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Sample records for small area homicide

  1. Regional differences in homicide patterns in five areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, N; Kominato, Y; Shimada, I; Takizawa, H; Fujikura, T; Morita, M; Funayama, M; Yoshioka, N; Touda, K; Gonmori, K; Misawa, S; Sakairi, Y; Sakamoto, N; Tanno, K; Thaik-Oo, M; Kiuchi, M; Fukumoto, Y; Sato, Y

    2001-03-01

    This article describes regional differences in the homicide patterns which occurred in Sapporo City and the surrounding area, and in Akita, Ibaraki, Chiba and Toyama prefectures in Japan. Information collected from each case of homicide included factors such as age, sex of the victim and assailant, causes of death, disposition of the offender, relationship between assailant and victim, reasons for criminal action, et al. The statistical features of homicidal episodes among the five different regions showed considerable variation, as follows. The mean death rates for homicide (number of victims per 100,000 of population) during the period 1986-1995 were 0.44 (Sapporo), 0.8 (Akita), 0.58 (Toyama), 0.7 (Ibaraki) and 0.75 (Chiba), respectively. Close family relationship between the victim and assailant was observed in the homicidal acts which occurred in Sapporo, Akita and Toyama. Assailant's relationship to victim was commonly extra-familial in Ibaraki and Chiba-neighboring megalopolis Tokyo, where some events of murder by a foreigner occurred. Homicide by female assailant, murder by mentally abnormal killers and homicide-suicide events were closely associated with family members. And these factors contributed to the considerable number of victims in Sapporo, Akita and Toyama. But, this close family relationship of the victim to the assailant did not correspond with the elevation in the number of deaths, and it was rather inversely related to the higher death rates recognized in Ibaraki and Chiba. This comparative study suggested that rapid urbanization considerably affects regional differences in homicide patterns. PMID:12935732

  2. [Homicides committed by women in the area served by the Munich Institute of Legal Medicine].

    PubMed

    Schöpfer, Jutta; Kortas, Aline; Bormann, Claudia; Schick, Sylvia; Mützel, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    According to crime statistics only a small percentage of intentional killings are committed by women. Female emancipation has not changed this finding. In spite of numerous studies in the field of psychiatry and social criminology there are few systematic investigations analyzing homicides committed by women under medico-legal aspects. The presented data include 127 homicides committed by female offenders, which were assessed at the Munich Institute of Legal Medicine between 1990 and 2010. The results of the evaluation are presented with regard to the type of offence, the motive, the means and method used to commit the offence and the sentence imposed. PMID:27120899

  3. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence. PMID:23903593

  4. Homicidal blunt abdominal trauma with isolated laceration of the small bowel mesentery.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A

    1984-01-01

    Nonpenetrating abdominal trauma rarely causes isolated mesenteric lacerations with fatal hemorrhages. When this does happen, it is often the result of compression by a lap seal belt or a steering wheel, only extremely rarely is it the result of a homicidal act. In the present paper, two homicide victims with resulting mesenteric tears and fatal bleeding due to sagittal compression are described. A high blood alcohol concentration may in both cases have contributed to the fatal outcome. The cases support the assumption that direct rather than indirect trauma causes this kind of lesion. PMID:6516601

  5. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  6. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  7. Homosexual homicides.

    PubMed

    Definis Gojanovic, M

    1998-12-01

    This report describes four cases of male homosexual homicide committed in Split County, Croatia, in 1991 and 1995. The homosexual orientation of the victims was determined by police investigation. Three middle-aged to elderly person were killed by an unknown offender or offenders, in very similar ways within a few months of end other in 1991. The bodies were found in their houses with multiple blunt force injuries to the head. One victim also had marks of manual strangulation, and was choked with a handkerchief which had been put in his mouth. The last victim was a 45-year-old man, found in the bathroom with 33 stab wounds, mostly in the neck and back, and with two shots in the head from an underwater gun. He was killed by two adolescent males at the beginning of sexual intercourse. The presented cases show a high level of violence with multiple injuries may be associated with male homosexual homicide. PMID:15335518

  8. Homicidal parents.

    PubMed

    Bourget, D; Bradford, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a series of 13 cases of parents who have killed their children. A review of the literature suggests that child murder is infrequent and committed in most instances by the parents. Most attention has been directed to the universal phenomenon of child abuse. The killing of a child in our culture is viewed much more seriously than the killing of a newborn infant, legally defined as infanticide. Only a few authors have reported on the former, and their studies tend to demonstrate that a higher proportion of these crimes are perpetrated by mothers. Homicidal behaviour in parents may also be associated with common forms of psychiatric disorders and may manifest as the extended suicide phenomenon (homicide reported with major depressive illness). Attributes of both parents and the children are also significant factors to be considered. In a retrospective study the relevant demographic and clinical data of a series of 13 cases are reviewed. The diagnostic classification using DSM-III-R is discussed in detail. A higher incidence of maternal perpetrators was found and is consistent with previous studies. Exposure to a variety of psychosocial stresses appears to have been a major factor. Similarly the suicidal history and behaviour of the subjects is significant. Affective disorder appears to be an important diagnostic category. Finally, the role of psychiatric and other social agencies is considered in relation to the murder of children. A better understanding of this phenomenon is indicated in order to help us deal with families at risk. PMID:2340456

  9. Network Exposure and Homicide Victimization in an African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association of an individual’s exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Methods. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Results. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood’s population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one’s odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Conclusions. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities. PMID:24228655

  10. Homicidal Snake Bite in Children.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Melad G; Faheem, Ayman L

    2016-03-01

    Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake. Killing a victim by direct snake bite is so rare. There was one reported case where an old couple was killed by snake bite. Here is the first reported case of killing three children by snake bite. It appeared that the diagnosis of such cases is so difficult and depended mainly on the circumstantial evidences. PMID:27404632

  11. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  12. Epidemiologic characteristics of primary homicides in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jason, J; Flock, M; Tyler, C W

    1983-04-01

    Homicide is one of the five leading causes of death for all persons 1-44 years of age. Over half of the homicides occurring in 1979 did not involve the perpetration of another crime. The authors have defined these as primary homicides and suggest that these deaths require the formulation of public health and social services prevention strategies. An epidemiologic assessment of primary homicides in the United States for 1976 through 1979 showed the following. Sixty per cent of primary homicides were male victim/male offender events; 40% involved a female as a victim and/or as an offender. Three per cent of primary homicides were female victim/female offender events; 97% involved a male as a victim and/or as an offender. Primary homicides involving female victims or offenders were more frequently intrafamilial than those involving males, but rates of intrafamilial homicides by males were greater than those involving females. The preponderance of all primary homicides occurred between acquaintances, but the relationship between victim and offender varied with age, sex, and race. The weapons used varied with the victim's and offender's age, sex, and race, and with the relationship between victim and offender. Based on the described patterns, prevention measures should be divided into three broad areas: intrafamilial violence, extrafamilial violence, and male patterns of aggression. Key target populations for the first area include females, rural households, and the very young or very old. A key target population for the second area is teenage males. PMID:6837556

  13. Deaths from homicides: a historical series1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

  14. Homicide and geographic access to gun dealers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Krafty, Robert T; Koper, Christopher S; Nance, Michael L; Elliott, Michael R; Branas, Charles C

    2009-01-01

    Background Firearms are the most commonly used weapon to commit homicide in the U.S. Virtually all firearms enter the public marketplace through a federal firearms licensee (FFL): a store or individual licensed by the federal government to sell firearms. Whether FFLs contribute to gun-related homicide in areas where they are located, in which case FFLs may be a homicide risk factor that can be modified, is not known. Methods Annual county-level data (1993–1999) on gun homicide rates and rates of FFLs per capita were analyzed using negative binomial regression controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Models were run to evaluate whether the relation between rates of FFLs and rates of gun homicide varied over the study period and across counties according to their level of urbanism (defined by four groupings, as below). Also, rates of FFLs were compared against FS/S – which is the proportion of suicides committed by firearm and is thought to be a good proxy for firearm availability in a region – to help evaluate how well the FFL variable is serving as a way to proxy firearm availability in each of the county types of interest. Results In major cities, gun homicide rates were higher where FFLs were more prevalent (rate ratio [RR] = 1.70, 95% CI 1.03–2.81). This association increased (p < 0.01) from 1993 (RR = 1.69) to 1999 (RR = 12.72), due likely to federal reforms that eliminated low-volume dealers, making FFL prevalence a more accurate exposure measure over time. No association was found in small towns. In other cities and in suburbs, gun homicide rates were significantly lower where FFLs were more prevalent, with associations that did not change over the years of the study period. FFL prevalence was correlated strongly (positively) with FS/S in major cities only, suggesting that the findings for how FFL prevalence relates to gun homicide may be valid for the findings pertaining to major cities but not to counties of other types. Conclusion

  15. [Homicide crimes in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dürwald, W

    1993-02-01

    Report of some cases of willful homicide in hospitals of the former GDR. In no case the patient has wished his death. Besides compassion the cause of the homicide was a large carefully expense and in two cases the attempt to prove the incapability of the competent doctor. The patients were only means to an end. All the cases are discovered by the great number of obscure death. PMID:8438538

  16. Hidden homicide increases in the USA, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Webster, Daniel; Baker, Susan P

    2008-07-01

    Prior to 1999, dramatic fluctuations in homicide rates were driven by changes in the rates of firearm homicide among men aged 15-24. Since 2000, the overall homicide rate has appeared stable, masking any changes in population subgroups. We analyzed recent trends in homicide rates by weapon, age, race, gender, state, and urbanization to determine whether the risk of victimization increased substantially during 1999-2005 for demographic subgroups. The analysis of WISQARS data and Wonder data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed no trend in the homicide rate nationally between 1999 and 2005; this obscured large increases in firearm homicide rates among black men aged 25-44 and among white men aged 25-34. Between 1999 and 2005, for ages 25-44 combined, the increase for black men was 31% compared with 12% for white men. Significant increases among men aged 25-44 occurred in Alabama, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington. The firearm homicide rate increased the most in large central metropolitan areas (+32%) and large fringe metropolitan areas (+30%) for men aged 25-44. We conclude that the recent, unrecognized increases in firearm homicide among men aged 25-44, especially black men, in large metropolitan areas merit the attention of policymakers. PMID:18509760

  17. Patterns and Trends in Elder Homicide Across Race and Ethnicity, 1985-2009

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we assess total and race/ethnicity-disaggregated patterns and temporal trends in elderly homicide (age 55-74) compared with younger age groups for the 1985-to-2009 period. To do this, we use California arrest statistics that provide annual homicide figures by race and ethnicity (including a Hispanic identifier) and by age. Major aims of our analysis are to establish whether (a) elderly homicide rates are different/similar across race/ethnic comparisons; (b) the elderly share of homicide and age-homicide distributions more generally differ across race/ethnicity; and (c) elderly rates of homicide and the share of elderly homicide relative to younger age groups is similar or different now as compared with 20 to 30 years ago. Our analysis is important and timely because some commentators have suggested that elderly homicide levels have been rising over the past one to two decades and because there is a virtual absence of research of any sort on elderly homicide trends that involve comparisons by race and ethnicity. Key findings are that elderly shares of homicide offending relative to younger ages have not increased (or decreased), that elder homicides continue to account for a small fraction of all homicides, and that these patterns persist across race/ethnicity comparisons. PMID:25598653

  18. Homicide by firearms in two Scandinavian capitals.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Rogde, S; Poulsen, K

    2000-09-01

    In the Oslo and Copenhagen areas, 83 homicides by firearms were registered in the 10-year period 1985 to 1994, accounting for 19.3% of all homicides in that period. The majority of the victims were between 20 and 50 years old, and 58% were male, 42% female. The yearly number of firearm homicides varied between 4 and 15, with neither an increase nor decrease throughout the period. Most of the victims had no detectable blood alcohol at autopsy. Female victims were typically shot in their own domicile with a shotgun by their spouse, mostly because of jealousy or in a family argument, whereas male victims were shot on different locations, predominantly with a handgun, for many different reasons. Most victims were shot in the head, and few had entrance wounds in more than one anatomic region. PMID:10990294

  19. Homicide during postictal psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschenk, Stephan; Krop, Harry; Devinsky, Orrin

    2014-01-01

    Postictal psychosis is characterized by a fluctuating combination of thought disorder, auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, affective change, and aggression including violent behavior. We present a case of homicide following a cluster of seizures. The patient's history and postictal behavior were his consistent with postictal psychosis. Contributing factors resulting in homicide may have included increased seizure frequency associated with a change in his AED regimen seizure frequency. The AED change to levetiracetam may also have increased impulsiveness with diminished mood regulation following discontinuation of carbamazepine. There is evidence that he had a cluster of seizures immediately prior to the murder which may have resulted in the postictal disinhibition of frontal lobe inhibitory systems. This homicide and other violent behaviors associated with postictal psychosis may be avoided with earlier recognition and treatment. PMID:25667886

  20. Child homicide spectrum.

    PubMed

    Jason, J

    1983-06-01

    Violence toward children is an acknowledged pediatric problem, but physicians may not be aware that it is a leading cause of pediatric mortality. Therefore, I used homicide data for persons younger than 18 years of age to characterize child homicide. There are two broad categories: The first predominates until the victim age of 3 years, is intrafamilial, and is associated with bodily force and poorly defined precipitating events. It might be described as fatal child abuse. The second type predominates after the victim age of 12 years, is extrafamilial, involves guns or knives, occurs during arguments or criminal acts by the offender, and may represent children unsupervised in an adult environment. Homicides that occur in children between 3 and 12 years of age are a mixture of these two types. PMID:6846292

  1. Necrophilia and sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered. PMID:20102474

  2. Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro favelas

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Christovam; Zaluar, Alba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of homicide in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas, taking into account the territorial disputes taking place in the city. METHODS The study is based on data on mortality from homicide in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2006 and 2009. Risks in favelas and in surrounding areas were evaluated, as was the domination of armed groups and drug dealing. Geographic and ethnographic concepts and methods were employed, using participant observation, interviews and analysis of secondary data on health. RESULTS Within the favelas, mortality rates from homicide were equivalent to, or lower than, the rest of the city, although they were considerably higher in areas surrounding the favelas, especially in areas where there was conflict between armed rival gangs. CONCLUSIONS The presence of trafficking crews and turf war in strategic areas of the city increases homicide rates and promotes the “ecology of danger” in these areas. PMID:24789642

  3. Homicidal sex offenders: psychological, phallometric, and diagnostic features.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Larose, M R

    1998-01-01

    Homicidal sex offenders represent an understudied population in the forensic literature. Forty-eight homicidal sex offenders assessed between 1982 and 1992 were studied in relation to a comparison group of incest offenders. Historical features, commonly used psychological inventories, criminal histories, phallometric assessments, and DSM diagnoses were collected on each group. The homicidal sex offenders, compared with the incest offenders, self-reported that they had more frequently been removed from their homes during childhood and had more violence and forensic psychiatric contact in their histories. On the self-report psychological inventories, the homicidal sex offenders portrayed themselves as functioning significantly better in the areas of sexuality (Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory) and aggression/hostility (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory). However, on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), researchers rated the homiciders significantly more psychopathic than the incest offenders on Factor 1 (personality traits) and Factor 2 (antisocial history). Police records revealed the homicidal subjects also had been charged or convicted of more violent and nonviolent nonsexual offenses. The phallometric assessments indicated that the homicidal sex offenders demonstrated higher levels of response to pedophilic stimuli and were significantly more aroused to stimuli depicting assaultive acts to children, relative to the incest offenders. Despite the homiciders' self-reports of fairly good psychological functioning, DSM-III diagnoses reliably discriminated between the groups. A large number of homicidal sex offenders were diagnosed as suffering from psychosis, antisocial personality disorder, paraphilias, sexual sadism, sexual sadism with pedophilia, and substance abuse. Seventy-five percent of the homicidal sex offenders had three or more diagnoses compared with six percent of the incest offenders. The article addresses the role of "hard" versus "soft

  4. We fall down: the African American experience of coping with the homicide of a loved one.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Boyas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Rates of homicide among African Americans are much higher than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Research has demonstrated that homicide can be psychologically debilitating for surviving family members. Yet, exploring the experiences of homicide victims’ surviving loved ones has received little attention. This study examined the coping strategies of African American survivors of homicide. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 African American family members (ages 18-82) of homicide victims. Survivors were recruited from the Massachusetts Office of Victim Services and from homicide survivor support, school, and community groups throughout the New England area. Interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from coping, support network, grief, and bereavement literatures. Results indicate that the primary coping strategies utilized by African American survivors of homicide victims are spiritual coping and meaning making, maintaining a connection to the deceased, collective coping and caring for others, and concealment. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22073426

  5. Neurocognitive Vulnerability: Suicidal and Homicidal Behaviours in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Orsat, Manuel; Dumais, Alexandre; Turecki, Gustavo; Jollant, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with an increase in the risk of both homicide and suicide. The objectives of this study were to systematically review all published articles that examined the relation between neurocognitive deficits and suicidal or homicidal behaviours in schizophrenia, and to identify vulnerabilities in suicidal and homicidal behaviour that may share a common pathway in schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE to include all studies published up to August 31, 2012. Results: Among the 1760 studies, 7 neuropsychological and 12 brain imaging studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies were inconclusive. The structural imaging studies reported various alterations in patients with schizophrenia and a history of homicidal behaviour, including: reduced inferior frontal and temporal cortices, increased mediodorsal white matter, and increased amygdala volumes. Patients with a history of suicidal acts showed volumetric reductions in left orbitofrontal and superior temporal cortices, while right amygdala volume was increased, though, these findings have rarely been replicated. Finally, no study has directly compared neurocognitive markers of suicidal and homicidal risk. Conclusion: These results suggest that brain alterations, in addition to those associated with schizophrenia, may predispose some patients to a higher risk of homicide or suicide in particular circumstances. Moreover, some of these alterations may be shared between homicidal and suicidal patients. However, owing to several limitations, including the small number of available studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further investigations are necessary. PMID:24444320

  6. [Regional variations in homicide mortality in Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vega-López, María Guadalupe; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando; Valle Barbosa, Ana; Cabrera Pivaral, Carlos; Quintero-Vega, Pedro P

    2003-01-01

    The present study describes regional variations in homicide rates in Jalisco State, Mexico, in 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1999-2000, analyzing the trends by gender and socioeconomic stratum. Using mortality data generated by the National Institute for Statistics, Geography, and Information Technology, homicide rates adjusted by age and gender were calculated, along with rate/female rate ratios; rate ratios by socioeconomic stratum and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. According to the results, the homicide rate showed: a downward trend in the 1990s; a regional homicide mortality pattern, with the highest rates in peripheral regions, considered among the poorest areas in the State; municipalities with the lowest socioeconomic conditions also presenting a statistically significant excess homicide mortality; and an evident over-mortality from homicide among males. The results point to tasks and challenges for public health and law enforcement institutions, including the need to implement different inter-institutional policies that take into consideration the characteristics of homicide and violent crime in Jalisco. PMID:12764477

  7. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  8. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  9. Attempted homicide by electrocution.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H; Karger, B

    1998-01-01

    Attempted homicide by the application of a high-voltage, low-amperage current is reported in an elderly male. An electrician constructed an apparatus and applied the current to wet towels placed on the abdomen of the victim sleeping next door. The attempt was unsuccessful and resulted in burns only. The victim was hospitalised and died 3 weeks later. A causal connection could not be established between the attempted electrocution and the demise of the victim. PMID:9826095

  10. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  11. Prostitute Homicides: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfati, C. Gabrielle; James, Alison R.; Ferguson, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    It has been estimated that women involved in street prostitution are 60 to 100 times more likely to be murdered than are nonprostitute females. In addition, homicides of prostitutes are notoriously difficult to investigate and, as such, many cases remain unsolved. Despite this large risk factor, little literature exists on homicides of…

  12. Homicide by methane gas.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Vetrugno, Giuseppe; Rossi, Riccardo; Fucci, Nadia; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2012-09-10

    Methane is a suffocating gas, and "methane deaths" are largely the result of suffocation by gas-air displacement after accidental or deliberate exposure. Neither methane gas nor other suffocating gases are a common means of homicide, with the potential exception of the use of gas in chemical weapons or gas chambers. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old woman who was killed by her husband with methane gas. The man had given his wife a dose of Lorazepam before setting up a hose that conveyed methane from the kitchen into the apartment's bedroom. The man subsequently faked his own suicide, which was later discovered. PMID:22721935

  13. Finnish sexual homicides: offence and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Lindberg, Nina; Salenius, Stephan; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-07-01

    Information on sexual homicide offenders is limited. The current study estimates the rate of sexual homicides in Finland and analyses sociodemographic characteristics, crime history, life course development, psychopathy, and psychopathology in sexual homicide and nonsexual homicide offenders. Crime reports and forensic examination reports of all offenders subjected to forensic examination and convicted for homicide in 1995-2004 (n=676) were retrospectively analyzed for offence and offender variables and scored with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Eighteen sexual homicides (2.8%) were identified. Co-offending, strangulation and disposal of the body were more frequent crime scene variables in sexual than nonsexual homicides. Mental health problems and sexual abuse in childhood and sexual crime history were significantly more frequent in sexual than nonsexual homicide offenders. Over half of the sexual homicide offenders were psychopathic: compared to nonsexual homicide offenders they scored significantly higher on interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy. PMID:19403249

  14. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims. PMID:20402440

  15. Criminal Recidivism Among Homicide Offenders.

    PubMed

    Liem, Marieke; Zahn, Margaret A; Tichavsky, Lisa

    2014-01-16

    Homicide offenders are released to communities in large numbers. Little is known, however, about how these offenders fare after release. The aim of this study is threefold: to examine recidivism patterns among released homicide offenders, to assess to what extent predictors for recidivism are similar to those for other violent offenders, and to study whether the degree of recidivism differs by type of homicide. Using data from the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, we extracted all individuals who committed a homicide in Philadelphia between 1977 and 1983 and who were paroled. Data were supplemented with court documents, police department data, and newspaper articles. We examined frequency and severity of recidivism, and used logistic regression analyses and survival analyses to examine the likelihood and time to recidivism. Of the 92 paroled homicide offenders, 54% recidivated; 15% recidivated with a violent offense. Race and original conviction for a financially motivated homicide were significant predictors of recidivism. While socio-demographic predictors of recidivism have theoretical and practical significance, focusing on factors associated with the motive of the original homicide may prove highly beneficial for intervention strategies and post-release planning. PMID:24442911

  16. Social Capital, Economic Development, and Homicide: A Cross-National Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Blaine; Pettinicchio, David

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from an ongoing debate over explanations of homicide. Within this debate, we investigate the pro-social effects of civil society and social capital. Few cross-national studies explore whether elements of social capital either increase or decrease homicide. The cross-national work that does is often characterized by small,…

  17. Preventing homicide: an evaluation of the efficacy of a Detroit gun ordinance.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P W; Loftin, C; Waller, J B; McDowall, D; Bukoff, A; Scott, R O; Mercy, J A; Wiersema, B

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In November 1986, a Detroit, Michigan city ordinance requiring mandatory jail sentences for illegally carrying a firearm in public was passed to preserve "the public peace, health, safety, and welfare of the people." METHODS: We conducted a set of interrupted time-series analyses to evaluate the impact of the law on the incidence of homicides, hypothesizing that the ordinance, by its nature, would affect only firearm homicides and homicides committed outside (e.g., on the street). RESULTS: The incidence of homicide in general increased after the law was passed, but the increases in non-firearm homicides and homicides committed inside (e.g., in a home) were either statistically significant or approached statistical significance (p = .006 and p = .070, respectively), whereas changes in the incidence of firearm homicides and homicides committed outside were not statistically significant (p = .238 and p = .418, respectively). We also determined that the ordinance was essentially unenforced, apparently because of a critical shortage of jail space. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with a model in which the ordinance had a dampening effect on firearm homicides occurring in public in Detroit. The apparent preventive effect evident in the time series analyses may have been due to publicity about the ordinance, whereas the small nature of the effect may have been due to the lack of enforcement. PMID:2014857

  18. Burnt wives: a study of homicides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Tripathi, C B

    2004-01-01

    The death of married females nowadays is very common in India, usually being associated with dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, most frequently by burning. In a cohort of 152 burned wives, 47 (31%) were homicidal burns and these cases were analyzed in view of epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. Homicide by burning amongst women is a major concern in India as it has become pervasive throughout all social strata and geographical areas. In this series, most women were from extended families (i.e. multigenerational groups of related individuals living under a single roof) and the homicides occurred within the first few years of their marriages. The majority of the affected wives were 16-25 years of age (77%) at the time of the incident and sustained more than 70% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injuries. Many of them were doused with kerosene and set alight. Most died at the time of the incident or within the subsequent 24 hours, most commonly from shock. PMID:14984215

  19. Small Area Forecasts: Policies, Results, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Michigan Council of Governments, Detroit.

    This document describes aspects of the Small Area Forecast (SAF) process, from the preparation of policy alternatives to measures to provide for evaluation. The three principle areas discussed are: (1) the six alternative sets of public policies which might be followed in the Southeast region of Michigan for meeting population needs in the areas…

  20. Suicide and Homicide Rates: Their Relationship to Latitude and Longitude and to the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1986-01-01

    Explored variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.…

  1. [Bayesian rates for homicide mapping in Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alexandre Xavier Ywata de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da; Almeida Júnior, Gilberto Rezende de; Albuquerque, Pedro Henrique Melo de

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes homicide incidence per municipality (county) in Brazil in the year 2008. The authors estimate and compare homicide rates according to different methods, finding evidence that depending on the method employed, the results can differ significantly, especially for small municipalities. Bayesian spatial procedures were employed, allowing minimization of variation in the rate estimates. The methods consider a priori distributions and information on contiguity of municipalities. According to the findings, the impact of corrective procedures is not relevant for large municipalities, but such estimates present significant differences for small municipalities. Comparing the different estimates, the authors conclude that there may be distortions in the rates published in the literature. To overcome such potential distortions, it is necessary to take the main goal in each analysis into account. When the emphasis is on overall visualization of the homicide phenomenon, the best option is spatial corrections. However, to obtain more accurate local estimates, Bayesian methods are more appropriate. PMID:22729256

  2. Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158081.html Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing Biggest declines seen for Hispanics ... 2016 THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall homicide victim rates in the United States fell between ...

  3. CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL SCHOOL, AS PROPOSED BY THE PROJECT, ARE LISTED. FIVE AREAS OF SCHOOL OPERATION ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--(1) MULTIPLE CLASSES, INCLUDING SUPERVISED CORRESPONDENCE COURSES, (2) FLEXIBLE SCHEDULES, (3) USE OF SCHOOL AIDES, (4) USES OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION, AND (5) SHARED SERVICES AND TALENTED YOUTH. A MAP LOCATING THE…

  4. Epilepsy and homicide

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Neil S; Vrbancic, Mirna; Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy. Patients and methods We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides. Results We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility. Conclusion The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse. PMID:23700367

  5. Medical homicide and extreme negligence.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Emily; Richards, Virginia; Luce, Kasey M; Gill, James R

    2009-03-01

    Deaths that occur during medical care for the treatment of a disease are rarely certified as homicides. Some "medical" deaths, however, have been criminally prosecuted for manslaughter, reckless endangerment, or reckless homicide. We describe 5 deaths due to medical complications that underwent criminal prosecution. Three of the deaths were certified as homicides. Deaths certified as homicides due to the actions (or inactions) of a caregiver occur in 3 circumstances. The first is when the medical caregiver intentionally causes the death of the patient. The second is a death due to treatment by an unlicensed fraud or quack. The final circumstance is due to extreme medical negligence that involves a gross and wanton disregard for the well-being of the patient and is the most controversial in the medical community. The law defines reckless endangerment as the conscious disregard of a known substantial likelihood of injury to the patient. Criminal neglect typically is defined as the failure to provide timely, safe, adequate, and appropriate services, treatment, and/or care to a patient. In instances of extreme medical negligence, a homicide manner of death is appropriate because the fatality is due to the criminal acts (or inactions) of another. It also furthers one of the major goals of the medicolegal death investigation system, which is to safeguard the public health. PMID:19237847

  6. Mass homicide: the civil massacre.

    PubMed

    Cantor, C H; Mullen, P E; Alpers, P A

    2000-01-01

    Seven cases of mass homicide in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain between 1987 and 1996 are presented. These cases add to the world literature on these rare crimes and balance previous, mostly North American reports. These acts were committed by socially unsuccessful, self-absorbed, and resentful individuals. Lengthy fantasy comprising identification, modeling, and rehearsal preceded the incidents, even where the final acts had impulsive elements. Most had a long-standing fascination with firearms fueling their fantasies and providing the means for mass killing. Their targets were mostly unprotected strangers. Overt suicidal intent or a preparedness to die while committing the homicides was invariable. Ethological theories of status acquisition may provide a useful understanding of mass homicide. PMID:10774842

  7. Multiple stabbing in sex-related homicides.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Nemanja; Radnić, Bojana; Petković, Stojan; Miljen, Maletin; Curović, Ivana; Cukić, Dragana; Soć, Miodrag; Savić, Slobodan

    2013-07-01

    It is possible that sexually driven homicides are the consequence of sexual deviation, but more often than not the main cause of such homicides stems from a non-paraphilic person's emotional component. It is known that homicides which involve multiple stabbing are very often the result of the assailant's highly expressed affect. This study tries to establish whether such homicides are essentially related to the sexual motives of the murderer. This paper is conducted through a retrospective autopsy study that includes 766 cases of homicides. These were reviewed and analysed according to the motive of the homicide, as well as by method, age, and gender of the victim, and the relationship between the victim and the assailant. The motives of homicides are classified as non-sexual and sexual, including homicides related to rape, jealousy, amorous affairs outside of an established relationship, deviant sexual behaviour of psychiatric patients, paraphilia, and disturbed emotional relationships between the victim and the assailant. Cases include both hetero- and homosexual relationships. Multiple stabbing occurs significantly more frequently in sex-related homicides (≥ 3 stab wounds) than in other homicide types. When the criteria for multiple stabbing are changed (≥ 4, 5, or 25 stab wounds), the percentage of sex-related homicides rises in every group in relation to the increased number of wounds. Sensitivity and specificity are represented by ROC curves for 3, 5 and 7 stab wounds. The correlation coefficients between multiple stabbing and sex-related homicides regarding gender are all near 0.9. For female victims, all homicides committed by 25 and more stab wounds were found to be sex-related. Statistically, jealousy was the most frequent motive for sex-related multiple stabbing homicides. Regardless of age, homicides involving multiple stabbings should be considered sex-related, especially when the victim is female. PMID:23756522

  8. Small area estimation for semicontinuous data.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Hukum; Chambers, Ray

    2016-03-01

    Survey data often contain measurements for variables that are semicontinuous in nature, i.e. they either take a single fixed value (we assume this is zero) or they have a continuous, often skewed, distribution on the positive real line. Standard methods for small area estimation (SAE) based on the use of linear mixed models can be inefficient for such variables. We discuss SAE techniques for semicontinuous variables under a two part random effects model that allows for the presence of excess zeros as well as the skewed nature of the nonzero values of the response variable. In particular, we first model the excess zeros via a generalized linear mixed model fitted to the probability of a nonzero, i.e. strictly positive, value being observed, and then model the response, given that it is strictly positive, using a linear mixed model fitted on the logarithmic scale. Empirical results suggest that the proposed method leads to efficient small area estimates for semicontinuous data of this type. We also propose a parametric bootstrap method to estimate the MSE of the proposed small area estimator. These bootstrap estimates of the MSE are compared to the true MSE in a simulation study. PMID:24962713

  9. Combating Child Homicide: Preventive Policing for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Monique C.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2005-01-01

    High-profile media coverage of crimes against children has heightened public awareness of critical child safety needs and issues. However, numerous research studies in the area of child homicide have illustrated the importance of the power of science to correct false perceptions and misinformation, improving how to best serve and protect our…

  10. Trends in firearm usage in homicides and suicides in Bexar County Texas from 1982 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; Dimaio, Vincent J

    2008-12-01

    Numerous studies and epidemiological reports have been published which analyze firearm deaths by the type of firearm, the majority of which focus on a small time span and categorize weapon types by handgun, rifle, or shotgun. Few studies have focused on the caliber of weapon or long term trends in weapon use. We designed a retrospective study to analyze firearm deaths occurring between 1982 and 2004, considering manner of death (homicide versus suicide), firearm type, and caliber of the weapon. We found that the homicides by firearm steadily declined during the study period, mirroring the overall homicide rate during this period, whereas suicide by firearm rate remained steady. Handguns were the most commonly used weapon for both homicides and suicides during the 22-year period examined. Overall, the .38/.357 and the .22 caliber were the most commonly used handguns. The rate of .357/.38 handgun usage in homicides declined sharply over the study period whereas the use of the 9mm rose steadily, overtaking the .38/.357 in the late 1990s. The use of small caliber handguns steadily decreased in both homicidal and suicidal shootings whereas the .380 and .45 caliber handguns steadily increased in both homicidal and suicidal shootings. PMID:19259009

  11. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  12. An ecosysthemic vision of homicide.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Constantino, Patrícia

    2012-12-01

    Four cities were analyzed in term of homicide rates, namely two Brazilian and two Argentinian cities. In each country, a city with high homicide rates and another with low rates were studied over the same three-year period. The theoretical approach of complex systems was used as it examines the link between the local system in its internal interconnections, the influence of the external environment and psychic engagement, namely the interpenetration between the social system and subjectivities. The emphasis of the study and the comparisons were conducted using qualitative research with observation, the use of interviews and focal groups. The results show that in locations with high or low homicide rates, there is synergy between the external environment (macrosocial and macroeconomic politics), the social system (social organization, local government, community participation) and subjectivity, whether it is in the construction of solidarity or social disintegration. Studies about changes in the violent social systems show that persistent and coordinated actions that articulate economic, social and educational investments as measures to prevent and restrain homicides have a positive impact in historical terms. PMID:23175403

  13. [Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions), either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil in the first decade of the twenty-first century, where the homicide rate has decreased, increased and remained the same, respectively. Using the measurement of six variables (poverty, inequality, unemployment, national wealth, human development and the rule of law) and the technique of trajectory analysis, the results revealed that institutionalization is more to blame for the change than poverty and inequality. The text concludes that poverty and inequality affect crime and homicides, although not directly, but mediated by the institutions instead. PMID:23175393

  14. Development of a Small Area Sniffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Laurie A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop and implement a sniffer that is capable of measuring the mass flow rate of air through a small area of pinholes whose diameters are on the magnitude of thousandths of an inch. The sniffer is used to scan a strip of a leading edge panel, which is being used in a hybrid laminar flow control experiment, in order to survey the variations in the amount of air that passes through the porous surface at different locations. Spanwise scans are taken at different chord locations by increasing the pressure in a control volume that is connected to the sniffer head, and recording the drop in pressure as the air is allowed to flow through the tiny holes. This information is used to obtain the mass flow through the structure. More importantly, the deviations from the mean flow rate are found and used to determine whether there are any significant variations in the flow rate from one area to the next. The preliminary results show little deviation in the spanwise direction. These results are important when dealing with the location and amount of suction that will be applied to the leading edge in the active laminar flow control experiment.

  15. The narrative dynamics of grief after homicide.

    PubMed

    Rynearson, Edward K

    2012-01-01

    The homicidal death of a loved one is horrific. Dying from homicide can be more sudden, frightening, and stigmatizing than natural dying and may be followed by a sub-type of prolonged grief complicated by vivid narrative reenactment of the dying, intense feelings of remorse, and nihilistic despair. After a literature review of grief after homicide, the author clarifies the salient narrative themes of homicidal dying and their specific effects on trauma and separation distress. A preliminary model is then developed and illustrated in a therapy case outlining a technique (imaginative exposure) to diminish the disabling fixation of reenactment imagery, remorse, and despair. PMID:23057248

  16. Small area variations in health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, J; Gittelsohn

    1973-12-14

    Health information about total populations is a prerequisite for sound decision-making and planning in the health care field. Experience with a population-based health data system in Vermont reveals that there are wide variations in resource input, utilization of services, and expenditures among neighboring communities. Results show prima facie inequalities in the input of resources that are associated with income transfer from areas of lower expenditure to areas of higher expenditure. Variations in utilization indicate that there is considerable uncertainty about the effectiveness of different levels of aggregate, as well as specific kinds of, health services. Informed choices in the public regulation of the health care sector require knowledge of the relation between medical care systems and the population groups being served, and they should take into account the effect of regulation on equality and effectiveness. When population-based data on small areas are available, decisions to expand hospitals, currently based on institutional pressures, can take into account a community's regional ranking in regard to bed input and utilization rates. Proposals by hospitals for unit price increases and the regulation of the actuarial rate of insurance programs can be evaluated in terms of per capita expenditures and income transfer between geographically defined populations. The PSRO's can evaluate the wide variations in level of services among residents of different communities. Coordinated exercise of the authority vested in these regulatory programs may lead to explicit strategies to deal directly with inequality and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of health care delivery. Population-based health information systems, because they can provide information on the performance of health care systems and regulatory agencies, are an important step in the development of rational public policy for health. PMID:4750608

  17. Homicide victims among Australian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, E V

    1994-09-01

    The homicide rates for various immigrant groups in Australia were calculated, and the influence of the rate in countries of origin on immigrant rates and the relationship between the birthplace of the accused and victim were examined. Age-sex standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for homicide were calculated for the immigrant groups, based on 1984-1988 mortality data and 1986 census data. The Australian-born homicide rates were used as the standard. Standardised mortality ratios for countries of origin were derived from WHO data. A cross-tabulation of the birthplaces of the accused and the victim was compiled from 1989-1992 police records. Male SMRs ranged from 0.13 (P < 0.01) for immigrants from Africa and the Americas to 5.83 (P < 0.05) for Koreans. Several female groups had lower SMRs than the Australian-born, although none of these differences were significant. Indonesian females had the highest SMR (5.32, P < 0.01). There was a positive Spearman correlation between the ranking of homicide rates for the origin populations and the immigrants (males 0.64, P < 0.05; females 0.62, P < 0.05). Overall, 51.3 per cent of immigrants were killed by their compatriots. This ranged from zero for New Zealanders to 100 per cent for immigrants from the Middle East. In order to further identify factors contributing to the large differences in rates it is imperative to have information on the victim, the perpetrator and the circumstances surrounding the murder. PMID:7841261

  18. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. PMID:25921219

  19. Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

  20. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  1. Intrafamilial Homicide of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard

    2005-01-01

    An increase in interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD) has been observed in the past decade. However, little attention has been given to intrafamilial homicides of PWDD. This paper provides a preliminary description of these types of homicides as they affect PWDD. Content analysis of media accounts of intrafamilial…

  2. The Grief Response Following a Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussaint, Alvin F.

    Although grief reactions have been carefully examined, little information is available on the grief response following the murder of a loved one. Impressions of homicide survivors' grief reactions were obtained by the staff of a family support center who treated ten families that had experienced the loss of a family member by homicide.…

  3. Rescue Fantasies in Homicide-Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkin, James

    1976-01-01

    Homicide-suicides (N=13), events in which an individual murders one or more persons and kills himself immediately afterward, were studied, The results are interpreted to suggest that persons who commit homicide-suicide are acting out a three-party rescue fantasy in an attempt to resolve unbearable stress. (Author)

  4. Handgun sales, beer sales, and youth homicide, California, 1972-1993.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, S B; Berk, R A

    2001-01-01

    Whether regulating access to firearms and alcohol will reduce violent injuries is an important policy question. Empirical answers are difficult to obtain because only observational data are available. The present study estimated the association of firearm sales and alcohol sales with subsequent homicides, after adjusting statistically for potential confounders (e.g., unemployment rates) using California data from 1972 through 1993. Handgun sales and beer sales were lagged one year and used to explain variation in the homicides of Californians (e.g., 1990 sales were used to explain 1991 homicides). Differences across population groups were investigated, with a focus on 15- to 34-year-olds, the highest risk age group. Even when taking potential confounders in the base population into account, beer sales and handgun sales generally are associated positively one year later with homicide, particularly among young men. Reducing beer sales may reduce homicides. And, although they represent a small fraction of existing firearms, regulating the number of handguns sold may reduce the number of homicides. PMID:11469152

  5. Relationship-Precipitated Homicides as Mediated by Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixler, Andrew Thomas

    Homicide is the 12th leading cause in absolute number of deaths in the United States. Research has suggested that: (1) minorities have a greater homicide risk than do Anglo-Americans; (2) males are much more likely than females to be homicide victims; (3) the highest overall homicide rate occurs between the ages of 25 and 39; (4) among minorities,…

  6. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  7. Homicide-suicides compared to homicides and suicides: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Geissbühler, Michael; Zwahlen, Marcel; Killias, Martin; Tal, Kali; Egger, Matthias

    2013-12-10

    Homicide-suicides, the murder of one or several individuals followed by the suicide of the perpetrator, are rare but have devastating effects on families and communities. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing perpetrators of homicide-suicides with perpetrators of simple homicides and suicides and examined the proportion of firearm use and its correlation with firearm availability. We searched Medline and Embase from inception to July 2012 and identified 27 eligible studies. Perpetrators of homicide-suicides were older and more likely to be male and married to or separated from their victims than perpetrator of simple homicides or suicides. Influence of alcohol and a history of domestic violence or unemployment were less prevalent in homicide-suicides than in homicides. The proportion of firearm use in homicide-suicides varied across countries and was highest in the USA, Switzerland and South Africa, followed by Australia, Canada, The Netherlands and England and Wales, with a strong correlation between the use of firearms and the level of civilian gun ownership in the country. Our results indicate that homicide-suicides represent a distinct entity, with characteristics distinguishing them both from homicides and suicides. PMID:24314498

  8. The Associations between Infant Homicide, Homicide, and Suicide Rates: An Analysis of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates…

  9. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

  10. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

  11. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  12. Child Homicide: A Global Public Health Concern.

    PubMed

    Devakumar, Delan; Osrin, David

    2016-04-01

    In this perspective, Delan Devakumar and David Osrin discuss Abrahams and colleagues' findings in the context of evidence about child homicide in different countries, and consider etiology along with implications for child protection and prevention. PMID:27115911

  13. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  14. Homicides - United States, 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Logan, Joseph E; Hall, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Dawn; Stevens, Mark R

    2013-11-22

    According to 1981-2009 data, homicide accounts for 16,000-26,000 deaths annually in the United States and ranks within the top four leading causes of death among U.S. residents aged 1-40 years. Homicide can have profound long-term emotional consequences on families and friends of victims and on witnesses to the violence, as well as cause excessive economic costs to residents of affected communities. For years, homicide rates have been substantially higher among certain populations. Previous reports have found that homicides are higher among males, adolescents and young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and Hispanics. The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR) described similar findings for the year 2007. For example, the 2011 report showed that the 2007 homicide rate was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (23.1 deaths per 100,000), followed by AI/ANs (7.8 deaths per 100,000), Hispanics (7.6 deaths per 100,000), non-Hispanic whites (2.7 deaths per 100,000), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) (2.4 deaths per 100,000). In addition, non-Hispanic black men aged 20-24 years were at greatest risk for homicide in 2007, with a rate that exceeded 100 deaths per 100,000 population. Other studies have reported that community factors such as poverty and economic inequality and individual factors such as unemployment and involvement in criminal activities can play a substantial role in these persistent disparities in homicide rates. Public health strategies are needed in communities at high risk for homicide to prevent violence and save lives. PMID:24264509

  15. The epidemiology of homicide in Chicago.

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, S.; Benbow, N.; Good, G.

    1996-01-01

    Public health agencies across the country are beginning to view violence as a problem that demands a public health response. However, before such a response can be mounted effectively, there must be a sound data-based understanding of this epidemic. With this in mind, the Chicago Department of Public Health implemented an epidemiological analysis of homicide in the city. Using vital records, police data, and census data, we found that the city's homicide rate in 1993 was 31 per 100,000 population. This rate placed Chicago 14th among other large cities in the United States and 4th out of the eight cities with a population > 1 million. The homicide rate in the city has been increasing over the past 30 years, but not steadily. For some intervals, the homicide rate has remained almost constant. African Americans, Hispanics, the young, and males are overrepresented in the epidemic. While guns accounted for almost 75% of all homicides in Chicago in 1993, gangs accounted for only 15%. Homicide cannot be viewed in isolation from the context of society. The literature suggests that poverty and racism are important risk factors for this epidemic. Although we cannot wait until these risk factors are remedied to develop violence prevention interventions, we also cannot proceed effectively without understanding this context. PMID:8990803

  16. Revenge and psychological adjustment after homicidal loss.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence. It is therefore likely that individuals bereaved by homicide experience high levels of revenge, which may hamper efforts to cope with traumatic loss. The relationship between revenge and psychological adjustment following homicidal loss has not yet been empirically examined. In the current cross-sectional study, we used self-report data from 331 spouses, family members and friends of homicide victims to examine the relationships between dispositional revenge and situational revenge on the one hand and symptom-levels of PTSD and complicated grief, as well as indices of positive functioning, on the other hand. Furthermore, the association between revenge and socio-demographic and offense-related factors was examined. Participants were recruited from a governmental support organization, a website with information for homicidally bereaved individuals, and members of support groups. Levels of both dispositional and situational revenge were positively associated with symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief, and negatively with positive functioning. Participants reported significantly less situational revenge in cases where the perpetrator was a direct family member than cases where the perpetrator was an indirect family member, friend, or someone unknown. Homicidally bereaved individuals reported more situational revenge, but not more dispositional revenge than a sample of students who had experienced relatively mild interpersonal transgressions. PMID:24910007

  17. Effects of Maryland's law banning "Saturday night special" handguns on homicides.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Hepburn, Lisa M

    2002-03-01

    Small, inexpensive, often poorly made handguns known as "Saturday night specials" are disproportionately involved in crime. Maryland banned the sale of Saturday night specials effective January 1, 1990. During the 2 years between the law's passage in 1988 and its effective date, legal handgun sales in Maryland were 34% higher than expected (p = 0.09). Interrupted time-series analysis of age-adjusted homicide rates for 1975-1998 with statistical controls for trends in two neighboring states, social and economic variables, and temporal patterns in Maryland's homicide rates was used to assess the effect of the law. Estimates of the Saturday night special ban effects depended on the assumption made about the timing of the law's effects. Models that assumed a delayed or gradual effect of the Saturday night special ban produced estimates indicating that firearm homicide rates were 6.8-11.5% lower than would have been expected without the Saturday night special ban (p < or =0.05). The model that assumed an immediate, constant change in response to the law showed no law effect, unless an outlier was excluded from the analysis. Excluding this outlier, the model estimated a 15% increase in firearm homicides associated with the Saturday night special ban. None of the models revealed significant law effects on nonfirearm homicides. PMID:11867351

  18. A descriptive study of sexual homicide in Canada: implications for police investigation.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Martineau, Melissa

    2013-12-01

    Few empirical studies have been conducted that examine the phenomenon of sexual homicide, and among these studies, many have been limited by small sample size. Although interesting and informative, these studies may not be representative of the greater phenomenon of sexual murder and may be subject to sampling bias that could have significant effects on results. The current study aims to provide a descriptive analysis of the largest sample of sexual homicide cases across Canada in the past 62 years. In doing so, the study aims to examine offender and victim characteristics, victim targeting and access, and modus operandi. Findings show that cases of sexual homicide and sexual murderers included in the current study differ in many aspects from the portrait of the sexual murderer and his or her crime depicted in previous studies. The authors' results may prove useful to the police officers responsible for the investigation of these crimes. PMID:22871587

  19. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Meta-analysis of the population-based studies of homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger homicide and family homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 million to 1 in 11.5 million people per year) was calculated by meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger homicide were mostly adult males and the homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will

  20. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment—lethal and non-lethal—across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date. PMID:22042922

  1. Family Structure, Welfare Spending, and Child Homicide in Developed Democracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…

  2. Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Homicide in Sweden, 1971-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somander, Lis K. H.; Rammer, Lennart M.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, 96 children (age 0-14) were victims of homicide in Sweden, an average annual rate of 0.6 per 100,000 children. Most homicides were intrafamilial in nature. Cases of child abuse by a parent and cases of sexual abuse among the homicide victims were infrequent. (Author/JDD)

  3. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to...

  4. Homicide-suicide (dyadic death), homicide, and firearms use in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Travis, Angela R; Johnson, Luke J; Milroy, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Homicide-suicide forms a distinct form of homicide. An analysis of cases in the Yorkshire and Humberside region of England between 1991 and 2005 revealed 37 episodes with 42 victims. Previous studies have shown a high rate of use of firearms. Over the last 2 decades firearms legislation has become more restrictive. In this study all assailants were male, mean age 46.8 years. The commonest method of homicide was strangulation (36%) with 16% killed by firearms. This is a reduction compared with a previous study in the same region. All killers who shot their victims killed themselves with firearms. There were no multiple killings with firearms in this study and no stranger killings. Hanging was the commonest method of suicide. During the same period the use of firearms as a method of homicide increased in England and Wales with handguns, the most common weapon. Nationally, suicide after homicide has remained at a similar rate over the half century and is an uncommon phenomenon. Firearms use remains low in both homicide and homicide-suicide episodes in England, and further analysis is required to determine changes in patterns of killing. PMID:18043018

  5. VIEW OF SMALL QUARRY FACE AND WORK AREA IN MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SMALL QUARRY FACE AND WORK AREA IN MIDDLE OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  6. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  7. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  8. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  9. Violence in Jamaica: an analysis of homicides 1998-2002.

    PubMed

    Lemard, G; Hemenway, D

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to create a profile of Jamaican homicide victims and to describe the circumstances, motives, and the weapons used in homicide incidents. The authors read the police narratives for all Jamaican homicides 1998-2002 and coded them using a predetermined set of variables. Analyses were conducted to describe victim characteristics, motive, and weapon use. The majority of homicide victims were male (over 89%), and 15-44 years old (80%). The rate of homicide for males age 15-44 years was 121 per 100,000 compared with a rate of 12 per 100,000 for females in the same age group. The main motives for homicide were disputes (29%) and reprisals (30%). Gunshot wounds were the cause of death in 66% of all homicides. Guns were used primarily in reprisals, robbery, and drug/gang related homicides; in half of all dispute related homicides the perpetrator used a knife. Homicides in Jamaica are not primarily gang or robbery related. Rather, they are mainly caused by arguments or reprisals. Homicide has become a common feature of dispute resolution in Jamaica. PMID:16461414

  10. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  11. Violence in Jamaica: an analysis of homicides 1998–2002

    PubMed Central

    Lemard, G; Hemenway, D

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to create a profile of Jamaican homicide victims and to describe the circumstances, motives, and the weapons used in homicide incidents. The authors read the police narratives for all Jamaican homicides 1998–2002 and coded them using a predetermined set of variables. Analyses were conducted to describe victim characteristics, motive, and weapon use. The majority of homicide victims were male (over 89%), and 15–44 years old (80%). The rate of homicide for males age 15–44 years was 121 per 100 000 compared with a rate of 12 per 100 000 for females in the same age group. The main motives for homicide were disputes (29%) and reprisals (30%). Gunshot wounds were the cause of death in 66% of all homicides. Guns were used primarily in reprisals, robbery, and drug/gang related homicides; in half of all dispute related homicides the perpetrator used a knife. Homicides in Jamaica are not primarily gang or robbery related. Rather, they are mainly caused by arguments or reprisals. Homicide has become a common feature of dispute resolution in Jamaica. PMID:16461414

  12. Homicide in five southern states: a firearms phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Ruben, E R; Leeper, J D

    1981-03-01

    Homicide is a leading contributor to loss of life in the productive years. Of the 20,000 homicides yearly in the United States, the majority are committed with firearms. Because homicide rates and gun ownership are highest in the southern states, a descriptive study of 20,980 homicides occurring in five southern states between 1967-1975 was done with particular emphasis on the role of firearms. Total rates in this study were 60% to 85% higher than concurrent national rates. Homicide with firearms accounted for 76.2%, and was the only method of homicide to show a significant increase in rate or a distinctive age distribution. Homicide in the US is a firearms phenomenon. Appropriate and effective regulation of access to firearms is an obvious first step in the prevention of this public health problem. PMID:7221624

  13. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  14. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  15. Homicide facilitated by inhalation of chloroform.

    PubMed

    Nashelsky, M B; Dix, J D; Adelstein, E H

    1995-01-01

    Three related homicides in which each decedent had significant concentrations of chloroform in blood, fat, brain and/or liver are described. The tissue concentrations of chloroform in one of three decedents were within reported lethal ranges. The concentrations in the remaining two decedents were less than lethal but were well above blood levels in nonoccupationally exposed, healthy subjects. The cause of death in one decedent with sublethal chloroform concentrations was suffocation; the cause of death in the other decedent could not be determined with certainty. The manner of death in each case was homicide. Through a review of the literature the authors discuss the history of chloroform as an inhalation anesthetic and the history of chloroform as an agent of abuse, suicide, assault, and homicide. Blood and/or tissue concentrations of chloroform in nonoccupationally exposed, healthy subjects and victims of suicide or homicide from previous reports are compared and contrasted with the amounts in blood and/or tissue in the three subjects described in this study. The authors conclude that, in addition to a direct lethal effect, chloroform may be used to incapacitate a victim of assault who then dies by another cause. PMID:7876797

  16. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  17. Adolescent Homicide: Towards Assessment of Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Peter J.; Rowton-Lee, Martyn A.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the mental health literature relevant to homicidal children and adolescents. Background and situational factors relevant to risk are described. Background factors include the witnessing of serious violence, both live and on the screen, as well as abuse through neglect and deprivation. Discusses other factors that contribute to homicidal…

  18. Young Killers: The Challenge of Juvenile Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Kathleen M.

    This book assembles and synthesizes some of the latest available information, research findings, and informed opinions regarding the parameters of homicide by youths and concerning the nature of young killers themselves. It provides a framework for understanding youths who kill, for moving forward with treatment, and for reducing violence in…

  19. Racial Segregation and Black Urban Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ruth D.; Krivo, Lauren J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of data from large U.S. central cities indicates that African-American homicide victimization by acquaintances and strangers (but not family members) increased with residential segregation, while poverty and income inequality were not significant influences. African-American high school graduation rates were positively related to family…

  20. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  1. UAV-based hyperspectral monitoring of small freshwater area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, I.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Honkavaara, Eija; Lindfors, A.; Saari, H.; Markelin, L.; Hakala, T.; Nurminen, K.

    2014-10-01

    Recent development in compact, lightweight hyperspectral imagers have enabled UAV-based remote sensing with reasonable costs. We used small hyperspectral imager based on Fabry-Perot interferometer for monitoring small freshwater area in southern Finland. In this study we shortly describe the utilized technology and the field studies performed. We explain processing pipeline for gathered spectral data and introduce target detection-based algorithm for estimating levels of algae, aquatic chlorophyll and turbidity in freshwater. Certain challenges we faced are pointed out.

  2. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  3. Homicide surveillance--United States, 1979-1988.

    PubMed

    Hammett, M; Powell, K E; O'Carroll, P W; Clanton, S T

    1992-05-29

    From 1979 through 1988, 217,578 homicides occurred in the United States, an average of greater than 21,000 per year. Homicide rates during this 10-year period were about 1.5 times higher than the rates during the 1950s. The national homicide rate of 10.7/100,000 in 1980 was the highest ever recorded. Homicide occurs disproportionately among young adults. Among the 15- to 34-year age group, homicide is the fourth most common cause of death among white females, the third most common cause among white males, and the most common cause among both black females and black males. In 1988, nearly two-thirds (61%) of homicide victims were killed with a firearm, 75% of these with a handgun. More than half (52%) of homicide victims were killed by a family member or acquaintance, and about one-third (35%) of homicides stemmed from a conflict not associated with another felony. The homicide mortality rate among young black males 15-24 years of age has risen 54% since 1985. Ninety-nine percent of the increase was accounted for by homicides in which the victim was killed with a firearm. The surveillance data summarized in this report should assist public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers in addressing this important public health problem. PMID:1635547

  4. Canadian firearms legislation and effects on homicide 1974 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-08-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using data obtained from Statistics Canada from 1974 to 2008. Three statistical methods were applied to search for any associated effects of firearms legislation. Interrupted time series regression, ARIMA, and Joinpoint analysis were performed. Neither were any significant beneficial associations between firearms legislation and homicide or spousal homicide rates found after the passage of three Acts by the Canadian Parliament--Bill C-51 (1977), C-17 (1991), and C-68 (1995)--nor were effects found after the implementation of licensing in 2001 and the registration of rifles and shotguns in 2003. After the passage of C-68, a decrease in the rate of the decline of homicide by firearm was found by interrupted regression. Joinpoint analysis also found an increasing trend in homicide by firearm rate post the enactment of the licensing portion of C-68. Other factors found to be associated with homicide rates were median age, unemployment, immigration rates, percentage of population in low-income bracket, Gini index of income equality, population per police officer, and incarceration rate. This study failed to demonstrate a beneficial association between legislation and firearm homicide rates between 1974 and 2008. PMID:22328660

  5. Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Phillip D.

    This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

  6. Small Buildings in Earthquake Areas. Educational Building Digest 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, D.

    This booklet is intended for builders and others who actually construct small buildings in earthquake areas and not for professionally qualified architects or engineers. In outline form with sketches the following topics are discussed: general construction and design principles; foundations; earth walls; brick, block, and stone walls; timber frame…

  7. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Suffla, Shahnaaz; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Arendse, Najuwa

    2008-01-01

    Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic context, suggesting that

  8. Small area analysis using micro-diffraction techniques

    SciTech Connect

    GOEHNER,RAYMOND P.; TISSOT JR.,RALPH G.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.

    2000-02-11

    An overall trend toward smaller electronic packages and devices makes it increasingly important and difficult to obtain meaningful diffraction information from small areas. X-ray micro-diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and Kossel are micro-diffraction techniques used for crystallographic analysis including texture, phase identification and strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements of areas between 10 {micro}m to 100 {micro}m. For areas this small glass capillary optics are used for producing a usable collimated x-ray beam. These optics are designed to reflect x-rays below the critical angle therefore allowing for larger solid acceptance angle at the x-ray source resulting in brighter smaller x-ray beams. The determination of residual strain using micro-diffraction techniques is very important to the semiconductor industry. Residual stresses have caused voiding of the interconnect metal which then destroys electrical continuity. Being able to determine the residual stress helps industry to predict failures from the aging effects of interconnects due to this stress voiding. Stress measurements would be impossible using a conventional x-ray diffractometer; however, utilizing a 30{micro}m glass capillary these small areas are readily assessable for analysis. Kossel produces a wide angle diffraction pattern from fluorescent x-rays generated in the sample by an e-beam in a SEM. This technique can yield very precise lattice parameters for determining strain. Fig. 2 shows a Kossel pattern from a Ni specimen. Phase analysis on small areas is also possible using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EBSD) and x-ray micro-diffraction techniques. EBSD has the advantage of allowing the user to observe the area of interest using the excellent imaging capabilities of the SEM. An EDS detector has

  9. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide. PMID:17596343

  10. Small-area decimators for delta-sigma video sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azabache Villar, Erika; Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    A delta-sigma, or sigma-delta, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) comprises both a modulator, which implements oversampling and noise shaping, and a decimator, which implements low-pass filtering and downsampling. Whereas these ADCs are ubiquitous in audio applications, their usage in video applications is emerging. Because of oversampling, it is preferable to integrate delta-sigma ADCs at the pixel level of megapixel video sensors. Moreover, with pixel-level applications, area usage per ADC is much more important than with chip-level applications, where there is only one or a few ADCs per chip. Recently, a small-area decimator was presented that is suitable for pixel-level applications. However, though the pixel-level design is small enough for invisible-band video sensors, it is too large for visible-band ones. As shown here, nanoscale CMOS processes offer a solution to this problem. Given constant specifications, small-area decimators are designed, simulated, and laid out, full custom, for 180, 130, and 65nm standard CMOS processes. Area usage of the whole decimator is analyzed to establish a roadmap for the design and demonstrate that it could be competitive compared to other digital pixel sensors, based on Nyquist-rate ADCs, that are being commercialized.

  11. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality. PMID:26580723

  12. Firearm availability and the incidence of suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1988-01-01

    The present studied explored the validity of several indirect measures of firearm ownership in the states of the USA: the percentage of homicides and suicides committed with firearms, the accidental death rate from firearms, the strictness of state handgun control laws, and subscription rates to firearm magazines. These measures were then correlated with rates of suicide and homicide, and it was found that states with a greater availability of firearms had higher firearm suicide rates and higher firearm homicide rates. PMID:3274888

  13. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  14. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest. PMID:26174557

  15. Homicidal Cut Throat: The Forensic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Samaraweera, Jeewana C

    2016-01-01

    The forensic pathologists have a challenging task during the ascertainment of the manner of death in cut throat injuries when presented with no proper history or witnesses. We report a rare homicide, where a person was killed by the father of his gay partner. A 51-year-old married man was found dead in his car on the driving seat at a road. There were blood stains on the dash board and windscreen. No weapon had been recovered. At autopsy, a deep, oblique, long incised injury was found on the front of the neck. There were no hesitant or defense injuries. The cause of death was cut throat. The findings were compatible with a homicidal cut throat by a right handed person from behind after head being restrained firmly. Findings were compatible with the history provided by the suspect. PMID:27134896

  16. [Simulation of homicide to hide child's suicide].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Driever, F; Madea, B

    2001-01-01

    A case of pretending a homicide to conceal a child suicide is reported in which characteristic findings of the postmortem examination and conclusions from the analysis of forensic autopsy series provided substantial support for the police investigation. In the late night hours of a spring day the police authorities were informed that a 10-year-old girl had been found dead on a playground near its parents' house. As injuries of the neck were recognized by the police officers a homicide investigation was initiated. The post mortem examination showed a furrow symmetrically slanting from the front to the nape of the neck, discrete punctate haemorrhages of the skin of the face and numerous 'tram-line' bruises of the back, buttocks and extremities. These findings indicated as cause and manner of death suicidal hanging following corporal punishment. Confronted with these conclusions the mother immediately made a corresponding confession. PMID:11591060

  17. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

  18. Suicide and homicide in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1995-10-01

    Suicide and homicide rates are lower in Costa Rica than in the United States. Firearms are used less often for suicide and for murder in Costa Rica than in the United States; hanging is more common as a method for suicide in Costa Rica and cutting/piercing more common as a method for murder. Suicide rates do not increase with age in Costa Rica, while the chances of being murdered do increase with age, unlike the United States. PMID:7500855

  19. Cultural processes and homicide across nations.

    PubMed

    Altheimer, Irshad

    2013-07-01

    This article is concerned with the macro-level propositions of Nisbett and Cohen's culture of honor thesis. The results suggest that the culture of honor proxy has a strong positive influence on homicide across nations. In fact, culture of honor exhibited larger effect sizes than all of the important social-structural controls. These results suggest that consideration of cultural processes is important for understanding macro-level variation in violence. PMID:22436734

  20. Alleged dowry death: a study of homicidal burns.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Mohanthy, Sachindananda

    2006-04-01

    Homicidal burning of married women in India is a major concern for the Government, law-enforcing authorities, the judiciary, the police and medico-legal experts all over the country who are associated with dowry disputes. Dowry death, a heinous crime, is gradually engulfing and polluting the entire society. Sections 304(B) and 498(A) of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) have been introduced and Sections 174 Criminal Procedure Code (Cr PC) and 176 Cr PC have been modified but, instead of deterring dowry deaths, the occurrences are increasing day by day and the number of cases coming for post-mortem examination is rising. Both parties, that is, the parents and in-laws of the deceased, are becoming adept at manufacturing circumstantial evidence to serve their own interests. Therefore, to establish the truth and for the smooth administration of justice, reliable unbiased medical evidence has to be corroborated. This study presents retrospective research carried out in the tertiary care teaching hospital of MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, Eastern India, for a five-year period between January 1998 to December 2002. From a total of 58 burned wives, 32 (55.1%) were homicidal burns. These cases were analyzed in view of epidemiological and medico-legal aspects. The majority of the affected women (90.63%) were in the 18 to 26 years of age group. Death occurred within the first few years of marriage and most of them had no children. All the victims belonged to the Hindu religion and 62.5% of incidents occurred during the daytime. In 71.87% cases the incident occurred in rural areas. Eighty-three per cent of cases occurred in a joint family within the house. In most cases, kerosene was the accelerant and flame was the causative agent. In more than 68.75% of cases the total body surface area involved was more than 80%. Most victims died at the time of the incident, or within the subsequent 24 hours, due to hypovolumeic shock. The education status in 70.21% cases was either illiterate

  1. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  2. The Prediction of Violence and Homicide in Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin; Homish, D. Lynn; Wei, Evelyn H.; Crawford, Anne M.; Farrington, David P.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Creemers, Judith; Koehler, Steven A.; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this prospective study, the authors predicted violence and homicide in 3 representative school samples (N = 1,517). Participants were part of a longitudinal, multiple cohort study on the development of delinquency in boys from late childhood to early adulthood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Thirty-three participants were convicted of homicide,…

  3. Alcohol use and interpersonal violence: alcohol detected in homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Mercy, J A; Loya, F; Rosenberg, M L; Smith, J C; Allen, N H; Vargas, L; Kolts, R

    1986-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between alcohol use and homicide victimization, we used data from the Los Angeles City Police Department and the Los Angeles Medical Examiner's Office to study 4,950 victims of criminal homicides in Los Angeles in the period 1970-79. Alcohol was detected in the blood of 1,883 (46 per cent) of the 4,092 victims who were tested. In 30 per cent of those tested, the blood alcohol level was greater than or equal to 100 mg/100 ml, the level of legal intoxication in most states. Blood alcohol was present most commonly in victims who were male, young, and Latino, categories where rates have been increasing at an alarming pace. Alcohol was also detected most commonly in victims killed during weekends, when homicides occurred in bars or restaurants, when homicides resulted from physical fights or verbal arguments, when victims were friends or acquaintances of offenders, and when homicides resulted from stabbings. The evidence for alcohol use by homicide victims focuses attention on the need for controlled epidemiologic studies of the role played by alcohol as a risk factor in homicide and on the importance of considering situational variables in developing approaches to homicide prevention. PMID:3946695

  4. Variations in Wounding by Relationship Intimacy in Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trojan, Carrie; Krull, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous examples in the homicide literature of a presumed connection between the victim-offender relationship and the manner, extent, and body location of wounds inflicted in homicides. The current study examined variations in wounding patterns according to the intimacy of the victim-offender relationship in a sample of urban homicides…

  5. International and interstate comparisons of homicide among young males.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, L A; Kleinman, J C

    1990-06-27

    The homicide rate for males 15 through 24 years of age in the United States was compared with the rates in 21 other developed countries. The US homicide rate, 21.9 per 100,000, was more than four times higher than the next highest rate in Scotland (5.0). Most countries had rates that were between 1 and 3 per 100,000. The lowest rates were in Japan and Austria, each with rates below 0.6 per 100,000 males 15 through 24 years of age. Three quarters of the homicides in the United States resulted from the use of firearms contrasted with less than a quarter of all homicides in the comparison countries. The US homicide rate for black males 15 through 24 years of age (85.6) was more than seven times the rate for white males (11.2). In 1987 there were only four states that had homicide rates among white males that were as low as the rates among males in the comparison countries. The lowest state rate among young black males was still seven times the highest rate abroad. There are about 4000 homicides per year among young males in the United States. If the US homicide rate could be reduced to that in the country with the next highest rate, more than 3000 lives would be saved. PMID:2348540

  6. Student Homicidal Violence in Schools: An International Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…

  7. A suicide disguised as a homicide: return to Thor Bridge.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, J A; Long, S; Barnard, J J

    1998-06-01

    Suicides staged as homicides are uncommon. We present a case of a self-inflicted gunshot wound of the chest disguised by the victim as a homicide, using a method described by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in his Sherlock Holmes story, "The Problem of Thor Bridge." PMID:9662119

  8. Exposure to Local Homicides and Early Educational Achievement in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudillo, Mónica L.; Torche, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of children's exposure to local violence on grade failure in Mexico. We construct an annual panel of all elementary schools from 1990 to 2010 and merge municipality-level homicide rates to analyze the effect of exposure to local homicide. Using a variety of causal inference techniques, we consistently find that…

  9. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and...

  10. Intimate Partner Homicide in Chicago over 29 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone

    1995-01-01

    Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)

  11. Homicide-Suicides between Adult Sexual Intimates: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easteal, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examined retrospective data on homicide-suicide in Australia to determine what differentiates homicides between adult sexual intimates that include suicide of offender from those that do not. Found that, if offender was male, estranged from partner, and used gun to kill more than one victim, or was older with ailing wife, he was more apt to also…

  12. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p < 0.0001), planned homicides, female perpetrators (p < 0.0001), shootings (p = 0.0456) and poisonings (p = 0.0289) were higher in the fictional sample. Lothian & Borders cases were almost all single killings, mostly unplanned, with a far greater rate of homicide by kitchen knives (p < 0.0001) and hitting/kicking (p = 0.0005) by intoxicated perpetrators. Control of access to pointed kitchen knives by members of certain groups may reduce homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. PMID:24661708

  13. Bringing "Booze" Back In: The Relationship between Alcohol and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert Nash

    1995-01-01

    Tested hypotheses concerning the relationship between alcohol and homicide from four major theoretical perspectives; specific predictions on the causes of types of homicide were also derived. Findings revealed that alcohol consumption rates change the way important predictors, such as poverty and deterrence, are related to specific types of…

  14. Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area

    SciTech Connect

    Cotroneo, V.; Conconi, P.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-11

    We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

  15. Extreme violence--homicide; an analysis of 265 cases from the offices of JMO Colombo and Ragama--a study from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, P A S; Kitulwatte, I D G

    2009-04-01

    Violence in a society can be categorized into many areas such as interpersonal violence, domestic violence, violence against children, violence of human rights, violence due to wars etc. The most extreme form of violence is killing of another human. To study whether the underlying reasons (motives) for killing has a relationship to the methods employed for killing. A retrospective descriptive study based on autopsy reports, magistrate orders and case notes attached was carried out on all the cases examined at the office of the JMO Colombo and Ragama from July 2005 to June 2006. The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Out of 265 autopsy examinations alleged to be homicides, 39% of deaths were related to terrorist acts while previous enmity was recorded in 35% of cases. The commonest method of homicide was firearms (31%) while explosives recorded the second highest (28%). Blunt force and sharp force trauma were the reasons for 23% and 14% of homicides respectively. Almost all the deaths related to war was caused by firearms and bombs (96%) where as 47% of previous enmity deaths were caused by firearms. Firearms were never used in homicides of sudden provocation or drunken brawls. The increased use of firearms was not only seen in terrorism related homicides, but also in homicides related to previous enmity. Further research is needed in this area as to why it occurs despite having a tight firearm policy in Sri Lanka. PMID:19398365

  16. A case of "atypical homicidal" cut-throat injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar S, Ajay; Kumar Ms, Vinay; Babu, Yp Raghavendra; Prasad, Mahadeshwara

    2016-09-01

    Cut-throats can be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In cases of death from a cut-throat, distinguishing the cause is one of the important functions in crime investigation. The features that differentiate suicidal and homicidal cut-throat injuries are the presence of hesitation cuts, depth of wound, signs of struggle, edges of the wound, etc. In the case of a suicidal cut-throat, it is not uncommon to find hesitation cuts but in a homicidal cut-throat, it is uncommon. We present a case of a homicidal cut-throat injury but with hesitation cuts and tailing over the neck, unlike the classical description of homicidal cut-throat injury. This resulted from a curved, sharp and moderately heavy weapon. PMID:27381317

  17. Region of birth, migration and homicide rates of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

    1997-08-01

    A study was made of all homicide deaths among black Americans during the period 1979-1991 in order to test two competing hypotheses about region of birth and region of death. One hypothesis was that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates in every region of the US. The competing hypothesis was that blacks who did not migrate out of their region of birth had the highest homicide rates. We found that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates among the population 35+ years old in the Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Yet non-migrants (region-born population) had higher rates than their Southern-born counterparts among the population 15-34 years old. Long distance migrants who were born in the Northeast, West or were foreign-born had the lowest homicide rates, by far. The distressing implications of these findings for public health efforts to prevent violent death are discussed. PMID:9426984

  18. Small Area Array-Based LED Luminaire Design

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Yuan

    2008-01-09

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency LED luminaire designs based on small area array-based gallium nitride diodes. Novel GaN-based LED array designs are described, specifically addressing the thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements for the incorporation of such arrays into viable solid-state LED luminaires. This work resulted in the demonstration of an integrated luminaire prototype of 1000 lumens cool white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 89.4 lm/W at CCT of 6000oK and CRI of 73; and performance of 903 lumens warm white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 63.0 lm/W at CCT of 2800oK and CRI of 82. In addition, up to 1275 lumens cool white light output at 114.2 lm/W and 1156 lumens warm white light output at 76.5 lm/W were achieved if the reflector was not used. The success to integrate small area array-based LED designs and address thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements was clearly achieved in these luminaire prototypes with outstanding performance and high efficiency.

  19. Homicidal tandem bullet wound of the chest.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A J; Busuttil, A; Clifton, B; Sibbald, P

    1997-03-01

    An unusual case of a homicidal gunshot wound to the chest is reported in which two bullets were fired in unison as tandem bullets from a handgun. At autopsy, two intact bullets were retrieved from the body of the victim, yet there was only one entrance wound and a single bullet track across the chest wall and thoracic organs. An examination of the weapon and ammunition supported the likelihood of tandem bullets and suggested the probable mechanism for this event. Very few similar cases have been documented. PMID:9095302

  20. A case of stalking in the workplace and subsequent sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kimberley A

    2007-05-01

    A case of stalking in the workplace and subsequent sexual homicide by a 33-year-old male is reported. Following several months of stalking a 38-year-old female, the male subject went to the woman's office after business hours and restrained, raped, and murdered her. The cause of death was multiple stab wounds. The facts of the case reveal that the subject fits a predatory-type stalker, which represents a small subgroup within stalkers that has received little attention. Unlike other types of stalkers, the predatory stalker gives little warning to their victim (or multiple victims), as their stalking behaviors tend not to be very invasive or harassing. In general, most stalkers are not physically violent; however, predatory-type stalkers, given their tendency for sexual violence, are dangerous and the importance of identifying them is emphasized. Factors associated with perpetrators of sexual homicide are discussed. PMID:17456104

  1. Home Invasion Homicide Offenders: An Analysis of Subsequent Prison Rule Violations.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jonathan; Bonner, Heidi; Visconte, Shelley; Vigen, Mark; Woods, S O

    2015-01-01

    This study adds to the small body of research on home invasion by describing the circumstances surrounding home invasions that resulted in the death of a resident. The 2 most common types of home invasion homicides (HIHs) involved "drug ripoffs" and robberies of older adults for money and property. The study also examined subsequent rule-violating behavior of 132 HIH inmates while incarcerated. The rate of rule violations among HIH inmates was similar to a broader cohort of incarcerated homicide offenders. A logistic regression model identified variation in assaultive prison behavior based on some routine predictors (age, education, race, and prior imprisonment) and 2 associated with the crime (method of killing and age by gender of victims). PMID:26439214

  2. Commentary: Homicide-suicide in older adults--cultural and contextual perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bell, Carl C; McBride, Dominica F

    2010-01-01

    The authors comment on "Domestic Homicide and Homicide-Suicide: The Older Offender" by Bourget et al., who learned that after a domestic homicide in Canada, the older offender frequently commits suicide. The authors comment on the ubiquity of single homicide-suicide across cultures, the incidence of single homicide-suicide in various cultures, the common patterns and differences in single homicide-suicides across cultures, ethnic and gender differences in single homicide-suicide within different cultures, characteristics of the phenomenon of mass murder followed by suicide and ethnic differences within this type of homicide-suicide, and differences in suicidal patterns in different cultures. Suicide and suicide preceded by homicide (single or multiple) are so rare, it is currently impossible to draw any substantive conclusions about the incidence of these phenomena in various contexts; however, ideas for consideration in addressing homicide-suicide are provided. PMID:20852215

  3. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    PubMed

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described. PMID:11700659

  4. A case of suicidal suffocation simulating homicide.

    PubMed

    d'Aloja, Ernesto; De Giorgio, Fabio; Ausania, Francesco; Cascini, Fidelia

    2011-05-01

    This case concerns an unusual suicidal plastic bag suffocation. An elderly white man was found dead and partially disrobed in his apartment lying supine on a sofa with a plastic bag closed by a rope over the head and the upper and lower extremities tightly tied with two other ropes, the end of both arranged into slipknots (self-rescue mechanism). Police investigations found no pornography in the apartment, and circumstantial data alleged no psychiatric disorders or suicidal intentions. The autopsy excluded signs of struggle and sexual intercourse as well as any type of injury or physical illness. Chemical analyses on the peripheral blood excluded acute drugs and/or alcohol intoxication. A differential diagnosis of the manner of death was performed, including scenarios of accidental autoerotic asphyxiation, homicide during either sexual activity or ritualistic, elderly suicide. The collected data most strongly supported the hypothesis of a suicidal asphyxiation simulating homicide to devolve a life insurance to the victim's sons because of economic difficulties. PMID:21361945

  5. [Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Melo, André Nascimento; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Franco, Saúl Alonso; Alazraqui, Marcio; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián

    2012-12-01

    This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides were registered in these countries. Deaths from external causes rose 54.5% in Argentina but fell in the other countries (37% in Mexico, 31.8% in Colombia, and 8.1% in Brazil). The ratio for deaths by homicide for both sexes was 9.1 in Colombia, 4.4 in Brazil and 1.6 in Mexico, using the Argentinian rates as a benchmark. There were differences in the evolution of homicide rates by age and sex in the countries: the rate rose in Brazil and fell in Colombia for all age groups. The need to prioritize young males in public policies related to health care and prevention is stressed, as well as the need for the region to adopt inclusive policies and broaden and consolidate democracy and the rights of inhabitants. PMID:23175395

  6. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of < 1 m satellite images have become available at no cost to the research community. In addition, Landsat data are now free of charge from the U.S. Geological Survey, enabling the use of multiple images. We used 174 Landsat and eight high-resolution satellite images to document the areal extent of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2007-2011. Multiple Landsat images, primarily Thematic Mapper (TM) data from 1984 to 2011, enabled us to minimize differentiation problems between snow and glacier ice, a potential source of error. In addition, we used Ikonos, Quickbird, and World View-1 & -2 very high-resolution imagery to evaluate our TM accuracies and determine the area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  7. A 28-year (1963-90) study of homicide in Marion County, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Batten, P J; Hicks, L J; Penn, D W

    1991-09-01

    We describe 240 consecutive homicidal deaths that occurred in Marion County, Oregon, over a 28-year period (1963-90). An epidemiological assessment of the homicides yielded the following information: More than 91% of these deaths were primary homicides. In primary homicide, 63% of the victims and 88% of the offenders were male. In secondary homicide, 76% of the victims and all of the offenders were male. A high percentage of victims (83%) and offenders (84%) in primary homicide were Caucasian, as were 100% of victims and offenders in secondary homicide. About 12% of victims and 10% of offenders in primary homicide were Hispanic. Fifty-nine percent of primary homicides were intrasexual, as compared to 87% of secondary homicides. An intraracial pattern was found in 90% of primary homicides and in 100% of secondary homicides. The most frequent means of death in both primary and secondary homicides were firearms, physical beating, and stabbing. Strangers committed 80% of secondary homicides. This was in marked contrast to the victim-offender relationship found in primary homicides, where strangers were responsible for approximately 16% of the total, acquaintances for approximately 36%, and family members for approximately 48%. The overall clearance rate (i.e., the identification and charging of a suspect for the death) was 88%. PMID:1750395

  8. The epidemiology of child homicides in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe age- and sex-specific rates of child homicide in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional mortuary-based study was conducted in a national sample of 38 medicolegal laboratories operating in 2009. These were sampled in inverse proportion to the number that were operational in each of three strata defined by autopsy volume: < 500, 500–1499 or > 1499 annual autopsies. Child homicide data were collected from mortuary files, autopsy reports and police interviews. Cause of death, evidence of abuse and neglect or of sexual assault, perpetrator characteristics and circumstances surrounding the death were investigated. Findings An estimated 1018 (95% confidence interval, CI: 843–1187) child homicides occurred in 2009, for a rate of 5.5 (95% CI: 4.6–6.4) homicides per 100 000 children younger than 18 years. The homicide rate was much higher in boys (6.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 5.6–8.3) than in girls (3.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 3.2–4.7). Child abuse and neglect had preceded nearly half (44.5%) of all homicides, but three times more often among girls than among boys. In children aged 15 to 17 years, the homicide rate among boys (21.7 per 100 000; 95% CI: 14.2–29.2) was nearly five times higher than the homicide rate among girls (4.6 per 100 000; 95% CI: 2.4–6.8). Conclusion South Africa’s child homicide rate is more than twice the global estimate. Since a background of child abuse and neglect is common, improvement of parenting skills should be part of primary prevention efforts. PMID:23940403

  9. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  10. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran's I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  11. "Surgically created" excision of the back mimicking homicide: report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Janík, M; Novomeský, F; Straka, L; Krajčovič, J; Hejna, P

    2015-01-01

    Fatalities due to sharp force trauma, with respect to manner of death, may be homicidal, self-inflicted, or accidental in nature. This article presents a case of an unusual sharp force injury inflicted under very specific and seemingly obscured circumstances, initially suggestive of homicidal origin. A 69-year-old, socially isolated male was found dead with a strange, heavily blood-stained excision-like lesion on the right subscapular area. The autopsy confirmed that the wound led to fatal external blood loss. Toxicological analysis of the blood and urine revealed severe alcohol intoxication. The police investigation turned up that the man had suffered from a painful skin furuncle of the right upper back. As he was worried about receiving medical treatment, he voluntarily asked his two acquaintances for "surgical" assistance to remove the skin affection. Based on the circumstances surrounding death and findings at autopsy, it was concluded that the injury was inflicted without the intent to harm or cause death, as a result of simple negligence. Consequently, the manner of death was ultimately certified as an involuntary manslaughter. Our case has clearly illustrated that even highly suspicious and atypically shaped wounds created by sharp-edged instruments with localization in non-accessible body areas does not exclusively indicate homicidal activity, hence, the accidental, suicidal or even iatrogenic origin of the wounding mechanism must be taken into consideration. PMID:26007161

  12. Church, place, and crime: Latinos and homicide in new destinations.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Edward S; Winters, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are moving beyond traditional areas and settling in new, potentially disorganized destinations. Without an established immigrant community, new destinations appear to rely more on the local religious ecology to regulate community life and to keep crime low. We examine the link between religious ecology and Latino homicide victimization for traditional and new destination counties. We observe four findings. (1) A Catholic presence has no effect on Latino violence in the old and well-organized traditional settlement areas. But in new Latino settlement areas, a Catholic presence substantially lowers violence against Latinos. In contrast, mainline Protestantism is linked to high levels of violence against Latinos in new destinations. (2) Previous claims that Latino communities are safe do not apply to new destinations, where Latinos are murdered at a high rate. (3) Previous claims that areas with high Latino immigration are safe for Latinos are not true for new destinations. (4) New Latino destinations offer little insulation from the effects of economic deprivation on violence. We discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:20879181

  13. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim. PMID:16617589

  14. Unsolved homicides in Sweden: A population-based study of 264 homicides.

    PubMed

    Sturup, Joakim; Karlberg, Daniel; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    The clearance rates for homicides have decreased internationally. This retrospective population-based study of all Swedish homicide incidents between 2007 and 2009 (n=264) aims to investigate factors associated with solvability in homicides. Victims were identified in an autopsy registry and offenders in a criminal-conviction registry. Autopsy reports, police files, court verdicts and criminal records were systematically collected and linked. The clearance rate was 86.4% (n=228), and almost three quarters of cases (71.9%) were solved within the first week. Nine factors were significantly associated with the case status; however, only four factors remained significant in the multivariate logistic-regression model. Cases were more likely to be solved if there was an eyewitness and if the victim was intoxicated with alcohol. Moreover, cases were less likely to be solved if the victim had a criminal record in the past five years and was killed by a firearm. In the final model, a Cox proportional-hazards model, where time to arrest was taken into account, only alcohol intoxication were positively and firearms negatively significantly associated with clearance status. The study concludes that cases involving these factors should be granted extra, intensive and lasting resources. PMID:26295928

  15. Arm pain in the workplace. A small area analysis.

    PubMed

    Hadler, N M

    1992-02-01

    In the mid-1980s, use-related arm pain was recognized as a major issue for worker health and workplace safety. National policy targeted these "cumulative trauma disorders," "overuse syndromes," and "motion illnesses" for a "special emphasis program" by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a federal regulatory agency. The program begins with case recognition to identify the responsible ergonomic hazards with the goal of mandating ergonomic remedies. This report is a small area analysis of the impact of this process on the US West Communications, Inc work force. US West employs some 55,000 workers in 14 states. Commencing in the mid-1980s, workers in four of these states complained of upper extremity pain and were diagnosed as suffering from conditions encompassed by the "cumulative trauma disorders" rubric. The incidence was tenfold higher in one task category, directory assistance operators. No ergonomic descriptor can account for the four endemics of arm pain in directory assistance operators. The response of the medical communities to the plight of these injured claimants varied considerably from community to community. Denver represents one extreme where the clinical judgments led to multiple surgical interventions, generated a total direct cost of some $1.5 million, and left many permanently disabled workers in their wake. This analysis raises many reservations about the validity of the "cumulative trauma disorder" hypothesis and provides an object lesson in the potential for untoward outcomes from the premature introduction of clinical hypotheses into the arena of health policy. PMID:1597765

  16. Guns and blood alcohol levels among homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L

    1986-11-01

    A retrospective study of homicide victims in Erie County, NY was conducted for 1973-1984 to determine the association of blood alcohol levels among homicide victims slain by guns and other weapons. Most victims of gunshot or beating had negative blood alcohol levels (BALs) at time of death whereas most stabbing victims had positive BALs, especially black victims. Gunshot victims were more likely to be killed in a private home compared to a street or building. Location of homicide did not relate significantly to BAL. Younger victims were less likely to be shot to death compared to middle-aged victims. These results do not support previous contentions that alcohol is a major contributor to gun-related homicides. PMID:3803196

  17. Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2006-12-01

    Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17192143

  18. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males. PMID:22436732

  19. A test of two typologies of sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Lindsay A; Krupp, Daniel Brian; Lalumière, Martin L

    2013-02-01

    Published typologies of sexual homicide lack theoretical grounding and empirical support. They also conceptualize the phenomenon of sexual homicide as somewhat discrete, though offenders are not typically specialists. Here, we propose a model that situates the phenomenon of sexual killing into broader categories of antisocial behavior, positing three types of perpetrators of serial sexual homicides: competitively disadvantaged, psychopathic, and sadistic offenders. Using biographical data of 82 serial sexual homicide offenders, we tested our model as well as the influential organized/disorganized model. Principal components analysis produced five components consisting of offender and offense characteristics, and cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups of perpetrators (sadistic offenders, competitively disadvantaged offenders, and slashers), as well as a fourth, heterogeneous group; this cluster solution, however, may be unstable. In summary, there is only mixed support for either model. PMID:22798204

  20. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed. PMID:12877304

  1. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem. PMID:9539400

  2. Student homicidal violence in schools: an international problem.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have been become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful research on risk and protective factors that can inform evidence-based preventive models is summarized. PMID:21491570

  3. Elder homicide by unique combination of different mechanisms of asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Elder homicide is a fatal outcome of elder abuse and neglect. Multifactorial homicidal asphyxia in an elderly man by combination of three different mechanisms is an uncommon incident. This following case demonstrates a very unusual murder of 74-year-old man in his own residence. Crime scene visit and postmortem examination revealed that the victim was killed by combined effect of ligature strangulation, traumatic asphyxia and smothering by plastic bag. PMID:25664272

  4. Psychopathology among homicidally bereaved individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Kleen, Marco; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research. PMID:24346707

  5. Homicide victims in the military: 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, J C

    1995-02-01

    Data abstracted from the Report of Casualty (DD 1300) is used to describe active duty homicide victims for the period 1980 through 1992. The Marine Corps experienced the fewest homicides (186) but the highest rate (7.36 per 100,000) compared to the other services: Army (619/6.36), Navy (381/5.24), and Air Force (194/2.65). Those younger than 25 accounted for 57% of the homicides and had a higher rate than the older age groups. Blacks had a rate 2.1 times higher than whites, and the overall female-to-male rate ratio was 1.2. Firearms were used against 63% of male and 35% of female homicide victims. Twenty-eight percent of female victims were beaten or strangled and females were over 10 times more likely than males to be strangled. The risk for homicide among active duty males was less than for males in the general population. Conversely, active duty females were at an increased risk for homicide in comparison to both males in the military and females in the general population. PMID:7783917

  6. Homicide trends and characteristics--Brazil, 1980-2002.

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Brazil is the largest and most populous country in South America (2002 population: approximately 175 million) (Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute [BGSI], unpublished data, 2004). Although life expectancy in Brazil has increased and rates of infant mortality have decreased as a result of reductions in infectious disease mortality, homicide and other forms of injury-related mortality have increased as a proportion of overall mortality. Homicide is now the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-44 years. To describe trends and characteristics of homicides countrywide and in Sĕo Paulo city (2000 population: approximately 10.4 million) (BGSI, unpublished data, 2004), the State Health Department of Sĕo Paulo (SHDSP) analyzed vital statistics and census data for 1980-2002. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the homicide rate in Brazil more than doubled during this period. Since 2001, Brazilian authorities have implemented several initiatives to reduce the number of homicides, including a law that controls gun ownership and prohibits anyone other than police and members of the armed forces from carrying guns. However, homicides among adolescents and young adults remain a substantial public health problem in Brazil, and additional prevention strategies that target young persons are needed. PMID:15001876

  7. Homicide-suicide in Konya, Turkey between 2000 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Buken, Bora

    2010-01-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the murderer is a relatively rare lethal incident in which an individual kills another person and subsequently dies by suicide. Cases involving a homicide and a suicide in which death examinations and autopsies were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council between 2000 and 2007 were retrospectively investigated. During the studied time period, there were 10 homicide-suicide cases identified with 10 perpetrators killing 12 victims. Nine of the perpetrators were men and eight of the victims were women. The precipitating motive was an impending divorce in four of the cases. Two perpetrators were described as severely depressed, one had a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and one was a pedophile who had reactive depression. Firearms were used in eight of the homicide cases and seven of the suicides. Constricting the use of firearms may reduce/prevent future homicide-suicide cases, as it is the most commonly used method to carry out homicide-suicides. PMID:20002265

  8. [Time trends in death rates from homicides in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C; Moraes, J C

    1999-01-01

    To study homicide trends by gender and age, 1979-1994, São Paulo, Brazil, cubic polynomials were used to determine the best model for adjusting to time trends in homicide mortality rates by age and gender in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994. The model best adjusted to each group was selected considering the regression coefficient (Beta) , R2 value, residual analysis, and model's simplicity. The results show linear growth for total rates and rates by gender due to behavior of rates in the 20-29 and 30-39 year age groups. The reciprocal model adjusted best to rates for the 40-49 and 50-59 year age groups, while rates for adolescents followed the multiplicative model. There was no significant relationship between homicide rates and time for the remaining groups (under 10 and over 59 years). Rates for males were considerably higher in all age groups. The remarkably steady growth in homicide rates among adolescents and young adults is consistent with trends observed in other urban areas in developing and developed countries and denotes deteriorating living conditions and increased poverty. PMID:10633193

  9. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  10. Income inequality and homicide rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Szwarcwald, C L; Bastos, F I; Viacava, F; de Andrade, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of income inequality on homicide rates in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study at 2 geographical levels, municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro and administrative regions in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The association between homicide and income inequality was tested by multiple regression procedures, with adjustment for other socioeconomic indicators. RESULTS: For the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, no association between homicide and income concentration was found an outcome that can be explained by the municipalities' different degrees of urbanization. However, for the administrative regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the 2 income inequality indicators were strongly correlated with the outcome variable (P < .01). Higher homicide rates were found precisely in the sector of the city that has the greatest concentration of slum residents and the highest degree of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social policies specifically aimed at low-income urban youth, particularly programs to reduce the harmful effects of relative deprivation, may have an important impact on the homicide rate. PMID:10358673

  11. SOCIOECONOMIC CHANGE AND HOMICIDE IN A TRANSITIONAL SOCIETY

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2008-01-01

    Durkheim argued that rapid social change would produce anomic conditions which, in turn, would lead to increases in criminal and deviant behavior. Russia provides a unique opportunity to test this theory given the large-scale fundamental socioeconomic changes occurring in the nation. Russian homicide rates more than doubled in the years following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and are now among the highest in the world. The pace and effects of the socioeconomic transition vary widely throughout Russia, however, as do rates of and changes in violent crime. In this study, we took advantage of the unique natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine the association between socioeconomic change and homicide. We measured the negative effects of socioeconomic change by creating an index of changes in population size, unemployment, privatization, and foreign investment. Using data from Russian regions (n = 78) and controlling for other structural covariates, regression results indicated that regions that more strongly experienced the negative effects of socioeconomic change were regions where homicide rates increased the most between 1991 and 2000. Further analysis of the individual components of this index revealed that regions with greater increases in (1) unemployment experienced greater increases in homicide rates and (2) privatization experienced smaller increases in homicide rates. PMID:19043617

  12. Child homicide in Oklahoma: a continuing public health problem.

    PubMed

    Cannon, T C; Jordan, F B; Vogel, J S; Brumback, R A; Brandt, E N

    1998-11-01

    Homicide is a leading manner of injury to cause death in children. To assess this phenomenon in Oklahoma, the demographic characteristics and causes of death of the victims of child homicide in Oklahoma have been reviewed. One hundred eleven consecutive cases of homicide in children less than age 13 years were reviewed and the demographic characteristics of the victims were analyzed. The majority of homicides occurred in Tulsa and Oklahoma Counties (55.8%). The ratio of male to female victims was approximately equal. The races of the victims were 66.6 percent White, 24.3 percent Black, 8.1 percent Native American and 0.9 percent Asian. The most common cause of death was head injury (45.9%). An unexpected finding was that in 23.4 percent of cases, an additional fatality occurred in the family due to family violence. This fatality involved either suicide of the perpetrator or homicide of a sibling. These findings indicate a continuing family violence problem in Oklahoma. PMID:9828528

  13. Characteristics of sexual homicides committed by psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen; Woodworth, Michael; Earle, Jeff; Drugge, Jeff; Boer, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy and the prepetration of sexual homicide was investigated. The official file descriptions of sexual homicides committed by 18 psychopathic and 20 nonpsychopathic Canadian offenders were coded (by coders unaware of Psychopathy Checklist--Revised [PCL--R] scores) for characteristics of the victim, victim/perpetrator relationship, and evidence of gratuitous and sadistic violent behavior. Results indicated that most (84.7%) of the sexual murderers scored in the moderate to high range on the PCL--R. The majority of victims (66.67%) were female strangers, with no apparent influence of psychopathy on victim choice. Homicides committed by psychopathic offenders (using a PCL--R cut-off of 30) contained a significantly higher level of both gratuitous and sadistic violence than nonpsychopathic offenders. Most (82.4%) of the psychopaths exhibited some degree of sadistic behavior in their homicides compared to 52.6% of the nonpsychopaths. Implications for homicide investigations are discussed. PMID:14593792

  14. Associations with violent and homicidal behaviour among men with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Böke, Ömer; Korkmaz, Işil Zabun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the risk factors associated with homicidal behaviour in male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods In a period of 1 year, male schizophrenia cases between 18-65 years of age (n = 210) were included. The clinical evaluation included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The patients were divided into three groups in terms of violent behaviour history: (1) homicide group (n = 30), (2) a violent act resulting in serious injury (n = 71), (3) control group (patients without a history of a violent act) (n = 109). Results Lower level of education, rural residence, being unemployed and living alone were found to be significantly more common in patients who had committed a violent act compared to the schizophrenia patients in the control group. In order to explore the predictive value of several factors associated with violent behaviour, a logistic regression model was used, and variables (shorter duration of education, living alone, and lack of insight) significantly predicted the presence of violent behaviour (murder and/or injury) (χ(2)=31.78, df = 12, p = 0.001). Conclusions In order to be able to determine causality of homicidal acts in schizophrenia patients, our significant findings between homicidal violence, non-homicidal violence and the control group would merit further attention and exploration in further studies. PMID:26634311

  15. Gaps in Crisis Mental Health: Suicide and Homicide-Suicide.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Ann W; Welner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Gaps in crises of mental health emerge from poor distinction between the qualities of people who suicide and those who murder and then kill themselves. The role, if any, that substance use has in such lethal violence is an example of such a lack of distinction. In this study, a sample of medical examiner investigative and toxicology reports from Los Angeles and Orange counties in California were available for analysis for 432 suicide cases and 193 homicide-suicide cases. This informed clearer toxicological and pharmacological distinction of suicide from homicide-suicide. Blood alcohol levels were higher in persons committing suicide than in homicide-suicide perpetrators (p=.004). Homicide-suicide perpetrators had almost twice the level of stimulants in their system than people who suicide (p=.022) but did not have comparatively elevated levels of drugs or alcohol. Predictors of suicide included the following: substance abuse history, high number of drugs in system, death inside a house, and legal impairment by alcohol. Predictors of homicide-suicide included gunshot as the cause of death, female gender, domestic conflict, children living in the home, and prior arrest for substance abuse. PMID:26397439

  16. Non-Homicidal and Homicidal Sexual Offenders: Prevalence of Maladaptive Personality Traits and Paraphilic Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling. PMID:25818862

  17. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  18. Intimate Homicide between Asians and Non-Asians: The Impact of Community Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bohsiu

    2009-01-01

    This study tests two competing hypotheses regarding the social structural dynamics of intimate homicide: backlash versus collective efficacy. This study also examines the role of race in how social factors specified in each hypothesis affect intimate homicide. Data are from the California Vital Statistics and Homicide Data, 1990-1999. Results from…

  19. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  20. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  1. Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

  2. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  3. Adolescent Homicide and Family Pathology: Implications for Research and Treatment with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Tony D.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    1996-01-01

    The number of felony-murder convictions of adolescents on death row in the United States is arguably a warning beacon about the serious nature of juvenile homicide. Reviews the research on adolescent homicide and highlights significant family variables. The contribution of a family studies perspective for understanding adolescent homicide is…

  4. Homicides of People with Developmental Disabilities: An Analysis of News Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard; Sobsey, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increased interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD). While national and international information has been available on homicides of people in general, little attention has been given to homicides of PWDD specifically. This paper provides a preliminary description of homicides as…

  5. The Epidemiology of Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Systematic and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Smith, Glen; Nielssen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review of population based studies of homicide followed by suicide was conducted to examine the associations between rates of homicide-suicide, rates of other homicides and rates of suicide. The review analysed 64 samples, including the case of an outlier (Greenland) that were reported in 49 studies. There was a significant…

  6. The Homicide-Suicide Phenomenon: Findings of Psychological Autopsies.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L; Hatters-Friedman, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Homicide-suicide represents a single episode of violence which may decimate an entire family. This study aimed to further describe motives and context of these tragedies. Psychological autopsies were completed for 18 homicide-suicide cases in Dallas, Texas. This included postevent interviews with surviving family members and review of police and coroner records. Two-thirds of perpetrators had made either verbal or written threats prior to the homicide-suicide. A simplified typology describing victim-perpetrator relationship and motive type is suggested for future studies and clinical ease. Two-thirds of perpetrators fell into the category of Intimate-Possessive, most of whom were depressed men who were abusing substances and undergoing separation. Additional categories included Intimate-Ailing, Filial-Revenge, Familial-Psychotic, and Friend-Psychotic. Further, implications from this psychological autopsy study regarding risk assessment include use of collateral interviews regarding threats and past violence. PMID:26259152

  7. Patterns of homicide--Cali, Colombia, 1993-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    In Colombia, as in the United States, homicide occurs disproportionately among urban residents (1,2). Homicide rates in the city of Cali, Colombia (1994 population: 1,776,436), increased fivefold from 1985 through 1992, reaching levels of 100 per 100,000 persons. Because of this increase, in 1992 the city of Cali established the Development, Security, and Peace Program (DESEPAZ) to implement a series of strategies to prevent violence and improve security among the residents of Cali. An important element of this program was the establishment of a surveillance system to enable characterization of patterns and determinants of homicide to provide information to decision makers for formulating policies and programs. This report summarizes findings from this system for January 1993-May 1994. PMID:7565552

  8. Using a Facebook profile in determining the motive of homicide.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana; Soc, Miodrag

    2013-08-01

    Ritual homicides may be affective (emotional), but usually they are premediated, instrumental, or predatory. In the case under review, the Facebook profile of the assailant helped to determine the motive of the homicide, which seemed to be ritualistic in nature. Therein, a 56-year-old male sustained 48 stab wounds and other knife injuries. On the wall in a room above the body, a pentagram was drawn with the victim's blood, followed by a few words which can be associated with a "Satanic" ritual. Searching through the Facebook profile of the culprit, Satanism as a leading motive of the homicide was eventually excluded. The most interesting point of this case was the evaluation of a sentence used as a Facebook status, which greatly contributed to confirm the paedophilic nature of the murder. PMID:23910835

  9. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  10. [Double homicide by shooting with removal of the victims].

    PubMed

    Wirth, Ingo; Correns, Andreas; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Despite strict assault weapons laws shooting deaths are not uncommon in the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially in multiple one-stage homicides shooting is a frequently established cause of death. The described double homicide from the autopsy material of the Berlin Institute of Legal Medicine shows the difficulties in the forensic assessment of gunshot wounds. It is noteworthy under criminalistic aspects how methodically the offender proceeded in the removal of the victims and how extensive the search for the bodies was, which were only found after calling in water search dogs. PMID:18522379

  11. Homicide-suicides in Fiji: offense patterns, situational factors, and sociocultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2003-01-01

    Although there is growing literature on lethal violence in developing nations, homicide-suicides have rarely been studied. Addressing this issue, this paper analyzes all homicide-suicides that occurred in Fiji between 1982 and 1992. The study's results are consistent with prior research in Western developed nations, demonstrating that homicide-suicides constitute a minuscule proportion of all homicides, occur primarily between intimate relations, are precipitated by intrafamilial discord, and occur in the domestic setting. Contrary to prior research, however, perpetrators of homicide-suicide were equally divided between men and women and no firearms were utilized. PMID:12710541

  12. Sex, race/ethnicity, and context in school-associated student homicides.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joanne M; Hall, Jeffrey E; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages and medians of victim, offender, motive, and school characteristics for incidents by geographic context and race/ethnicity of the offenders. Most incidents involved urban areas (53.6%), Black and Latino offenders and victims, moderately high youth poverty, and male on male violence (77.6%) driven by disputes and gang-related motives. Suburban area incidents (31.2%) often involved offenders and victims of a different race/ethnicity (51.3%). Multiple victims and White offenders were more common in rural areas (15.2%). More than 50% of the rural incidents involved male offenders and female victims. White offender incidents more often included multiple victims and female victims while Black and Latino offenders more often included single victims of the same sex. These results emphasize the utility of an incident-based analysis of school-associated student homicides in highlighting important variations by intersections of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context. PMID:22279128

  13. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. PMID:21316880

  14. The distribution of quasars from a small area survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.; Zhu, X.

    1983-04-01

    The quasars in two areas of 25 square degrees from a survey by Savage and Bolton (1979) are subjected to statistical analysis in search for clustering in their spatial distribution. The nearest neighbor test and correlation function test are applied to the three-dimensional distribution of quasars. These techniques indicate that the clustering of quasars seems to be in existence with the scale of about 100 Mpc (for H0 = 50) for one of the fields (02 h, -50 deg), but not for another (22 h, -18 deg). The distributions of quasars on the celestial sphere are also investigated by two-dimension Fourier power spectrum analysis. It is found that there is no evidence for clustering of quasars with different redshifts.

  15. Small area silicon diffused junction x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Pehl, R.H.; Larsh, A.E.

    1981-10-01

    The low temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy x-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 cm/sup 2/ and a thickness of 100 ..mu..m. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values indicating that the defects introduced by the high temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low energy x-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 to 150/sup 0/K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low energy x-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon diffused junction technology to x-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon x-ray detector designs.

  16. Small proteins: untapped area of potential biological importance

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mingming; Ling, Yunchao; Yu, Jun; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2013-01-01

    Polypeptides containing ≤100 amino acid residues (AAs) are generally considered to be small proteins (SPs). Many studies have shown that some SPs are involved in important biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and growth. SP generally has a simple domain and has an advantage to be used as model system to overcome folding speed limits in protein folding simulation and drug design. But SPs were once thought to be trivial molecules in biological processes compared to large proteins. Because of the constraints of experimental methods and bioinformatics analysis, many genome projects have used a length threshold of 100 amino acid residues to minimize erroneous predictions and SPs are relatively under-represented in earlier studies. The general protein discovery methods have potential problems to predict and validate SPs, and very few effective tools and algorithms were developed specially for SPs identification. In this review, we mainly consider the diverse strategies applied to SPs prediction and discuss the challenge for differentiate SP coding genes from artifacts. We also summarize current large-scale discovery of SPs in species at the genome level. In addition, we present an overview of SPs with regard to biological significance, structural application, and evolution characterization in an effort to gain insight into the significance of SPs. PMID:24379829

  17. Domestic Homicide: Neuropsychological Profiles of Murderers Who Kill Family Members and Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Robert E; Brook, Michael; Demery, Jason A; Cunningham, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Domestic homicide is the most extreme form of domestic violence and one of the most common types of homicide. The objective was to examine differences between spontaneous domestic homicide and nondomestic homicide offenders regarding demographics, psychiatric history, crime characteristics, and neuropsychological status, utilizing neuropsychological test data from forensic examinations of 153 murderers. Using standard crime classification criteria, 33% committed spontaneous domestic homicides (SDH) and 61% committed nondomestic homicides (NDH). SDH offenders were more likely to manifest psychotic disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder or to have prior felony convictions. SDH offenders manifested significantly worse neuropsychological impairments than NDH offenders. The mean number of victims was lower for the SDH than the NDH group and only 14% of SDH offenders used a firearm, whereas 59% of NDH offenders used a firearm. These findings corroborate the notion that spontaneous domestic homicide may represent a discernible criminological phenotype. PMID:26292990

  18. Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Ossenbruggen, P J; Pendharkar, J; Ivan, J

    2001-07-01

    Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities of crashes and injury crashes; and (2) to use these models to perform a risk assessment of the study region. The models are functions of factors that describe a site by its land use activity, roadside design, use of traffic control devices and traffic exposure. Comparative risk assessment results show village sites to be less hazardous than residential and shopping sites. Residential and shopping sites, which are distinctly different from village sites, reside in single-purpose, land-use zones consisting mostly of single-family dwelling units and roadside shopping units with ample off-street parking. Village sites reside in multi-purpose, land-use zones permitting a combination of activities found in residential, shopping and commercial areas. They are pedestrian friendly, that is, have sidewalks and crosswalks, permit onstreet parking, have speed limits and other amenities that promote walking. Adjusted odds ratios and other comparative risk measures are used to explain why one site is more hazardous than another one. For example, the probability of a crash is two times more likely at a site without a sidewalk than at a site with one. The implications on roadway design to improve safety are discussed. PMID:11426679

  19. An epidemiologic study of homicides in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Costantino, J P; Kuller, L H; Perper, J A; Cypess, R H

    1977-10-01

    Extensive demographic data concerning homicide victims and perpetrators in Allegheny County, 1966-1974, were obtained retrospectively from the records of the County Coroner's Office and Police Department. Analysis revealed that the demographic characteristics describing perpetrators and victims were essentially identical. Rates of homicide peaked in the young adult years of life. The race ratio (B/W) among victims was 18.7 for males and 6.7 for females, while sex ratio (M/F) was 5.4 for blacks and 1.9 for whites. An inverse relationship between the rate of homicide and socioeconomic status was present among both black and white races. The majority of victims were killed by a spouse, relative, or friend (66%), usually in familiar locations, i.e., residence or place of work (60%), and usually during an alteration (68%). Shooting was the method used to perpetrate 61% of the killings, most of which were by means of a handgun. An increasing trend of homicide was noted, particularly for the type perpetrated by shooting. PMID:910799

  20. Suicide, Homicide, and Alcoholism Among American Indians: Guidelines for Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Calvin J., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to help alleviate some of the health problems among American Indians and Eskimos, this booklet covers suicide, homicide, and alcoholism. It can be used to provide: (1) "how-to" guidelines which describe ways for recognizing, handling, and preventing possible suicides among American Indians; and (2) survey data and literature for use as a…

  1. A developing world perspective on homicide and personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Audu, Moses; Tesfaye, Markos; Gurmu, Samson

    2014-07-01

    High rates of psychotic disorder among special populations of homicide offenders, females, youth and the mentally disordered, have received much investigation. Personality disorder, especially antisocial personality disorder, augments the relative risk ratio of violence, especially in combination with substance use disorder. Few studies of these correlates of violence and especially homicide have been reported in low- and medium-income countries (LMIC). Using the structured clinical interview for DSM diagnosis (SCID), personality disorders were identified in a cross sectional study involving 546 homicide offenders in Jimma prison, Ethiopia. Predictors of personality disorder were determined using multivariate analysis of various demographic and clinical variables, for example, age, psychiatric history and substance use. Out of the 316 offenders who completed the SCID, only 16% fulfilled DSM IV criteria for personality disorder. The rationale for killing, self-defence, anger and revenge (52% of offenders), planning involved in offending (50%) and reasonably high level of relationship functioning (57% married) were different from most data from the high-income countries. Diagnostically relevant cultural factors in LMIC, not in play in high-income countries, may explain the differences in personality disorders similar to other mental disorders and the underlying mediators of homicide. PMID:24166685

  2. Homicide Crisis Intervention in a Multicultural School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This paper summarizes information concerning homicide crisis intervention in a multicultural school that would be useful for school psychologists. School psychologists are encouraged to be introspective about their own beliefs about death, grief, and multiculturalism. This paper discusses the eight factors to consider when providing services to…

  3. Israeli mothers' meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide.

    PubMed

    Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Leichtentritt, Ronit D

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to our knowledge to provide an in-depth account of the meanings reconstructed by bereaved Israeli mothers of homicide victims. Homicide survivors tend to receive little or no support from society; this is especially true in Israel, where homicide victims are a neglected population whose voice is socially muted. Constructivist theories have informed understanding of grief, emphasizing the role of meaning reconstruction in adaptation to bereavement, as well as the role of social support in the process of meaning reconstruction. We derived 3 prototypes of meaning from interviews of 12 bereaved mothers: the existential paradox; a bifurcated worldview; and oppression, mortification, and humiliation. Most informants used all 3 prototypes in the process of reconstructing meaning, describing changes in the perception of themselves, the world, and society. However, change was also accompanied by continuity, because participants did not abandon their former worldview while adopting a new one. The findings suggest that meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide is a unique, multifaceted, and contradictory process. Implications for practice are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348985

  4. Reducing homicide risk in Indianapolis between 1997 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Nicholas; McGarrell, Edmund F

    2010-09-01

    Rates of homicide risk are not evenly distributed across the US population. Prior research indicates that young males in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to lethal violence. The traditional criminal justice response to violent crime in the urban context has the potential to exacerbate problems, particularly when broad-based arrest sweeps and general deterrence initiatives are the standard models used by law enforcement. Recent studies suggest that alternative intervention approaches that use both specific deterrence combined with improving pro-social opportunities has shown promise in reducing violent crime in these high-risk contexts. This paper examines the changes in homicide patterns for the highest-risk populations in Indianapolis after a "pulling levers" intervention was implemented in the late 1990s to address youth, gang, and gun violence. Multilevel growth curve regression models controlling for a linear trend over time, important structural correlates of homicide across urban neighborhoods, and between-neighborhood variance estimates showed that homicide rates involving the highest-risk populations (i.e., actors 15 to 24 years old) were most likely to experience a statistically significant and substantive reduction after the intervention was implemented (IRR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.78). Among male actors in this age range, Black male homicide rates (IRR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25 - 0.70) and White male rates (IRR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15 - 0.79) declined substantially more than homicide rates involving actors outside the 15 to 24 years age range (IRR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.54 - 1.69). In addition, neighborhoods where specific, community-level strategies were implemented had statistically significant and substantive high-risk homicide rate declines. We conclude that further extension of the pulling levers framework appears warranted in light of the recent findings. Alternative justice

  5. Female sexual homicide offenders: an analysis of the offender racial profiles in offending process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-12-10

    Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered. PMID:24314528

  6. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. PMID:26733705

  7. Adolescent homicide victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa: incidence and epidemiological characteristics (2001-2009).

    PubMed

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of adolescent homicides (15-19 years) in Johannesburg, South Africa. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on cases drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. A total of 590 adolescent homicides were registered for 2001-2009 corresponding to an average annual homicide rate of 23.4/100,000. The average annual rate was 39.8/100,000 for males and 7.9/100,000 for females. Black and coloured adolescents had the highest homicide rates. There was a considerable decline in the firearm homicide rates over the study period. In contrast, sharp instrument and blunt force homicides increased. Public places were the predominant scenes for male deaths, while female homicides occurred primarily in residential locations. Most male homicides took place over weekend nights. Alcohol was a prominent feature of homicides. The high homicide rates reported in this study underscore the need to develop interventions directed specifically at adolescents. Prevention efforts are required to pay particular attention to black and coloured adolescent males, and to address the availability of weapons and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:26076731

  8. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  9. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1996 (with cumulative summary for 1994--1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-07-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites at Area G, Technical Area (TA) 54 and a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area in 1996 to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 3}H. Higher levels of total U, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Due to low sample sizes in total number of animals captured, statistical analysis to compare site to site could not be conducted. However, mean concentrations of total U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 137}Cs in rodent carcasses were higher at Site 1 than site 2 or the Control Site and {sup 241}Am was higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or the Control Site.

  10. ISSUES IN THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SMALL-AREA HEALTH DATA. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of geographically indexed health and population data, with advances in computing, geographical information systems and statistical methodology, have opened the way for serious exploration of small area health statistics based on routine data. Such analyses may be...

  11. Homicide and suicide among the Cherokee and Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J A; Kupferer, H J

    1982-01-01

    The Cherokee and Lumbee, the two major Indian populations in North Carolina, have exhibited similarities in patterns of homicide and suicide. Both Indian populations have higher rates of homicidal than of suicidal death. Yet in 1972-73, the Lumbee homicide rates was considerably higher than that for the Cherokee, but the Cherokee's suicide rate exceeded that for the Lumbee. During 1974-1976, the Cherokee manifested excessively high rates of violent death, with suicide increasing faster than homicide. The Lumbee homicide rate declined during this period, while the suicide rate increased. Lumbee violence patterns indicate a slight dissipation of cultural traits that predispose them to aggressive behaviour and the concomitant emergence of a trend toward self-destructive behaviour. The rise in Cherokee suicide rate may be consistent with the harmony Ethic of some tribe members, but the sharp increase in homicide may reflect the erosion of the traditional non-violent ethic among the band as a whole. PMID:6980862

  12. Gun control law (Bill C-17), suicide, and homicide in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen

    2004-06-01

    Canadian Bill C-17 was implemented in 1991 to restrict the use of firearms, providing a chance to investigate the effect of firearm control laws in the use of firearms for suicide and homicide. Following Lester and Leenaars' comprehensive studies, the present study examined the use of firearms for suicide and homicide during the period prior to the bill and during the period after the passing of Bill C-17 to assess the association of the bill with rates of suicide and homicide by method. Analysis showed a significant decrease after passage of Bill C-17 in the rates of suicides and homicides involving firearms and the percentage of suicides using firearms. The analysis provides support for the position that restricting the availability of firearms as a lethal means of committing suicide and homicide may help reduce the numbers of suicides and homicides. PMID:15217033

  13. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides." PMID:26661386

  14. Homicidal deaths in the Western suburbs of Paris: a 15-year-study.

    PubMed

    Cros, Jérôme; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Sbidian, Emilie; Charlier, Philippe; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the homicide pattern in the Western suburbs of Paris and its evolution between 1994 and 2008. All autopsy reports regarding homicides from the period January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Five hundred eleven homicide cases were selected of 4842 autopsy cases. The following data were recorded: assailants and victims characteristics, crime scene location, homicide motive, cause of death, and victim's postmortem toxicological results. Homicide rate steadily declined over the period at the exception of the number of homicide-suicide per year, which remained constant. Homicide victims remained unidentified after medicolegal investigations in 2% of the cases. Child and elder homicide cases represented, respectively, 10.7% and 8.2% of the cases. Offenders were male in 88% of the cases. Male and female assailants showed distinct homicide patterns: females were involved more frequently in familial quarrel and child abuse. They never killed a stranger and committed homicide exclusively in a private place with a predominance of sharp weapons. Males, in contrast, assaulted almost equally a stranger or an acquaintance, often in a public place with a predominance of firearm. Victim knew the assailant(s) in 57% of the cases. Homicides mostly took place at the residence of the assailant or the victim. Homicide motive was clearly determined in 71% of the cases. Argument was the most common motive in 44% of the cases. Sexual assault was rarely found (10 cases). Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death (37%), followed by stab wounds (27%), blunt trauma (19%), and asphyxia (13%). A decrease of gunshot wounds as a cause of death was found over the studied period. Alcohol was the most common toxic detected in blood of the victim, in 48.5% of the cases when toxicological results were available. Blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1 to 500 mg/dL with a mean value of 150 mg/dL. PMID:22922553

  15. Evaluating the Effect of State Regulation of Federally Licensed Firearm Dealers on Firearm Homicide

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Karin; Cheney, Rose; Wiebe, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Effective federal regulation of firearm dealers has proven difficult. Consequently, many states choose to implement their own regulations. We examined the impact of state-required licensing, record keeping of sales, allowable inspections, and mandatory theft reporting on firearm homicide from 1995 to 2010. We found that lower homicide rates were associated with states that required licensing and inspections. We concluded that firearm dealer regulations might be an effective harm reduction strategy for firearm homicide. PMID:24922158

  16. Social Structure, Anomie, and National Levels of Homicide.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Lonnie M; Altheimer, Irshad

    2016-06-01

    Merton's "Social Structure and Anomie" seeks to explain how "socio-cultural" influences exert "definite pressures" to engage in non-conformity. Despite having a significant influence, few studies have assessed the degree to which Merton's propositions explain cross-national variation in levels of crime. Using data on national levels of homicide, data from the World Values Survey, and other structural controls, the present study assesses the degree to which deinstitutionalization, demoralization, and blocked opportunity interact to explain crime cross-nationally. Results provide a high degree of support for Merton's assertion that societal types characterized by relatively high levels of materialism and/or demoralization or deinstitutionalization suffer from higher levels of homicide. However, there is less support for Merton's assertion that inequality interacts with various societal patterns of means/ends integration in a meaningful way. Findings and implications for the utility of classical anomie as a general macro-level theory are discussed. PMID:26216918

  17. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  18. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  19. Applying the Principles of Homicide by Heart Attack.

    PubMed

    Hlavaty, Leigh; Sung, LokMan

    2016-06-01

    Homicide by heart attack is a well-established model in forensic pathology that describes death elicited during or immediately after a criminal act where a threat or fear of physical injury is present. After its introduction nearly 4 decades ago, the principle has undergone a handful of modifications but still maintains its core concepts. All cases of this nature during a 20-year period at the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office were compared and contrasted for demographics, circumstances and scene investigation, and autopsy and toxicology findings. Of the cases fulfilling the previously established criteria for homicide by heart attack, more than 80% displayed significant changes because of hypertension. This finding coincides with the high prevalence of hypertension in our urban population and highlights the significance of this disease. Also present were minor external and internal injuries in select cases, which reinforce the understanding that physical contact between the decedent and assailant does not preclude this diagnosis. PMID:27049661

  20. Intentional or Negligent Homicide? Evidence for Juror Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Gambetti, Elisa; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the influence of specific evidence and testimonies on a juror's decision to make a verdict of intentional or negligent homicide in a Civil law country. Italian students (N = 280; M age = 25.0 years, SD = 2.9) read different affidavits characterized by the presence or absence of three elements against the defendant: motive, skill in use of weapons, and previous violence toward the victim. Participants then decided a verdict and provided a confidence judgment on their decision. Results showed that the presence of motive, skill, and previous violence influenced the jurors' decision, significantly changing the verdict from negligent to intentional homicide. The findings were discussed in terms of the folk-concept approach of intentionality. PMID:27469365

  1. Homicidal smothering on toilet paper: A case report.

    PubMed

    Saint-Martin, Pauline; Lefrancq, Thierry; Sauvageau, Anny

    2012-05-01

    Toilet paper is a ubiquitous personal hygiene product that is usually considered harmless. It was reported however to have been used as a mean of self-destruction in two unusual suicides, and is here reported to have been used to commit homicide. The body of a 91-year-old woman suffering from Alzheimer's disease was found in the bedroom of her nursing home, a roll of toilet paper near the body and toilet paper protruding from the mouth. At autopsy, pellets of toilet paper were impacted in the buccal cavity and the laryngopharynx above the epiglottis. The cause of death was established as smothering on toilet paper, whereas the manner of death was ruled as homicidal. Non-lethal blunt head injuries were considered to be a contributive factor, by lowering the victim's resistance. The perpetrator was another elderly woman, also suffering from Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22520378

  2. Non-fatal strangulation is an important risk factor for homicide of women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Laughon, Kathryn; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Wolf Chair, Anna D.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Hanson, Ginger; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Taliaferro, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine non-fatal strangulation by an intimate partner as a risk factor for major assault, or attempted or completed homicide of women. A case control design was used to describe non-fatal strangulation among complete homicides and attempted homicides (n =506) and abused controls (n = 427). Interviews of proxy respondents and survivors of attempted homicides were compared with data from abused controls. Data were derived using the Danger Assessment. Non-fatal strangulation was reported in 10% of abused controls, 45% of attempted homicides and 43% of homicides. Prior non-fatal strangulation was associated with greater than six-fold odds (OR 6.70, 95% CI 3.91–11.49) of becoming an attempted homicide, and over seven-fold odds (OR 7.48, 95% CI 4.53–12.35) of becoming a completed homicide. These results show non-fatal strangulation as an important risk factor for homicide of women, underscoring the need to screen for non-fatal strangulation when assessing abused women in emergency department settings. PMID:17961956

  3. Applying forensic anthropological data in homicide investigation to the depravity standard.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl J; Welner, Michael; Okoye, Matthias I; Marotta, Melissa; Plank, Gary; Anderson, Brianna; Mastellon, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Forensic anthropology can provide detailed information regarding the perpetrator's treatment of a homicide victim. This data may inform The Depravity Standard (DS), a forensic science inventory used to assess the severity of a homicide's intent, actions, victimology, and attitudes. Skeletal data enabled the reconstruction of a homicide case involving mutilation and possible torture. Using The Depravity Standard (DS) the skeletal data underwent evaluation in order to provide evidence of depravity. The osteological data alone offered sufficient evidence for a number of criteria of depravity, demonstrating the importance and application of osteology in resolving specific questions about the depravity of a homicide. PMID:23217373

  4. Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa’s Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. Methods. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. Results. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Conclusions. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period. PMID:24432917

  5. Child homicide and neglect in France: 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, F; Rambaud, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate epidemiological characteristics of the victims and the offenders in children homicide cases and to propose preventive measures. We retrospectively investigated homicides and deaths by neglect involving children aged 15 or less, which have been autopsied in the Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine of the Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France, during the 18-year period from 1991 to 2008. Cases included were analyzed for victims' age and gender, victim-assailant's relation, death cause and scenery, and offender's motivation. For the purposes of the study, victims were divided into four age groups: new born; infants (1-23 months); young children (2-5 years); and children (6-15 years). During the study period, 70 victims of homicide or fatal neglect were identified, which equates to a child homicide prevalence of 0.56 per 100,000 children per year. Slightly more than half of the victims (51.4%) were less than 1 year old. Neonaticide prevalence was 0.12 per 100,000 births with an equal distribution between genders. Neonates were most likely to be killed by their mothers while fathers were the most frequent assailants in both infants and children groups. Stepparents were involved in only one case. Familicide cases where children and spouses are killed were perpetrated only by fathers. The leading cause of death was blunt trauma (especially head trauma). In the neonaticide group, half of the victims died from passive neglect whereas gunshots were predominant in the children groups. PMID:24075615

  6. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  7. Pride and Purpose as Antidotes to Black Homicidal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Charles W.

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses. The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242

  8. Pride and purpose as antidotes to black homicidal violence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C W

    1987-02-01

    The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses.The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242

  9. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization. PMID:25272258

  10. [Deaths by homicide in Medellin, 1980-2007].

    PubMed

    Franco, Saúl; Mercedes, Clara; Rozo, Patricia; Gracia, Gloria Milena; Gallo, Gloria Patricia; Vera, Claudia Yaneth; García, Héctor Iván

    2012-12-01

    The Colombian city of Medellin has faced a severe problem of violence and homicide. The goal of this retrospective, descriptive-analytical study was to assess the magnitude, distribution, most salient characteristics and possible explanations for the problem between 1980 and 2007. Data were obtained from official databases, hospital records and the available literature, and a focus group was set up. There was a dramatic rise in homicides in the city in the time interval studied, with a total of 84,863 documented murders. Ninety-three percent of the victims were male. The 20 to 29 year-old age group was the most affected. Males in this age group, during the worst year of the period (1991), registered an astounding murder rate of 1,709 per 100,000. Even males in the 15 to 19 year age group and the older brackets saw high murder rates. The most common victims were from the lower and lower-middle socioeconomic strata, as has been observed elsewhere in the region. Serious problems were identified in information and in the provision of services. The impact of homicide on the delivery of healthcare services is discussed and a series of tasks for the healthcare sector in the control of this type of violence is proposed. PMID:23175397

  11. Radionuclide Contaminant Analysis of Small Mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1997 (with cumulative summary 1994-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Biggs; Kathryn D. Bennett; P. R. Fresquez

    1998-12-01

    In 1997, small mammals were sampled at four locations at Area G, Technical Area 54, a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area, and a background site on Frijoles Mesa. The purpose of the sampling was to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) identifi the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241Am, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, total U, 137Cs, and 3H. Higher levels of total U and 137CS were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals, and 90Sr was found to be higher in carcasses. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were not found to be statistically different (p< 0.05) from that measured in pelts. However, pelts generally had higher concentrations than carcasses, indicating surface contamination may be the primary contamination mode. Low sample sizes in total number of animals captured during 1997 prevented statistical analysis to compare site to site to all but four sites. Mean concentrations of 241Am, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 3H in small mammal carcasses were found to be statistically greater at the transuranic (TRU) waste pad #2. In addition, mean concentrations of total U, ~lAm, and 3H in pelts of small mammals were also statistically greater. The Control Site and Background Site consistently had the lowest mean concentrations of radionuclides. Year to year comparison of mean radionuclide concentrations was conducted where suftlcient sample size existed. We found 241Am, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 3H mean concentrations in carcasses to be statistically greater in 1997 than previous years at TRU waste pad #2

  12. Toward congruence between theory and practice in small area analysis and local public health data.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R S

    Advances in computer hardware, software and database interfaces have provided opportunities for collation, manipulation, analysis and display of spatial data on an unprecedented scale. Demands for small area data in public health, fuelled in part by an increasing emphasis on benchmarking in relation to Year 2000 objectives but also in response to state and federal programmes to involve local communities in the assessment and planning process have simultaneously generated an unprecedented demand for these analyses and data presentations. This paper discusses four areas where geographic, cartographic and statistical theory and methodology need to be brought to bear on the development of applications involving small area health data. These areas are: (i) the theoretical conceptions of space; (ii) managing the inherent variability of rates and frequencies; (iii) attribution of events or cases to areas or to points; and (iv) the application of sound principles of cartographic design to the presentation of results. PMID:8888478

  13. Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats and the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. Although the adjacent native sagebrush habitat had the highest species diversity and the Russian thistle habitat on the disposal area had the lowest, the total rodent density was not significantly different among the three vegetation types. Crested wheatgrass within the disposal area contained the largest rodent biomass throughout the study, in part due to an increasing M. montanus population. The peak small mammal biomass of 5000 g/ha in creasted wheatgrass and sagebrush habitats was considerably higher than previously reported for similar habitats. Differences in diversity and biomass between the disposal area and surrounding native habitat are most likely related to differences in soil compaction and vegetation between these two areas.

  14. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Pierannunzi, Carol; Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G Machell

    2016-01-01

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas. PMID:27418213

  15. The Estimate of the Optimum Number of Retail Stores of Small Market Areas Using Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Takuya; Hibino, Takayuki; Abe, Takehiko; Kimura, Haruhiko

    At present, the conditions of the location and the optimal arrangements for retail stores of small market areas are examined with the several surveys. The surveys are important because the proceeds are influenced largely with the selection of the location. However, costs, time and experience are necessary in the surveys. For this reason, this research is intended for the retail stores of small market areas which expend a great deal of money for the surveys. The retail stores of small market areas in this paper are convenience stores. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the optimum number of convenience stores by computer simulation. We adopted the agent model. We constructed an agent model that had the customer agent, the shop agent and the landscape with the kind of necessary minimum parameters. And, we were able to make the simulation environment that reflected the real world. As a result, we could estimate the optimum number of convenience stores by simulations.

  16. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C.; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G. Machell

    2016-01-01

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas. PMID:27418213

  17. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Annual peak discharge from small drainage areas is tabulated for 336 sites in Montana. The 1976 additions included data collected at 206 sites. The program which investigates the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas in Montana, was begun July 1, 1955. Originally 45 crest-stage gaging stations were established. The purpose of the program is to collect sufficient peak-flow data, which through analysis could provide methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods at any point in Montana. The ultimate objective is to provide methods for estimating the 100-year flood with the reliability needed for road design. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Is low IQ related to risk of death by homicide? Testing a hypothesis using data from the Vietnam Experience Study.

    PubMed

    Batty, George David; Mortensen, Laust H; Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J

    2008-10-30

    Lower IQ test scores are related to an increased risk of violent assault. We tested the relation between IQ and death by homicide. In a prospective cohort study of 14,537 men (21 homicides), the association between lower IQ and an increased risk of homicide was lost after multiple adjustment. PMID:18718672

  19. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

  20. The impact of homicide trials on the forensic pathologist's time--the Fulton County experience.

    PubMed

    Hanzlick, R

    1997-05-01

    Subpoenas received for criminal trials related to homicides in Fulton County (Atlanta) Georgia were tracked in a computer database for an 18 month period in order to determine the proportion of forensic pathologist worktime required for testimony in homicide cases. The number of subpoenas received annually amounted to 64% of the average number of homicides occurring annually. Testimony was required in about 33% of cases in which a subpoena was received, and, therefore, the number of testimony appearances per year was about 21% of the average annual number of homicides. Assuming a 40 hour work week for 52 weeks per year and an average of 3 hours of time preparing for, traveling to, and testifying in court, the time required of the forensic pathologist to testify in homicide trials amounted to about 2% of a full-time-equivalent. Although the time required for testimony in homicide cases may vary among jurisdictions because of the nature of its homicides, distance and travel time to court, and other factors, the data presented here may be used to estimate the impact of homicide trial court time on forensic pathology practice. PMID:9144948

  1. Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

  2. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  3. [Deaths by homicide in Mexico: trends, socio-geographical variations and associated factors].

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique; Vega-López, Agustín; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study seeks to analyze the trend of homicide rates (total and by firearm) in Mexico between 1990 and 2009 and identify the variables that best explain the geographical variations of these rates in the 2008-2009 two-year period. Homicide rates, adjusted for age, were calculated for both sexes between 1990 and 2009 and for each state in 2008-2009. Factors associated with the interstate variations in the homicide rates were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results show that the homicide rate in Mexico decreased between 1990 and 2007, but doubled over the last two years (from 7.6 to 16.6 per 100,000). In 2009, the male homicide rate was almost 9 times higher than the female rate and about two-thirds of homicides involved firearms. Multivariate analysis reveals that impunity, drug trafficking, alcohol and drug consumption and school dropout in basic education - in that order - are key factors for understanding the geographical variations in homicide rates in Mexico in 2008-2009. Findings suggest that to reduce the number of homicide victims and spatial variations in the rate, it is necessary not only to fight the drug cartels, but above all to implement structural reforms in the criminal justice system and reduce the socioeconomic disparities among states. PMID:23175396

  4. Homicides of Children and Youth. Crimes against Children Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard

    This bulletin, part of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's "Crimes against Children Series," draws on FBI and other data to provide a statistical portrait of juvenile homicide victimization, asserting that homicide is the only major cause of childhood deaths that has increased over the past 3 decades. The bulletin offers…

  5. A method for managing re-identification risk from small geographic areas in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A common disclosure control practice for health datasets is to identify small geographic areas and either suppress records from these small areas or aggregate them into larger ones. A recent study provided a method for deciding when an area is too small based on the uniqueness criterion. The uniqueness criterion stipulates that an the area is no longer too small when the proportion of unique individuals on the relevant variables (the quasi-identifiers) approaches zero. However, using a uniqueness value of zero is quite a stringent threshold, and is only suitable when the risks from data disclosure are quite high. Other uniqueness thresholds that have been proposed for health data are 5% and 20%. Methods We estimated uniqueness for urban Forward Sortation Areas (FSAs) by using the 2001 long form Canadian census data representing 20% of the population. We then constructed two logistic regression models to predict when the uniqueness is greater than the 5% and 20% thresholds, and validated their predictive accuracy using 10-fold cross-validation. Predictor variables included the population size of the FSA and the maximum number of possible values on the quasi-identifiers (the number of equivalence classes). Results All model parameters were significant and the models had very high prediction accuracy, with specificity above 0.9, and sensitivity at 0.87 and 0.74 for the 5% and 20% threshold models respectively. The application of the models was illustrated with an analysis of the Ontario newborn registry and an emergency department dataset. At the higher thresholds considerably fewer records compared to the 0% threshold would be considered to be in small areas and therefore undergo disclosure control actions. We have also included concrete guidance for data custodians in deciding which one of the three uniqueness thresholds to use (0%, 5%, 20%), depending on the mitigating controls that the data recipients have in place, the potential invasion of privacy if

  6. Spatial Heterogeneity in the Effects of Immigration and Diversity on Neighborhood Homicide Rates

    PubMed Central

    Graif, Corina; Sampson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the connection of immigration and diversity to homicide by advancing a recently developed approach to modeling spatial dynamics—geographically weighted regression. In contrast to traditional global averaging, we argue on substantive grounds that neighborhood characteristics vary in their effects across neighborhood space, a process of “spatial heterogeneity.” Much like treatment-effect heterogeneity and distinct from spatial spillover, our analysis finds considerable evidence that neighborhood characteristics in Chicago vary significantly in predicting homicide, in some cases showing countervailing effects depending on spatial location. In general, however, immigrant concentration is either unrelated or inversely related to homicide, whereas language diversity is consistently linked to lower homicide. The results shed new light on the immigration-homicide nexus and suggest the pitfalls of global averaging models that hide the reality of a highly diversified and spatially stratified metropolis. PMID:20671811

  7. A tale of two cities: a review of homicide in Melbourne and Glasgow in 2005.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Matthew; Black, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    The Departments of Forensic Medicine and Science at the University of Glasgow and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne are academic university-based forensic medicine units providing a medico-legal death investigation service to the Strathclyde region of Scotland and the State of Victoria, Australia, respectively. We reviewed and compared homicides in the two jurisdictions for the year 2005. Whilst gross numbers were comparable, the homicide rate per capita was significantly higher in Glasgow. Death due to stabbing comprised a greater proportion of homicides in Glasgow, reflective of a well recognised social epidemic of knife-related trauma amongst young males. Blunt force trauma was the most prevalent cause of homicidal injury in the Australian cases. The cities shared a low incidence of firearm- related homicide, reflective of strict legislative initiatives. PMID:18341154

  8. Social welfare support and homicide: longitudinal analyses of European countries from 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    McCall, Patricia L; Brauer, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to which retrenchment in welfare support is related to homicide trends across European countries between 1994 and 2010. Using a longitudinal decomposition design that allows for stronger causal inferences compared to typical cross-sectional designs, we examine these potential linkages between social support spending and homicide with data collected from a heterogeneous sample of European nations, including twenty Western nations and nine less frequently analyzed East-Central nations, during recent years in which European nations generally witnessed substantial changes in homicide rates as well as both economic prosperity and fiscal crisis. Results suggest that even incremental, short-term changes in welfare support spending are associated with short-term reductions in homicide-specifically, impacting homicide rates within two to three years for this sample of European nations. PMID:25131277

  9. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Ferrari, Michelle M; Leong, Gregory B

    2002-11-01

    Sexual serial homicidal behavior has received considerable attention during the last three decades. Substantial progress has been made in the development of methods aimed at identifying and apprehending individuals who exhibit these behaviors. In spite of these advances, the origins of sexual serial killing behavior remain for the most part unknown. In this article we propose a biopsychosocial psychiatric model for understanding the origins of sexual serial homicidal behavior from both neuropsychiatric and developmental perspectives, using the case of convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer as the focal point. We propose that his homicidal behavior was intrinsically associated with autistic spectrum psychopathology, specifically Asperger's disorder. The relationship of Asperger's disorder to other psychopathology and to his homicidal behavior is explored. We discuss potential implications of the proposed model for the future study of the causes of sexual serial homicidal crime. PMID:12455663

  10. Real-Time Estimation of Small-Area Populations with Human Biomarkers in Sewage

    EPA Science Inventory

    A totally new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disc...