(r)) bacteria were mostly gram negative and represented from 0 to 47% of the total bacterial population on blossoms and leaves (versus 26 to 84% for streptomycin-resistant bacteria). A total of 87 isolates were screened for the presence of specific Tc(r) determinants. Tc(r) was determined to be due to the presence of Tet B in Pantoea agglomerans and other members of the family Enterobacteriacae and Tet A, Tet C, or Tet G in most Pseudomonas isolates. The cause of Tc(r) was not identified in 16% of the isolates studied. The Tc(r) genes were almost always found on large plasmids which also carried the streptomycin resistance transposon Tn5393. Transposable elements with Tc(r) determinants were detected by entrapment following introduction into Escherichia coli. Tet B was found within Tn10. Two of eighteen Tet B-containing isolates had an insertion sequence within Tn10; one had IS911 located within IS10-R and one had Tn1000 located upstream of Tet B. Tet A was found within a novel variant of Tn1721, named Tn1720, which lacks the left-end orfI of Tn1721. Tet C was located within a 19-kb transposon, Tn1404, with transposition genes similar to those of Tn501, streptomycin (aadA2) and sulfonamide (sulI) resistance genes within an integron, Tet C flanked by direct repeats of IS26, and four open reading frames, one of which may encode a sulfate permease. Two variants of Tet G with 92% sequence identity were detected. PMID:10543801

  2. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. I. Immunological parameters.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Boermans, H J; Ng, P; Campbell, G D; Struger, J

    1998-12-25

    The degree of pesticide exposure and its effects on the immune system and its development were determined in 16-d-old tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) chicks from 4 sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 1994-1995. Persistent contaminant residues were measured in tree swallow eggs and in each chick hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity; body, immune organ, and liver masses; lymphocyte blastogenesis response; respiratory burst and phagocytic responses; hemarological evaluation; and histological development of thymus, bursa of fabricius, and spleen were determined. Chemicals sprayed on apple orchards were mainly ethylene bisdithiocarbamate and myclobutanil fungicides and organophosphorus, carbamate, and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. During the period between oviposition of the first egg in each nest to d 16 after hatching, individual nests in orchards were exposed to between 4 and 11 individual chemical applications and up to 3 mixtures of pesticide sprays. Concentrations of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead and arsenic residues in tree swallow eggs and liver were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE, which was as high as 2.29 microg/g wet weight in eggs. EROD activity was not different among sites. Organochlorine and trace metal residues and EROD activity were not correlated with any immune parameter. In sprayed birds, we found a significantly increased blastogenic response to pokeweed mitogen (12.5 microg/ml). However, nests were initiated over a period of several weeks and we also found changes in other tree swallow immune parameters that were related to the date of chick collection. Hematological parameters, bursal and thymic masses, phagocytic response, and thymic development were all correlated with the day the chicks were 16 d of age. After accounting for the collection date of birds from each nest, we found cell proliferation in the cortex and delayed thymic

  3. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  4. Influence of orchard floor management and compost application timing on nitrogen partitioning in apple trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the differential partitioning of compost N in young apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees under cultivation, wood chip mulch and legume cover crop management. 15N enriched compost was applied to apple trees in April, May and June of 2006 and 2007. Trees were excavated to determin...

  5. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  6. Mating Disruption of a Carpenter Moth, Cossus insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in Apple Orchards with Synthetic Sex Pheromone, and Registration of the Pheromone as an Agrochemical.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hirotsuna; Takabe, Masanori; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Mating disruption of the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), with a synthetic version of its sex pheromone, a mixture of (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-3-tetradecenyl acetate, was tested for three successive years in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards. Pheromone trap catches, percentage mating of tethered females and females enclosed with males in a mating cage, and tree damage were measured in both the pheromone-treated and untreated control orchards. The attraction of male moths to pheromone traps at heights of 1.5, 3, and 5 m was strongly disrupted when the pheromone dispensers were placed at 1.5 m height. Mating of tethered females placed at 1 m was completely inhibited, and the mating of tethered females at a height of 3 m was significantly reduced by the treatment in comparison to matings in an untreated control orchard. Similarly, mating of pairs of moths enclosed in mating cages was significantly reduced by the synthetic pheromone treatment in comparison to controls. The percentage of damaged trees in the pheromone-treated orchard also decreased significantly over the course of the experiment. These results suggest that mating disruption with the synthetic sex pheromone appears promising for reducing damage caused by C. insularis in apple orchards in Japan, and a commercial mating disruption product has been developed and registered. PMID:27369282

  7. POEM: PESTICIDE ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Orchard Ecosystem Model (POEM) is a mathematical model of organophosphate pesticide movement in an apple orchard ecosystem. In addition submodels on invertebrate population dynamics are included. The fate model allows the user to select the pesticide, its applicatio...

  8. Advances in Brassicaceae seed meal formulation and application for replant disease control in organic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform and sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease. Trials were established at multiple sites to evaluate the efficacy of seed meal formulations for control of this disease in organic production sy...

  9. Battling Wormy apples in the Home Orchard Using a SOFT Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A program was developed for use by homeowners to control codling moth in backyard apple and pear trees. Coined SOFT (Selective Organic Fruit Tree), this management program uses a combination of granulosis virus, parasitic nematodes, and a trap and lure for females. This multi-tactic approach reduced...

  10. Releases of insectary-reared Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in commercial apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is one of several phytoseiid species that are available for purchase to supplement endemic predator populations that are not providing sufficient control of spider mites. We performed a series of releases of commercially reared G. occidentalis in commercial apple (...

  11. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  12. Phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with pesticides using short-rotation willow crops: A case study of an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Benoit; Sauvé, Sébastien; Duy, Sung Vo; Labrecque, Michel

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of pesticides in groundwater represents an important health issue, notably for population whose drinking water supply source is located in agricultural areas. However, few solutions have been considered with regard to this issue. We tested the efficacy of a vegetal filtering system made of shrub willows planted at a high density (16,000 plants ha(-1)) to filter or degrade pesticides found in the groundwater flowing out of an apple orchard. Ethylene urea (EU), ethylene thiourea (ETU), tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), atrazine, and desethylatrazine were monitored in the soil solution in willow and control plots over one growing season. ETU and atrazine concentrations were lower in the willow plots relative to the control plots, whereas desethylatrazine concentration was higher in the willow plots. No significant difference was detected for EU and THPI. Furthermore, pesticide concentrations displayed complex temporal patterns. These results suggest that willow filter systems can filter or degrade pesticides, notably ETU and atrazine, and could be used for phytoremediation purposes. Yet, this potential remains to be quantified with further studies using experimental settings allowing more estimation in time and space. PMID:27196962

  13. Apple fruit diameter and length estimation by using the thermal and sunshine hours approach and its application to the digital orchard management information system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chen, Meixiang; Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan'an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012) of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT), an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT), an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit. PMID:25831065

  14. Apple Fruit Diameter and Length Estimation by Using the Thermal and Sunshine Hours Approach and Its Application to the Digital Orchard Management Information System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan’an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012) of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT), an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT), an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit. PMID:25831065

  15. Nesting and pollen preference of Osmia lignaria lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Virginia and North Carolina orchards.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, M E; Favi, F D; Niedziela, C E

    2014-08-01

    Cavity-nesting megachilid bees in the genus Osmia, found throughout the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, are good candidates for domestication. In North America, Osmia lignaria Say has been reported to be an excellent pollinator of tree fruit and is currently being developed for commercial use in orchards. This is largely because of research over several decades with the western subspecies of this bee, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in western orchards. The behavior of the eastern subspecies, O. lignaria lignaria Say, in eastern orchards has not previously been reported. This study evaluated the nesting activity and pollen preference of a population of the eastern subspecies in five orchards in the foothills and piedmont regions of North Carolina and Virginia over a 2-yr period. Apple was present in all orchards and all were bordered by hardwood forest. Shelters were placed both within orchards and the forest border. Emergence dates, nest construction, and orchard bloom were monitored weekly. Bee populations increased by 2-3 times annually at most orchards. Pollen species comprising nest provisions from 720 individual nest cells were identified and quantified using scanning electron microscopy. The greatest amount of pollen (46-82%) was that of a small understory tree, Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.), at all orchard sites where these trees were present nearby. The quantity of orchard pollen was relatively low, <20% at full apple bloom, except for one orchard (53%) without nearby redbud. O. lignaria lignaria appears to prefer Eastern redbud pollen over orchard pollen. PMID:24865141

  16. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Beyer, W.N.; Stehn, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  17. The impact of insecticides applied in apple orchards on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino

    2014-03-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs. PMID:24114337

  18. Monitoring of the Red-Belted Clearwing Moth, Synanthedon myopaeformis, and its Parasitoid Liotryphon crassiseta in Apple Orchards in Yellow Moericke Traps

    PubMed Central

    Bąkowski, Marek; Piekarska-Boniecka, Hanna; Dolańska-Niedbała, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in 2008–2010 in three apple orchards in western Poland and involved a massive catch of the red-belted clearwing moth, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), and its parasitoid Liotryphon crassiseta (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in yellow Moericke traps. The flight time for both species was correlated and fell in the first half of July. However, the correlation between the occurrences of both species was statistically significant only in 2008, when most specimens were caught. A total of 7960 S. myopaeformis were caught, with a 2:1 male:female sex ratio, and 415 adult L. crassiseta. No correlation between the numbers of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta in relation to age, variety of trees, or orchard surface area was noted. Significant differences between the catches of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta were reported in particular years. Furthermore, clear differences in the yields of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta between traps situated in the orchard and those on its edges were recorded, particularly in the orchard surrounded by cultivated fields. Yellow pan-traps could be used more widely in order to monitor and control the abundance of S. myopaeformis, especially by catching its females. PMID:23879220

  19. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27391022

  20. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27391022

  1. Improving irrigation efficiency in Italian apple orchards: A large-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Chiesa, Stefano; la Cecilia, Daniele; Niedrist, Georg; Hafner, Hansjörg; Thalheimer, Martin; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    Nord-Italian region South Tyrol is Europe's largest apple growing area. In order to enable an economically relevant fruit quality and quantity the relative dry climate of the region 450-700mm gets compensated by a large scale irrigation management which until now follows old, traditional rights. Due to ongoing climatic changes and rising public sensitivity toward sustainable usage of water resources, irrigation practices are more and more critically discussed. In order to establish an objective and quantitative base of information to optimise irrigation practice, 17 existing microclimatic stations were upgraded with soil moisture and soil water potential sensors. As a second information layer a data set of 20,000 soil analyses has been geo-referenced and spatialized using a modern geostatistical method. Finally, to assess whether the zones with shallow aquifer influence soil water availability, data of 70 groundwater depth measuring stations were retrieved. The preliminary results highlight that in many locations in particular in the valley bottoms irrigation largely exceeds plant water needs because either the shallow aquifer provides sufficient water supply by capillary rise processes into the root zone or irrigation is applied without accounting for the specific soil properties.

  2. Analysis of the influence of climatic and physiological parameters on the net ecosystem carbon exchange of an apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotelli, Damiano; Montagnani, Leonardo; Scandellari, Francesca; Tagliavini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) of an apple orchard located in South Tyrol (Caldaro, Bolzano, Italy) was monitored continuously since March 2009 via eddy covariance technique. Contemporary measurements of the main environmental parameters (temperature, photosynthetic active photon flux density, soil water content, vapor pressure deficit) were taken at the same field site. Leaf Area Index was also determined biometrically starting from spring 2010. Objectives of this work were (i) to assess the influence of these environmental and physiological parameters on NEE, (ii) to set up a model capable to fill large gap occurring in the dataset and (iii) predict inter-annual variability of fluxes based on the measurements of the selected explanatory variables. Daily cumulated values of the response variable (NEE, g C d-1) and mean daily value of the five explanatory variables considered (air T, ° C; SWC, m3m-3; PPFD, μmol m-2s-1; VPD, hPa, LAI m2m-2) were used in this analysis. The complex interactions between the explanatory variables and NEE were analyzed with the tree model approach which draws a picture of the complexity of data structure and highlights the explanatory variable that explain the greater amount of deviance of the response variable. NEE variability was mostly explained by LAI and PPFD. The most positive values of NEE occurred below the LAI threshold of 1.16 m2m-2 while above that LAI threshold and with an average daily PPFD above 13.2 μmol m-2s-1, the orchard resulted always a sink of carbon (negative daily NEE). On half of the available data (only alternate months of the considered period were considered), a stepwise multiple regression approach was used to model NEE using the variables indicated above. Simplification by deletion of the non-significant terms was carried out until all parameters where highly significant (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in deviance was observed when deleting further variables. Since heteroscedasticity and non

  3. [Effects of different organic matter mulching on water content, temperature, and available nutrients of apple orchard soil in a cold region].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The effects of different organic matter covers on soil physical-chemical properties were investigated in a 'Hanfu' apple orchard located in a cold region. Four treatments were applied (weed mulching, rice straw mulching, corn straw mulching, and crushed branches mulching), and physical-chemical properties, including orchard soil moisture and nutrient contents, were compared among treatment groups and between organic matter-treated and untreated plots. The results showed that soil water content increased in the plots treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the arid season. Cover with organic matter mulch slowed the rate of soil temperature increase in spring, which was harmful to the early growth of fruit trees. Organic matter mulching treatments decreased the peak temperature of orchard soil in the summer and increased the minimum soil temperature in the fall. pH was increased in soils treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the corn straw mulching treatment, which occurred as a response to alleviating soil acidification to achieve near-neutral soil conditions. The soil organic matter increased to varying extents among treatment groups, with the highest increase observed in the weed mulching treatment. Overall, mulching increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the soil, but the alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the rice straw mulching treatment was lower than that of the control. PMID:25757304

  4. From planning to execution to the future: An overview of a concerted effort to enhance biological control in apple, pear, and walnut orchards in the western U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We embarked on a large project designed to help enhance biological control in apple, pear and walnut orchards in the western U.S., where management programs are in the midst of a transition from older organo-phosphate insecticides to mating disruption and newer reduced risk insecticides. A “pesticid...

  5. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  6. Response of microbial communities from an apple orchard and grassland soils to the first-time application of the fungicide tetraconazole.

    PubMed

    Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the triazole fungicide tetraconazole applied at the field rate (FR) and at ten-fold the FR (10FR) on microorganisms in orchard soil with a long-term history of fungicides application and in grassland soil that had not previously been treated with pesticides. To ascertain this impact, the microbial activity determined by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, the culturable number of bacteria, fungi and tetraconazole-resistant fungi, and the phospholipid microbial biomass and the structural and functional biodiversity assessed by the PLFA and Biolog approaches, respectively, were examined under laboratory conditions during 28-day experiment. The response of soil microorganisms to the fungicide tetraconazole, which had never been used before in these soils, depended on the management of the soils. In apple orchard soil that had been treated with FR or 10FR tetraconazole, a decrease in microbial activity was still observed on the 28th day after the application of the fungicide. In contrast, a significant impact of tetraconazole on the number of bacteria was still observed at the end of experiment in grassland soil. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the application of tetraconazole significantly changed the structure of the microbial communities in the orchard soil. In addition, analysis of the Biolog profiles revealed a decrease in the catabolic activity of the microbial communities in grassland soil that had been treated with tetraconazole at both rates over time. The evaluation of the structural and functional diversity of microbial communities using PCA appears to be the most valuable monitoring tool for assessing the impact of tetraconazole application on soil microorganisms. PMID:26524652

  7. Impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna living in bird nests built in nestboxes in pear and apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Roy, Lise; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Lavigne, Claire; Galès, Mathieu; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (≥10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered. PMID:23448302

  8. Impact of floor management strategies on nitrogen fertility and biological soil quality in newly established organic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable methods of nitrogen (N) fertility and weed management are a challenge in organic orchard management systems. Nutrient supply is dependent on decomposition and mineralization of organic matter, yet intensive cultivation commonly used to control weeds can disrupt biological processes cont...

  9. Sex pheromone monitoring as a versatile tool for determining presence and abundance of Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae) in German apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Czyrt, T; Schmid, S; Leithold, G; Vilcinskas, A

    2012-01-01

    Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae), the codling moth, is an apple, pear, quince and walnut pest with considerable impact on horticultural production systems in many parts of the world. In commercial apple production, it is responsible for a yearly damage level of 40 billion dollars. In response to the need of tight codling moth control there are several options for intervention by pest managers in commercially operated orchards. Spray and count methods have been used for decades with success, but at considerable external costs for the integrity of ecological cycles. Also, problems with pesticide residues and with resistant strains are an issue of concern. For environmental reasons, toxicological means are discounted here. Instead, flight curves based on sex pheromone trapping and monitoring are preferred means towards determining the optimal timing of interventions by biotechnical and biological control methods. Finally, ecological reasons are discussed for vastly different population levels of C. pomonella developing in closely neighboring field sections which operated under different environmental management. PMID:23885432

  10. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jason M; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices. PMID:27348005

  11. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy-covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotelli, D.; Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Tagliavini, M.

    2012-10-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE) is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global estimates of gross primary production with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, net primary production (NPP) and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010). We applied a~measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross-check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m-2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m-2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruits: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls) contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71 ± 0.09, was higher than the previously suggested

  12. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotelli, D.; Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Tagliavini, M.

    2013-05-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), the ratio of net primary production (NPP) over gross primary production (GPP), is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global GPP estimates with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, NPP and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010). We applied a measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard, both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on a yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m-2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m-2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruit: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls) contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71 ± 0.12, was higher

  13. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... This could be due to different amounts of arsenic in orchard soils. Testing a small number of samples of different ... organic apples come from trees that grow in soil that may contain arsenic. The FDA is not aware of any data ...

  14. Spatially explicit exposure assessment for small streams in catchments of the orchard growing region `Lake Constance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, B.; Bach, M.; Krumpe, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Small streams differ greatly from the standardised water body used in the context of aquatic risk assessment for the regulation of plant protection products in Germany. The standard water body is static, with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.0 m. No dilution or water replacement takes place. Spray drift happens always in direction to the water body. There is no variability in drift deposition rate (90th percentile spray drift deposition values [2]). There is no spray drift filtering by vegetation. The application takes place directly adjacent to the water body. In order to establish a more realistic risk assessment procedure the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) aggreed to replace deterministic assumptions with data distributions and spatially explicit data and introduce probabilistic methods [3, 4, 5]. To consider the spatial and temporal variability in the exposure situations of small streams the hydraulic and morphological characteristics of catchments need to be described as well as the spatial distribution of fields treated with pesticides. As small streams are the dominant type of water body in most German orchard regions, we use the growing region Lake Constance as pilot region. 2. Materials and methods During field surveys we derive basic morphological parameters for small streams in the Lake Constance region. The mean water width/depth ratio is 13 with a mean depth of 0.12 m. The average residence time is 5.6 s/m (n=87) [1]. Orchards are mostly located in the upper parts of the catchments. Based on an authoritative dataset on rivers and streams of Germany (ATKIS DLM25) we constructed a directed network topology for the Lake Constance region. The gradient of the riverbed is calculated for river stretches of > 500 m length. The network for the pilot region consists of 2000 km rivers and streams. 500 km stream length are located within a distance of 150 m to orchards. Within

  15. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. II. Sex and thyroid hormone concentrations and testes development.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Van Der Kraak, G J; Ng, P; Smits, J E; Hontela, A

    1998-12-25

    To investigate the effects of pesticides on wild birds, sex (17beta-estradiol; testosterone) and thyroid (triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentrations, body mass, and testes mass were measured and the development of testes was evaluated in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in four sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1995-1996. In orchards, birds were exposed to asmany as 11 individual spray events and five sprays of mixtures of chemicals. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, lead, and arsenic concentrations were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE concentrations, which ranged from 0.36 to 2.23 microg/g wet weight in eggs. These persistent compounds were not correlated with any endocrine response measured in tree swallows. In 16-d-old male tree swallow chicks, body mass and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), testosterone, and T3 in plasma showed no significant differences between sprayed and nonsprayed groups and among sites within those groups. However, T3 concentrations were slightly elevated in the sprayed group compared to the nonsprayed group, and there was a significant and positive correlation between T3 and the number of mixtures of sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 16-d-old female chicks, there were no significant differences among spray treatments or sites and no correlations with spray exposure for testosterone, estradiol, or T3 in plasma. Body mass was correlated positively with T3 and negatively with estradiol but showed no differences among spray exposure groups or sites. Histology of testes of 16-d-old male chicks indicated there were no significant differences among sprayed and nonsprayed birds in testes mass, area, or diameter, or the presence of Leydig cells in the interstitium, the distribution of the Sertoli cells, or the occurrence of heterophils in the testicular interstitium. For the percentage of spermatogonia present on

  16. Probabilistic Exposure Assessment for Applicators during Treatment of the Fungicide Kresoxim-methyl on an Apple Orchard by a Speed Sprayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhye; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic exposure and risk assessment of kresoxim-methyl were conducted for agricultural applicators during preparation of spray suspension and application with a speed sprayer on an apple orchard. The preparation and application of 1000 L of spray suspension were repeated 30 times. Several exposure matrices, including patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin, were used to measure the potential exposure for workers. The analytical methods were fully validated to guarantee the precision and accuracy of analysis. The exposure amount on hands for mixer/loader was 0.7 mg [95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.02 to 2.4], taking 0.0005% (95% CI from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 0.001) of total prepared active ingredient. During application of kresoxim-methyl, the amount of dermal exposure was 17.5 mg (95% CI from 9.3 to 28.9), corresponding to 0.010% (95% CI from 0.006 to 0.017) of total applied active ingredient. The major exposure parts of the body were thighs and shins, with correlation coefficients of 0.53 and 0.43, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application were estimated as 6.8 ng (95% CI from 0.4 to 17.0), being 0.04% (95% CI from 0.004 to 0.06) of the dermal exposure. The calculated absorbable quantities of exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 2.1 × 10(-4) mg/day (95% CI from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 7.2 × 10(-4)) and 2.3 mg/day (95% CI from 1.2 to 3.8), respectively. For risk assessment, the margin of safety of all working activities was much higher than 1, indicating that the possibility of risk to kresoxim-methyl was unlikely. PMID:26492351

  17. Optimizing use of codling moth granulovirus: effects of application rate and spraying frequency on control of codling moth larvae in Pacific Northwest apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, S P; Lacey, L A; Fritts, R

    2005-10-01

    New formulations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), granulovirus (CpGV) [family Baculoviridae, genus Granulovirus] are commercially available in North America. In field tests on apple (Malus sp. 'Delicious'), we compared different application strategies for CpGV (Cyd-X, Certis USA, Clovis, CA) used in full-season programs against high pest populations. In replicated single tree plots, three rates (0.073, 0.219, and 0.438 liter ha(-1)) and application intervals (7, 10, and 14 d) killed 81-99% of larvae in fruit and reduced the number of mature larvae recovered in tree bands by 54-98%. Although the proportion of deep entries declined by 77-98%, the amount of fruit injury was not reduced compared with controls. There was a statistical trend between increasing dosage and spray frequency intervals and virus effectiveness, but no interaction between these factors. In a commercial orchard, we assessed a standard (0.219 liter ha(-1)) and two reduced rates of the virus (0.146 and 0.073 liter ha(-1)) applied in a weekly spray program in replicated 0.2-ha blocks. In the first generation, fruit injury was reduced in virus-treated compared with three untreated blocks although the decrease was only significant at the standard rate. Mortality rates of larvae (in fruit) were > or =90%, dose dependent, and comparable with rates observed from individual trees sprayed with equivalent treatments in the previous study. Rates of larval mortality declined at all dosages (81-85%) in the first part of the second generation. Most damage and proportionally less mortality occurred in the upper canopy. High pest pressures and untreated blocks contributed to significant damage and the study was terminated early. These data suggest virus programs can be tailored according to the localized pest pressure, but it may not prevent economic damage in high-pressure situations. PMID:16334311

  18. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  19. Breeding apple rootstocks in the 21st century – what can we expect them to do to increase productivity in the orchard?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rootstocks are the foundation of a healthy and productive orchard. As such, the choice of a rootstock can influence the productivity and profitability of an orchard in a very significant way. Rootstock performance is highly correlated with the genetic potential of such rootstock to provide anchora...

  20. Effects of aerial applications of esfenvalerate on small mammals and birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Rice, C.P.; Grove, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although no adverse effects were documented, this study did not provide data sufficient to adequately test for effects of aerial spraying of esfenvalerate on small mammal populations or nesting of birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Small mammal trapping data were too sparse to provide statistical testing with reasonable power. Residues of the R and S forms of fenvalerate were low with maxima of 0.56 and 1.72 ?g/g, respectively in pelage of a deer mouse. No diagnostic residue data are available to interpret our results.

  1. Towards the intergrated management of apple replant disease using knowledge on disease etiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young apple orchards that are cultivated on old apple soils often suffer from apple replant disease (ARD). ARD symptom expression is characterized by tree stunting, shortened internodes and discoloured roots, which appears throughout the orchard shortly after orchard establishment when trees are mos...

  2. Modeling of water management and hydrological properties of orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Tamás, J.; Soltész, M.

    2012-04-01

    Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Eastern part of Hungary and an 80 hectare Bosc and Williams pear orchard in the South Western part of Hungary. in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer and soil physical parameters on soil water regime, supporting the water management of the orchard on hillsides and to reduce the effect of high precipitation intensity on orchards. The total drainable water regime is 920 m3 ha-1 from the upper 40cm soil layer and 1460 m3 ha-1 from the upper 70 cm soil layer. This amount of water should have been drained several times in 2010 to prevent the orchard from the negative effect of surplus water. Since the conventional horizontal drainage system can damage the present apple orchard significantly, the harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by the loosening of the compacted soil layer in the 50-70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage. Therefore one, solo knife coulter is suggested to use at 80-90cm depth. In the case of the hillside a possible replantation of the orchard, pear trees should be planted along the contour lines, so as to avoid erosion and tree damage caused by water erosion. The irrigation of the orchard would be much easier in this case due to better establishment of the irrigation system and lower pipe-line pressure lost. To decrease the effect of erosion, the levels of the existing farm tracks have to be developed with reverse gradient. With the present situation, distributing small dosse of fertilizer should be utilized at the ridge spots, while in the case of convex parts of the valley, smaller doses of nutrients should be used. These digital data can be the basis for a precision spatial decision support system. This research was funded by TECH_08-A3/2-2008-0373 and TECH_08-A4/2-2008-0138 projects.

  3. Effects of the insecticide phosmet on solitary bee foraging and nesting in orchards of Capitol Reef National Park, Utah (U.S.A.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capitol Reef National Park, south-central Utah, USA, contains 22 small managed orchards planted with antique fruit varieties by Mormon pioneers beginning over a century ago. Fruit is harvested by individual users in a pick-and-pay program. Management includes spraying apple and pear trees individua...

  4. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  5. Effect of insecticide regimens on biological control of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) by Peristenus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in New York apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple producers in New York state and the northeastern US have formidable pest and disease pressures and utilize a range of chemical regimens that rely heavily on broad-spectrum organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides. The tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), a...

  6. PESTICIDE ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM MODEL (POEM): A USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model was developed to predict the transport and effects of a pesticide in an orchard ecosystem. The environmental behavior of azinphosmethyl was studied over a two-year period in a Michigan apple orchard. Data were gathered for the model on initial distribution wi...

  7. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  8. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  9. The vulnerability of US apple (Malus) genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the top three U.S. fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion cultivars and rootstocks, which increases susceptibility to dynamic external ...

  10. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  11. Lead in tissue of cats fed pine voles from lead arsenate-treated orchards

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmartin, J.E.; Alo, D.K.; Richmond, M.E.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    Lead arsenate has been used for many years for control of insects in apple orchards in the United States. In an earlier study, it was shown that such orchard soils may contain very high concentrations of lead and that orchards voles and mice inhibating such soils accumulate inordinately high levels of lead. It is of interest to learn the possible extent of deposition of lead in higher carnivores that may consume such orchard animals. In the work reported, cats were fed pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) captured in lead arsenate-treated orchards located in the vicinity of New Paltz, New York. Following sacrifice, the lead content of cat tissues was determined.

  12. Arsenic Recovery by Stinging Nettle From Lead-Arsenate Contaminated Orchard Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil contamination with arsenic (As) is common in orchards with a history of lead-arsenate pesticide application. This problem is prevalent in the U.S. Northeast where lead-arsenate foliar sprays were used to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple orchards. Arsenic is not easily biodegrad...

  13. Effect of three apple rootstocks on the population of the small red-belted clearwing borer, Synanthedon myopaeformis.

    PubMed

    Ateyyat, Mazen A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Experiments were conducted in Ash-Shoubak area of Jordan from June 2003 to September 2005 to study the effect of three apple rootstocks on the development of the small red-belted clearwing borer, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkh.) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), under field conditions. Mondial Gala apple trees grafted on the dwarfing rootstock M9 and the semi-dwarfing rootstock M26 were equally infested, whereas those grafted on MM106 showed significantly lower infestation levels. S. myopaeformis bore into burr knots that develop below a graft union on rootstocks and girdle the tree. There was a significant effect of rootstock on the numbers of burrs present, and the percentage of burr knots infested by S. myopaeformis, with M106 having significantly fewer burrs, and a lower percent infested. PMID:20233078

  14. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32%. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality. PMID:25179529

  15. Generating pseudo large footprint waveforms from small footprint full-waveform airborne LiDAR data for the layered retrieval of LAI in orchards.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Niu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chen, Hanyue; Gao, Shuai; Wu, Mingquan; Li, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter for the study of biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to estimate LAIs in a wide range of vegetation types. However, limited by the sensor detection capability, considerable fewer studies investigated the layered estimation of LAIs in the vertical direction, which can significantly affect the precision evaluation of vegetation biophysical and biochemical processes. This study tried to generate a kind of pseudo large footprint waveform from the small footprint full-waveform airborne LiDAR data by an aggregation approach. The layered distribution of canopy heights and LAIs were successfully retrieved based on the large footprint waveform data in an agricultural landscape of orchards with typical multi-layer vegetation covers. The Gaussian fitting was conducted on the normalized large footprint waveforms to identify the vertical positions for different vegetation layers. Then, the gap theory was applied to retrieve the layered LAIs. Statistically significant simple linear regression models were fitted between the LiDAR-retrieved and field-observed values for the canopy heights and LAIs in different layers. Satisfactory results were obtained with a root mean square error of 0.36 m for the overstorey canopy height (R2 = 0.82), 0.29 m for the understory canopy height (R2 = 0.76), 0.28 for overstorey LAI (R2 = 0.75), 0.40 for understory LAI (R2 = 0.64), and 0.38 for total LAI (R2 = 0.69), respectively. To conclude, estimating the layered LAIs in the multi-layer agriculture orchards from the pseudo large footprint waveforms is feasible and the estimation errors are acceptable, which will provide some new ideas and methods for the quantitative remote sensing with vegetation. PMID:27137623

  16. ONLINE HYPERSPECTRAL LINE-SCAN FLUORESCENCE IMAGING FOR SAFETY INSPECTION OF APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently developed fast hyperspectral line-scan imaging system integrated with a commercial apple-sorting machine was evaluated for rapid detection of animal feces matter on apples online. Golden Delicious apples obtained from a local orchard were artificially contaminated with a thin smear of co...

  17. Effect of flooding lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soil on growth, arsenic and lead accumulation in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lead-arsenate has been used as a pesticide in controlling codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple and plum orchards from 1900-1960. As a result, many old orchards contain high levels of arsenic. Flooding soils contaminated by lead-arsenate could increase plant arsenic and lead and become a human h...

  18. Field use of an incubation box for improved emergence timing of Osmia lignaria populations used for orchard pollination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wintered populations of blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, require incubation for prompt emergence. In this study, bee nests were placed in an almond (California) and an apple (Utah) orchard under two incubation treatments: in wood blocks and in incubation boxes. Individual cocoons were also placed...

  19. Lead and Arsenic Uptake by Carrots Grown on Five Orchard Soils With History of Lead Arsenate Used

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lead arsenate was used to control codling moth in apple and plum orchards from 1900 to 1960. Consequently, many orchard soils are contaminated with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). Some of these lands are being used for urban development and vegetable crop production. Both soil Pb and As have become i...

  20. A multiple reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, in...

  1. Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

  2. Leafroller parasitism across an orchard landscape in central Washington and effect of neighboring rose habitats on parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitiam of sentinel Pandemis pyrusana (Tortricidae) leafroller larvae on potted apple trees placed in apple, pear and cherry orchards within a 2000 hectare landscape mosaic in south-central Washington were measured in 1999-2000. Parasitism rates of sentinels averaged 15% in spring and 31% in summ...

  3. Field Attraction of Codling Moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Apple and Pear Fruit, and Quantitation of Kairomones from Attractive Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) responded in orchards to fruit placed within traps. Numbers of codling moths in traps baited with immature uninfested apples, immature apples infested with larval codling moth, ripe apples, and ripe pears were significantly greater than in un-bait...

  4. Programmable ultrasonic sensing system for targeted spraying in orchards.

    PubMed

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Strancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  5. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  6. Identification of selected apple pests based on selected graphical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.; Nowakowski, K.; Przybył, J.; Zaborowicz, M.; Raba, B.; Dach, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was a neural identification of selected apple tree orchard pests. The classification was conducted on the basis of graphical information coded in the form of selected geometric characteristics of agrofags, presented on digital images. A neural classification model is presented in this paper, optimized using learning sets acquired on the basis of information contained in digital photographs of pests. In particular, the problem of identifying 6 selected apple pests, the most commonly encountered in Polish orchards, has been addressed. In order to classify the agrofags, neural modelling methods were utilized, supported by digital analysis of image techniques.

  7. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  8. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  9. Epiphytic bacteria and yeasts on apple blossoms and their potential as antagonists of Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple blossoms were sampled for indigenous epiphytic populations of culturable microorganisms during different stages of bloom at two orchards in or near Wenatchee, WA, and one in Corvallis, OR. Frequencies and population sizes of bacteria on stigmas of apple were lower at Wenatchee than Corvallis, ...

  10. [Using atomic fluorescence spectrometry to study the spatial distribution of As and Hg in orchard soils].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Mei; Lü, Chun-Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Xi-Cun

    2014-02-01

    Aqua regia digestion, double channels-atomic fluorescence spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of As and Hg in orchard soils of Qixia City - the main apple production area of Shandong province. Validate The detection limitation, accuracy and precision of the method were validated, the spatial distribution was analyzed, and the characteristics of As and Hg pollution in Qixia orchard soils were assessed. The results showed that the range of As concentration in Qixia soils is between 2.79 and 20.93 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 10.59 mg x kg(-1), the range of Hg concentration in Qixia soil is between 0.01 and 0.79 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 0.12 mg x kg(-1). The variation of As concentration in soils is small, whereas that of Hg concentration is large. Frequency distribution graphics of As and Hg showed that the concentration of As in soils is according with the normal distribution approximately and the concentrations are mostly between 7 and 15 mg x kg(-1), the concentration of Hg in soil isn't according with the normal distribution and the concentrations are mostly between 0.03 and 0.21 mg x kg(-1). The correlations between the concentrations of As or Hg in soils and the nutrient are not significant and there is no significant correlation even between As and Hg. Based on the environmental technical terms for green food production area, the As concentration in orchard soil of Qixia City is at clean level, but there are 4.76% of sample points with Hg pollution index exceeding 1, and this should be attracted the attention of the administrators. PMID:24822435

  11. Characterization of apple replant disease-associated microbial communities over multiple growth periods using next-generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replant disease in apple occurs as a result of incompletely understood and variable complexes of soil-borne pathogens that can build up over time in orchard soil. This disease limits economic viability of newly established orchards on replant sites and results in reduced productivity for the life of...

  12. Parasitism of leafrollers in Washington fruit orchards is enhanced by perimater plantings of rose and strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana are the dominant leafroller pests in apple, pear and cherry orchards in Washington State. Parasitism rates of these pests are usually too low to avert the use of insecticides for control, despite the presence of a diverse parasitoid complex. In a previou...

  13. Changes in rhizosphere microbiome associated with orchard soil resilience in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrosequencing analysis of the apple rhizosphere microbiome was conducted two years post-planting at an orchard replant trial which included a no treatment control, 1,3-dichloropropene-C17 pre-plant fumigation, and pre-plant soil incorporation of a Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation. SM treate...

  14. Accumulation of lead and arsenic by lettuce grown on lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lead-arsenate was one of the preferred insecticides used as foliar spray to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple (Malus sylvestris Mill) orchards from the 1900's to the 1960’s. Lead and arsenic are generally immobile and remain in the surface soil. Some of these contaminated lands are now...

  15. Influence of within-orchard trap placement on catch of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2007-04-01

    The influence of trap placement on catches of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., was examined in a series of studies conducted in orchards treated with Isomate-C Plus sex pheromone dispensers. Mark-recapture tests with sterilized moths released along the interface of pairs of treated and untreated apple and pear plots found that significantly more male but not female moths were recaptured on interception traps placed in the treated plots. In a second test, significantly higher numbers of wild male and female moths were caught on interception traps placed in treated versus untreated plots within a heavily infested orchard. The highest numbers of male moths were caught on traps placed along the interior edge of the treated plots. Trap position had no influence on the captures of female moths. In a third test, north-south transects of sex pheromone-baited traps were placed through adjacent treated and untreated plots that received a uniform release of sterilized moths. Traps on the upwind edge of the treated plots caught similar numbers of moths as traps upwind from the treated plots. Moth catch was significantly reduced at all other locations inside versus outside of the treated plots, including traps placed on the downwind edge of the treated plot. In a fourth test, five apple orchards were monitored with groups of sex pheromone-baited traps placed either on the border or at three distances inside the orchards. The highest moth counts were in traps placed at the border, and the lowest moth counts were in traps placed 30 and 50 m from the border. In a fifth test, the proportion of traps failing to catch any moths despite the occurrence of local fruit injury was significantly higher in traps placed 50 versus 25 m from the border. The implications provided by these data for designing an effective monitoring program for codling moth in sex pheromone-treated orchards are discussed. PMID:17445378

  16. Interaction of BABA and ABA for drought resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient water can kill or adversely affect the growth of newly planted apple (Malus ×domestica) trees. In modern intensive orchard systems with mature trees, water stress is often limiting to production. Trees can acquire drought resistance by sensing water stress and activating defense mecha...

  17. Apple Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

  18. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  19. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  20. Managing potassium in pecan orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral nutrition management of pecan orchards is especially difficult for potassium (K). This work provides insight into factors affecting tree K health and orchard profitability, and targets a K concentration of at least 1.5% dry weight as favoring high nutmeat yield and quality, and avoidance of...

  1. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  2. Seasonal Population Fluctuation of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi in New York and Pennsylvania Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Jaffee, B. A.; Harrison, M. B.; Shaffer, R. L.; Strang, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    The population fluctuation and composition of Xiphinema americanum (sensu stricto) and X. rivesi were studied in a New York apple orchard (only X. americanum present), a Pennsylvania apple orchard (both X. americanum and X. rivesi present), and a Pennsylvania peach orchard (X. americanum, X. rivesi, and X. californicum present). Few clear trends in population fluctuation or composition were observed. The adult female was the predominant stage in most sample periods, and the reproductive period was limited to late spring and early summer. Only a few of the females at any sample period were gravid. All stages were present throughout the year, and all stages overwintered. Eggs in soil were not monitored. In the Pennsylvania apple orchard, X. americanum and X. rivesi were easily separated by morphological characteristics; however, the two species did not display differences in population structure or composition. The predominance of adults, the relatively low reproductive rates, and the association of these species with stable habitats suggest that the life strategies of X. americanum and X. rivesi are K-selected as opposed to r-selected. PMID:19290157

  3. Isolation and identification of species of Alicyclobacillus from orchard soil in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Willem H; Gouws, Pieter A; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2008-01-01

    Alicyclobacilli were isolated from orchard soil collected from an apple and pear farm in Elgin, Western Cape, South Africa. Morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of the isolates were used to presumptively classify them as belonging to the genus Alicyclobacillus. Strains were identified to species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with genus-specific primers, and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. To our knowledge this is the first report on the isolation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius from orchard soil. The presence of these organisms in the soil suggests a possible source of contamination for the final fruit juice, concentrate or pulp. PMID:17938854

  4. Newton's Apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-05-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his recollections of events did not always match known facts. However, one thing is certain-falling objects were to play a key part in Newton's eventual understanding of how objects move.

  5. Control of sawflies in apple and pear in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    In the Belgian fruit growing area, sawflies are generally common but minor pests in pome fruit. Though, intensity and frequency of sawfly damage in apple and pear is increasing the last years in IPM and especially in organic orchards. The main species are apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) and pear sawfly (Hoplocaompa brevis Klug) and recently also pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius). Here we report efficacy results on all three sawfly species fromtrial of three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013). Flights and embryonic development were monitored and small plot efficacy trials were executed. Control of apple sawfly was complete (97.6% Abbott -trial 2011) when thiacloprid at 120 g/ha LWA was applied at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs. In 2012, a trial was executed on pear sawfly. Applications with thiacloprid were executed when the embryo was visible in the pear sawfly eggs and earlier at the start of egg laying. At both application timings, 100% Abbott efficacy was reached. A number of other active ingredients were tested at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs and very interesting efficacy results were reached for thiofanate-methyl, indoxacarb, spinosad, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and acetamiprid. In 2013, a preflowering application with pyrethrins + PBO reached the highest control against this pest. The most effective active ingredients of the pear sawfly trial were applied also in a trial on pear shoot sawfly. Efficacies were low or lacking, except for thiacloprid. Thiacloprid is in pear growing in Belgium only registered before flowering and after harvest. Therefore further research is needed to test the effect of earlier applications against this pest. This is a valuable efficacy study on occasionally occurring pests that are able to cause considerable economic losses. PMID:25145248

  6. Apple's Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the Macintosh personal, educational, and business computer produced by Apple covers cost; physical characteristics including display devices, circuit boards, and built-in features; company-produced software; third-party produced software; memory and storage capacity; word-processing features; and graphics capabilities. (MBR)

  7. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation procedures are…

  8. Assessing Metal Contamination in Lead Arsenate Contaminated Orchard Soils Using Near and Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic use of lead-arsenate as pesticide in apple orchards left many soils contaminated with arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Notorious health effects and their severe soil contamination are of primary concerns for major regulatory agencies, and community at large. Wet chemistry methods for soil anal...

  9. EVALUATION OF TWO METHODS OF THERMAL WEED CONTROL IN FRUIT TREE ORCHARDS, PESTICIDE SPECIAL STUDY, COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research Objectives: 1) Compare the efficiency of two different types of thermal flamers: a direct flamer (Red Dragon, Inc., LaCrosse, Kansas) and a prototype infrared weed flamer (Sunburst, Inc., Eugene Oregon) in controlling weed populations in an apple orchard. 2) Determine ...

  10. Resilience of orchard replant soils to pathogen re-infestation in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation was compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of orchard soils. Soil fumigation and SM treatment provided similar levels of disease control during the initial gr...

  11. Identification and characterization of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid in fig (Ficus carica L.) by next generation sequencing of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, M; Torchetti, E M; Di Serio, F; Minafra, A

    2014-08-01

    Viroids are small (246-401 nt) circular and non coding RNAs infecting higher plants. They are targeted by host Dicer-like enzymes (DCLs) that generate small RNAs of 21-24 nt (sRNAs), which are involved in the host RNA silencing pathways. The accumulation in plant tissues of such viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is a clear sign of an ongoing viroid infection. In this study, next generation sequencing of a sRNAs library and assembling of the sequenced vd-sRNAs were instrumental for the identification of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) in a fig accession. After confirming by molecular methods the presence of this viroid in the fig tree, its population was characterized, showing that the ADFVd master sequence from fig diverges from that of the ADFVd reference variant from apple. Moreover, since this viroid accumulates at a low level in fig, a semi-nested RT-PCR assay was developed for detecting it in other fig accessions. ADFVd seems to have a wider host range than thought before and this poses questions about its epidemiology. A further characterization of ADFVd-sRNAs showed similar accumulation of (+) or (-) vd-sRNAs that mapped on the viroid genome generating hotspot profiles. Moreover, similarly to other nuclear-replicating viroids, vd-sRNAs of 21, 22 and 24 nt in size prevailed in the distribution profiles. Altogether, these data support the involvement of double-stranded RNAs and different DCLs, targeting the same restricted viroid regions, in the genesis of ADFVd-sRNAs. PMID:24704673

  12. Effect of streptomycin treatment on bacterial community structure in the apple phyllosphere.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Erika; McManus, Patricia S

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of many years of streptomycin use in apple orchards on the proportion of phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin and bacterial community structure. Leaf samples were collected during early July through early September from four orchards that had been sprayed with streptomycin during spring of most years for at least 10 years and four orchards that had not been sprayed. The percentage of cultured phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin at non-sprayed orchards (mean of 65%) was greater than at sprayed orchards (mean of 50%) (P = 0.0271). For each orchard, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed from leaf samples. Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities at all orchards, accounting for 71 of 104 OTUs (determined at 97% sequence similarity) and 93% of all sequences. The genera Massilia, Methylobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas were shared across all sites. Shannon and Simpson's diversity indices and Pielou's evenness index were similar among orchards regardless of streptomycin use. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) indicated that long-term streptomycin treatment did not account for the observed variability in community structure among orchards (R = -0.104, P = 0.655). Other variables, including time of summer, temperature and time at sampling, and relative distance of the orchards from each other, also had no significant effect on bacterial community structure. We conclude that factors other than streptomycin exposure drive both the proportion of streptomycin-resistant bacteria and phylogenetic makeup of bacterial communities in the apple phyllosphere in middle to late summer. PMID:22629357

  13. Assessment of contamination from arsenical pesticide use on orchards in the great valley region, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Larkin, S.P.; Boughton, C.J.; Reed, B.W.; Sibrell, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Lead arsenate pesticides were widely used in apple orchards from 1925 to 1955. Soils from historic orchards in four counties in Virginia and West Virginia contained elevated concentrations of As and Pb, consistent with an arsenical pesticide source. Arsenic concentrations in approximately 50% of the orchard site soils and approximately 1% of reference site soils exceed the USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) screening guideline of 22 mg kg-1 for As in residential soi, defined on the basis of combined chronic exposure risk. Approximately 5% of orchard site soils exceed the USEPA PRG for Pb of 400 mg kg-1 in residential soil; no reference site soils sampled exceed this value. A variety of statistical methods were used to characterize the occurrence, distribution, and dispersion of arsenical pesticide residues in soils, stream sediments, and ground waters relative to landscape features and likely background conditions. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cu were most strongly associated with high developed land density and population density, whereas elevated concentrations of As were weakly correlated with high orchard density, consistent with a pesticide residue source. Arsenic concentrations in ground water wells in the region are generally <0.005 mg L-1. There was no spatial association between As concentrations in ground water and proximity to orchards. Arsenic had limited mobility into ground water from surface soils contaminated with arsenical pesticide residues at concentrations typically found in orchards. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  14. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  15. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance.

    PubMed

    Krens, Frans A; Schaart, Jan G; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E M; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  16. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  17. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  18. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Han, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Xuechi; Chen, Xinyi; Zhang, Lixia; Mei, Ruhong; Wang, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period. PMID:25288943

  19. Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits

    PubMed Central

    Polce, Chiara; Garratt, Michael P; Termansen, Mette; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Challinor, Andrew J; Lappage, Martin G; Boatman, Nigel D; Crowe, Andrew; Endalew, Ayenew Melese; Potts, Simon G; Somerwill, Kate E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how climate change can affect crop-pollinator systems helps predict potential geographical mismatches between a crop and its pollinators, and therefore identify areas vulnerable to loss of pollination services. We examined the distribution of orchard species (apples, pears, plums and other top fruits) and their pollinators in Great Britain, for present and future climatic conditions projected for 2050 under the SRES A1B Emissions Scenario. We used a relative index of pollinator availability as a proxy for pollination service. At present, there is a large spatial overlap between orchards and their pollinators, but predictions for 2050 revealed that the most suitable areas for orchards corresponded to low pollinator availability. However, we found that pollinator availability may persist in areas currently used for fruit production, which are predicted to provide suboptimal environmental suitability for orchard species in the future. Our results may be used to identify mitigation options to safeguard orchard production against the risk of pollination failure in Great Britain over the next 50 years; for instance, choosing fruit tree varieties that are adapted to future climatic conditions, or boosting wild pollinators through improving landscape resources. Our approach can be readily applied to other regions and crop systems, and expanded to include different climatic scenarios. PMID:24638986

  20. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    -LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

  1. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea. PMID:25289003

  2. First report of black rot on apple fruit caused by Diplodia seriata in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2014, decayed ‘Fuji’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were observed and sampled from commercial orchards in Mattawa (Grant County) in Washington State. Fruit rot symptoms appeared to originate mainly from infections at either the calyx-end (floral parts) of the fruit or wounds on the f...

  3. Management of bull’s-eye rot of apple using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bull’s-eye rot caused by Cryptosporiopsis kienholzii, Neofabraea alba, N. malicorticis and N. perennans is a common postharvest disease of apple and pear in the US Pacific Northwest. Fruit infection by these causal fungi occurs in the orchard and is latent at harvest. A primary practice for control ...

  4. Diagnosis and variation in appearance of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) injury on apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult brown stink bugs, Euschistus servus (Say), were caged individually on limbs with apple fruit of six cultivars in research orchards in West Virginia. Studies were performed to describe specific characteristics of damage that could be used for field and/or laboratory diagnosis of stink bug inju...

  5. Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Cuiv, Shan

    2007-01-01

    This recently completed primary school illustrates how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a difficult area and can meet the particular needs of the student community. In its first year in operation, Cherry Orchard National School is proving to be a successful project. Presented here are the architectural…

  6. Nickel: Relevance to orchard profitability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  7. A multiple RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lu; Xie, Jipeng; Chen, Shanyi; Wang, Shaojie; Gong, Zhuoqun; Ling, Kai-Shu; Guo, Liyun; Fan, Zaifeng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, including Apple scar skin viroid, and Apple dimple fruit viroid. Together these viruses and viroids could cause serious damage to apple fruit production worldwide. Rapid and efficient detection methods are pivotal to identify and select the virus-free propagation material for healthy apple orchard management. In this study a multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed and optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of the three latent viruses and apscarviroids. With newly designed specific primers for ACLSV, ASGV, APSV, and EF-1α (as an internal control), and a pair of degenerate primers for apscarviroids, optimized parameters for multiplex RT-PCR were determined. The resulting PCR products from each target virus and viroid could be easily identified because their product sizes differ by at least a 100bp. The multiplex RT-PCR method is expected to detect different variants of the viruses as the test results showed that a variety of isolates from different regions in China gave positive results. To the best of our knowledge, this multiplex RT-PCR assay is the first to simultaneously detect multiple viruses and viroids infecting apple trees in a single reaction tube. This assay, therefore, offers a useful tool for routine certification and quarantine programs. PMID:27054889

  8. Occurrence of the western flower thrips, Franklliniella occidentalis, and potential predators on host plants in near-orchard habitats of Washington and Oregon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred thirty species of native and introduced plants growing in uncultivated land adjacent to apple and pear orchards of central Washington and northern Oregon were sampled for the presence of the western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), 1895 and potential thrips pred...

  9. Total and Extractable Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in U.S. Long-Term Orchard Soils and Potential Accumulation by Vegetable Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lead arsenate was used as an insecticide in the United States (U.S.) from 1900 to 1960s to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple orchards. As a result these soils are contaminated with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). Concerns have been raised about conversion of land use of such Pb and As ri...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE CODLING MONT GRANULOVIRUS AND SPINOSAD FOR CODLING MOTH CONTROL AND IMPACT ON NON-TARGET SPECIES IN PEAR ORCHARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coding moth is a key insect pest of apple and pear in the Pacific Northwest. Insecticidal formulations of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and spinosad that are approved for use in both organic and conventionally managed orchards have recently become available. In tests in experimental and c...

  11. Impact of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) in Mid-Atlantic tree fruit orchards in the United States: case studies of commercial management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four commercial orchards in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were surveyed weekly in 2010 and 2011 for the presence of brown marmorated stink bug and the injury caused to both apple and peaches. Among tested sampling techniques, baited pyramid traps yielded the most brown marmorated sti...

  12. Mouthpart structure in the woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea: Pemphigidae).

    PubMed

    Ge, Furong; Dietrich, Chris; Dai, Wu

    2016-05-01

    Mouthparts are important sensory and feeding structures in insects and differences in mouthpart structure reflect differences among lineages in feeding strategy and behavior. The woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), is an important pest of apple orchards worldwide, causing direct damage through feeding by the highly specialized piercing-sucking mouthparts. To obtain a better understanding of feeding, the morphology of mouthparts of the WAA was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mouthparts of E. lanigerum are similar to those of previously studied aphid species in most aspects and composed of a cone-shaped labrum, a tube-like, four-segmented labium with a deep groove on the anterior side, and a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets. The sculpturing on the lateral margin of the distal extremity of the maxillary stylets and a dentate protuberance at the very sharp tip are newly observed features that distinguish E. lanigerum from other aphids and Auchenorrhyncha. Also, there is a common duct in E. lanigerum as based on SEM. Two types of sensilla trichodea and three types of sensilla basiconica occur at different locations on the labium; the labial tip has eight pairs of small sensilla basiconica. The morphology of the mouthparts and the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in E. lanigerum are discussed with respect to their possible taxonomic and functional significance. PMID:26806553

  13. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

  14. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

  15. Candidate insect vectors of apple proliferation in Northwest Spain.

    PubMed

    Miñarro, Marcos; Somoano, Aitor; Moreno, Aránzazu; García, Rocío Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The apple proliferation (AP) disease is spread mostly by two psyllids. Each species plays a predominant role as AP vector that changes regionally. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the AP vectors in each region where the disease is present. This research aimed at identifying the psyllid community in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain) and studying their possible role in AP transmission. Yellow sticky traps were used to monitor psyllid community in five cider-apple orchards during 2 years. 3678 individuals belonging to 22 species were identified. We confirmed the presence of the two known vectors, Cacopsylla picta and Cacopsylla melanoneura, although they occurred in relatively low numbers (2.1 and 0.7 % of total catches, respectively). Most collected psyllids are not supposed to use apple as host, and their occurrence is likely favoured by landscape structure and an insect-friendly management. Phytoplasma detection was performed by squash-capture real-time PCR. The pathogen was detected in six species (Cacopsylla crataegi, Cacopsylla mali, Ctenarytaina spatulata, Ctenarytaina eucalypti and the two known AP vectors). Based on abundance and AP-detection rate C. picta is likely the main species spreading AP in our region. However, the low density of the known vectors does not match the widespread and high tree damage level observed in Asturias. The discovery of other four psyllid species carrying the phytoplasma reveals that our knowledge on the potential vectors is limited and that more research is clearly needed to unravel the role of the psyllid fauna in disease transmission in our orchards. PMID:27536523

  16. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence line-scan imaging system for online detection of fecal contamination on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Chao, Kaunglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2006-10-01

    We have developed nondestructive opto-electronic imaging techniques for rapid assessment of safety and wholesomeness of foods. A recently developed fast hyperspectral line-scan imaging system integrated with a commercial apple-sorting machine was evaluated for rapid detection of animal feces matter on apples. Apples obtained from a local orchard were artificially contaminated with cow feces. For the online trial, hyperspectral images with 60 spectral channels, reflectance in the visible to near infrared regions and fluorescence emissions with UV-A excitation, were acquired from apples moving at a processing sorting-line speed of three apples per second. Reflectance and fluorescence imaging required a passive light source, and each method used independent continuous wave (CW) light sources. In this paper, integration of the hyperspectral imaging system with the commercial applesorting machine and preliminary results for detection of fecal contamination on apples, mainly based on the fluorescence method, are presented.

  17. What's an Adam's Apple?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A Text Size You're ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  18. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  19. Cultural management of microbial community structure to enhance growth of apple in replant soils.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Granatstein, David M; Elfving, Don C; Mullinix, Kent; Gu, Yu-Huan

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Apple replant disease typically is managed through pre-plant application of broad-spectrum soil fumigants including methyl bromide. The impending loss or restricted use of soil fumigants and the needs of an expanding organic tree fruit industry necessitate the development of alternative control measures. The microbial community resident in a wheat field soil was shown to suppress components of the microbial complex that incites apple replant disease. Pseudomonas putida was the primary fluorescent pseudomonad recovered from suppressive soil, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens bv. III was dominant in a conducive soil; the latter developed within 3 years of orchard establishment at the same site. In greenhouse studies, cultivation of wheat in replant orchard soils prior to planting apple suppressed disease development. Disease suppression was induced in a wheat cultivar-specific manner. Wheat cultivars that enhanced apple seedling growth altered the dominant fluorescent pseudo-monad from Pseudomonas fluorescens bv. III to Pseudomonas putida. The microbial community resident in replant orchard soils after growing wheat also was suppressive to an introduced isolate of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 5, which causes root rot of apple. Incorporation of high glucosinolate containing rapeseed ('Dwarf Essex') meal also enhanced growth of apple in replant soils through suppression of Rhizoc-tonia spp., Cylindrocarpon spp., and Pratylenchus penetrans. Integration of these methods will require knowledge of the impact of the biofumigant component on the wheat-induced disease-suppressive microbial community. Implementation of these control strategies for management of apple replant disease awaits confirmation from ongoing field validation trials. PMID:18943894

  20. Development of PCR assays for diagnosis of the pathogens Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Fruit infection by the pathogens occurs in the orchard but remains latent before harvest. Symptoms develop after harvest and are simil...

  1. Release of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium during the decomposition of apple (Malus domestica) leaf litter under different fertilization regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decomposition of apple (Malus domestica) leaf litters has a pivotal role in nutrient release in orchard ecosystems. We have studied the decomposition rate and subsequent release of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) nutrients over 24-months using litterbags method. From three types ...

  2. Effects of size-controlling apple rootstocks on growth, ABA, and hydraulic conductivity of scion of different vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Size-controlling rootstocks are required to attain trees with reduced stature that are necessary for modern orchard management, such as high density plantings. Apple cultivars can be grafted on commercially-available size-controlling rootstocks but new rootstocks are needed for both size-controllin...

  3. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Infection of fruit by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caus...

  4. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17®) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Pre-plant...

  5. Student Health Services at Orchard Ridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Don D.

    This paper provides a synoptic review of student health services at the community college level while giving a more detailed description of the nature of health services at Orchard Ridge, a campus of Oakland Community College. The present College Health Service program provides for a part-time (24 hrs./wk.) nurse at Orchard Ridge. A variety of…

  6. Digital Data Set of Orchards Where Arsenical Pesticides Were Likely Used in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia, and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bradley W.; Larkins, Peter; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This Fact Sheet provides information on a digital data set that identifies orchard areas under cultivation between the 1920s and 1960s in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia. The apple orchards in these areas likely used arsenical pesticides during this time. The digital data set can be used in a geographic information system (GIS) to identify where elevated arsenic and lead concentrations may be present in soils. The digital data set, the associated metadata, and the related files are available on the World Wide Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1330/shapefile/.

  7. Analysis of Fusarium avenaceum metabolites produced during wet apple core rot.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Frank, Jana; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-02-25

    Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous detection of thirteen F. avenaceum metabolites including moniliformin, acuminatopyrone, chrysogine, chlamydosporol, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, B1, B2, and B3 from artificially and naturally infected apples. Levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were quantitatively examined in artificially inoculated and naturally infected apples, whereas the remaining metabolites were qualitatively detected. Metabolite production was examined in artificially inoculated apples after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. Most metabolites were detected after 3 or 7 days and reached significantly high levels within 14 or 21 days. The highest levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and the combined sum of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were 7.3, 5.7, 152, and 12.7 microg g(-1), respectively. Seventeen of twenty naturally infected apples with wACR symptoms contained one or more of the metabolites. Fourteen of these apples contained moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins in levels up to 2.9, 51, 167, and 3.9 microg g(-1), respectively. Acuminatopyrone, chrysogine, chlamydosporol, and 2-AOD-3-ol were detected in 4, 11, 4, and 10 apples, respectively. During wet apple core rot, F. avenaceum produced high amounts of mycotoxins, which may pose a risk for consumers of apple or processed apple products. PMID:19170495

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF 'CANDIDATUS PHYTOPLASMA MALI' IN INFECTED APPLE TREES IN BELGIUM.

    PubMed

    Olivier, T; Fauche, F; Demonty, E

    2014-01-01

    'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' is a quarantine organism in the European Union which is consequently monitored and controlled in apple tree nurseries and orchards. Although symptoms like witches' broom, large stipules or small fruits can help to visually detect infected trees, PCRs should be performed on corresponding samples to confirm this first visual diagnostic or to detect latent infections. However, because of the uneven distribution of phytoplasmas within the trees, infected trees can still be missed by PCR. In order to improve the official sampling procedure applied in Belgium, PCR detectability of the pathogen was followed in 17 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali' infected trees from an orchard located in the province of Namur during late summer early autumn for two years. On the one hand, 5 trees were sampled in October 2011 at the four cardinal points in the crown and at two cardinal points in the roots to further understand the distribution of phytoplasmas in the tree for a given date. On the other hand, 12 infected trees were sampled randomly in 2013, once in the crown and once in the roots at three different dates to study the influence of these factors on the probability of detection. DNA was extracted from leaf midribs, petioles or roots and amplified by PCR using the universal primer pair fU5/rU3. Despite the limited number of data collected, this study showed that: because PCR detectability of 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali' seems more constant and more likely in the roots, root sampling should be favoured; the sampling date had a significant influence on PCR outcome but, at least in the leaves, this seems to vary a lot from year to year; more than one random sample should be taken from the same tree to increase the detection efficiency. PMID:26080481

  9. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the

  10. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic

  11. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  12. Apple IIe Computers and Appleworks Training Mini Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The instructional materials included in this document are designed to introduce students to the Apple IIe computer and to the word processing and database portions of the AppleWorks program. The materials are intended for small groups of students, each of whom has use of a computer during class and for short periods between classes. The course…

  13. Target detection as a tool of selective spray application on trees and weeds in orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doruchowski, Grzegorz; Jaeken, Peter; Holownicki, Ryszard

    1999-01-01

    A spectral detection system discriminating the targets for the non target area was tested during spray applications in apple and pear orchards. The objective of the test was to evaluate the accuracy of the system working at different application parameters and to estimate the rate of possible spray savings obtained during applications on the trees of different size and weeds of different density. The system consisted of the spray units equipped with optic sensor and a control unit which could operate up to 16 spray units. Each spray unit had an optic detector and two light sources emitting two beams of light at the wavelengths 670 and 750. The ratio between emitted and reflected light for each wavelength was the basis for discriminating between the presence or the absence of chlorophyll. The information was processed and used to control the electric solenoid valves opening or shutting off the nozzles. The target detection system worked technically properly. It enabled the selective spray application with spray savings adequate to the tree row profile. In intensive apple and pear orchards 16-25 percent reduction of spray volume was obtained. For herbicide applications the detection system discriminated weeds for the bare ground. Both sensitivity of the sensors and weed density had a significant influence on the spray savings. At medium sensitivity, a considerable spray saving amounting 23 percent was obtained only on the plots with very low weed coverage.

  14. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Li, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Li, Yong; Li, Caihong; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Guo, Liyue; Cheng, Da; Muminov, Mahmud A; Liang, Xiaotian; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon's index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds' Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests' weight and scarab beetle's population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m(-2) (0-20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output-input ratio had been achieved in the OM. Our

  15. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jie; Li, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Li, Yong; Li, Caihong; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Guo, Liyue; Cheng, Da; Muminov, Mahmud A.; Liang, Xiaotian

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon’s index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds’ Simpson, Shannon–Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests’ weight and scarab beetle’s population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m−2 (0–20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output–input ratio had been achieved in

  16. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged and commercial orchard interface.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Basoalto, Esteban; Franck, Pierre; Lavandero, Blas; Knight, Alan L; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2014-04-01

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and nonhost trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex pheromone-baited traps. Five microsatellite genetic markers were used to study the population genetic structure across both spatial (1-100 ha) and temporal (generations within a season) gradients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found a significant, but weak, association in both the spatial and temporal genetic structures. Discriminant analysis also found significant differentiation between the first and second generation for traps located either inside or outside the managed orchard. The Bayesian assignment test detected three genetic clusters during each of the two generations, which corresponded to different areas within the unmanaged and managed apple orchard interface. The lack of a strong spatial structure at a local scale was hypothesized to be because of active adult movement between the managed and unmanaged hosts and the asymmetry in the insecticide selection pressure inside and outside the managed habitats. These data highlight the importance of developing area-wide management programs that incorporate management tactics effective at the landscape level for successful codling moth control. PMID:24763103

  17. Field evaluation of two risk indicators for predicting likelihood of pesticide transport to surface water from two orchards.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Anderson, Jenny S; Umali, Beng

    2016-11-15

    Two pesticide risk indicators, Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) and Environmental Potential Risk Indicator for Pesticides (EPRIP), were used to determine the likelihood of off-site transport to surface water of pesticides used in a cherry (Prunus avium cultivars) and an apple (Malus domestica cultivars) orchard. The predictions of off-site transport of some of the pesticides were verified against actual pesticide concentrations in surface water continuously monitored over two years. To our knowledge, only one other study in the published literature has attempted this. Of the chemicals monitored there was good agreement between the predictions and the field measurements from the apple orchard, but less so for the cherry orchard. In both risk indicators the attenuation factor based on the width of the buffer strip over-estimated the effectiveness of the buffer strip. There was good agreement between the EPRIP and PIRI risk assessment except for ethephon which EPRIP rated a higher risk than PIRI and dithianon which EPRIP rated a lower risk than PIRI. A strong correlation was found between the field observations and the EPRIP predicted environmental concentrations for the majority of cases. This study showed that even simple risk indicators (e.g. PIRI and EPRIP) can be good predictors for a first tier risk assessment of pesticide transport to neighbouring water bodies. PMID:27424118

  18. Orchard Business Management. Unit II. Management and Analysis of the Orchard Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit is devoted to management and analysis of an orchard…

  19. Orchard Business Management. Unit I. Establishing an Orchard Record Keeping System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit (i.e., the first year) of the course deals with…

  20. Cryotolerance of apple tree bud is independent of endodormancy

    PubMed Central

    Bilavcik, Alois; Zamecnik, Jiri; Faltus, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Increasing interest in cryopreservation of dormant buds reveals the need for better understanding of the role of dormancy in cryotolerance. Dormancy stage and low-temperature survival of vegetative apple buds (Malus domestica Borkh.), cultivars ‘Sampion’ and ‘Spartan’, collected from orchard were evaluated during three seasons contrasting in temperature and precipitation throughout the arrested plant growth period. During each season, the cultivars differed either in the onset of the endodormancy or in the length of the endodormant period. A simple relation between endodormancy of the buds and their water content was not detected. The cryosurvival of vegetative apple buds of both cultivars correlated with their cold hardening without direct regard to their particular phase of dormancy. The period of the highest bud cryotolerance after low-temperature exposure overlapped with the endodormant period in some evaluated seasons. Both cultivars had the highest cryosurvival in December and January. The presented data were compared with our previous results from a dormancy study of in vitro apple culture. Endodormancy coincided with the period of successful cryosurvival of apple buds after liquid nitrogen exposure, but as such, it was not decisive for their survival and did not limit their successful cryopreservation. PMID:26442012

  1. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: Challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is one of the major limitations to the establishment of an economically viable orchard on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Infection by several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes is primarily responsible for ARD and res...

  2. A multi-phasic approach reveals that apple replant disease is caused by multiple biological agents, with some agents acting synergistically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology of ARD in South Africa in six orchard soils, using a multiphasic approach under glasshouse ...

  3. ENDOGENOUS HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS AND BUD BREAK RESPONSE TO EXOGENOUS BA IN SHOOTS OF APPLE TREES WITH TWO GROWTH HABITS GROWN ON THREE ROOTSTOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple tree form influences yield efficiency and management decisions in orchards. Tree size and shape are strongly affected by the development of branches and by the kind of rootstock to which the shoot is attached. Branching can be intentionally controlled with cultural practices such as rootstoc...

  4. Interaction of brassicaceous seed meal and apple rootstock on recovery of Pythium spp. and Pratylenchus penetrans from roots grown in replant soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium spp. and Pratylenchus penetrans are significant components of the diverse pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease in Washington state. The structure of the Pythium population differs among orchard soils but is composed of multiple pathogenic species. Studies were conducted to d...

  5. Landscape Analysis of Adult Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Distribution and Dispersal within Typical Agroecosystems Dominated by Apple Production in Central Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed the spatial distribution and dispersal of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), adults within two heterogeneous agro-ecosystems typical of central Chile; commercial apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, orchards surrounded by various unmanaged host plants. Both a geostatistical analysis of ca...

  6. Increase in epidermal planar cell density accompanies decreased russeting of “Golden Delicious” apples treated with gibberellin A4+7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted in a “Golden Delicious” (Malus Xdomestica Borkh.) orchard having a high historical incidence of physiological fruit russeting, to examine the effect of gibberellin A4+7 (GA4+7) on apple epidermal cell size. Beginning at petal fall, four sequential applications of GA4+7...

  7. Determination of pesticide residues in integrated pest management and nonintegrated pest management samples of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi Bala; Mukherjee, Irani; Maisnam, Jaya; Kumar, Praveen; Gopal, Madhuban; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2009-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 microg g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards. PMID:19904932

  8. Apple Pollination: Demand Depends on Variety and Supply Depends on Pollinator Identity.

    PubMed

    Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Boreux, V; Fountain, M T; McKerchar, M; Webber, S M; Coston, D J; Jenner, N; Dean, R; Westbury, D B; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G

    2016-01-01

    Insect pollination underpins apple production but the extent to which different pollinator guilds supply this service, particularly across different apple varieties, is unknown. Such information is essential if appropriate orchard management practices are to be targeted and proportional to the potential benefits pollinator species may provide. Here we use a novel combination of pollinator effectiveness assays (floral visit effectiveness), orchard field surveys (flower visitation rate) and pollinator dependence manipulations (pollinator exclusion experiments) to quantify the supply of pollination services provided by four different pollinator guilds to the production of four commercial varieties of apple. We show that not all pollinators are equally effective at pollinating apples, with hoverflies being less effective than solitary bees and bumblebees, and the relative abundance of different pollinator guilds visiting apple flowers of different varieties varies significantly. Based on this, the taxa specific economic benefits to UK apple production have been established. The contribution of insect pollinators to the economic output in all varieties was estimated to be £92.1M across the UK, with contributions varying widely across taxa: solitary bees (£51.4M), honeybees (£21.4M), bumblebees (£18.6M) and hoverflies (£0.7M). This research highlights the differences in the economic benefits of four insect pollinator guilds to four major apple varieties in the UK. This information is essential to underpin appropriate investment in pollination services management and provides a model that can be used in other entomolophilous crops to improve our understanding of crop pollination ecology. PMID:27152628

  9. Apple Pollination: Demand Depends on Variety and Supply Depends on Pollinator Identity

    PubMed Central

    Garratt, M. P. D.; Breeze, T. D.; Boreux, V.; Coston, D. J.; Jenner, N.; Dean, R.; Westbury, D. B.; Biesmeijer, J. C.; Potts, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    Insect pollination underpins apple production but the extent to which different pollinator guilds supply this service, particularly across different apple varieties, is unknown. Such information is essential if appropriate orchard management practices are to be targeted and proportional to the potential benefits pollinator species may provide. Here we use a novel combination of pollinator effectiveness assays (floral visit effectiveness), orchard field surveys (flower visitation rate) and pollinator dependence manipulations (pollinator exclusion experiments) to quantify the supply of pollination services provided by four different pollinator guilds to the production of four commercial varieties of apple. We show that not all pollinators are equally effective at pollinating apples, with hoverflies being less effective than solitary bees and bumblebees, and the relative abundance of different pollinator guilds visiting apple flowers of different varieties varies significantly. Based on this, the taxa specific economic benefits to UK apple production have been established. The contribution of insect pollinators to the economic output in all varieties was estimated to be £92.1M across the UK, with contributions varying widely across taxa: solitary bees (£51.4M), honeybees (£21.4M), bumblebees (£18.6M) and hoverflies (£0.7M). This research highlights the differences in the economic benefits of four insect pollinator guilds to four major apple varieties in the UK. This information is essential to underpin appropriate investment in pollination services management and provides a model that can be used in other entomolophilous crops to improve our understanding of crop pollination ecology. PMID:27152628

  10. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vincent P.; Nielsen, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  11. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  12. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  13. Insect management in deciduous orchard ecosystems: Habitat manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedders, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Current literature pertaining to habitat manipulation of deciduous fruit and nut orchards for pest control is reviewed. The hypothesis of pesticide-induced pest problems in deciduous orchards as well as the changing pest population dynamics of deciduous orchards is discussed An experimental habitat manipulation program for pecans, utilizing vetch cover crops to enhance lady beetle populations for pecan aphid control is presented

  14. Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient supply in organic systems is dependent on mineralization of organic matter; however, the intensive cultivation commonly used to control weeds can disrupt biological processes and cause undue loss of organic matter. Here we address the often-competing goals of organic fertility and weed con...

  15. Scar skin and dapple apple viroids are seed-borne and persistent in infected apple trees.

    PubMed

    Hadidi, A; Hansen, A J; Parish, C L; Yang, X

    1991-01-01

    The closely related apple scar skin viroid (ASSV) and dapple apple viroid (DAV) were identified in whole seeds from infected pome fruits by hybridization of extracted nucleic acids with a 32P-labelled ASSV cRNA probe. Viroid amounts were greater in seed coats and subcoats than in seed cotyledons and embryos. ASSV or DAV was also detected in nucleic acid extracts from infected seeds, cotyledons and embryos by reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction with viroid-cDNA-specific primers followed by Southern blot hybridization analysis of the amplified products with an ASSV cRNA probe. These results indicate that ASSV and DAV are seed-borne. ASSV and DAV were also found in the anthers, petals, receptacles, leaves, bark and roots of infected trees. The results suggest that viroid-infected trees constitute potential sources of the viroid in field spread. ASSV and DAV infections have been observed sporadically in commercial orchards in the United States and Canada and the infected trees have been eliminated. The use of viroid-free sources of seeds, seedlings, rootstocks and budwood should greatly reduce the risk of the future spread of the viroid. PMID:1796215

  16. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples. PMID:27296414

  17. Ambient orchard volatiles from California almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volatile emissions of various plant parts of almonds have been studied via various techniques in the past. These analyses have typically been performed on single cultivars and hence may not be representative of the volatiles found in an entire almond orchard. Recent reports suggest some almond v...

  18. Pecan weevil movement within the orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an indigenous pest of pecan, Carya illinoensis Wang K (Koch) in North America. Movement by adults, emerging from the orchard floor, to the pecan tree and movement within and between trees is poorly understood. Additionally, n...

  19. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  20. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  1. Genetic and fitness costs of raising wild pollinators in captivity: interaction among species, subspecies and populations of orchard bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed megachilid bees are often established as small genetically uniform populations, whose fate may foretell the costs of ongoing habitat fragmentation on wild pollinator species. Within our small captive population of a managed orchard bee Osmia ribifloris, mtDNA (COI) markers show two populatio...

  2. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

  3. Landscape analysis of adult codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) distribution and dispersal within typical agroecosystems dominated by apple production in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Basoalto, E; Miranda, M; Knight, A L; Fuentes-Contreras, E

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the spatial distribution and dispersal of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), adults within two heterogeneous agroecosystems typical of central Chile: commercial apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, orchards surrounded by various unmanaged host plants. Both a geostatistical analysis of catches of adult males with a grid of sex pheromone-baited traps and an immunological self-marking technique combined with traps baited with a male and female attractant were used. The spatial analyses identified the key sources of moths within these diverse landscapes. Codling moth catches in traps were spatially associated within distances of ≈ 150-300 m. Similarly, the mean distance from the immunological self-marking plots within the commercial apple orchard to the traps that captured marked adults was 282 m. In contrast, the mean distance in the capture of marked moths from unmanaged self-marking plots to a commercial orchard was 828 m. These data suggest that the success of any future area-wide management programs for codling moth in Chilean pome fruit must include a component for managing or removing noncommercial hosts that surround orchards. This analysis also suggests that the selection pressure for resistance imposed by insecticide sprays within managed orchards is likely dampened by the influx of susceptible moths from unmanaged sites common in central Chile. PMID:22546434

  4. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. PMID:25306368

  5. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, s...

  6. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  7. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Myers, Clayton T.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars. PMID:26617629

  8. Effects of host physiology on the development of core rot, caused by alternaria alternata, in Red Delicious apples.

    PubMed

    Shtienberg, D

    2012-08-01

    Alternaria alternata is the predominant fungus involved in moldy core and core rot of Red Delicious apples. The effects of environmental conditions during bloom on moldy core and core rot, and on the need for fungicide application, were examined in 10 experiments carried out in 2007. In untreated experimental plots, typical moldy core symptoms were very common, with relatively low variability (coefficient of variation: 22.2%) among experiments; core rot incidence ranged from 2 to 26% with large variability (coefficient of variation: 90.0%) among experiments. No evidence of prevailing environmental conditions during bloom affecting the development of moldy core or core rot was detected. No effect of fungicide application (a mixture of bromuconazole + captan three times a week at bloom) on moldy core or core rot was found. A random distribution of moldy core and an occasional aggregation of core rot in the orchards were indicated from Morisita's index of dispersion (I(δ)). The hypothesis that core rot incidence is governed by host physiology and that yield load can be used as an indicator of trees' susceptibility was examined in a set of eight observations and four experiments. No correlation was found between tree yield load and moldy core, but core rot incidence was inversely related to yield load. Furthermore, irrespective of tree yield load, core rot was more abundant on large compared with small fruits. It is concluded that host physiology, rather than pathogen occurrence or environmental conditions at bloom stage, governs the development of core rot in Red Delicious apples caused by A. alternata in Israel. PMID:22624774

  9. Upscaling of spectroradiometer data for stress detection in orchards with remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempeneers, Pieter; De Backer, Steve; Delalieux, Stephanie; Sterckx, Sindy; Debruyn, Walter; Coppin, Pol; Scheunders, Paul

    2004-10-01

    This paper studies the detection of vegetation stress in orchards via remote sensing. During previous research, it was shown that stress can be detected reliably on hyperspectral reflectances of the fresh leaves, using a generic wavelet based hyperspectral classification. In this work, we demonstrate the capability to detect stress from airborne/spaceborne hyperspectral sensors by upscaling the leaf reflectances to top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Several data sets are generated, measuring the foliar reflectance with a portable field spectroradiometer, covering different time periods, fruit variants and stress types. We concentrated on the Jonagold and Golden Delicious apple trees, induced with mildew and nitrogen deficiency. First, a directional homogeneous canopy reflectance model (ACRM) is applied on these data sets for simulating top of canopy (TOC) spectra. Then, the TOC level is further upscaled to TOA, using the atmospheric radiative transfer model MODTRAN4. To simulate hyperspectral imagery acquired with real airborne/spaceborne sensors, the spectrum is further filtered and subsampled to the available resolution. Using these simulated upscaled TOC and TOA spectra in classification, we will demonstrate that there is still a differentiation possible between stresses and non-stressed trees. Furthermore, results show it is possible to train a classifier with simulated TOA data, to make a classification of real hyperspectral imagery over the orchard.

  10. Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Wind and Sprayer Type on Spray Distribution in Different Orchard Training Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duga, Ashenafi T.; Dekeyser, Donald; Ruysen, Kris; Bylemans, Dany; Nuyttens, David; Nicolai, Bart M.; Verboven, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of airflow and spray application in orchards was validated using field trials and used to assess the effect of wind and sprayer type on spray distribution in different orchard training systems. Three air-assisted orchard sprayer designs (a cross-flow sprayer, an axial sprayer and a sprayer with individual spouts) and four different training systems of apple and pear trees were used for this analysis. The CFD model integrates the tree architecture into the model geometry, rather than using a generalized canopy profile approach. Predicted vertical on-tree deposition profiles agreed well with measurements. The lower airflow rate generated by the sprayer with individual spouts resulted in a significantly larger deflection of the spray particles under the same wind conditions. A detailed assessment was made on the most common axial sprayer. An increase in the magnitude of the wind speed for flow across the tree row resulted in an increase in the amount of spray detected in the air around the trees and in the ground deposition in front of the tree row. Environmental airflow in the direction of spraying gave the largest deposition on the tree, constraining the spray in the canopy region. A wind direction opposite to the spraying direction, however, resulted in an increase of the ground deposition and the amount of spray remaining in air. The model can be used to analyze the effects of implementation of more sustainable spray application procedures taking into account wind conditions, tree and machine characteristics.

  11. Temporal Effects on the Incidence and Severity of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury to Peaches and Apples during the Fruiting Period in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Nita, Mizuho; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Exclusion cages were used to compare the incidence and severity of feeding injury from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on 'Redhaven' peaches, 'Golden Delicious' apples, and 'Smoothee Golden' apples at harvest, following sequential periods of exposure to natural H. halys populations during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in Virginia. The fruit used in these experiments were in orchards or on trees that were not managed for H. halys. Treatments were sets of 50 fruit that were always caged, never caged, or exposed during one interval during the fruiting period of peaches and apples in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cages effectively prevented feeding injury from H. halys. Peaches and apples that were never caged showed the highest percentages of injured fruit at harvest. Exposure treatment had a significant effect on the percentage of fruit showing external injury at harvest in both years for apples and in 2012 for peaches, and a significant effect on the percentage of apples and peaches showing internal injury at harvest in both years. There was no consistent effect of each exposure period on peach injury, but apples exposed during the mid- to latter portion of the season tended to show most injury. Across all exposure periods, more internal than external injuries were recorded at harvest from peaches, while apples tended to have equal or very similar numbers of both kinds of injury. The implications of these results to H. halys management in eastern apple orchards are discussed. PMID:26470170

  12. The use of 16S and 16S-23S rDNA to easily detect and differentiate common Gram-negative orchard epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Jeng, R S; Svircev, A M; Myers, A L; Beliaeva, L; Hunter, D M; Hubbes, M

    2001-02-01

    The identification of Gram-negative pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria commonly isolated from an orchard phylloplane may result in a time consuming and tedious process for the plant pathologist. The paper provides a simple "one-step" protocol that uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify intergenic spacer regions between 16S and 23S genes and a portion of 16S gene in the prokaryotic rRNA genetic loci. Amplified 16S rDNA, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) following EcoRI digestion produced band patterns that readily distinguished between the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora (causal agent of fire blight in pear and apple) and the orchard epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans (formerly E. herbicola). The amplified DNA patterns of 16S-23S spacer regions may be used to differentiate E. amylovora at the intraspecies level. Isolates of E. amylovora obtained from raspberries exhibited two major fragments while those obtained from apples showed three distinct amplified DNA bands. In addition, the size of the 16S-23S spacer region differs between Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The RFLP pattern generated by HaeIII digestion may be used to provide a rapid and accurate identification of these two common orchard epiphytes. PMID:11166101

  13. A female-specific attractant for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, from apple fruit volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hern, Alan; Dorn, Silvia

    Host plant-derived esters were investigated as potential female-specific attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a key pest of apples worldwide. The behavioural effects of single and combined volatile compounds and of a natural odour blend were examined using olfactometry and wind-tunnel bioassays. The apple-derived volatile butyl hexanoate attracted mated females while it was behaviourally ineffective for males over a dosage range of more than three orders of magnitude in olfactometer assays. Female CM preferred this kairomone to the headspace volatiles from ripe apples. Both no-choice and choice trials in the wind-tunnel suggested that female moths might be effectively trapped by means of this compound. In contrast, headspace volatiles collected from ripe apple fruits as well as a blend containing the six dominant esters from ripe apples were behaviourally ineffective. A female-specific repellency was found for the component hexyl acetate in the olfactometer, but this ester had no significant effect in the wind-tunnel. Butyl hexanoate with its sex-specific attraction should be further evaluated for monitoring and controlling CM females in orchards.

  14. Development of a portable spectroscopy-based device to detect nutrient status of apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Lihua; Li, Minzan; Deng, Xiaolei; An, Xiaofei

    2012-11-01

    In order to detect apple tree growth status fast and accurately, four sensitive wavebands (364nm, 652nm, 766nm, 810nm) were obtained by analyzing the correlation between the apple leaves spectra and their nitrogen contents plus adopting the segment reduced precise sampling methods. A rapid determination model of apple leaf nitrogen content suitable for portable detector was built. Then a portable spectroscopy-based device was developed. It consists of an optical unit and a control unit. The optical channel was consisted of convex lens, optical filter, photoelectric detector and airtight mechanical exine. The optical unit was used to capture, transit, transform and submit the optical signal. The controller was consisted of operation, input, display, data storage and power control unit adopting JN5139 as main control unit. Controller was the coordinator in building the wireless network. And it was also responsible for receiving the measured data from sensor, calculating vegetation index, and displaying and storing the calculated results. The experiments showed that the correlation coefficient between the measured nitrogen content and the predicted nitrogen content reached to 0.857. It illustrated that the apple tree nitrogen detector was practical and could be used to detect leaf nitrogen content in apple orchard.

  15. Responses of apple fruit size to tree water status and crop load.

    PubMed

    Naor, A; Naschitz, S; Peres, M; Gal, Y

    2008-08-01

    The combined effects of irrigation rate and crop load on apple yield and fruit size were examined in two commercial apple orchards (cv. Golden Delicious) in a semi-arid zone. The irrigation rates applied were 1, 3 and 7 mm day(-1), and the two fruit thinning treatments involved adjusting crop load to 100 and 300 fruits per tree at Ortal and 50 and 150 fruits per tree at Matityahu. Unthinned trees served as the control. The fruit from each tree was picked separately, and fruit size distribution was determined with a commercial grading machine. Midday stem water potentials varied from -0.9 to -2.8 MPa, crop load varied from 80,000 to 1,900,000 fruit ha(-1) and crop yield varied from 10 to 144 Mg ha(-1). Midday stem water potential decreased with increasing crop load in all irrigation treatments at Matityahu, but only in the 1 mm day(-1) treatment at Ortal. The extent of the lowering of midday stem water potential by crop load decreased with increasing soil water availability. At both orchards, a similar response of total crop yield to crop load on a per hectare basis was observed. Mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter increased with midday stem water potential, with the low crop loads having similar but steeper slopes than the high crop load. The responses of mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter to midday stem water potential were similar at both orchards, perhaps indicating that thresholds for irrigation scheduling are transferable to other orchards within a region. Factors that may limit the transferability of these thresholds are discussed. PMID:18519256

  16. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  17. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  18. Impact of orchard and tillage management practices on soil leaching of atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajdak, L.; Lipiec, J.; Siczek, A.; Kotowska, U.; Nosalewicz, A.

    2009-04-01

    The experiments were carried out on an Orthic Luvisol developed from loess, over limestone, at the experimental field of Lublin Agricultural University in Felin (51o15'N, 22o35'E), Poland. The investigation deals with the problems of leaching's rate of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,2,3-triazine), potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates from two management systems of soil: (i) conventionally tilled field with main tillage operations including stubble cultivator (10 cm) + harrowing followed by mouldboard ploughing to 20 cm depth, and crop rotation including selected cereals, root crops and papillionaceous crops, (ii) 35-year-old apple orchard field (100x200m) with a permanent sward that was mown in the inter-rows during the growing season. The conventionally tilled plot was under the current management practice for approximately 30 years. Field sites were close to each other (about 150 m). Core samples of 100 cm3 volume and 5 cm diameter were taken from two depths 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, and were used to determine the soil water characteristic curve. It was observed that management practices impacted on the physic-chemical properties of soils. pH (in H2O) in tilled soil ranged from 5.80 to 5.91. However soil of orchard soil revealed higher values of pH than tilled soil and ranged from 6.36 to 6.40. The content of organic carbon for tilled soil ranged from 1.13 to 1.17%, but in orchard soil from 1.59 to 1.77%. Tillled soil showed broader range of bulk density 1.38-1.62 mg m-3, than orchard soil 1.33-134 mg m-3. The first-order kinetic reaction model was fitted to the experimental atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, nitrates, ammonium and phosphates leaching vs. time data. The concentrations of leached chemical compounds revealed linear curves. The correlation coefficients ranged from -0.873 to -0.993. The first-order reaction constants measured for the orchard soils were from 3.8 to 19 times higher than

  19. Soil microbial communities and activities under different orchard floor management systems in Oregan Sweet Cherry Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the importance of microorganisms in nutrient cycling and productivity is well recognized in annual cropping systems, specific information regarding the size, composition and activity of soil microbes in orchard systems is lacking. This study assessed the soil microbial community structure (...

  20. Soil Microbial Communities and Activities Under Different Orchard Floor Management Systems in Oregon Sweet Cherry Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the importance of microorganisms in nutrient cycling and productivity is well recognized in annual cropping systems, specific information regarding the size, composition and activity of soil microbes in orchard systems is lacking. This study assessed the soil microbial community structure (...

  1. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  2. Walnut pollination dynamics: Pollen flow in walnut orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been conducting analyses of pollination dynamics in a California ‘Chandler’ walnut (Juglans regia) orchard. Our objectives are to document effective sources of pollen during the dichogamous bloom cycle of the two cultivars present in the orchard by determining pollen parentage of nuts, to de...

  3. Orchard nitrogen management: Which nitrogen source is best?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suboptimal management of nitrogen fertility in pecan orchards leads to a loss of nutmeat yield and quality, but also a waste of natural resources and money. This article reviews several basic guiding principles useful to orchard managers when developing nitrogen management strategies, and determini...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1230 - Port Orchard; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 334.1230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Orchard; naval restricted... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1230 Port Orchard;...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1230 - Port Orchard; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 334.1230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port Orchard; naval restricted... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1230 Port Orchard;...

  6. Inclusion of Specialist and Generalist Stimuli in Attract-and-Kill Programs: Their Relative Efficacy in Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Reissig, W Harvey; Combs, David; Leahy, Kathleen; Tuttle, Arthur; Cooley, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the chemical ecology of agricultural systems continues to be a salient part of integrated pest management programs. Apple maggot fly, a key pest of apple in eastern North America, is a visual specialist with attraction to host fruit-mimicking cues. These cues have been incorporated into red spherical traps used for both monitoring and behaviorally based management. Incorporating generalist or specialist olfactory cues can potentially increase the overall success of this management system. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist olfactory cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system. Secondly, we assessed how critical it was to maintain minimal deviation from the optimal, full-round specialist visual stimulus provided by red spheres. Finally, attracticidal spheres were deployed with specialist olfactory cues in commercial apple orchards to evaluate their potential for effective management of apple maggot. Ammonium carbonate did not increase residency, feeding time, or mortality in the laboratory-based trials. Field deployment of specialist olfactory cues increased apple maggot captures on red spheres, while the generalist cue did not. Apple maggot tolerated some deviation from the optimal visual stimulus without reducing captures on red spheres. Attracticidal spheres hung in perimeter trees in orchards resulted in acceptable and statistically identical levels of control compared with standard insecticide programs used by growers. Overall, our study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot. PMID:27330148

  7. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content. PMID:11513722

  8. CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    SciTech Connect

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-04-01

    The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support.

  9. Novel Technologies for Processing Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The desire to develop methods to use machine vision to simultaneous inspect apples for quality issues and for contamination has resulted in the development of a number of new technologies for processing apples. First, a number of imaging techniques and detection methods were developed under laborato...

  10. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  11. [Monitoring of seasonal variation of vegetation cover and evaluation of biological-control factor in orchards of China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Wen-bo; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-03-01

    Biological-control factor (B) can quantitatively reflect the effect of vegetation on soil erosion. Vertical photography method was used to monitor the seasonal changes of orchard coverage in 18 small watersheds, covering all five water erosion zones in China. The canopy coverage and ground green coverage were then calculated, and the B values were estimated. The result indicated that the orchard canopy coverage varied with season and distributed with a bell shape. The trend of ground green coverage and total coverage changed with season and was affected by the land management. For the orchard where the land surface was not treated and the weeds could grow freely, the distribution of the green coverage season change for all five soil erosion zones had a bell shape. The total coverage in the Northwest Loess Plateau area changed with season with a bell shape as well. The total coverage in the other four areas did not vary with the season and almost kept constant. For the orchard where land surface was cleaned up from time to time, the green coverage and total coverage in all five water erosion areas irregularly varied with season. The average B value of orchards in Northeast black soil area was the minimum with a value of 0.0006, while that in the Northwest Loess Plateau area was the maximum (0.1212). The average orchard B values in the Northern rocky earthy area, the Southern red soil area and the Southwest rocky earthy area were not significantly different and were 0.0548, 0.0627 and 0.0639, respectively. PMID:26211057

  12. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  13. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  14. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  15. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  16. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  17. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  18. Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented. PMID:8011143

  19. Canopy architecture of a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed dataset describing the canopy geometry of a walnut orchard was acquired to support testing and comparison of the predictions of canopy microwave and optical inversion models. Measured canopy properties included the quantity, size, and orientation of stems, leaves, and fruit. Eight trees receiving 100 percent of estimated potential evapotranspiration water use and eight trees receiving 33 percent of potential water use were measured. The vertical distributions of stem, leaf, and fruit properties are presented with respect to irrigation treatment. Zenith and probability distributions for stems and leaf normals are presented. These data show that, after two years of reduced irrigation, the trees receiving only 33 percent of their potential water requirement had reduced fruit yields, lower leaf area index, and altered allocation of biomass within the canopy.

  20. LOCATION OF A FORMER ORCHARD, NORTHWEST OF THE RAILROAD RIGHTOFWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOCATION OF A FORMER ORCHARD, NORTHWEST OF THE RAILROAD RIGHT-OF-WAY LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD OUTBUILDINGS - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Overview in two parts: Right view showing orchard path on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview in two parts: Right view showing orchard path on left eucalyptus windbreak bordering knoll on right. Camera facing 278" west. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Orchard Grower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, N. A.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in orchard crop production, and gives examples of cutting costs of fertilization, irrigation, weed management, pest management, high density crops, frost protection, and equipment use. (BB)

  4. 36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE NEAR END OF LINE - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  5. Determination of bromothalonil residues and degradation in apple and soil by QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Zheng, Lin

    2014-04-01

    The dissipation and residues of bromothalonil in apple and soil under field condition were analyzed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer method. The recoveries were ranged from 80.8 % to 106 % with coefficient variation for repeatability ranged from 3.08 % to 7.09 % at fortification levels of 0.02, 0.04 and 0.2 mg/kg in apple and soil. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.31 μg/kg. The dissipation rates of bromothalonil followed the first-order kinetics and the half-lives were from 3.61 to 3.98 days in apple and from 4.65 to 9.29 days in soil. In apple, the terminal residues of bromothalonil were below the China maximum residue limit (0.2 mg/kg) after 7 days of application. This work contributed to provide the basic information for a safe usage of bromothalonil in apple orchard and preventing health problem from consumers in China. PMID:24549917

  6. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    data. These complementary atmospheric measurements will serve to explain the intraannual and vertical variations observed in the soil moisture content in both experimental landscapes. This kind of study is aimed to understand the soil moisture content in two different environments such as irrigated rainfed orchards in a semi-arid region. For instance, these measurements have a direct impact on water availability for crops, plant transpiration and could have practical applications to schedule irrigation. Additionally, soil water content has also implications for erosion processes. Key Words: Water, Agriculture, Irrigation, Eastern Spain, Citrus. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Cerdà, A. 1995. Soil moisture regime under simulated rainfall in a three years abandoned field in Southeast Spain. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 20 (3-4), 271-279. Cerdà, A. 1997. Seasonal Changes of the Infiltration Rates in a Typical Mediterranean Scrubland on Limestone in Southeast Spain. Journal of Hydrology, 198 (1-4) 198-209 Cerdà, A. 1998. Effect of climate on surface flow along a climatological gradient in Israel. A field rainfall simulation approach. Journal of Arid Environments, 38, 145-159. Levin, I., Assaf, R., and Bravdo, B. 1979. Soil moisture and root distribution in an apple orchard irrigated by tricklers. Plant and Soil, 52, 31-40. Schneider, G. W. And Childers, N.F. 1941. Influence of soil moisture on photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration of apples leaves. Plant Physiol., 16, 565-583. Valerie, A. and Orchard, F.J. Cook. 1983. Relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 15, 447-453. Veihmeyer, F. J. and Hendrickson, A. H. 1950. Soil Moisture in Relation to Plant Growth. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 1, 285-304.

  7. Physiological processes of size-controlling rootstocks in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small, efficient trees are critical for early and high yield in high-density plantings of apple. Tree size is controlled by budding scion to size-controlling rootstocks. New rootstocks are needed for both size-controlling efficacy and tolerance of abiotic and biotic stress. Improved knowledge of ...

  8. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  9. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT

  10. Effect of Over-Tree Evaporative Cooling in Orchards on Microclimate and Accuracy of Insect Model Predictions.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Ute; Jones, Vincent P

    2015-12-01

    Orchard design and management practices can alter microclimate and, thus, potentially affect insect development. If sufficiently large, these deviations in microclimate can compromise the accuracy of phenology model predictions used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sunburn causes considerable damage in the Pacific Northwest, United States, apple-producing region. Common prevention strategies include the use of fruit surface protectants, evaporative cooling (EC), or both. This study focused on the effect of EC on ambient temperatures and model predictions for four insects (codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.; Lacanobia fruitworm, Lacanobia subjuncta Grote and Robinson; oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana Harris; and Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott). Over-tree EC was applied in July and August when daily maximum temperatures were predicted to be ≥30°C between 1200-1700 hours (15/15 min on/off interval) in 2011 and between 1200-1800 hours (15/10 min on/off interval, or continuous on) in 2012. Control plots were sprayed once with kaolin clay in early July. During interval and continuous cooling, over-tree cooling reduced average afternoon temperatures compared with the kaolin treatment by 2.1-3.2°C. Compared with kaolin-treated controls, codling moth and Lacanobia fruitworm egg hatch in EC plots was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d late, respectively. The presence of fourth-instar oblique-banded leafroller and Pandemis leafroller was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d earlier in EC plots, respectively. These differences in model predictions were negligible, suggesting that no adjustments in pest management timing are needed when using EC in high-density apple orchards. PMID:26331306

  11. Digital Data Set of Orchards Where Arsenical Pesticides Were Likely Used in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia, and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bradley W.; Larkins, Peter; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This data set shows orchard locations in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia where arsenical pesticides were likely used. The orchard locations are based on air photos and topographic maps prepared using information from the time period of extensive use of arsenical pesticides between the 1920s and 1960s. An orchard's presence in this data set does not necessarily indicate the use of arsenical pesticides on the site or that elevated arsenic and metal concentrations are present. Arsenical pesticides may have been used on part, or none, of the land and, under current land use, the land may have been remediated and no longer contain elevated arsenic and metal concentrations in soil. The data set was created to be used in an assessment of soil contamination related to past use of arsenical pesticides in orchards in the northern part of the Great Valley region, Virginia and West Virginia. Previous studies have documented that elevated concentrations of arsenic, lead, and sometimes copper occur in the soils of former apple orchards (Veneman et al., 1983; Jones and Hatch, 1937). Arsenical pesticide use was most extensive and widespread in agricultural applications from the 1920s to the late 1950s, and largely ceased agricultural use by the early 1960s in the nation. During this time period, lead arsenate was the most extensively used arsenical pesticide (Peryea, 1998), particularly in apple orchards. Other metal-bearing pesticides, such as copper acetoarsenite (Paris Green), Bordeaux Blue (a mixture of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide), and organic mercury fumigants were used to a lesser degree in orchards (Peryea, 1998; Shepard, 1939; Veneman et al., 1983). During the time arsenical pesticides were extensively used, federal and state pesticide laws did not require farmers to keep accurate records of the quantity, location, and type of arsenical pesticides used on their property, thus the quantity and distribution

  12. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  13. X-ray micro-computer tomographic method to visualize the microstructure of different apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ting, Valentina J L; Silcock, Patrick; Bremer, Phil J; Biasioli, Franco

    2013-11-01

    Apples are appreciated for their texture with firmness acting as an indicator of quality. During prolonged storage, apples can soften and their texture can become undesirably mealy. Using an X-ray microcomputer tomography (μ-CT) scanner, the porosity (ratio of intercellular space [IS] to total volume) and the structural arrangement of the parenchyma tissue of 4 apple cultivars (Braeburn, Fuji, Golden Delicious, Jazz) stored under similar conditions for 100 d were visualized via the development of 2D and 3D images. The texture of the apples was also measured using a puncture test. The morphometric and textural measurements revealed that firm Jazz apples (flesh firmness: 29.84N) had a lower porosity (17%) compared to soft Golden Delicious apples (flesh firmness: 14.16N; porosity: 29.8%). In general, firm apples had a higher dry matter (%) and a lower porosity (%), while the reverse was true for softer apples. However, this was not an absolute trend as cultivar specific differences in the microstructural organization and consequent mechanical strength of the parenchyma tissue also influenced firmness. For example, although Fuji apples were firm (28.42N), they had a high porosity (29.3%) due to the presence of numerous small and compact IS. In comparison, soft Golden Delicious apples had a high porosity (29.8%) due to the presence of large, interconnected IS. Imaging technologies have the potential to provide a pictorial or graphical database showing the size range distribution of IS corresponding to different parenchyma tissue types and how they relate to apple texture and eating quality. PMID:24245890

  14. Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese Pear) in Orchards with Variable Amounts of Soil-Available Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Iwase, Koji; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg−1, showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.01). AMF communities were examined on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) amplified by AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. The obtained AMF sequences were divided into 14 phylotypes, and the number of phylotypes (species richness) was also negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.05). It was also suggested that some AM fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment. PMID:23257910

  15. On the Origin and Spread of the Scab Disease of Apple: Out of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Valdebenito Sanhueza, Rosa-Maria; Sbaghi, Mohamed; Le Cam, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus responsible for apple scab, a disease that has invaded almost all apple growing regions worldwide, with the corresponding adverse effects on apple production. Monitoring and predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies require knowledge of the origin, introduction pathways, and population biology of pathogen populations. Analysis of the variation of genetic markers using the inferential framework of population genetics offers the potential to retrieve this information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in 1,273 strains of V. inaequalis representing 28 orchard samples from seven regions in five continents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (88%) was distributed within localities, which is consistent with extensive historical migrations of the fungus among and within regions. Despite this shallow population structure, clustering analyses partitioned the data set into separate groups corresponding roughly to geography, indicating that each region hosts a distinct population of the fungus. Comparison of the levels of variability among populations, along with coalescent analyses of migration models and estimates of genetic distances, was consistent with a scenario in which the fungus emerged in Central Asia, where apple was domesticated, before its introduction into Europe and, more recently, into other continents with the expansion of apple growing. Across the novel range, levels of variability pointed to multiple introductions and all populations displayed signatures of significant post-introduction increases in population size. Most populations exhibited high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles across loci, indicating recombination both in native and introduced areas. Conclusions/Significance Venturia inaequalis is a model of invasive phytopathogenic fungus that has now reached the

  16. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation. PMID:26527344

  17. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  18. Effects of Orchard Pesticides on Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Repellency and Irritancy.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A

    2015-02-01

    The effects of repellency or irritancy in Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) were studied for three rates of 16 pesticides commonly used in apple production. Adult female mites were exposed to residues in a series of choice bioassays (treated and untreated half of bean leaf disks). Novaluron, carbaryl, mancozeb+copper hydroxide, and sulfur were the most repellent materials to G. occidentalis, with females consistently avoiding the treated side of the leaf disk. Spirotetramat, flubendiamide, and cyantriniliprole caused an intermediate or inconsistent degree of repellency; azinphosmethyl, lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, imidacloprid, spinetoram, spinosad, and chlorantriniliprole caused little to no repellency. Irritancy (running off of the disk, as opposed to resting on the untreated half) was the most pronounced in the acetamiprid and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments. Acute toxicity (within the 6 h test period) was highest in the lambda-cyhalothrin and spinetoram treatments; in the former case, the mortality at all rates tested was substantial enough to interfere with the measurement of behavioral effects. Although irritancy may be considered the more extreme form of repellency, there were several pesticides (carbaryl, cyantraniliprole, mancozeb+copper hydroxide, novaluron) where a moderate to high degree of repellency did not correspond to a high degree of irritancy. Similarly, repellency was not consistently related to acute toxicity; one of the most repellent materials (novaluron) was not acutely toxic. Behavioral effects may help explain instances where lethal or sublethal bioassays do not fully predict the effects of pesticides seen in orchard use. PMID:26470128

  19. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  20. A recursive method for updating apple firmness prediction models based on spectral scattering images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yankun; Lu, Renfu

    2007-09-01

    Multispectral scattering is effective for nondestructive prediction of fruit firmness. However, the established prediction models for multispectral scattering are variety specific and may not perform appropriately for fruit harvested from different orchards or at different times. In this research, a recursive least squares method was proposed to update the existing prediction model by adding samples from a new population to assure good performance of the model for predicting fruit from the new population. Multispectral scattering images acquired by a multispectral imaging system from Golden Delicious apples that were harvested at the same time but had different postharvest storage time periods were used to develop the updating method. Radial scattering profiles were described by the modified Lorentzian distribution (MLD) function with four profile parameters for eight wavelengths. Multi-linear regression was performed on MLD parameters to establish prediction models for fruit firmness for each group. The prediction model established in the first group was then updated by using selected samples from the second group, and four different sampling methods were compared and validated with the rest apples. The prediction model corrected by the model-updating method gave good firmness predictions with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.86 and the standard error of prediction (SEP) of 6.11 N. This model updating method is promising for implementing the spectral scattering technique for real-time prediction of apple fruit firmness.

  1. Detection and Counting of Orchard Trees from Vhr Images Using a Geometrical-Optical Model and Marked Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Philippe; Gomes, Marília F.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an original algorithm created to detect and count trees in orchards using very high resolution images. The algorithm is based on an adaptation of the "template matching" image processing approach, in which the template is based on a "geometricaloptical" model created from a series of parameters, such as illumination angles, maximum and ambient radiance, and tree size specifications. The algorithm is tested on four images from different regions of the world and different crop types. These images all have < 1 meter spatial resolution and were downloaded from the GoogleEarth application. Results show that the algorithm is very efficient at detecting and counting trees as long as their spectral and spatial characteristics are relatively constant. For walnut, mango and orange trees, the overall accuracy was clearly above 90%. However, the overall success rate for apple trees fell under 75%. It appears that the openness of the apple tree crown is most probably responsible for this poorer result. The algorithm is fully explained with a step-by-step description. At this stage, the algorithm still requires quite a bit of user interaction. The automatic determination of most of the required parameters is under development.

  2. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available. PMID:17522823

  3. Oligo-DNA Custom Macroarray for Monitoring Major Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria in the Phyllosphere of Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying-Hong; Isono, Sayaka; Shibuya, Makoto; Tsuji, Masaharu; Adkar Purushothama, Charith-Raj; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Sano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Background To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. Methods and Findings First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 103 CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. Conclusions The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in the phyllosphere of

  4. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  5. Orchard Management: Horticultural Practices for Peace Corps Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development and Resources Corp.

    This manual is intended for use by Peace Corps volunteers as a resource for gaining an understanding and knowledge of basic horticultural principles and practices of orchard management. Addressed in the individual units of instructional text are orchard soils; botany of horticultural plants; insect and disease control in orchards; pome, stone,…

  6. Gap probability - Measurements and models of a pecan orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiaowen; Moody, Aaron; Liu, YI

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and models are compared for gap probability in a pecan orchard. Measurements are based on panoramic photographs of 50* by 135 view angle made under the canopy looking upwards at regular positions along transects between orchard trees. The gap probability model is driven by geometric parameters at two levels-crown and leaf. Crown level parameters include the shape of the crown envelope and spacing of crowns; leaf level parameters include leaf size and shape, leaf area index, and leaf angle, all as functions of canopy position.

  7. Diversity and Domestication of Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species within Malus are genetically diverse. Individuals within the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System have been identified with ploidies ranging from diploid to hexaploid. Chloroplast sequence data from seven regions have revealed genetic relationships among apple species and has aided in ...

  8. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  9. Branch induction in spur-type Delicious apple nursery trees

    SciTech Connect

    Popenoe, J.

    1987-01-01

    Long sylleptic shoots produced on apple trees in the nursery result in increased early yields once the trees are planted in the orchard. Spur-type Delicious trees do not naturally produce branches in the nursery. To achieve branched spur-type Delicious trees, applications of combinations of growth regulators benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellic acid 4 + 7 (GA) and leaf removal (LR) techniques were tested. Spacings of 15, 25, 35, and 45 cm and MM.106, M.7, M.26 and seedling rootstocks were tested for their effects on branching. Carbon partitioning changes caused by these treatments were evaluated by dry weight analysis and for benzyladenine, leaf removal and tipping treatments by {sup 14}C-photoassimilate labelling. Possible involvement of roots produced cytokinins was examined by {sup 14}C-benzyladenine labeling through the xylem and by analyzing relationships between root mass and branching characteristics. Although partitioning of {sup 14}C-photoassimilate was increased to the top of the plant by BA sprays, and to the bottom of the plant by LR and tipping for up to six days after treatment, final plant weights were not different. No relationship between branching and root mass or {sup 14}C-benzyladenine mobilization was found. This evidence indicates branched trees possessed no greater dry weight than unbranched trees, only a redistribution of the dry weight into a form more suited to early fruit production in high density planting systems.

  10. Multispectral inspection station detects defects on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Anger, Bill

    2000-12-01

    The performance of a multi-spectral apple inspection station capable of orienting some cultivars, conveying, and presenting apples to a camera at five apples per second is described. Apples are pre-sized and hand placed on the conveying devices to rotate about an axis passing through both the stem and calyx of each apple. An image of each apple is captured at four different wavelengths through a common aperture. Special optics and filters allow simultaneous image capture of apple reflectance for wavelength bands of 540 nm, 650 nm, 750 nm, and 950 nm, each with a bandwidth of approximately 60 nm. As each apple is conveyed laterally and rotated through the camera's field of view, 6 regions of interest representing most of the apple's surface at each wavelength band are captured. The images are processed to segment each defect from the surrounding undamaged tissue and the area of each defect is recorded. Typical defects such as new bruises, bruises on stored apples, scab, sooty blotch, corking, rot, russet, and insect damage are detected. Data is shown quantifying the ability of the inspection station to sort damaged apples into appropriate grades for correct pricing in the processing industry.

  11. Use of magnetic iron oxide to determine soil losses in rainfed olive orchard plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Giráldez, J. V.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat for sustainability of olive cropped areas in Mediterranean countries, like southern Spain where ~17% of its surface is covered by olive orchards (Gómez et al. 2005). Despite the large number of research dedicated to the study of soil erosion in olive orchards, a significant uncertainty persists in the estimation of actual erosion rates in these areas (Gómez et al. 2008; Fleskens and Stroosnijder, 2007). Due to the technical and economic limitations of traditional methods used in erosion measurement, there is a growing interest in the use of new methods including tracking of soil incorporating tracers in experiments performed at different scales and time periods. Magnetic iron oxide particles are good tracers to complement, or even replace traditional techniques of soil loss measurement after rainfall events under controlled rainfall conditions, especially at the small scale (Guzmán et al. 2010). From October 2008 to August 2010 soil losses were measured in two olive orchard runoff plots. During that period magnetic iron oxide concentration changes were also determined to estimate total soil losses and soil redistribution by water and tillage erosion in the plots, differentiating between the inter-tree rows, tree rows and rill areas influence. Average measured and estimated soil losses in the plots were 14.1 and 14.2 kg·m-2 respectively. Magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer allowed the estimation of soil losses with a RSME of 0.72 kg·m-2. Although soil erosion rates from tree rows were lower (0.6 kg·m-2·month-1) compared to inter-tree row rates (1.1 kg·m-2·month-1), the contribution of tree row areas to total soil losses was considerably high because of the great volume of the tree canopies in the plots and therefore, covered area (53.5 %). Magnetite content variations both overland and within the soil profile, selectivity of the tracer for finer soil particles, and soil bulk density changes, due to tillage-compaction and

  12. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage but soil degradation or tree injury can result from these practices. Grasses that suppress wee...

  13. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  14. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage, but soil degradation or tree injury can result. Grass that is managed to suppress...

  15. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  16. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  17. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  18. Consistent codling moth population decline by two years of mating disruption in apple: a Flemish case study.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2012-01-01

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is one of the most important pests in apple and pear. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards, largely due to a government subsidy and demonstrating projects aiming to widen the area treated by pheromones as large as possible. As a consequence, the mating disruption strategy was applied at approximately 7.500 ha, or half of the pip fruit area, in 2010 and 2011. The sudden large-scale implementation of this technique changed the codling moth management landscape. Here we present a case study of a commercially managed orchard that suffered from high codling moth pressures for many years, as did the surrounding area. The RAK3 mating disruption system was introduced at this location in 2010, and was continued in 2011. Systematic detailed codling moth flight data for this location are available for many years. In addition, comprehensive data on damage levels of chemically untreated windows spread all over the test orchard in a randomized block design were obtained in successive years, enabling us to thoroughly evaluate the effect of the changed codling moth management strategy. Data from 2011 included damage levels in chemically treated windows when the entire orchard was applied once at the flight peak of Cydia pomonella. In 2009, before introduction of mating disruption, a mean of 8.25 +/- 5.54% of the fruits were infested at harvest when assessed in completely untreated windows. After two years of mating disruption, supported with a full chemical support in 2010, except for the untreated assessment windows, and only one application on the flight peak of 2011, damage was reduced to less than 0.03% at harvest. This is a valuable case study to demonstrate the benefits of the mating disruption approach. PMID:23885433

  19. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  20. The litter cover of citrus leaves control soil and water losses in chemically managed orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Jurgensen, M. F.; González-Peñaloza, F. A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in chemically managed orchards results in bare soil due to the removal of the weeds and the lack of catch crops. Those conditions results in extremely high erosion rates in citrus orchards (Cerdà et al., 2011) such it has been found in other orchards in the Mediterranean where the soil degradation trigger a change in the soil water properties (Gómez et al., 1999). The Mediterranean climatic and human conditions contribute to very active soil water erosion (Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010) where rilling and piping are found (Romero-Diaz, 2007). It is widely known that high erosion rates can trigger the soil degradation such it has been found in vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2006), Olive (García Orenes et al., 2010) and other crops, which is related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). Within the chemically managed citrus orchards, the surface cover is usually bare due to the removal of the pruned branches (usually burned) and the use of herbicides every season. A thin and non-continuous litter layer of leaves from the citrus trees covers the soil surface, which sometimes are removed by the farmers to keep the soil clean. There is no information about the effect of the citrus leaves effects on soil and water losses. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of the leaves cover on the surface runoff and soil losses. Experiments were conducted by means of simulated rainfall at 55 mm h-1 during one hour in a small circular plot (0.25 m2) to quantify in the field the effect of different litter cover on soil erosion and water losses. An orchard of orange trees (Navel-lane-late, 10 year old, and planted at 6 x 5m with a 45 % cover) was selected in the Municipality of Montesa. Witin the 2 ha field 35 plots were selected with litter covers from 0 to 100 % cover. The runoff discharge was measured every minute and each 5 minutes a sample for runoff sediment concentration was collected. The sediment concentration was

  1. Captan exposure and evaluation of a pesticide exposure algorithm among orchard pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Deddens, James A; Jaycox, Larry B; Andrews, Ronnee N; Striley, Cynthia A F; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2008-04-01

    Pesticide exposure assessment in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) has relied upon two exposure metrics: lifetime exposure days and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days, the latter incorporating an intensity score computed from a questionnaire-based algorithm. We evaluated this algorithm using actual fungicide exposure measurements from AHS private orchard applicators. Captan was selected as a marker of fungicide exposure. Seventy-four applicators from North Carolina and Iowa growing apples and/or peaches were sampled on 2 days they applied captan in 2002 and 2003. Personal air, hand rinse, 10 dermal patches, a pre-application first-morning urine and a subsequent 24-h urine sample were collected from each applicator per day. Environmental samples were analyzed for captan, and urine samples were analyzed for cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). Task and personal protective equipment information needed to compute an individual's algorithm score was also collected. Differences in analyte detection frequency were tested in a repeated logistic regression model. Mixed-effects models using maximum-likelihood estimation were employed to estimate geometric mean exposures and to evaluate the measured exposure data against the algorithm. In general, captan and THPI were detected significantly more frequently in environmental and urine samples collected from applicators who used air blast sprayers as compared to those who hand sprayed. The AHS pesticide exposure intensity algorithm, while significantly or marginally predictive of thigh and forearm captan exposure, respectively, did not predict air, hand rinse or urinary THPI exposures. The algorithm's lack of fit with some exposure measures among orchard fungicide applicators may be due in part to the assignment of equal exposure weights to air blast and hand spray application methods in the current algorithm. Some modification of the algorithm is suggested by these results. PMID:18326518

  2. Barriers in a tropical orchard landscape: how the presence or absence of hedges influences insect dispersal in mixed orchards of Carica papaya and Manilkara zapota.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of plants in the form of a hedge may hinder or alter movement of certain insects into and within an orchard. We investigated the impact that the presence of a hedge of tall grass had on infestation by various pests into mixed orchards of papaya and sapodilla. For most insects there was ...

  3. Culturable fungi of stored 'golden delicious' apple fruits: a one-season comparison study of organic and integrated production systems in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Granado, José; Thürig, Barbara; Kieffer, Edith; Petrini, Liliane; Fliessbach, Andreas; Tamm, Lucius; Weibel, Franco P; Wyss, Gabriela S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of organic and integrated production systems on the culturable fungal microflora of stored apple fruits from five matched pairs of certified organic and integrated 'Golden Delicious' farms were studied at five representative production sites in Switzerland. Isolated fungi were identified morphologically. Colonization frequency (percentage of apples colonized), abundance (colony numbers), and diversity (taxon richness) were assessed for each orchard. The standard quality of the stored fruits was comparable for both organic and integrated apples and complied with national food hygiene standards. Yeasts (six taxa) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were the dominant epiphytes, filamentous fungi (21 taxa) the dominant endophytes. The most common fungi occurred at all sites and belonged to the "white" and "pink" yeasts, yeast-like A. pullulans, filamentous fungi Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., and sterile filamentous fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis of the total fungal community revealed a clear differentiation among production systems and sites. Compared to integrated apples, organic apples had significantly higher frequencies of filamentous fungi, abundance of total fungi, and taxon diversity. The effects of the production system on the fungal microflora are most likely due to the different plant protection strategies. The incidence of potential mycotoxin producers such as Penicillium and Alternaria species was not different between production systems. We suggest that higher fungal diversity may generally be associated with organic production and may increase the level of beneficial and antagonistically acting species known for their potential to suppress apple pathogens, which may be an advantage to organic apples, e.g., in respect to natural disease control. PMID:18473135

  4. Antibiosis Contributes to Biological Control of Fire Blight by Pantoea agglomerans Strain Eh252 in Orchards.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, V O; Johnson, K B; Sugar, D; Loper, J E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is the most serious bacterial disease of pear and apple trees. Biological control with strains of Pantoea agglomerans (syn. Erwinia herbicola) may provide an effective disease management strategy for fire blight. Most strains of P. agglomerans evaluated for suppression of fire blight produce compounds that inhibit the growth of E. amylovora in culture. The role of these inhibitory compounds in fire blight suppression in orchard environments has not been studied. In seven field trials in Oregon, we compared the population dynamics and disease suppression with P. agglomerans Eh252, a strain that produces a single antibiotic, with its near-isogenic antibiotic-deficient derivative, strain 10:12. Water or suspensions of Eh252 or 10:12 (1 x 10(8) CFU/ml) were applied at 30 and 70% bloom to pear or apple trees. Aqueous suspensions of freeze-dried cells of E. amylovora (3 x 10(5) CFU/ml) were applied at full bloom. Additional trees were treated with streptomycin or oxytetracycline at 30 and 70% bloom and in some experiments, 1 day after application of the pathogen. Population sizes of Eh252 or 10:12 on pear blossoms were estimated by spreading dilutions of blossom washes on culture media. Average population sizes of Eh252 and 10:12 on blossoms ranged from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU, and in five of six trials, the relative area under the population curve of Eh252 was not significantly different than that of its derivative 10:12. Both Eh252 and 10:12 reduced the growth of the pathogen on blossoms compared with inoculated water-treated controls. Eh252 significantly decreased the incidence of fire blight in six of seven field trials compared with the incidence on water-treated trees, and 10:12 similarly reduced the incidence of fire blight in four of seven trials. In three of seven field trials, trees treated with Eh252 had a significantly lower incidence of fire blight compared with trees treated 3 with 10:12. Overall,3 Eh252 reduced

  5. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sungbong; Lv, Jingyi; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark; Zhu, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a significant economic restraint to the successful re-establishment of new apple orchards on sites previously planted to the same crop. Pythium ultimum, an oomycete, is a significant component of the ARD pathogen complex. Although ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense responses are intensively studied in the foliar pathosystem, the transferability of this knowledge to the interaction between a perennial root system and soilborne pathogens is unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ET/JA-mediated defense response is conserved in roots of tree crops in response to infection by P. ultimum. Apple genes with the annotated function of ET/JA biosynthesis, MdERF (ethylene response factor) for signaling transduction and a gene encoding a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (β-chitinase, the target of ERF) were identified from the apple genome sequences. The transcriptional profiles of these genes during P. ultimum infection and after exogenous ET and/or JA treatment were characterized using qRT-PCR. Several genes showed a 10- to 60-fold upregulation in apple root tissue 24-48 h post inoculation (hpi). Exogenous ET and JA treatment exhibited either a positive or negative influence on expression of ET or JA biosynthesis genes, depending upon gene isoforms and the tissue types, while the expression of MdERF and the PR protein encoding gene was upregulated by both ET and JA treatment. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that ET/JA-mediated defense pathways are functional in the root system of perennial tree species defending soilborne pathogens. PMID:26504552

  6. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Bennetts, R.E.; Morton, Alexandra

    1997-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century (Rood et al. 1993). Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem's food web. Recent research by Malley et al. (1996) has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida.

  7. Stemflow in low-density and hedgerow olive orchards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.

    2015-04-01

    ) of all models ranged from 0.5 to 0.76. The size of leaves was also analysed. Although there were significant differences between varieties and between trees of the same variety, they did not seem to affect the amount of Sf generated. Through analysis of bark storage capacity, it was found that older trees, with rough and thick bark, had higher trunk storage capacity and, therefore, originated less Sf. The results confirm the need for considering the contribution of stemflow when trying to correctly assess interception loss in olive orchards. Although the use of simple and general statistical models may be an attractive option, their precision may be small, making direct measurements or conceptual modelling preferable methods.

  8. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  9. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  10. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  11. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  12. Prediction of Apple Quality by Optical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical properties (i.e., absorption and scattering) are useful for assessing the internal quality of apples such as firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A spatially-resolved hyperspectral imaging technique was developed to measure the optical properties of apples for predicting fruit firmness...

  13. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  14. Evaluation of the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitabchi, Gloria

    The Memphis Apple Classroom of Tomorrow (ACOT), one of seven ACOT locations, was a joint project of the city schools and Apple Computer. The ACOT consisted of a class of 30 fifth grade students in an inner city school, who were selected on the basis of the willingness of the students and their parents to participate and to use computers in the…

  15. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale a...

  16. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  17. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  18. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Newton's apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford Smith, Daniel

    1997-03-01

    This essay has a long history. It was triggered at university by one of my tutors describing the dispute between Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton. He conjured up an image of Newton sitting at his desk doing calculations while Hooke went down mineshafts trying to detect a change in the strength of gravity. To someone who was finding the maths content of a physics degree somewhat challenging this was a symbolic image. I believe that the story of Newton and the apple illustrates the complex nature of scientific discovery.

  19. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    PubMed

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

  20. Microcyclospora and Microcyclosporella: novel genera accommodating epiphytic fungi causing sooty blotch on apple.

    PubMed

    Frank, J; Crous, P W; Groenewald, J Z; Oertel, B; Hyde, K D; Phengsintham, P; Schroers, H-J

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies have found a wide range of ascomycetes to be associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) blemishes on the surfaces of pomaceous fruits, specifically apples. Based on collections of such fungi from apple orchards in Germany and Slovenia we introduce two novel genera according to analyses of morphological characters and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences (large subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions). Microcyclosporella is represented by a single species, M. mali, and is presently known from Germany and Slovenia. Microcyclosporella is Pseudocercosporella-like in morphology, but genetically and morphologically distinct from Pseudocercosporella s.str., for which an epitype is designated based on a fresh collection of P. bakeri from Laos. Furthermore, Pseudocercosporella is shown to be paraphyletic within the Capnodiales. Microcyclospora gen. nov. is Pseudocercospora-like in morphology, but is genetically and morphologically distinct from Pseudocercospora s.str., which is based on P. vitis. Three species, Microcyclospora malicola, M. pomicola (both collected in Germany), and M. tardicrescens (collected in Slovenia) are described. Finally, a new species of Devriesia, D. pseudoamericana, is described from pome fruit surfaces collected in Germany. Devriesia is shown to be paraphyletic, and to represent several lineages of which only Devriesia s.str. is thermotolerant. Further collections are required, however, before the latter generic complex can be resolved. PMID:20664763

  1. Determination of quality parameters in apple `Smoothee Golden Delicious' using backscattering laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Victoria; Val, Jesús; Urzola, Concha; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in `Smoothee Golden Delicious' apples, the use of backscattering images as a non-destructive method to estimate some quality parameters during the ripening process of fruits. In this experiment, 208 apples were collected from an experimental orchard of the Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (CSIC) in Zaragoza (Northeastern, Spain). Backscattering images were kept from samples picked up every 15 days during 7 months until harvest. In the same fruits, soluble solids contents (SSC) and firmness were measured by traditional destructive methods. The light source was a solid state laser diode module emitting at three different spectral bands (670, 785 and 980 nm) PLS calibration methods were used to create the statistical model to predict SSC and firmness. Good results were obtained when PLS calibration was applied to Feret diameter corresponding at different levels of gray. The Rcv2 values were 0.87 for firmness and 0.93 for SSC, which are higher than other reported in the literature for the same commodity.

  2. Direct sampling of resting codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults in apple tree canopies and surrounding habitats.

    PubMed

    Epstein, David L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J

    2011-06-01

    Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20-24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800-2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0-4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5-3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0-1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006-2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900-1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum + PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths

  3. Modeling multi-frequency diurnal backscatter from a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Dobson, Myron C.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1991-01-01

    The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering Model (MIMICS) is used to model scatterometer data that were obtained during the August 1987 EOS (Earth Observing System) synergism study. During this experiment, truck-based scatterometers were used to measure radar backscatter from a walnut orchard in Fresno County, California. Multipolarized L- and X-band data were recorded for orchard plots for which dielectric and evapotranspiration characteristics were monitored. MIMICS is used to model a multiangle data set in which a single orchard plot was observed at varying impedance angles and a series of diurnal measurements in which backscatter from this same plot was measured continuously over several 24-h periods. MIMICS accounts for variations in canopy backscatter driven by changes in canopy state that occur diurnally as well as on longer time scales. L-band backscatter is dependent not only on properties of the vegetation but also on properties of the underlying soil surface. The behavior of the X-band backscatter is dominated by properties of the tree crowns.

  4. Effects of habitat on avian productivity in abandoned pecan orchards in southern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs and nestlings were determined for Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum) and Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) occupying abandoned pecan orchards in a highly fragmented and intensively farmed area of southern Georgia. The effects of nest placement parameters, seasonal factors and habitat disruptions on DSRs for all species combined were statistically analyzed. Egg and nestling DSRs varied significantly by month of nesting, percent cover, vegetative form and position of nest in substrate. Causes of nest failure (no fledglings produced) in order of decreasing importance were predation by small mammals/snakes, avian predation, predation by large mammals, and abandonment. Results provide further evidence that the importance of nest placement and habitat disruptions in nesting success is influenced by foraging strategies of the predator community. Site-specific predator/habitat complexes may be a more appropriate criterion than habitat conditions alone for evaluating avian nesting habitat

  5. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Dos Passos, João Frederico M; da Costa, Pedro B; Costa, Murilo D; Zaffari, Gilmar R; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  6. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  7. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  8. Four species of Zygophiala (Schizothyriaceae, Capnodiales) are associated with the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple.

    PubMed

    Batzer, Jean Carlson; Arias, Maria Mercedes Diaz; Harrington, Thomas C; Gleason, Mark L; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2008-01-01

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a complex of fungi that cause late-season blemishes of apple and pear fruit that cosmetically damage the cuticle, which result in fruit that are unacceptable to consumers. Previous studies reported that a single, wide-host-range species, Schizothyrium pomi (presumed anamorph Zygophiala jamaicensis), caused flyspeck on apple. In the present study we compared morphology and DNA phylogeny (ITS, LSU) of 139 fungal strains isolated from flyspeck signs from 39 apple orchards in 14 midwestern and eastern states (USA). Parsimony analysis, supported by cultural characteristics and morphology in vitro, provided support to delimit the flyspeck isolates into four species of Zygophiala, two of which are known to be sexual. Three of these species are described as new. Based on DNA phylogeny, species of Schizothyrium were shown to cluster with members of the genus Mycosphaerella in the Capnodiales, having similar asci and ascospores but morphologically distinct ascomata. These data question the value of ascomatal morphology at the ordinal level, although it still appears to be relevant at the family level, delimiting the thyrothecial Schizothyriaceae from other families in the Capnodiales. PMID:18592899

  9. Influence of copper fungicide residues on occurrence of earthworms in avocado orchard soils.

    PubMed

    Van Zwieten, Lukas; Rust, Josh; Kingston, Tim; Merrington, Graham; Morris, Steven

    2004-08-15

    The compost worm Eisenia fetida was used to demonstrate the avoidance by worms of Cu contaminated soil. Soils were collected from two avocado orchards in north eastern New South Wales, Australia. In avoidance trials, worms preferred non-contaminated control soils, sourced from adjacent to the orchard or an OECD control soil, when Cu residues in the orchard soils reached 4-34 mg Cu kg(-1). At levels of 553 mg Cu kg(-1), 90% avoidance of orchard soil was observed. The worms showed preference for the soils in the order; uncontaminated field derived soil >OECD standard soil >Cu contaminated orchard soil. It was demonstrated that OECD standard soil was less favoured by worms than control soil derived from the test sites. While Cu was found to be the primary influence on worm avoidance in orchard soil, other factors, such as elevated soil Zn concentrations, could not be discounted. In a corresponding field study, it was shown that earthworms occurred at lower density in orchard soils with a history of Cu fungicide use. In one such orchard, soil Cu concentrations of up to 270 mg kg(-1) were determined and no earthworms were found, while nearby control sites and less contaminated sites within the orchard had up to 40.7 g m(-2) earthworm biomass. Considering the potential for Cu to accumulate in these soils and the subsequent impacts on soil biota, our results highlight the importance of limiting future application of Cu based fungicides. PMID:15262156

  10. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  11. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  12. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  13. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  14. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  15. Changes in volatile emissions from apple trees and associated response of adult female codling moths over the fruit-growing season.

    PubMed

    Vallat, Armelle; Dorn, Silvia

    2005-05-18

    Odors in the headspace of apple trees were characterized by in situ volatile collections in the orchard. Sixty-two compounds were quantitatively identified with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over the complete fruit-growing season. Overall quantities in the headspace of fruit-bearing twig were highest at petal fall and at the beginning of June and August. Interestingly, the latter two periods coincide with the flight maxima of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, one of the principal pest insects of apple fruit worldwide. Dual-choice bioassays with mated adult female moths in a Y-tube olfactometer showed that the blend of plant-derived volatiles repelled this key pest of apple at petal fall and attracted it from July to mid-August. Single-component analysis indicated that benzaldehyde and butyl acetate might contribute to the observed repellent effect, but the constituents accounting for the attractant effect mid-season remain to be further elucidated. The attractant effect clearly originates from the apple fruit and not from the twig with leaves, as bioassays demonstrated conclusively. PMID:15884843

  16. Efficacy of insecticide residues on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) mortality and injury in apple and peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary threat from Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) originates from populations continuously dispersing from and among wild and cultivated hosts. Many individuals may not come in contact with freshly applied insecticides, but only dried, aged residues. Limited information e...

  17. Soil carbon pools, nitrogen supply, and tree performance under several groundcovers and compost rates in a newly planted apple orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic mulches and cover crops add organic C and nutrients to soil, potentially affecting soil C and N pools and crop performance. This study evaluated the effects of in-row ground cover treatment (bare ground, brassica seed meal, cultivation, wood chip mulch, and legume and non-legume cover crops)...

  18. Using entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar: Effects of irrigation and species in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruit. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.) are virulent to ground-dwelling stages of C. nenuphar. Two significant questions that must be addressed prior to implementation are: 1) which n...

  19. Establishing the behavioral basis for an attract-and-kill strategy to manage the invasive Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) is an invasive, polyphagous insect that inflicts serious economic injury on specialty crops in the United States. Growers have been forced to respond by increasing the frequency of broad-spectrum insecticide applications. One strategy to reduce reliance on insecticides is ...

  20. Transforming Schools through Expanded Learning Time: Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School. Update 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Roy

    2013-01-01

    For years, Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School was plagued by low student achievement and high staff turnover. Then, in 2010, with an expanded school schedule made possible through federal funding, Orchard Gardens began a remarkable turnaround. Today, the school is demonstrating how increased learning time, combined with other key turnaround…

  1. Impact of barrier crops on arthropod pests immigrating into orchards of sapodilla and banana.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the abundance and damage of several pests in orchards of sapodilla, banana, and papaya that were either surrounded by a border of tall sorghum or without such a border. Almost all pests were present in equal numbers in orchards, despite the presence or absence of a barrier crop of sorghu...

  2. Pest Control and Related Orchard Practices in Commercial Fruit Plantings. Circular 1151.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, S. M.; And Others

    This circular brings together suggestions from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois State Natural History Survey relating to orchard practices and pest control. It provides some basic steps in pest control and discusses some specific orchard pests such as grasshoppers, mites, mice, and rabbits. In addition, it gives some…

  3. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  4. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  5. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  6. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed. PMID:25195419

  7. The 1978 Pennsylvania Orchard and Vineyard Inventory Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Significant developments in the fruit industry in Pennsylvania are reported to provide basic information as a guide in the production and marketing of apples, pears, cherries, peaches, grapes, plums, prunes and nectarines. Tables show the number of growers, trees and acres by kind of fruit as well as the age of the trees, the number of barrels produced, and production by county and region.

  8. Effects of transmission towers on orchards and vineyards

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    Electric power transmission towers can pose problems for the farm operator in terms of the loss of productive area and interference with the movement of machinery. A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of transmission facilities on orchard and vineyard operations in Ontario, Canada. Economic losses to peach and grape crops were determined. Time loss varied greatly depending on the specific operation and tower location. Economic effects of transmission towers varied widely depending on location and orientation, and whether or not equipment can pass through the base area.

  9. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    PubMed

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed. PMID:20188809

  10. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  11. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  12. [Service value assessment of orchard ecosystem: a case of Putian City of Fujian].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wu, Duan-wang

    2011-09-01

    Based on the equivalent weight factor of China terrestrial ecosystem service value, and by using ecosystem service value assessment model, this paper evaluated the orchard ecosystem service value in Putian City. In 2002-2008, the orchard ecosystem service value in the City had an overall increasing trend, among which, the service value of gas regulation and water resource conservation had a fluctuation trend of decreased after an initial increase, and that of other functions increased rapidly in 2002-2006 and then developed mildly. The service value of regulation function was higher than that of direct use function, showing that only on the basis of preserving well the functions of ecosystem, could the orchard ecosystem be claimed and used. As most of the orchards in the City are on hills or mountains, the construction and ecological protection of the orchards are obviously disjointed, making the orchards become bare land or other land-use types, resulting in serious soil erosion and degradation, which not only destroyed the orchard ecology, but also gave negative effects on the production efficiency of agriculture. In the future construction of Putian orchards, it should implement comprehensive planning and management of mountain areas, water regions, farm lands, forest lands, and paths, reduce the orchard construction costs by taking advantage of high and new technologies in light of the local conditions and the demands of domestic and foreign markets, and promote the virtuous circle of ecosystem by comprehensive utilization of resources and regulation of biological interaction to make the structure of the orchard ecosystem approached to scientific and rational. PMID:22126054

  13. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  14. Hormone and growth interactions of scions and size-controlling rootstocks of young apple trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Size-controlling rootstocks are critical to grow small, efficient trees that enable early and high yield in high-density plantings of apple. Improved knowledge of scion and rootstock-related processes associated with size-control can be an important factor in rootstock breeding and cultural practic...

  15. The Macintoshed Library: Uses of the Apple Macintosh in a Special Library. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J., Ed.

    This report describes the use of Apple Macintosh computers in the Merriam Center Library (MCL) (Illinois), a small, specialized library located on the campus of the University of Chicago. The appropriateness of the Macintosh for library use and the introduction of Macintosh computers to MCL are briefly discussed, current computer applications are…

  16. Interaction of scions and rootstocks of size-controlling rootstocks of young apple trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Size-controlling rootstocks are critical to grow small, efficient apple trees that enable early and robust yield in high-density plantings. Improved knowledge of scion and rootstock-related processes associated with size-control can assist rootstock breeding and tree management. Growth regulation ...

  17. Competencies Needed by Full-Time Employees to Enter the Apple Production Industry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, George W.

    A study identified the competencies needed by full-time employees entering the apple production industry. Other objectives of the study included: (1) identification of differences among competency areas needed for employees working for large, medium, and small growers (based on acreage); and (2) identification of differences among competency areas…

  18. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  19. [Pesticide residual status in litchi orchard soils in Guangdong, China].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Li, Guo-Liang; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei; Guo, Bin

    2010-11-01

    Litchi is a famous tropical and subtropical fruit originated in South China. Guangdong is one of the most important litchi production areas in China. Two hundred and eight soil samples were collected in litchi orchards after harvesting the fruit, in which nine often-used pesticides including metalaxyl, mancozeb, carbendazim, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, dipterex, dimethoate and dichlorvos were detected. The results showed that the detectable rates of various pesticides were ranked cypermethrin (59.1%) > carbendazim (51.0%) > mancozeb (11.1%) > metalaxyl (6.7%) > cyhalothrin (3.4%). Dimethoate and dichlorvos were detectable in few soil samples, and deltamethrin and dipterex were undetectable in all samples. The percentages of soil samples where different pesticides could be detected in one sample followed the order: one pesticide detectable (40.4%) > two pesticides simultaneously detectable (31.3%) > pesticide undetectable (18.8%) > three pesticides simultaneously detectable (8.2%) > four pesticides simultaneously detectable (1.4%). The concentrations of mancozeb in detectable samples averaged 39.05 microg x kg(-1), and that of cypermethrin was 7.83 microg x kg(-1). The mean concentrations of the other five pesticides ranged from 0.19 microg x kg(-1) to 1.65 microg x kg(-1). Totally, the pesticide residue status in litchi orchards in Guangdong was venial. PMID:21250457

  20. Evapotranspiration and turbulent transport in an irrigated desert orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Thomas E.; Miller, David R.; Huddleston, Ellis W.; Ross, James B.

    2002-10-01

    Micrometeorological measurements were recorded in an irrigated pecan orchard for 2 weeks in the summer of 1996 near Las Cruces, NM. A vertical array of five sonic anemometers recorded three-dimensional wind and temperature data within and above the orchard. The measured energy budget closure error was only 3.2% of net radiation, indicating freedom from local edge advection. The effects of regional (oasis) advection and unsteady winds on evapotranspiration (ET) were considered by comparing the observed latent heat flux values to estimates of ET using the Penman-Monteith and Advection-Aridity approaches. Penman-Monteith underestimated observed ET values by 82%. The Advection-Aridity modifications of potential evapotranspiration (PET) underestimated ET by 11%. Profiles of turbulence statistics demonstrated vertical heterogeneity of turbulence within the canopy. Directly above the canopy, momentum flux profiles showed little divergence. However, at a level of two times the tree heights, sensible heat flux profiles did show divergence, confirming the presence of "oasis" advection resulting from warm, dry air moving above the internal boundary layer. Upward convection from the hot soil surface between the trees diluted the oasis condition to the point where a weak upward sensible heat flux was observed during the midday periods when the soil was not shaded. Convection ratios, and exuberance ratios, generated from quadrant analyses of the heat and momentum flux events, showed that turbulent motions moved freely up and down within this canopy with little attenuation due to the open spaces between the trees.

  1. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a diagram of the…

  2. Constructing and Using an Apple IIe Computer AppleWorks Document Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a step-by-step procedure for setting up a document library of personal word processing, database, and spreadsheet files using the Apple IIe computer and the AppleWorks subprogram database. This library, which can serve both as a running record of files created and as a means for easy retrieval, uses 10 fields or categories…

  3. Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks database files using the Apple IIe computer covers (1) naming the report; (2) selecting a printer; and (3) printing the report for both the labels and the tables formats. Twenty-one sample screen displays which illustrate the steps and examples of the printed reports are included. (MES)

  4. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  5. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  6. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the file. For…

  7. California's Effort to Improve Almond Orchard Crop Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanden, B. L.; Fulton, A. E.; Munk, D. S.; Ewert, S.; Little, C.; Anderson, F.; Connell, J. H.; Rivera, M.; Orang, M. N.; Snyder, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Almonds are a major agricultural commodity in California and optimal irrigation management is important for production, protecting the environment, and long term water resources planning. While evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are widely used for water resource planning, it is used less for "realtime" irrigation management for several reasons. One problem is the lack of confidence in the crop coefficient (Kc) values that are used with reference ET (ETo) to estimate well-watered crop ET (ETc). This is especially true for orchard crops. Until recently, the Kc values used to estimate the ETc of most orchard crops in California were derived using measurements of applied water, runoff, and soil water content depletion with the assumption that the trees were transpiring at a rate that was not restricted by water availability. For decades, a typical midseason Kc value used for clean-cultivated almond orchards was 0.90. Recently, a study was conducted by the University of California and the California Department of Water Resources to improve the Kc estimates for almond orchards; helping growers improve their on-farm water management for better production and less adverse impacts on the environment. Field experiments were conducted in four locations (Butte, Fresno, Kern, and Tehama Counties) spanning 1000 km north to south within the Central Valley of California over somewhat different climates. California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) weather stations were used with the ASCE-EWRI standardized reference evapotranspiration equation for short canopies to determine ETo. Latent heat flux (LE), in all four orchards, was estimated using the residual of the energy balance equation: LE=Rn-G-H from measured net radiation (Rn), ground heat flux (G), and sensible heat flux (H) using surface renewal and eddy covariance measurements. The LE was divided by the latent heat of vaporization (L) to determine ETc. In three years of measurements in Kern County, the data

  8. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    PubMed

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed. PMID:22928314

  9. [Hyperspectral Estimation of Apple Tree Canopy LAI Based on SVM and RF Regression].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-ying; Zhu, Xi-cun; Fang, Xian-yi; Wang, Zhuo-yuan; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Yuan-mao

    2016-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is the dynamic index of crop population size. Hyperspectral technology can be used to estimate apple canopy LAI rapidly and nondestructively. It can be provide a reference for monitoring the tree growing and yield estimation. The Red Fuji apple trees of full bearing fruit are the researching objects. Ninety apple trees canopies spectral reflectance and LAI values were measured by the ASD Fieldspec3 spectrometer and LAI-2200 in thirty orchards in constant two years in Qixia research area of Shandong Province. The optimal vegetation indices were selected by the method of correlation analysis of the original spectral reflectance and vegetation indices. The models of predicting the LAI were built with the multivariate regression analysis method of support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). The new vegetation indices, GNDVI527, ND-VI676, RVI682, FD-NVI656 and GRVI517 and the previous two main vegetation indices, NDVI670 and NDVI705, are in accordance with LAI. In the RF regression model, the calibration set decision coefficient C-R2 of 0.920 and validation set decision coefficient V-R2 of 0.889 are higher than the SVM regression model by 0.045 and 0.033 respectively. The root mean square error of calibration set C-RMSE of 0.249, the root mean square error validation set V-RMSE of 0.236 are lower than that of the SVM regression model by 0.054 and 0.058 respectively. Relative analysis of calibrating error C-RPD and relative analysis of validation set V-RPD reached 3.363 and 2.520, 0.598 and 0.262, respectively, which were higher than the SVM regression model. The measured and predicted the scatterplot trend line slope of the calibration set and validation set C-S and V-S are close to 1. The estimation result of RF regression model is better than that of the SVM. RF regression model can be used to estimate the LAI of red Fuji apple trees in full fruit period. PMID:27400527

  10. Seasonality of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb and Pasteuria sp. in Citrus Orchards in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sorribas, F. J.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Forner, J. B.; Alcaidel, A.; Pons, J.; Ornat, C.

    2000-01-01

    Population densities of the Mediterranean biotype of Tylenchulus semipenetrans were monitored in soil and citrus roots at 3-month intervals for 3 consecutive years in four citrus orchards in the provinces of Tarragona (Amposta and Xalamera) and Valencia (Moncada and Ca´rcer). Nematode population densities in soil peaked once a year in April or July depending on the orchard and year. Numbers of females per gram of root increased once or twice each year. The maximum density of eggs per gram of root was recorded in April at Xalamera and Ca´rcer orchards, but there was no recognizable peak in the other two orchards. Numbers of nematodes in soil, females or eggs per gram of root, or eggs per female were correlated with either temperature or rainfall in the sampling month, 1 month before sampling, or in the second preceding month, depending on the orchard. Members of the Pasteuria group were present in the four citrus orchards, and a positive relationship occurred between nematodes in soil and bacterial parasitism (r² = 0.75) in the orchard at Amposta. PMID:19271018

  11. Maintenance of a Living Understory Enhances Soil Carbon Sequestration in Subtropical Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Lin, Yongbiao; Lu, Hongfang; Ding, Mingmao; Tan, Yaowen; Xu, Shejin; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    Orchard understory represents an important component of the orchards, performing numerous functions related to soil quality, water relations and microclimate, but little attention has been paid on its effect on soil C sequestration. In the face of global climate change, fruit producers also require techniques that increase carbon (C) sequestration in a cost-effective manner. Here we present a case study to compare the effects of understory management (sod culture vs. clean tillage) on soil C sequestration in four subtropical orchards. The results of a 10-year study indicated that the maintenance of sod significantly enhanced the soil C stock in the top 1 m of orchard soils. Relative to clean tillage, sod culture increased annual soil C sequestration by 2.85 t C ha-1, suggesting that understory management based on sod culture offers promising potential for soil carbon sequestration. Considering that China has the largest area of orchards in the world and that few of these orchards currently have sod understories, the establishment and maintenance of sod in orchards can help China increase C sequestration and greatly contribute to achieving CO2 reduction targets at a regional scale and potentially at a national scale. PMID:24116188

  12. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  13. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated...

  14. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  15. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  16. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  18. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  19. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  20. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  1. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  2. Simulating the impact of cross resistance between Bt toxins in transformed clover and apples in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Caprio, M A; Suckling, D M

    2000-04-01

    Simulation were conducted to guide development of resistance management strategies aimed at prolonging the usable life of B. thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins in multiple cropping situations, where different crops expressing Bt endotoxins are host plants for a common pest. We used the New Zealand apple and clover model ecosystem to explore the relative impact on the rate of resistance development of varying levels of cross-resistance between different toxins expressed in these 2 potentially Bt-transformed crops. These 2 crops are hosts for a complex of leaf-rollers in New Zealand, including the light-brown apple moth, used here as the model pest. Cross-resistance was varied between 0.0 and 0.5 (zero to partial cross-resistance) to allow for the case in which selection by one plant has a potential effect on resistance to the toxin in another plant. The largest factor affecting the evolution of resistance was the total habitat area occupied by transgenic orchards. The proportion of the clover habitat that was transformed was also an important factor, even in the absence of cross-resistance. The effect of increasing the proportion of the second transformed crop (clover) acted on resistance evolution mainly by reducing the external refuge of susceptibility for the transgenic orchards. Hence, the ecological implications of reducing the available source of susceptible insects from clover, which can help to slow resistance development in the orchard ecosystem, had a more significant impact than the presence of cross-resistance. Partial cross-resistance between different toxins in the separate crops was overall of relatively minor importance. These simulations have implications for deployment decisions for individual transformed crops in multiple cropping systems, where there is the potential for the crops to serve as refugees for each other. These decisions may need to focus less on cross-resistance between toxins, than on economic trade-offs between the relative roles of

  3. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  4. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  5. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  6. Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light (< 800 nm) were attenuated more than longer wavelengths (> 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When applied to a larger validation set, 8.0% of the apples with internal browning were misclassified. For both sets, the only apples misclassified were those with very slight browning that was very difficult to detect visually were misclassified, but none of the apples with slight to severe browning was misclassified. For nondefective apples, 6.1% were identified as having internal browning, because bruises and internal browning had the same effect on the spectral composition.

  7. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  8. Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

  9. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  10. Volatiles from apple trees infested with light brown apple moth larvae attract the parasitoid Dolichogenidia tasmanica.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Twidle, A M; Gibb, A R; Manning, L M; Mitchell, V J; Sullivan, T E S; Wee, S L; El-Sayed, A M

    2012-09-26

    The volatile compounds emitted from uninfested apple seedlings, cv. Royal Gala, and apple seedlings infested with generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana larvae were sampled using headspace collection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine additional compounds were only detected in infested apple seedlings [including benzyl alcohol, (E)-β-ocimene, benzyl cyanide, indole, (E)-nerolidol, and four unidentified compounds]. Infested apple seedlings produced larger amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate than uninfested plants. Female parasitoids flew exclusively upwind to infested and not to uninfested apple seedlings in wind tunnel choice tests and preferred infested leaflets in still air, even after the removal of larvae. The attraction of a parasitoid to infested apple seedlings in the laboratory and in the field to apple and many other plants in at least six families supports considerable generality of the tritrophic signaling process. PMID:22950817

  11. Oxyresveratrol as an antibrowning agent for cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apples.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Cho, Chi-Hin; He, Zhendan; Wang, Mingfu

    2007-04-01

    Antibrowning activities of Morus alba L. twig extracts, oxyresveratrol, and mulberroside A isolated from mulberry twig on cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apple slices were evaluated by monitoring the change of a* value, total color difference (DeltaE), and visual observation. It was found, similar to 4-hexylresorcinol, that oxyresveratrol could effectively inhibit browning in cloudy apple juices at a concentration as low as 0.01% and that mulberry twig extract also showed remarkable antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices. However, for fresh-cut apple slices, mulberry twig extract and oxyresveratrol needed to be used in combination at least with ascorbic acid to exhibit their antibrowning effects. Apple slice samples treated by dipping in a solution containing 0.001 M oxyresveratrol, 0.5 M isoascorbic acid, 0.05 M calcium chloride, and 0.025 M acetylcysteine did not undergo any substantial browning reaction for 28 days at 4 degrees C. However mulberroside A did not show antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices although it is also a good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:17335224

  12. A comparison of the nesting success of mourning doves and American robins in conventionally managed and organic orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fluetsch, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to document more closely the effects of operational pesticide use on non-target avian species. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) nesting activity was monitored in three organic and three conventional orchards during two breeding seasons. Surveys were conducted to characterize the avian community within orchards under both management practices. Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides, known to be extremely toxic to birds, were repeatedly sprayed during the peaks in dove and robin breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 85.5% of the nests tested during routine spray operations. The threat of direct pesticide exposure to eggs, nestlings, and adult birds was considerable. Nest daily survival rates (DSRs) for both doves and robins, were significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards in 1991 and years combined (P < 0.05). Species diversity was significantly greater in the organic orchards (H = 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H = 1.79). Results suggest that repeated applications of pesticides, within the conventional orchards, directly or indirectly, affected the reproductive success of doves and robins, as well as influenced species diversity within the treated orchards. Organic orchards appear to provide more favorable nesting and foraging habitat for birds than conventional orchards.

  13. Patterns and Drivers of Scattered Tree Loss in Agricultural Landscapes: Orchard Meadows in Germany (1968-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin; Costa, Augusta; Schaich, Harald; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts. PMID:25932914

  14. Patterns and drivers of scattered tree loss in agricultural landscapes: orchard meadows in Germany (1968-2009).

    PubMed

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin; Costa, Augusta; Schaich, Harald; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts. PMID:25932914

  15. Simazine runoff from citrus orchards affected by shallow mechanical incorporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; O'Connell, N V

    2003-01-01

    Simazine (6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) losses via runoff in California are a potential source of environmental contamination because simazine is widely used for weed control during the rainy season from November to March. This study was conducted in two citrus orchards from three rainfall events to evaluate the effects of shallow mechanical incorporation on simazine losses in runoff during the winter. Simazine losses in runoff were compared between row middles that were either undisturbed, the normal orchard practice, or subjected to shallow mechanical incorporation. Mechanical incorporation of row middles significantly reduced runoff volumes by approximately 45 and 28% for the first and second runoff events, respectively. In undisturbed plots, simazine concentrations in runoff from the first runoff event ranged from 0.62 to 0.73 mg L(-1); then simazine concentrations rapidly decreased (0.03-0.35 mg L(-1)) from the second and third runoff events. In disturbed plots, simazine concentrations in runoff from the first runoff event ranged from 0.21 to 0.24 mg(-1), but simazine concentrations remained relatively constant between the three runoff events. Total mass recoveries of simazine in runoff ranged from 1.93 to 2.97% and from 0.70 to 0.74% of application from the undisturbed plots and from the disturbed plots, respectively. Low water infiltration rate inhibited surface-applied herbicide incorporation into the soil matrix with natural rainfall in compacted soils. Mechanical incorporation of row middles significantly reduced runoff volumes, simazine concentrations, and mass losses in runoff after application. PMID:12549545

  16. Appl1 and Appl2 are Expendable for Mouse Development But Are Essential for HGF-Induced Akt Activation and Migration in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinfei; Xin, Xiaoban; Coffey, Francis J; Wiest, David L; Dong, Lily Q; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Although Appl1 and Appl2 have been implicated in multiple cellular activities, we and others have found that Appl1 is dispensable for mouse embryonic development, suggesting that Appl2 can substitute for Appl1 during development. To address this possibility, we generated conditionally targeted Appl2 mice. We found that ubiquitous Appl2 knockout (Appl2-/-) mice, much like Appl1-/- mice, are viable and grow normally to adulthood. Intriguingly, when Appl1-/- mice were crossed with Appl2-/- mice, we found that homozygous Appl1;Appl2 double knockout (DKO) animals are also viable and grossly normal with regard to reproductive potential and postnatal growth. Appl2-null and DKO mice were found to exhibit altered red blood cell physiology, with erythrocytes from these mice generally being larger and having a more irregular shape than erythrocytes from wild type mice. Although Appl1/2 proteins have been previously shown to have a very strong interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (Pi3k) in thymic T cells, Pi3k-Akt signaling and cellular differentiation was unaltered in thymocytes from Appl1;Appl2 (DKO) mice. However, Appl1/2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited defects in HGF-induced Akt activation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, these data suggest that Appl1 and Appl2 are required for robust HGF cell signaling but are dispensable for embryonic development and reproduction. PMID:26445298

  17. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding instrument which recorded general…

  18. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  20. Establishing Commercial Utility of Behavioral Control for Apple Maggot Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot fly is a key summer pest of apples throughout eastern North America, and poses an increasing threat to apple production in the Northwest. If left unchecked, the threat of AMF injury to fruit can be severe, resulting in complete loss of marketable crop. To combat AMF infestation, comme...

  1. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  3. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  4. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  5. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  7. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  8. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  9. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  10. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  11. Carnivore Use of Avocado Orchards across an Agricultural-Wildland Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity. PMID:23844147

  12. Incidence and influence of plant-parasitic nematodes in southern Illinois peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency, distribution and impact of plant-parasitic nematodes in southern Illinois peach orchards were determined. Nine plant parasitic nematode genera were detected comprising 11 different species: Helicotylenchus platyurus, Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Hoplolaimus spp., Meloidogyne spp., ...

  13. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  14. Incidence and control of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and American plum borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks in New York.

    PubMed

    Kain, David P; Straub, Richard W; Agnello, Arthur M

    2004-04-01

    Surveys were conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York state to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was generally prevalent throughout the state, but American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), was limited to western New York apple orchards near infested stone fruit trees. Insecticides evaluated in the field for efficacy against both borers were chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, indoxacarb plus oil, methoxyfenozide, fenpropathrin, and kaolin clay. Also, white latex paint was tested alone and mixed with chlorpyrifos. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at the petal fall developmental stage was equivalent to chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall and again in mid-July, and it provided season-long control of dogwood borer and American plum borer. One application of chlorpyrifos applied any time between the half-inch green developmental stage and petal fall, or after harvest the previous season, controlled both overwintered and summer brood larvae of dogwood borer. Multiple applications of fenpropathrin, indoxacarb plus oil, and endosulfan applied during the dogwood borer flight period controlled the summer brood. PMID:15154480

  15. Effects of burnings of wax apple stubble and rice straw on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in air and soil.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jen-Ho; Chen, Kang-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-04-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were made in ambient air, ash, and soil impacted by the open burning of wax apple and rice straw residues. Measurements showed that the mean PCDD/F concentration (0.458 pg I-TEQ/Nm3; international toxicity equivalence) in air at two wax apple orchards during open burning increased markedly, -8.1 times higher than that (0.057 pg I-TEQ/Nm3); before open burning. In addition, the mean PCDD/F concentration (0.409 pg I-TEQ/Nm3) in ambient air at a rice straw field was 4.6 times higher than that (0.089 pg I-TEQ/Nm3) before open burning. After burning the residues of wax apple stubble and rice straw, the contents of PCDD/F in ashes were 1.393 and 1.568 ng I-TEQ/kg-ash, respectively, and the contents of PCDD/F in soil were 2.258 and 2.890 ng I-TEQ/kg-soil, respectively. Therefore, the turnover of soil with the ash after open burning over years will result in the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in farm soils. PMID:17458464

  16. High-pressure washing treatments to remove obscure mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from harvested apples.

    PubMed

    Whiting, D C; Hoy, L E; Maindonald, J H; Connolly, P G; McDonald, R M

    1998-12-01

    Mixed life stages of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), and late 1st-instar or early 2nd-instar lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), on 'Royal Gala' apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) were exposed to standard packhouse processing with and without addition of high-pressure apple washer treatments. Insect removal and mortality were assessed. After standard packhouse processing approximately 60% of P. viburni remained on their host apples. The 2 high-pressure apple washer treatments (500 and 800 psi at 2.0 rods/s) were equally effective and significantly reduced the number of P. viburni on apples compared with the packhouse control. High-pressure apple washer removal by location decreased in the following order: calyx cavity outside the sepals > cheek approximately stem cavity > or = calyx beneath sepals. About half of the E. postvittana larvae infesting apples was removed by standard packhouse processing. Removal rates were similar for all locations on open-calyxed apples. However, no removal occurred from the calyx beneath the sepals if the apple calyx was closed. All 4 high-pressure apple washer treatments tested (500 and 800 psi at 1.0 and 2.0 rods/s) halved the number of larvae on the apple exterior relative to the packhouse control. The pattern of removal for larvae on open-calyxed apples was calyx outside sepals approximately stem cavity > calyx beneath the sepals approximately cheek. A similar pattern was evident for larvae on closed-calyxed apples, except insects beneath the sepals evaded removal. The persistence of insects on the apple cheek reflects the high proportion of larvae inside tunnels in this location compared with other apple locations. Removal of internally positioned insects was much lower than that of externally positioned insects. PMID:9887685

  17. Use of Lead Isotopes to Assess Sources and Mobility of Contaminants from Barber's Orchard, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrad, S.; Miller, J. R.; Lechler, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    Pb-isotopes were used to identify and analyze the off-site migration of lead arsenate, a pesticide used on Barber's Orchard, western North Carolina. The orchard, heavily contaminated by Pb, As, and DDT, is being considered for the EPA's National Priorities List of hazardous waste sites. ICP-MS was used to analyze concentration and isotopic composition of Pb in sediment, fish, and water samples of Richland Creek, which drains the orchard. Isotopic ratios of contaminated sediment were compared to ratios of sediment, water, and fish collected up and downstream of the orchard. The data suggest that off-site migration of contaminants has occurred. Contaminated sediment from Barber's Orchard and older (historic) floodplain sediment downstream of the orchard fall along a well-defined mixing line, indicating a mixing of Pb from the underlying bedrock and from lead arsenate. Sediment not contaminated by lead arsenate, including samples upstream of the orchard, have a significantly different isotopic composition than contaminated terrace sediments. The composition of modern channel sediment also differs from contaminated materials, and may reflect the recent influx of upland sediments eroded during development activities. Whole fish samples of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and longnose dace (Rhinichythys cataractae) were analyzed from three sites located downstream of the orchard. At each site, no differences were seen in isotopic composition among species. However, isotopic fractionation and differential accumulation does occur within the fish. Total Pb in bone was significantly greater than in liver or muscle. Isotopic composition of bone was similar to contaminated sediment. Conversely, the Pb isotopic signature of liver and muscle was found to be similar to water samples. Waters sampled during low-flow conditions show a unique signature, differing from both contaminated and non-contaminated sediment. It is hypothesized that this

  18. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington state. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was on evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success.

  19. Simple Genetic Distance-Optimized Field Deployments for Clonal Seed Orchards Based on Microsatellite Markers: As a Case of Chinese Pine Seed Orchard.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huwei; Niu, Shihui; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Li, Yue; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese pine seed orchards are in a period of transition from first-generation to advanced-generations. How to effectively select populations for second-generation seed orchards and significantly increase genetic gain through rational deployment have become major issues. In this study, we examined open- and control-pollinated progeny of the first-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning (Gansu Province, China) and Xixian (Shanxi Province, China) to address issues related to phenotypic selection for high volume growth, genetic diversity analysis and genetic distance-based phylogenetic analysis of the selections by simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and phylogenetic relationship-based field deployment for advanced-generation orchards. In total, 40, 28, 20, and 13 superior individuals were selected from the large-scale no-pedigree open-pollinated progeny of Zhengning (ZN-NP), open-pollinated families of Zhengning (ZN-OP), open-pollinated families of Xixian (XX-OP), and control-pollinated families of Xixian, with mean volume dominance ratios of 0.83, 0.15, 0.25, and 0.20, respectively. Phylogenetic relationship analysis of the ZN-NP and XX-OP populations showed that the 40 superior individuals in the ZN-NP selected population belonged to 23 families and could be further divided into five phylogenetic groups, and that families in the same group were closely related. Similarly, 20 families in the XX-OP population were related to varying degrees. Based on these results, we found that second-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning and Xixian should adopt a grouped, unbalanced, complete, fixed block design and an unbalanced, incomplete, fixed block design, respectively. This study will provide practical references for applying molecular markers to establishing advanced-generation seed orchards. PMID:27310437

  20. Simple Genetic Distance-Optimized Field Deployments for Clonal Seed Orchards Based on Microsatellite Markers: As a Case of Chinese Pine Seed Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Huwei; Niu, Shihui; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Li, Yue; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese pine seed orchards are in a period of transition from first-generation to advanced-generations. How to effectively select populations for second-generation seed orchards and significantly increase genetic gain through rational deployment have become major issues. In this study, we examined open- and control-pollinated progeny of the first-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning (Gansu Province, China) and Xixian (Shanxi Province, China) to address issues related to phenotypic selection for high volume growth, genetic diversity analysis and genetic distance-based phylogenetic analysis of the selections by simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and phylogenetic relationship-based field deployment for advanced-generation orchards. In total, 40, 28, 20, and 13 superior individuals were selected from the large-scale no-pedigree open-pollinated progeny of Zhengning (ZN-NP), open-pollinated families of Zhengning (ZN-OP), open-pollinated families of Xixian (XX-OP), and control-pollinated families of Xixian, with mean volume dominance ratios of 0.83, 0.15, 0.25, and 0.20, respectively. Phylogenetic relationship analysis of the ZN-NP and XX-OP populations showed that the 40 superior individuals in the ZN-NP selected population belonged to 23 families and could be further divided into five phylogenetic groups, and that families in the same group were closely related. Similarly, 20 families in the XX-OP population were related to varying degrees. Based on these results, we found that second-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning and Xixian should adopt a grouped, unbalanced, complete, fixed block design and an unbalanced, incomplete, fixed block design, respectively. This study will provide practical references for applying molecular markers to establishing advanced-generation seed orchards. PMID:27310437

  1. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory records…

  2. Developing Simple Financial Records Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing simple financial records using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 34 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet…

  3. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of word…

  4. Developing Simple Budgets Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Single Disk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing spreadsheet files in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with a single disk drive. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 36 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet development sequence. (EW)

  5. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file building…

  6. Spray irrigation effects on surface-layer stability in an experimental citrus orchard during winter freezes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, H.J.; Smith, E.A.; Martsolf, J.D.

    1997-02-01

    Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Ginesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

    2013-02-01

    Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management. PMID:23339790

  8. Organic carbon fluxes in stemflow, throughfall and rainfall in an olive orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, L.; Vanwalleghem, T.; Gomez, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of rainfall distribution under the vegetation canopy for nutrient cycling of forest ecosystems has been widely studied (e.g. Kolkai et al., 1999, Bath et al., 2011). It has been demonstrated how throughfall and stemflow reach the soil as chemically-enriched water, by incorporating soluble organic and inorganic particles deriving from plant exudates and from atmospheric depositions (dryfall and wetfall) present on the surfaces of the plant (leaves, bark, fruits). Dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) organic carbon inputs from stem- and canopy-derived hydrologic fluxes are small but important components of the natural carbon cycle. DOC has also the capability to form complexes that control the transport and solubility of heavy metals in surface and ground waters, being composed for the most part (75-90%) of fulvic, humic or tanninic compounds, and for the resting part of molecules like carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, waxes, fatty acids, amino and hydroxy acids. However, very little data is available for agricultural tree crops, especially olive trees. In this sense, the objective of this work is to investigate the concentration and fluxes of organic carbon in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in a mature olive orchard located in Cordoba, in Southern Spain and to relate them to rainfall characteristics and tree physiology. The measurements started in October 2011. Four high density polyethylene bottles with 18-cm-diameter polyethylene funnels for throughfall collection were placed beneath the canopy of each of the three selected olive trees; four more collectors were placed in open spaces in the same orchard for rainfall sampling. Stemflow was collected through PVC spiral tubes wrapped around the trunks and leading into collection bins. The throughflow sampling points were chosen randomly. Total and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in unfiltered (TOC) and filtered (0.45 µm membrane filter, DOC) collected waters were measured using a TOC analyzer

  9. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

  10. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with "Getting Started," which…

  11. POTENTIAL EXPOSURE OF APPLE THINNERS TO PHOSALONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apple thinning results in considerable human contact with foliage, fruit, and limbs. This work often occurs during that portion of the growing season when trees are most frequently being sprayed for insect conrol. Therefore, of all workers exposed to pesticide residues upon reent...

  12. Hormonal and anatomical effects of apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, two-year-old 'Fuji' apple scions (Malus ×domestica, 'Fuji') on size-controlling rootstocks (dwarfing to vigorous), were grown for one season and shoot growth was measured to confirm size-controlling effects. In the next season, xylem sap was collected to determine hydraul...

  13. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  14. APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software…

  15. Communicating between the Apple and the Wang

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W., Downey, R.

    1982-10-26

    This manual covers what the beginner needs to know in order to transfer files between an Apple's Microcomputer and a Wang's OIS Word Processor. We have also tried to indicate where the experienced user might want to look for additional details. We cover the use of Apple Writer )(, VisiTerm, VisiCalc, and EasyWriter Professional. For us, the two most useful connections are from Applewriter to Wang and from Visicalc to Wang. From Wang to Apple Writer via Visiterm may have some value. Files can be transferred by VisiTerm to Wang, but they arrive with RETURNS in the middle of words, which have to be edited out, so we do not recommend it. We describe how to go from EasyWriter to Wang, but we do not know how to go from Wang to EasyWriter. We see no reason to go from Wang to VisiCalc, so we haven't thought about it. All instructions are given for a typical configuration of the Apple, namely the one on which this manual was composed. It is detailed in the section on Hardware and Software.

  16. Apple Mealiness Detection Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealiness is a symptom of internal fruit disorder, which is characterized by abnormal softness and lack of free juice in the fruit. This research investigated the potential of hyperspectral scattering technique for detecting mealy apples. Spectral scattering profiles between 600 nm and 1,000 nm were...

  17. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  18. Making Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Andrew; Phillips, Susan

    The study examined the feasibility of adapting commercially available educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with the Apple II for use with 15 visually impaired students 8 to 12 years old. Ss were pre-tested on measures of auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard proficiency, spelling, and language. Ss then received…

  19. Optical Properties of Bruised Apple Tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the optical properties of apple tissue, especially bruised tissue, can help us prevent or mitigate bruise occurrence during harvest and postharvest operations, and develop an effective method for detecting bruises during sorting and grading. This research was aimed at determining the o...

  20. An ADC Interface for the Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiker, P. Steven

    1990-01-01

    Described is the construction of a simple analog-to-digital convertor circuit to interface an Apple II+ microcomputer to a light sensor used in conjunction with a holographic gear inspector. A list of parts, circuit diagram, and a simple BASIC program for the convertor are provided. (CW)

  1. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  2. A global conservation strategy for apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus x domestica) production is #17 for agricultural products both in the U.S. and world with a value of more than $31 billion worldwide. This important perennial crop is expensive to produce, with high costs for land, labor and inputs. The industry is dominated by a relatively few number of...

  3. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients. PMID:22594067

  4. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  5. Using molecular tools to decipher the complex world of plant resistance inducers: an apple case study.

    PubMed

    Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Marolleau, Brice; Staub, Johan; Gaucher, Matthieu; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2014-11-26

    Exogenous application of plant resistance inducers (PRIs) able to activate plant defenses is an interesting approach for new integrated pest management practices. The full integration of PRIs into agricultural practices requires methods for the fast and objective upstream screening of efficient PRIs and optimization of their application. To select active PRIs, we used a molecular tool as an alternative to methods involving plant protection assays. The expressions of 28 genes involved in complementary plant defense mechanisms were simultaneously determined by quantitative real-time PCR in PRI-treated tissues. Using a set of 10 commercial preparations and considering the pathosystem apple/Erwinia amylovora, this study shows a strong correlation between defense activation and protection efficiency in controlled conditions, thus enabling the easy identification of promising PRIs in fire blight protection. Hence this work clearly highlights the benefits of using a molecular tool to discriminate nonactive PRI preparations and provides useful molecular markers for the optimization of their use in orchard. PMID:25372566

  6. Manure Refinement Affects Apple Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Structure: A Study in Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Songzhong; Wei, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    We used DNA-based pyrosequencing to characterize the bacterial community structure of the sandy soil of an apple orchard with different manure ratios. Five manure percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were examined. More than 10,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate. The communities were composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes), of which Proteobacteria content gradually decreased from 41.38% to 37.29% as manure ratio increased from 0% to 25%, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that 37 classes were highly correlated with manure ratio, 18 of which were positively correlated. Clustering revealed that the rhizosphere samples were grouped into three components: low manure (control, 5%) treatment, medium manure (10%, 15%) treatment and high manure (20%, 25%) treatment. Venn analysis of species types of these three groups revealed that the bacteria community difference was primarily reflected by quantity ratio rather than species variety. Although greater manure content led to higher soil organic matter content, the medium manure improved soil showed the highest urease activity and saccharase activity, while 5% to 20% manure ratio improvement also resulted in higher bacteria diversity than control and 25% manure ratio treatment. Our experimental results suggest that the use of a proper manure ratio results in significantly higher soil enzyme activity and different bacteria community patterns, whereas the use of excessive manure amounts has negative effect on soil quality. PMID:24155909

  7. Laser speckle technique to study the effect of chemical pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minz, Preeti D.; Nirala, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the laser speckle technique has been used for the quality evaluation of chemically treated cut apples. Chemical pre-treatment includes 1% (w/v) solution of citric acid (CA), sodium chloride (SC), and a combination of CA and sodium chloride (CS). The variation in weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and absorbance of chemically treated cut apples stored at 5 °C was monitored for 11 d. The speckle grain size was calculated by an autocovariance method from the speckled images of freshly cut chemically treated apples. The effect of chemicals on TSS and the TA content variation of the cut apples were well correlated to the linear speckle grain size. Circular degree of polarization confirms the presence of a small scatterer and hence Rayleigh diffusion region. For all the treated cut apples, a decrease in the concentration of small particles nearly after the mid-period of storage results in the fast decay of circular degree of polarization. For non-invasive and fast analysis of the chemical constituent of fruits during minimal processing, the laser speckle can be practically used in the food industry.

  8. The impact of agriculture management on soil quality in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondebrink, Merel; Cerdà, Artemi; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the agricultural management of citrus orchard in the Valencia region in E Spain, is changing from traditionally irrigated and managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. It is not known what is the effect of such changes on soil quality and hope to shed some light with this study on this transition. It is known that the drip-irrigated orchards built in sloping terrain increase soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009; Li et al., 2014) and that agricultural management such as catch crops and mulches reduce sediment yield and surface runoff (Xu et al., 2012; ), as in other orchards around the world (Wang et al., 2010; Wanshnong et al., 2013; Li et al., 2014; Hazarika et al., 2014): We hypothesize that these changes have an important impact on the soil chemical and physical properties. Therefor we studied the soil quality of 12 citrus orchards, which had different land and irrigation management techniques. We compared organic (OR) and conventional (CO) land management with either drip irrigation (DRP) or flood irrigation (FLD). Soil samples at two depths, 0-1 cm and 5-10 cm, were taken for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. These parameters included soil chemical parameters, bulk density, texture, soil surface shear strength and soil aggregation. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other 6 were conventionally managed, and for each of these 6 study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots (FLD) and the other three drip irrigated systems (DRP) In total 108 soil samples were taken as well additional irrigation water samples. We will present the results of this study with regard to the impact of the studied irrigation systems and land management systems with regard to soil quality. This knowledge might help in improving citrus orchard management with respect to maintaining or improving soil quality to ensure sustainable agricultural practices. References Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and

  9. Mathematical modeling to study influence of porosity on apple and potato during dehydration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Fateh; Katiyar, V K; Singh, B P

    2015-09-01

    Several structural and physical changes in foodstuffs are the consequence of water removal during the drying process. Porosity (volume fraction of pores) is one of the key parameter that affects the quality and other properties of foods (such as apple and potato). To understand the effect of dehydration in apple and potato, in the present study an arbitrary small cubic volume element is considered which contains pores (intracellular spaces) distributed in it. Further, it is assumed that each pore in the cubic volume element is spherical. A mathematical relation is developed between porosity (volume fraction of pores) and pressure generated (due to contraction of cells during water removal) in outward direction on the surface of spherical elements containing pore. The developed relation is satisfactory in respect of experimental observations given in the literature. For the given pressure range, acquired porosity range is 0.1 to 0.92 for apple and 0.03 to 0.89 for potato which is matched with the existing experimental values. The results showed that the porosity is increasing with the increasing values of pressure, as expected, during moisture removal. Further, it is observed that the current porosity is depended on the initial porosity for both apple and potato. PMID:26344960

  10. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  11. Renovation of a pear orchard site with sludge compost

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A lime-stabilized sewage sludge compost was used as a surface amendment to improve the soil and nutritional status of a number of established pear cultivars grown on an acidic, low fertility soil site. Leaf Ca status was significantly increased while trace metals were not elevated and in most cases decreased by sludge compost over the course of the study. Soil chemical properties were modified in a manner similar to liming. Addition of sludge composts, particularly low metal containing materials, appears to represent an acceptable aid in renovating established pear orchards located on poor soil sites. Leaf, fruit flesh or peel Cd were not significantly effected by the compost addition. The compost added twice the recommended level of available N the first year and sub-optimum N the following two years. Leaf N, although significantly increased in the composted versus non-composted controls, was below sufficiency levels by the third year after addition. This indicates that compost cannot fully supply required N from a one time application even over the short term.

  12. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J.; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-01-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf ‘M.27’ to the semi-invigorating rootstock ‘M.116’. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  13. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-03-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf 'M.27' to the semi-invigorating rootstock 'M.116'. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  14. Orange and apple juice greatly reduce the plasma concentrations of the OATP2B1 substrate aliskiren

    PubMed Central

    Tapaninen, Tuija; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of orange juice and apple juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aliskiren. METHODS In a randomized crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of orange juice, apple juice or water three times daily for 5 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 150-mg dose of aliskiren. Plasma aliskiren concentrations were measured up to 72 h, its excretion into urine up to 12 h and plasma renin activity up to 24 h. RESULTS Orange and apple juice reduced aliskiren peak plasma concentrations by 80% (95% CI 63%, 89%, P < 0.001) and 84% (95% CI 72%, 91%, P < 0.001), and the area under the plasma aliskiren concentration–time curve (AUC) by 62% (95% CI 47%, 72%, P < 0.001) and 63% (95% CI 46%, 74%, P < 0.001), respectively, but had no significant effect on its elimination half-life or renal clearance. The decreases in aliskiren AUC by orange and apple juice correlated with aliskiren AUC during the water phase (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). Plasma renin activity was 87% and 67% higher at 24 h after aliskiren during the orange juice and apple juice phases, respectively, than during the water phase (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Orange juice and apple juice greatly reduce the plasma concentrations and renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren, probably by inhibiting its OATP2B1-mediated influx in the small intestine. Concomitant intake of aliskiren with orange or apple juice is best avoided. PMID:21204914

  15. Quantification of extraradical mycelium of Tuber melanosporum in soils from truffle orchards in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Parladé, Javier; De la Varga, Herminia; De Miguel, Ana Ma; Sáez, Raimundo; Pera, Joan

    2013-02-01

    Quantification of extraradical mycelium of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has been carried out in a natural truffle ground and in seven truffle orchards (around 20 years old) established in Tierra Estella and Valdorba sites, within the natural distribution area of the black truffles in Navarre (northern Spain). Specific primers and a Taqman® probe were designed to perform real-time PCR with DNA extracted from soil samples. Amplification of T. melanosporum DNA was obtained from 131 out of the 160 soil samples. The detection limit of the technique was 1.48 μg mycelium/g of soil. The extraradical mycelium biomass detected in the soil from the natural truffle ground was significantly greater (up to ten times higher) than the mycelium biomass detected in any of the orchards. Soil from productive, nonirrigated orchards in the Tierra Estella site contained significantly more extraradical mycelium than the rest of orchards irrigated, productive of T. brumale, or nonproductive. The comparison of soil mycelium biomass in nonirrigated evergreen oak orchards in both sites showed significantly more mycelium biomass in the Tierra Estella site. This study is the first attempt to quantify extraradical mycelium of T. melanosporum in the soil using Taqman® probes. The obtained quantitative results are of special interest to evaluate the fungal response to cultural treatments and to monitor the dynamics of the extraradical mycelium of T. melanosporum in the soil. PMID:22772310

  16. Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, U. R.; Vasagam, R. M.

    Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a 900 mm diam parabolic reflector. A 6 GHz uplink and 4 GHz downlink are processed through a diplexer, with the receiver employing a low noise GaAs FET amplifier. In-orbit telemetry is provided by a 4095 MHz beacon with a data rate of 64 bits/sec. Two solar panels supply 210 W of power, while an on-board Ni-Cd storage battery stores 240 Wh for the ascent and during eclipse. Teleconferencing has been successfully performed using the spacecraft link.

  17. UV inactivation of bacteria in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Geveke, David J

    2005-08-01

    Apple cider, inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, was processed using a simple UV apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a low-pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 3.4 +/- 0.3 log after being exposed for 19 s at a treatment temperature of 25 degrees C. The population of L. innocua, which was more resistant to UV, was reduced by 2.5 +/- 0.1 log after being exposed for 58 s. The electrical energy for the process was 34 J/ml and is similar to that for conventional thermal processing. UV processing has the potential to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of apple cider. PMID:21132989

  18. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey. PMID:25848854

  19. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  20. Genetics of leucine aminopeptidase in apple.

    PubMed

    Manganaris, A G; Alston, F H

    1992-01-01

    Six zones of LAP activity were detected in apples, some of them tissue specific. Genetic studies in four of them revealed the presence of four genes LAP-1, LAP-2, LAP-3 and LAP-4 with 4, 5, 4 and 4 alleles respectively including two null alleles. There were no big differences in allelic frequency within cultivars, selections, rootstocks and Malus species. Close linkage was found between LAP-2 and resistance to mildew derived from 'White Angel'. PMID:24202517

  1. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice. PMID:24444977

  2. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last. PMID:11309616

  3. Nesting site density and distribution affects Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) reproductive success and almond yield in a commercial orchard.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued declines in honey bee Apis mellifera populations have prompted further exploration of alternative, economically-viable managed bee pollinators of agricultural crops. The potential of commercially-managed, native blue orchard bees Osmia lignaria to augment honey bees in orchard pollination...

  4. Controls on interannual variation in evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in a mature, furrow-irrigated peach orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE) in peach orchards has previously been observed in young (less than 5-8 years old), drip irrigated orchards using micrometeorological techniques such as Eddy Covariance or large-weighing lysimeters. However, no work has been reported on ET and W...

  5. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression. PMID:25412009

  6. Getting Started with AppleWorks Data Base. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials…

  7. Feasibility of thiocarbamate pesticide analysis in apples by supercritical fluid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Howard, A L; Braue, C; Taylor, L T

    1993-08-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction produced comparable results with liquid-solid extraction for the analysis of several thiocarbamate pesticides from apples at the 2 ppm spike level. These results were achieved with a simple one-step extraction procedure. The use of diatomaceous earth (Celite, Supelco, Inc.; Bellefonte, PA) served to increase thiocarbamate recoveries by aiding in the immobilization of the aqueous component of the apple matrix. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorbance detection (HPLC-UV) had the most viable means of quantitation when compared with micro-HPLC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (SCD) and gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID). The small injection volumes used with the micro-HPLC-SCD system made thiocarbamate detection at a spiking level of 2 ppm impossible. SCD did provide, however, valuable qualitative information about the nature of the apple coextractants. PMID:8376544

  8. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  9. Nitrogen partitioning in orchard-grown Macadamia integrifolia.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Andrew; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schmidt, Susanne

    2010-02-01

    Nut yield is highly variable in commercial macadamia production, and to ensure that nitrogen (N) supply does not limit yield, high rates of N fertilizer are generally applied. To elucidate N source and sink relations in mature Macadamia integrifolia Maiden et Betche trees, we traced (15)N label after injection into individual branches and, after soil application, analysed xylem sap and examined the effects of hedging on tree N relations. Xylem sap N and sugar composition and concentration changed in relation to phenology and tree management. Canopy position did not affect xylem sap N concentration but sampling date had a significant effect. Hedging in spring was associated with a rapid and dramatic reduction of the concentration of xylem sap N until the following autumn, but unhedged trees were not available to unequivocally assess the significance of the results. Following (15)N-branch injection in winter, most (15)N label was incorporated into flushing leaves and into bark. After (15)N injection in spring, flushing leaves and flowers were most strongly (15)N-labelled. In late spring, (15)N label was equally incorporated by developing nuts that were retained or later abscised. Soil (15)N application in summer resulted in (15)N-labelling of outer and mid-canopy leaves. In the following spring, (15)N label was translocated to flushing leaves, flowers and developing nuts. The results indicate that outer and mid-canopy leaves are the main N sink for soil-derived N during the vegetative phase and a N source for developing tissues during the reproductive phase. Our study provides evidence that N supply to developing nuts is not a primary cause for nut abscission, supporting the notion that high N fertilizer application rates do not improve nut retention. We propose that current orchard design and hedging practices should be reviewed in context of the role of outer canopy leaves as a source of N for reproductive tissues. PMID:20008327

  10. Monitoring of water and nitrate leaching in an almond orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandelous, M. M.; Moradi, A. B.; Brown, P.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The quality of groundwater is specifically vulnerable in irrigated agricultural lands such as in California and many other (semi-) arid regions of the world. The regular application of nitrogen fertilizers with irrigation water is likely responsible for the increase in nitrate concentrations of groundwater resources such as in CA's main agricultural areas in the Salinas Valley and the Tulare Lake Basin. Since groundwater contamination regulations are going to be implemented, improved fertigation practices may become an essential part of CA farming operations. Therefore, we conducted a field study in an almond orchard located in Lost Hills, CA which provides critical information on the movement of water and nutrients through the soil under variable soil moisture conditions. Water balance and Darcy equation were two approaches used to estimate the leaching in this study. Given the amount of applied irrigation water using flowmeter, water lost through evapotranspiration measured by Eddy-Covariance tower, changes in soil water storage using neutron probe data, and precipitation data provided by a nearby CIMIS station, we applied water balance to estimate the amount of leaching water. In the other hand, coupled deep tensiometers were used to calculate the head gradient below the root zone, thereby estimating the leaching flux with Darcy equation for known hydraulic conductivity of layer between two tensiometers. Although, the cumulative amount of leaching estimated by water balance were in the same order of magnitude as what was estimated using Darcy method, the uncertainties and different cumulative trend observed in each method suggest further evaluation of collected data and also looking for an alternative method which could reduce the observed uncertainty.

  11. Organelle DNA polymorphism in apple cultivars and rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Kato, S; Imakawa, S; Mikami, T; Shimamoto, Y

    1992-05-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been used to detect chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation among 18 apple cultivars and three rootstocks. The distribution of RFLP patterns allowed the assignment of these genotypes into three groups of cytoplasmic relatedness. Our results also demonstrate maternal inheritance of cp- and mtDNAs in apple. Thus, the organelle DNA assay provides a convenient and reliable method to assess cytoplasmic diversity within the apple germ-plasm collection and to trace the maternal lineages involved in the evolution of apple. PMID:24202920

  12. Developing Data Base Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Developed around the technology of the Apple duodisk drive, five and one-fourth inch floppy disks, and the 1.3 version of the AppleWorks program, this manual is designed for use as a "how to" training device in developing database files. The guide is meant to be used with Apple IIe or IIGS computers which have a duodisk or two disk drives and an…

  13. Bidirectional reflectance effects derived from ASAS imagery of a pecan orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staenz, Karl; Gauthier, Robert P.; Teillet, Phil M.; Williams, Daniel J.

    1993-09-01

    Bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF) for a pecan orchard have been studied using Advanced Solid-State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) data acquired in the solar principal plane at altitudes of 2300 m and 5300 m above ground. In particular, the angular dependency of the BRF of different targets such as sunlit and shaded portions of the pecan tree, orchard floor, and soil (road) have been studied for viewing directions between -45 degrees and +45 degrees. The results indicate in general an increasing reflectance from the forward scattering direction to the backscattering direction. In addition, an increase in pixel size has significant effects on the surface BRFs.

  14. Impact of wood pruning to greenhouse gas emissions in three orchards and a vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Sonja; Schleicher, Sarah; Bischoff, Wolf-Anno; Gomez Palermo, Maider; Kern, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Pruning of orchards and vineyards is usually burned or left on the soil for nutrient and organic carbon recycling. Recently the interest rose to extract pruning for energetic use. Very few studies exist that analyzed the effects of pruning removal on soil physical and chemical characteristics. This is linked to the fact that changes are expected rather in the long term, but project funding is typically restricted to 2 or 3 years. Some soil characteristics, however, as organic carbon content and greenhouse gas emissions might also change on the short term as our literature review reveals. The main objective of this research is to determine if pruning extraction from orchards and vineyards impact greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4, and CO2) from soil to the atmosphere, change soil nitrogen and carbon content or effect nitrogen leaching. Results from our study and from the literature will be compiled to formulate best management practices for sustainable pruning utilization from orchards and vineyards. Here we compare four different study sites in a block design over two rows each with two parcels where we extracted pruning and two parcels where pruning was chipped and left on the soil (n=4). Comparisons were made for initial soil chemistry and greenhouse gas emissions in a cherry orchard without irrigation in Germany, a vineyard without irrigation in France, an almond orchard with drip irrigation in Spain and a peach orchard with flood irrigation in Spain. Soil greenhouse gas emissions depend on soil chemistry and soil moisture. These characteristics can be expected to vary between the tree rows and inter-rows of orchards. Therefore we took soil samples from row and inter-row positions of each study site and analyzed them for chemical parameters (pH, total C, N, S, and H, and available PO4, NH4, NO3, K, Mg, Ca). Additionally soil moisture and temperature data have been recorded for tree rows and inter-rows in the cherry orchard and the vineyard. Gas samples were

  15. Dielectrophoresis chips improve PCR detection of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in apple juice.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Jaramillo, Maria; Huttener, Mario; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Samitier, Josep; Torrents, Eduard; Juárez, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation of cells present in real samples is challenging. We show in this work that an interdigitated DEP chip can be used to trap and wash a population of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii that contaminates a sample of apple juice. By previously calibrating the chip, the yeast population loaded is efficiently trapped, washed, and recovered in a small-volume fraction that, in turn, can be used for efficient PCR detection of this yeast. DEP washing of yeast cells gets rid of PCR inhibitors present in apple juice and facilitates PCR analysis. This and previous works on the use of DEP chips to improve PCR analysis show that a potential use of DEP is to be used as a treatment of real samples prior to PCR. PMID:25808673

  16. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern. PMID:23733058

  17. Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

  18. Unraveling apple fruit metabolism: Storage management opportunities and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit has become a staple fruit commodity in many markets worldwide, making year-round availability crucial to retail chains. Consequently, apple storage practices have become increasingly sophisticated to meet rising quality expectations of fresh taste and a blemish free appearance. Modern ...

  19. Nutritional enrichment of fresh apple (Royal Gala) by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Zhao, Y

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluates the use of vacuum impregnation (VI) for developing nutritionally fortified fresh cut apples (Royal Gala). Cut apples were immersed in diluted high fructose corn syrup (20% w/w or 50% w/w) containing calcium or zinc. A vacuum pressure of 50 mmHg was applied for 15 min following atmospheric pressure restoration for 30 min while samples remained in the VI solution. Nutraceutical content and physicochemical properties of the apples immediately after VI were determined. Storability of VI apples at 6 degrees C and 90% relative humidity was also studied based on the color and texture of apples. Results indicated that 15-20% of the Daily Reference Intake of calcium and above 40% of the Daily Reference Intake of zinc could be obtained in 200 g fresh cut apples. VI treatments in 20% w/w high fructose corn syrup solutions had little effects on the physicochemical properties of apples. Storage study showed that VI with zinc significantly improved color stability, and calcium enhanced the firmness of the apples. PMID:12907403

  20. Transcriptional response in apple to fire blight disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

  1. First report of apple mosaic virus in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Ilarvirus) is one of the oldest and most economically important viruses of apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Yield losses may vary from negligible to as high as fifty percent, depending on the affected cultivar. Although ApMV is found worldwide...

  2. Genome to phenome mapping in apple using historical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...

  3. Mapping Malus sieversii: A valuable genetic resource for apple breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit has established a collection of Malus from around the world in order to preserve and develop genetic resources important to the apple industry. Among this collection is Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of the domestic apple, collected from Central Asia ...

  4. Formatting Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to formatting disks using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) formatting the disk; (3) volume naming; and (4) exiting the format options. Eleven sample screen displays illustrate the steps. (MES)

  5. Fire Blight Resistance of Budagovsky 9 Apple Rootstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia amylovora the causal agent of fire blight can result in a fatal infection of the apple rootstock known as rootstock blight. Budagovsky 9 (B.9) apple rootstock is reported to be highly susceptible to rootstock blight, although multiple field trials report B.9 to be resistant to rootstock bli...

  6. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  7. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Apple Dolls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on apple dolls is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the apple doll making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  8. WHOLE SURFACE IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR MACHINE VISION INSPECTION OF APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 in the US serve as reminders of food safety in produce. Unpasteurized apple juice/cider has been identified as a repeated source of E. coli O157:H7 contamination. Apples with diseased or fungal contaminated surfaces, and open skin cuts and bruises may become sites...

  9. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  10. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  11. Morphological and chemical characterization of the kei apple (Dovyalis spp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dovyalis (Tropical apple) is an exotic fruit originated in Africa, reddish-orange color and high acidity. Tropical apricot or Kei apple (Dovyalis hebecarpa X D. abyssinica) P.I. 112086, is a natural cross which resulted from a mixed planting of D. hebecarpa and D. abyssinica at the Subtropical Horti...

  12. Cold storage to control codling moth larvae in fresh apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), found in exported apples, Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf., can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1°C was examined for possible control on three physiological larval states in ‘Fuji’ apples: diapausing ...

  13. Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Propagation in Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the investigation of light propagation in fresh apples in the visible and short-wave near-infrared region using Monte Carlo simulations. Optical properties of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples were determined over the spectral range of 500-1100 nm using a hyperspectral imaging method, ...

  14. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  15. Hydrolysis of glycosidically bound volatiles from apple leaves (Cv. Anna) by Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidase affects the behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.).

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu; Reuveny, Haim; Bravdo, Ben-Ami; Shoseyov, Oded

    2004-10-01

    Glycosidically bound volatiles released from apple leaf extracts (cv. Anna) were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and their behavioral effects on codling moth (CM) adults were evaluated in cage bioassays. The levels of 1-octanol, linalool, geraniol, benzyl alcohol, methyl salicylate, (2R,5R)-theaspirane, and (2S,5R)-theaspirane were significantly increased in the leaf extracts containing the Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidase (BGL1) compared to the extracts containing the glucoimidazole. The attractiveness of individual compounds to CM adults was found in the following decreasing order: methyl salicylate and mixture of two theaspirane isomers, followed by linalool and benzyl alcohol. Geraniol was found to be repellent to CM adults. The addition of geraniol (39.4 ng mL(-1)) to any of the individual volatiles or to a mixture of these attractants eliminated their attractiveness. Our data suggest the possible application of geraniol as a repellent and methyl salicylate or theaspiranes as attractants for the integrated control of CM in apple orchards. PMID:15453689

  16. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species composition and potential aphid vectors of plum pox virus in Pennsylvania peach orchards.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C M; Fleischer, S J; Luster, D; Gildow, F E

    2005-10-01

    Plum pox, an invasive disease recently identified in Pennsylvania stone fruit orchards, is caused by the aphid-transmitted Plum pox virus (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, PPV). To identify potential vectors, we described the aphid species communities and the seasonal dynamics of the dominant aphid species within Pennsylvania peach orchards. Aphids were trapped weekly in 2002 and 2003 from mid-April through mid-November within two central Pennsylvania orchards by using yellow and green water pan traps. In total, 42 aphid species were identified from both orchards over 2 yr. Within orchards, actual species richness ranged from 24 to 30 species. The Abundance Based Coverage Estimator predicted species richness to range from 30 to 36 species, indicating that trap catches were identifying most aphid species expected to occur in the orchard. Three species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis spiraecola Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), were consistently dominant across locations and years. Orchard-trapped populations of these three species peaked in a similar chronological sequence each year. As expected, trap color influenced the total number and distribution of the predominate species collected. However, the same dominant species occurred in both yellow and green traps. Based on the seasonal population dynamics reported here and on published vector efficacy studies, the most probable significant PPV vector was identified as A. spiraecola. If the PPV pathogen escapes current quarantine or if subsequent reintroductions of PPV occur, these data will be useful for developing plum pox management strategies. PMID:16334309

  17. [Community structure and its dynamics of predatory arthropod in jujube orchards intercropped with different herbage species].

    PubMed

    Shi, Guanglu; Wang, Younian; Miao, Zhenwang; Li, Dengke; Zhang, Tieqiang; Yu, Tongquan; Ji, Qianlong; Dong, Hui

    2006-11-01

    By using community structural characteristic indices and principal component analysis, this paper studied the community structure and its dynamics of predatory arthropod in the jujube orchards intercropped with Astrugalus complanatus, Trifolium repen, Lotus comiculotus, and Medicago sativa. The results showed that in all test jujube orchards, spider and predatory insects were the predominant components of the predatory arthropod community, and their relative abundances were 48.3% - 52.7% and 38.8% - 44.4% , respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the mean density, diversity, and evenness of the most common predatory arthropod groups in the jujube orchards intercropped with different herbage species, with the sequence of intercropped with Lotus comiculotus > Medicago sativa > Astrugalus complanatu > Trifolium repens, but for dominant concentration index, the sequence was intercropped with Trifolium repens > Astrugalus complanatu > Medicago sativa > Lotus comiculotus. The average density of predatory spiders was significant higher (P < 0.05) than that of predatory insects in all test jujube orchards. The individuals of Coccinellidae, Pentatomidae, inoccllidae, Chrysopidae, Thomisidae, Araneidae and Phytoseiidae played the dominant role in the community. PMID:17269332

  18. Identifying key predators of the glassy-winged sharpshooter in a citrus orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 1,500 predators were screened for glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) remains using a GWSS egg-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) and several GWSS-specific genetic markers. Specimens were collected in 2002 and 2003 from a citrus orchard (Riverside, CA) harboring high densities of GWSS. We found t...

  19. Ambient almond volatiles from geographically different orchards and their relationship to navel orangeworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission of several cultivars in an almond orchard has not been studied. This aspect is particularly relevant to research concerning the navel orang...

  20. Spatiotemporal Distribution and Movement of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooters in a Citrus Orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year field study was conducted in a citrus orchard to evaluate the influence of plant water stress on Homalodisca vitripennis dispersal and movement. Experimental treatments included irrigation at 100%, 80%, and 60% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Movement of H. vitripennis among treat...