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Sample records for small area homicide

  1. Regional differences in homicide patterns in five areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, N; Kominato, Y; Shimada, I; Takizawa, H; Fujikura, T; Morita, M; Funayama, M; Yoshioka, N; Touda, K; Gonmori, K; Misawa, S; Sakairi, Y; Sakamoto, N; Tanno, K; Thaik-Oo, M; Kiuchi, M; Fukumoto, Y; Sato, Y

    2001-03-01

    This article describes regional differences in the homicide patterns which occurred in Sapporo City and the surrounding area, and in Akita, Ibaraki, Chiba and Toyama prefectures in Japan. Information collected from each case of homicide included factors such as age, sex of the victim and assailant, causes of death, disposition of the offender, relationship between assailant and victim, reasons for criminal action, et al. The statistical features of homicidal episodes among the five different regions showed considerable variation, as follows. The mean death rates for homicide (number of victims per 100,000 of population) during the period 1986-1995 were 0.44 (Sapporo), 0.8 (Akita), 0.58 (Toyama), 0.7 (Ibaraki) and 0.75 (Chiba), respectively. Close family relationship between the victim and assailant was observed in the homicidal acts which occurred in Sapporo, Akita and Toyama. Assailant's relationship to victim was commonly extra-familial in Ibaraki and Chiba-neighboring megalopolis Tokyo, where some events of murder by a foreigner occurred. Homicide by female assailant, murder by mentally abnormal killers and homicide-suicide events were closely associated with family members. And these factors contributed to the considerable number of victims in Sapporo, Akita and Toyama. But, this close family relationship of the victim to the assailant did not correspond with the elevation in the number of deaths, and it was rather inversely related to the higher death rates recognized in Ibaraki and Chiba. This comparative study suggested that rapid urbanization considerably affects regional differences in homicide patterns. PMID:12935732

  2. [Homicides committed by women in the area served by the Munich Institute of Legal Medicine].

    PubMed

    Schöpfer, Jutta; Kortas, Aline; Bormann, Claudia; Schick, Sylvia; Mützel, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    According to crime statistics only a small percentage of intentional killings are committed by women. Female emancipation has not changed this finding. In spite of numerous studies in the field of psychiatry and social criminology there are few systematic investigations analyzing homicides committed by women under medico-legal aspects. The presented data include 127 homicides committed by female offenders, which were assessed at the Munich Institute of Legal Medicine between 1990 and 2010. The results of the evaluation are presented with regard to the type of offence, the motive, the means and method used to commit the offence and the sentence imposed. PMID:27120899

  3. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence. PMID:23903593

  4. Homicidal blunt abdominal trauma with isolated laceration of the small bowel mesentery.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A

    1984-01-01

    Nonpenetrating abdominal trauma rarely causes isolated mesenteric lacerations with fatal hemorrhages. When this does happen, it is often the result of compression by a lap seal belt or a steering wheel, only extremely rarely is it the result of a homicidal act. In the present paper, two homicide victims with resulting mesenteric tears and fatal bleeding due to sagittal compression are described. A high blood alcohol concentration may in both cases have contributed to the fatal outcome. The cases support the assumption that direct rather than indirect trauma causes this kind of lesion. PMID:6516601

  5. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  6. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  7. Homosexual homicides.

    PubMed

    Definis Gojanovic, M

    1998-12-01

    This report describes four cases of male homosexual homicide committed in Split County, Croatia, in 1991 and 1995. The homosexual orientation of the victims was determined by police investigation. Three middle-aged to elderly person were killed by an unknown offender or offenders, in very similar ways within a few months of end other in 1991. The bodies were found in their houses with multiple blunt force injuries to the head. One victim also had marks of manual strangulation, and was choked with a handkerchief which had been put in his mouth. The last victim was a 45-year-old man, found in the bathroom with 33 stab wounds, mostly in the neck and back, and with two shots in the head from an underwater gun. He was killed by two adolescent males at the beginning of sexual intercourse. The presented cases show a high level of violence with multiple injuries may be associated with male homosexual homicide. PMID:15335518

  8. Homicidal parents.

    PubMed

    Bourget, D; Bradford, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a series of 13 cases of parents who have killed their children. A review of the literature suggests that child murder is infrequent and committed in most instances by the parents. Most attention has been directed to the universal phenomenon of child abuse. The killing of a child in our culture is viewed much more seriously than the killing of a newborn infant, legally defined as infanticide. Only a few authors have reported on the former, and their studies tend to demonstrate that a higher proportion of these crimes are perpetrated by mothers. Homicidal behaviour in parents may also be associated with common forms of psychiatric disorders and may manifest as the extended suicide phenomenon (homicide reported with major depressive illness). Attributes of both parents and the children are also significant factors to be considered. In a retrospective study the relevant demographic and clinical data of a series of 13 cases are reviewed. The diagnostic classification using DSM-III-R is discussed in detail. A higher incidence of maternal perpetrators was found and is consistent with previous studies. Exposure to a variety of psychosocial stresses appears to have been a major factor. Similarly the suicidal history and behaviour of the subjects is significant. Affective disorder appears to be an important diagnostic category. Finally, the role of psychiatric and other social agencies is considered in relation to the murder of children. A better understanding of this phenomenon is indicated in order to help us deal with families at risk. PMID:2340456

  9. Network Exposure and Homicide Victimization in an African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association of an individual’s exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Methods. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Results. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood’s population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one’s odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Conclusions. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities. PMID:24228655

  10. Homicidal Snake Bite in Children.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Melad G; Faheem, Ayman L

    2016-03-01

    Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake. Killing a victim by direct snake bite is so rare. There was one reported case where an old couple was killed by snake bite. Here is the first reported case of killing three children by snake bite. It appeared that the diagnosis of such cases is so difficult and depended mainly on the circumstantial evidences. PMID:27404632

  11. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  12. Epidemiologic characteristics of primary homicides in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jason, J; Flock, M; Tyler, C W

    1983-04-01

    Homicide is one of the five leading causes of death for all persons 1-44 years of age. Over half of the homicides occurring in 1979 did not involve the perpetration of another crime. The authors have defined these as primary homicides and suggest that these deaths require the formulation of public health and social services prevention strategies. An epidemiologic assessment of primary homicides in the United States for 1976 through 1979 showed the following. Sixty per cent of primary homicides were male victim/male offender events; 40% involved a female as a victim and/or as an offender. Three per cent of primary homicides were female victim/female offender events; 97% involved a male as a victim and/or as an offender. Primary homicides involving female victims or offenders were more frequently intrafamilial than those involving males, but rates of intrafamilial homicides by males were greater than those involving females. The preponderance of all primary homicides occurred between acquaintances, but the relationship between victim and offender varied with age, sex, and race. The weapons used varied with the victim's and offender's age, sex, and race, and with the relationship between victim and offender. Based on the described patterns, prevention measures should be divided into three broad areas: intrafamilial violence, extrafamilial violence, and male patterns of aggression. Key target populations for the first area include females, rural households, and the very young or very old. A key target population for the second area is teenage males. PMID:6837556

  13. Deaths from homicides: a historical series1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. METHOD: study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. RESULTS: since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil. PMID:25591098

  14. Homicide and geographic access to gun dealers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Krafty, Robert T; Koper, Christopher S; Nance, Michael L; Elliott, Michael R; Branas, Charles C

    2009-01-01

    Background Firearms are the most commonly used weapon to commit homicide in the U.S. Virtually all firearms enter the public marketplace through a federal firearms licensee (FFL): a store or individual licensed by the federal government to sell firearms. Whether FFLs contribute to gun-related homicide in areas where they are located, in which case FFLs may be a homicide risk factor that can be modified, is not known. Methods Annual county-level data (1993–1999) on gun homicide rates and rates of FFLs per capita were analyzed using negative binomial regression controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Models were run to evaluate whether the relation between rates of FFLs and rates of gun homicide varied over the study period and across counties according to their level of urbanism (defined by four groupings, as below). Also, rates of FFLs were compared against FS/S – which is the proportion of suicides committed by firearm and is thought to be a good proxy for firearm availability in a region – to help evaluate how well the FFL variable is serving as a way to proxy firearm availability in each of the county types of interest. Results In major cities, gun homicide rates were higher where FFLs were more prevalent (rate ratio [RR] = 1.70, 95% CI 1.03–2.81). This association increased (p < 0.01) from 1993 (RR = 1.69) to 1999 (RR = 12.72), due likely to federal reforms that eliminated low-volume dealers, making FFL prevalence a more accurate exposure measure over time. No association was found in small towns. In other cities and in suburbs, gun homicide rates were significantly lower where FFLs were more prevalent, with associations that did not change over the years of the study period. FFL prevalence was correlated strongly (positively) with FS/S in major cities only, suggesting that the findings for how FFL prevalence relates to gun homicide may be valid for the findings pertaining to major cities but not to counties of other types. Conclusion

  15. [Homicide crimes in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dürwald, W

    1993-02-01

    Report of some cases of willful homicide in hospitals of the former GDR. In no case the patient has wished his death. Besides compassion the cause of the homicide was a large carefully expense and in two cases the attempt to prove the incapability of the competent doctor. The patients were only means to an end. All the cases are discovered by the great number of obscure death. PMID:8438538

  16. Hidden homicide increases in the USA, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoqing; Webster, Daniel; Baker, Susan P

    2008-07-01

    Prior to 1999, dramatic fluctuations in homicide rates were driven by changes in the rates of firearm homicide among men aged 15-24. Since 2000, the overall homicide rate has appeared stable, masking any changes in population subgroups. We analyzed recent trends in homicide rates by weapon, age, race, gender, state, and urbanization to determine whether the risk of victimization increased substantially during 1999-2005 for demographic subgroups. The analysis of WISQARS data and Wonder data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed no trend in the homicide rate nationally between 1999 and 2005; this obscured large increases in firearm homicide rates among black men aged 25-44 and among white men aged 25-34. Between 1999 and 2005, for ages 25-44 combined, the increase for black men was 31% compared with 12% for white men. Significant increases among men aged 25-44 occurred in Alabama, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington. The firearm homicide rate increased the most in large central metropolitan areas (+32%) and large fringe metropolitan areas (+30%) for men aged 25-44. We conclude that the recent, unrecognized increases in firearm homicide among men aged 25-44, especially black men, in large metropolitan areas merit the attention of policymakers. PMID:18509760

  17. Patterns and Trends in Elder Homicide Across Race and Ethnicity, 1985-2009

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we assess total and race/ethnicity-disaggregated patterns and temporal trends in elderly homicide (age 55-74) compared with younger age groups for the 1985-to-2009 period. To do this, we use California arrest statistics that provide annual homicide figures by race and ethnicity (including a Hispanic identifier) and by age. Major aims of our analysis are to establish whether (a) elderly homicide rates are different/similar across race/ethnic comparisons; (b) the elderly share of homicide and age-homicide distributions more generally differ across race/ethnicity; and (c) elderly rates of homicide and the share of elderly homicide relative to younger age groups is similar or different now as compared with 20 to 30 years ago. Our analysis is important and timely because some commentators have suggested that elderly homicide levels have been rising over the past one to two decades and because there is a virtual absence of research of any sort on elderly homicide trends that involve comparisons by race and ethnicity. Key findings are that elderly shares of homicide offending relative to younger ages have not increased (or decreased), that elder homicides continue to account for a small fraction of all homicides, and that these patterns persist across race/ethnicity comparisons. PMID:25598653

  18. Homicide by firearms in two Scandinavian capitals.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Rogde, S; Poulsen, K

    2000-09-01

    In the Oslo and Copenhagen areas, 83 homicides by firearms were registered in the 10-year period 1985 to 1994, accounting for 19.3% of all homicides in that period. The majority of the victims were between 20 and 50 years old, and 58% were male, 42% female. The yearly number of firearm homicides varied between 4 and 15, with neither an increase nor decrease throughout the period. Most of the victims had no detectable blood alcohol at autopsy. Female victims were typically shot in their own domicile with a shotgun by their spouse, mostly because of jealousy or in a family argument, whereas male victims were shot on different locations, predominantly with a handgun, for many different reasons. Most victims were shot in the head, and few had entrance wounds in more than one anatomic region. PMID:10990294

  19. Homicide during postictal psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschenk, Stephan; Krop, Harry; Devinsky, Orrin

    2014-01-01

    Postictal psychosis is characterized by a fluctuating combination of thought disorder, auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, affective change, and aggression including violent behavior. We present a case of homicide following a cluster of seizures. The patient's history and postictal behavior were his consistent with postictal psychosis. Contributing factors resulting in homicide may have included increased seizure frequency associated with a change in his AED regimen seizure frequency. The AED change to levetiracetam may also have increased impulsiveness with diminished mood regulation following discontinuation of carbamazepine. There is evidence that he had a cluster of seizures immediately prior to the murder which may have resulted in the postictal disinhibition of frontal lobe inhibitory systems. This homicide and other violent behaviors associated with postictal psychosis may be avoided with earlier recognition and treatment. PMID:25667886

  20. Child homicide spectrum.

    PubMed

    Jason, J

    1983-06-01

    Violence toward children is an acknowledged pediatric problem, but physicians may not be aware that it is a leading cause of pediatric mortality. Therefore, I used homicide data for persons younger than 18 years of age to characterize child homicide. There are two broad categories: The first predominates until the victim age of 3 years, is intrafamilial, and is associated with bodily force and poorly defined precipitating events. It might be described as fatal child abuse. The second type predominates after the victim age of 12 years, is extrafamilial, involves guns or knives, occurs during arguments or criminal acts by the offender, and may represent children unsupervised in an adult environment. Homicides that occur in children between 3 and 12 years of age are a mixture of these two types. PMID:6846292

  1. Necrophilia and sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered. PMID:20102474

  2. Homicides and territorial struggles in Rio de Janeiro favelas

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Christovam; Zaluar, Alba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of homicide in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas, taking into account the territorial disputes taking place in the city. METHODS The study is based on data on mortality from homicide in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 2006 and 2009. Risks in favelas and in surrounding areas were evaluated, as was the domination of armed groups and drug dealing. Geographic and ethnographic concepts and methods were employed, using participant observation, interviews and analysis of secondary data on health. RESULTS Within the favelas, mortality rates from homicide were equivalent to, or lower than, the rest of the city, although they were considerably higher in areas surrounding the favelas, especially in areas where there was conflict between armed rival gangs. CONCLUSIONS The presence of trafficking crews and turf war in strategic areas of the city increases homicide rates and promotes the “ecology of danger” in these areas. PMID:24789642

  3. Homicidal sex offenders: psychological, phallometric, and diagnostic features.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Larose, M R

    1998-01-01

    Homicidal sex offenders represent an understudied population in the forensic literature. Forty-eight homicidal sex offenders assessed between 1982 and 1992 were studied in relation to a comparison group of incest offenders. Historical features, commonly used psychological inventories, criminal histories, phallometric assessments, and DSM diagnoses were collected on each group. The homicidal sex offenders, compared with the incest offenders, self-reported that they had more frequently been removed from their homes during childhood and had more violence and forensic psychiatric contact in their histories. On the self-report psychological inventories, the homicidal sex offenders portrayed themselves as functioning significantly better in the areas of sexuality (Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory) and aggression/hostility (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory). However, on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), researchers rated the homiciders significantly more psychopathic than the incest offenders on Factor 1 (personality traits) and Factor 2 (antisocial history). Police records revealed the homicidal subjects also had been charged or convicted of more violent and nonviolent nonsexual offenses. The phallometric assessments indicated that the homicidal sex offenders demonstrated higher levels of response to pedophilic stimuli and were significantly more aroused to stimuli depicting assaultive acts to children, relative to the incest offenders. Despite the homiciders' self-reports of fairly good psychological functioning, DSM-III diagnoses reliably discriminated between the groups. A large number of homicidal sex offenders were diagnosed as suffering from psychosis, antisocial personality disorder, paraphilias, sexual sadism, sexual sadism with pedophilia, and substance abuse. Seventy-five percent of the homicidal sex offenders had three or more diagnoses compared with six percent of the incest offenders. The article addresses the role of "hard" versus "soft

  4. We fall down: the African American experience of coping with the homicide of a loved one.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Boyas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Rates of homicide among African Americans are much higher than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Research has demonstrated that homicide can be psychologically debilitating for surviving family members. Yet, exploring the experiences of homicide victims’ surviving loved ones has received little attention. This study examined the coping strategies of African American survivors of homicide. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 African American family members (ages 18-82) of homicide victims. Survivors were recruited from the Massachusetts Office of Victim Services and from homicide survivor support, school, and community groups throughout the New England area. Interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from coping, support network, grief, and bereavement literatures. Results indicate that the primary coping strategies utilized by African American survivors of homicide victims are spiritual coping and meaning making, maintaining a connection to the deceased, collective coping and caring for others, and concealment. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22073426

  5. Neurocognitive Vulnerability: Suicidal and Homicidal Behaviours in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Orsat, Manuel; Dumais, Alexandre; Turecki, Gustavo; Jollant, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with an increase in the risk of both homicide and suicide. The objectives of this study were to systematically review all published articles that examined the relation between neurocognitive deficits and suicidal or homicidal behaviours in schizophrenia, and to identify vulnerabilities in suicidal and homicidal behaviour that may share a common pathway in schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE to include all studies published up to August 31, 2012. Results: Among the 1760 studies, 7 neuropsychological and 12 brain imaging studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies were inconclusive. The structural imaging studies reported various alterations in patients with schizophrenia and a history of homicidal behaviour, including: reduced inferior frontal and temporal cortices, increased mediodorsal white matter, and increased amygdala volumes. Patients with a history of suicidal acts showed volumetric reductions in left orbitofrontal and superior temporal cortices, while right amygdala volume was increased, though, these findings have rarely been replicated. Finally, no study has directly compared neurocognitive markers of suicidal and homicidal risk. Conclusion: These results suggest that brain alterations, in addition to those associated with schizophrenia, may predispose some patients to a higher risk of homicide or suicide in particular circumstances. Moreover, some of these alterations may be shared between homicidal and suicidal patients. However, owing to several limitations, including the small number of available studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further investigations are necessary. PMID:24444320

  6. [Regional variations in homicide mortality in Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vega-López, María Guadalupe; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando; Valle Barbosa, Ana; Cabrera Pivaral, Carlos; Quintero-Vega, Pedro P

    2003-01-01

    The present study describes regional variations in homicide rates in Jalisco State, Mexico, in 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1999-2000, analyzing the trends by gender and socioeconomic stratum. Using mortality data generated by the National Institute for Statistics, Geography, and Information Technology, homicide rates adjusted by age and gender were calculated, along with rate/female rate ratios; rate ratios by socioeconomic stratum and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. According to the results, the homicide rate showed: a downward trend in the 1990s; a regional homicide mortality pattern, with the highest rates in peripheral regions, considered among the poorest areas in the State; municipalities with the lowest socioeconomic conditions also presenting a statistically significant excess homicide mortality; and an evident over-mortality from homicide among males. The results point to tasks and challenges for public health and law enforcement institutions, including the need to implement different inter-institutional policies that take into consideration the characteristics of homicide and violent crime in Jalisco. PMID:12764477

  7. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  8. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  9. Attempted homicide by electrocution.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H; Karger, B

    1998-01-01

    Attempted homicide by the application of a high-voltage, low-amperage current is reported in an elderly male. An electrician constructed an apparatus and applied the current to wet towels placed on the abdomen of the victim sleeping next door. The attempt was unsuccessful and resulted in burns only. The victim was hospitalised and died 3 weeks later. A causal connection could not be established between the attempted electrocution and the demise of the victim. PMID:9826095

  10. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  11. Prostitute Homicides: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salfati, C. Gabrielle; James, Alison R.; Ferguson, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    It has been estimated that women involved in street prostitution are 60 to 100 times more likely to be murdered than are nonprostitute females. In addition, homicides of prostitutes are notoriously difficult to investigate and, as such, many cases remain unsolved. Despite this large risk factor, little literature exists on homicides of…

  12. Homicide by methane gas.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Vetrugno, Giuseppe; Rossi, Riccardo; Fucci, Nadia; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2012-09-10

    Methane is a suffocating gas, and "methane deaths" are largely the result of suffocation by gas-air displacement after accidental or deliberate exposure. Neither methane gas nor other suffocating gases are a common means of homicide, with the potential exception of the use of gas in chemical weapons or gas chambers. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old woman who was killed by her husband with methane gas. The man had given his wife a dose of Lorazepam before setting up a hose that conveyed methane from the kitchen into the apartment's bedroom. The man subsequently faked his own suicide, which was later discovered. PMID:22721935

  13. Finnish sexual homicides: offence and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Lindberg, Nina; Salenius, Stephan; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-07-01

    Information on sexual homicide offenders is limited. The current study estimates the rate of sexual homicides in Finland and analyses sociodemographic characteristics, crime history, life course development, psychopathy, and psychopathology in sexual homicide and nonsexual homicide offenders. Crime reports and forensic examination reports of all offenders subjected to forensic examination and convicted for homicide in 1995-2004 (n=676) were retrospectively analyzed for offence and offender variables and scored with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Eighteen sexual homicides (2.8%) were identified. Co-offending, strangulation and disposal of the body were more frequent crime scene variables in sexual than nonsexual homicides. Mental health problems and sexual abuse in childhood and sexual crime history were significantly more frequent in sexual than nonsexual homicide offenders. Over half of the sexual homicide offenders were psychopathic: compared to nonsexual homicide offenders they scored significantly higher on interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy. PMID:19403249

  14. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims. PMID:20402440

  15. Criminal Recidivism Among Homicide Offenders.

    PubMed

    Liem, Marieke; Zahn, Margaret A; Tichavsky, Lisa

    2014-01-16

    Homicide offenders are released to communities in large numbers. Little is known, however, about how these offenders fare after release. The aim of this study is threefold: to examine recidivism patterns among released homicide offenders, to assess to what extent predictors for recidivism are similar to those for other violent offenders, and to study whether the degree of recidivism differs by type of homicide. Using data from the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, we extracted all individuals who committed a homicide in Philadelphia between 1977 and 1983 and who were paroled. Data were supplemented with court documents, police department data, and newspaper articles. We examined frequency and severity of recidivism, and used logistic regression analyses and survival analyses to examine the likelihood and time to recidivism. Of the 92 paroled homicide offenders, 54% recidivated; 15% recidivated with a violent offense. Race and original conviction for a financially motivated homicide were significant predictors of recidivism. While socio-demographic predictors of recidivism have theoretical and practical significance, focusing on factors associated with the motive of the original homicide may prove highly beneficial for intervention strategies and post-release planning. PMID:24442911

  16. Social Capital, Economic Development, and Homicide: A Cross-National Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Blaine; Pettinicchio, David

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from an ongoing debate over explanations of homicide. Within this debate, we investigate the pro-social effects of civil society and social capital. Few cross-national studies explore whether elements of social capital either increase or decrease homicide. The cross-national work that does is often characterized by small,…

  17. Burnt wives: a study of homicides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Tripathi, C B

    2004-01-01

    The death of married females nowadays is very common in India, usually being associated with dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, most frequently by burning. In a cohort of 152 burned wives, 47 (31%) were homicidal burns and these cases were analyzed in view of epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. Homicide by burning amongst women is a major concern in India as it has become pervasive throughout all social strata and geographical areas. In this series, most women were from extended families (i.e. multigenerational groups of related individuals living under a single roof) and the homicides occurred within the first few years of their marriages. The majority of the affected wives were 16-25 years of age (77%) at the time of the incident and sustained more than 70% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injuries. Many of them were doused with kerosene and set alight. Most died at the time of the incident or within the subsequent 24 hours, most commonly from shock. PMID:14984215

  18. Preventing homicide: an evaluation of the efficacy of a Detroit gun ordinance.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P W; Loftin, C; Waller, J B; McDowall, D; Bukoff, A; Scott, R O; Mercy, J A; Wiersema, B

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In November 1986, a Detroit, Michigan city ordinance requiring mandatory jail sentences for illegally carrying a firearm in public was passed to preserve "the public peace, health, safety, and welfare of the people." METHODS: We conducted a set of interrupted time-series analyses to evaluate the impact of the law on the incidence of homicides, hypothesizing that the ordinance, by its nature, would affect only firearm homicides and homicides committed outside (e.g., on the street). RESULTS: The incidence of homicide in general increased after the law was passed, but the increases in non-firearm homicides and homicides committed inside (e.g., in a home) were either statistically significant or approached statistical significance (p = .006 and p = .070, respectively), whereas changes in the incidence of firearm homicides and homicides committed outside were not statistically significant (p = .238 and p = .418, respectively). We also determined that the ordinance was essentially unenforced, apparently because of a critical shortage of jail space. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with a model in which the ordinance had a dampening effect on firearm homicides occurring in public in Detroit. The apparent preventive effect evident in the time series analyses may have been due to publicity about the ordinance, whereas the small nature of the effect may have been due to the lack of enforcement. PMID:2014857

  19. Small Area Forecasts: Policies, Results, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Michigan Council of Governments, Detroit.

    This document describes aspects of the Small Area Forecast (SAF) process, from the preparation of policy alternatives to measures to provide for evaluation. The three principle areas discussed are: (1) the six alternative sets of public policies which might be followed in the Southeast region of Michigan for meeting population needs in the areas…

  20. Suicide and Homicide Rates: Their Relationship to Latitude and Longitude and to the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1986-01-01

    Explored variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.…

  1. [Bayesian rates for homicide mapping in Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alexandre Xavier Ywata de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da; Almeida Júnior, Gilberto Rezende de; Albuquerque, Pedro Henrique Melo de

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes homicide incidence per municipality (county) in Brazil in the year 2008. The authors estimate and compare homicide rates according to different methods, finding evidence that depending on the method employed, the results can differ significantly, especially for small municipalities. Bayesian spatial procedures were employed, allowing minimization of variation in the rate estimates. The methods consider a priori distributions and information on contiguity of municipalities. According to the findings, the impact of corrective procedures is not relevant for large municipalities, but such estimates present significant differences for small municipalities. Comparing the different estimates, the authors conclude that there may be distortions in the rates published in the literature. To overcome such potential distortions, it is necessary to take the main goal in each analysis into account. When the emphasis is on overall visualization of the homicide phenomenon, the best option is spatial corrections. However, to obtain more accurate local estimates, Bayesian methods are more appropriate. PMID:22729256

  2. Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158081.html Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing Biggest declines seen for Hispanics ... 2016 THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall homicide victim rates in the United States fell between ...

  3. CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL SCHOOL, AS PROPOSED BY THE PROJECT, ARE LISTED. FIVE AREAS OF SCHOOL OPERATION ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--(1) MULTIPLE CLASSES, INCLUDING SUPERVISED CORRESPONDENCE COURSES, (2) FLEXIBLE SCHEDULES, (3) USE OF SCHOOL AIDES, (4) USES OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION, AND (5) SHARED SERVICES AND TALENTED YOUTH. A MAP LOCATING THE…

  4. Epilepsy and homicide

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Neil S; Vrbancic, Mirna; Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy. Patients and methods We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides. Results We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility. Conclusion The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse. PMID:23700367

  5. Medical homicide and extreme negligence.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Emily; Richards, Virginia; Luce, Kasey M; Gill, James R

    2009-03-01

    Deaths that occur during medical care for the treatment of a disease are rarely certified as homicides. Some "medical" deaths, however, have been criminally prosecuted for manslaughter, reckless endangerment, or reckless homicide. We describe 5 deaths due to medical complications that underwent criminal prosecution. Three of the deaths were certified as homicides. Deaths certified as homicides due to the actions (or inactions) of a caregiver occur in 3 circumstances. The first is when the medical caregiver intentionally causes the death of the patient. The second is a death due to treatment by an unlicensed fraud or quack. The final circumstance is due to extreme medical negligence that involves a gross and wanton disregard for the well-being of the patient and is the most controversial in the medical community. The law defines reckless endangerment as the conscious disregard of a known substantial likelihood of injury to the patient. Criminal neglect typically is defined as the failure to provide timely, safe, adequate, and appropriate services, treatment, and/or care to a patient. In instances of extreme medical negligence, a homicide manner of death is appropriate because the fatality is due to the criminal acts (or inactions) of another. It also furthers one of the major goals of the medicolegal death investigation system, which is to safeguard the public health. PMID:19237847

  6. Mass homicide: the civil massacre.

    PubMed

    Cantor, C H; Mullen, P E; Alpers, P A

    2000-01-01

    Seven cases of mass homicide in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain between 1987 and 1996 are presented. These cases add to the world literature on these rare crimes and balance previous, mostly North American reports. These acts were committed by socially unsuccessful, self-absorbed, and resentful individuals. Lengthy fantasy comprising identification, modeling, and rehearsal preceded the incidents, even where the final acts had impulsive elements. Most had a long-standing fascination with firearms fueling their fantasies and providing the means for mass killing. Their targets were mostly unprotected strangers. Overt suicidal intent or a preparedness to die while committing the homicides was invariable. Ethological theories of status acquisition may provide a useful understanding of mass homicide. PMID:10774842

  7. Multiple stabbing in sex-related homicides.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Nemanja; Radnić, Bojana; Petković, Stojan; Miljen, Maletin; Curović, Ivana; Cukić, Dragana; Soć, Miodrag; Savić, Slobodan

    2013-07-01

    It is possible that sexually driven homicides are the consequence of sexual deviation, but more often than not the main cause of such homicides stems from a non-paraphilic person's emotional component. It is known that homicides which involve multiple stabbing are very often the result of the assailant's highly expressed affect. This study tries to establish whether such homicides are essentially related to the sexual motives of the murderer. This paper is conducted through a retrospective autopsy study that includes 766 cases of homicides. These were reviewed and analysed according to the motive of the homicide, as well as by method, age, and gender of the victim, and the relationship between the victim and the assailant. The motives of homicides are classified as non-sexual and sexual, including homicides related to rape, jealousy, amorous affairs outside of an established relationship, deviant sexual behaviour of psychiatric patients, paraphilia, and disturbed emotional relationships between the victim and the assailant. Cases include both hetero- and homosexual relationships. Multiple stabbing occurs significantly more frequently in sex-related homicides (≥ 3 stab wounds) than in other homicide types. When the criteria for multiple stabbing are changed (≥ 4, 5, or 25 stab wounds), the percentage of sex-related homicides rises in every group in relation to the increased number of wounds. Sensitivity and specificity are represented by ROC curves for 3, 5 and 7 stab wounds. The correlation coefficients between multiple stabbing and sex-related homicides regarding gender are all near 0.9. For female victims, all homicides committed by 25 and more stab wounds were found to be sex-related. Statistically, jealousy was the most frequent motive for sex-related multiple stabbing homicides. Regardless of age, homicides involving multiple stabbings should be considered sex-related, especially when the victim is female. PMID:23756522

  8. Small area estimation for semicontinuous data.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Hukum; Chambers, Ray

    2016-03-01

    Survey data often contain measurements for variables that are semicontinuous in nature, i.e. they either take a single fixed value (we assume this is zero) or they have a continuous, often skewed, distribution on the positive real line. Standard methods for small area estimation (SAE) based on the use of linear mixed models can be inefficient for such variables. We discuss SAE techniques for semicontinuous variables under a two part random effects model that allows for the presence of excess zeros as well as the skewed nature of the nonzero values of the response variable. In particular, we first model the excess zeros via a generalized linear mixed model fitted to the probability of a nonzero, i.e. strictly positive, value being observed, and then model the response, given that it is strictly positive, using a linear mixed model fitted on the logarithmic scale. Empirical results suggest that the proposed method leads to efficient small area estimates for semicontinuous data of this type. We also propose a parametric bootstrap method to estimate the MSE of the proposed small area estimator. These bootstrap estimates of the MSE are compared to the true MSE in a simulation study. PMID:24962713

  9. Combating Child Homicide: Preventive Policing for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Monique C.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2005-01-01

    High-profile media coverage of crimes against children has heightened public awareness of critical child safety needs and issues. However, numerous research studies in the area of child homicide have illustrated the importance of the power of science to correct false perceptions and misinformation, improving how to best serve and protect our…

  10. Trends in firearm usage in homicides and suicides in Bexar County Texas from 1982 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; Dimaio, Vincent J

    2008-12-01

    Numerous studies and epidemiological reports have been published which analyze firearm deaths by the type of firearm, the majority of which focus on a small time span and categorize weapon types by handgun, rifle, or shotgun. Few studies have focused on the caliber of weapon or long term trends in weapon use. We designed a retrospective study to analyze firearm deaths occurring between 1982 and 2004, considering manner of death (homicide versus suicide), firearm type, and caliber of the weapon. We found that the homicides by firearm steadily declined during the study period, mirroring the overall homicide rate during this period, whereas suicide by firearm rate remained steady. Handguns were the most commonly used weapon for both homicides and suicides during the 22-year period examined. Overall, the .38/.357 and the .22 caliber were the most commonly used handguns. The rate of .357/.38 handgun usage in homicides declined sharply over the study period whereas the use of the 9mm rose steadily, overtaking the .38/.357 in the late 1990s. The use of small caliber handguns steadily decreased in both homicidal and suicidal shootings whereas the .380 and .45 caliber handguns steadily increased in both homicidal and suicidal shootings. PMID:19259009

  11. An ecosysthemic vision of homicide.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Constantino, Patrícia

    2012-12-01

    Four cities were analyzed in term of homicide rates, namely two Brazilian and two Argentinian cities. In each country, a city with high homicide rates and another with low rates were studied over the same three-year period. The theoretical approach of complex systems was used as it examines the link between the local system in its internal interconnections, the influence of the external environment and psychic engagement, namely the interpenetration between the social system and subjectivities. The emphasis of the study and the comparisons were conducted using qualitative research with observation, the use of interviews and focal groups. The results show that in locations with high or low homicide rates, there is synergy between the external environment (macrosocial and macroeconomic politics), the social system (social organization, local government, community participation) and subjectivity, whether it is in the construction of solidarity or social disintegration. Studies about changes in the violent social systems show that persistent and coordinated actions that articulate economic, social and educational investments as measures to prevent and restrain homicides have a positive impact in historical terms. PMID:23175403

  12. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  13. [Understanding homicides in Latin America: poverty or institutionalization?].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Homicides occur the world over, but they are not homogeneously distributed by geographical areas (continents, countries, regions), either over long or short periods of time, or in social groups, namely age, gender, social class or ethnicity. Why are there more homicides in some countries than in others? Why do killings increase in some countries, while they decrease in others? There are two fundamental schools of thought for social explanations of crime and violence: those attributing its origins to poverty and inequality and those blaming institutionalization or social norms. To discuss these theories, this paper analyzes and compares the changes in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil in the first decade of the twenty-first century, where the homicide rate has decreased, increased and remained the same, respectively. Using the measurement of six variables (poverty, inequality, unemployment, national wealth, human development and the rule of law) and the technique of trajectory analysis, the results revealed that institutionalization is more to blame for the change than poverty and inequality. The text concludes that poverty and inequality affect crime and homicides, although not directly, but mediated by the institutions instead. PMID:23175393

  14. Development of a Small Area Sniffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Laurie A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop and implement a sniffer that is capable of measuring the mass flow rate of air through a small area of pinholes whose diameters are on the magnitude of thousandths of an inch. The sniffer is used to scan a strip of a leading edge panel, which is being used in a hybrid laminar flow control experiment, in order to survey the variations in the amount of air that passes through the porous surface at different locations. Spanwise scans are taken at different chord locations by increasing the pressure in a control volume that is connected to the sniffer head, and recording the drop in pressure as the air is allowed to flow through the tiny holes. This information is used to obtain the mass flow through the structure. More importantly, the deviations from the mean flow rate are found and used to determine whether there are any significant variations in the flow rate from one area to the next. The preliminary results show little deviation in the spanwise direction. These results are important when dealing with the location and amount of suction that will be applied to the leading edge in the active laminar flow control experiment.

  15. The narrative dynamics of grief after homicide.

    PubMed

    Rynearson, Edward K

    2012-01-01

    The homicidal death of a loved one is horrific. Dying from homicide can be more sudden, frightening, and stigmatizing than natural dying and may be followed by a sub-type of prolonged grief complicated by vivid narrative reenactment of the dying, intense feelings of remorse, and nihilistic despair. After a literature review of grief after homicide, the author clarifies the salient narrative themes of homicidal dying and their specific effects on trauma and separation distress. A preliminary model is then developed and illustrated in a therapy case outlining a technique (imaginative exposure) to diminish the disabling fixation of reenactment imagery, remorse, and despair. PMID:23057248

  16. Small area variations in health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, J; Gittelsohn

    1973-12-14

    Health information about total populations is a prerequisite for sound decision-making and planning in the health care field. Experience with a population-based health data system in Vermont reveals that there are wide variations in resource input, utilization of services, and expenditures among neighboring communities. Results show prima facie inequalities in the input of resources that are associated with income transfer from areas of lower expenditure to areas of higher expenditure. Variations in utilization indicate that there is considerable uncertainty about the effectiveness of different levels of aggregate, as well as specific kinds of, health services. Informed choices in the public regulation of the health care sector require knowledge of the relation between medical care systems and the population groups being served, and they should take into account the effect of regulation on equality and effectiveness. When population-based data on small areas are available, decisions to expand hospitals, currently based on institutional pressures, can take into account a community's regional ranking in regard to bed input and utilization rates. Proposals by hospitals for unit price increases and the regulation of the actuarial rate of insurance programs can be evaluated in terms of per capita expenditures and income transfer between geographically defined populations. The PSRO's can evaluate the wide variations in level of services among residents of different communities. Coordinated exercise of the authority vested in these regulatory programs may lead to explicit strategies to deal directly with inequality and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of health care delivery. Population-based health information systems, because they can provide information on the performance of health care systems and regulatory agencies, are an important step in the development of rational public policy for health. PMID:4750608

  17. Homicide victims among Australian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, E V

    1994-09-01

    The homicide rates for various immigrant groups in Australia were calculated, and the influence of the rate in countries of origin on immigrant rates and the relationship between the birthplace of the accused and victim were examined. Age-sex standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for homicide were calculated for the immigrant groups, based on 1984-1988 mortality data and 1986 census data. The Australian-born homicide rates were used as the standard. Standardised mortality ratios for countries of origin were derived from WHO data. A cross-tabulation of the birthplaces of the accused and the victim was compiled from 1989-1992 police records. Male SMRs ranged from 0.13 (P < 0.01) for immigrants from Africa and the Americas to 5.83 (P < 0.05) for Koreans. Several female groups had lower SMRs than the Australian-born, although none of these differences were significant. Indonesian females had the highest SMR (5.32, P < 0.01). There was a positive Spearman correlation between the ranking of homicide rates for the origin populations and the immigrants (males 0.64, P < 0.05; females 0.62, P < 0.05). Overall, 51.3 per cent of immigrants were killed by their compatriots. This ranged from zero for New Zealanders to 100 per cent for immigrants from the Middle East. In order to further identify factors contributing to the large differences in rates it is imperative to have information on the victim, the perpetrator and the circumstances surrounding the murder. PMID:7841261

  18. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. PMID:25921219

  19. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  20. Intrafamilial Homicide of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard

    2005-01-01

    An increase in interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD) has been observed in the past decade. However, little attention has been given to intrafamilial homicides of PWDD. This paper provides a preliminary description of these types of homicides as they affect PWDD. Content analysis of media accounts of intrafamilial…

  1. The Grief Response Following a Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussaint, Alvin F.

    Although grief reactions have been carefully examined, little information is available on the grief response following the murder of a loved one. Impressions of homicide survivors' grief reactions were obtained by the staff of a family support center who treated ten families that had experienced the loss of a family member by homicide.…

  2. Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

  3. Rescue Fantasies in Homicide-Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkin, James

    1976-01-01

    Homicide-suicides (N=13), events in which an individual murders one or more persons and kills himself immediately afterward, were studied, The results are interpreted to suggest that persons who commit homicide-suicide are acting out a three-party rescue fantasy in an attempt to resolve unbearable stress. (Author)

  4. Handgun sales, beer sales, and youth homicide, California, 1972-1993.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, S B; Berk, R A

    2001-01-01

    Whether regulating access to firearms and alcohol will reduce violent injuries is an important policy question. Empirical answers are difficult to obtain because only observational data are available. The present study estimated the association of firearm sales and alcohol sales with subsequent homicides, after adjusting statistically for potential confounders (e.g., unemployment rates) using California data from 1972 through 1993. Handgun sales and beer sales were lagged one year and used to explain variation in the homicides of Californians (e.g., 1990 sales were used to explain 1991 homicides). Differences across population groups were investigated, with a focus on 15- to 34-year-olds, the highest risk age group. Even when taking potential confounders in the base population into account, beer sales and handgun sales generally are associated positively one year later with homicide, particularly among young men. Reducing beer sales may reduce homicides. And, although they represent a small fraction of existing firearms, regulating the number of handguns sold may reduce the number of homicides. PMID:11469152

  5. Relationship-Precipitated Homicides as Mediated by Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixler, Andrew Thomas

    Homicide is the 12th leading cause in absolute number of deaths in the United States. Research has suggested that: (1) minorities have a greater homicide risk than do Anglo-Americans; (2) males are much more likely than females to be homicide victims; (3) the highest overall homicide rate occurs between the ages of 25 and 39; (4) among minorities,…

  6. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  7. Homicide-suicides compared to homicides and suicides: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Geissbühler, Michael; Zwahlen, Marcel; Killias, Martin; Tal, Kali; Egger, Matthias

    2013-12-10

    Homicide-suicides, the murder of one or several individuals followed by the suicide of the perpetrator, are rare but have devastating effects on families and communities. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing perpetrators of homicide-suicides with perpetrators of simple homicides and suicides and examined the proportion of firearm use and its correlation with firearm availability. We searched Medline and Embase from inception to July 2012 and identified 27 eligible studies. Perpetrators of homicide-suicides were older and more likely to be male and married to or separated from their victims than perpetrator of simple homicides or suicides. Influence of alcohol and a history of domestic violence or unemployment were less prevalent in homicide-suicides than in homicides. The proportion of firearm use in homicide-suicides varied across countries and was highest in the USA, Switzerland and South Africa, followed by Australia, Canada, The Netherlands and England and Wales, with a strong correlation between the use of firearms and the level of civilian gun ownership in the country. Our results indicate that homicide-suicides represent a distinct entity, with characteristics distinguishing them both from homicides and suicides. PMID:24314498

  8. The Associations between Infant Homicide, Homicide, and Suicide Rates: An Analysis of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates…

  9. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

  10. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

  11. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  12. Child Homicide: A Global Public Health Concern.

    PubMed

    Devakumar, Delan; Osrin, David

    2016-04-01

    In this perspective, Delan Devakumar and David Osrin discuss Abrahams and colleagues' findings in the context of evidence about child homicide in different countries, and consider etiology along with implications for child protection and prevention. PMID:27115911

  13. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  14. Homicides - United States, 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Logan, Joseph E; Hall, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Dawn; Stevens, Mark R

    2013-11-22

    According to 1981-2009 data, homicide accounts for 16,000-26,000 deaths annually in the United States and ranks within the top four leading causes of death among U.S. residents aged 1-40 years. Homicide can have profound long-term emotional consequences on families and friends of victims and on witnesses to the violence, as well as cause excessive economic costs to residents of affected communities. For years, homicide rates have been substantially higher among certain populations. Previous reports have found that homicides are higher among males, adolescents and young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and Hispanics. The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR) described similar findings for the year 2007. For example, the 2011 report showed that the 2007 homicide rate was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (23.1 deaths per 100,000), followed by AI/ANs (7.8 deaths per 100,000), Hispanics (7.6 deaths per 100,000), non-Hispanic whites (2.7 deaths per 100,000), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) (2.4 deaths per 100,000). In addition, non-Hispanic black men aged 20-24 years were at greatest risk for homicide in 2007, with a rate that exceeded 100 deaths per 100,000 population. Other studies have reported that community factors such as poverty and economic inequality and individual factors such as unemployment and involvement in criminal activities can play a substantial role in these persistent disparities in homicide rates. Public health strategies are needed in communities at high risk for homicide to prevent violence and save lives. PMID:24264509

  15. Revenge and psychological adjustment after homicidal loss.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence. It is therefore likely that individuals bereaved by homicide experience high levels of revenge, which may hamper efforts to cope with traumatic loss. The relationship between revenge and psychological adjustment following homicidal loss has not yet been empirically examined. In the current cross-sectional study, we used self-report data from 331 spouses, family members and friends of homicide victims to examine the relationships between dispositional revenge and situational revenge on the one hand and symptom-levels of PTSD and complicated grief, as well as indices of positive functioning, on the other hand. Furthermore, the association between revenge and socio-demographic and offense-related factors was examined. Participants were recruited from a governmental support organization, a website with information for homicidally bereaved individuals, and members of support groups. Levels of both dispositional and situational revenge were positively associated with symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief, and negatively with positive functioning. Participants reported significantly less situational revenge in cases where the perpetrator was a direct family member than cases where the perpetrator was an indirect family member, friend, or someone unknown. Homicidally bereaved individuals reported more situational revenge, but not more dispositional revenge than a sample of students who had experienced relatively mild interpersonal transgressions. PMID:24910007

  16. The epidemiology of homicide in Chicago.

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, S.; Benbow, N.; Good, G.

    1996-01-01

    Public health agencies across the country are beginning to view violence as a problem that demands a public health response. However, before such a response can be mounted effectively, there must be a sound data-based understanding of this epidemic. With this in mind, the Chicago Department of Public Health implemented an epidemiological analysis of homicide in the city. Using vital records, police data, and census data, we found that the city's homicide rate in 1993 was 31 per 100,000 population. This rate placed Chicago 14th among other large cities in the United States and 4th out of the eight cities with a population > 1 million. The homicide rate in the city has been increasing over the past 30 years, but not steadily. For some intervals, the homicide rate has remained almost constant. African Americans, Hispanics, the young, and males are overrepresented in the epidemic. While guns accounted for almost 75% of all homicides in Chicago in 1993, gangs accounted for only 15%. Homicide cannot be viewed in isolation from the context of society. The literature suggests that poverty and racism are important risk factors for this epidemic. Although we cannot wait until these risk factors are remedied to develop violence prevention interventions, we also cannot proceed effectively without understanding this context. PMID:8990803

  17. Effects of Maryland's law banning "Saturday night special" handguns on homicides.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Hepburn, Lisa M

    2002-03-01

    Small, inexpensive, often poorly made handguns known as "Saturday night specials" are disproportionately involved in crime. Maryland banned the sale of Saturday night specials effective January 1, 1990. During the 2 years between the law's passage in 1988 and its effective date, legal handgun sales in Maryland were 34% higher than expected (p = 0.09). Interrupted time-series analysis of age-adjusted homicide rates for 1975-1998 with statistical controls for trends in two neighboring states, social and economic variables, and temporal patterns in Maryland's homicide rates was used to assess the effect of the law. Estimates of the Saturday night special ban effects depended on the assumption made about the timing of the law's effects. Models that assumed a delayed or gradual effect of the Saturday night special ban produced estimates indicating that firearm homicide rates were 6.8-11.5% lower than would have been expected without the Saturday night special ban (p < or =0.05). The model that assumed an immediate, constant change in response to the law showed no law effect, unless an outlier was excluded from the analysis. Excluding this outlier, the model estimated a 15% increase in firearm homicides associated with the Saturday night special ban. None of the models revealed significant law effects on nonfirearm homicides. PMID:11867351

  18. A descriptive study of sexual homicide in Canada: implications for police investigation.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Martineau, Melissa

    2013-12-01

    Few empirical studies have been conducted that examine the phenomenon of sexual homicide, and among these studies, many have been limited by small sample size. Although interesting and informative, these studies may not be representative of the greater phenomenon of sexual murder and may be subject to sampling bias that could have significant effects on results. The current study aims to provide a descriptive analysis of the largest sample of sexual homicide cases across Canada in the past 62 years. In doing so, the study aims to examine offender and victim characteristics, victim targeting and access, and modus operandi. Findings show that cases of sexual homicide and sexual murderers included in the current study differ in many aspects from the portrait of the sexual murderer and his or her crime depicted in previous studies. The authors' results may prove useful to the police officers responsible for the investigation of these crimes. PMID:22871587

  19. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Meta-analysis of the population-based studies of homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger homicide and family homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 million to 1 in 11.5 million people per year) was calculated by meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger homicide were mostly adult males and the homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will

  20. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment—lethal and non-lethal—across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date. PMID:22042922

  1. Family Structure, Welfare Spending, and Child Homicide in Developed Democracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…

  2. Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Homicide in Sweden, 1971-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somander, Lis K. H.; Rammer, Lennart M.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, 96 children (age 0-14) were victims of homicide in Sweden, an average annual rate of 0.6 per 100,000 children. Most homicides were intrafamilial in nature. Cases of child abuse by a parent and cases of sexual abuse among the homicide victims were infrequent. (Author/JDD)

  3. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of an employee can be entitled to...

  4. Homicide-suicide (dyadic death), homicide, and firearms use in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Travis, Angela R; Johnson, Luke J; Milroy, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Homicide-suicide forms a distinct form of homicide. An analysis of cases in the Yorkshire and Humberside region of England between 1991 and 2005 revealed 37 episodes with 42 victims. Previous studies have shown a high rate of use of firearms. Over the last 2 decades firearms legislation has become more restrictive. In this study all assailants were male, mean age 46.8 years. The commonest method of homicide was strangulation (36%) with 16% killed by firearms. This is a reduction compared with a previous study in the same region. All killers who shot their victims killed themselves with firearms. There were no multiple killings with firearms in this study and no stranger killings. Hanging was the commonest method of suicide. During the same period the use of firearms as a method of homicide increased in England and Wales with handguns, the most common weapon. Nationally, suicide after homicide has remained at a similar rate over the half century and is an uncommon phenomenon. Firearms use remains low in both homicide and homicide-suicide episodes in England, and further analysis is required to determine changes in patterns of killing. PMID:18043018

  5. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. VIEW OF SMALL QUARRY FACE AND WORK AREA IN MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SMALL QUARRY FACE AND WORK AREA IN MIDDLE OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  7. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  8. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  9. Violence in Jamaica: an analysis of homicides 1998-2002.

    PubMed

    Lemard, G; Hemenway, D

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to create a profile of Jamaican homicide victims and to describe the circumstances, motives, and the weapons used in homicide incidents. The authors read the police narratives for all Jamaican homicides 1998-2002 and coded them using a predetermined set of variables. Analyses were conducted to describe victim characteristics, motive, and weapon use. The majority of homicide victims were male (over 89%), and 15-44 years old (80%). The rate of homicide for males age 15-44 years was 121 per 100,000 compared with a rate of 12 per 100,000 for females in the same age group. The main motives for homicide were disputes (29%) and reprisals (30%). Gunshot wounds were the cause of death in 66% of all homicides. Guns were used primarily in reprisals, robbery, and drug/gang related homicides; in half of all dispute related homicides the perpetrator used a knife. Homicides in Jamaica are not primarily gang or robbery related. Rather, they are mainly caused by arguments or reprisals. Homicide has become a common feature of dispute resolution in Jamaica. PMID:16461414

  10. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  11. Violence in Jamaica: an analysis of homicides 1998–2002

    PubMed Central

    Lemard, G; Hemenway, D

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to create a profile of Jamaican homicide victims and to describe the circumstances, motives, and the weapons used in homicide incidents. The authors read the police narratives for all Jamaican homicides 1998–2002 and coded them using a predetermined set of variables. Analyses were conducted to describe victim characteristics, motive, and weapon use. The majority of homicide victims were male (over 89%), and 15–44 years old (80%). The rate of homicide for males age 15–44 years was 121 per 100 000 compared with a rate of 12 per 100 000 for females in the same age group. The main motives for homicide were disputes (29%) and reprisals (30%). Gunshot wounds were the cause of death in 66% of all homicides. Guns were used primarily in reprisals, robbery, and drug/gang related homicides; in half of all dispute related homicides the perpetrator used a knife. Homicides in Jamaica are not primarily gang or robbery related. Rather, they are mainly caused by arguments or reprisals. Homicide has become a common feature of dispute resolution in Jamaica. PMID:16461414

  12. Homicide in five southern states: a firearms phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Ruben, E R; Leeper, J D

    1981-03-01

    Homicide is a leading contributor to loss of life in the productive years. Of the 20,000 homicides yearly in the United States, the majority are committed with firearms. Because homicide rates and gun ownership are highest in the southern states, a descriptive study of 20,980 homicides occurring in five southern states between 1967-1975 was done with particular emphasis on the role of firearms. Total rates in this study were 60% to 85% higher than concurrent national rates. Homicide with firearms accounted for 76.2%, and was the only method of homicide to show a significant increase in rate or a distinctive age distribution. Homicide in the US is a firearms phenomenon. Appropriate and effective regulation of access to firearms is an obvious first step in the prevention of this public health problem. PMID:7221624

  13. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  14. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  15. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  16. Homicide facilitated by inhalation of chloroform.

    PubMed

    Nashelsky, M B; Dix, J D; Adelstein, E H

    1995-01-01

    Three related homicides in which each decedent had significant concentrations of chloroform in blood, fat, brain and/or liver are described. The tissue concentrations of chloroform in one of three decedents were within reported lethal ranges. The concentrations in the remaining two decedents were less than lethal but were well above blood levels in nonoccupationally exposed, healthy subjects. The cause of death in one decedent with sublethal chloroform concentrations was suffocation; the cause of death in the other decedent could not be determined with certainty. The manner of death in each case was homicide. Through a review of the literature the authors discuss the history of chloroform as an inhalation anesthetic and the history of chloroform as an agent of abuse, suicide, assault, and homicide. Blood and/or tissue concentrations of chloroform in nonoccupationally exposed, healthy subjects and victims of suicide or homicide from previous reports are compared and contrasted with the amounts in blood and/or tissue in the three subjects described in this study. The authors conclude that, in addition to a direct lethal effect, chloroform may be used to incapacitate a victim of assault who then dies by another cause. PMID:7876797

  17. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  18. Adolescent Homicide: Towards Assessment of Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Peter J.; Rowton-Lee, Martyn A.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the mental health literature relevant to homicidal children and adolescents. Background and situational factors relevant to risk are described. Background factors include the witnessing of serious violence, both live and on the screen, as well as abuse through neglect and deprivation. Discusses other factors that contribute to homicidal…

  19. Young Killers: The Challenge of Juvenile Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Kathleen M.

    This book assembles and synthesizes some of the latest available information, research findings, and informed opinions regarding the parameters of homicide by youths and concerning the nature of young killers themselves. It provides a framework for understanding youths who kill, for moving forward with treatment, and for reducing violence in…

  20. Racial Segregation and Black Urban Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ruth D.; Krivo, Lauren J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of data from large U.S. central cities indicates that African-American homicide victimization by acquaintances and strangers (but not family members) increased with residential segregation, while poverty and income inequality were not significant influences. African-American high school graduation rates were positively related to family…

  1. UAV-based hyperspectral monitoring of small freshwater area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, I.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Honkavaara, Eija; Lindfors, A.; Saari, H.; Markelin, L.; Hakala, T.; Nurminen, K.

    2014-10-01

    Recent development in compact, lightweight hyperspectral imagers have enabled UAV-based remote sensing with reasonable costs. We used small hyperspectral imager based on Fabry-Perot interferometer for monitoring small freshwater area in southern Finland. In this study we shortly describe the utilized technology and the field studies performed. We explain processing pipeline for gathered spectral data and introduce target detection-based algorithm for estimating levels of algae, aquatic chlorophyll and turbidity in freshwater. Certain challenges we faced are pointed out.

  2. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  3. Homicide surveillance--United States, 1979-1988.

    PubMed

    Hammett, M; Powell, K E; O'Carroll, P W; Clanton, S T

    1992-05-29

    From 1979 through 1988, 217,578 homicides occurred in the United States, an average of greater than 21,000 per year. Homicide rates during this 10-year period were about 1.5 times higher than the rates during the 1950s. The national homicide rate of 10.7/100,000 in 1980 was the highest ever recorded. Homicide occurs disproportionately among young adults. Among the 15- to 34-year age group, homicide is the fourth most common cause of death among white females, the third most common cause among white males, and the most common cause among both black females and black males. In 1988, nearly two-thirds (61%) of homicide victims were killed with a firearm, 75% of these with a handgun. More than half (52%) of homicide victims were killed by a family member or acquaintance, and about one-third (35%) of homicides stemmed from a conflict not associated with another felony. The homicide mortality rate among young black males 15-24 years of age has risen 54% since 1985. Ninety-nine percent of the increase was accounted for by homicides in which the victim was killed with a firearm. The surveillance data summarized in this report should assist public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers in addressing this important public health problem. PMID:1635547

  4. Canadian firearms legislation and effects on homicide 1974 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-08-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using data obtained from Statistics Canada from 1974 to 2008. Three statistical methods were applied to search for any associated effects of firearms legislation. Interrupted time series regression, ARIMA, and Joinpoint analysis were performed. Neither were any significant beneficial associations between firearms legislation and homicide or spousal homicide rates found after the passage of three Acts by the Canadian Parliament--Bill C-51 (1977), C-17 (1991), and C-68 (1995)--nor were effects found after the implementation of licensing in 2001 and the registration of rifles and shotguns in 2003. After the passage of C-68, a decrease in the rate of the decline of homicide by firearm was found by interrupted regression. Joinpoint analysis also found an increasing trend in homicide by firearm rate post the enactment of the licensing portion of C-68. Other factors found to be associated with homicide rates were median age, unemployment, immigration rates, percentage of population in low-income bracket, Gini index of income equality, population per police officer, and incarceration rate. This study failed to demonstrate a beneficial association between legislation and firearm homicide rates between 1974 and 2008. PMID:22328660

  5. Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Phillip D.

    This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

  6. Small Buildings in Earthquake Areas. Educational Building Digest 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, D.

    This booklet is intended for builders and others who actually construct small buildings in earthquake areas and not for professionally qualified architects or engineers. In outline form with sketches the following topics are discussed: general construction and design principles; foundations; earth walls; brick, block, and stone walls; timber frame…

  7. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Suffla, Shahnaaz; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Arendse, Najuwa

    2008-01-01

    Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic context, suggesting that

  8. Small area analysis using micro-diffraction techniques

    SciTech Connect

    GOEHNER,RAYMOND P.; TISSOT JR.,RALPH G.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.

    2000-02-11

    An overall trend toward smaller electronic packages and devices makes it increasingly important and difficult to obtain meaningful diffraction information from small areas. X-ray micro-diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and Kossel are micro-diffraction techniques used for crystallographic analysis including texture, phase identification and strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements of areas between 10 {micro}m to 100 {micro}m. For areas this small glass capillary optics are used for producing a usable collimated x-ray beam. These optics are designed to reflect x-rays below the critical angle therefore allowing for larger solid acceptance angle at the x-ray source resulting in brighter smaller x-ray beams. The determination of residual strain using micro-diffraction techniques is very important to the semiconductor industry. Residual stresses have caused voiding of the interconnect metal which then destroys electrical continuity. Being able to determine the residual stress helps industry to predict failures from the aging effects of interconnects due to this stress voiding. Stress measurements would be impossible using a conventional x-ray diffractometer; however, utilizing a 30{micro}m glass capillary these small areas are readily assessable for analysis. Kossel produces a wide angle diffraction pattern from fluorescent x-rays generated in the sample by an e-beam in a SEM. This technique can yield very precise lattice parameters for determining strain. Fig. 2 shows a Kossel pattern from a Ni specimen. Phase analysis on small areas is also possible using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EBSD) and x-ray micro-diffraction techniques. EBSD has the advantage of allowing the user to observe the area of interest using the excellent imaging capabilities of the SEM. An EDS detector has

  9. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide. PMID:17596343

  10. Small-area decimators for delta-sigma video sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azabache Villar, Erika; Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    A delta-sigma, or sigma-delta, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) comprises both a modulator, which implements oversampling and noise shaping, and a decimator, which implements low-pass filtering and downsampling. Whereas these ADCs are ubiquitous in audio applications, their usage in video applications is emerging. Because of oversampling, it is preferable to integrate delta-sigma ADCs at the pixel level of megapixel video sensors. Moreover, with pixel-level applications, area usage per ADC is much more important than with chip-level applications, where there is only one or a few ADCs per chip. Recently, a small-area decimator was presented that is suitable for pixel-level applications. However, though the pixel-level design is small enough for invisible-band video sensors, it is too large for visible-band ones. As shown here, nanoscale CMOS processes offer a solution to this problem. Given constant specifications, small-area decimators are designed, simulated, and laid out, full custom, for 180, 130, and 65nm standard CMOS processes. Area usage of the whole decimator is analyzed to establish a roadmap for the design and demonstrate that it could be competitive compared to other digital pixel sensors, based on Nyquist-rate ADCs, that are being commercialized.

  11. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality. PMID:26580723

  12. Firearm availability and the incidence of suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1988-01-01

    The present studied explored the validity of several indirect measures of firearm ownership in the states of the USA: the percentage of homicides and suicides committed with firearms, the accidental death rate from firearms, the strictness of state handgun control laws, and subscription rates to firearm magazines. These measures were then correlated with rates of suicide and homicide, and it was found that states with a greater availability of firearms had higher firearm suicide rates and higher firearm homicide rates. PMID:3274888

  13. [Simulation of homicide to hide child's suicide].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Driever, F; Madea, B

    2001-01-01

    A case of pretending a homicide to conceal a child suicide is reported in which characteristic findings of the postmortem examination and conclusions from the analysis of forensic autopsy series provided substantial support for the police investigation. In the late night hours of a spring day the police authorities were informed that a 10-year-old girl had been found dead on a playground near its parents' house. As injuries of the neck were recognized by the police officers a homicide investigation was initiated. The post mortem examination showed a furrow symmetrically slanting from the front to the nape of the neck, discrete punctate haemorrhages of the skin of the face and numerous 'tram-line' bruises of the back, buttocks and extremities. These findings indicated as cause and manner of death suicidal hanging following corporal punishment. Confronted with these conclusions the mother immediately made a corresponding confession. PMID:11591060

  14. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  15. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest. PMID:26174557

  16. Homicidal Cut Throat: The Forensic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Samaraweera, Jeewana C

    2016-01-01

    The forensic pathologists have a challenging task during the ascertainment of the manner of death in cut throat injuries when presented with no proper history or witnesses. We report a rare homicide, where a person was killed by the father of his gay partner. A 51-year-old married man was found dead in his car on the driving seat at a road. There were blood stains on the dash board and windscreen. No weapon had been recovered. At autopsy, a deep, oblique, long incised injury was found on the front of the neck. There were no hesitant or defense injuries. The cause of death was cut throat. The findings were compatible with a homicidal cut throat by a right handed person from behind after head being restrained firmly. Findings were compatible with the history provided by the suspect. PMID:27134896

  17. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

  18. Suicide and homicide in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1995-10-01

    Suicide and homicide rates are lower in Costa Rica than in the United States. Firearms are used less often for suicide and for murder in Costa Rica than in the United States; hanging is more common as a method for suicide in Costa Rica and cutting/piercing more common as a method for murder. Suicide rates do not increase with age in Costa Rica, while the chances of being murdered do increase with age, unlike the United States. PMID:7500855

  19. Cultural processes and homicide across nations.

    PubMed

    Altheimer, Irshad

    2013-07-01

    This article is concerned with the macro-level propositions of Nisbett and Cohen's culture of honor thesis. The results suggest that the culture of honor proxy has a strong positive influence on homicide across nations. In fact, culture of honor exhibited larger effect sizes than all of the important social-structural controls. These results suggest that consideration of cultural processes is important for understanding macro-level variation in violence. PMID:22436734

  20. Alleged dowry death: a study of homicidal burns.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Mohanthy, Sachindananda

    2006-04-01

    Homicidal burning of married women in India is a major concern for the Government, law-enforcing authorities, the judiciary, the police and medico-legal experts all over the country who are associated with dowry disputes. Dowry death, a heinous crime, is gradually engulfing and polluting the entire society. Sections 304(B) and 498(A) of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) have been introduced and Sections 174 Criminal Procedure Code (Cr PC) and 176 Cr PC have been modified but, instead of deterring dowry deaths, the occurrences are increasing day by day and the number of cases coming for post-mortem examination is rising. Both parties, that is, the parents and in-laws of the deceased, are becoming adept at manufacturing circumstantial evidence to serve their own interests. Therefore, to establish the truth and for the smooth administration of justice, reliable unbiased medical evidence has to be corroborated. This study presents retrospective research carried out in the tertiary care teaching hospital of MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, Eastern India, for a five-year period between January 1998 to December 2002. From a total of 58 burned wives, 32 (55.1%) were homicidal burns. These cases were analyzed in view of epidemiological and medico-legal aspects. The majority of the affected women (90.63%) were in the 18 to 26 years of age group. Death occurred within the first few years of marriage and most of them had no children. All the victims belonged to the Hindu religion and 62.5% of incidents occurred during the daytime. In 71.87% cases the incident occurred in rural areas. Eighty-three per cent of cases occurred in a joint family within the house. In most cases, kerosene was the accelerant and flame was the causative agent. In more than 68.75% of cases the total body surface area involved was more than 80%. Most victims died at the time of the incident, or within the subsequent 24 hours, due to hypovolumeic shock. The education status in 70.21% cases was either illiterate

  1. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  2. Variations in Wounding by Relationship Intimacy in Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trojan, Carrie; Krull, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous examples in the homicide literature of a presumed connection between the victim-offender relationship and the manner, extent, and body location of wounds inflicted in homicides. The current study examined variations in wounding patterns according to the intimacy of the victim-offender relationship in a sample of urban homicides…

  3. International and interstate comparisons of homicide among young males.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, L A; Kleinman, J C

    1990-06-27

    The homicide rate for males 15 through 24 years of age in the United States was compared with the rates in 21 other developed countries. The US homicide rate, 21.9 per 100,000, was more than four times higher than the next highest rate in Scotland (5.0). Most countries had rates that were between 1 and 3 per 100,000. The lowest rates were in Japan and Austria, each with rates below 0.6 per 100,000 males 15 through 24 years of age. Three quarters of the homicides in the United States resulted from the use of firearms contrasted with less than a quarter of all homicides in the comparison countries. The US homicide rate for black males 15 through 24 years of age (85.6) was more than seven times the rate for white males (11.2). In 1987 there were only four states that had homicide rates among white males that were as low as the rates among males in the comparison countries. The lowest state rate among young black males was still seven times the highest rate abroad. There are about 4000 homicides per year among young males in the United States. If the US homicide rate could be reduced to that in the country with the next highest rate, more than 3000 lives would be saved. PMID:2348540

  4. The Prediction of Violence and Homicide in Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin; Homish, D. Lynn; Wei, Evelyn H.; Crawford, Anne M.; Farrington, David P.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Creemers, Judith; Koehler, Steven A.; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In this prospective study, the authors predicted violence and homicide in 3 representative school samples (N = 1,517). Participants were part of a longitudinal, multiple cohort study on the development of delinquency in boys from late childhood to early adulthood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Thirty-three participants were convicted of homicide,…

  5. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p < 0.0001), planned homicides, female perpetrators (p < 0.0001), shootings (p = 0.0456) and poisonings (p = 0.0289) were higher in the fictional sample. Lothian & Borders cases were almost all single killings, mostly unplanned, with a far greater rate of homicide by kitchen knives (p < 0.0001) and hitting/kicking (p = 0.0005) by intoxicated perpetrators. Control of access to pointed kitchen knives by members of certain groups may reduce homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. PMID:24661708

  6. Exposure to Local Homicides and Early Educational Achievement in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudillo, Mónica L.; Torche, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of children's exposure to local violence on grade failure in Mexico. We construct an annual panel of all elementary schools from 1990 to 2010 and merge municipality-level homicide rates to analyze the effect of exposure to local homicide. Using a variety of causal inference techniques, we consistently find that…

  7. 20 CFR 222.4 - Homicide of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Homicide of employee. 222.4 Section 222.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.4 Homicide of employee. No person convicted of the felonious and...

  8. Intimate Partner Homicide in Chicago over 29 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone

    1995-01-01

    Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)

  9. Student Homicidal Violence in Schools: An International Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…

  10. A suicide disguised as a homicide: return to Thor Bridge.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, J A; Long, S; Barnard, J J

    1998-06-01

    Suicides staged as homicides are uncommon. We present a case of a self-inflicted gunshot wound of the chest disguised by the victim as a homicide, using a method described by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in his Sherlock Holmes story, "The Problem of Thor Bridge." PMID:9662119

  11. Alcohol use and interpersonal violence: alcohol detected in homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Mercy, J A; Loya, F; Rosenberg, M L; Smith, J C; Allen, N H; Vargas, L; Kolts, R

    1986-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between alcohol use and homicide victimization, we used data from the Los Angeles City Police Department and the Los Angeles Medical Examiner's Office to study 4,950 victims of criminal homicides in Los Angeles in the period 1970-79. Alcohol was detected in the blood of 1,883 (46 per cent) of the 4,092 victims who were tested. In 30 per cent of those tested, the blood alcohol level was greater than or equal to 100 mg/100 ml, the level of legal intoxication in most states. Blood alcohol was present most commonly in victims who were male, young, and Latino, categories where rates have been increasing at an alarming pace. Alcohol was also detected most commonly in victims killed during weekends, when homicides occurred in bars or restaurants, when homicides resulted from physical fights or verbal arguments, when victims were friends or acquaintances of offenders, and when homicides resulted from stabbings. The evidence for alcohol use by homicide victims focuses attention on the need for controlled epidemiologic studies of the role played by alcohol as a risk factor in homicide and on the importance of considering situational variables in developing approaches to homicide prevention. PMID:3946695

  12. Homicide-Suicides between Adult Sexual Intimates: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easteal, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examined retrospective data on homicide-suicide in Australia to determine what differentiates homicides between adult sexual intimates that include suicide of offender from those that do not. Found that, if offender was male, estranged from partner, and used gun to kill more than one victim, or was older with ailing wife, he was more apt to also…

  13. Bringing "Booze" Back In: The Relationship between Alcohol and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert Nash

    1995-01-01

    Tested hypotheses concerning the relationship between alcohol and homicide from four major theoretical perspectives; specific predictions on the causes of types of homicide were also derived. Findings revealed that alcohol consumption rates change the way important predictors, such as poverty and deterrence, are related to specific types of…

  14. Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area

    SciTech Connect

    Cotroneo, V.; Conconi, P.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-11

    We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

  15. Extreme violence--homicide; an analysis of 265 cases from the offices of JMO Colombo and Ragama--a study from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, P A S; Kitulwatte, I D G

    2009-04-01

    Violence in a society can be categorized into many areas such as interpersonal violence, domestic violence, violence against children, violence of human rights, violence due to wars etc. The most extreme form of violence is killing of another human. To study whether the underlying reasons (motives) for killing has a relationship to the methods employed for killing. A retrospective descriptive study based on autopsy reports, magistrate orders and case notes attached was carried out on all the cases examined at the office of the JMO Colombo and Ragama from July 2005 to June 2006. The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Out of 265 autopsy examinations alleged to be homicides, 39% of deaths were related to terrorist acts while previous enmity was recorded in 35% of cases. The commonest method of homicide was firearms (31%) while explosives recorded the second highest (28%). Blunt force and sharp force trauma were the reasons for 23% and 14% of homicides respectively. Almost all the deaths related to war was caused by firearms and bombs (96%) where as 47% of previous enmity deaths were caused by firearms. Firearms were never used in homicides of sudden provocation or drunken brawls. The increased use of firearms was not only seen in terrorism related homicides, but also in homicides related to previous enmity. Further research is needed in this area as to why it occurs despite having a tight firearm policy in Sri Lanka. PMID:19398365

  16. A case of "atypical homicidal" cut-throat injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar S, Ajay; Kumar Ms, Vinay; Babu, Yp Raghavendra; Prasad, Mahadeshwara

    2016-09-01

    Cut-throats can be of homicidal, suicidal or accidental origin. In cases of death from a cut-throat, distinguishing the cause is one of the important functions in crime investigation. The features that differentiate suicidal and homicidal cut-throat injuries are the presence of hesitation cuts, depth of wound, signs of struggle, edges of the wound, etc. In the case of a suicidal cut-throat, it is not uncommon to find hesitation cuts but in a homicidal cut-throat, it is uncommon. We present a case of a homicidal cut-throat injury but with hesitation cuts and tailing over the neck, unlike the classical description of homicidal cut-throat injury. This resulted from a curved, sharp and moderately heavy weapon. PMID:27381317

  17. Region of birth, migration and homicide rates of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

    1997-08-01

    A study was made of all homicide deaths among black Americans during the period 1979-1991 in order to test two competing hypotheses about region of birth and region of death. One hypothesis was that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates in every region of the US. The competing hypothesis was that blacks who did not migrate out of their region of birth had the highest homicide rates. We found that Southern-born blacks had the highest homicide rates among the population 35+ years old in the Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Yet non-migrants (region-born population) had higher rates than their Southern-born counterparts among the population 15-34 years old. Long distance migrants who were born in the Northeast, West or were foreign-born had the lowest homicide rates, by far. The distressing implications of these findings for public health efforts to prevent violent death are discussed. PMID:9426984

  18. Small Area Array-Based LED Luminaire Design

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Yuan

    2008-01-09

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency LED luminaire designs based on small area array-based gallium nitride diodes. Novel GaN-based LED array designs are described, specifically addressing the thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements for the incorporation of such arrays into viable solid-state LED luminaires. This work resulted in the demonstration of an integrated luminaire prototype of 1000 lumens cool white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 89.4 lm/W at CCT of 6000oK and CRI of 73; and performance of 903 lumens warm white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 63.0 lm/W at CCT of 2800oK and CRI of 82. In addition, up to 1275 lumens cool white light output at 114.2 lm/W and 1156 lumens warm white light output at 76.5 lm/W were achieved if the reflector was not used. The success to integrate small area array-based LED designs and address thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements was clearly achieved in these luminaire prototypes with outstanding performance and high efficiency.

  19. Homicidal tandem bullet wound of the chest.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A J; Busuttil, A; Clifton, B; Sibbald, P

    1997-03-01

    An unusual case of a homicidal gunshot wound to the chest is reported in which two bullets were fired in unison as tandem bullets from a handgun. At autopsy, two intact bullets were retrieved from the body of the victim, yet there was only one entrance wound and a single bullet track across the chest wall and thoracic organs. An examination of the weapon and ammunition supported the likelihood of tandem bullets and suggested the probable mechanism for this event. Very few similar cases have been documented. PMID:9095302

  20. Home Invasion Homicide Offenders: An Analysis of Subsequent Prison Rule Violations.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jonathan; Bonner, Heidi; Visconte, Shelley; Vigen, Mark; Woods, S O

    2015-01-01

    This study adds to the small body of research on home invasion by describing the circumstances surrounding home invasions that resulted in the death of a resident. The 2 most common types of home invasion homicides (HIHs) involved "drug ripoffs" and robberies of older adults for money and property. The study also examined subsequent rule-violating behavior of 132 HIH inmates while incarcerated. The rate of rule violations among HIH inmates was similar to a broader cohort of incarcerated homicide offenders. A logistic regression model identified variation in assaultive prison behavior based on some routine predictors (age, education, race, and prior imprisonment) and 2 associated with the crime (method of killing and age by gender of victims). PMID:26439214

  1. A case of stalking in the workplace and subsequent sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kimberley A

    2007-05-01

    A case of stalking in the workplace and subsequent sexual homicide by a 33-year-old male is reported. Following several months of stalking a 38-year-old female, the male subject went to the woman's office after business hours and restrained, raped, and murdered her. The cause of death was multiple stab wounds. The facts of the case reveal that the subject fits a predatory-type stalker, which represents a small subgroup within stalkers that has received little attention. Unlike other types of stalkers, the predatory stalker gives little warning to their victim (or multiple victims), as their stalking behaviors tend not to be very invasive or harassing. In general, most stalkers are not physically violent; however, predatory-type stalkers, given their tendency for sexual violence, are dangerous and the importance of identifying them is emphasized. Factors associated with perpetrators of sexual homicide are discussed. PMID:17456104

  2. Commentary: Homicide-suicide in older adults--cultural and contextual perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bell, Carl C; McBride, Dominica F

    2010-01-01

    The authors comment on "Domestic Homicide and Homicide-Suicide: The Older Offender" by Bourget et al., who learned that after a domestic homicide in Canada, the older offender frequently commits suicide. The authors comment on the ubiquity of single homicide-suicide across cultures, the incidence of single homicide-suicide in various cultures, the common patterns and differences in single homicide-suicides across cultures, ethnic and gender differences in single homicide-suicide within different cultures, characteristics of the phenomenon of mass murder followed by suicide and ethnic differences within this type of homicide-suicide, and differences in suicidal patterns in different cultures. Suicide and suicide preceded by homicide (single or multiple) are so rare, it is currently impossible to draw any substantive conclusions about the incidence of these phenomena in various contexts; however, ideas for consideration in addressing homicide-suicide are provided. PMID:20852215

  3. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    PubMed

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described. PMID:11700659

  4. A case of suicidal suffocation simulating homicide.

    PubMed

    d'Aloja, Ernesto; De Giorgio, Fabio; Ausania, Francesco; Cascini, Fidelia

    2011-05-01

    This case concerns an unusual suicidal plastic bag suffocation. An elderly white man was found dead and partially disrobed in his apartment lying supine on a sofa with a plastic bag closed by a rope over the head and the upper and lower extremities tightly tied with two other ropes, the end of both arranged into slipknots (self-rescue mechanism). Police investigations found no pornography in the apartment, and circumstantial data alleged no psychiatric disorders or suicidal intentions. The autopsy excluded signs of struggle and sexual intercourse as well as any type of injury or physical illness. Chemical analyses on the peripheral blood excluded acute drugs and/or alcohol intoxication. A differential diagnosis of the manner of death was performed, including scenarios of accidental autoerotic asphyxiation, homicide during either sexual activity or ritualistic, elderly suicide. The collected data most strongly supported the hypothesis of a suicidal asphyxiation simulating homicide to devolve a life insurance to the victim's sons because of economic difficulties. PMID:21361945

  5. [Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Melo, André Nascimento; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Franco, Saúl Alonso; Alazraqui, Marcio; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián

    2012-12-01

    This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides were registered in these countries. Deaths from external causes rose 54.5% in Argentina but fell in the other countries (37% in Mexico, 31.8% in Colombia, and 8.1% in Brazil). The ratio for deaths by homicide for both sexes was 9.1 in Colombia, 4.4 in Brazil and 1.6 in Mexico, using the Argentinian rates as a benchmark. There were differences in the evolution of homicide rates by age and sex in the countries: the rate rose in Brazil and fell in Colombia for all age groups. The need to prioritize young males in public policies related to health care and prevention is stressed, as well as the need for the region to adopt inclusive policies and broaden and consolidate democracy and the rights of inhabitants. PMID:23175395

  6. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of < 1 m satellite images have become available at no cost to the research community. In addition, Landsat data are now free of charge from the U.S. Geological Survey, enabling the use of multiple images. We used 174 Landsat and eight high-resolution satellite images to document the areal extent of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2007-2011. Multiple Landsat images, primarily Thematic Mapper (TM) data from 1984 to 2011, enabled us to minimize differentiation problems between snow and glacier ice, a potential source of error. In addition, we used Ikonos, Quickbird, and World View-1 & -2 very high-resolution imagery to evaluate our TM accuracies and determine the area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  7. A 28-year (1963-90) study of homicide in Marion County, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Batten, P J; Hicks, L J; Penn, D W

    1991-09-01

    We describe 240 consecutive homicidal deaths that occurred in Marion County, Oregon, over a 28-year period (1963-90). An epidemiological assessment of the homicides yielded the following information: More than 91% of these deaths were primary homicides. In primary homicide, 63% of the victims and 88% of the offenders were male. In secondary homicide, 76% of the victims and all of the offenders were male. A high percentage of victims (83%) and offenders (84%) in primary homicide were Caucasian, as were 100% of victims and offenders in secondary homicide. About 12% of victims and 10% of offenders in primary homicide were Hispanic. Fifty-nine percent of primary homicides were intrasexual, as compared to 87% of secondary homicides. An intraracial pattern was found in 90% of primary homicides and in 100% of secondary homicides. The most frequent means of death in both primary and secondary homicides were firearms, physical beating, and stabbing. Strangers committed 80% of secondary homicides. This was in marked contrast to the victim-offender relationship found in primary homicides, where strangers were responsible for approximately 16% of the total, acquaintances for approximately 36%, and family members for approximately 48%. The overall clearance rate (i.e., the identification and charging of a suspect for the death) was 88%. PMID:1750395

  8. The epidemiology of child homicides in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe age- and sex-specific rates of child homicide in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional mortuary-based study was conducted in a national sample of 38 medicolegal laboratories operating in 2009. These were sampled in inverse proportion to the number that were operational in each of three strata defined by autopsy volume: < 500, 500–1499 or > 1499 annual autopsies. Child homicide data were collected from mortuary files, autopsy reports and police interviews. Cause of death, evidence of abuse and neglect or of sexual assault, perpetrator characteristics and circumstances surrounding the death were investigated. Findings An estimated 1018 (95% confidence interval, CI: 843–1187) child homicides occurred in 2009, for a rate of 5.5 (95% CI: 4.6–6.4) homicides per 100 000 children younger than 18 years. The homicide rate was much higher in boys (6.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 5.6–8.3) than in girls (3.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 3.2–4.7). Child abuse and neglect had preceded nearly half (44.5%) of all homicides, but three times more often among girls than among boys. In children aged 15 to 17 years, the homicide rate among boys (21.7 per 100 000; 95% CI: 14.2–29.2) was nearly five times higher than the homicide rate among girls (4.6 per 100 000; 95% CI: 2.4–6.8). Conclusion South Africa’s child homicide rate is more than twice the global estimate. Since a background of child abuse and neglect is common, improvement of parenting skills should be part of primary prevention efforts. PMID:23940403

  9. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran's I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  10. "Surgically created" excision of the back mimicking homicide: report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Janík, M; Novomeský, F; Straka, L; Krajčovič, J; Hejna, P

    2015-01-01

    Fatalities due to sharp force trauma, with respect to manner of death, may be homicidal, self-inflicted, or accidental in nature. This article presents a case of an unusual sharp force injury inflicted under very specific and seemingly obscured circumstances, initially suggestive of homicidal origin. A 69-year-old, socially isolated male was found dead with a strange, heavily blood-stained excision-like lesion on the right subscapular area. The autopsy confirmed that the wound led to fatal external blood loss. Toxicological analysis of the blood and urine revealed severe alcohol intoxication. The police investigation turned up that the man had suffered from a painful skin furuncle of the right upper back. As he was worried about receiving medical treatment, he voluntarily asked his two acquaintances for "surgical" assistance to remove the skin affection. Based on the circumstances surrounding death and findings at autopsy, it was concluded that the injury was inflicted without the intent to harm or cause death, as a result of simple negligence. Consequently, the manner of death was ultimately certified as an involuntary manslaughter. Our case has clearly illustrated that even highly suspicious and atypically shaped wounds created by sharp-edged instruments with localization in non-accessible body areas does not exclusively indicate homicidal activity, hence, the accidental, suicidal or even iatrogenic origin of the wounding mechanism must be taken into consideration. PMID:26007161

  11. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  12. Church, place, and crime: Latinos and homicide in new destinations.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Edward S; Winters, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are moving beyond traditional areas and settling in new, potentially disorganized destinations. Without an established immigrant community, new destinations appear to rely more on the local religious ecology to regulate community life and to keep crime low. We examine the link between religious ecology and Latino homicide victimization for traditional and new destination counties. We observe four findings. (1) A Catholic presence has no effect on Latino violence in the old and well-organized traditional settlement areas. But in new Latino settlement areas, a Catholic presence substantially lowers violence against Latinos. In contrast, mainline Protestantism is linked to high levels of violence against Latinos in new destinations. (2) Previous claims that Latino communities are safe do not apply to new destinations, where Latinos are murdered at a high rate. (3) Previous claims that areas with high Latino immigration are safe for Latinos are not true for new destinations. (4) New Latino destinations offer little insulation from the effects of economic deprivation on violence. We discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:20879181

  13. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim. PMID:16617589

  14. Unsolved homicides in Sweden: A population-based study of 264 homicides.

    PubMed

    Sturup, Joakim; Karlberg, Daniel; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    The clearance rates for homicides have decreased internationally. This retrospective population-based study of all Swedish homicide incidents between 2007 and 2009 (n=264) aims to investigate factors associated with solvability in homicides. Victims were identified in an autopsy registry and offenders in a criminal-conviction registry. Autopsy reports, police files, court verdicts and criminal records were systematically collected and linked. The clearance rate was 86.4% (n=228), and almost three quarters of cases (71.9%) were solved within the first week. Nine factors were significantly associated with the case status; however, only four factors remained significant in the multivariate logistic-regression model. Cases were more likely to be solved if there was an eyewitness and if the victim was intoxicated with alcohol. Moreover, cases were less likely to be solved if the victim had a criminal record in the past five years and was killed by a firearm. In the final model, a Cox proportional-hazards model, where time to arrest was taken into account, only alcohol intoxication were positively and firearms negatively significantly associated with clearance status. The study concludes that cases involving these factors should be granted extra, intensive and lasting resources. PMID:26295928

  15. Arm pain in the workplace. A small area analysis.

    PubMed

    Hadler, N M

    1992-02-01

    In the mid-1980s, use-related arm pain was recognized as a major issue for worker health and workplace safety. National policy targeted these "cumulative trauma disorders," "overuse syndromes," and "motion illnesses" for a "special emphasis program" by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a federal regulatory agency. The program begins with case recognition to identify the responsible ergonomic hazards with the goal of mandating ergonomic remedies. This report is a small area analysis of the impact of this process on the US West Communications, Inc work force. US West employs some 55,000 workers in 14 states. Commencing in the mid-1980s, workers in four of these states complained of upper extremity pain and were diagnosed as suffering from conditions encompassed by the "cumulative trauma disorders" rubric. The incidence was tenfold higher in one task category, directory assistance operators. No ergonomic descriptor can account for the four endemics of arm pain in directory assistance operators. The response of the medical communities to the plight of these injured claimants varied considerably from community to community. Denver represents one extreme where the clinical judgments led to multiple surgical interventions, generated a total direct cost of some $1.5 million, and left many permanently disabled workers in their wake. This analysis raises many reservations about the validity of the "cumulative trauma disorder" hypothesis and provides an object lesson in the potential for untoward outcomes from the premature introduction of clinical hypotheses into the arena of health policy. PMID:1597765

  16. Guns and blood alcohol levels among homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L

    1986-11-01

    A retrospective study of homicide victims in Erie County, NY was conducted for 1973-1984 to determine the association of blood alcohol levels among homicide victims slain by guns and other weapons. Most victims of gunshot or beating had negative blood alcohol levels (BALs) at time of death whereas most stabbing victims had positive BALs, especially black victims. Gunshot victims were more likely to be killed in a private home compared to a street or building. Location of homicide did not relate significantly to BAL. Younger victims were less likely to be shot to death compared to middle-aged victims. These results do not support previous contentions that alcohol is a major contributor to gun-related homicides. PMID:3803196

  17. Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2006-12-01

    Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17192143

  18. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males. PMID:22436732

  19. A test of two typologies of sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Lindsay A; Krupp, Daniel Brian; Lalumière, Martin L

    2013-02-01

    Published typologies of sexual homicide lack theoretical grounding and empirical support. They also conceptualize the phenomenon of sexual homicide as somewhat discrete, though offenders are not typically specialists. Here, we propose a model that situates the phenomenon of sexual killing into broader categories of antisocial behavior, positing three types of perpetrators of serial sexual homicides: competitively disadvantaged, psychopathic, and sadistic offenders. Using biographical data of 82 serial sexual homicide offenders, we tested our model as well as the influential organized/disorganized model. Principal components analysis produced five components consisting of offender and offense characteristics, and cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups of perpetrators (sadistic offenders, competitively disadvantaged offenders, and slashers), as well as a fourth, heterogeneous group; this cluster solution, however, may be unstable. In summary, there is only mixed support for either model. PMID:22798204

  20. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed. PMID:12877304

  1. Elder homicide by unique combination of different mechanisms of asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Elder homicide is a fatal outcome of elder abuse and neglect. Multifactorial homicidal asphyxia in an elderly man by combination of three different mechanisms is an uncommon incident. This following case demonstrates a very unusual murder of 74-year-old man in his own residence. Crime scene visit and postmortem examination revealed that the victim was killed by combined effect of ligature strangulation, traumatic asphyxia and smothering by plastic bag. PMID:25664272

  2. Student homicidal violence in schools: an international problem.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    School homicides have been become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful research on risk and protective factors that can inform evidence-based preventive models is summarized. PMID:21491570

  3. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem. PMID:9539400

  4. Homicide victims in the military: 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, J C

    1995-02-01

    Data abstracted from the Report of Casualty (DD 1300) is used to describe active duty homicide victims for the period 1980 through 1992. The Marine Corps experienced the fewest homicides (186) but the highest rate (7.36 per 100,000) compared to the other services: Army (619/6.36), Navy (381/5.24), and Air Force (194/2.65). Those younger than 25 accounted for 57% of the homicides and had a higher rate than the older age groups. Blacks had a rate 2.1 times higher than whites, and the overall female-to-male rate ratio was 1.2. Firearms were used against 63% of male and 35% of female homicide victims. Twenty-eight percent of female victims were beaten or strangled and females were over 10 times more likely than males to be strangled. The risk for homicide among active duty males was less than for males in the general population. Conversely, active duty females were at an increased risk for homicide in comparison to both males in the military and females in the general population. PMID:7783917

  5. Psychopathology among homicidally bereaved individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Kleen, Marco; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research. PMID:24346707

  6. Homicide-suicide in Konya, Turkey between 2000 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Buken, Bora

    2010-01-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the murderer is a relatively rare lethal incident in which an individual kills another person and subsequently dies by suicide. Cases involving a homicide and a suicide in which death examinations and autopsies were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council between 2000 and 2007 were retrospectively investigated. During the studied time period, there were 10 homicide-suicide cases identified with 10 perpetrators killing 12 victims. Nine of the perpetrators were men and eight of the victims were women. The precipitating motive was an impending divorce in four of the cases. Two perpetrators were described as severely depressed, one had a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and one was a pedophile who had reactive depression. Firearms were used in eight of the homicide cases and seven of the suicides. Constricting the use of firearms may reduce/prevent future homicide-suicide cases, as it is the most commonly used method to carry out homicide-suicides. PMID:20002265

  7. Homicide trends and characteristics--Brazil, 1980-2002.

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Brazil is the largest and most populous country in South America (2002 population: approximately 175 million) (Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute [BGSI], unpublished data, 2004). Although life expectancy in Brazil has increased and rates of infant mortality have decreased as a result of reductions in infectious disease mortality, homicide and other forms of injury-related mortality have increased as a proportion of overall mortality. Homicide is now the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-44 years. To describe trends and characteristics of homicides countrywide and in Sĕo Paulo city (2000 population: approximately 10.4 million) (BGSI, unpublished data, 2004), the State Health Department of Sĕo Paulo (SHDSP) analyzed vital statistics and census data for 1980-2002. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the homicide rate in Brazil more than doubled during this period. Since 2001, Brazilian authorities have implemented several initiatives to reduce the number of homicides, including a law that controls gun ownership and prohibits anyone other than police and members of the armed forces from carrying guns. However, homicides among adolescents and young adults remain a substantial public health problem in Brazil, and additional prevention strategies that target young persons are needed. PMID:15001876

  8. [Time trends in death rates from homicides in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C; Moraes, J C

    1999-01-01

    To study homicide trends by gender and age, 1979-1994, São Paulo, Brazil, cubic polynomials were used to determine the best model for adjusting to time trends in homicide mortality rates by age and gender in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994. The model best adjusted to each group was selected considering the regression coefficient (Beta) , R2 value, residual analysis, and model's simplicity. The results show linear growth for total rates and rates by gender due to behavior of rates in the 20-29 and 30-39 year age groups. The reciprocal model adjusted best to rates for the 40-49 and 50-59 year age groups, while rates for adolescents followed the multiplicative model. There was no significant relationship between homicide rates and time for the remaining groups (under 10 and over 59 years). Rates for males were considerably higher in all age groups. The remarkably steady growth in homicide rates among adolescents and young adults is consistent with trends observed in other urban areas in developing and developed countries and denotes deteriorating living conditions and increased poverty. PMID:10633193

  9. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  10. Child homicide in Oklahoma: a continuing public health problem.

    PubMed

    Cannon, T C; Jordan, F B; Vogel, J S; Brumback, R A; Brandt, E N

    1998-11-01

    Homicide is a leading manner of injury to cause death in children. To assess this phenomenon in Oklahoma, the demographic characteristics and causes of death of the victims of child homicide in Oklahoma have been reviewed. One hundred eleven consecutive cases of homicide in children less than age 13 years were reviewed and the demographic characteristics of the victims were analyzed. The majority of homicides occurred in Tulsa and Oklahoma Counties (55.8%). The ratio of male to female victims was approximately equal. The races of the victims were 66.6 percent White, 24.3 percent Black, 8.1 percent Native American and 0.9 percent Asian. The most common cause of death was head injury (45.9%). An unexpected finding was that in 23.4 percent of cases, an additional fatality occurred in the family due to family violence. This fatality involved either suicide of the perpetrator or homicide of a sibling. These findings indicate a continuing family violence problem in Oklahoma. PMID:9828528

  11. Characteristics of sexual homicides committed by psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen; Woodworth, Michael; Earle, Jeff; Drugge, Jeff; Boer, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy and the prepetration of sexual homicide was investigated. The official file descriptions of sexual homicides committed by 18 psychopathic and 20 nonpsychopathic Canadian offenders were coded (by coders unaware of Psychopathy Checklist--Revised [PCL--R] scores) for characteristics of the victim, victim/perpetrator relationship, and evidence of gratuitous and sadistic violent behavior. Results indicated that most (84.7%) of the sexual murderers scored in the moderate to high range on the PCL--R. The majority of victims (66.67%) were female strangers, with no apparent influence of psychopathy on victim choice. Homicides committed by psychopathic offenders (using a PCL--R cut-off of 30) contained a significantly higher level of both gratuitous and sadistic violence than nonpsychopathic offenders. Most (82.4%) of the psychopaths exhibited some degree of sadistic behavior in their homicides compared to 52.6% of the nonpsychopaths. Implications for homicide investigations are discussed. PMID:14593792

  12. Income inequality and homicide rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Szwarcwald, C L; Bastos, F I; Viacava, F; de Andrade, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of income inequality on homicide rates in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study at 2 geographical levels, municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro and administrative regions in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The association between homicide and income inequality was tested by multiple regression procedures, with adjustment for other socioeconomic indicators. RESULTS: For the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, no association between homicide and income concentration was found an outcome that can be explained by the municipalities' different degrees of urbanization. However, for the administrative regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the 2 income inequality indicators were strongly correlated with the outcome variable (P < .01). Higher homicide rates were found precisely in the sector of the city that has the greatest concentration of slum residents and the highest degree of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social policies specifically aimed at low-income urban youth, particularly programs to reduce the harmful effects of relative deprivation, may have an important impact on the homicide rate. PMID:10358673

  13. SOCIOECONOMIC CHANGE AND HOMICIDE IN A TRANSITIONAL SOCIETY

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2008-01-01

    Durkheim argued that rapid social change would produce anomic conditions which, in turn, would lead to increases in criminal and deviant behavior. Russia provides a unique opportunity to test this theory given the large-scale fundamental socioeconomic changes occurring in the nation. Russian homicide rates more than doubled in the years following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and are now among the highest in the world. The pace and effects of the socioeconomic transition vary widely throughout Russia, however, as do rates of and changes in violent crime. In this study, we took advantage of the unique natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine the association between socioeconomic change and homicide. We measured the negative effects of socioeconomic change by creating an index of changes in population size, unemployment, privatization, and foreign investment. Using data from Russian regions (n = 78) and controlling for other structural covariates, regression results indicated that regions that more strongly experienced the negative effects of socioeconomic change were regions where homicide rates increased the most between 1991 and 2000. Further analysis of the individual components of this index revealed that regions with greater increases in (1) unemployment experienced greater increases in homicide rates and (2) privatization experienced smaller increases in homicide rates. PMID:19043617

  14. Gaps in Crisis Mental Health: Suicide and Homicide-Suicide.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Ann W; Welner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Gaps in crises of mental health emerge from poor distinction between the qualities of people who suicide and those who murder and then kill themselves. The role, if any, that substance use has in such lethal violence is an example of such a lack of distinction. In this study, a sample of medical examiner investigative and toxicology reports from Los Angeles and Orange counties in California were available for analysis for 432 suicide cases and 193 homicide-suicide cases. This informed clearer toxicological and pharmacological distinction of suicide from homicide-suicide. Blood alcohol levels were higher in persons committing suicide than in homicide-suicide perpetrators (p=.004). Homicide-suicide perpetrators had almost twice the level of stimulants in their system than people who suicide (p=.022) but did not have comparatively elevated levels of drugs or alcohol. Predictors of suicide included the following: substance abuse history, high number of drugs in system, death inside a house, and legal impairment by alcohol. Predictors of homicide-suicide included gunshot as the cause of death, female gender, domestic conflict, children living in the home, and prior arrest for substance abuse. PMID:26397439

  15. Associations with violent and homicidal behaviour among men with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Böke, Ömer; Korkmaz, Işil Zabun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the risk factors associated with homicidal behaviour in male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods In a period of 1 year, male schizophrenia cases between 18-65 years of age (n = 210) were included. The clinical evaluation included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The patients were divided into three groups in terms of violent behaviour history: (1) homicide group (n = 30), (2) a violent act resulting in serious injury (n = 71), (3) control group (patients without a history of a violent act) (n = 109). Results Lower level of education, rural residence, being unemployed and living alone were found to be significantly more common in patients who had committed a violent act compared to the schizophrenia patients in the control group. In order to explore the predictive value of several factors associated with violent behaviour, a logistic regression model was used, and variables (shorter duration of education, living alone, and lack of insight) significantly predicted the presence of violent behaviour (murder and/or injury) (χ(2)=31.78, df = 12, p = 0.001). Conclusions In order to be able to determine causality of homicidal acts in schizophrenia patients, our significant findings between homicidal violence, non-homicidal violence and the control group would merit further attention and exploration in further studies. PMID:26634311

  16. Non-Homicidal and Homicidal Sexual Offenders: Prevalence of Maladaptive Personality Traits and Paraphilic Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling. PMID:25818862

  17. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  18. Intimate Homicide between Asians and Non-Asians: The Impact of Community Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bohsiu

    2009-01-01

    This study tests two competing hypotheses regarding the social structural dynamics of intimate homicide: backlash versus collective efficacy. This study also examines the role of race in how social factors specified in each hypothesis affect intimate homicide. Data are from the California Vital Statistics and Homicide Data, 1990-1999. Results from…

  19. The Epidemiology of Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Systematic and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Smith, Glen; Nielssen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review of population based studies of homicide followed by suicide was conducted to examine the associations between rates of homicide-suicide, rates of other homicides and rates of suicide. The review analysed 64 samples, including the case of an outlier (Greenland) that were reported in 49 studies. There was a significant…

  20. A Population-Based Study of Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicide in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Cathryn; Norrington-Moore, Victoria; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M.; Flynn, Sandra; Swinson, Nicola; Roscoe, Alison; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the social, behavioural and offence characteristics of all convicted perpetrators of homicide aged 17 and under; to examine their previous contact with mental health services, and to discuss strategies for homicide prevention. An eight-year (1996-2004) sample of 363 juvenile homicide perpetrators in England and Wales…

  1. Adolescent Homicide and Family Pathology: Implications for Research and Treatment with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Tony D.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    1996-01-01

    The number of felony-murder convictions of adolescents on death row in the United States is arguably a warning beacon about the serious nature of juvenile homicide. Reviews the research on adolescent homicide and highlights significant family variables. The contribution of a family studies perspective for understanding adolescent homicide is…

  2. Homicides of People with Developmental Disabilities: An Analysis of News Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard; Sobsey, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increased interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD). While national and international information has been available on homicides of people in general, little attention has been given to homicides of PWDD specifically. This paper provides a preliminary description of homicides as…

  3. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  4. Social Stress, Legitimate Violence, and Gun Availability: Links to Weapon-Specific Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    In comparative studies of homicide, many theories compete. This study examined two established theories, stress theory and culture of violence theory, in terms of their ability to explain state-to-state differences in the rate of highly specific types of homicides. The separate and joint effects on homicide committed by handguns, shoulder guns,…

  5. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  6. Patterns of homicide--Cali, Colombia, 1993-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    In Colombia, as in the United States, homicide occurs disproportionately among urban residents (1,2). Homicide rates in the city of Cali, Colombia (1994 population: 1,776,436), increased fivefold from 1985 through 1992, reaching levels of 100 per 100,000 persons. Because of this increase, in 1992 the city of Cali established the Development, Security, and Peace Program (DESEPAZ) to implement a series of strategies to prevent violence and improve security among the residents of Cali. An important element of this program was the establishment of a surveillance system to enable characterization of patterns and determinants of homicide to provide information to decision makers for formulating policies and programs. This report summarizes findings from this system for January 1993-May 1994. PMID:7565552

  7. Using a Facebook profile in determining the motive of homicide.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana; Soc, Miodrag

    2013-08-01

    Ritual homicides may be affective (emotional), but usually they are premediated, instrumental, or predatory. In the case under review, the Facebook profile of the assailant helped to determine the motive of the homicide, which seemed to be ritualistic in nature. Therein, a 56-year-old male sustained 48 stab wounds and other knife injuries. On the wall in a room above the body, a pentagram was drawn with the victim's blood, followed by a few words which can be associated with a "Satanic" ritual. Searching through the Facebook profile of the culprit, Satanism as a leading motive of the homicide was eventually excluded. The most interesting point of this case was the evaluation of a sentence used as a Facebook status, which greatly contributed to confirm the paedophilic nature of the murder. PMID:23910835

  8. The Homicide-Suicide Phenomenon: Findings of Psychological Autopsies.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L; Hatters-Friedman, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Homicide-suicide represents a single episode of violence which may decimate an entire family. This study aimed to further describe motives and context of these tragedies. Psychological autopsies were completed for 18 homicide-suicide cases in Dallas, Texas. This included postevent interviews with surviving family members and review of police and coroner records. Two-thirds of perpetrators had made either verbal or written threats prior to the homicide-suicide. A simplified typology describing victim-perpetrator relationship and motive type is suggested for future studies and clinical ease. Two-thirds of perpetrators fell into the category of Intimate-Possessive, most of whom were depressed men who were abusing substances and undergoing separation. Additional categories included Intimate-Ailing, Filial-Revenge, Familial-Psychotic, and Friend-Psychotic. Further, implications from this psychological autopsy study regarding risk assessment include use of collateral interviews regarding threats and past violence. PMID:26259152

  9. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  10. [Double homicide by shooting with removal of the victims].

    PubMed

    Wirth, Ingo; Correns, Andreas; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Despite strict assault weapons laws shooting deaths are not uncommon in the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially in multiple one-stage homicides shooting is a frequently established cause of death. The described double homicide from the autopsy material of the Berlin Institute of Legal Medicine shows the difficulties in the forensic assessment of gunshot wounds. It is noteworthy under criminalistic aspects how methodically the offender proceeded in the removal of the victims and how extensive the search for the bodies was, which were only found after calling in water search dogs. PMID:18522379

  11. Homicide-suicides in Fiji: offense patterns, situational factors, and sociocultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2003-01-01

    Although there is growing literature on lethal violence in developing nations, homicide-suicides have rarely been studied. Addressing this issue, this paper analyzes all homicide-suicides that occurred in Fiji between 1982 and 1992. The study's results are consistent with prior research in Western developed nations, demonstrating that homicide-suicides constitute a minuscule proportion of all homicides, occur primarily between intimate relations, are precipitated by intrafamilial discord, and occur in the domestic setting. Contrary to prior research, however, perpetrators of homicide-suicide were equally divided between men and women and no firearms were utilized. PMID:12710541

  12. Sex, race/ethnicity, and context in school-associated student homicides.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joanne M; Hall, Jeffrey E; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages and medians of victim, offender, motive, and school characteristics for incidents by geographic context and race/ethnicity of the offenders. Most incidents involved urban areas (53.6%), Black and Latino offenders and victims, moderately high youth poverty, and male on male violence (77.6%) driven by disputes and gang-related motives. Suburban area incidents (31.2%) often involved offenders and victims of a different race/ethnicity (51.3%). Multiple victims and White offenders were more common in rural areas (15.2%). More than 50% of the rural incidents involved male offenders and female victims. White offender incidents more often included multiple victims and female victims while Black and Latino offenders more often included single victims of the same sex. These results emphasize the utility of an incident-based analysis of school-associated student homicides in highlighting important variations by intersections of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context. PMID:22279128

  13. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. PMID:21316880

  14. Small area silicon diffused junction x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Pehl, R.H.; Larsh, A.E.

    1981-10-01

    The low temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy x-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 cm/sup 2/ and a thickness of 100 ..mu..m. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values indicating that the defects introduced by the high temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low energy x-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 to 150/sup 0/K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low energy x-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon diffused junction technology to x-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon x-ray detector designs.

  15. The distribution of quasars from a small area survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.; Zhu, X.

    1983-04-01

    The quasars in two areas of 25 square degrees from a survey by Savage and Bolton (1979) are subjected to statistical analysis in search for clustering in their spatial distribution. The nearest neighbor test and correlation function test are applied to the three-dimensional distribution of quasars. These techniques indicate that the clustering of quasars seems to be in existence with the scale of about 100 Mpc (for H0 = 50) for one of the fields (02 h, -50 deg), but not for another (22 h, -18 deg). The distributions of quasars on the celestial sphere are also investigated by two-dimension Fourier power spectrum analysis. It is found that there is no evidence for clustering of quasars with different redshifts.

  16. Small proteins: untapped area of potential biological importance

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mingming; Ling, Yunchao; Yu, Jun; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2013-01-01

    Polypeptides containing ≤100 amino acid residues (AAs) are generally considered to be small proteins (SPs). Many studies have shown that some SPs are involved in important biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and growth. SP generally has a simple domain and has an advantage to be used as model system to overcome folding speed limits in protein folding simulation and drug design. But SPs were once thought to be trivial molecules in biological processes compared to large proteins. Because of the constraints of experimental methods and bioinformatics analysis, many genome projects have used a length threshold of 100 amino acid residues to minimize erroneous predictions and SPs are relatively under-represented in earlier studies. The general protein discovery methods have potential problems to predict and validate SPs, and very few effective tools and algorithms were developed specially for SPs identification. In this review, we mainly consider the diverse strategies applied to SPs prediction and discuss the challenge for differentiate SP coding genes from artifacts. We also summarize current large-scale discovery of SPs in species at the genome level. In addition, we present an overview of SPs with regard to biological significance, structural application, and evolution characterization in an effort to gain insight into the significance of SPs. PMID:24379829

  17. Domestic Homicide: Neuropsychological Profiles of Murderers Who Kill Family Members and Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Robert E; Brook, Michael; Demery, Jason A; Cunningham, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Domestic homicide is the most extreme form of domestic violence and one of the most common types of homicide. The objective was to examine differences between spontaneous domestic homicide and nondomestic homicide offenders regarding demographics, psychiatric history, crime characteristics, and neuropsychological status, utilizing neuropsychological test data from forensic examinations of 153 murderers. Using standard crime classification criteria, 33% committed spontaneous domestic homicides (SDH) and 61% committed nondomestic homicides (NDH). SDH offenders were more likely to manifest psychotic disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder or to have prior felony convictions. SDH offenders manifested significantly worse neuropsychological impairments than NDH offenders. The mean number of victims was lower for the SDH than the NDH group and only 14% of SDH offenders used a firearm, whereas 59% of NDH offenders used a firearm. These findings corroborate the notion that spontaneous domestic homicide may represent a discernible criminological phenotype. PMID:26292990

  18. Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Ossenbruggen, P J; Pendharkar, J; Ivan, J

    2001-07-01

    Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities of crashes and injury crashes; and (2) to use these models to perform a risk assessment of the study region. The models are functions of factors that describe a site by its land use activity, roadside design, use of traffic control devices and traffic exposure. Comparative risk assessment results show village sites to be less hazardous than residential and shopping sites. Residential and shopping sites, which are distinctly different from village sites, reside in single-purpose, land-use zones consisting mostly of single-family dwelling units and roadside shopping units with ample off-street parking. Village sites reside in multi-purpose, land-use zones permitting a combination of activities found in residential, shopping and commercial areas. They are pedestrian friendly, that is, have sidewalks and crosswalks, permit onstreet parking, have speed limits and other amenities that promote walking. Adjusted odds ratios and other comparative risk measures are used to explain why one site is more hazardous than another one. For example, the probability of a crash is two times more likely at a site without a sidewalk than at a site with one. The implications on roadway design to improve safety are discussed. PMID:11426679

  19. Suicide, Homicide, and Alcoholism Among American Indians: Guidelines for Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Calvin J., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to help alleviate some of the health problems among American Indians and Eskimos, this booklet covers suicide, homicide, and alcoholism. It can be used to provide: (1) "how-to" guidelines which describe ways for recognizing, handling, and preventing possible suicides among American Indians; and (2) survey data and literature for use as a…

  20. Israeli mothers' meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide.

    PubMed

    Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Leichtentritt, Ronit D

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to our knowledge to provide an in-depth account of the meanings reconstructed by bereaved Israeli mothers of homicide victims. Homicide survivors tend to receive little or no support from society; this is especially true in Israel, where homicide victims are a neglected population whose voice is socially muted. Constructivist theories have informed understanding of grief, emphasizing the role of meaning reconstruction in adaptation to bereavement, as well as the role of social support in the process of meaning reconstruction. We derived 3 prototypes of meaning from interviews of 12 bereaved mothers: the existential paradox; a bifurcated worldview; and oppression, mortification, and humiliation. Most informants used all 3 prototypes in the process of reconstructing meaning, describing changes in the perception of themselves, the world, and society. However, change was also accompanied by continuity, because participants did not abandon their former worldview while adopting a new one. The findings suggest that meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide is a unique, multifaceted, and contradictory process. Implications for practice are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348985

  1. Homicide Crisis Intervention in a Multicultural School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This paper summarizes information concerning homicide crisis intervention in a multicultural school that would be useful for school psychologists. School psychologists are encouraged to be introspective about their own beliefs about death, grief, and multiculturalism. This paper discusses the eight factors to consider when providing services to…

  2. An epidemiologic study of homicides in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Costantino, J P; Kuller, L H; Perper, J A; Cypess, R H

    1977-10-01

    Extensive demographic data concerning homicide victims and perpetrators in Allegheny County, 1966-1974, were obtained retrospectively from the records of the County Coroner's Office and Police Department. Analysis revealed that the demographic characteristics describing perpetrators and victims were essentially identical. Rates of homicide peaked in the young adult years of life. The race ratio (B/W) among victims was 18.7 for males and 6.7 for females, while sex ratio (M/F) was 5.4 for blacks and 1.9 for whites. An inverse relationship between the rate of homicide and socioeconomic status was present among both black and white races. The majority of victims were killed by a spouse, relative, or friend (66%), usually in familiar locations, i.e., residence or place of work (60%), and usually during an alteration (68%). Shooting was the method used to perpetrate 61% of the killings, most of which were by means of a handgun. An increasing trend of homicide was noted, particularly for the type perpetrated by shooting. PMID:910799

  3. A developing world perspective on homicide and personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Audu, Moses; Tesfaye, Markos; Gurmu, Samson

    2014-07-01

    High rates of psychotic disorder among special populations of homicide offenders, females, youth and the mentally disordered, have received much investigation. Personality disorder, especially antisocial personality disorder, augments the relative risk ratio of violence, especially in combination with substance use disorder. Few studies of these correlates of violence and especially homicide have been reported in low- and medium-income countries (LMIC). Using the structured clinical interview for DSM diagnosis (SCID), personality disorders were identified in a cross sectional study involving 546 homicide offenders in Jimma prison, Ethiopia. Predictors of personality disorder were determined using multivariate analysis of various demographic and clinical variables, for example, age, psychiatric history and substance use. Out of the 316 offenders who completed the SCID, only 16% fulfilled DSM IV criteria for personality disorder. The rationale for killing, self-defence, anger and revenge (52% of offenders), planning involved in offending (50%) and reasonably high level of relationship functioning (57% married) were different from most data from the high-income countries. Diagnostically relevant cultural factors in LMIC, not in play in high-income countries, may explain the differences in personality disorders similar to other mental disorders and the underlying mediators of homicide. PMID:24166685

  4. Reducing homicide risk in Indianapolis between 1997 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Nicholas; McGarrell, Edmund F

    2010-09-01

    Rates of homicide risk are not evenly distributed across the US population. Prior research indicates that young males in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to lethal violence. The traditional criminal justice response to violent crime in the urban context has the potential to exacerbate problems, particularly when broad-based arrest sweeps and general deterrence initiatives are the standard models used by law enforcement. Recent studies suggest that alternative intervention approaches that use both specific deterrence combined with improving pro-social opportunities has shown promise in reducing violent crime in these high-risk contexts. This paper examines the changes in homicide patterns for the highest-risk populations in Indianapolis after a "pulling levers" intervention was implemented in the late 1990s to address youth, gang, and gun violence. Multilevel growth curve regression models controlling for a linear trend over time, important structural correlates of homicide across urban neighborhoods, and between-neighborhood variance estimates showed that homicide rates involving the highest-risk populations (i.e., actors 15 to 24 years old) were most likely to experience a statistically significant and substantive reduction after the intervention was implemented (IRR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.78). Among male actors in this age range, Black male homicide rates (IRR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25 - 0.70) and White male rates (IRR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15 - 0.79) declined substantially more than homicide rates involving actors outside the 15 to 24 years age range (IRR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.54 - 1.69). In addition, neighborhoods where specific, community-level strategies were implemented had statistically significant and substantive high-risk homicide rate declines. We conclude that further extension of the pulling levers framework appears warranted in light of the recent findings. Alternative justice

  5. Female sexual homicide offenders: an analysis of the offender racial profiles in offending process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-12-10

    Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered. PMID:24314528

  6. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. PMID:26733705

  7. Adolescent homicide victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa: incidence and epidemiological characteristics (2001-2009).

    PubMed

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of adolescent homicides (15-19 years) in Johannesburg, South Africa. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on cases drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. A total of 590 adolescent homicides were registered for 2001-2009 corresponding to an average annual homicide rate of 23.4/100,000. The average annual rate was 39.8/100,000 for males and 7.9/100,000 for females. Black and coloured adolescents had the highest homicide rates. There was a considerable decline in the firearm homicide rates over the study period. In contrast, sharp instrument and blunt force homicides increased. Public places were the predominant scenes for male deaths, while female homicides occurred primarily in residential locations. Most male homicides took place over weekend nights. Alcohol was a prominent feature of homicides. The high homicide rates reported in this study underscore the need to develop interventions directed specifically at adolescents. Prevention efforts are required to pay particular attention to black and coloured adolescent males, and to address the availability of weapons and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:26076731

  8. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  9. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1996 (with cumulative summary for 1994--1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-07-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites at Area G, Technical Area (TA) 54 and a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area in 1996 to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 3}H. Higher levels of total U, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Due to low sample sizes in total number of animals captured, statistical analysis to compare site to site could not be conducted. However, mean concentrations of total U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 137}Cs in rodent carcasses were higher at Site 1 than site 2 or the Control Site and {sup 241}Am was higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or the Control Site.

  10. ISSUES IN THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SMALL-AREA HEALTH DATA. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of geographically indexed health and population data, with advances in computing, geographical information systems and statistical methodology, have opened the way for serious exploration of small area health statistics based on routine data. Such analyses may be...

  11. Homicide and suicide among the Cherokee and Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J A; Kupferer, H J

    1982-01-01

    The Cherokee and Lumbee, the two major Indian populations in North Carolina, have exhibited similarities in patterns of homicide and suicide. Both Indian populations have higher rates of homicidal than of suicidal death. Yet in 1972-73, the Lumbee homicide rates was considerably higher than that for the Cherokee, but the Cherokee's suicide rate exceeded that for the Lumbee. During 1974-1976, the Cherokee manifested excessively high rates of violent death, with suicide increasing faster than homicide. The Lumbee homicide rate declined during this period, while the suicide rate increased. Lumbee violence patterns indicate a slight dissipation of cultural traits that predispose them to aggressive behaviour and the concomitant emergence of a trend toward self-destructive behaviour. The rise in Cherokee suicide rate may be consistent with the harmony Ethic of some tribe members, but the sharp increase in homicide may reflect the erosion of the traditional non-violent ethic among the band as a whole. PMID:6980862

  12. Gun control law (Bill C-17), suicide, and homicide in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen

    2004-06-01

    Canadian Bill C-17 was implemented in 1991 to restrict the use of firearms, providing a chance to investigate the effect of firearm control laws in the use of firearms for suicide and homicide. Following Lester and Leenaars' comprehensive studies, the present study examined the use of firearms for suicide and homicide during the period prior to the bill and during the period after the passing of Bill C-17 to assess the association of the bill with rates of suicide and homicide by method. Analysis showed a significant decrease after passage of Bill C-17 in the rates of suicides and homicides involving firearms and the percentage of suicides using firearms. The analysis provides support for the position that restricting the availability of firearms as a lethal means of committing suicide and homicide may help reduce the numbers of suicides and homicides. PMID:15217033

  13. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides." PMID:26661386

  14. Evaluating the Effect of State Regulation of Federally Licensed Firearm Dealers on Firearm Homicide

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Karin; Cheney, Rose; Wiebe, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Effective federal regulation of firearm dealers has proven difficult. Consequently, many states choose to implement their own regulations. We examined the impact of state-required licensing, record keeping of sales, allowable inspections, and mandatory theft reporting on firearm homicide from 1995 to 2010. We found that lower homicide rates were associated with states that required licensing and inspections. We concluded that firearm dealer regulations might be an effective harm reduction strategy for firearm homicide. PMID:24922158

  15. Homicidal deaths in the Western suburbs of Paris: a 15-year-study.

    PubMed

    Cros, Jérôme; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Sbidian, Emilie; Charlier, Philippe; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the homicide pattern in the Western suburbs of Paris and its evolution between 1994 and 2008. All autopsy reports regarding homicides from the period January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Five hundred eleven homicide cases were selected of 4842 autopsy cases. The following data were recorded: assailants and victims characteristics, crime scene location, homicide motive, cause of death, and victim's postmortem toxicological results. Homicide rate steadily declined over the period at the exception of the number of homicide-suicide per year, which remained constant. Homicide victims remained unidentified after medicolegal investigations in 2% of the cases. Child and elder homicide cases represented, respectively, 10.7% and 8.2% of the cases. Offenders were male in 88% of the cases. Male and female assailants showed distinct homicide patterns: females were involved more frequently in familial quarrel and child abuse. They never killed a stranger and committed homicide exclusively in a private place with a predominance of sharp weapons. Males, in contrast, assaulted almost equally a stranger or an acquaintance, often in a public place with a predominance of firearm. Victim knew the assailant(s) in 57% of the cases. Homicides mostly took place at the residence of the assailant or the victim. Homicide motive was clearly determined in 71% of the cases. Argument was the most common motive in 44% of the cases. Sexual assault was rarely found (10 cases). Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death (37%), followed by stab wounds (27%), blunt trauma (19%), and asphyxia (13%). A decrease of gunshot wounds as a cause of death was found over the studied period. Alcohol was the most common toxic detected in blood of the victim, in 48.5% of the cases when toxicological results were available. Blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1 to 500 mg/dL with a mean value of 150 mg/dL. PMID:22922553

  16. Intentional or Negligent Homicide? Evidence for Juror Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Gambetti, Elisa; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the influence of specific evidence and testimonies on a juror's decision to make a verdict of intentional or negligent homicide in a Civil law country. Italian students (N = 280; M age = 25.0 years, SD = 2.9) read different affidavits characterized by the presence or absence of three elements against the defendant: motive, skill in use of weapons, and previous violence toward the victim. Participants then decided a verdict and provided a confidence judgment on their decision. Results showed that the presence of motive, skill, and previous violence influenced the jurors' decision, significantly changing the verdict from negligent to intentional homicide. The findings were discussed in terms of the folk-concept approach of intentionality. PMID:27469365

  17. Social Structure, Anomie, and National Levels of Homicide.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Lonnie M; Altheimer, Irshad

    2016-06-01

    Merton's "Social Structure and Anomie" seeks to explain how "socio-cultural" influences exert "definite pressures" to engage in non-conformity. Despite having a significant influence, few studies have assessed the degree to which Merton's propositions explain cross-national variation in levels of crime. Using data on national levels of homicide, data from the World Values Survey, and other structural controls, the present study assesses the degree to which deinstitutionalization, demoralization, and blocked opportunity interact to explain crime cross-nationally. Results provide a high degree of support for Merton's assertion that societal types characterized by relatively high levels of materialism and/or demoralization or deinstitutionalization suffer from higher levels of homicide. However, there is less support for Merton's assertion that inequality interacts with various societal patterns of means/ends integration in a meaningful way. Findings and implications for the utility of classical anomie as a general macro-level theory are discussed. PMID:26216918

  18. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  19. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  20. Applying the Principles of Homicide by Heart Attack.

    PubMed

    Hlavaty, Leigh; Sung, LokMan

    2016-06-01

    Homicide by heart attack is a well-established model in forensic pathology that describes death elicited during or immediately after a criminal act where a threat or fear of physical injury is present. After its introduction nearly 4 decades ago, the principle has undergone a handful of modifications but still maintains its core concepts. All cases of this nature during a 20-year period at the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office were compared and contrasted for demographics, circumstances and scene investigation, and autopsy and toxicology findings. Of the cases fulfilling the previously established criteria for homicide by heart attack, more than 80% displayed significant changes because of hypertension. This finding coincides with the high prevalence of hypertension in our urban population and highlights the significance of this disease. Also present were minor external and internal injuries in select cases, which reinforce the understanding that physical contact between the decedent and assailant does not preclude this diagnosis. PMID:27049661

  1. Homicidal smothering on toilet paper: A case report.

    PubMed

    Saint-Martin, Pauline; Lefrancq, Thierry; Sauvageau, Anny

    2012-05-01

    Toilet paper is a ubiquitous personal hygiene product that is usually considered harmless. It was reported however to have been used as a mean of self-destruction in two unusual suicides, and is here reported to have been used to commit homicide. The body of a 91-year-old woman suffering from Alzheimer's disease was found in the bedroom of her nursing home, a roll of toilet paper near the body and toilet paper protruding from the mouth. At autopsy, pellets of toilet paper were impacted in the buccal cavity and the laryngopharynx above the epiglottis. The cause of death was established as smothering on toilet paper, whereas the manner of death was ruled as homicidal. Non-lethal blunt head injuries were considered to be a contributive factor, by lowering the victim's resistance. The perpetrator was another elderly woman, also suffering from Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22520378

  2. Non-fatal strangulation is an important risk factor for homicide of women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Laughon, Kathryn; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Wolf Chair, Anna D.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Hanson, Ginger; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Taliaferro, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine non-fatal strangulation by an intimate partner as a risk factor for major assault, or attempted or completed homicide of women. A case control design was used to describe non-fatal strangulation among complete homicides and attempted homicides (n =506) and abused controls (n = 427). Interviews of proxy respondents and survivors of attempted homicides were compared with data from abused controls. Data were derived using the Danger Assessment. Non-fatal strangulation was reported in 10% of abused controls, 45% of attempted homicides and 43% of homicides. Prior non-fatal strangulation was associated with greater than six-fold odds (OR 6.70, 95% CI 3.91–11.49) of becoming an attempted homicide, and over seven-fold odds (OR 7.48, 95% CI 4.53–12.35) of becoming a completed homicide. These results show non-fatal strangulation as an important risk factor for homicide of women, underscoring the need to screen for non-fatal strangulation when assessing abused women in emergency department settings. PMID:17961956

  3. Applying forensic anthropological data in homicide investigation to the depravity standard.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl J; Welner, Michael; Okoye, Matthias I; Marotta, Melissa; Plank, Gary; Anderson, Brianna; Mastellon, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Forensic anthropology can provide detailed information regarding the perpetrator's treatment of a homicide victim. This data may inform The Depravity Standard (DS), a forensic science inventory used to assess the severity of a homicide's intent, actions, victimology, and attitudes. Skeletal data enabled the reconstruction of a homicide case involving mutilation and possible torture. Using The Depravity Standard (DS) the skeletal data underwent evaluation in order to provide evidence of depravity. The osteological data alone offered sufficient evidence for a number of criteria of depravity, demonstrating the importance and application of osteology in resolving specific questions about the depravity of a homicide. PMID:23217373

  4. Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa’s Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. Methods. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. Results. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Conclusions. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period. PMID:24432917

  5. Child homicide and neglect in France: 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, F; Rambaud, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate epidemiological characteristics of the victims and the offenders in children homicide cases and to propose preventive measures. We retrospectively investigated homicides and deaths by neglect involving children aged 15 or less, which have been autopsied in the Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine of the Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France, during the 18-year period from 1991 to 2008. Cases included were analyzed for victims' age and gender, victim-assailant's relation, death cause and scenery, and offender's motivation. For the purposes of the study, victims were divided into four age groups: new born; infants (1-23 months); young children (2-5 years); and children (6-15 years). During the study period, 70 victims of homicide or fatal neglect were identified, which equates to a child homicide prevalence of 0.56 per 100,000 children per year. Slightly more than half of the victims (51.4%) were less than 1 year old. Neonaticide prevalence was 0.12 per 100,000 births with an equal distribution between genders. Neonates were most likely to be killed by their mothers while fathers were the most frequent assailants in both infants and children groups. Stepparents were involved in only one case. Familicide cases where children and spouses are killed were perpetrated only by fathers. The leading cause of death was blunt trauma (especially head trauma). In the neonaticide group, half of the victims died from passive neglect whereas gunshots were predominant in the children groups. PMID:24075615

  6. Pride and purpose as antidotes to black homicidal violence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C W

    1987-02-01

    The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses.The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242

  7. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization. PMID:25272258

  8. [Deaths by homicide in Medellin, 1980-2007].

    PubMed

    Franco, Saúl; Mercedes, Clara; Rozo, Patricia; Gracia, Gloria Milena; Gallo, Gloria Patricia; Vera, Claudia Yaneth; García, Héctor Iván

    2012-12-01

    The Colombian city of Medellin has faced a severe problem of violence and homicide. The goal of this retrospective, descriptive-analytical study was to assess the magnitude, distribution, most salient characteristics and possible explanations for the problem between 1980 and 2007. Data were obtained from official databases, hospital records and the available literature, and a focus group was set up. There was a dramatic rise in homicides in the city in the time interval studied, with a total of 84,863 documented murders. Ninety-three percent of the victims were male. The 20 to 29 year-old age group was the most affected. Males in this age group, during the worst year of the period (1991), registered an astounding murder rate of 1,709 per 100,000. Even males in the 15 to 19 year age group and the older brackets saw high murder rates. The most common victims were from the lower and lower-middle socioeconomic strata, as has been observed elsewhere in the region. Serious problems were identified in information and in the provision of services. The impact of homicide on the delivery of healthcare services is discussed and a series of tasks for the healthcare sector in the control of this type of violence is proposed. PMID:23175397

  9. Pride and Purpose as Antidotes to Black Homicidal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Charles W.

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses. The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242

  10. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  11. Radionuclide Contaminant Analysis of Small Mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1997 (with cumulative summary 1994-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Biggs; Kathryn D. Bennett; P. R. Fresquez

    1998-12-01

    In 1997, small mammals were sampled at four locations at Area G, Technical Area 54, a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area, and a background site on Frijoles Mesa. The purpose of the sampling was to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) identifi the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241Am, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, total U, 137Cs, and 3H. Higher levels of total U and 137CS were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals, and 90Sr was found to be higher in carcasses. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were not found to be statistically different (p< 0.05) from that measured in pelts. However, pelts generally had higher concentrations than carcasses, indicating surface contamination may be the primary contamination mode. Low sample sizes in total number of animals captured during 1997 prevented statistical analysis to compare site to site to all but four sites. Mean concentrations of 241Am, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 3H in small mammal carcasses were found to be statistically greater at the transuranic (TRU) waste pad #2. In addition, mean concentrations of total U, ~lAm, and 3H in pelts of small mammals were also statistically greater. The Control Site and Background Site consistently had the lowest mean concentrations of radionuclides. Year to year comparison of mean radionuclide concentrations was conducted where suftlcient sample size existed. We found 241Am, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 3H mean concentrations in carcasses to be statistically greater in 1997 than previous years at TRU waste pad #2

  12. Toward congruence between theory and practice in small area analysis and local public health data.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R S

    Advances in computer hardware, software and database interfaces have provided opportunities for collation, manipulation, analysis and display of spatial data on an unprecedented scale. Demands for small area data in public health, fuelled in part by an increasing emphasis on benchmarking in relation to Year 2000 objectives but also in response to state and federal programmes to involve local communities in the assessment and planning process have simultaneously generated an unprecedented demand for these analyses and data presentations. This paper discusses four areas where geographic, cartographic and statistical theory and methodology need to be brought to bear on the development of applications involving small area health data. These areas are: (i) the theoretical conceptions of space; (ii) managing the inherent variability of rates and frequencies; (iii) attribution of events or cases to areas or to points; and (iv) the application of sound principles of cartographic design to the presentation of results. PMID:8888478

  13. Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats and the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. Although the adjacent native sagebrush habitat had the highest species diversity and the Russian thistle habitat on the disposal area had the lowest, the total rodent density was not significantly different among the three vegetation types. Crested wheatgrass within the disposal area contained the largest rodent biomass throughout the study, in part due to an increasing M. montanus population. The peak small mammal biomass of 5000 g/ha in creasted wheatgrass and sagebrush habitats was considerably higher than previously reported for similar habitats. Differences in diversity and biomass between the disposal area and surrounding native habitat are most likely related to differences in soil compaction and vegetation between these two areas.

  14. The Estimate of the Optimum Number of Retail Stores of Small Market Areas Using Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Takuya; Hibino, Takayuki; Abe, Takehiko; Kimura, Haruhiko

    At present, the conditions of the location and the optimal arrangements for retail stores of small market areas are examined with the several surveys. The surveys are important because the proceeds are influenced largely with the selection of the location. However, costs, time and experience are necessary in the surveys. For this reason, this research is intended for the retail stores of small market areas which expend a great deal of money for the surveys. The retail stores of small market areas in this paper are convenience stores. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the optimum number of convenience stores by computer simulation. We adopted the agent model. We constructed an agent model that had the customer agent, the shop agent and the landscape with the kind of necessary minimum parameters. And, we were able to make the simulation environment that reflected the real world. As a result, we could estimate the optimum number of convenience stores by simulations.

  15. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C.; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G. Machell

    2016-01-01

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas. PMID:27418213

  16. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Pierannunzi, Carol; Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G Machell

    2016-01-01

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas. PMID:27418213

  17. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Annual peak discharge from small drainage areas is tabulated for 336 sites in Montana. The 1976 additions included data collected at 206 sites. The program which investigates the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas in Montana, was begun July 1, 1955. Originally 45 crest-stage gaging stations were established. The purpose of the program is to collect sufficient peak-flow data, which through analysis could provide methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods at any point in Montana. The ultimate objective is to provide methods for estimating the 100-year flood with the reliability needed for road design. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Is low IQ related to risk of death by homicide? Testing a hypothesis using data from the Vietnam Experience Study.

    PubMed

    Batty, George David; Mortensen, Laust H; Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J

    2008-10-30

    Lower IQ test scores are related to an increased risk of violent assault. We tested the relation between IQ and death by homicide. In a prospective cohort study of 14,537 men (21 homicides), the association between lower IQ and an increased risk of homicide was lost after multiple adjustment. PMID:18718672

  19. [Deaths by homicide in Mexico: trends, socio-geographical variations and associated factors].

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique; Vega-López, Agustín; Muñoz de la Torre, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study seeks to analyze the trend of homicide rates (total and by firearm) in Mexico between 1990 and 2009 and identify the variables that best explain the geographical variations of these rates in the 2008-2009 two-year period. Homicide rates, adjusted for age, were calculated for both sexes between 1990 and 2009 and for each state in 2008-2009. Factors associated with the interstate variations in the homicide rates were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Results show that the homicide rate in Mexico decreased between 1990 and 2007, but doubled over the last two years (from 7.6 to 16.6 per 100,000). In 2009, the male homicide rate was almost 9 times higher than the female rate and about two-thirds of homicides involved firearms. Multivariate analysis reveals that impunity, drug trafficking, alcohol and drug consumption and school dropout in basic education - in that order - are key factors for understanding the geographical variations in homicide rates in Mexico in 2008-2009. Findings suggest that to reduce the number of homicide victims and spatial variations in the rate, it is necessary not only to fight the drug cartels, but above all to implement structural reforms in the criminal justice system and reduce the socioeconomic disparities among states. PMID:23175396

  20. The impact of homicide trials on the forensic pathologist's time--the Fulton County experience.

    PubMed

    Hanzlick, R

    1997-05-01

    Subpoenas received for criminal trials related to homicides in Fulton County (Atlanta) Georgia were tracked in a computer database for an 18 month period in order to determine the proportion of forensic pathologist worktime required for testimony in homicide cases. The number of subpoenas received annually amounted to 64% of the average number of homicides occurring annually. Testimony was required in about 33% of cases in which a subpoena was received, and, therefore, the number of testimony appearances per year was about 21% of the average annual number of homicides. Assuming a 40 hour work week for 52 weeks per year and an average of 3 hours of time preparing for, traveling to, and testifying in court, the time required of the forensic pathologist to testify in homicide trials amounted to about 2% of a full-time-equivalent. Although the time required for testimony in homicide cases may vary among jurisdictions because of the nature of its homicides, distance and travel time to court, and other factors, the data presented here may be used to estimate the impact of homicide trial court time on forensic pathology practice. PMID:9144948

  1. Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

  2. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  3. Homicides of Children and Youth. Crimes against Children Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard

    This bulletin, part of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's "Crimes against Children Series," draws on FBI and other data to provide a statistical portrait of juvenile homicide victimization, asserting that homicide is the only major cause of childhood deaths that has increased over the past 3 decades. The bulletin offers…

  4. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

  5. A method for managing re-identification risk from small geographic areas in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A common disclosure control practice for health datasets is to identify small geographic areas and either suppress records from these small areas or aggregate them into larger ones. A recent study provided a method for deciding when an area is too small based on the uniqueness criterion. The uniqueness criterion stipulates that an the area is no longer too small when the proportion of unique individuals on the relevant variables (the quasi-identifiers) approaches zero. However, using a uniqueness value of zero is quite a stringent threshold, and is only suitable when the risks from data disclosure are quite high. Other uniqueness thresholds that have been proposed for health data are 5% and 20%. Methods We estimated uniqueness for urban Forward Sortation Areas (FSAs) by using the 2001 long form Canadian census data representing 20% of the population. We then constructed two logistic regression models to predict when the uniqueness is greater than the 5% and 20% thresholds, and validated their predictive accuracy using 10-fold cross-validation. Predictor variables included the population size of the FSA and the maximum number of possible values on the quasi-identifiers (the number of equivalence classes). Results All model parameters were significant and the models had very high prediction accuracy, with specificity above 0.9, and sensitivity at 0.87 and 0.74 for the 5% and 20% threshold models respectively. The application of the models was illustrated with an analysis of the Ontario newborn registry and an emergency department dataset. At the higher thresholds considerably fewer records compared to the 0% threshold would be considered to be in small areas and therefore undergo disclosure control actions. We have also included concrete guidance for data custodians in deciding which one of the three uniqueness thresholds to use (0%, 5%, 20%), depending on the mitigating controls that the data recipients have in place, the potential invasion of privacy if

  6. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Ferrari, Michelle M; Leong, Gregory B

    2002-11-01

    Sexual serial homicidal behavior has received considerable attention during the last three decades. Substantial progress has been made in the development of methods aimed at identifying and apprehending individuals who exhibit these behaviors. In spite of these advances, the origins of sexual serial killing behavior remain for the most part unknown. In this article we propose a biopsychosocial psychiatric model for understanding the origins of sexual serial homicidal behavior from both neuropsychiatric and developmental perspectives, using the case of convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer as the focal point. We propose that his homicidal behavior was intrinsically associated with autistic spectrum psychopathology, specifically Asperger's disorder. The relationship of Asperger's disorder to other psychopathology and to his homicidal behavior is explored. We discuss potential implications of the proposed model for the future study of the causes of sexual serial homicidal crime. PMID:12455663

  7. Social welfare support and homicide: longitudinal analyses of European countries from 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    McCall, Patricia L; Brauer, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to which retrenchment in welfare support is related to homicide trends across European countries between 1994 and 2010. Using a longitudinal decomposition design that allows for stronger causal inferences compared to typical cross-sectional designs, we examine these potential linkages between social support spending and homicide with data collected from a heterogeneous sample of European nations, including twenty Western nations and nine less frequently analyzed East-Central nations, during recent years in which European nations generally witnessed substantial changes in homicide rates as well as both economic prosperity and fiscal crisis. Results suggest that even incremental, short-term changes in welfare support spending are associated with short-term reductions in homicide-specifically, impacting homicide rates within two to three years for this sample of European nations. PMID:25131277

  8. Spatial Heterogeneity in the Effects of Immigration and Diversity on Neighborhood Homicide Rates

    PubMed Central

    Graif, Corina; Sampson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the connection of immigration and diversity to homicide by advancing a recently developed approach to modeling spatial dynamics—geographically weighted regression. In contrast to traditional global averaging, we argue on substantive grounds that neighborhood characteristics vary in their effects across neighborhood space, a process of “spatial heterogeneity.” Much like treatment-effect heterogeneity and distinct from spatial spillover, our analysis finds considerable evidence that neighborhood characteristics in Chicago vary significantly in predicting homicide, in some cases showing countervailing effects depending on spatial location. In general, however, immigrant concentration is either unrelated or inversely related to homicide, whereas language diversity is consistently linked to lower homicide. The results shed new light on the immigration-homicide nexus and suggest the pitfalls of global averaging models that hide the reality of a highly diversified and spatially stratified metropolis. PMID:20671811

  9. A tale of two cities: a review of homicide in Melbourne and Glasgow in 2005.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Matthew; Black, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    The Departments of Forensic Medicine and Science at the University of Glasgow and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne are academic university-based forensic medicine units providing a medico-legal death investigation service to the Strathclyde region of Scotland and the State of Victoria, Australia, respectively. We reviewed and compared homicides in the two jurisdictions for the year 2005. Whilst gross numbers were comparable, the homicide rate per capita was significantly higher in Glasgow. Death due to stabbing comprised a greater proportion of homicides in Glasgow, reflective of a well recognised social epidemic of knife-related trauma amongst young males. Blunt force trauma was the most prevalent cause of homicidal injury in the Australian cases. The cities shared a low incidence of firearm- related homicide, reflective of strict legislative initiatives. PMID:18341154

  10. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed in 1819.7103, insert the... businesses. 1852.219-74 Section 1852.219-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121. (b) NASA prime and subcontractors...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of rural area small businesses. 1852.219-74 Section 1852.219-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed in 1819.7103, insert the... businesses. 1852.219-74 Section 1852.219-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121. (b) NASA prime and subcontractors...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed in 1819.7103, insert the... businesses. 1852.219-74 Section 1852.219-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121. (b) NASA prime and subcontractors...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed in 1819.7103, insert the... businesses. 1852.219-74 Section 1852.219-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part 121. (b) NASA prime and subcontractors...

  15. Vegetated treatment area effectiveness at reducing nutrient runoff from small swine operations in central Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous modeling and field studies have evaluated the effectiveness of vegetative treatment systems in treating runoff from animal feeding operations; however, none have evaluated the effectiveness of vegetative treatment areas (VTA’s) receiving direct runoff from small swine operations during natu...

  16. Real-Time Estimation of Small-Area Populations with Human Biomarkers in Sewage

    EPA Science Inventory

    A totally new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disc...

  17. Rates of Homicide During the First Episode of Psychosis and After Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nielssen, Olav; Large, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The observation that almost half of the homicides committed by people with a psychotic illness occur before initial treatment suggests an increased risk of homicide during the first episode of psychosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the rates of homicide during the first episode of psychosis and after treatment. A systematic search located 10 studies that reported details of all the homicide offenders with a psychotic illness within a known population during a specified period and reported the number of people who had received treatment prior to the offense. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that 38.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31.1%–46.5%) of homicides occurred during the first episode of psychosis, prior to initial treatment. Homicides during first-episode psychosis occurred at a rate of 1.59 homicides per 1000 (95% CI = 1.06–2.40), equivalent to 1 in 629 presentations. The annual rate of homicide after treatment for psychosis was 0.11 homicides per 1000 patients (95% CI = 0.07–0.16), equivalent to 1 homicide in 9090 patients with schizophrenia per year. The rate ratio of homicide in the first episode of psychosis in these studies was 15.5 (95% CI = 11.0–21.7) times the annual rate of homicide after treatment for psychosis. Hence, the rate of homicide in the first episode of psychosis appears to be higher than previously recognized, whereas the annual rate of homicide by patients with schizophrenia after treatment is lower than previous estimates. Earlier treatment of first-episode psychosis might prevent some homicides. PMID:18990713

  18. Prevalence and Mental Health Outcomes of Homicide Survivors in a Representative US Sample of Adolescents: Data from the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zinzow, Heidi; Hawkins, Alesia; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Each homicide leaves behind several friends and family members, or homicide survivors. However, limited information is available on the impact of homicide on adolescent survivors. The purpose of the current study was to identify the prevalence of homicide survivorship and to determine mental health outcomes within a sample of US…

  19. Homicide by direct snake bite: a case of contract killing.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that five million snake bite cases occur worldwide every year, causing about 100,000 deaths. Snake bite is exclusively accidental in nature. Suicide by snake bite is very rare and homicidal snake bite is not reported. In the present case, a contract killer was hired, who used a poisonous snake to kill an elderly couple by way of direct snake bite. We believe this to be the first case reported where a snake was directly used for the murder of two victims through a contract killer. PMID:22399029

  20. Bayes plus Brass: Estimating Total Fertility for Many Small Areas from Sparse Census Data

    PubMed Central

    Schmertmann, Carl P.; Cavenaghi, Suzana M.; Assunção, Renato M.; Potter, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Small-area fertility estimates are valuable for analysing demographic change, and important for local planning and population projection. In countries lacking complete vital registration, however, small-area estimates are possible only from sparse survey or census data that are potentially unreliable. Such estimation requires new methods for old problems: procedures must be automated if thousands of estimates are required, they must deal with extreme sampling variability in many areas, and they should also incorporate corrections for possible data errors. We present a two-step algorithm for estimating total fertility in such circumstances, and we illustrate by applying the method to 2000 Brazilian Census data for over five thousand municipalities. Our proposed algorithm first smoothes local age-specific rates using Empirical Bayes methods, and then applies a new variant of Brass’s P/F parity correction procedure that is robust under conditions of rapid fertility decline. PMID:24143946

  1. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  2. Hysterectomy: variations in rates across small areas and across physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, N P

    1984-01-01

    This analysis focuses on the practice of hysterectomy across 33 hospital catchment areas of one Canadian province, using claims data from the Manitoba health insurance system. Hysterectomy rates varied five-fold across hospital areas. The availability of hospitals and physicians was unrelated to area rates, and there appeared to be no access barriers in the low-rate areas. High-rate areas were characterized by women who visited large numbers of different physicians and by having larger proportions of French, Polish, and Italian residents (ethnic groups which are largely Catholic in Manitoba). Although women residents of high rate areas made somewhat more visits for gynecologic problems and had many more D&Cs (dilation and curretage of the uterus), it is concluded that this may be due as much to the practice style of physicians treating patients from these areas as to gynecologic need. Residents of high and medium-high rate areas are more likely to have hysterectomy-prone surgeons as their primary physicians. Such physicians appear both more likely to "label" their patients' conditions as gynecologic in origin and more likely to advise surgical intervention (both D&C and hysterectomy) once such conditions are diagnosed. Thus, a combination of patient and physician characteristics may explain much of the variation in small area hysterectomy rates, rather than narrowly defined medical need. PMID:6703159

  3. Design Issues in Small-Area Studies of Environment and Health

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Paul; Savitz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Small-area studies are part of the tradition of spatial epidemiology, which is concerned with the analysis of geographic patterns of disease with respect to environmental, demographic, socioeconomic, and other factors. We focus on etiologic research, where the aim is to make inferences about spatially varying environmental factors influencing the risk of disease. Methods and results We illustrate the approach through three exemplars: a) magnetic fields from overhead electric power lines and the occurrence of childhood leukemia, which illustrates the use of geographic information systems to focus on areas with high exposure prevalence; b) drinking-water disinfection by-products and reproductive outcomes, taking advantage of large between- to within-area variability in exposures from the water supply; and c) chronic exposure to air pollutants and cardiorespiratory health, where issues of socioeconomic confounding are particularly important. Discussion The small-area epidemiologic approach assigns exposure estimates to individuals based on location of residence or other geographic variables such as workplace or school. In this way, large populations can be studied, increasing the ability to investigate rare exposures or rare diseases. The approach is most effective when there is well-defined exposure variation across geographic units, limited within-area variation, and good control for potential confounding across areas. Conclusions In conjunction with traditional individual-based approaches, small-area studies offer a valuable addition to the armamentarium of the environmental epidemiologist. Modeling of exposure patterns coupled with collection of individual-level data on subsamples of the population should lead to improved risk estimates (i.e., less potential for bias) and help strengthen etiologic inference. PMID:18709174

  4. Kitchen knives and homicide: a systematic study of people charged with murder in the Lothian and Borders region of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Kidd, S H; Hughes, N S; Crichton, J H M

    2014-07-01

    A recent English study demonstrated high rates of kitchen knife use in homicides by mentally disordered offenders subject to independent inquiries. Everyone accused of homicide in Scotland undergoes psychiatric examination; all such evaluations in a Scottish region between 2006 and 2011 were systematically analysed to identify homicide characteristics. It was hypothesised that kitchen knives would be the commonest sharp instruments used, and would be associated with unplanned domestic homicide against known victims, with no independent association with mental disorder. Kitchen knives were used in 32 of 55 homicides: 94% of 34 sharp object homicides (p < 0.05). No independent association was found between kitchen knife use and planning, location, relationship, intoxication or mental disorder. Kitchen knife use in homicide appears to be a significant public health issue, and not only in the mentally disordered population. Research is recommended into kitchen knife use in non-fatal violence, and weapon control in populations at increased risk of knife violence. PMID:24003083

  5. Small area estimation for estimating the number of infant mortality in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggreyani, Arie; Indahwati, Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    Demographic and Health Survey Indonesia (DHSI) is a national designed survey to provide information regarding birth rate, mortality rate, family planning and health. DHSI was conducted by BPS in cooperation with National Population and Family Planning Institution (BKKBN), Indonesia Ministry of Health (KEMENKES) and USAID. Based on the publication of DHSI 2012, the infant mortality rate for a period of five years before survey conducted is 32 for 1000 birth lives. In this paper, Small Area Estimation (SAE) is used to estimate the number of infant mortality in districts of West Java. SAE is a special model of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). In this case, the incidence of infant mortality is a Poisson distribution which has equdispersion assumption. The methods to handle overdispersion are binomial negative and quasi-likelihood model. Based on the results of analysis, quasi-likelihood model is the best model to overcome overdispersion problem. The basic model of the small area estimation used basic area level model. Mean square error (MSE) which based on resampling method is used to measure the accuracy of small area estimates.

  6. Small area comparisons of health: applications for policy makers and challenges for researchers.

    PubMed

    Veugelers, Paul J; Hornibrook, Shane

    2002-01-01

    It is a challenge to researchers to present their results in a way that serves the needs of health policy makers. Small area maps of life expectancy provide an insightful presentation. In this study, we pursued small area comparisons on a scale that is smaller than is currently available on a province-wide basis. We visualized Nova Scotia's provincial variation in health and identified the Cape Breton Regional Municipality and Halifax's disadvantaged "North End" neighbourhood as areas with major health concerns. The observed health differences are only partially explained by socioeconomic factors such as income and unemployment. The study also demonstrated the feasibility of small area comparisons at the level of census consolidated subdivisions and neighbourhoods. There are various methodological challenges for researchers, however: allocation procedures such as the postal code-conversion-file may introduce substantial error; the application of appropriate spatial smoothing procedures is crucial to the interpretation of regional variation in health; and the migration of frail individuals to nursing homes affects the geographic variation in health. PMID:12443566

  7. [Homicide by mentally ill: clinical and criminological analysis].

    PubMed

    Pera, S Barbera; Dailliet, A

    2005-01-01

    The present study analysed the characteristics of homicide in internees according to the Social Defence system in Belgium. The Social Defence system was inaugurated in 1930, following the ideas of Adolphe Prins, a Belgian specialist in the criminal law. The Social Defence system concerns those offenders who are considered as mentally ill at large. The concept of mental illness encompasses the classical notion of "dementia" but also those people with mental unbalance as personality disordered offenders and mentally retarded persons. In the present study, we considered all those internees who committed a homicide or a homicide attempt and whose cases were examined by the review board between September 1998 and June 2000. We collected 99 cases and studied the age at the time of the offence (mean: 32.2 years), their diagnoses, the status of victims. These 99 murderers committed 111 "facts", a fact being a murder or murder attempt on one or several person(s) without arrest between the different phases of the commitment. These facts provoked 132 victims (72 men and 60 women); 61.36 % deceased. There was no significant difference in the characteristics of homicide versus homicide attempt. The results showed that, in our population, 59.6 % of the patients endorsed a diagnosis of psychosis (37 cases of paranoid schizophrenia, 2 schizophrenias of other types, 7 schizo-affective disorders, 1 autistic disorder, and 12 delusional disorders). Other axis I disorders were 3 intermittent explosive disorders, 2 major depressive disorders, 2 paraphilias and 1 bipolar disorder. The 32 offenders with no axis I major mental diseases presented such diagnoses, alone or comorbid, as antisocial personality disorder (n = 17), borderline personality disorder (n = 8), paranoid personality disorder (n = 4), and schizoid personality disorder (n = 2), 14 were mentally retarded and 5 presented a cerebral damage or an epilepsy. The age of the offender at the first homicide was not significantly

  8. Homicides committed by youth assailants: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Adeagbo, Bamidele A; Clark, Colin; Collins, Kim A

    2008-09-01

    The pediatric population has received considerable attention in the forensic community; the youth assailant of homicide, however, is understudied. The authors retrospectively reviewed all cases referred to the Forensic Pathology Section of the Medical University of South Carolina between January 1991 and May 2006. Cases included in the study were homicides in which 1 or more assailants were 19 years of age or younger. The cases were examined as to the cause and manner of death, victim age, gender, race, incident location, weapon used, assailant-victim relationship, assailant age, gender, race, motive, and postmortem toxicology results. Assailant information was obtained from forensic records at Medical University of South Carolina, police department records, and online search engines of South Carolina State newspaper archives confirmed by law enforcement reports. The youth assailants were predominantly black men, 15 to 19 years of age (range, 4-19 years). Most victims were black male acquaintances, and the motive was most often an argument. The most common cause of death was cerebral laceration because of a gunshot wound. The incident occurred in the home in 41% of cases, followed by the street in 31%. Victim toxicology was frequently positive for cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol. PMID:18725775

  9. Sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Koch, Judith; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas; Briken, Peer

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and "psychopathy" in homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders and to investigate the specificity of previous studies on psychiatric morbidity of a sample of sexual murderers. Information from court reports of 166 homicidal and 56 nonhomicidal sex offenders was evaluated using standardized instruments (SCID-II, PCL-R) and classification systems (DSM-IV). Sexual murderers were diagnosed more often with a personality disorder (80.1% vs. 50%; p < 0.001), especially schizoid personality disorder (16.3% vs. 5.4%; p < 0.05), as well as with sexual sadism (36.7% vs. 8.9%; p < 0.001) and sexual dysfunctions (21.7% vs. 7.1%; p < 0.05). Additionally, they had more often used alcohol during the offense (63.2% vs. 41%; p < 0.05). The results indicate that sexual murderers have more and a greater variety of psychiatric disorders when compared to nonhomicidal sex offenders. PMID:21981447

  10. Quantitative electroencephalographic measures in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Virkkunen, Matti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Appelberg, Björn; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Salmi, Tapani

    2005-07-15

    Many symptoms of antisocial personality disorder have been proposed to be related to decreased daytime vigilance. To explore this hypothesis, quantitative analyses were conducted of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of drug-free and detoxified homicidal male offenders with antisocial personality disorder as the primary diagnosis. Subjects comprised 16 men recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination in a special ward of a university psychiatric hospital. Fifteen healthy age- and gender-matched controls with no criminal record or history of physical violence consisted of hospital staff and students. An overall reduction of alpha power was observed in the waking EEG of offenders. A bilateral increase in occipital delta and theta power was also found in these individuals. This study provides further support to the growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. Homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder seem to have difficulties in maintaining normal daytime arousal. Decreased vigilance, together with social and psychological variables, may explain their aberrant behavior in everyday life. New studies are, however, needed to specify the vigilance problems of this patient group. PMID:16026854

  11. Space city revisited: patterns of legal outcomes in Houston homicide.

    PubMed

    Titterington, Victoria B; Abbott, Barry P

    2004-02-01

    This study re-examines, and updates, that of Lundsgaarde (1977), who found that among homicide offenders in Houston, Texas, in 1969, less than 50% of those who killed intimates or other family members were ever prosecuted for their lethal acts. The general pattern that emerges from our analysis of a random sample of 428 homicide cases during 1985 to 1994 indicates that killers of intimate partners or relatives are somewhat more likely to be prosecuted as offenders who were friends or strangers to their victims. Also during this 1985 to 1994 time period, the relative percent of defendants who were sentenced to a prison term of 20 years of less was smallest for those who killed intimate partners or other family members compared to those convicted of killing friends/acquaintances or strangers. As for sex-specific legal dispositions in cases of lethal violence against intimates or other relatives, we found that sanctions against women were considerably less severe than those against male offenders, in both time periods. PMID:15179748

  12. A Retrospective Study of Blade Wound Characteristics in Suicide and Homicide.

    PubMed

    Krywanczyk, Alison; Shapiro, Steven

    2015-12-01

    The distinction between self-inflicted blade wounds and blade wounds inflicted by another can be difficult in situations where there is little available history or context. We reviewed homicides and suicides in the past 10 years at the Vermont Office of the Chief Medical Examiner to define the characteristics of homicidal and suicidal blade wounds. All homicides and suicides involving blade wounds, not just those in which blade wounds were the cause of death, were included. Information regarding victim demographics, location and type of injuries, toxicology, and evidence of suicidality was gathered. Blade wounds were the cause of death in 85.7% of homicides but only in 36% of suicides. Hanging and gunshot wounds were the cause of death in 28% and 24% of suicides, respectively. Multiple stab wounds were found in 10% of homicides and in 0% of suicides, whereas multiple incised wounds were found in 60% of suicides and only 10% of homicides. However, several unusual instances of suicide were found, including suicides with clothing damage or bone or cartilage injury from blade wounds. No characteristics of blade wounds were definitive for homicide or suicide. History and circumstances of the scene are thus crucial in determining the manner of death. PMID:26230455

  13. Workplace Homicides Among U.S. Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Gurka, Kelly K.; Konda, Srinivas; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Amandus, Harlan E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue with serious consequences for the workplace. Workplace homicides occurring to U.S. women over a 6-year period, including those perpetrated by an intimate partner, are described. METHODS Workplace homicides among U.S. women from 2003 to 2008 were categorized into type I (criminal intent), type II (customer/client), type III (co-worker), or type IV (personal relations) events using the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Fatality rates were calculated and compared among workplace violence (WPV) types, occupations, and characteristics including location of homicide, type of workplace, time of day, and weapon used. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2008, 648 women were feloniously killed on the job. The leading cause of workplace homicide for U.S. women was criminal intent, such as robbing a store (n = 212; 39%), followed by homicides perpetrated by a personal relation (n= 181; 33%). The majority of these personal relations were intimate partners (n = 142; 78%). Over half of workplace homicides perpetrated by intimate partners occurred in parking lots and public buildings (n = 91; 51%). CONCLUSIONS A large percentage of homicides occurring to women at work are perpetrated by intimate partners. WPV prevention programs should incorporate strategies to prevent and respond to IPV. PMID:22463843

  14. Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Molly M.; Dominici, Francesca; Hemenway, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates. Methods. We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results. Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership. Conclusions. High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs. PMID:26270316

  15. Effects of the repeal of Missouri's handgun purchaser licensing law on homicides.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel; Crifasi, Cassandra Kercher; Vernick, Jon S

    2014-04-01

    In the USA, homicide is a leading cause of death for young males and a major cause of racial disparities in life expectancy for men. There are intense debate and little rigorous research on the effects of firearm sales regulation on homicides. This study estimates the impact of Missouri's 2007 repeal of its permit-to-purchase (PTP) handgun law on states' homicide rates and controls for changes in poverty, unemployment, crime, incarceration, policing levels, and other policies that could potentially affect homicides. Using death certificate data available through 2010, the repeal of Missouri's PTP law was associated with an increase in annual firearm homicides rates of 1.09 per 100,000 (+23%) but was unrelated to changes in non-firearm homicide rates. Using Uniform Crime Reporting data from police through 2012, the law's repeal was associated with increased annual murders rates of 0.93 per 100,000 (+16%). These estimated effects translate to increases of between 55 and 63 homicides per year in Missouri. PMID:24604521

  16. A small-area index of socioeconomic deprivation to capture health inequalities in France.

    PubMed

    Havard, Sabrina; Deguen, Séverine; Bodin, Julie; Louis, Karine; Laurent, Olivier; Bard, Denis

    2008-12-01

    In the absence of individual data, ecological or contextual measures of socioeconomic level are frequently used to describe social inequalities in health. This work focuses on the methodological aspects of the development and validation of a French small-area index of socioeconomic deprivation and its application to the evaluation of the socioeconomic differentials in health outcomes. This index was derived from a principal component analysis of 1999 national census data from the Strasbourg metropolitan area in eastern France, at the census block level. Composed of 19 variables that reflect the multiple aspects of socioeconomic status (income, employment, housing, family and household, and educational level), it can discriminate disadvantaged urban centres from more privileged rural and suburban areas. Several statistical tests (Cronbach's alpha coefficient, convergent validity tests with other deprivation indices from the literature) provided internal and external validation. Its successful application to another French metropolitan area (Lille, in northern France) confirmed its transposability. Finally, its capacity to capture the social inequalities in health when applied to myocardial infarction data shows its potential value. This study thus provides a new tool in French public health research for characterising neighbourhood deprivation and detecting socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of health outcomes at the small-area level. PMID:18950926

  17. Terrorist homicide bombings: a primer for preparation.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, James

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary planning for disaster response to terrorist events usually assumes the use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Historically, most victims of terrorist attacks are injured by the use of conventional explosives rather than weapons of mass destruction. Such attacks will likely produce victims who have suffered burn injuries along with conventional trauma. Alternately, the large number of patients sustaining conventional soft-tissue or crush injuries will benefit from burn center expertise. This study summarizes the current state of knowledge related to the management of terrorism mass casualty incidents caused by the use of conventional explosives. A review of pertinent medical, technical, and popular literature relating to terrorism and explosives, along with instruction received at Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel on the management of mass casualty terrorism events was undertaken, and the pertinent medical and scientific literature relating to bomb delivery methods, blast mechanics, blast pathophysiology, and medical response to a terrorist bombing is presented here. Although terrorist use of chemical, radiological, or biological weapons is possible, historical analysis consistently demonstrates that the most likely terrorist weapon causing a mass casualty event is a standard explosive device detonated in a crowded area. The medical basis for management of such casualties is herein described. PMID:16998388

  18. Cancer mortality in small areas around nuclear facilities in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer mortality trends were examined for the small areas around fourteen nuclear and five non-nuclear facilities in England and Wales. Using routine OPCS mortality data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for these areas were computed for selected causes of death. Changes in the SMRs were then sought by comparing the SMRs for the five years before the facility opened with the period 10 (in some cases 15) years after start-up, and by computing the weighted regression of the SMRs on calendar year. These analyses indicate no overall pattern of increasing cancer SMRs around nuclear facilities. PMID:6498079

  19. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Proposed Hampton Roads Area Sites for a Possible Small Modular Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, R. J.; Omitaomu, O. A.

    2014-08-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to use the OR-SAGE tool to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in evaluating future electrical generation deployment options for small modular reactors (SMRs) in areas with significant energy demand from the federal sector. Deployment of SMRs in zones with high federal energy use can provide a means of meeting federal clean energy goals.

  20. What is too much variation? The null hypothesis in small-area analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Diehr, P; Cain, K; Connell, F; Volinn, E

    1990-01-01

    A small-area analysis (SAA) in health services research often calculates surgery rates for several small areas, compares the largest rate to the smallest, notes that the difference is large, and attempts to explain this discrepancy as a function of service availability, physician practice styles, or other factors. SAAs are often difficult to interpret because there is little theoretical basis for determining how much variation would be expected under the null hypothesis that all of the small areas have similar underlying surgery rates and that the observed variation is due to chance. We developed a computer program to simulate the distribution of several commonly used descriptive statistics under the null hypothesis, and used it to examine the variability in rates among the counties of the state of Washington. The expected variability when the null hypothesis is true is surprisingly large, and becomes worse for procedures with low incidence, for smaller populations, when there is variability among the populations of the counties, and when readmissions are possible. The characteristics of four descriptive statistics were studied and compared. None was uniformly good, but the chi-square statistic had better performance than the others. When we reanalyzed five journal articles that presented sufficient data, the results were usually statistically significant. Since SAA research today is tending to deal with low-incidence events, smaller populations, and measures where readmissions are possible, more research is needed on the distribution of small-area statistics under the null hypothesis. New standards are proposed for the presentation of SAA results. PMID:2312306

  1. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1978. Data are tabulated for the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Annual peak stage and stream-discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 191 stations in 1977. Data are tabulated for 336 sites throughout the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1981. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  4. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1955-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1980. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  5. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.

    1955-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1979. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  6. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Design Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. Setting England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Participants 32 482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Main outcome measures Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100 000 need adjusted population. Results In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100 000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to −0.7 (95% CI −2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100 000. The number of FTE GPs per 100 000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100 000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the ‘Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care’. Conclusions There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 PMID:26787245

  7. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  8. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Persson, Bo

    2008-03-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load [1-4]. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches to zero. The present results may be very important for soft solids, e.g., rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderate high loads without plastic deformation of the solids. References: [1] C. Yang and B.N.J. Persson, arXiv:0710.0276, (to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) [2] B.N.J. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 125502 (2007) [3] L. Pei, S. Hyun, J.F. Molinari and M.O. Robbins, J. Mech. Phys. Sol. 53, 2385 (2005) [4] M. Benz, K.J. Rosenberg, E.J. Kramer and J.N. Israelachvili, J. Phy. Chem. B.110, 11884 (2006)

  9. Estimation Of Cultivated Area In Small Plot Agriculture In Africa For Food Security Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecz, Francesco; Collivignarelli, Francesco; Barbieri, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    Cultivated area in small plot agriculture in Africa is estimated using a synergetic approach based on multi-sensor, multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The method - which is based on the utilization of ALOS PALSAR-1, Cosmo-SkyMed, ENVISAT ASAR data involving different processing techniques - consists in the generation of three independent and complementary products, which in turn they are fused, enabling the generation of the cultivated area. Each intermediate product has a clear meaning within agriculture and food security: i) the potential crop extent prior to the crop season; ii) the potential area at start of the crop season; iii) the crop growth extent during the rainfed crop season. The proposed methodology has been implemented and demonstrated in Malawi. The obtained results show an overall accuracy exceeding 90%.

  10. Use of super-safe, small, and simple LMRs to create green belts in desertification areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao; Handa, Norihiko

    1989-01-01

    Lands as large as 6 million ha (Ref. 1) are devastated annually to an unrecoverable extent in the world by desertification. Most desertification is concentrated in areas with low annual precipitation. To control desertification, a grassland or green bell must be made at the front of the desertification area. It is obvious that fresh water is needed in the required quantities at the proper times. A dual-purpose plant for electric power and water is significant in this case because desalination can be made available by power production, and supplying power to desertification areas leads to preservation of forests (when energy requirements in the area are met by wood fuel), preventing desertification in a double sense. This super-safe, small, and simple (4S) liquid-metal reactor with very low maintenance can be used to create a green belt at the front of a desertification area in conjunction with a module desalination system. In the green belt, a soil environment with adequate power to grow plants will be formed along with the development of surface soils that contain a significant quantity of organic materials. Desertification will eventually cease at this location and a vast green area will result.

  11. Is there much variation in variation? Revisiting statistics of small area variation in health services research

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Berta; Librero, Julián; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique; Peiró, Salvador; López-Valcarcel, Beatriz González; Martínez, Natalia; Aizpuru, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Background The importance of Small Area Variation Analysis for policy-making contrasts with the scarcity of work on the validity of the statistics used in these studies. Our study aims at 1) determining whether variation in utilization rates between health areas is higher than would be expected by chance, 2) estimating the statistical power of the variation statistics; and 3) evaluating the ability of different statistics to compare the variability among different procedures regardless of their rates. Methods Parametric bootstrap techniques were used to derive the empirical distribution for each statistic under the hypothesis of homogeneity across areas. Non-parametric procedures were used to analyze the empirical distribution for the observed statistics and compare the results in six situations (low/medium/high utilization rates and low/high variability). A small scale simulation study was conducted to assess the capacity of each statistic to discriminate between different scenarios with different degrees of variation. Results Bootstrap techniques proved to be good at quantifying the difference between the null hypothesis and the variation observed in each situation, and to construct reliable tests and confidence intervals for each of the variation statistics analyzed. Although the good performance of Systematic Component of Variation (SCV), Empirical Bayes (EB) statistic shows better behaviour under the null hypothesis, it is able to detect variability if present, it is not influenced by the procedure rate and it is best able to discriminate between different degrees of heterogeneity. Conclusion The EB statistics seems to be a good alternative to more conventional statistics used in small-area variation analysis in health service research because of its robustness. PMID:19341469

  12. Small-area fiber-coupled scintillation camera for imaging beta-ray distributions intraoperatively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. R.; Tornai, Martin P.; Levin, C. S.; Park, J.; Atac, Muzaffer; Cline, David B.; Hoffman, Eric G.

    1995-09-01

    A small area, imaging, scintillation probe is being developed for locating small amounts of radio-labeled malignant tissue during surgery. Preliminary in brain surgery, avoiding the removal of excess tissue is a priority. It is possible to locate the main body of a brain tumor both before and during surgery, but once the bulk of the tumor is excised the identification of residual malignant tissue is difficult. A probe that covers an area of 1-2 cm(superscript 2) with an intrinsic resolution of 1-2 mm could locate small tumor masses that pose a threat of recurrence of the disease, and prevent removal of healthy tissue. A pre-operative injection of tumor seeking, beta emitting radiopharmaceutical (e.g. (superscript 18)fluorodeoxyuridine-FDUR-) will label the tumor. The limited range of beta-rays ensures proximity upon successful detection. Plastic scintillators are used for beta detection, and visible light photon counters (VLPCs) detect the scintillation light. For maneuverability in and around the surgical cavity, the scintillators are coupled to the VLPCs via 2 m of optical fiber. An imaging device can cover the tissue bed in a time compatible with surgery, as opposed to a single element detector on the order of 1-2 mm in size with comparable resolution. An imager also distinguishes high background rates (such as from annihilation gammas in FDUR) and concentrations of activity.

  13. The dead end of domestic violence: spotlight on children's narratives during forensic investigations following domestic homicide.

    PubMed

    Katz, Carmit

    2014-12-01

    The current study provides an in-depth exploration of the narratives of children who witnessed their father killing their mother. This exploration was conducted using a thematic analysis of the children's forensic interviews based on seven investigative interviews that were conducted with children following the domestic homicide. Investigative interviews were selected for study only for substantiated cases and only if the children disclosed the domestic homicide. All of the investigative interviews were conducted within 24h of the domestic homicide. Thematic analysis revealed the following four key categories: the domestic homicide as the dead end of domestic violence, what I did when daddy killed mommy, that one time that daddy killed mommy, and mommy will feel better and will go back home. The discussion examines the multiple layers of this phenomenon as revealed in the children's narratives and its consequences for professionals within the legal and clinical contexts. PMID:24961554

  14. Messing Up Texas?: A Re-Analysis of the Effects of Executions on Homicides.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Patrick T; Kovandzic, Tomislav V

    2015-01-01

    Executions in Texas from 1994-2005 do not deter homicides, contrary to the results of Land et al. (2009). We find that using different models--based on pre-tests for unit roots that correct for earlier model misspecifications--one cannot reject the null hypothesis that executions do not lead to a change in homicides in Texas over this period. Using additional control variables, we show that variables such as the number of prisoners in Texas may drive the main drop in homicides over this period. Such conclusions however are highly sensitive to model specification decisions, calling into question the assumptions about fixed parameters and constant structural relationships. This means that using dynamic regressions to account for policy changes that may affect homicides need to be done with significant care and attention. PMID:26398193

  15. Faith without answers: the use of religion among cold case homicide survivors.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Ashley R P

    2014-01-01

    Through data gathered from interviews with cold case homicide survivors, this article reveals the important role of religion and faith in the aftermath of an unsolved murder. Using qualitative methodology, the author highlights the lived experiences and personal journeys of cold case homicide surviving family members, who are often a forgotten and an overlooked segment of victims. Qualitative data suggests that these cold case homicide survivors found religion to be critical in the aftermath of their loved one's murder. Specifically, survivors indicated their faith was fundamental in coping with the homicide and provided hope for anticipating a resolution in their cases. From these intimate, personal survivor accounts, scholars and practitioners can begin to develop future research and programs that are specifically designed to highlight the role of religion in moving forward after an unsolved murder. PMID:25084707

  16. Messing Up Texas?: A Re-Analysis of the Effects of Executions on Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Patrick T.; Kovandzic, Tomislav V.

    2015-01-01

    Executions in Texas from 1994–2005 do not deter homicides, contrary to the results of Land et al. (2009). We find that using different models—based on pre-tests for unit roots that correct for earlier model misspecifications—one cannot reject the null hypothesis that executions do not lead to a change in homicides in Texas over this period. Using additional control variables, we show that variables such as the number of prisoners in Texas may drive the main drop in homicides over this period. Such conclusions however are highly sensitive to model specification decisions, calling into question the assumptions about fixed parameters and constant structural relationships. This means that using dynamic regressions to account for policy changes that may affect homicides need to be done with significant care and attention. PMID:26398193

  17. Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; Daly, M

    1997-04-26

    In comparisons among Chicago neighbourhoods, homicide rates in 1988-93 varied more than 100-fold, while male life expectancy at birth ranged from 54 to 77 years, even with effects of homicide mortality removed. This "cause deleted" life expectancy was highly correlated with homicide rates; a measure of economic inequality added significant additional prediction, whereas median household income did not. Deaths from internal causes (diseases) show similar age patterns, despite different absolute levels, in the best and worst neighbourhoods, whereas deaths from external causes (homicide, accident, suicide) do not. As life expectancy declines across neighbourhoods, women reproduce earlier; by age 30, however, neighbourhood no longer affects age specific fertility. These results support the hypothesis that life expectancy itself may be a psychologically salient determinant of risk taking and the timing of life transitions. PMID:9154035

  18. Homicide-Followed-by-Suicide Incidents Involving Child Victims

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Joseph E.; Walsh, Sabrina; Patel, Nimeshkumar; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe homicide-followed-by-suicide incidents involving child victims Methods Using 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System data, we characterized 129 incidents based on victim and perpetrator demographic information, their relationships, the weapons/mechanisms involved, and the perpetrators’ health and stress-related circumstances. Results These incidents accounted for 188 child deaths; 69% were under 11 years old, and 58% were killed with a firearm. Approximately 76% of perpetrators were males, and 75% were parents/caregivers. Eighty-one percent of incidents with paternal perpetrators and 59% with maternal perpetrators were preceded by parental discord. Fifty-two percent of incidents with maternal perpetrators were associated with maternal psychiatric problems. Conclusions Strategies that resolve parental conflicts rationally and facilitate detection and treatment of parental mental conditions might help prevention efforts. PMID:23985234

  19. Homicide or suicide? Gunshot wound interpretation: a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Cave, Rowena; DiMaio, Vincent J; Molina, D Kimberley

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have been published examining various features of fatal gunshot wounds such as type of firearm, range of fire, number of shots, and wound location as a way of determining between homicidal and suicidal deaths. Pathologists frequently have to give evidence in court, and may have their opinion about probable manner of death challenged or be questioned about how sure they can be. In the literature, the features are always discussed in isolation, but in practice, the pathologist has to consider such details in combination. Using pooled data from a systematic review to obtain large data sets, this study shows how Bayesian analysis can be applied to consideration of combined features and can thus provide a quantified degree of confidence to support the pathologist's opinion through the use of likelihood ratios. Case examples are provided to illustrate the impact of different features. PMID:24781397

  20. [Female homicides involving deep injuries to sexual organs].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Tomasz; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kunz, Jerzy; Fraczek, Dagna; Kozioł, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    In a search for motives that drive perpetrators of sexual homicides who perforate the vagina of a victim, an analysis was performed of such cases referred to the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine. In the period 1981-2006, nine cases of this type were examined. In one instance, a forensic sexologist found evidence of sadism; similar observations were made in another three cases, where no perpetrator was determined. In four cases, in the course of sexual practices termed fisting, the perpetrator tore the vagina with his hand and inflicted extensive injuries within the abdominal cavity. In three of these cases, the intercourse was consensual, with the victim deeply intoxicated, while in the fourth instance, an inebriated perpetrator took advantage of the victim's infirmity. In a single case, vaginal tears were an effect of acute alcohol psychosis in the offender. PMID:20073256

  1. Nail-gun injuries. Accident, homicide, or suicide?

    PubMed

    McCorkell, S J; Harley, J D; Cummings, D

    1986-09-01

    It may be difficult to distinguish industrial accidents from suicide attempts or even assaults or homicide. Nail guns are relatively new industrial tools that can produce severe or fatal injuries. The configuration of the nail on patients' radiographs after such injuries can be helpful in determining the cause of injury. Steel nails that are bent are due to a ricochet and thus indicate accidental injury. Straight-nail injuries to the co-workers of nail-gun users are most likely due to over-penetration of the substance being nailed or accidental mid-air firing; however, intentional injury cannot be ruled out. Extremity injuries caused by straight steel nails in nail gun users are the result of carelessness or poor technique, but suicide should be considered when straight nails cause wounds to the chest, head, or abdomen. PMID:3788906

  2. Space-Time Smoothing of Complex Survey Data: Small Area Estimation for Child Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Laina D; Wakefield, Jon; Pantazis, Athena; Lutambi, Angelina M; Masanja, Honorati; Clark, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Many people living in low and middle-income countries are not covered by civil registration and vital statistics systems. Consequently, a wide variety of other types of data including many household sample surveys are used to estimate health and population indicators. In this paper we combine data from sample surveys and demographic surveillance systems to produce small area estimates of child mortality through time. Small area estimates are necessary to understand geographical heterogeneity in health indicators when full-coverage vital statistics are not available. For this endeavor spatio-temporal smoothing is beneficial to alleviate problems of data sparsity. The use of conventional hierarchical models requires careful thought since the survey weights may need to be considered to alleviate bias due to non-random sampling and non-response. The application that motivated this work is estimation of child mortality rates in five-year time intervals in regions of Tanzania. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted over the period 1991–2010 and two demographic surveillance system sites. We derive a variance estimator of under five years child mortality that accounts for the complex survey weighting. For our application, the hierarchical models we consider include random effects for area, time and survey and we compare models using a variety of measures including the conditional predictive ordinate (CPO). The method we propose is implemented via the fast and accurate integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA). PMID:27468328

  3. Bayes plus Brass: estimating total fertility for many small areas from sparse census data.

    PubMed

    Schmertmann, Carl P; Cavenaghi, Suzana M; Assunção, Renato M; Potter, Joseph E

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of fertility in small areas are valuable for analysing demographic change, and important for local planning and population projection. In countries lacking complete vital registration, however, small-area estimates are possible only from sparse survey or census data that are potentially unreliable. In these circumstances estimation requires new methods for old problems: procedures must be automated if thousands of estimates are required; they must deal with extreme sampling variability in many areas; and they should also incorporate corrections for possible data errors. We present a two-step procedure for estimating total fertility in such circumstances and illustrate it by applying the method to data from the 2000 Brazilian Census for over 5,000 municipalities. Our proposed procedure first smoothes local age-specific rates using Empirical Bayes methods and then applies a new variant of Brass's P/F parity correction procedure that is robust to conditions of rapid fertility decline. Supplementary material at the project website ( http://schmert.net/BayesBrass ) will allow readers to replicate all the authors' results in this paper using their data and programs. PMID:24143946

  4. Meningococcal disease and social deprivation: a small area geographical study in Gwent, UK.

    PubMed

    Fone, D L; Harries, J M; Lester, N; Nehaul, L

    2003-02-01

    Although meningococcal disease is known to be linked to characteristics of individuals associated with social deprivation, there is only limited evidence of a relation with area-based measures of deprivation. In a small area geographical study, we ascertained 295 confirmed or probable cases occurring between 1996 and 1999 in the socially diverse resident population of Gwent Health Authority, equating to an average annual rate of 13.2 per 100,000. Incidence rates of meningococcal disease increased from 8.1 per 100,000 in the least deprived fifth of enumeration districts to 19.8 per 100,000 in the most deprived fifth, a relative risk of 2.4 (95% CI 1.7-3.6). In Poisson regression, the percentage change in the incidence rate arising from a unit change in the enumeration district Townsend score, was 9.4% (95% CI 6.2-12.6%). Strongest associations were found for the under 5 age group, serogroup B disease and with the overcrowding variable component of the Townsend index. Our study quantifies the strength of the relation between meningococcal disease and social deprivation at small area level and provides further evidence of the need for action to reduce health inequalities. PMID:12613745

  5. Meningococcal disease and social deprivation: a small area geographical study in Gwent, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Fone, D. L.; Harries, J. M.; Lester, N.; Nehaul, L.

    2003-01-01

    Although meningococcal disease is known to be linked to characteristics of individuals associated with social deprivation, there is only limited evidence of a relation with area-based measures of deprivation. In a small area geographical study, we ascertained 295 confirmed or probable cases occurring between 1996 and 1999 in the socially diverse resident population of Gwent Health Authority, equating to an average annual rate of 13.2 per 100,000. Incidence rates of meningococcal disease increased from 8.1 per 100,000 in the least deprived fifth of enumeration districts to 19.8 per 100,000 in the most deprived fifth, a relative risk of 2.4 (95% CI 1.7-3.6). In Poisson regression, the percentage change in the incidence rate arising from a unit change in the enumeration district Townsend score, was 9.4% (95% CI 6.2-12.6%). Strongest associations were found for the under 5 age group, serogroup B disease and with the overcrowding variable component of the Townsend index. Our study quantifies the strength of the relation between meningococcal disease and social deprivation at small area level and provides further evidence of the need for action to reduce health inequalities. PMID:12613745

  6. Multiple mutations are responsible for the high frequency of metachromatic leukodystrophy in a small geographic area.

    PubMed Central

    Heinisch, U; Zlotogora, J; Kafert, S; Gieselmann, V

    1995-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A. The disease occurs panethnically, with an estimated frequency of 1/40,000. Metachromatic leukodystrophy was found to be more frequent among Arabs living in two restricted areas in Israel. Ten families with affected children have been found, three in the Jerusalem region and seven in a small area in lower Galilee. Whereas all patients from the Jerusalem region are homozygous for a frequent mutant arylsulfatase A allele, five different mutations were found in the families from lower Galilee. In patients of Muslim Arab origin, we have found a G86-->D, a S96-->L, and a Q190-->H substitution. Two different defective arylsulfatase A alleles, characterized by a T274-->M and a R370-->W substitution, respectively, have been found among the Christian Arab patients. All mutations were introduced into the wild-type arylsulfatase A cDNA. No enzyme activity could be expressed from the mutagenized cDNAs after transfection into heterologous cells. In all instances, the patients were found to be homozygous for the mutations, and four of the five mutations occurred on different haplotypes. The clustering of this rare lysosomal storage disease in a small geographic area usually suggests a founder effect, so the finding of five different mutations is surprising. PMID:7825603

  7. Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Laura J; Rosauer, Dan F; Thornhill, Andrew H; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D; Miller, Joseph T; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-02-19

    Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages. PMID:25561668

  8. Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Laura J.; Rosauer, Dan F.; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D.; Miller, Joseph T.; McCarthy, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages. PMID:25561668

  9. A novel framework for validating and applying standardized small area measurement strategies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Local measurements of health behaviors, diseases, and use of health services are critical inputs into local, state, and national decision-making. Small area measurement methods can deliver more precise and accurate local-level information than direct estimates from surveys or administrative records, where sample sizes are often too small to yield acceptable standard errors. However, small area measurement requires careful validation using approaches other than conventional statistical methods such as in-sample or cross-validation methods because they do not solve the problem of validating estimates in data-sparse domains. Methods A new general framework for small area estimation and validation is developed and applied to estimate Type 2 diabetes prevalence in US counties using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The framework combines the three conventional approaches to small area measurement: (1) pooling data across time by combining multiple survey years; (2) exploiting spatial correlation by including a spatial component; and (3) utilizing structured relationships between the outcome variable and domain-specific covariates to define four increasingly complex model types - coined the Naive, Geospatial, Covariate, and Full models. The validation framework uses direct estimates of prevalence in large domains as the gold standard and compares model estimates against it using (i) all available observations for the large domains and (ii) systematically reduced sample sizes obtained through random sampling with replacement. At each sampling level, the model is rerun repeatedly, and the validity of the model estimates from the four model types is then determined by calculating the (average) concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and (average) root mean squared error (RMSE) against the gold standard. The CCC is closely related to the intraclass correlation coefficient and can be used when the units are organized in groups and

  10. Late Holocene and present-day fluvial morphodynamics in small catchment areas of Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englhard, Michael; Damm, Bodo; Frechen, Manfred; Terhorst, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    During the past decades strong runoff events repeatedly occurred in small drainage basins of the European low mountains. In numerous events runoff was connected with erosion and transport of extensive bed load. Runoff events were predominantly triggered by rainstorms, which were limited to the catchment areas. They partly caused severe economic loss. The present study focuses on fluvial morphodynamics in northern Hesse and Lower Saxony. In this area runoff and transport of bed load occurred in small tributary catchment areas of the Fulda, Werra and Oberweser rivers. In general, the small drainage basins are used by agriculture and forestry. Drainage channels are developed as gullies and are incised into solid bedrock, Quaternary hillslope sediments, alluvial fills, and anthropogenic deposits. Vertical incision into the bedrock may amount to 1 meter per event. Furthermore, in single cases sediment discharge amounted to 16.000 m³ in addition to the suspension load. On the base of historical analyses about 50 severe runoff events with a maximum frequency of 10 events during 1965 are recorded during the past 150 years in the study area. Field survey, sedimentological analyses and dating reveal intensive runoff processes since the Neolithic age in a comparable catchment area. In this context potsherds could be dated to the Linear Pottery culture, which were detected in an alluvial cone of the "Rehgraben gully", close to the city of.Kassel. Furthermore, findings of fossil wood were recovered in the same alluvial cone. Radiocarbon dating reveals calibrated ages which are for the most parts younger than AD. In younger sediments we suppose the severe runoff event of 1342. Current studies in the catchment area of the Rehgraben aim to distinguish different processes of the fluvial morphodynamics on a temporal scale and to estimate potential Holocene erosional rates. References Damm, B., 2004. Geschiebe führende und murfähige Wildbäche in Mittelgebirgsr

  11. Market opportunities in Canada for multimedia residential services in rural and small urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariatmadar, Mehran; Narasimhan, Vasantha

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies which were undertaken jointly by Telesat and Industry Canada to provide an estimate of the market opportunities for residential multi-media services in the rural and small urban areas of Canada. This study is part of the Advanced Satcom program, a Ka-band satellite system proposal which is currently in the implementation proposal phase by the government and the Canadian space industry of which Telesat is an active member. Advanced Satcom extends the reach of terrestrial information highways to the remote and sparsely populated parts of the country in a cost-effective manner and thus provides a ubiquitous coverage of the information highways to all Canadians. Therefore, the rural and small urban markets are believed to be good opportunities for the Advanced Satcom. Although the results are primarily intended for fixed residential applications, they can also be used as input to market opportunity studies for wideband mobile applications.

  12. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis,...

  13. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis,...

  14. BaySTDetect: detecting unusual temporal patterns in small area data via Bayesian model choice.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangquan; Best, Nicky; Hansell, Anna L; Ahmed, Ismaïl; Richardson, Sylvia

    2012-09-01

    Space-time modeling of small area data is often used in epidemiology for mapping chronic disease rates and by government statistical agencies for producing local estimates of, for example, unemployment or crime rates. Although there is typically a general temporal trend, which affects all areas similarly, abrupt changes may occur in a particular area, e.g. due to emergence of localized predictors/risk factor(s) or impact of a new policy. Detection of areas with "unusual" temporal patterns is therefore important as a screening tool for further investigations. In this paper, we propose BaySTDetect, a novel detection method for short-time series of small area data using Bayesian model choice between two competing space-time models. The first model is a multiplicative decomposition of the area effect and the temporal effect, assuming one common temporal pattern across the whole study region. The second model estimates the time trends independently for each area. For each area, the posterior probability of belonging to the common trend model is calculated, which is then used to classify the local time trend as unusual or not. Crucial to any detection method, we provide a Bayesian estimate of the false discovery rate (FDR). A comprehensive simulation study has demonstrated the consistent good performance of BaySTDetect in detecting various realistic departure patterns in addition to estimating well the FDR. The proposed method is applied retrospectively to mortality data on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in England and Wales between 1990 and 1997 (a) to test a hypothesis that a government policy increased the diagnosis of COPD and (b) to perform surveillance. While results showed no evidence supporting the hypothesis regarding the policy, an identified unusual district (Tower Hamlets in inner London) was later recognized to have higher than national rates of hospital readmission and mortality due to COPD by the National Health Service, which initiated

  15. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Site 1-recently disturbed and Site 2-partially disturbed) at Area G, Technical Area 54 and a control site on Frijoles Mesa (Site 4) in 1995. Our objectives were (1) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify if the primary mode of contamination to small mammals is by surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least rive animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr , {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 3}H. Significantly higher (parametric West at p=0.05) levels of total U, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu were detected in pelts than in carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Our results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses, which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0125) mean tritium concentration in carcasses than Site 2 or Site 4. In addition Site 1 also had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, p=0.0024) mean tritium concentration in pelts than Site 2 or Site 4. Site 2 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0499) mean {sup 239}Pu concentration in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 4.

  16. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.

    1995-09-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (1 and 2) at Area G, TA-54 and a control site outside Area G (Site 3) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U, and gamma spectroscopy (including {sup 137}Cs). Significantly higher (parametric t-test at p = 0.05) levels of total U, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 40}K were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. The authors results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0095) total U concentrations in carcasses than Sites 2 and 3. Site 2 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0195) {sup 239}Pu concentrations in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 3. A significant difference in {sup 90}Sr concentration existed between Sites 1 and 2 (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0681) and concentrations of {sup 40}K at Site 1 were significantly different from Site 3.

  17. A computer program for the localization of small areas in roentgenological images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, R. A.; Baily, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and associated algorithm are presented which allow a simple and accurate determination to be made of the location of small symmetric areas presented in roentgenological images. The method utilizes an operator to visually spot object positions but eliminates the need for critical positioning accuracy on the operator's part. The rapidity of measurement allows results to be evaluated on-line. Parameters associated with the algorithm have been analyzed, and methods to facilitate an optimum choice for any particular experimental setup are presented.

  18. Racial disparities in age at time of homicide victimization: a test of the multiple disadvantage model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    This study sought the factors associated with race/ethnicity disparities in the age at which homicide deaths tend to occur. We used the multiple disadvantage model to take race into account as we evaluated associations between age at time of homicide victimization and several social structural, mental health-related, and lifestyle factors. Data were derived from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey, a cross-sectional interview study of spouses, next of kin, other relatives, and close friends of individuals 15 years and older who died in the United States in 1993. Our results showed age at time of homicide mortality to be related to the three types of factors; race moderated some of these relationships. In general, being employed, married, and a homeowner appeared associated with reduced victimization while young. The relationship of victimization age and employment was not uniform across racial groups, nor was the relationship of victimization age and marital status uniform across groups. Among Blacks, using mental health services was associated with longer life. Homicide by firearm proved important for our Black and Hispanic subsamples, while among Whites, alcohol's involvement in homicide exerted significant effects. Our results suggest that programs and policies serving the various racial/ethnic groups can alleviate multiple disadvantages relevant in homicide victimization at an early age. PMID:24811288

  19. Violent death in children in a metropolitan county: changing patterns of homicide, 1958 to 1982.

    PubMed

    Paulson, J A; Rushforth, N B

    1986-12-01

    Death rates from homicide in children younger than 15 years of age in the United States have increased during the last 30 years. Previous studies have suggested a typology consisting of fatal child abuse in young children and community violence in older children. We reviewed the data from the Cuyahoga County, Ohio, coroner's office pertaining to homicides in children less than 15 years of age between 1958 and 1982 and obtained similar findings. The homicide rates for city children increased from 1.1 to 6.7/100,000 in the first 20 years and then stabilized. Nonwhite boys had the highest death rates except in one period. Assailants were usually adolescent and young adult men of the same race; however, 43% of children less than 5 years of age were killed by women. The older the child, the more likely the homicide was to have been committed by a nonrelative, outside of the home, and with a firearm. Overall, firearms are the leading cause of homicide (36.2%). The temporal characteristics of child homicides are also described. PMID:3786026

  20. Heterosexual intimate partner homicide: review of ten years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Farooque, Rokeya S; Stout, Ronnie G; Ernst, Frederick A

    2005-05-01

    Most of the literature on intimate partner homicide addresses violence between the two partners, spousal abuse, and family violence. There is less focus on the relationship of mental illness, intellectual functioning, and drug and alcohol abuse to these homicides. We investigated this type of homicide in a collection of forensic cases seen by the first author over a period of 10 years. Twenty-eight patients who underwent forensic psychiatric evaluation for heterosexual intimate partner homicide from August 1993 to June 2003 were studied using a retrospective case review methodology. We found that firearms were used as the method of killing more often by females than by males. We also compared method of killing with substance abuse and intoxication at the time of the homicide. Educational status indicates that this group of accused perpetrators is functioning at higher intellectual levels compared with a previously studied sample of filicides. We also found significant presence of serious mental illness in our sample of accused perpetrators of heterosexual intimate partner homicide. PMID:15932101

  1. Exploring Twitter to analyze the public's reaction patterns to recently reported homicides in London.

    PubMed

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people's perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public's concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users' estimated home locations to the homicides' locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident's occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  2. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy—the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm—and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. Methods. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Results. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. Conclusions. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides. PMID:24028252

  3. Preventing suicide and homicide in the United States: the potential benefit in human lives.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Kyllekidis, Spyros; Ekselius, Lisa; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2009-09-30

    In order to assess the potential benefit in human lives if all geographical regions in the US (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West) achieved the lowest suicide and homicide rates observed within these regions, age-, race- and gender-adjusted suicide and homicide rates for each of the four regions were calculated based on data retrieved using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention database for 1999-2004. Data on known risk factors were retrieved from online sources. Overall suicide rates (10.42 per 100,000) exceeded homicide rates (6.97 per 100,000). Almost 27% (12,942 lives per year) of the 288,222 suicide and homicide deaths during the study period might have been avoided if all US regions achieved the mortality rate reported by the Northeast. A firearm was used in 55% of all suicides and 66% of all homicides. In the total estimate of avoidable deaths, firearm suicides (90%) and firearm homicides (75%) were overrepresented. The Northeast had the lowest access to firearms (20%) contrasted to almost double in the other regions, whereas greater firearms availability was related to unrestricted firearm legislation. Measures to restrict firearms availability should be highly prioritized in the public health agenda in order to achieve an impressive benefit in human lives. PMID:19646765

  4. Homicide among Indigenous South Australians: a forty-year study (1969-2008).

    PubMed

    Temlett, Julia; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    A retrospective review of homicide cases among Aboriginal people in South Australia examined at Forensic Science SA was undertaken over a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. A total of 90 Indigenous homicide victims were identified compared to 599 non-Indigenous victims over the same time period. Although homicide rates have fallen, the Indigenous homicide rate (ranging from 73.5 to 223.97 per 100,000) significantly exceeded the non-Indigenous rate (ranging from 8.16 to 12.6 per 100,000) for all decades (p<0.001). The most common methods of homicide in the Indigenous population involved blunt force and sharp force trauma, with gunshot, strangulation and other forms of homicides being encountered less often. While lack of access to firearms may explain the lower numbers of gunshot deaths it would not explain the low numbers of deaths due to strangulation. Considerable variability may, therefore, exist in the types of unnatural deaths that may be found in different cultural and ethnic groups, even within the same community. PMID:23084305

  5. The epidemiology of homicide-suicide in Italy: a newspaper study from 1985 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Roma, Paolo; Spacca, Antonella; Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-01-10

    Homicide-suicide is an event in which the murderer commits suicide after the homicide. There are at least 14 epidemiological studies on the topic, and all have found that homicide-suicide is more common among family members. The murderers are most often males and the victims females. There is no recent research on this phenomenon in Italy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the incidence of homicide-suicide in Italy over a period of 24 yrs and to compare Italian data with published international data. We used information gathered by press agencies and from the four major Italian newspapers. Between 1985 and 2008, 662 cases of homicide-suicide were identified, with 1776 deaths. The murderer was male in 84.6% of the cases, typically using a firearm. The most common motivation was romantic jealousy, followed by socio-economic stress. The rate of homicide-suicide was 0.04%. Comparison with international studies is not always possible due to the lack of information for certain categories. The common factors identified may be helpful for prevention. PMID:21764533

  6. Firearm suicides and homicides in the United States: regional variations and patterns of gun ownership.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M S; Geling, O

    1998-05-01

    Among industrialized countries, the United States has the highest rates of firearm suicide and homicide, as well as the highest rate of gun ownership. The present study compares the differential impact of gun availability on firearm suicides and homicides in the U.S. Using data from the NCHS Mortality Detail Files (1989-1991), the 1990 U.S. census population estimates, and the General Social Surveys (1989-1991) for nine geographic divisions, we computed rates of firearm and non-firearm suicides and homicides as well as rates of gun ownership for four gender-race groups. We tested the strength of the associations between gun availability and firearm suicide and homicide rates by computing the Spearman correlation coefficients. To help elucidate the role of method substitution, we conducted similar analyses on non-firearm suicide and homicide. The results show that gun ownership has a stronger impact on firearm suicides than homicides. These findings held up after stratifying by gender and race. The study suggests that reducing the aggregate level of gun availability may decrease the risk of firearm-related deaths. PMID:9572612

  7. [Spectrofluorometric determination of dopamine in small areas of rat brain (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    López-Novoa, J M; Martínez-Conde, E; Fraile, A

    1977-03-01

    A method for the extraction and quantification of Dopamine from small areas of rat brain has been developed. The extraction with solvents eliminates the column cromatography separations and allows the simultaneous processing of a good number of samples. Sample retrieval is quite high (70%) and very reproducible. The evaluation was made from areas with a minimal weight of 0.225 g. The quantification of Dopamine was obtained using spectrofluorometric techniques, reading the fluorescence of the trihydroxy indol derivate. The linear relation between the instrument readings and the concentration of Dopamine is from 0 to 0.5 microng/ml. The maximal concentration of Dopamine was found in the decorticated cerebral hemispheres (1.485 microng/g), the next highest values in the diencephalon (1.046 microng/), and the minimal concentration in the cerebellum (0.283 microng/g). The concentration of the whole brain was 0.701 microng/g. PMID:857280

  8. Using a dose-area product for absolute measurements in small fields: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dufreneix, S; Ostrowsky, A; Le Roy, M; Sommier, L; Gouriou, J; Delaunay, F; Rapp, B; Daures, J; Bordy, J-M

    2016-01-21

    To extend the dosimetric reference system to field sizes smaller than 2 cm × 2 cm, the LNE-LNHB laboratory is studying an approach based on a new dosimetric quantity named the dose-area product instead of the commonly used absorbed dose at a point. A graphite calorimeter and a plane parallel ion chamber with a sensitive surface of 3 cm diameter were designed and built for measurements in fields of 2, 1 and 0.75 cm diameter. The detector surface being larger than the beam section, most of the issues linked with absolute dose measurements at a point could be avoided. Calibration factors of the plane parallel ionization chamber were established in terms of dose-area product in water for small fields with an uncertainty smaller than 0.9%. PMID:26690271

  9. Ordinary and Extraordinary Movement Behaviour of Small Resident Fish within a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Aspillaga, Eneko; Bartumeus, Frederic; Linares, Cristina; Starr, Richard M.; López-Sanz, Àngel; Díaz, David; Zabala, Mikel; Hereu, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    It is important to account for the movement behaviour of fishes when designing effective marine protected areas (MPAs). Fish movements occur across different spatial and temporal scales and understanding the variety of movements is essential to make correct management decisions. This study describes in detail the movement patterns of an economically and commercially important species, Diplodus sargus, within a well-enforced Mediterranean MPA. We monitored horizontal and vertical movements of 41 adult individuals using passive acoustic telemetry for up to one year. We applied novel analysis and visualization techniques to get a comprehensive view of a wide range of movements. D. sargus individuals were highly territorial, moving within small home ranges (< 1 km2), inside which they displayed repetitive diel activity patterns. Extraordinary movements beyond the ordinary home range were observed under two specific conditions. First, during stormy events D. sargus presented a sheltering behaviour, moving to more protected places to avoid the disturbance. Second, during the spawning season they made excursions to deep areas (> 50 m), where they aggregated to spawn. This study advances our understanding about the functioning of an established MPA and provides important insights into the biology and management of a small sedentary species, suggesting the relevance of rare but important fish behaviours. PMID:27437692

  10. Venous air embolism in homicidal blunt impact head trauma. Case reports.

    PubMed

    Adams, V; Guidi, C

    2001-09-01

    From 1992 through 1997, there were 41 deaths by homicidal blunt impact head trauma in Hillsborough County, Florida. Twenty-one cases were excluded from the study because of putrefaction or survival beyond the emergency department doors, leaving 20 cases for the study. One of the 15 nonputrefied victims found dead at the scene and 1 of the 5 victims pronounced dead in the emergency department had definite venous air embolism. Victim 1 was found dead, bludgeoned with a concrete block, and had open vault and comminuted basilar skull fractures. The dura forming the right sigmoid sinus at the jugular foramen was lacerated. A preautopsy chest radiograph and examination under water documented gas in the pulmonary artery and right ventricle. Victim 2 was bludgeoned with a steel stake and was pronounced dead on arrival in the emergency department. He had open comminuted vault fractures, a transverse basilar skull fracture, and lacerations of the brain. Direct examination and preautopsy chest radiography revealed air in the right side of the heart. A third victim, with basilar fractures, had a small gas bubble in the pulmonary artery not detected by the case pathologist. A fourth victim, with a basilar skull fracture, had an unusual radiographic finding that was thought to be air in the posteromedial aspect of the lower lobe of the left lung but could not be excluded as an air embolus. Optimal postmortem documentation of venous air embolism includes the demonstration of the embolus and the site of air ingress. This study demonstrates that venous air embolism occurs in some victims of homicidal bludgeoning and suggests that when significant, it is easily demonstrated in the absence of putrefactive gas formation. The presence of venous air embolism can serve as evidence that a victim was alive and breathing at the time of the infliction of head wounds. In the belief that venous air embolism might be underdiagnosed in many medical examiner offices, the authors have sought to

  11. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  12. The seasonal use of small-scale space by benthic species in a transiently hypoxic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doya, Carolina; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Chatzievangelou, Damianos; Costa, Corrado; Company, Joan Baptista; Tunnicliffe, Verena

    2016-02-01

    The use of small-scale space by benthos and its variation over the seasons in transiently hypoxic zones is poorly known. In this study, we examined the reciprocal spatial dispersion of the squat lobster (Munida quadrispina) and the slender sole (Lyopsetta exilis) according to oxygen concentrations at a VENUS platform of Ocean Networks Canada (ONC). This platform is located in a seasonally hypoxic zone at 96 m depth in the fjord of Saanich Inlet (British Columbia, Canada). We counted and located small as well as large squat lobsters and slender soles in digital still images during 1 year (2012-2013) also concomitantly obtained oxygen data. Images were subdivided in a squared grid to obtain relative density maps as a proxy for surface occupation and spatial autocorrelation. Pearson's chi-squared tests at a yearly scale, along with Dixon's spatial segregation index (S) for each possible pair among the studied groups, showed a significant absence of overlap. The same analyses by month and cross-correlation between oxygen and S showed that while the dispersion patterns of the large squat lobsters seemed to be driven mainly by the morphology of the seafloor, an effect of hypoxia was found in the small squat lobsters and the slender soles levels of aggregation. Small squat lobster sought seabed protrusions, such as sponges, to reach more oxygenated water. The slender sole's space occupation decreased significantly, being forced to retreat when the squat lobsters' abundance peaked as a result of what appeared to be a seasonal reproduction event in early summer. Our results contribute to the understanding of the ways in which oxygen levels modulate substrate use by benthic species in the framework of a global expansion of hypoxia in coastal and ocean areas.

  13. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a) The... the area. (5) The regulations of this section shall be enforced by the Commandant, First...

  14. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a) The... the area. (5) The regulations of this section shall be enforced by the Commandant, First...

  15. Applicability of two mobile analysers for mercury in urine in small-scale gold mining areas.

    PubMed

    Baeuml, Jennifer; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Lettmeier, Beate; Maydl, Alexandra; Messerer, Katalin; Roider, Gabriele; Drasch, Gustav; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is still used in developing countries to extract gold from the ore in small-scale gold mining areas. This is a major health hazard for people living in mining areas. The concentration of mercury in urine was analysed in different mining areas in Zimbabwe, Indonesia and Tanzania. First the urine samples were analysed by CV-AAS (cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry) during the field projects with a mobile mercury analyser (Lumex(®) or Seefelder(®)) and secondly, in a laboratory with a stationary CV-AAS mercury analyser (PerkinElmer(®)). Caused by the different systems (reduction agent either SnCl(2) (Lumex(®) or Seefelder(®))) or NaBH(4) (PerkinElmer(®)), with the mobile analysers only the inorganic mercury was obtained and with the stationary system the total mercury concentration was measured. The aims of the study were whether the results obtained in field with the mobile equipments can be compared with the stationary reference method in the laboratory and allow the application of these mobile analysers in screening studies on concerned populations to select those, who are exposed to critical mercury levels. Overall, the concentrations obtained with the two mobile systems were approximately 25% lower than determined with the stationary system. Nevertheless, both mobile systems seem to be very useful for screening of volunteers in field. Moreover, regional staff may be trained on such analysers to perform screening tests by themselves. PMID:21813324

  16. Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.

    PubMed

    Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

    2014-01-01

    As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4 : 1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6 : 1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2 ± 11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261

  17. [Correlation between homicide rates and economic indicators in São Paulo, Brazil, 1996].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C

    2000-02-01

    Around 30% of the deaths due to violent causes in Brazil result from homicides. Violence has traditionally been related to larger social problems, such as poverty. Recently, however, a positive correlation has been observed between higher incomes and an increase in the homicide rate, so that some researchers have begun to consider inequality, rather than poverty, as an explanation for the epidemic of violence. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between urbanization, poverty, and economic inequality and homicide rates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1996. Information regarding population size, average monthly income of household heads, income distribution, and Gini index was obtained for each municipality, based on the demographic census. Homicide rates were calculated based on official data. Data were analyzed in terms of correlation and relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Homicide rates rose in direct proportion to city population and ranged from 6.96 (per 100,000 inhabitants) in municipalities with a population smaller than 10,000 inhabitants, to 55.54 in municipalities with more than 1 million inhabitants. Relative risk ranged from 1.35 to 7.98. A significant correlation with population size was found only for incomes above 3.11 times the minimum wage and a Gini index greater than 0.50. There was a strong, direct, and significant correlation between homicide rates and the income ratio between the ninetieth and the twentieth percentiles of the population. It is necessary to probe more deeply into the macrosocial determinants of homicide rates in order to identify indicators of inequality that can generate meaningful data for developing public health strategies. PMID:10748663

  18. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables) and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993). For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998). Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents. PMID:22738416

  19. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, Randy; Mays, Gary T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Poore III, Willis P

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  20. Narrow-linear and small-area forest disturbance detection and mapping from high spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhong; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xuling; Stenhouse, Gordon B.

    2009-12-01

    Widespread disturbance has brought a large amount of narrow-linear and small-area disturbance features (e.g., trails, seismic lines, forest roads, well sites, and cut blocks) to forest areas throughout the past decade. This issue has prompted research into finding the appropriate data and methods for mapping these narrow-linear and small-area disturbance features in order to examine their impacts on wildlife habitat. In this paper, we first described the characteristics of small forest disturbances and presented the nature of problem. We then presented a framework for detecting and extracting narrow-linear and small-area forest disturbance features. Using a SPOT 5 high spatial detail image and existing GIS databases, we applied the framework to map narrow-linear and small-area forest disturbance features in a Bear Management area (BMA) in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, Canada. The results indicated that the proposed framework produced accurate disturbance maps for cut blocks, and forest roads & trails. The high errors of omission in the cut lines map were attributed to inconsistent geometric and radiometric patterns in the 'rarely-used' or 'old' cut lines. The study confirmed the feasibility of rapidly updating incomplete GIS data with linear and small-area disturbance features extracted from high spatial detail SPOT imagery. Future work will be directed towards improvement of the framework and the extraction strategy to remove a large amount of spurious features and to increase accuracy for cut lines mapping.

  1. Spectral radiance estimates of leaf area and leaf phytomass of small grains and native vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aase, J. K.; Brown, B. S.; Millard, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Similarities and/or dissimilarities in radiance characteristics were studied among barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena fatua L.), spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and short-grass prairie vegetation. The site was a Williams loam soil (fine-loamy mixed, Typic Argiborolls) near Sidney, Montana. Radiances were measured with a truck-mounted radiometer. The radiometer was equipped with four wavelength bands: 0.45 to 0.52, 0.52 to 0.60, 0.63 to 0.69, and 0.76 to 0.90 micron. Airborne scanner measurements were made at an altitude of 600 m four times during the season under clear sky conditions. The airborne scanner was equipped with the same four bands as the truck-mounted radiometer plus the following: 1.00 to 1.30, 1.55 to 1.75, 2.08 to 2.35, and 10.4 to 12.5 microns. Comparisons using individual wave bands, the near IR/red, (0.76 to 0.90 micron)/(0.63 to 0.69 micron) ratio and the normalized difference vegetation index, ND = (IR - red)/(IR + red), showed that only during limited times during the growing season were some of the small grains distinguishable from one another and from native rangeland vegetation. There was a common relation for all small grains between leaf area index and green leaf phytomass and between leaf area index or green leaf phytomass and the IR/red ratio.

  2. [Homicides in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an analysis of lethal violence].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Francisca Letícia Miranda Gadelha; Cecchetto, Fátima Regina; Corrêa, Juliana Silva; Souza, Tiago Oliveira de

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of rates were analyzed for the following categories: murder, larceny, bodily harm followed by death, homicide for resistance to police resulting in death, policeman killed, missing persons and dead bodies found in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro and in Integrated Public Security Area 16 (AISP 16). An ecological study was conducted for the period from 2002 to 2013, using data from the Public Security Institute. To analyze the time trend and evolution of murder charges, resistance to police resulting in death and missing persons rates, Joinpoint regression was performed, using these rates as the dependent variables and the calendar year as the independent variable. For the other categories only the time trends of the rates were analyzed for the relative change in rates at the beginning and end of the period. There were falls in rates in all categories, except for missing persons. The murder rate showed a significant downward trend in the three locations. The results contributed to definition of the pattern of violence in the three locations based on the dialogue between the social sciences, public health and safety that made it possible to establish subjective and objective aspects linked to the study findings. PMID:27076026

  3. A low-power small-area ADC array for IRFPA readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shengyou; Yao, Libin

    2013-09-01

    The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is a bridge between the infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) and image processing circuit in an infrared imaging system. The ROIC is the first part of signal processing circuit and connected to detectors directly, so its performance will greatly affect the detector or even the whole imaging system performance. With the development of CMOS technologies, it's possible to digitalize the signal inside the ROIC and develop the digital ROIC. Digital ROIC can reduce complexity of the whole system and improve the system reliability. More importantly, it can accommodate variety of digital signal processing techniques which the traditional analog ROIC cannot achieve. The analog to digital converter (ADC) is the most important building block in the digital ROIC. The requirements for ADCs inside the ROIC are low power, high dynamic range and small area. In this paper we propose an RC hybrid Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC as the column ADC for digital ROIC. In our proposed ADC structure, a resistor ladder is used to generate several voltages. The proposed RC hybrid structure not only reduces the area of capacitor array but also releases requirement for capacitor array matching. Theory analysis and simulation show RC hybrid SAR ADC is suitable for ADC array applications

  4. Neurological soft signs in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Appelberg, Björn; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Virkkunen, Matti

    2004-11-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are characterized by abnormalities in motor, sensory, and integrative functions. NSS have been regarded as a result of neurodevelopmental dysfunction, and as evidence of a central nervous system defect, resulting in considerable sociopsychological dysfunction. During the last decade there has been growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. As a symptom, aggression overlaps a number of psychiatric disorders, but it is commonly associated with antisocial personality disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine NSS in an adult criminal population using the scale by Rossi et al. [29]. Subjects comprised 14 homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination. Ten age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers as well as eight patients with schizophrenia, but no history of physical aggression, served as controls. The NSS scores of antisocial offenders were significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls, whereas no significant differences were observed between the scores of offenders and those of patients with schizophrenia. It can be speculated that NSS indicate a nonspecific vulnerability factor in several psychiatric syndromes, which are further influenced by a variety of genetic and environmental components. One of these syndromes may be antisocial personality disorder with severe aggression. PMID:15504651

  5. A profile of homicides on the streets and in the homes of New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Tardiff, K; Marzuk, P M; Leon, A C; Hirsch, C S; Stajic, M; Portera, L; Hartwell, N

    1995-01-01

    Although prior research has found that homes containing firearms and illicit drug and ethanol users are more likely to be the scene of a homicide than homes that do not contain these elements, the authors studied homicides on the streets as well as in homes so as to assess the role of firearms, cocaine, and ethanol in both settings. Using the files of the Chief Medical Examiner, the authors reviewed all 4,468 homicides occurring in New York City in 1990 and 1991. The most frequent places of occurrence were the streets and other outdoor places (49.6 percent) and the victims' homes (19.3 percent). Firearms were the cause of death for 49.6 percent of homicides in the home and 80.3 percent of those on the streets. Use of cocaine and ethanol was found more frequently among victims killed on the streets than those killed at home. In addition, victims killed on the streets were more likely to be male, ages 15-24 years, and African American. Further research in regard to prevention and intervention strategies is needed, keeping in mind the different patterns of homicide on the streets compared with those occurring in other settings. PMID:7838937

  6. Homicide-suicide cases in Switzerland and their impact on the Swiss Weapon Law.

    PubMed

    Grabherr, Silke; Johner, Stephan; Dilitz, Carine; Buck, Ursula; Killias, Martin; Mangin, Patrice; Plattner, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the offender is a well-known phenomenon. In most cases, it takes place in the context of the so-called "family tragedies." A recent series of such family tragedies in Switzerland prompted an intensive debate in the media and the Swiss government concerning the Swiss Weapon Law, in particular the requirement to keep personal army weapons at home. The present study of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland, thus focuses on the role played by guns, especially military weapons, in such crimes. We investigated retrospectively 75 cases of Homicide-Suicide, comprising 172 individuals and spanning a period of 23 years in western and central Switzerland. Our results show that if guns were used in 76% of the cases, army weapons were the cause of death in 25% of the total. In 28% of the deaths caused by a gunshot, the exact type of the gun and its origin could not be determined. Thus, the majority of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland involve the use of guns. The exact percentage of cases were military weapons were involved could not be defined. In our opinion, a stricter weapons law, restricting access to firearms, would be a factor of prevention of Homicide- Suicide cases in Switzerland. PMID:20110804

  7. International correlations between gun ownership and rates of homicide and suicide.

    PubMed Central

    Killias, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine international correlations between reported rates of household gun ownership and rates of homicide and suicide with a gun. DESIGN: Survey. POPULATION: People who responded to a telephone survey conducted by the 1989 International Crime Survey in 11 European countries, Australia, Canada and the United States. RESULTS: Positive correlations were obtained between the rates of household gun ownership and the national rates of homicide and suicide as well as the proportions of homicides and suicides committed with a gun. There was no negative correlation between the rates of ownership and the rates of homicide and suicide committed by other means; this indicated that the other means were not used to "compensate" for the absence of guns in countries with a lower rate of gun ownership. CONCLUSION: Larger studies are needed to examine more closely possible confounding factors such as the national tendency toward violent solutions, and more information on the type and availability of guns will be helpful in future studies. Nevertheless, the correlations detected in this study suggest that the presence of a gun in the home increases the likelihood of homicide or suicide. PMID:8485675

  8. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  9. [Homicides in Medellín, Colombia, from 1990 to 2002: victims, motives and circumstances].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Marleny; García, Héctor Iván; Giraldo, Carlos Alberto; López, María Victoria; Suárez, Clara Mercedes; Corcho, Diana Carolina; Posada, Carlos Hernán; Flórez, María Nubia

    2005-01-01

    In Medellín, Colombia, homicide has been the first cause of morbidity and mortality for 20 years. Medellín has the highest homicide rates of all major cities in Latin America. This study describes the victims, motives, and circumstances in homicides in Medellín from 1990 to 2002. The period included 55,365 homicides, of which 1,394 were randomly studied. Of this sample, 93.6% (95%CI: 92.2%-94.8%) were males, 77.0% (95%CI: 75.0%-79.5%) less than 35 years of age, one-fourth had consumed alcohol, and nine out of ten were killed with firearms. The main motives were revenge and armed robbery. 37.0% (95%CI: 34.0%-41.0%) of the victims lived in the lowest socioeconomic stratum of the city. Characteristics of homicides in Medellín have remained unchanged since the 1980s, when the most violent period in the city's history began. The most heavily affected groups are young males who live and die in poor neighborhoods, and the murders are individual acts that leave no wounded behind. PMID:15868042

  10. Homicide in Tours (Indre-et-Loire, France): a four-year review.

    PubMed

    Saint-Martin, Pauline; Bouyssy, Marie; Bathellier, Stephane; Sarraj, Saad; O'Byrne, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This retrospective study examined homicides in two French departments located in the West of France (Indre-et-Loire and Loir-et-Cher) for a four-year period from 2000 to 2003. During this period 63 homicidal deaths were investigated at the Institute of Forensic Science of Tours (Indre-et-Loire). There were 45 male and 18 female victims with an average homicide rate of 1.55 per 100,000 persons. The mean age of the victims was 42 years-old. Forty-five assailants were identified; their mean age was 38 years-old. The most common method of homicide was the use of firearms (40% of the cases), followed by blunt-force injury (36%) and sharp-force injury (16%). 51% of the victims knew their assailant, a family member in 26% of the cases. Spousal homicides occurred in 16% of the cases. Dyadic death occurred in six cases. A review of the literature compares these findings to other populations. PMID:17023192

  11. “Gray Murder”: Characteristics of Elderly Compared With Nonelderly Homicide Victims in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Robert C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M.; Sutherland, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We compared characteristics of homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 to determine differences in demographics, cause and place of death, and presence of illicit drugs and alcohol in the deceased’s system. Methods. All medical examiner–certified homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 were studied (n = 11 850). Nonelderly (aged 18 to 64 years) and elderly (aged 65 years and older) victims were compared by gender, race/ethnicity, cause of death, place of death, and presence of illicit drugs or alcohol. Population-based homicide rates stratified by age, gender, and race were also calculated. Results. Nonelderly homicide victims were significantly more likely to be male, non-White, to have been shot in the city streets, and to have evidence of illicit drug or alcohol use. Elderly victims were more likely to be female, White, to have been killed by nonfirearm injuries, and to have been killed in their own homes. The gender and race differences between age groups remained but were attenuated when population-based rates were compared. Conclusions. The characteristics of homicide in nonelderly adults do not apply to elderly adults in New York City. Demographic factors and vulnerabilities of the elderly may underlie these differences, pointing to the need for oversight of isolated or homebound elderly persons and for protective interventions. PMID:17666708

  12. Mortality by homicide in homosexuals: characterization of the cases registered in Mexico between 1995 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Granados, José Arturo; Delgado, Guadalupe

    2008-03-01

    This work shows a first approximation to the magnitude and characteristics of mortality by homicide in homosexuals in Mexico using the cases registered between the years 1995 and 2000. A statistical analysis was performed of the homicides against homosexuals that were registered through the review of newspaper articles published by the National Press. Sex, age of the victims, kind and number of weapons used, wounds endured, and the situation in which the corpses found were registered. The greater mortality by homicide due to homosexual orientation was recorded in men (95%); it was found that the cases accumulated in the cohort of the third and fourth decades of their age (43%). The homicides were characterized by extreme violence which included the use of various arm types (33%) and wounds (32%). The most frequent situations that occurred were finding the corpses naked and tied (13%). The features of the homicide against homosexuals are associated to the general attributes of the predominant masculinity model; therefore, at a macro social level, some reasons are found in the social construction of homophobia. The degree of violence in these crimes adduces the consideration that they are hate crimes. PMID:19749616

  13. Exploring Twitter to Analyze the Public’s Reaction Patterns to Recently Reported Homicides in London

    PubMed Central

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people’s perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public’s concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users’ estimated home locations to the homicides’ locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident’s occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency. PMID:25811780

  14. Handgun regulations, crime, assaults, and homicide. A tale of two cities.

    PubMed

    Sloan, J H; Kellermann, A L; Reay, D T; Ferris, J A; Koepsell, T; Rivara, F P; Rice, C; Gray, L; LoGerfo, J

    1988-11-10

    To investigate the associations among handgun regulations, assault and other crimes, and homicide, we studied robberies, burglaries, assaults, and homicides in Seattle, Washington, and Vancouver, British Columbia, from 1980 through 1986. Although similar to Seattle in many ways, Vancouver has adopted a more restrictive approach to the regulation of handguns. During the study period, both cities had similar rates of burglary and robbery. In Seattle, the annual rate of assault was modestly higher than that in Vancouver (simple assault: relative risk, 1.18; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.20; aggravated assault: relative risk, 1.16; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.19). However, the rate of assaults involving firearms was seven times higher in Seattle than in Vancouver. Despite similar overall rates of criminal activity and assault, the relative risk of death from homicide, adjusted for age and sex, was significantly higher in Seattle than in Vancouver (relative risk, 1.63; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.28 to 2.08). Virtually all of this excess risk was explained by a 4.8-fold higher risk of being murdered with a handgun in Seattle as compared with Vancouver. Rates of homicide by means other than guns were not substantially different in the two study communities. We conclude that restricting access to handguns may reduce the rate of homicide in a community. PMID:3185622

  15. Homicide of Family Members, Acquaintances, and Strangers, and State-To-State Differences in Social Stress, Social Control and Social Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman-Prehn, Ronet; And Others

    This study examined three theories which might account for the large differences between states in the incidence of homicide, and particularly the theory that stress causes homicide. The other theories are those which hold that homicide is a function of cultural norms which support violence and of a weak system of social control. The regression…

  16. Psychosocial Symptoms and Poor Insight as Predictors of Homicidality among Clients with Psychosis: Implications for Counseling Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether psychological symptoms, negative social events, treatment-related information, and degree of insight into one's illness predicted current homicidality in a population of clients with psychosis (N = 170). Multiple regression analyses revealed that homicidality can be reliably predicted when clients…

  17. Firearm Homicide in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand: What Can We Learn from Long-Term International Comparisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine; Singh, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    Although firearm homicide remains a topic of interest within criminological and policy discourse, existing research does not generally undertake longitudinal comparisons between countries. However, cross-country comparisons provide insight into whether "local" trends (e.g., declines in firearm homicide in one particular country) differ from…

  18. Multiple Homicide as a Function of Prisonization and Concurrent Instrumental Violence: Testing an Interactive Model--A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisi, Matt; Walters, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    Prisonization (as measured by number of prior incarcerations) and concurrent instrumental offending (as measured by contemporaneous kidnapping, rape, robbery, and burglary offenses) were found to interact in 160 multiple-homicide offenders and 494 single-homicide offenders. Controlling for age, gender, race, criminal history, prior incarcerations,…

  19. Assaults on Inmates and Staff by Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Homicide: An Examination of Competing Hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jonathan R; Vigen, Mark P; Woods, S O; Williams, Bradley D

    2015-11-01

    The current study presents the results of an analysis of serious and assaultive prison rule violating behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner homicide (IPH). Data on prison rule violations were collected from a sample of 189 inmates convicted of IPH in a large, southern prison system. The study focused on the degree of continuity in violent behavior among IPH offenders from the community to the prison setting. The current study tested hypotheses derived from both the feminist perspective (FP) and the general violence perspective (GVP). As a group, IPH offenders were better behaved in prison than other incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby offering some support for the FP. However, the lower level of assaultive behavior among the group was not universal. Characteristics associated with continued violent offending in the prison environment were the same as those found in previous studies of incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby lending greater support to the GVP. PMID:25516133

  20. An unusual mechanical asphyxia in a homicide-suicide case by smothering and strangulation.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; D'Errico, Stefano; Neri, Margherita; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2006-06-01

    A very unusual homicide of 2 children by smothering and strangulation by means of a rubber adhesive band carried out by the mother who committed suicide by the same manner is presented. Smothering is supposed to be one major cause of death in child homicide. Suicide by smothering is relatively uncommon. Suicidal smothering by winding strips of adhesive tape around the head to cover the nose and mouth is an even rarer method recently described in literature. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence are discussed to reduce the potential for underdiagnoses or mistakes in such cases in which it may be difficult to establish whether suicide or homicide occurred. PMID:16738438

  1. Posttraumatic symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members with special regard to suicide and homicide cases.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n = 42), and others (n = 35). With regard to the 3 main PTSD-related criteria, (a) re-experiencing symptoms were not dependent on the manner of death or the relationship to the deceased; (b) avoidance behaviors were more highly related to homicide than natural death for relatives other than parent-child and conjugal relationships; and (c) hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms were more serious for conjugal loss. These findings suggest that avoidance behaviors in homicidal cases are more closely associated with a distant family relationship, whereas conjugal loss is traumatic, irrespective of the manner of death, often causing hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms. PMID:24501828

  2. A case of homicidal intraoral gunshot and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Berens, Sandra; Ketterer, Thomas; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen; Bolliger, Stephan A

    2011-06-01

    Determination of the manner of death in case of intraoral firearm wounds can be a challenge, especially if the circumstances of the incident are unclear and crime scene investigation is inadequate. It is a well-known fact that the mouth is one of the selected sites for suicide with firearms. Homicidal shooting through the mouth is said to be rare, but does occur, and can be mistaken for a suicide. For discrimination between suicide and homicide in cases of intraoral firearm wounds, some useful points are the site of entry wound, the direction of the internal bullet path, the range of fire and the circumstances of death. We demonstrate these points in a case of a homicidal gunshot to the mouth assessed by both classical autopsy and post-mortem CT (PMCT). PMID:21076946

  3. Juvenile Sexual Homicide Offenders: Thirty-Year Follow-Up Investigation.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Sexual homicide by a juvenile offender occurs approximately 9 times per year in the United States. Little is known about the post-incarceration adjustment of these offenders. The current study was designed to follow up 30 years later on a sample of eight adolescent sexual homicide offenders who were convicted of murder and sentenced to adult prison. The results indicated that six out of eight offenders were released from prison, and their mean sentence length was 12 years and 2 months. Four offenders out of the six released were rearrested, but none of the arrests were for homicide, sexual or otherwise. The post-incarceration arrests were for violent, drug-related, and property crimes, as well as possession of a firearm. Three out of the four recidivists have been recommitted to prison. Implications concerning the comparability of results to past research, time served in prison, and types of post-release offenses are discussed. PMID:25245207

  4. Co-victims of Homicide: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Jennifer; Gordon, Ronit

    2015-10-01

    This systematic literature review examines the effects of homicide on surviving family members, the "co-victims" or "survivors" of homicide. A content analysis was conducted on 40 articles identified through a search of the literature. The research samples were predominately located in the United States, but included two U.K. samples, one Jamaican sample, and one sample from Israel. All articles were written in English. Three themes were identified. Nineteen articles explored the psychological, academic, social, occupational, and familial effects of homicide. Thirteen articles considered survivors' grieving process and how it was altered by experiences with the criminal justice system as well as coping strategies used by survivors to deal with their grief. Eight articles explored treatment interventions available to help surviving family members deal with their grief. Key findings from the articles, limitations of the current research, and implications for future research, policy, and practice are included. PMID:25377523

  5. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  6. Late-life homicide-suicide: a national case series in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gary; Hatters Friedman, Susan; Sundram, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Homicide-suicide is a rare event, but it has a significant impact on the family and community of the perpetrator and victim(s). The phenomenon of late-life homicide-suicide has not been previously studied in New Zealand, and there is only limited data in the international literature. The aim of this study is to systematically review coroners' records of late-life homicide-suicides in New Zealand. After ethics approval was granted, the Coronial Services of New Zealand was approached to provide records of all closed cases with a suicide verdict (age 65+) over a five-year period (July 2007-December 2012). Of the 225 suicides, 4 cases of homicide-suicide were identified (an estimated incidence of 0.12 per 100,000 per persons year). All four perpetrators were men; three had been farmers. Their ages ranged from 65 to 82. One case occurred in the context of an underlying psychiatric illness (psychotic depression in bipolar disorder). Firearms were used in three cases. Two cases were categorized as spousal/consortial subtype, one case as filicide-suicide, and one case as siblicide-suicide. The prospect of major social upheaval in the form of losing their homes was present in all four cases. The findings of this case series were consistent with the limited existing literature on homicide-suicide. Age-related biopsychosocial issues were highlighted in this case series of late-life homicide-suicide. Additionally, evaluating firearm licences in high-risk groups may represent a prevention strategy. PMID:25735608

  7. Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokalič, Matevž; Raguse, John; Sites, James R.; Topič, Marko

    2013-09-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) imaging process of small area solar cells is investigated in detail to expose optical and electrical effects that influence image acquisition and corrupt the acquired image. An approach to correct the measured EL images and to extract the exact EL radiation as emitted from the photovoltaic device is presented. EL images of circular cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells are obtained under different conditions. The power-law relationship between forward injection current and EL emission and a negative temperature coefficient of EL radiation are observed. The distributed Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE®) model of the circular CdTe solar cell is used to simulate the dark J-V curve and current distribution under the conditions used during EL measurements. Simulation results are presented as circularly averaged EL intensity profiles, which clearly show that the ratio between resistive parameters determines the current distribution in thin-film solar cells. The exact resistance values for front and back contact layers and for CdTe bulk layer are determined at different temperatures, and a negative temperature coefficient for the CdTe bulk resistance is observed.

  8. Geographic epidemiology in a small area: cancer incidence in Baakline, Lebanon, 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Adib, S M; Tabbal, N; Hamadeh, R; Ammar, W

    2013-04-01

    Aggregate data of the National Clr cac gi s in Lebanon cannot discriminate cance r incidence i n small areas. Trained community members surveyed the permanent population of the Baakline municipality using the verbal autopsy approach. We surveyed 1042 households with at least 1 member living permanently in Baakline during 2000-2008. Data covered 4330 persons yielding 34,143 years of observation and 56 new cases of cancer were reported. Median age at diagnosis varied significantly between men (77 years) and women (56 years). The most common types were lung cancer (20%) followed by colorectal (12.5%) and breast (9%). Estimated crude cancer incidence rate was 164 cases/100,000 persons/year, significantly higher in men (194) than women (130), and much lower overall than the national figure (218). The permanent Baakline population is older than that of Lebanon itself, yet the cancer incidence rate is markedly lower than the national figure. This finding pleads for serious efforts to preserve the low environmental contamination and the healthy lifestyles in food and tobacco abstinence that have protected the population so far. PMID:23882956

  9. A study of area clustering using factor analysis in small area estimation (An analysis of per capita expenditures of subdistricts level in regency and municipality of Bogor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Kurnia, Anang; Anisa, Rahma

    2016-02-01

    Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (EBLUP) is one of indirect estimating methods which used to estimate parameters of small areas. EBLUP methods works in using auxiliary variables of area while adding the area random effects. In estimating non-sampled area, the standard EBLUP can no longer be used due to no information of area random effects. To obtain more proper estimation methods for non sampled area, the standard EBLUP model has to be modified by adding cluster information. The aim of this research was to study clustering methods using factor analysis by means of simulation, provide better cluster information. The criteria used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the methods in the simulation study were the mean percentage of clustering accuracy. The results of the simulation study showed the use of factor analysis in clustering has increased the average percentage of accuracy particularly when using Ward method. The method was taken into account to estimate the per capita expenditures based on Small Area Estimation (SAE) techniques. The method was eventually used to estimate the per capita expenditures from SUSENAS and the quality of the estimates was measured by RMSE. This research has shown that the standard-modified EBLUP model provided with factor analysis better estimates when compared with standard EBLUP model and the standard-modified EBLUP without the factor analysis. Moreover, it was also shown that the clustering information is important in estimating non sampled area.

  10. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  11. Do laws restricting access to firearms by domestic violence offenders prevent intimate partner homicide?

    PubMed

    Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A

    2006-06-01

    Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement officers to confiscate firearms at a domestic violence scene. The authors find that female intimate partner homicide rates decline 7% after a state passes a restraining order law. They find no effect from the domestic violence misdemeanor or confiscation laws. PMID:16679499

  12. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDES AMONG ETHNIC SUBGROUPS OF ASIANS

    PubMed Central

    SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  13. Barriers to care and service satisfaction following homicide loss: associations with mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A

    2015-01-01

    Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health problems, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and complicated grief. Therefore, improving access to community and mental health resources is critical for this population. The atuhors sought to examine barriers to accessing services and service satisfaction among 47 homicide survivors. Over half of the sample met criteria for a mental disorder, with depression being the most prevalent problem. Frequently endorsed barriers to care included financial barriers, inadequate information, and health-related problems. However, participants who engaged in services were generally satisfied with those services. Only depression was uniquely associated with worse overall service satisfaction. PMID:24766188

  14. "The Police Have Given Up": An Empirical Examination of Covictims' Beliefs About Cold Case Homicide Investigations.

    PubMed

    Stretesky, Paul B; Cope, Kathryn; Shelley, Tara O'Connor; Hogan, Michael J; Unnithan, N Prabha

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the perception by cold case homicide covictims that police have given up trying to solve their loved one's murder. A random sample (n = 65) of cold case homicide covictims is surveyed to determine if, and how, different forms of communication may be important in their perceptions about police. Ordered logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived importance of the information communicated, frequency of police contact, and satisfaction with communication efforts by police are inversely correlated with covictims' perceptions that police have given up on the investigation. These inverse correlations persist despite statistical controls and have important implications for the bereavement of covictims and for crime rates. PMID:26646782

  15. Bony injuries in homicide cases (1994-2014). A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Flieger, Alexander; Kölzer, Sarah C; Plenzig, Stefanie; Heinbuch, Sara; Kettner, Mattias; Ramsthaler, Frank; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-09-01

    Even when human skeletal remains are found in contexts indicative of body disposal after homicide, none of the bones may manifest injuries. When skeletons are incomplete, there are two possibilities, the injured bones are missing or none were injured. This leads to the question how frequently bones are injured during homicide, where the injuries tend to be placed, and whether the frequency of injury is related to the type of homicide. To answer these questions, the postmortem reports from all autopsies performed for homicide victims at the Institute of Legal Medicine at the University Hospital in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, between 1994 and 2014, were retrospectively evaluated for bony injuries discovered during autopsy. In 90 cases, a preliminary postmortem computed tomography (pmCT) examination had been performed. The cases were categorized into the following five groups by type of fatal trauma: blunt force, sharp force, gunshot injury, strangulation, or other. In total, the postmortem reports for 897 homicides (527 male, 370 female) were evaluated. The number of victims per trauma category were sharp force, 309; blunt force, 179; gunshot injury, 242; strangulation, 92; and other, 75. Bony injuries had been reported in 70.9 % of the homicides. The "gunshot" category contained the highest proportion of victims with bony injuries (92.6 %). With 80.4 %, the second-highest proportion of victims with bony injuries was in the "blunt force" category, followed by 66.3 % of victims in the "sharp force" group. In contrast, with 53.3 %, the second-lowest proportion of victims with bony injuries was in the "strangulation" category, which contained a preponderance of female victims, followed by 17.3 % of victims with bony injuries in the "other" category. Bony injuries thus occurred in the majority of homicides. Forensic osteological analysis should, therefore, always be performed on badly decomposed human remains. Where necessary, the additional use of visualization

  16. Motives and characteristics of domestic violence homicides and suicides among women in India.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Sanchez, Maria V; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence homicides and suicides are significant causes of deaths among women in India. This study examined characteristics and motives of various types of domestic violence-related homicides and suicides (n = 100) in India using newspaper reports (2011-2012). The majority of victims were found to be young women, mostly killed by burning or strangulation methods. The most frequently reported motive was dowry demands followed by a history of domestic violence or harassment and family conflict. The findings highlight the need for stronger prevention/intervention programs in India to identify and intervene with women at high risk for being killed or committing suicide. PMID:25383682

  17. Beyond "Do you feel safe at home?" The physician's role in reducing intimate partner homicide.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Amy

    2009-08-01

    Each year, more than a thousand women in the United States die as a result of intimate partner homicide. Firearms are involved in 60 percent of these murders. This article reviews the role firearms play in domestic violence and suggests actions physicians can take to reduce intimate partner homicide involving them. In addition to screening patients for domestic abuse, physicians can strive to improve data collection on intimate partner violence, foster better communication between victims and the police, and support policies that hold police officers and prosecutors accountable for taking guns out of the hands of abusers. PMID:19772053

  18. Fatal methadone intoxication in an infant listed as a homicide.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, Alessandro; Groppi, Angelo; Ventura, Francesco; De Stefano, Francesco; Palmiere, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Voluntary methadone administration for the purpose of sedation eventually resulting in the infant's death is extremely infrequent, though it has been observed. In this report, we describe an autopsy case pertaining to a 32-month-old infant who was repeatedly exposed to methadone by his parents. Autopsy revealed a coarctation of the aorta with a focal stenosis located at the junction of the distal aortic arch and the descending aorta. Left ventricular hypertrophy was also observed. Both these findings were considered to not have played a role in the child's death. Methadone was detected in the femoral blood (0.633 mg/l), urine (5.25 mg/l), bile (2.64 mg/l), and gastric contents (1.08 mg). A segmental hair analysis showed the presence of methadone and morphine in both the proximal and distal portion of the lock. Methadone was also detected in nail samples. A segmental hair analysis performed on the younger brother of the deceased revealed the presence of methadone and morphine in both the proximal and distal segments, as well as the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine exclusively in the distal portion. Though the parents denied any involvement in methadone administration or exposure for the purpose of sedation, the manner of death was listed as homicide. The case emphasizes the usefulness of hair analysis to identify threatening situations for the children of drug-dependent parents and possibly support measures by the authorities to recognize and intervene in these potentially fatal situations. PMID:26500092

  19. "Lupara Bianca" a way to hide cadavers after Mafia homicides. A cemetery of Italian Mafia. A case study.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Gianpaolo, Di Peri; Monica, Salerno; Maglietta, Francesca; Sessa, Francesco; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    The Gargano, also known as the 'Spur of Italy', is a sub-region of Italy which is located in North of Puglia, in the Province of Foggia. A ravine located in this area was used as a dumping ground in past. During a clearing operation, a team of speleologists discovered human skeletal remains, which led to an official investigation by the local prosecutor's office. The prosecutor called a team of forensic specialist for a scene investigation to recover and identify the human skeletal remains. Four different human skeletal remains located at four different levels of depth underground were found and were in different conditions. A complete forensic investigation was initiated and comprised of radiological imaging with DNA profiling. Three of the four human skeletal remains that were found were identified as those belonging to men who vanished mysteriously in the nineties. The studies conducted have demonstrated that the victims found were murdered and the murders were attributed to the "Mafia of Gargano". The Mafia of Gargano was officially recognized as a criminal organization dating back to 2009 and their criminal activities included the smuggling of firearms and cigarettes, human trafficking, and smuggling of undocumented immigrants. Murders in which corpses are made to disappear is common practice in criminal activities including that of the Italian Mafia. The "Lupara Bianca" is a colloquial term commonly used in Sicily to refer to concealed murders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study describing the discovery of one of the locations used extensively by the local Mafia as a "cemetery" for victims of "Lupara Bianca" homicides. Based on evidences collected at the site, an explanation of this homicidal modality will be provided. PMID:25579982

  20. Air pollution, asthma attacks, and socioeconomic deprivation: a small-area case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Olivier; Pedrono, Gaëlle; Segala, Claire; Filleul, Laurent; Havard, Sabrina; Deguen, Séverine; Schillinger, Charles; Rivière, Emmanuel; Bard, Denis

    2008-07-01

    With few exceptions, studies of short-term health effects of air pollution use pollutant concentrations that are averaged citywide as exposure indicators. They are thus prone to exposure misclassification and consequently to bias. Measurement of the relations between air pollution and health, generally and in specific populations, could be improved by employing more geographically precise exposure estimates. The authors investigated short-term relations between ambient air pollution estimated in small geographic areas (French census blocks) and asthma attacks in Strasbourg, France, in 2000-2005--in the general population and in populations with contrasting levels of socioeconomic deprivation. Emergency health-care networks provided data on 4,683 telephone calls made for asthma attacks. Deprivation was estimated using a block-level index constructed from census data. Hourly concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were modeled by block with ADMS-Urban software. Adjusted case-crossover analyses showed that asthma calls were positively but not significantly associated with PM(10) (for a 10-microg x m(-3) increase, odds ratio (OR) = 1.035, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.997, 1.075), sulfur dioxide (OR = 1.056, 95% CI: 0.979, 1.139), and nitrogen dioxide (OR = 1.025, 95% CI: 0.990, 1.062). No association was observed for ozone (OR = 0.998, 95% CI: 0.965, 1.032). Socioeconomic deprivation had no significant influence on these relations. PMID:18467319

  1. Vascular response to carbon dioxide in areas with and without diaschisis in patients with small, deep hemispheric infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, T.; Nagatsuka, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Takamitsu, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Matsumoto, M.; Kimura, K.; Kamada, T.

    1988-07-01

    The reactivity of cerebral blood vessels to changes in PaCO/sub 2/ in areas of the cerebral cortex with or without diaschisis was investigated in 13 patients in a subacute or chronic stage after a small capsular infarct. A focal area of hypoperfusion (area of diaschisis) was detected in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex in each patient. Hyperventilation caused a significant reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in the area without diaschisis and only a tendency for regional cerebral blood flow to decrease in the area with diaschisis; CO/sub 2/ inhalation induced a slight increase in regional cerebral blood flow in the area without diaschisis and a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow in the area with diaschisis. Regional cerebral blood flow reactivity to hypocapnia was significantly less in the area with diaschisis than in the area without, whereas the hypercapnic response was more marked in the area with diaschisis than in the area without. Our results suggest that in the area with diaschisis, the arterioles may be abnormally vasoconstricted at rest such that they cannot constrict further in response to hypocapnia but can dilate more during hypercapnia than in the area without diaschisis. This excessive resting vasoconstriction may result from decreased tissue elaboration of CO/sub 2/ due to local decrease of metabolic function.

  2. A Small Area In-Situ MEMS Test Structure to Accurately Measure Fracture Strength by Electrostatic Probing

    SciTech Connect

    Bitsie, Fernando; Jensen, Brian D.; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, tested and modeled a first generation small area test structure for MEMS fracture studies by electrostatic rather than mechanical probing. Because of its small area, this device has potential applications as a lot monitor of strength or fatigue of the MEMS structural material. By matching deflection versus applied voltage data to a 3-D model of the test structure, we develop high confidence that the local stresses achieved in the gage section are greater than 1 GPa. Brittle failure of the polycrystalline silicon was observed.

  3. Neighborhood Racial/Ethnic Concentration, Social Disadvantage, and Homicide Risk: An Ecological Analysis of 10 U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death among African-American and Hispanic men. We investigated how neighborhood characteristics associated with social disadvantage explain racial/ethnic homicide gaps in 10 U.S. cities. The test hypotheses were that (1) higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics would be associated with higher homicide rates and (2) the relationship between racial/ethnic concentration and homicide would be attenuated after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics (e.g., unemployment, median household income, low educational attainment, and female headship). The test hypotheses were examined using separate Poisson regression models, which adjusted for spatial autocorrelation. Homicide rates were greater in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics than in other groups, and the association of neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration with homicide was reduced after adjusting for neighborhood social disadvantage variables, especially percent female head of household and percent persons with less than a high school education. We also found that the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration and homicide was explained more by social disadvantage variables in some cities than in others. Based on our findings, policy makers may wish to consider implementation of policies that (1) expand early childhood education programs and higher education opportunities and (2) encourage economic and community development initiatives in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:18661242

  4. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area. PMID:26867276

  5. The Utility of Risk Assessment Instruments for the Prediction of Recidivism in Sexual Homicide Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Andreas; Rettenberger, Martin; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer

    2012-01-01

    To examine the predictive accuracy of four well established risk assessment instruments (PCL-R, HCR-20, SVR-20, and Static-99) in an important subgroup of sexual offenders, these instruments were assessed retrospectively based on information from forensic psychiatric court reports in a sample of 90 released male sexual homicide offenders (out of…

  6. The association between the purchase of a handgun and homicide or suicide.

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, P; Koepsell, T D; Grossman, D C; Savarino, J; Thompson, R S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether purchase of a handgun from a licensed dealer is associated with the risk of homicide or suicide and whether any association varies in relation to time since purchase. METHODS: A case-control study was done among the members of a large health maintenance organization. Case subjects were the 353 suicide victims and 117 homicide victims among the members from 1980 through 1992. Five control subjects were matched to each case subject on age, sex, and zip code of residence. Handgun purchase information was obtained from the Department of Licensing. RESULTS: The adjusted relative risk of suicide was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5) for persons with a history of family handgun purchase from a registered dealer. The adjusted relative risk for homicide, given a history of family handgun purchase, was 2.2 (95% CI = 1.3, 3.7). For both suicide and homicide, the elevated relative risks persisted for more than 5 years after the purchase. CONCLUSIONS: Legal purchase of a handgun appears to be associated with a long-lasting increased risk of violent death. PMID:9224179

  7. Black Enclaves of Violence: Race and Homicide in Great Plains Cities, 1890-1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKanna, Clare V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The author examines interracial homicides in the early twentieth century in three Great Plains cities: Coffeyville, Kansas; Topeka, Kansas; and Omaha, Nebraska. Railroads attracted hundreds of young blacks searching for steady employment. Alcohol played an important role in violence levels as did the availability of cheap and handguns, and certain…

  8. Group Therapy for Children after Homicide and Violence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated a group intervention designed to reduce posttraumatic stress among children after homicide and/or violence. Method: Employing a secondary data analysis of 117 participants in 21 group interventions, pretest and posttest differences in posttraumatic stress levels and between child witnesses and nonwitnesses,…

  9. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  10. Cheating the Hangman: The Effect of the "Roper v. Simmons" Decision on Homicides Committed by Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flexon, Jamie L.; Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2011-01-01

    On March 1, 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the execution of offenders under the age of 18 at the time of their criminal offense was unconstitutional. Although many welcomed this decision, some individuals still remain concerned that the elimination of the specter of capital punishment will inevitably increase homicidal behavior among…

  11. Effects of Diverse Forms of Family Structure on Female and Male Homicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing 2000 data on 1,618 counties and seemingly unrelated regression, I assess whether family structure effects on homicide vary across family structure measures and gender. There is evidence of robust, multidimensional family structure effects across constructs reflecting the presence of two-parent families: mother/father absence, shortages…

  12. Do Laws Restricting Access to Firearms by Domestic Violence Offenders Prevent Intimate Partner Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement…

  13. Spatial correlations, clustering and percolation-like transitions in homicide crimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. G. A.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.; Ribeiro, H. V.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial dynamics of criminal activities has been recently studied through statistical physics methods; however, models and results have been focusing on local scales (city level) and much less is known about these patterns at larger scales, e.g. at a country level. Here we report on a characterization of the spatial dynamics of the homicide crimes along the Brazilian territory using data from all cities (˜5000) in a period of more than thirty years. Our results show that the spatial correlation function in the per capita homicides decays exponentially with the distance between cities and that the characteristic correlation length displays an acute increasing trend in the latest years. We also investigate the formation of spatial clusters of cities via a percolation-like analysis, where clustering of cities and a phase-transition-like behavior describing the size of the largest cluster as a function of a homicide threshold are observed. This transition-like behavior presents evolutive features characterized by an increasing in the homicide threshold (where the transitions occur) and by a decreasing in the transition magnitudes (length of the jumps in the cluster size). We believe that our work sheds new light on the spatial patterns of criminal activities at large scales, which may contribute for better political decisions and resources allocation as well as opens new possibilities for modeling criminal activities by setting up fundamental empirical patterns at large scales.

  14. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicides in the city of Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, P; Koiranen, V; Saukko, P

    2007-07-01

    Finland has one of the highest homicide rates in western Europe but the clear-up rate is also exceptionally high. To create a detailed analysis of homicides (n=161) in a region of western Finland during the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002 all available information was collected retrospectively from multiple sources including medico-legal reports, reports of police investigations, and court proceedings. Among the data collected and analysed were location, time, circumstances, and motives of homicides, forensic pathologists' role at the scene-of-the-crime and in court, autopsy findings, demographics and substance abuse of both victims and offenders, criminal background, forensic psychiatric examinations, and the verdicts of the offenders. A typical homicide was committed without premeditation during the weekend by a drunken male with a knife at hand and with a history of violent crimes. The perpetrator was later found guilty of manslaughter and received a prison sentence. Some noted shortcomings both in the police and the medico-legal investigation procedures are discussed, as well as the forensic pathologist's role in the judicial process in Finland. PMID:17052942

  15. Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Context in School-Associated Student Homicides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Joanne M.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages…

  16. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  17. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  18. Grief among Surviving Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Causal Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, M. Virginia; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Proposed causal model to delineate predictors of self-reported grief among surviving family members of homicide victims. Evaluated model using data from survey of members of "Victims of Violence" support groups. Results generally supported model and indicated that correlates of grief differed across gender-specific subgroups in terms of their…

  19. Underestimates of unintentional firearm fatalities: comparing Supplementary Homicide Report data with the National Vital Statistics System

    PubMed Central

    Barber, C; Hemenway, D; Hochstadt, J; Azrael, D

    2002-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of evidence suggests that the nation's vital statistics system undercounts unintentional firearm deaths that are not self inflicted. This issue was examined by comparing how unintentional firearm injuries identified in police Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) data were coded in the National Vital Statistics System. Methods: National Vital Statistics System data are based on death certificates and divide firearm fatalities into six subcategories: homicide, suicide, accident, legal intervention, war operations, and undetermined. SHRs are completed by local police departments as part of the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports program. The SHR divides homicides into two categories: "murder and non-negligent manslaughter" (type A) and "negligent manslaughter" (type B). Type B shooting deaths are those that are inflicted by another person and that a police investigation determined were inflicted unintentionally, as in a child killing a playmate after mistaking a gun for a toy. In 1997, the SHR classified 168 shooting victims this way. Using probabilistic matching, 140 of these victims were linked to their death certificate records. Results: Among the 140 linked cases, 75% were recorded on the death certificate as homicides and only 23% as accidents. Conclusion: Official data from the National Vital Statistics System almost certainly undercount firearm accidents when the victim is shot by another person. PMID:12226128

  20. Change and Stability in the Characteristics of Homicide Victims, Offenders and Incidents During Rapid Social Change

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2008-01-01

    The Russian homicide rate doubled during the 1990s and is now among the highest in the world. During this same period, Russian citizens experienced swift, widespread, and meaningful political, economic, and social change. It is likely that this profound transition altered structural conditions, cultural norms, and interpersonal relations in a way that led to changes in the nature of interpersonal violence. Taking advantage of a unique set of homicide narratives drawn from court and police records in the Udmurt Republic, this study examined stability and change in the distribution of Russian homicide victim, offender, and incident characteristics before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. Odds ratios obtained from logistic regression showed no change in victim characteristics, but substantial changes in several offender and incident characteristics. We discuss the potential mechanisms through which the structural and cultural shifts are resulting in these changes and conclude that the ongoing transition is largely responsible for the changing nature of homicide in Russia. In doing so, we introduce the new term “criminological transition” and suggest that Russia (and perhaps other nations) may have experienced a change in its crime profile in much the same way as we discuss a “demographic transition” in terms of fertility and mortality profiles. PMID:19122789

  1. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  2. Urban Adolescent Homicidal Violence: A Closer Look at Who Is at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Ronald Keith

    A pattern of increased homicidal violence among adolescent youth in American inner cities has been documented and studied for some time. This elevated lethal violence has been observed to be a major cause of death in this age group and has been observed to be a particularly male phenomenon, especially for ethnic minorities. Both victims and…

  3. Women as the Aggressors in Intimate Partner Homicide in Houston, 1980s to 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titterington, Victoria B.; Harper, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to inform the ongoing quest for efficacious treatment of domestically violent women by (a) describing their representation in cases of intimate partner homicide over the period of 1985-1999 in Houston, Texas, and (b) by utilizing a measure known as the spousal sex ratio of killing (SROK), determining…

  4. Autopsy features relevant for discrimination between suicidal and homicidal gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Billeb, E; Koops, E; Brinkmann, B

    2002-10-01

    A total of 624 consecutive gunshot autopsies from the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Münster and Hamburg was investigated retrospectively. In a subsample of 284 suicides and 293 homicides (n=577), a large variety of features such as firearm, ammunition, number and site of entrance wounds, shooting distance and direction of the internal bullet path were recorded and binary logistic regression analysis performed in the case of bullet paths. Females constituted 26.3% of the homicide victims and 10.6% of the suicides. Short-barrelled firearms outnumbered long arms in homicides by 6:1 and in suicides by 2:1. More than 1 gunshot injury was found in 5.6% of the suicides (maximum 5 gunshots) and in 53.9% of the homicides (maximum 23 gunshots). The suicidal gunshots were fired from contact or near contact range in 89% while this was the case in only 7.5% of the homicides. The typical entrance wound sites in suicides were the temple (36%), mouth (20%), forehead (11%) and left chest (15%) but uncommon entrance wound sites such as the eye, ear, and back of the neck and head were also encountered. In suicidal gunshots to the right temple (n=107), only 6% of the bullet paths were directed downwards and only 4% were directed from back-to-front. In gunshots to the left chest (n=130), bullet paths running right-to-left or parallel occurred frequently in suicides (75%) and infrequently in homicide victims (19%). From 61 suicides who fired the gun inside their mouth, only 1 pointed the gun downwards. Consequently, some bullet path directions cannot be considered indicative of suicide: downwards and back-to-front in gunshots to the temple, left-to-right in gunshots to the left chest and downwards in mouth shots. The isolated autopsy findings can only be indicative of suicide or homicide but the combined analysis of several findings can be associated with a high probability. PMID:12376836

  5. Accentuation of suicides but not homicides with rising latitudes of Greenland in the sunny months

    PubMed Central

    Björkstén, Karin S; Kripke, Daniel F; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation in suicides has been shown in many countries. We assessed the seasonality and the variation with latitude in suicides and homicides, and the impact of alcohol on the seasonality in suicides. Methods Official computerized registers on causes of death in all Greenland during 1968–2002 were used. Sales data on beer from one of the major food store chains for July 2005–June 2006 were examined. Seasonal variation was assessed by Rayleigh's test for circular distributions. Results There were a total of 1351 suicides and 308 homicides. The suicides rate varied from 4.2/100 000 person-years in 1971 to 128.4/100 000 person-years in 1987. The homicide rate varied from 2.1/100000 person-years in 1969–1970 to 34.8/100 000 person-years in 1988. Out of the 1351 suicides, 80.5% were committed by men and 19.5% by women. Median age was 25 years (n = 1351; Range 11–84 years). Violent methods of suicide were used in 95% of all cases (n = 1286). Out of the 308 homicide victims, 61% were men and 39% were women, and 13% were killed in multiple homicide events. There was a significant seasonal variation with peaks in June and troughs in the winter in all suicide cases (n = 1351, r = 0.07; Z = 7.58, p < 0.001), in violent suicides (n = 1286; r = 0.07; Z = 6.97; p < 0,001), in suicides in men (n = 1087; r = 0.07; Z = 5.39; p < 0.002) , and in women (n = 264; r = 0.10; Z = 2.36; p < 0.05), but not in homicides nor in consumption of beer. There was a bi-phasic seasonal variation in suicide victims where an alcohol-related condition was included in the death certificate Suicides were more concentrated in the summer months north of the Arctic Circle (n = 577, r = 0.09, Z = 4.45, p < 0.01) than south of it (n = 769, r = 0.07, Z = 3.76, p < 0.002) and most concentrated in North Greenland (n = 33; r = 0.35; Z = 4.11; p < 0.01), where 48% of suicides occurred during the period of constant light. When including astronomical twilight in the constant light period

  6. Baseline Radionuclide and Nonradionuclide Concentrations in Soils, Vegetation, and Small Mammals at the Proposed Expansion Area at TA-54 Area G

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Romero, P. R. Fresquez

    2007-11-30

    Area G is a 25.5-hectare (63-acre), fenced, low-level radioactive solid waste processing and disposal area located on the east end of Mesa del Buey at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This disposal area has been in existence since 1957 and is expected to be filled by the year 2015. Thus, a new area, located adjacent to Area G on the west side, has been proposed for the expansion of disposal activities. Since 1994 to the present, baseline levels of several radionuclides and nonradionuclides have been collected in soils, vegetation, and small mammals (field mice and rock squirrels). These data will be used to assess potential impacts, if any, at the expanded site once operations begin. Baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) (mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level) of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in these media were calculated and compared with regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). RSRLs are calculated from regional areas away from the influence of the Laboratory and represent natural and worldwide fallout sources. BSRLs in most media, with the exception of field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.), compare very well with RSRLs. Field mice, probably because they are mobile and may have spent time within the active disposal area, appeared to be impacted by Area G operations as they contained higher concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as compared to RSRLs. Overall, however, the preoperational data from the other media show that the proposed expansion area has been impacted very little by Area G operations.

  7. Small Schools Student Learning Objectives, 9-12: Mathematics, Reading, Reading in the Content Areas, Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; Hartl, David, Ed.

    Designed by Washington curriculum specialists and secondary teachers to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to aid smaller districts lacking curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives Law, this handbook contains learning objectives in the areas of language arts,…

  8. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Final notice... response to a May 18, 2010, notice (75 FR 27808) announcing HUD's intent to operate a small area FMR... Analysis Division, Office of Economic Affairs, Office of Policy Development and Research, telephone...

  9. Alcohol availability and youth homicide in the 91 largest US cities, 1984-2006.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert N; Williams, Kirk R; McCaffree, Kevin J; Acensio, Emily K; Browne, Angela; Strom, Kevin J; Barrick, Kelle

    2011-09-01

    The aggregate relationship between homicide and alcohol availability is well established across a number of national and sub-national settings in North America, Europe and some parts of Asia. However, results linking youth homicide and alcohol availability at the retail level are largely absent from the literature, especially at the city level and across longer time periods. In a multivariate, pooled time series and cross-section study, youth homicide offending rates for two age groups, 13-17 and 18-24, were analysed for the 91 largest cities in the USA between 1984 and 2006. Data for social and economic characteristics, drug use, street gang activity and gun availability were also used as time series measures. Data on the availability of alcohol for each city were gathered from the US Census of Economic Activity, which is conducted every 5 years. These data were used to construct an annual time series for the density of retail alcohol outlets in each city. Results indicated that net of other variables, several of which had significant impacts on youth homicide, the density of alcohol outlets had a significant positive effect on youth homicide for those aged 13-17 and 18-24. Such positive effects have been found for adults in national and neighbourhood level studies, but this is the first study to report such evidence for teenagers and young adults. An important policy implication of these findings is that the reduction of the density of retail alcohol outlets in a city may be an effective tool for violent crime reduction among such youth. PMID:21896073

  10. Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J.; Lombard, Carl; Nannan, Nadine; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15–19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide. Methods and Findings A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541) children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5%) were neonates (0–28 d), and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9%) were infants (under 1 y), giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0–6 d), and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8%) of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015). Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%). Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have

  11. Exploring neighborhood influences on small-area variations in intimate partner violence risk: a Bayesian random-effects modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; López-Quílez, Antonio; Marco, Miriam; Lladosa, Silvia; Lila, Marisol

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses spatial data of cases of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) to examine neighborhood-level influences on small-area variations in IPVAW risk in a police district of the city of Valencia (Spain). To analyze area variations in IPVAW risk and its association with neighborhood-level explanatory variables we use a Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach, as well as disease mapping methods to represent risk probabilities in each area. Analyses show that IPVAW cases are more likely in areas of high immigrant concentration, high public disorder and crime, and high physical disorder. Results also show a spatial component indicating remaining variability attributable to spatially structured random effects. Bayesian spatial modeling offers a new perspective to identify IPVAW high and low risk areas, and provides a new avenue for the design of better-informed prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24413701

  12. Exploring Neighborhood Influences on Small-Area Variations in Intimate Partner Violence Risk: A Bayesian Random-Effects Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gracia, Enrique; López-Quílez, Antonio; Marco, Miriam; Lladosa, Silvia; Lila, Marisol

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses spatial data of cases of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) to examine neighborhood-level influences on small-area variations in IPVAW risk in a police district of the city of Valencia (Spain). To analyze area variations in IPVAW risk and its association with neighborhood-level explanatory variables we use a Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach, as well as disease mapping methods to represent risk probabilities in each area. Analyses show that IPVAW cases are more likely in areas of high immigrant concentration, high public disorder and crime, and high physical disorder. Results also show a spatial component indicating remaining variability attributable to spatially structured random effects. Bayesian spatial modeling offers a new perspective to identify IPVAW high and low risk areas, and provides a new avenue for the design of better-informed prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24413701

  13. Small firms' actions in two areas, and exchange premium and enrollment impact.

    PubMed

    Eibner, Christine; Price, Carter C; Vardavas, Raffaele; Cordova, Amado; Girosi, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The Affordable Care Act changed the regulations governing small firms' health insurance premiums. However, small businesses can avoid many of the new regulations by self-insuring or maintaining grandfathered plans. If small firms with healthy and lower-cost enrollees avoid the regulations, premiums for coverage sold through insurance exchanges could be unaffordable. In this analysis we used the RAND Comprehensive Assessment of Reform Efforts microsimulation model to predict the effects of self-insurance and grandfathering exemptions on coverage and premiums available through the exchanges. We estimate that Affordable Care Act regulations restricting employers' ability to offer grandfathered plans will result in lower premiums on plans available through the exchanges and will have small negative effects on enrollment in the exchanges. Our results suggest that these regulations are essential to keeping premiums on the Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) exchanges affordable. Our analysis also found that Affordable Care Act regulations limiting self-insurance will reduce enrollment in the exchanges somewhat, without substantially affecting exchange premiums. PMID:22323162

  14. [The mortality rate for homicide among women in Italy: a historical and geographical analysis as a contribution to the study of femicide].

    PubMed

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Petrella, Marco; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    As 70% of the killings of women takes place in the context of relational dynamics and in 80% of the cases the perpetrator is a man, we can presume that femicide constitutes much of the homicide mortality among women. Epidemiological surveillance of the killings of women can, therefore, provide indicators on the trends and geographical distribution of femicide and, indirectly, of the more general phenomenon of harassment and violence against women. The analysis of 40 years of mortality shows only a slight decrease of the murders of women nationwide. This suggests that the factors that underline this phenomenon are deeply rooted in the relationship between men and women. The decrease has taken place mainly in the South and Islands and the percentage SMRs point to a reversal of the relationship between geographic areas: thus, at the end of the observation period the North-West assumes a greater weight than the South and Islands. So we cannot exclude that part of the decrease in murders of women can be attributed to the overall decrease in homicides related to criminal activity, most pronounced in the South and Islands. PMID:26036742

  15. Teasing out the effects of macro-conditions on race-specific male homicide rates: Do distinct predictors vary by racial group and over time?

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Richard; Parker, Karen F

    2013-05-01

    Researchers tend to capture the multiple disadvantages facing urban areas by using an all-encompassing disadvantage index, which combines poverty, joblessness and other economic predictors into a single index. While the use of this index is important for conceptual and methodological reasons, questions remain about whether these city characteristics differ in magnitude and significance when influencing race-specific homicide rates and whether or not there effects exhibit stability or vary over time? This article examines how discrete measures of disadvantage differ in their importance for race-specific groups over three critical time points: 1980, 1990, and 2000. After accounting for problems associated with statistical inferences, cross sectional, Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) analyses reveal that family disruption and poverty status were among the strongest predictors of race-specific homicide rates. Wald tests for the equality of coefficients confirmed significant differences in the influence of many discrete measures of disadvantage for white and black males, but the number of differences declined from 1980 and into the 2000s. That is, along with the crime drop, our research reveals increasing racial parity in structural predictors over time. PMID:23521985

  16. A Program in Art for Small Schools. Priority Country Area Program, Queensland Project Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertani, Katherine

    Written for use in small primary schools where children of varying ages and abilities are under the guidance of one teacher and where art is frequently neglected because of teacher workloads, these lessons form a comprehensive art program. The curriculum is divided into five categories according to medium: painting and drawing, modelling, collage…

  17. Analysis on Underground Coal Mining Subsidence Using Small Baseline InSAR in Yunjialing Mining Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dapeng; Yang, Jin; Zeng, Qiming

    2013-01-01

    66.6 percent of China's energy production come from underground coal mining (fig. 1.) Hundreds of mining cities were affected by mining subsidence. Long-term underground mining activities ,which results in large areas of mined areas, are threatening the local ecological environment and people property.Coal mining development has become a major factor of restricting local economic and threatening the safety of future mine production. The research on mining subsidence takes a important practical significance.

  18. Intimate Partner Homicide and Corollary Victims in 16 States: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Niolon, Phyllis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. Methods. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Results. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence–related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Conclusions. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm. PMID:24432943

  19. A longitudinal, multilevel analysis of homicide against children aged 0-9 years using state-level characteristics: 1979-2007.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily; Vanderminden, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Annually, over a thousand children are the victims of homicide in the United States Homicide among younger children, 0-9 years of age, is usually perpetrated by parents and caregivers. Researchers neither have tracked changes in the homicide rate among young children over time nor have they used theory to understand what factors may drive these changes. In this analysis of state-level data, we used longitudinal growth modeling and ecological theory to examine changes in homicide rate against children aged 0-9 years from 1979 to 2007. Our results indicate that states are relatively consistent, over time, in their homicide rates. Furthermore, a cultural context of criminal and risky behavior is positively associated with homicide against children. We discuss implications for future research and prevention. PMID:25905126

  20. Race/Ethnic-Specific Homicide Rates in New York City: Evaluating the Impact of Broken Windows Policing and Crack Cocaine Markets

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Preeti; Cerdá, Magdalena; Messner, Steven F.; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated a range of social influences including misdemeanor arrests, drug arrests, cocaine consumption, alcohol consumption, firearm availability, and incarceration that may be associated with changes in gun-related homicides by racial/ethnic group in New York City (NYC) from 1990 to 1999. Using police precincts as the unit of analysis, we used cross-sectional, time series data to examine changes in Black, White, and Hispanic homicides, separately. Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatial error term indicated that an increase in cocaine consumption was associated with an increase in Black homicides. An increase in firearm availability was associated with an increase in Hispanic homicides. Last, there were no significant predictors for White homicides. Support was found for the crack cocaine hypotheses but not for the broken windows hypothesis. Examining racially/ethnically disaggregated data can shed light on group-sensitive mechanisms that may explain changes in homicide over time. PMID:22328820

  1. A Tool for Providing Data on Small Areas: Development of Neighborhood Profiles for Santa Clara County, California, 2014.

    PubMed

    Webber, Whitney L; Stoddard, Pamela; van Erp, Brianna; Baath, Mandeep; Bazhaw, Greg; Kelsey, Kate; Schenk, Douglas; Shah, Roshni; Shoe, Bill; Sujeer, Anandi

    2016-01-01

    Data on small geographic areas that can be easily accessed and updated have become essential for targeting public health programs and services. Disaggregating data at the sub-county or sub-city level has the potential to reveal disparities not otherwise evident for large geographies. As important as such data are, the methods to produce data on small geographic areas are challenging and resource-intensive, and little description and analysis of such tools exists. We describe a tool--neighborhood profiles--that provides a way for public health agencies and their partners to define neighborhood boundaries, select indicators, and disseminate data in a user-friendly format. We also share lessons learned, including the importance of involving planning departments in boundary definition to ensure relevance to the community, selecting a framework that links indicators to broader conceptual categories that can highlight disparities, and forming a team with the diverse skills necessary for planning and developing the profiles. PMID:26843668

  2. Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - An energy-budget study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, R.S.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation from Wetland Pl in the Cottonwood Lake area of North Dakota, USA was determined by the energy-budget method for 1982-85 and 1987. Evaporation rates were as high as 0.672 cm day-1. Incoming solar radiation, incoming atmospheric radiation, and long-wave radiation emitted from the water body are the largest energy fluxes to and from the wetland. Because of the small heat storage of the water body, evaporation rates closely track solar radiation on short time scales. The effect of advected energy related to precipitation is small because the water quickly heats up by solar radiation following precipitation. Advected energy related to ground water is minimal because ground-water fluxes are small and groundwater temperature is only about 7 ??C. Energy flux related to sediment heating and thermal storage in the sediments, which might be expected to be large because the water is clear and shallow, affects evaporation rates by less than 5 percent.

  3. Proposal and Development of Radial Air-gap Coreless Generator Suitable for Small Wind Turbine using in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ohmoto, Shingo; Hara, Takehisa

    Independent distributed generations using small wind turbines are widely spread as increasing of wind power generation. Installation of small wind turbines in densely-populated urban area is not only useful from the viewpoint of digging up wind power source in weak-wind area but also for enlightenment of renewable energy due to closing power supplies to consumptions. From the point of view, the authors proposed “urban wind power generation" using collective system with a number of small vertical wind turbines and have developed a suitable generator for low-speed vertical wind turbines such as Savonius windmill. Standardized on a coreless generator, the proposed generator is designed to let direction of magnetic fluxes radial in order to install the magnets and coils on the outer end of the generator. The change of magnet composition and flux direction gives realization of maximized speed of flux change and output voltage in the limited space. With above composition, the power of the proposed one is independent on the diameter. In this report, we describe evaluated fundamental performance of a prototype of the proposed generator. As the result of the experiments, the maximum output power of 283W was obtained. The obtained starting torque is enough small to begin to rotate at weak wind condition of no more than 1m/s. Therefore, it is clear that the proposed “radial” coreless generator is suitable for self-starting and producing high power at low speed wind.

  4. Business Use of Small Computers in the Salt Lake City, Utah Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Michael M.

    In July 1981, Utah Technical College (UTC) conducted a survey of businesses in the Salt Lake City area to gather information for the development of a curriculum integrating computer applications with business course instruction. The survey sought to determine the status and usage of current micro/mini computer equipment, future data processing…

  5. Phosphorus loss and its estimation in a small watershed of the Yimeng mountainous area, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-point source pollution is severe in the Yimeng Mountainous area of China. Few studies have been conducted to identify and predict phosphorus loss at a watershed scale in this region. The objectives of this study were to identify the characteristics of phosphorus loss and further to develop regre...

  6. Fine-scale simulations of aeolian sediment dispersion in a small area in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, George E.; Gillette, Dale A.; Bergametti, Gilles; Marticorena, BéAtrice; Heist, David K.

    2008-06-01

    The northern Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico contains mesquite bushes and small coppice dunes as well as open areas lacking vegetation. Sandstorms are common in this area, gradually reshaping the flat grassland into a landscape of mesquite coppice dunes and bare open patches. During storms, complex airflows entrain sediment from the open areas, depositing it around downwind bushes and dunes. Understanding and quantifying these processes could help to clarify the ongoing process of desert formation. Sand flux patterns for eight storms occurring in April 2003 and April 2004 were predicted for a (60 m by 60 m) site on the basis of 297 10-min average velocity simulations using a semiempirical mass consistent diagnostic wind field model: Quick Urban & Industrial Complex version 3.5 (QUIC) used with a sand flux parameterization. The sand flux patterns were highly heterogeneous, varying with wind direction and differing between storms. Generally, the nonvegetated areas experienced high sand fluxes, while wake areas behind dunes experienced little or no sand flux. Sediment erosion and deposition patterns were calculated by taking the divergence of the sand flux. The open areas were the sources of the sediment, while the windward sides of the mesquite bushes and dunes were the primary deposition areas. The simulated sediment erosion and deposition magnitudes were qualitatively similar to an annual average from 45 years of measurements.

  7. Small-area geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in colorectal tumour detection in France.

    PubMed

    Fournel, Isabelle; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Sauleau, Erik-André; Cottet, Vanessa; Dejardin, Olivier; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of area deprivation and primary care facilities on colorectal adenoma detection and on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in a French well-defined population before mass screening implementation. The study population included all patients aged 20 years or more living in Côte d'Or (France) with either colorectal adenoma or invasive CRC first diagnosed between 1995 and 2002 and who were identified from the Burgundy Digestive Cancer Registry and the Côte d'Or Polyp Registry. Area deprivation was assessed using the European deprivation index on the basis of the smallest French area available (Ilots Regroupés pour l'Information Statistique). Healthcare access was assessed using medical density of general practitioners (GPs) and road distance to the nearest GP and gastroenterologist. Bayesian regression analyses were used to estimate influential covariates on adenoma detection and CRC incidence rates. The results were expressed as relative risks (RRs) with their 95% credibility interval. In total, 5399 patients were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenoma and 2125 with invasive incident CRC during the study period. Remoteness from GP [RR=0.71 (0.61-0.83)] and area deprivation [RR=0.98 (0.96-1.00)] independently reduced the probability of adenoma detection. CRC incidence was only slightly affected by GP medical density [RR=1.05 (1.01-1.08)] without any area deprivation effect [RR=0.99 (0.96-1.02)]. Distance to gastroenterologist had no impact on the rates of adenoma detection or CRC incidence. This study highlighted the prominent role of access to GPs in the detection of both colorectal adenomas and overall cancers. Deprivation had an impact only on adenoma detection. PMID:26067032

  8. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  9. Using Small-Area Estimation to Calculate the Prevalence of Smoking by Subcounty Geographic Areas in King County, Washington, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Laina; Wakefield, Jon; Laurent, Amy; Solet, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction King County, Washington, fares well overall in many health indicators. However, county-level data mask disparities among subcounty areas. For disparity-focused assessment, a demand exists for examining health data at subcounty levels such as census tracts and King County health reporting areas (HRAs). Methods We added a “nearest intersection” question to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and geocoded the data for subcounty geographic areas, including census tracts. To overcome small sample size at the census tract level, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to obtain smoothed estimates in cigarette smoking rates at the census tract and HRA levels. We also used multiple imputation to adjust for missing values in census tracts. Results Direct estimation of adult smoking rates at the census tract level ranged from 0% to 56% with a median of 10%. The 90% confidence interval (CI) half-width for census tract with nonzero rates ranged from 1 percentage point to 37 percentage points with a median of 13 percentage points. The smoothed-multiple–imputation rates ranged from 5% to 28% with a median of 12%. The 90% CI half-width ranged from 4 percentage points to 13 percentage points with a median of 8 percentage points. Conclusion The nearest intersection question in the BRFSS provided geocoded data at subcounty levels. The Bayesian model provided estimation with improved precision at the census tract and HRA levels. Multiple imputation can be used to account for missing geographic data. Small-area estimation, which has been used for King County public health programs, has increasingly become a useful tool to meet the demand of presenting data at more granular levels. PMID:27149070

  10. Reconstructing the life of an unknown (ca. 500 years-old South American Inca) mummy--multidisciplinary study of a Peruvian Inca mummy suggests severe Chagas disease and ritual homicide.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E; Pusch, Carsten M; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual that

  11. Reconstructing the Life of an Unknown (ca. 500 Years-Old South American Inca) Mummy – Multidisciplinary Study of a Peruvian Inca Mummy Suggests Severe Chagas Disease and Ritual Homicide

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E.; Pusch, Carsten M.; Nerlich, Andreas G.

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451–1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more “terrestric” nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual

  12. Sexual sadism in the context of rape and sexual homicide: an examination of crime scene indicators.

    PubMed

    Healey, Jay; Lussier, Patrick; Beauregard, Eric

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the convergent and predictive validity of behavioral crime scene indicators of sexual sadism in the context of rape and sexual homicide. The study is based on a sample of 268 adult males sentenced to a federal penitentiary in Canada. Information regarding crime scene behaviors was gathered from police records, a clinical interview with a psychologist, and a semistructured interview with the offender. A series of logistic regressions were performed to determine whether behavioral crime scene indicators of sexual sadism were associated with an official diagnosis of sexual sadism and were able to distinguish between sexual aggressors against women and sexual murderers. Findings suggest that several crime scene behaviors overlap with an official diagnosis of sexual sadism as well as being able to distinguish between sexual aggressors of women and sexual murderers. Importantly, the majority of crime scene behaviors associated with a clinical diagnosis of sexual sadism are not the same as those associated with sexual homicide. PMID:22436735

  13. Homicide by hanging: A case report and its forensic-medical aspects.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, Fabio C; Brandtner, Herwig; Kunz, Sebastian N; Keller, Thomas; Neuhuber, Franz

    2015-07-01

    We report a rare case of homicide by hanging. The postmortem examination resulted in a verdict of death by suicidal hanging and the Public Prosecutor's Office released the body for burial. After intervention by the relatives police investigations were resumed. Based on evidence impossible to reconcile with the results of the postmortem examination and requiring further clarification, an autopsy was ordered. The results of the postmortem could not be brought in line with a suicidal hanging and were further substantiated by DNA analysis. The scenario put forward by the defense claiming a secondary transfer of trace evidence onto the ligature and the victim's clothes was excluded because of the distribution pattern and the trace evidence ratio. The defendant was sentenced to 20 years of prison for homicide. The verdict was confirmed by the Supreme Court and commuted to 18 years. PMID:26048501

  14. The association between protective actions and homicide risk: findings from the Oklahoma Lethality Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Brown, Sheryll; Patchell, Beverly; Androff, David K; Wilson, Janet Sullivan

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between women's risk of homicide as measured by the Danger Assessment and 13 protective actions. Participants (N = 432) experienced an incident of police involved intimate partner violence (IPV) and subsequently completed a structured telephone interview. Most women in this sample experienced severe violence and were classified as being at high risk for homicide. Participants engaged in an average of 3.81 (SD = 2.73) protective actions. With the exception of the use of formal domestic violence services, women in the high-risk category were significantly more likely than women in the lower risk category to have used each of the protective actions examined. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25199385

  15. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

  16. Structural and cultural determinants of child homicide: a cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C M; Cutright, P

    1994-01-01

    Models of structural characteristics that may influence national infant and child homicide victim rates are derived from prior research. Expected effects of structural characteristics from a "social control" perspective are compared with expected effects from a "guardians, suitable target" perspective. Gartner's (1991) claim that structural factors influence victim rates only in nations with low social insurance expenditures is also evaluated. Statistical analysis of three infant and child age groups with homicide rates from 1965-1969, 1970-1974...1985-1988 fails to support the claim that high and low social insurance expenditure strata differ. Further, no independent effects of Gartner's (1991) three measures of family structure are found. Indicators of family stress/resources, female status, the culture of violence, and a proxy for unmeasured variables and measurement error all contribute to produce high levels of explained variance in each age group. PMID:7826933

  17. Estimation of small area populations using remote sensing and other approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, R.B.; Shumpert, B.L.; Edwards, R.G.; Margle, S.M.; Coleman, P.R.; Smyre, J.L.; Rush, R.M.; Durfee, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper documents the results of an assessment of a variety of techniques for estimating residential population for a five-mile radial grid around a nuclear power plant. The study area surrounded the proposed Limerick Nuclear Power Plant located near Philadelphia, PA. Techniques evaluated ranged from the use of air photos to infer population from housing distributions to the use of Landsat data to characterize probable residential population around the plant site. Although the techniques involving the use of Landsat data provided good results, a simple proportional area allocation method and the current procedure used by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were among the best techniques. Further research using other sites and better resolution satellite data is recommended to investigate the possible refinement of population estimates using remote sensing media. 34 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Small-molecule endothelin receptor antagonists: a review of patenting activity across therapeutic areas.

    PubMed

    Mucke, Hermann A M

    2009-06-01

    In the field of nonpeptide NCEs with endothelin receptor antagonist activity, a burst in corporate IP filings occurred in the 1990s once the human endothelin system had been characterized, but patent activity has declined in the past decade. Universities have not been active in this area of research to a degree that would have led to many patent applications. While three endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, sitaxentan and ambrisentan) are already available for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the use of such compounds for the larger therapy areas of heart failure, cancer and nephropathy is still being evaluated in late-stage clinical trials. Marketed and advanced-stage endothelin receptor blockers have remarkably little chemical diversity; thus, the substantially larger chemical space defined by patenting remains to be explored. PMID:19517317

  19. Application of the source-area concept of storm runoff to a small Arizona watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arteaga, F.E.; Rantz, S.E.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt to demonstrate the source-area concept of storm runoff by analysis of the rainfall-runoff relation for the watershed of Queen Creek tributary in south-central Arizona was moderately successful. The demonstration was somewhat marred by the necessity to make several simplifying assumptions to eliminate some of the many basin variables of unknown magnitude. The percentage of watershed contributing storm runoff was related to total rainfall received that is, antecedent and storm rainfall on the assumption that the availability of rainfall excess from any subarea was dependent on the saturation, or near saturation, of a permeable upper layer of soil. An average unit hydrograph was used for all computed sizes of the runoff-contributing area.

  20. Source apportionment of PM10 at a small industrial area using Positive Matrix Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jong-Myoung; Lee, Jin-Hong; Moon, Jong-Hwa; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, PM10-bound concentrations of 28 trace metals and 3 ionic components were measured from samples collected at Daejeon Industrial Complexes I and II, Korea from April 2000 to December 2002. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) and conditional probability function (CPF) were applied to these PM data sets to identify the diverse sources in the industrial area. A total of nine source types were identified to be important which include: secondary aerosol, cement/construction, soil dust, road dust, vehicle exhaust, incineration/Pb-related industry, metal smelting, fossil fuel combustion, and field burning. Results of our study suggest that there are competing relationships between anthropogenic and natural source processes in this industrial area.

  1. UCSF Small Molecule Discovery Center: innovation, collaboration and chemical biology in the Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Arkin, Michelle R; Ang, Kenny K H; Chen, Steven; Davies, Julia; Merron, Connie; Tang, Yinyan; Wilson, Christopher G M; Renslo, Adam R

    2014-05-01

    The Small Molecule Discovery Center (SMDC) at the University of California, San Francisco, works collaboratively with the scientific community to solve challenging problems in chemical biology and drug discovery. The SMDC includes a high throughput screening facility, medicinal chemistry, and research labs focused on fundamental problems in biochemistry and targeted drug delivery. Here, we outline our HTS program and provide examples of chemical tools developed through SMDC collaborations. We have an active research program in developing quantitative cell-based screens for primary cells and whole organisms; here, we describe whole-organism screens to find drugs against parasites that cause neglected tropical diseases. We are also very interested in target-based approaches for so-called "undruggable", protein classes and fragment-based lead discovery. This expertise has led to several pharmaceutical collaborations; additionally, the SMDC works with start-up companies to enable their early-stage research. The SMDC, located in the biotech-focused Mission Bay neighborhood in San Francisco, is a hub for innovative small-molecule discovery research at UCSF. PMID:24661212

  2. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    Samples for analysis of 32 chemical, physical, and biological constituents will be collected at varying frequencies, with emphasis on storm sampling for suspended solids and nutrients. A data-management system being designed for the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Hydrology Studies Program will facilitate data processing. Data interpretation will be aimed at defining the quantity and quality characteristics of runoff from study watersheds. These findings will be extrapolated to unsampled watersheds in the metropolitan area.

  3. Post-stratification sampling in small area estimation (SAE) model for unemployment rate estimation by Bayes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanike, Yusrianti; Sadik, Kusman; Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    This research implemented unemployment rate in Indonesia that based on Poisson distribution. It would be estimated by modified the post-stratification and Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Post-stratification was one of technique sampling that stratified after collected survey data. It's used when the survey data didn't serve for estimating the interest area. Interest area here was the education of unemployment which separated in seven category. The data was obtained by Labour Employment National survey (Sakernas) that's collected by company survey in Indonesia, BPS, Statistic Indonesia. This company served the national survey that gave too small sample for level district. Model of SAE was one of alternative to solved it. According the problem above, we combined this post-stratification sampling and SAE model. This research gave two main model of post-stratification sampling. Model I defined the category of education was the dummy variable and model II defined the category of education was the area random effect. Two model has problem wasn't complied by Poisson assumption. Using Poisson-Gamma model, model I has over dispersion problem was 1.23 solved to 0.91 chi square/df and model II has under dispersion problem was 0.35 solved to 0.94 chi square/df. Empirical Bayes was applied to estimate the proportion of every category education of unemployment. Using Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), Model I has smaller mean square error (MSE) than model II.

  4. Responses of a small-mammal community to habitat management through controlled burning in a protected Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Fire is widely used as a management tool to achieve conservation goals. However, the consequences of such management on non-target species are frequently neglected and unknown. This study examines the effects of traditional management practices of scrubland clearance by controlled burning to improve menaced carnivores on non-target species: rodent and insectivores in Doñana National Park (SW of Iberian Peninsula). We used capture-recapture methods to examine changes in abundance in areas that were burnt one and three years ago, compared with unburnt areas. Results showed that burnt areas had higher species abundances, but mainly on the ecotonal boundaries. Species abundances showed dramatic seasonal differences with high abundances in autumn and winter, and very low abundance in summer. Our study revealed that scrubland management by controlled fires increases the abundance of small mammal species, mainly Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus. We found only four small mammal species between the different treatments. However, some species that were formerly abundant in Doñana, such as Elyomis quercinus, were found only in burnt areas. Our results suggest that controlled burning is not contributing to the current loss of biotic diversity in this community.

  5. Cocaine, opiates, and ethanol in homicides in New York City: 1990 and 1991.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, K; Marzuk, P M; Leon, A C; Hirsch, C S; Stajić, M; Portera, L; Hartwell, N

    1995-05-01

    Studies using medical examiner cases are useful in monitoring drug use in special populations. This study assesses the presence of cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), opiates and ethanol in all homicide victims who were injured and who survived two hours or less after injury in 1990 and 1991 in New York City. There were 2824 homicides in the study period and cocaine and/or BE were found in 884 (31.3%) of cases. In over half of the cases positive for cocaine/BE, ethanol or opiates were found. African-Americans and Latinos were much more likely than whites or Asians to be positive for cocaine/BE. There were no differences between men and women in regard to being positive for cocaine/BE. Cocaine/BE was most frequently identified among victims 25 to 44 years of age. Males were more likely to be positive for ethanol. There were no differences among age groups or ethnic groups in regard to ethanol except for a very low ethanol incidence among Asians. Victims positive for cocaine/BE were more likely to be killed with firearms in open places. The percentage of victims positive for cocaine/BE remains approximately that found by other studies in the late 1980s, however, the percentage of opiate-positive homicides seems to be increasing. Opiates usually were found with cocaine/BE. Two-thirds of the cocaine and/or BE positive cases had cocaine present, thus they were under the influence of the drug at the time they were injured. The authors discuss how the use of cocaine, ethanol and opiates may be related to one's becoming a homicide victim. PMID:7782745

  6. Dependence of the Firearm-Related Homicide Rate on Gun Availability: A Mathematical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L.

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data. PMID:23923062

  7. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data. PMID:23923062

  8. Firearm Homicide and Other Causes of Death in Delinquents: A 16-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Jessica A.; Abram, Karen M.; Olson, Nichole D.; Stokes, Marquita L.; Welty, Leah J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delinquent youth are at risk for early violent death after release from detention. However, few studies have examined risk factors for mortality. Previous investigations studied only serious offenders (a fraction of the juvenile justice population) and provided little data on females. METHODS: The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a prospective longitudinal study of health needs and outcomes of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (657 females, 1172 males; 524 Hispanic, 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 4 other race/ethnicity) detained between 1995 and 1998. Data on risk factors were drawn from interviews; death records were obtained up to 16 years after detention. We compared all-cause mortality rates and causes of death with those of the general population. Survival analyses were used to examine risk factors for mortality after youth leave detention. RESULTS: Delinquent youth have higher mortality rates than the general population to age 29 years (P < .05), irrespective of gender or race/ethnicity. Females died at nearly 5 times the general population rate (P < .05); Hispanic males and females died at 5 and 9 times the general population rates, respectively (P < .05). Compared with the general population, significantly more delinquent youth died of homicide and its subcategory, homicide by firearm (P < .05). Among delinquent youth, racial/ethnic minorities were at increased risk of homicide compared with non-Hispanic whites (P < .05). Significant risk factors for external-cause mortality and homicide included drug dealing (up to 9 years later), alcohol use disorder, and gang membership (up to a decade later). CONCLUSIONS: Delinquent youth are an identifiable target population to reduce disparities in early violent death. PMID:24936005

  9. Children's Mental Health and Well-Being After Parental Intimate Partner Homicide: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Alisic, Eva; Krishna, Revathi N; Groot, Arend; Frederick, John W

    2015-12-01

    When one parent kills the other, children are confronted with multiple losses, involving their attachment figures and their direct living environment. In these complex situations, potentially drastic decisions are made, for example, regarding new living arrangements and contact with the perpetrating parent. We aimed to synthesize the empirical literature on children's mental health and well-being after parental intimate partner homicide. A systematic search identified 17 relevant peer-reviewed articles (13 independent samples). We recorded the theoretical background, methodology, and sample characteristics of the studies, and extracted all child outcomes as well as potential risk and protective factors. Children's outcomes varied widely and included psychological, social, physical, and academic consequences (e.g., post-traumatic stress, attachment difficulties, weight and appetite changes, and drops in school grades). Potential risk and protective factors for children's outcomes included 10 categories of pre-, peri-, and post-homicide characteristics such as cultural background of the family, whether the child witnessed the homicide, and the level of conflict between the families of the victim and the perpetrator. We integrated the findings into a conceptual model of risk factors to direct clinical reflection and further research. PMID:26487567

  10. Taxing sin and saving lives: Can alcohol taxation reduce female homicides?

    PubMed

    Durrance, Christine Piette; Golden, Shelley; Perreira, Krista; Cook, Philip

    2011-07-01

    With costs exceeding $5.8 billion per year, violence against women has significant ramifications for victims, their families, the health care systems that treat them, and the employers who depend on their labor. Prior research has found that alcohol abuse contributes to violence against both men and women, and that stringent alcohol control policies can reduce alcohol consumption and in turn some forms of violence. In this paper, we estimate the direct relationship between an important alcohol control measure, excise taxes, and the most extreme form of violence, homicide. We use female homicide rates as our measure of severe violence, as this measure is consistently and accurately reported across multiple years. Our results provide evidence that increased alcohol taxes reduce alcohol consumption and that reductions in alcohol consumption can reduce femicide. Unfortunately, a direct test of the relationship does not have the power to determine whether alcohol taxes effectively reduce female homicide rates. We conclude that while alcohol taxes have been shown to effectively reduce other forms of violence against women, policy makers may need alternative policy levers to reduce the most severe form of violence against women. PMID:21664738

  11. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences. PMID:25844513

  12. Taxing Sin and Saving Lives: Can Alcohol Taxation Reduce Female Homicides?

    PubMed Central

    Durrance, Christine Piette; Golden, Shelley; Perreira, Krista; Cook, Philip

    2013-01-01

    With costs exceeding $5.8 billion per year, violence against women has significant ramifications for victims, their families, the health care systems that treat them, and the employers who depend on their labor. Prior research has found that alcohol abuse contributes to violence against both men and women, and that stringent alcohol control policies can reduce alcohol consumption and in turn some forms of violence. In this paper, we estimate the direct relationship between an important alcohol control measure, excise taxes, and the most extreme form of violence, homicide. We use female homicide rates as our measure of severe violence, as this measure is consistently and accurately reported across multiple years. Our results provide evidence that increased alcohol taxes reduce alcohol consumption and that reductions in alcohol consumption can reduce femicide. Unfortunately, a direct test of the relationship does not have the power to determine whether alcohol taxes effectively reduce female homicide rates. We conclude that while alcohol taxes have been shown to effectively reduce other forms of violence against women, policy makers may need alternative policy levers to reduce the most severe form of violence against women. PMID:21664738

  13. Comparison of flood frequency estimates from synthetic and observed data on small drainage areas in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colson, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1964 the U.S. Geological Survey in Mississippi expanded the small stream gaging network for collection of rainfall and runoff data to 92 stations. To expedite availability of flood frequency information a rainfall-runoff model using available long-term rainfall data was calibrated to synthesize flood peaks. Results obtained from observed annual peak flow data for 51 sites having 16 yr to 30 yr of annual peaks are compared with the synthetic results. Graphical comparison of the 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100-year flood discharges indicate good agreement. The root mean square error ranges from 27% to 38% and the synthetic record bias from -9% to -18% in comparison with the observed record. The reduced variance in the synthetic results is attributed to use of only four long-term rainfall records and model limitations. The root mean square error and bias is within the accuracy considered to be satisfactory. (Author 's abstract)

  14. The Small Round Blue Cell Tumors of the Sinonasal Area: Histological and Immunohistochemical Findings

    PubMed Central

    J Ashraf, Mohammad; Beigomi, Leila; Azarpira, Negar; Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Hakimzadeh, Afsoon; Abedi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary Small round blue cell tumors (SRBCT) in sinonasal comprise histogenetically diverse entities with overlapping morphologic features. Because of the limited initial biopsy tissue materials, differential diagnostic difficulties may arise, and as they have different management, exact diagnosis and classification are very important. Objectives In this study, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of a panel of markers in the classification and diagnosis of sinonasal SRBCTs. Material and Methods This cross sectional study was performed on 36 paraffin embedded tissue samples. Histologic and immunohistochemical slides from 36 patients with SRBCT were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were admitted in Khalili hospital, Shiraz from 1383 to 1388. Results There were 13 women and 23 men with the mean age of 53 ±12.1. There were 9 malignant melanoma, seven poorly differentiated SCC; six lymphoma (DLBL); 4 SCNEC; three SNUC; two ON; two Ewing/PNET; two embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and one plasmacytoma. Pan-cytokeratin was strongly expressed poorly differentiated SCC and all cases of SNUC. Coexpression of desmin and nuclear myoD1 was only detected in rhabdomyosarcoma. HMB45 was only expressed in sinonasal melanoma. CD99 expression was identified only in Ewing/PNET. FLI-1 was detected in 50% of PNET. P63 was expressed in poorly differentiated SCC (2/7) and SNUC (1/3). Conclusions The results of our study indicate that the integration of histopathologic findings with application of limited but highly specific markers led to the separation of carcinomas, lymphoma and melanomas from other small cell tumors. Using a panel of keratin, LCA, desmin, and HMB45 is the most practical and economic approach to accurately classify these tumors. PMID:24349741

  15. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    SciTech Connect

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  16. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  17. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana for stations discontinued before 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.; Parrett, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been tabulated for crest-stage gage sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from samll drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1978. From 1955 to 1978, 156 stations have been discontinued. This report is a tabulation of the stage and discharge data for the discontinued stations. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Runoff and chemical loading in small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Brown, R.G.; Oberts, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flow, rainfall, and water-quality data were collected during 1980 for 15 to 30 rainfall and snowmelt events on 6 rural and 11 urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Event or daily flow and load models (for seven constituents) were developed and used with runoff and rainfall data for 1963-80 to compute 2-year frequency annual and seasonal flows and loads for each watershed. In models of storm-sewered watersheds, total storm rainfall proved to be the most significant factor controlling runoff and loads. Depending on the watershed type, antecedent soil-moisture indices and rainfall intensity also were important factors in estimating runoff. Annual runoff from storm-sewered watersheds averaged about 27 percent of annual precipitation, ranging from 13 to 57 percent. Runoff in urban main-stem streams ranged from 13 to 20 percent and was related to the percent of urbanization in the watershed. Annual runoff in rural watersheds ranged from 6 to 20 percent of annual precipitation. Runoff responses were highest in the snowmelt season for all watersheds and declined through the rest of the year. Rural watersheds showed a considerable decrease in runoff response during late summer and fall. Urban-watershed response from season to season was more consistent than rural watersheds because of the impervious area and storm sewers in urban watersheds. (USGS)

  19. Ethiopian Wheat Yield and Yield Gap Estimation: A Spatial Small Area Integrated Data Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M.; Warner, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the collection of routine annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has been undertaken in predicting developing nation's agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 Meher crop seasons aggregated to the woreda administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country. The model also identifies specific contributors to wheat yields that include farm management techniques (eg. area planted, improved seed, fertilizer, irrigation), weather (eg. rainfall), water availability (vegetation and moisture deficit indexes) and policy intervention. Our findings suggest that woredas produce between 9.8 and 86.5% of their potential wheat output per hectare given their altitude, weather conditions, terrain, and plant health. At the median, Amhara, Oromiya, SNNP, and Tigray produce 48.6, 51.5, 49.7, and 61.3% of their local attainable yields, respectively. This research has a broad range of applications, especially from a public policy perspective: identifying causes of yield fluctuations, remotely evaluating larger agricultural intervention packages, and analyzing relative yield potential. Overall, the combination of field surveys with spatial data can be used to identify management priorities for improving production at a variety of administrative levels.

  20. Dynamics of short rainfall storms in a small scale urban area in Coly Limper, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, M. N. M.; Niemczynowicz, J.

    Short term storm rainfalls are recorded with a dense network of fine resolution rain gauges well distributed in a small urban catchment in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The period of data collection covers the south-west monsoon (July-September), inter monsoon (October) and partly the north-east monsoon (November-December) seasons. This paper presents some findings with reference to the dynamic properties of short rainfall storms using the method of vector analysis and farther correlation analysis. Good accuracy of data and good synchronisation between the gauges have been achieved thus a meaningful interpretation of the obtained results was made possible. The selected 30 storms have been used to determine the velocities and direction of movement of the storm cells. A correlation study was undertaken to relate the calculated storm velocities and directions with the observed wind velocities and directions from different altitudes. Results show that statistically significant correlation was achieved between the calculated storm velocities and the hourly mean surface wind velocities. In contrast to studies carried out in other climate zones, no significant correlations were obtained between observed storm velocities and directions on ground level versus high altitude measured wind velocities and directions. The average maximum intensities has been found to be correlated with the average storm depths.

  1. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability. PMID:26664131

  2. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  3. Violence-related firearm deaths among residents of metropolitan areas and cities---United States, 2006--2007.

    PubMed

    2011-05-13

    Violence-related firearm deaths remain an important public health concern in the United States. During 2006--2007, a total of 25,423 firearm homicides and 34,235 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. These national totals include 4,166 firearm homicides and 1,446 firearm suicides among youths aged 10--19 years; the rate of firearm homicides among youths slightly exceeded the rate among persons of all ages. This report presents statistics on firearm homicides and firearm suicides for major metropolitan areas and cities, with an emphasis on youths aged 10--19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. It integrates analyses conducted by CDC in response to requests for detailed information, arising from a heightened focus on urban violence by the media, the public, and policymakers over the past year. Firearm homicides and suicides and annual rates were tabulated for the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and their central cities for 2006--2007, using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the U.S. Census Bureau. Firearm homicide rates in approximately two thirds of the MSAs exceeded the national rate, and 86% of cities had rates higher than those of their MSAs. The youth firearm homicide rate exceeded the all-ages rate in 80% of the MSAs and in 88% of the cities. Firearm suicide rates in just over half of the MSAs were below the national rate, and 55% of cities had rates below those of their MSAs. Youth firearm suicide rates in the MSAs and cities were collectively low compared with all-ages rates. Such variations in firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates, with respect to both urbanization and age, should be considered in the continuing development of prevention programs directed at reducing firearm violence. PMID:21566557

  4. Methods and results for small area estimation using smoking data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Ha, Neung Soo; Lahiri, Partha; Parsons, Van

    2014-09-28

    The National Health Interview Survey, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, is designed to provide reliable design-based estimates for a wide range of health-related variables for national and four major geographical regions of the USA. However, state-level or substate-level estimates are likely to be unreliable because they are based on small sample sizes. In this paper, we compare the efficiency of different area-level models in estimating smoking prevalence for the 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Our study is based on survey data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey in conjunction with a number of potentially related auxiliary variables obtained from the American Community Survey, an ongoing large complex survey conducted by the US Census. A major portion of this study is devoted to the investigation of several methods for estimating survey sampling variances needed to implement an area-level hierarchical model. Based on our findings, a hierarchical Bayesian method that uses a survey-adjusted random sampling variance model to capture the complex survey sampling variability appears to be somewhat superior to the other considered area-level models in accounting for small sample behavior of estimated survey sampling variances. Several diagnostic procedures are presented to compare the proposed methods. PMID:24910281

  5. Wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide with long propagation length and ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode area

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel design of wedge hybrid plasmonic terahertz (THz) waveguide consisting of a silicon (Si) nanowire cylinder above a triangular gold wedge with surrounded high-density polyethylene as cladding. It features long propagation length and ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode confinement. The mode properties of wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide are comprehensively characterized in terms of propagation length (L), normalized mode area (Aeff /A0), figure of merit (FoM), and chromatic dispersion (D). The designed wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide enables an ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode area which is more than one-order of magnitude smaller compared to previous rectangular one. When choosing the diameter of Si nanowire cylinder, a smaller diameter (e.g. 10 μm) is preferred to achieve longer L and higher FoM, while a larger diameter (e.g. 60 μm) is favorable to obtain smaller Aeff /A0 and higher FoM. We further study the impacts of possible practical fabrication errors on the mode properties. The simulated results of propagation length and normalized mode area show that the proposed wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide is tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, variation of wedge tip angle, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:26155782

  6. Wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide with long propagation length and ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode area.

    PubMed

    Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel design of wedge hybrid plasmonic terahertz (THz) waveguide consisting of a silicon (Si) nanowire cylinder above a triangular gold wedge with surrounded high-density polyethylene as cladding. It features long propagation length and ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode confinement. The mode properties of wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide are comprehensively characterized in terms of propagation length (L), normalized mode area (Aeff/A0), figure of merit (FoM), and chromatic dispersion (D). The designed wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide enables an ultra-small deep-subwavelength mode area which is more than one-order of magnitude smaller compared to previous rectangular one. When choosing the diameter of Si nanowire cylinder, a smaller diameter (e.g. 10 μm) is preferred to achieve longer L and higher FoM, while a larger diameter (e.g. 60 μm) is favorable to obtain smaller Aeff/A0 and higher FoM. We further study the impacts of possible practical fabrication errors on the mode properties. The simulated results of propagation length and normalized mode area show that the proposed wedge hybrid plasmonic THz waveguide is tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, variation of wedge tip angle, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius. PMID:26155782

  7. Resistance and seakeeping numerical performance analyses of a semi-small waterplane area twin hull at medium to high speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernengo, Giuliano; Bruzzone, Dario

    2016-03-01

    The hydrodynamic analysis of a new semi-small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH) suitable for various applications such as small and medium size passenger ferries is presented. This may be an attractive crossover configuration resulting from the merging of two classical shapes: a conventional SWATH and a fast catamaran. The final hull design exhibits a wedge-like waterline shape with the maximum beam at the stern; the hull ends with a very narrow entrance angle, has a prominent bulbous bow typical of SWATH vessels, and features full stern to arrange waterjet propellers. Our analysis aims to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrodynamic performance of a hull with such a complex shape both in terms of resistance of the hull in calm water and seakeeping capability in regular head waves and compare the performance with that of a conventional SWATH. The analysis is performed using a boundary element method that was preliminarily validated on a conventional SWATH vessel.

  8. Application of small baseline subsets D-InSAR technique to estimate time series land deformation of Jinan area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangtong; Cao, Qiuxiang; Xiong, Zhuguo; Yin, Haitao; Xiao, Genru

    2016-04-01

    Jinan, located in the South of the North China Plain, is an area where underground water has been exploited excessively. However, land deformation surveys only focus on the small district obtained by GPS and Leveling. Here, we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series of ASAR data to resolve land subsidence in the entire Jinan region. In our research, we get 20 interferograms with a temporal threshold of 700 days and spatial-baseline threshold of 300 m from 14 ASAR satellite images on a descending orbit, and then get the surface displacement using Small Baseline InSAR (SBAS D-InSAR) retrained with a periodic model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of our work is proved by the results of GPS measurements. Finally, several settlement funnels are observed with extreme values of -20 cm, and their generation is related to massive groundwater extraction.

  9. Wireless body area network node localization using small-scale spatial information.

    PubMed

    Lo, Geoffrey; Gonzalez-Valenzuela, Sergio; Leung, Victor C M

    2013-05-01

    We present a new scheme to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Instantaneous atmospheric air pressure readings are compared to map nodes in physical space. This enhancement enables unassisted sensor node placement, providing a practical solution to obtain and continuously monitor node locations without anchor nodes or beacons. To validate this localization scheme, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the performance and limitations. Based on a 60 cm separation between nodes, indicative of the expected separation between limbs and placement positions along a patient's body, the measurements consistently exceeded p -value reliability within a 95% confidence interval. We also present and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement aiming to reduce false-positive (Type I) errors in conventional accelerometer-based on-body fall detection schemes. Our statistical analysis has shown that by continuously monitoring the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate “fall-like” motions from actual falls. PMID:24592472

  10. Water-supply systems for rural areas and small communities in Colombia.

    PubMed

    PACHON-ROJAS, L

    1954-01-01

    As part of a rural-sanitation campaign in Colombia, the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia (NFCG) in 1942 initiated a scheme for ensuring an adequate provision of water to coffee-growers in rural, mountainous areas, both for domestic use and for coffee-processing. Where farms are reasonably closely grouped collective water-supply systems are used, but it is also frequently necessary to construct individual systems. In either case, the cost of installation is shared by the NFCG and those who directly benefit. The average cost of the collective system has been Colombian pesos 12,000 per system, while the cost of individual installations has varied between Colombian pesos 650 and 935. Each collective system is administered and operated by a rural water board composed of local farmers, while technical problems are referred to the engineering staff of the NFCG.In general, the cheaper gravity system is preferred, but in individual installations it has often proved necessary to provide hand pumps or hydraulic rams.Through improvement in the water supply, the prevalence of water-borne diseases has considerably decreased, while the rate of coffee-production has increased. PMID:13160759

  11. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Coverage Among Females Aged 11 to 17 in Texas Counties: An Application of Multilevel, Small Area Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Eberth, Jan M.; Hossain, Md Monir; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Zhang, Xingyou; Holt, James B.; Vernon, Sally W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Local data are often used to plan and evaluate public health interventions and policy. With increasingly fewer public resources to collect sufficient data to support direct estimation of local outcomes, methods for deriving small area estimates are vital. The purpose of this study is to describe the county-level geographic distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among adolescent females in Texas using multilevel small area estimation. Methods Multilevel (individual, county, public health region) random-intercept logit models were fit to HPV vaccination data (≥1 dose Gardasil) from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using the parameter estimates from the final model, we simulated 10,000 data sets for each regression coefficient from the normal distribution and applied them to the logit model to estimate HPV vaccine coverage in each county. Results County-level coverage estimates ranged from 7% to 29%, compared with the state average of 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.59–21.88). Many Southwestern border and metropolitan counties exhibited high coverage estimates. Low coverage estimates were noted in the Panhandle, Southeastern border region, and Northeast. Significant correlations were observed between HPV vaccination and Hispanic ethnicity, county poverty, and public health region poverty. Conclusion Harnessing the flexibility of multilevel small area models to estimate HPV vaccine coverage at the county level, we have provided data that may inform the development of health education programs/policies, the provision of health services, and the planning of new research studies. Additionally, we have provided a framework for modeling other health outcomes at the county level using national survey data. PMID:23481692

  12. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  13. Environmental inequity in England: small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752

  14. Development of X-Ray Spectrometer with a Large-Area GSPC: Application for Small-sized Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Tanaka, S.; Fujimura, A.; Mizutani, H.; Kato, M.; Masuda, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-03-01

    X-ray spectrometer with a large-area Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) is being developed for the future planetary explorations such as the asteroid sample-return mission (MUSES-C) and the lunar polar-orbiter mission both proposed in Japan. As proven in the successful Apollo missions, global mapping of major elemental composition is feasible through XRF spectrometry from orbiters. We manufactured testing models of large-area GSPCs and carried out laboratory experiments to examine their performances with success. On the basis of the experimental results, we propose here a basic design of new-type X-ray spectrometer, which could be applicable to asteroid, lunar, and other small-sized planetary missions. _

  15. Morphometry of small impact craters in the Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2 study areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Gusakova, E. N.

    2014-03-01

    This work was based on analysis of LROC NAC images with resolution ~0.5 m per pixel for the Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod 2 study areas and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) produced from these images. On these images, craters≥7 m in diameter were identified and outlined and their diameters D and depths d were measured using the mentioned DEMs. Then the depth/diameter ratios (d/D) were determined and their analysis showed that only the measurements for craters with D≥20 m were reliable. In addition, the maximum slope of the crater inner walls was measured by two techniques. The d/D and the maximum slope were found well correlated and practically similar for the two study areas. These results were compared with the earlier published values of d/D and maximum slope of the crater inner walls that had been reported by Florensky et al. (1972a) and Basilevsky (1976) as typical for craters of certain morphologic classes. Analysis of d/D-frequency distribution showed that the crater degradation rate as a function of d/D had a characteristic bend suggesting that there are two different processes of crater degradation. One is rather quick and operates for craters with d/D above ~0.14 and the inner crater walls steeper than ~25o, the other, significantly slower process, operates for craters with the smaller relative depth and the gentler inner walls. The quick process with distinctive threshold is the downslope movement of the surface material by landslides and avalanches. The slow degradation without a threshold is probably contributed by crater filling by the ejecta from the near and distant craters and micrometeorite-induced diffusion creep of the regolith. These slow processes also operate on initial stage of crater degradation, but their role is minor in comparison to the quick processes. A critical evaluation of the novel method suggested by Sridharan et al. (2012) to forecast L-band scintillation is made using the results from a special campaign conducted from Trivandrum

  16. Homicide Victimization and Offense Rates by Age, Gender, Race, Relation of Victim to Offender, Weapon Used, and Circumstances, for the United States, 1976-79 and 1980-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.; Williams, Kirk R.

    This document presents 385 different homicide rates for each of two time periods (1976-1979 and 1980-1984) taken from the Comparative Homicide File (CHF) of the Supplemental Homicide Report of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the United States as a whole. The complete CHF includes these 385 rates, aggregated across separate years in these…

  17. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  18. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments. PMID:21635640

  19. Characteristics of Elderly and Other Vulnerable Adult Victims of Homicide by a Caregiver: National Violent Death Reporting System--17 U.S. States, 2003-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Debra; Nunn, Kelly Cole

    2011-01-01

    Homicides of dependent elderly and nonelderly adults by their caregivers violate trust and have long-term consequences for families. A better understanding of the characteristics of homicide by caregivers may provide insights that can inform prevention efforts. Data collected in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) between 2003 and…

  20. Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data

    PubMed Central

    Davila-Payan, Carlo; DeGuzman, Michael; Johnson, Kevin; Serban, Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interventions for pediatric obesity can be geographically targeted if high-risk populations can be identified. We developed an approach to estimate the percentage of overweight or obese children aged 2 to 17 years in small geographic areas using publicly available data. We piloted our approach for Georgia. Methods We created a logistic regression model to estimate the individual probability of high body mass index (BMI), given data on the characteristics of the survey participants. We combined the regression model with a simulation to sample subpopulations and obtain prevalence estimates. The models used information from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the 2010 Census, and the 2010 American Community Survey. We validated our results by comparing 1) estimates for adults in Georgia produced by using our approach with estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 2) estimates for children in Arkansas produced by using our approach with school examination data. We generated prevalence estimates for census tracts in Georgia and prioritized areas for interventions. Results In DeKalb County, the mean prevalence among census tracts varied from 27% to 40%. For adults, the median difference between our estimates and CDC estimates was 1.3 percentage points; for Arkansas children, the median difference between our estimates and examination-based estimates data was 1.7 percentage points. Conclusion Prevalence estimates for census tracts can be different from estimates for the county, so small-area estimates are crucial for designing effective interventions. Our approach validates well against external data, and it can be a relevant aid for planning local interventions for children. PMID:25764138

  1. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, João; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents

  2. Identification, treatment, and prevention of homicide: fallacies in research, treatment, and policy--a postscript on youth violence.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John

    2009-02-01

    This postscript conveys lessons learned from the 5 studies by Zagar and colleagues which examined risks for later commission of violence and homicide among abused, violent, and homicidal youth and adults. This set of studies is the first longitudinal data on risks for extreme violence from infancy to adulthood. The 5 articles following these studies consist of a developmental context for risks, historical comparisons of risks for delinquency, analyses of the costs and benefits of actuarial testing and treatment, and a general discussion of the legal issues related to application of testing and treatments. A review of the state of research on homicide acknowledges the many contributors to the literature and ideas underlying this overall work. Then, a set of 12 "fallacies" about violence that prevent or inhibit adoption of realistic, empirically sound approaches to the reduction of violence in society are addressed. PMID:19480220

  3. Low-income neighborhoods and the risk of severe pediatric injury: a small-area analysis in northern Manhattan.

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, M S; Davidson, L L; Kuhn, L; O'Connor, P; Barlow, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and the incidence of severe childhood injury. METHODS. Small-area analysis was used to examine socioeconomic risk factors for pediatric injury resulting in hospitalization or death in Northern Manhattan, New York, NY, during a 9-year period (1983 through 1991). RESULTS. The average annual incidence of all causes of severe pediatric injury was 72.5 per 10,000 children; the case-fatality rate was 2.6%. Census tract proportions of low-income households, single-parent families, non-high school graduates, and unemployment were significant predictors of risk for both unintentional and intentional injury. Among the socioeconomic factors considered, low income was the single most important predictor of all injuries; other socioeconomic variables were not independent contributors once income was included in the model. Compared with children living in areas with few low-income households, children in areas with predominantly low-income households were more than twice as likely to receive injuries from all causes and four and one half times as likely to receive assault injuries. The effect of neighborhood income disparities on injury risk persisted after race was controlled. CONCLUSIONS. These results illuminate the impact of socioeconomic disparities on child health and point to the need for injury prevention efforts targeting low-income neighborhoods. PMID:8154561

  4. Small-Area Estimation of the Probability of Toxocariasis in New York City Based on Sociodemographic Neighborhood Composition

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael G.; Haseeb, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is increasingly recognized as an important neglected infection of poverty (NIP) in developed countries, and may constitute the most important NIP in the United States (US) given its association with chronic sequelae such as asthma and poor cognitive development. Its potential public health burden notwithstanding, toxocariasis surveillance is minimal throughout the US and so the true burden of disease remains uncertain in many areas. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted a representative serologic survey of toxocariasis to estimate the prevalence of infection in diverse US subpopulations across different regions of the country. Using the NHANES III surveillance data, the current study applied the predicted probabilities of toxocariasis to the sociodemographic composition of New York census tracts to estimate the local probability of infection across the city. The predicted probability of toxocariasis ranged from 6% among US-born Latino women with a university education to 57% among immigrant men with less than a high school education. The predicted probability of toxocariasis exhibited marked spatial variation across the city, with particularly high infection probabilities in large sections of Queens, and smaller, more concentrated areas of Brooklyn and northern Manhattan. This investigation is the first attempt at small-area estimation of the probability surface of toxocariasis in a major US city. While this study does not define toxocariasis risk directly, it does provide a much needed tool to aid the development of toxocariasis surveillance in New York City. PMID:24918785

  5. Homicide followed by suicide: Paris and its suburbs, 1991-1996.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, D; Fornes, P

    1998-07-01

    Homicide-suicides (HS) are relatively infrequent events. Yet, they are of great concern because they often result in the death of family members, young children, and cause additional morbidity, family disruption and childhood psychological trauma. The aims of our study were (a) to examine the sociodemographic, clinical, and autopsy characteristics of HS in Paris and its suburbs from 1991 through 1996, and (b) to analyze the psychodynamic determinants leading up to the onset of HS. Our findings are compared with those obtained in other international studies. For the purpose of the present study. HS was defined as a violent event in which an individual committed homicide and subsequently committed suicide within a few hours. The main results are as follows. During the six-year study period, 56 HS involving 133 victims were investigated at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Paris. Seventeen events occurred in Paris and 39 in its suburbs. Paris has a population of approximately 2,200,000 while its suburbs are home to another 8,5000,000. Of the 56 offenders, 48 (85%) were males. The mean age of offenders was 51 years in males (range, 24 to 83) and 40.5 years in females (range, 33 to 56). In 45 events (80%), the offenders used a gun for both the homicide and suicide. A knife was used in only 4 murders, strangulation in 4 other cases, with poisoning, arson, or beating occurring in one case each. In 9 cases, the offender used a different weapon for homicide and suicide. Among firearms, handguns were more likely to be used (26 cases) than shotguns (6 cases) or rifles (13 cases). In 40 cases the offender killed one victim, in 11 cases 2 victims, and in 5 cases 3 victims. The homicide victims consisted of 34 children (21 boys), mean age 8 years (range, 1 to 16), 29 spouses (26 females), 2 girlfriends, 10 strangers, and 2 relatives. Five pets were killed. HS were most likely to be committed in the home. A suicide note was found near the victims in 29 cases (50% of events

  6. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being. PMID:22497846

  7. Policies for alcohol restriction and their association with interpersonal violence: a time-series analysis of homicides in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Álvaro I; Villaveces, Andrés; Krafty, Robert T; Park, Taeyoung; Weiss, Harold B; Fabio, Anthony; Puyana, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez, María I

    2011-01-01

    Background Cali, Colombia, has a high incidence of interpersonal violence deaths. Various alcohol control policies have been implemented to reduce alcohol-related problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether different alcohol control policies were associated with changes in the incidence rate of homicides. Methods Ecologic study conducted during 2004–08 using a time-series design. Policies were implemented with variations in hours of restriction of sales and consumption of alcohol. Most restrictive policies prohibited alcohol between 2 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 446 non-consecutive days. Moderately restrictive policies prohibited alcohol between 3 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 1277 non-consecutive days. Lax policies prohibited alcohol between 4 a.m. and 10 a.m. for 104 non-consecutive days. In conditional autoregressive negative binomial regressions, rates of homicides and unintentional injury deaths (excluding traffic events) were compared between different periods of days when different policies were in effect. Results There was an increased risk of homicides in periods when the moderately restrictive policies were in effect compared with periods when the most restrictive policies were in effect [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.15, 90% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.26, P = 0.012], and there was an even higher risk of homicides in periods when the lax policies were in effect compared with periods when the most restrictive policies were in effect (IRR 1.42, 90% CI 1.26–1.61, P < 0.001). Less restrictive policies were not associated with increased risk of unintentional injury deaths. Conclusion Extended hours of sales and consumption of alcohol were associated with increased risk of homicides. Strong restrictions on alcohol availability could reduce the incidence of interpersonal violence events in communities where homicides are high. PMID:21450681

  8. Homicide in children and adolescents: a case-control study in Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Falbo, G. H.; Buzzetti, R.; Cattaneo, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The homicide rate for children and adolescents in Recife, Brazil, mostly caused by firearms, is one of the highest that has been reported. The present case-control study was designed to identify factors that were potentially modifiable through preventive interventions. METHODS: Cases were 255 homicide victims under 20 years of age, who had died in 1997 and been identified at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Police Department, Recife, and whose relatives were interviewed by two community health workers when they claimed the corpse. The 255 controls were neighbours of the cases, paired by age and sex to them, and identified within one week of identification of each case, and whose relatives were interviewed by a third community health worker. FINDINGS: The overall homicide rate in Recife for under-20-year-olds in 1997 was 49 per 100,000; among males aged 15-19 years it was 324 per 100,000. Firearms were responsible for 97% of deaths. After multivariate logistic regression, history of personal police records (odds ratio (OR) = 18.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-182.50), use of illicit drugs (OR = 7.48; 95% CI = 1.86-30.17), tap water at home (OR = 7.30; 95% CI = 1.80-29.59), and maternal age at birth over 26 years (OR = 3.98; 95% CI = 1.79-8.84) were identified as risk factors, while higher education (OR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.11-0.43), religious practice (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10-0.65), and presence of the father in the household (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.09-0.81) were protective factors. CONCLUSION: Public health authorities should plan preventive interventions based on the findings of this study and should control the acquisition, possession and carrying of firearms. PMID:11217662

  9. Flash flood warning in mountainaious areas: using damages reports to evaluate the method at small ungauged catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrance, Dimitri; Javelle, Pierre; Ecrepont, Stéphane; Andreassian, Vazken

    2013-04-01

    In Europe, flash floods mainly occur in the Mediterranean area on small catchments with a short concentration time. Anticipating this kind of events is a major issue in order to reduce the resulting damages. But for many of the impacted catchments, no data are available to calibrate and evaluate hydrological models. In this context, the aims of this study is to develop and evaluate a warning method for the Southern French Alps. This area is of particular interest, because it regroups different hydrological regimes, from purely Mediterranean to purely Alpine influences. Two main issues should be addressed: - How to define the hydrological model and its parameterization for an application in an ungauged context? - How to evaluate the final results on 'real' ungauged catchments? The first issue is a classic one. Using a 'observed' data set (154 streamflow stations with catchment areas ranging from 5 to 1000 km² and distributed rainfall available on the 1997-2006 period), we developed a regional model specifically for the studied area. For this purpose, the AIGA method, initially developed for Mediterranean catchments was adapted, in order to take into account snowmelt and to produce baseflows. Then, different parameterizations were tested, derived from different simple regionalisation techniques: - the same parameters set for the whole area defined as the median of the local calibrated parameters; - the same technique as the previous case, but by considering different sub-areas, defined as "hydro-climatically" homogeneous by previous studies; - and finally the neighbour's method. The second issue is more original. Indeed, in most studies the final evaluation is done using gauged stations as they were 'ungauged', ie keeping the at-site discharge data only for validation ant not for calibration. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the evaluation is made at the scale of the gauged catchments, which are in general greater than the catchments impacted by flash

  10. [Formation of a "crow's foot pattern" in the smoke residue in homicide by forehead gunshot injury].

    PubMed

    Hochmeister, M; Dirnhofer, R

    1989-01-01

    We report a "crowsfoot-like" pattern in the smoke marks around the entrance of a close-range bullet wound in the center of the forehead; the weapon in this homicide was a revolver. This pattern only occurs if the facial muscles that form expression are completely contracted at the moment the shooting occurs and if the victim expects the event. The wrinkles gather around the entrance of the bullet, and this wound pattern may indicate that the shot was expected by the victim and represent a piece of the mosaic that might help clarify the circumstances in a case. PMID:2800733

  11. The Welfare Cost of Homicides in Brazil: Accounting for Heterogeneity in the Willingness to Pay for Mortality Reductions.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Daniel; Soares, Rodrigo R

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates the health dimension of the welfare cost of homicides in Brazil incorporating age, gender, educational, and regional heterogeneities. We use a marginal willingness to pay approach to assign monetary values to the welfare cost of increased mortality due to violence. Results indicate that the present discounted value of the welfare cost of homicides in Brazil corresponds to roughly 78% of the GDP or, in terms of yearly flow, 2.3%. The analysis also shows that reliance on aggregate data to perform such calculations can lead to biases of around 20% in the estimated social cost of violence. PMID:25523020

  12. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords

    PubMed Central

    Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA. PMID:27505009

  13. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    PubMed

    Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA. PMID:27505009

  14. An asset-based approach to vulnerability: the case of small-scale fishing areas in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chiwaula, Levison S; Witt, Rudolf; Waibel, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses vulnerability to poverty of rural small-scale fishing communities using cross-section data from 295 households in Cameroon and 267 in Nigeria. We propose a vulnerability measure that incorporates the idea of asset poverty into the concept of expected poverty, which allows decomposing expected poverty into expected structural-chronic, structural-transient, and stochastic-transient poverty. The findings show that most households in our study areas are expected to be structurally-chronic and structurally-transient poor. This underlines the importance of asset formation for long-term poverty reduction strategies. Further refinements are possible with longitudinal data and information about future states of nature. PMID:21506304

  15. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    PubMed

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  16. Inventory compilation and distribution of heavy metals in wastewater from small-scale industrial areas of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Manju; Moturi, Mechah Charles Zuriels; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan

    2003-12-01

    Delhi has the highest cluster of small-scale industries (SSI) in India. There are generally less stringent rules for the treatment of waste in SSI due to less waste generation within each individual industry. This results in SSI disposing of their wastewater untreated into drains and subsequently into the river Yamuna, which is a major source of potable water in Delhi, thus posing a potential health and environmental risk to the people living in Delhi and downstream. To study the quantity, quality and distribution of heavy metals in liquid waste from industrial areas, wastewater, suspended materials and bed sediments were collected from industrial areas and from the river Yamuna in Delhi. This study has also focused on the efficiency of production processes in small-scale industries in India. Heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Co and Pb were detected using a GBC 902 atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentration of heavy metals observed was as follows: Fe 2-212, Mn 0.3-39, Cu 0.2-20, Zn 0.2-5, Ni 0.6-6, Cr 0.2-53, Cd 0.08-0.2, Co 0.013-0.55, Pb 0.3-0.7 mg L(-1) in wastewater; Fe 5842-78 000, Mn 585-10 889, Cu 206-7201, Zn 406-9000, Ni 22-3621, Cr 178-10 533, Co 17-114, Cd 13-141, Pb 67-50 171 mg kg(-1) in suspended material; and Fe 3000-84000, Mn 479-1230, Cu 378-8127, Zn 647-4010, Ni 164-1582, Cr 139-3281, Co 20-54, Cd 37-65, Pb 228-293 mg kg(-1) in bed residues. This indicates that SSI could be one of the point sources of metals pollution in the river system. PMID:14710931

  17. Cooperation strengthens small hospital libraries in a rural area of New England: a five-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Sekerak, R J

    1979-01-01

    Before 1970, library facilities and services at the small hospitals in rural Vermont were essentially nonexistent. Similar findings were later encountered along the Connecticut River in New Hampshire and in a small area of upstate New York. The Hospital Library Development Services program was established at the University of Vermont's Dana Medical Library to improve these conditions. Financial assistance was received from the National Library of Medicine, and by the end of 1974, thirty-three hospitals had staffed libraries. Earlier that year it has been decided to begin emphasing cooperation among the developing libraries, including the production of union lists and regular meetings of staff members from geographically proximate hospital libaries to plan and implement various activities. An additional one-year award from NLM was received in 1975. Results achieved during and after the period of grant support are reported. Cooperation among hospital libraries is seen as a feasible and beneficial undertaking provided that the participating libraries are internally supported and developing. PMID:476320

  18. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y.

    2014-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm2. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/-0.28 LSB and 0.29/-0.20 LSB, respectively.

  19. Estimation of unemployment rates using small area estimation model by combining time series and cross-sectional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchlisoh, Siti; Kurnia, Anang; Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Mangku, I. Wayan

    2016-02-01

    Labor force surveys conducted over time by the rotating panel design have been carried out in many countries, including Indonesia. Labor force survey in Indonesia is regularly conducted by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS) and has been known as the National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). The main purpose of Sakernas is to obtain information about unemployment rates and its changes over time. Sakernas is a quarterly survey. The quarterly survey is designed only for estimating the parameters at the provincial level. The quarterly unemployment rate published by BPS (official statistics) is calculated based on only cross-sectional methods, despite the fact that the data is collected under rotating panel design. The study purpose to estimate a quarterly unemployment rate at the district level used small area estimation (SAE) model by combining time series and cross-sectional data. The study focused on the application and comparison between the Rao-Yu model and dynamic model in context estimating the unemployment rate based on a rotating panel survey. The goodness of fit of both models was almost similar. Both models produced an almost similar estimation and better than direct estimation, but the dynamic model was more capable than the Rao-Yu model to capture a heterogeneity across area, although it was reduced over time.

  20. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI. PMID:22720600