Science.gov

Sample records for small arms range

  1. JOINT SMALL-ARMS RANGE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) demonstration conducted by the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and the Army Environmental Center (AEC) removed lead and other heavy metals from small-arms range soils by a combination of phys...

  2. SHOCK-ABSORBING CONCRETE (SACON) BULLET TRAPS FOR SMALL ARMS RANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small-arms training is a requirement in all branches of the military. Over 1,800 active military outdoor small-arms training ranges are operated in the United States. In a typical year, small-arms training activities consume over 300 million rounds and add between 1 and 2 million...

  3. Credit BG. View looks southwest (246°) across Small Arms Range. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looks southwest (246°) across Small Arms Range. Structure at extreme left is Building 4493 (Gymnasium), located in the secured area around Building 4505 - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Small Arms Range, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Lead accumulation in woodchucks (Marmota monax) at small arms and skeet ranges.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Major, Michael A; Casteel, Stan W

    2004-10-01

    Increasing concern regarding the stewardship of US Army lands requires a proactive program to evaluate sites of potential risk. Small arms and upland skeet ranges are a potentially significant source of lead exposure for burrowing mammals. Woodchucks (Marmota monax) were evaluated for lead exposure in a previously used upland skeet range and a small arms range, respective to animals collected at two nearby reference locations. Soil lead concentrations collected at burrow entrances on the firing ranges were compared with blood, bone, kidney, liver, and fecal concentrations of woodchucks collected from the reference areas. No statistical differences were found in the lead concentrations in tissue between woodchucks in reference and firing ranges; concentrations of lead in liver and kidney were below detection limits. Levels in bone, blood, and feces suggest the bioavailability of lead at these various sites, although other factors (e.g., differences in foraging areas, age structure, habitat preferences, and environmental conditions) were also likely to influence exposure. Blood levels were below that which suggests toxicity. Further analysis of other ranges with higher lead concentrations and of small mammal species with smaller home ranges is recommended to further elucidate trends that could be extrapolated to other sites. PMID:15327881

  5. Acoustic ranging of small arms fire using a single sensor node collocated with the target.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W; Ferguson, Brian G

    2015-06-01

    A ballistic model-based method, which builds upon previous work by Lo and Ferguson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2997-3017 (2012)], is described for ranging small arms fire using a single acoustic sensor node collocated with the target, without a priori knowledge of the muzzle speed and ballistic constant of the bullet except that they belong to a known two-dimensional parameter space. The method requires measurements of the differential time of arrival and differential angle of arrival of the muzzle blast and ballistic shock wave at the sensor node. Its performance is evaluated using both simulated and real data. PMID:26093450

  6. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  11. Lead retention by broiler litter biochars in small arms range soil: impact of pyrolysis temperature.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M; Klasson, K Thomas

    2012-05-23

    Phosphorus-rich manure biochar has a potential for stabilizing Pb and other heavy metal contaminants, as well as serving as a sterile fertilizer. In this study, broiler litter biochars produced at 350 and 650 °C were employed to understand how biochar's elemental composition (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn) affects the extent of heavy metal stabilization. Soil incubation experiments were conducted using a sandy, slightly acidic (pH 6.11) Pb-contaminated (19906 mg kg(-1) total Pb primarily as PbCO(3)) small arms range (SAR) soil fraction (<250 μm) amended with 2-20 wt % biochar. The Pb stabilization in pH 4.9 acetate buffer reached maximum at lower (2-10 wt %) biochar amendment rate, and 350 °C biochar containing more soluble P was better able to stabilize Pb than the 650 °C biochar. The 350 °C biochar consistently released greater amounts of P, K, Mg, Na, and Ca than 650 °C biochar in both unbuffered (pH 4.5 sulfuric acid) and buffered (pH 4.9 acetate) systems, despite 1.9-4.5-fold greater total content of the 650 °C biochar. Biochars, however, did not influence the total extractable Pb over three consecutive equilibration periods consisting of (1) 1 week in pH 4.5 sulfuric acid (simulated leaching by rainfall), (2) 1 week in pH 4.9 acetate buffer (standard solution for toxicity characteristic leaching procedure), and (3) 1 h in pH 1.5 glycine at 37 °C (in vitro bioaccessibility procedure). Overall, lower pyrolysis temperature was favorable for stabilizing Pb (major risk driver of SAR soils) and releasing P, K, Ca, and other plant nutrients in a sandy acidic soil. PMID:22548418

  12. Retention of heavy metals by carboxyl functional groups of biochars in small arms range soil.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2012-02-22

    Long-term effectiveness of biochar for heavy metal stabilization depends upon biochar's sorptive property and recalcitrance in soil. To understand the role of carboxyl functional groups on heavy metal stabilization, cottonseed hull biochar and flax shive steam-activated biochar having a low O/C ratio (0.04-0.06) and high fixed carbon content (~80% dry weight basis) were oxidized using concentrated H(2)SO(4)/HNO(3) and 30% HNO(3). Oxidized and unoxidized biochars were characterized for O/C ratio, total acidity, pH, moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectral features. Characterized biochars were amended (2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% in grams of biochar per gram of soil) on a sandy, slightly acidic (pH 6.27) heavy metal contaminated small arms range soil fraction (<250 μm) having low total organic carbon (0.518%) and low cation exchange capacity (0.95 cmol(c) kg(-1)). Oxidized biochars rich in carboxyl functional groups exhibited significantly greater Pb, Cu, and Zn stabilization ability compared to unoxidized biochars, especially in pH 4.9 acetate buffer (standard solution for the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure). Oppositely, only oxidized biochars caused desorption of Sb, indicating a counteracting impact of carboxyl functional groups on the solubility of anions and cations. The results suggested that appropriate selection of biochar oxidant will produce recalcitrant biochars rich in carboxyl functional groups for a long-term heavy metal stabilization strategy in contaminated soils. PMID:22280497

  13. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  14. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  15. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  16. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  17. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  18. Passive ranging errors due to multipath distortion of deterministic transient signals with application to the localization of small arms fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Brian G.; Lo, Kam W.

    2002-01-01

    A passive ranging technique based on wavefront curvature is used to estimate the ranges and bearings of impulsive sound sources represented by small arms fire. The discharge of a firearm results in the generation of a transient acoustic signal whose energy propagates radially outwards from the omnidirectional source. The radius of curvature of the spherical wavefront at any instant is equal to the instantaneous range from the source. The curvature of the acoustic wavefront is sensed with a three-microphone linear array by first estimating the differential time of arrival (or time delay) of the acoustic wavefront at each of the two adjacent sensor pairs and then processing the time-delay information to extract the range and bearing of the source. However, modeling the passive ranging performance of the wavefront curvature method for a deterministic transient signal source in a multipath environment shows that when the multipath and direct path arrivals are unresolvable, the time-delay estimates are biased which, in turn, biases the range estimates. The model explains the observed under-ranging of small arms firing positions during a field experiment.

  19. Passive ranging errors due to multipath distortion of deterministic transient signals with application to the localization of small arms fire.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brian G; Lo, Kam W

    2002-01-01

    A passive ranging technique based on wavefront curvature is used to estimate the ranges and bearings of impulsive sound sources represented by small arms fire. The discharge of a firearm results in the generation of a transient acoustic signal whose energy propagates radially outwards from the omnidirectional source. The radius of curvature of the spherical wavefront at any instant is equal to the instantaneous range from the source. The curvature of the acoustic wavefront is sensed with a three-microphone linear array by first estimating the differential time of arrival (or time delay) of the acoustic wavefront at each of the two adjacent sensor pairs and then processing the time-delay information to extract the range and bearing of the source. However, modeling the passive ranging performance of the wavefront curvature method for a deterministic transient signal source in a multipath environment shows that when the multipath and direct path arrivals are unresolvable, the time-delay estimates are biased which, in turn, biases the range estimates. The model explains the observed under-ranging of small arms firing positions during a field experiment. PMID:11831787

  20. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  1. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  2. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  3. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  4. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  5. The use of field methods to evaluate the toxicity of lead to plants at a small arms firing range

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Meredith, R.W.; Griffin, D.; Laughlin, T.; Collins, W.

    1998-12-31

    The beach dunes at Fort Ord, California, were historically used as small arms firing ranges, resulting in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of lead in soil. The form of the lead, and thus its bioavailability, is important in assessing associated ecological risks at firing ranges. Of particular interest at the beach firing ranges at Fort Ord are two species of buckwheat plants that provide habitat for an endangered butterfly. Initially, lead concentrations in soil and plant chaff were measured and root elongation bioassays were conducted. A linear correlation between lead in soil and lead in plant chaff was observed. However, the results of the bioassays were highly variable with no clear dose response pattern. Additional field studies were conducted to (1) further characterize lead concentrations in soil and plant tissue and (2) evaluate associations between soil lead concentrations and plant morphometric-variables. A relationship between soil and tissue lead concentrations was demonstrated. No significant associations between soil lead levels and plant health/condition were detected. Significant associations were observed between plant health/condition and factors other than lead.

  6. Small arms ammunition

    DOEpatents

    Huerta, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

  7. Characterization and metal availability of copper, lead, antimony and zinc contamination at four Canadian small arms firing ranges.

    PubMed

    Laporte-Saumure, Mathieu; Martel, Richard; Mercier, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Backstop soils of four small-arms firing ranges (SAFRs) of the Canadian Force Bases (CFBs) were characterized in terms of their total soil Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations, grain size distribution, mineralogy, chemical properties, vertical in-depth contamination distribution (for one CFB), and scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) characterization. Metal availability from the soils was evaluated with three leaching tests: the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), representing a landfill leachate; the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), representing field conditions; and the gastric juice simulation test (GJST), representing the leachate of the human stomach during the digestive process and, therefore, the potential metal transfer to humans in the case of soil ingestion. Metal analyses of soils and leaching test extracts were conducted with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) instrument. Total soil results showed maximal concentrations of 27,100 mg/kg for Pb, 7720 mg/kg for Cu, 1080 mg/kg for Zn, and 570 mg/kg for Sb. The SEM-EDS analysis showed significant amounts of lead carbonates, which resulted from the alteration of the initial metallic Pb particles. Metal availability evaluation with the leaching tests showed that TCLP Pb and Sb thresholds were exceeded. For the SPLP and the GJST, the drinking water thresholds of the Ministère du Développement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Pares (MDDEP) of Quebec were exceeded by Pb and Sb. The metal availability assessment showed that SAFR backstop soils may pose a potential risk to the environment, groundwater and humans, and affect the management of such soils in order to minimize potential metal dispersion in the environment. PMID:21879552

  8. Assessment of concentrations of trace elements in ground water and soil at the Small-Arms Firing Range, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from four shallow water-table aquifer observation wells beneath the Small-Arms Firing Range study area at Shaw Air Force Base. Water-chemistry analyses indicated that total lead concentrations in shallow ground water beneath the study area do not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level established for lead in drinking water (0.05 milligrams per liter). All other trace element total concentrations in ground water beneath the study area were at or below the detection limit of the analytical methodology.

  9. Holographic gunsights for small arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Anthony M.; Sieczka, Eric J.; Radler, Richard; Upatnieks, Juris

    1996-05-01

    Holographic gunsights were first demonstrated in the mid 1970s by researchers at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) under contracts with the Air Force and the Army. The sights utilized He-Ne gas lasers and were designed for use with large weapons systems. With the advent of low cost visible laser diode, ERIM formed a new company, EOTech, to develop, manufacture and market a holographic gun sight for small arms. A hologram is used to reconstruct the image of a reticle pattern that appears at the target plane. Unlike red-dot sights, virtually any reticle pattern, 2D or 3D, can be formed. The design challenges include an opto-mechanical package that is compact, light weight and low cost which can withstand recoils up to 4,000 Gs and provide fine elevation/windage pointing adjustments, and optics that are aberration-free and stable over a wide temperature range. Manufacturing challenges include the mass production of high quality holographic optics at low cost and the precision alignment of the very low f/number optics.

  10. Use of sorbents for purification of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from small arms shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Ljønes, Marita; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2012-12-01

    Different sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb in drainage water from a shooting range. The sorbents tested were: Brimac(®) charcoal, olivine mixed with elemental iron powder, magnetite and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 84%, 66%, 85% with Brimac(®) charcoal and 58%, 78% and 69% with Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. Good sorption of Cu and Pb was achieved using olivine with 5% elemental Fe powder, which resulted in a sorption of 81% and 87%, respectively. The Fe-olivine filters were less efficient in reducing the concentration of Sb, but increasing the Fe content improved Sb sorption. In periods with high concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb in the creek, such as during precipitation, the sorbent efficacy improved. This might be due to changes in the physico-chemical form of the metals, or to a higher fraction of elements being physically retained in the form of particles or colloids. PMID:23122729

  11. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2015-03-01

    Metals and metalloids from ammunition residues at small arms shooting ranges leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. To reduce the potential impact of heavy metal on the environment a field study was performed with different sorbents in order to reduce the metal concentration in polluted water from a shooting range. Two sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb: Brimac(®) charcoal and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 85%, 65%, and 88% respectively when using the charcoal and 60%, 85% and 92% respectively with the iron hydroxide. Even better sorption of the elements was achieved when the two sorbents were combined in order to increase their selectivity. The best results were achieved in the filter in which the water percolated the charcoal first and the iron hydroxide last, with a mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb of 89%, 90% and 93% respectively. This preparation gave a significant better sorption of Cu compared to the filter in which the water percolated the iron hydroxide first and the charcoal last. The different effect between the two filters may be due to pH, since charcoal has alkaline properties and iron hydroxide has acidic properties. For large scale experiments or in filter devices we therefore recommend use of a combination of different reactive sorbents. PMID:25527987

  12. Small Arms Marksmanship Manual, NAVPERS 93863.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Navy's small arms marksmanship training program is designed to achieve proficiency for Navy personnel in handling the rifle, pistol andshotgun. The minimum objective of this program is to qualify Navy personnel as "Marksman," and ensure that personnel who are issued small arms for security, recreation, or competitions are fully qualified in…

  13. Identification of propellants of small arms ammunition.

    PubMed

    Nag, N K; Sengupta, D

    1987-02-01

    Existing methods seem inadequate to identify propellants of small arms ammunition. The present article describes that viscosity may be effectively used to differentiate and identify those. The temperature dependence, intra- and inter-batch variation and storage effect of propellants were studied. PMID:3557244

  14. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army...

  15. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army...

  16. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army...

  17. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  18. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  19. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7702-1 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms... Operations in Afghanistan 225.7702-1 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Afghanistan, the Afghani...

  1. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7702-1 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms... Operations in Afghanistan 225.7702-1 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Afghanistan, the Afghani...

  3. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has...

  4. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has been..., rail car, vessel, or cargo-only aircraft, subject to the following conditions: (a) The powder must...

  5. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in..., rail freight, and cargo vessel only, subject to the following conditions: (a) The powder must...

  6. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in..., rail freight, and cargo vessel only, subject to the following conditions: (a) The powder must...

  7. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has been..., rail car, vessel, or cargo-only aircraft, subject to the following conditions: (a) The powder must...

  8. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Powders that have been classed in Division 1.3...

  9. 114. SMALL ARMS (BUILDINGS 9798) AND INERT STOREHOUSE (BLDGS. 1031040) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. SMALL ARMS (BUILDINGS 97-98) AND INERT STOREHOUSE (BLDGS. 103-1040) PLAN AND ELEVATIONS, FULLER/SCOTT, MARCH 15, 1941. QP ACC 1791. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  10. A dynamic model for generating actuator specifications for small arms barrel active stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Lavigna, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Due to stresses encountered in combat, it is known that soldier marksmanship noticeably decreases regardless of prior training. Active stabilization systems in small arms have potential to address this problem to increase soldier survivability and mission effectiveness. The key to success is proper actuator design, but this is highly dependent on proper specification which is challenging due to the human/weapon interaction. This paper presents a generic analytical dynamic model which is capable of defining the necessary actuation specifications for a wide range of small arms platforms. The model is unique because it captures the human interface--shoulder and arm--that introduces the jitter disturbance in addition to the geometry, inertial properties and active stabilization stiffness of the small arms platform. Because no data to date is available for actual shooter-induced disturbance in field conditions, a method is given using the model to back-solve from measured shooting range variability data the disturbance amplitude information relative to the input source (arm or shoulder). As examples of the applicability of the model to various small arms systems, two different weapon systems were investigated: the M24 sniper weapon and the M16 assault rifle. In both cases, model based simulations provided valuable insight into impact on the actuation specifications (force, displacement, phase, frequency) due to the interplay of the human-weapon-active stabilization interface including the effect of shooter-disturbance frequency, disturbance location (shoulder vs. arm), and system parameters (stiffness, barrel rotation).

  11. Precision guided firearms: disruptive small arms technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Bret; Lupher, John

    2013-05-01

    Precision Guided Firearms (PGFs) employ target tracking, a Heads-Up Display, and advanced fire control technology to amplify shooting precision at long range by eliminating the most common sources of shooter error, including aim, trigger jerk, and shot setup miscalculation. Regardless of skill level or experience, PGFs significantly increase first shot success probability when compared to traditional technology, even at extreme ranges of 1,200 yards or more. More than just a scope, PGFs are fully integrated systems based on standard caliber bolt action or semi-automatic rifles with a Networked Tracking Scope, Guided Trigger and precision conventional ammunition. Onboard wireless technology allows PGFs to connect with local and wide area networks to deliver voice, video and data to mobile devices and various communication networks. These technologies allow shooters to be more accurate, engage multiple targets at unknown ranges quickly, track and engage moving targets, and communicate via command and control networks.

  12. DECOMMISSIONING AND ENVRIONMENTAL CLEANUP OF SMALL ARMS TRAINING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetz, T.

    2012-12-04

    USDOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  13. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  14. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  15. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  16. Arm pain in the workplace. A small area analysis.

    PubMed

    Hadler, N M

    1992-02-01

    In the mid-1980s, use-related arm pain was recognized as a major issue for worker health and workplace safety. National policy targeted these "cumulative trauma disorders," "overuse syndromes," and "motion illnesses" for a "special emphasis program" by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a federal regulatory agency. The program begins with case recognition to identify the responsible ergonomic hazards with the goal of mandating ergonomic remedies. This report is a small area analysis of the impact of this process on the US West Communications, Inc work force. US West employs some 55,000 workers in 14 states. Commencing in the mid-1980s, workers in four of these states complained of upper extremity pain and were diagnosed as suffering from conditions encompassed by the "cumulative trauma disorders" rubric. The incidence was tenfold higher in one task category, directory assistance operators. No ergonomic descriptor can account for the four endemics of arm pain in directory assistance operators. The response of the medical communities to the plight of these injured claimants varied considerably from community to community. Denver represents one extreme where the clinical judgments led to multiple surgical interventions, generated a total direct cost of some $1.5 million, and left many permanently disabled workers in their wake. This analysis raises many reservations about the validity of the "cumulative trauma disorder" hypothesis and provides an object lesson in the potential for untoward outcomes from the premature introduction of clinical hypotheses into the arena of health policy. PMID:1597765

  17. Evaluation of small arms noise in a natural soundscape-Bear Butte, SD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braslau, David

    2005-09-01

    Most studies on soundscape intrusion have been limited to moving sources. Of less concern is noise from small arms. Potential impact was predicted from a proposed large small arms facility with 10000 rounds or more per day on the natural soundscape at Bear Butte, one of the most sacred sites of the Northern Cheyenne and other tribes. The primary impacted activity is meditation and oneness with the natural environment that can continue for several days through day and night. Non-natural sources included limited vehicles on a nearby highway and farm equipment, but few aircraft. Second-by-second ambient octave band readings were taken at 20 sites starting before sunrise. The minimum ambient level observed was 19.6 dBA but limits were encountered with a 1/2 in. microphone. Sound level data on small arms were projected from the proposed range four miles north of Bear Butte to elevated points on the Butte assuming a zero wind environment. Impact was evaluated using audibility, intrusiveness and impulse-weighted DNL. Projected levels were well above ambient. While the DNL was projected to increase by 15 dBA, this metric has little meaning for this type of activity. Assumptions related to outdoor sound propagation, audibility and impulsive noise perception are discussed.

  18. Unequal-Arm Interferometry and Ranging in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-traveltimes will necessarily be unequal, time-varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up- and down-links. By using knowledge of the inter-spacecraft light-travel-times and their time evolution it is possible to cancel in post-processing the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and obtain a variety of interferometric data combinations sensitive to gravitational radiation. This technique, which has been named Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI), can be implemented with constellations of three or more formation-flying spacecraft that coherently track each other. As an example application we consider the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission and show that TDI combinations can be synthesized by properly time-shifting and linearly combining the phase measurements performed on board the three spacecraft. Since TDI exactly suppresses the laser noises when the delays coincide with the light-travel-times, we then show that TDI can also be used for estimating the time-delays needed for its implementation. This is done by performing a post-processing non-linear minimization procedure, which provides an effective, powerful, and simple way for making measurements of the inter-spacecraft light-travel-times. This processing technique, named Time-Delay Interferometric Ranging (TDIR), is highly accurate in estimating the time-delays and allows TDI to be successfully implemented without the need of a dedicated ranging subsystem.

  19. Tracking illicit small arms trafficking: implementation of Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) to small arms and light weapons imports and exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-09-01

    The illicit trafficking in small arms is an international problem with grave consequences to those who live in less developed nations. To stop any form of trafficking it is important to ensure the ability to track weapons to their sources, there must be a common international system for the marking and tracing of weapons. Under current international law, states may adopt various different weapons marking systems, complicating the identification of the country-of-origin of a weapon [1]. However, these marking technologies are only good for those firearms that are recovered or captured. By instituting Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) a technology that provides a link to a serial or production build number, by embossing the IFM code on to the cartridge that is fired and ejected at the scene. IFM will provide critical forensic intelligence in regions of conflict by helping to identify patterns, trafficking routes and ultimately shut down illicit arms sources and markets that fuel the violence associated with regional genocide, terrorism and/or insurgency groups within warzones. Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) technology will provide a rapid and accurate cartridge-to-firearm identification process, enabling law enforcement both national and international to quickly pursue international arms dealers and other illicit firearm markets. Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The IFM tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the intentional firearm microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need

  20. A demonstration of arm-locking for LISA using the GRACE-FO Laser Ranging Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Ira; McKenzie, Kirk; Sutton, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The mitigation of laser frequency noise is a key challenge for the design of space-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and its derivatives. Arm locking is novel technique of stabilizing the laser frequency using the LISA arms that has been studied through simulations and in the laboratory. The Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) on the upcoming GRACE-FO geodesy mission provides an opportunity to perform an on-orbit demonstration of arm-locking in a configuration that is representative of LISA in many aspects. In this talk, I will describe a potential arm-locking experiment for GRACE-FO and present preliminary results from time-domain simulations being used to refine the proposed experiment design.

  1. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  6. SWAD: small arms fire warning and direction finding system: a passive IR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahler, Moti; Danino, Meir

    2007-04-01

    A passive IR approach for stationary system is introduced providing protection to high value infrastructure and strategic areas by detecting and warnings against fire shot from rifles, carbines, sub-machines and various other small arms - SWAD. SWAD provides protected surroundings in which it remotely detects small arms fire. By analyzing their patterns, including duration and intensity, SWAD classifies the type of weapon being used.

  7. Arm locking with the GRACE follow-on laser ranging interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, James Ira; McKenzie, Kirk

    2016-02-01

    Arm locking is a technique for stabilizing the frequency of a laser in an interspacecraft interferometer by using the spacecraft separation as the frequency reference. A candidate technique for future space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, arm locking has been extensive studied in this context through analytic models, time-domain simulations, and hardware-in-the-loop laboratory demonstrations. In this paper we show the laser ranging interferometer instrument flying aboard the upcoming Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment follow-on (GRACE-FO) mission provides an appropriate platform for an on-orbit demonstration of the arm-locking technique. We describe an arm-locking controller design for the GRACE-FO system and a series of time-domain simulations that demonstrate its feasibility. We conclude that it is possible to achieve laser frequency noise suppression of roughly 2 orders of magnitude around a Fourier frequency of 1 Hz with conservative margins on the system's stability. We further demonstrate that "pulling" of the master laser frequency due to fluctuating Doppler shifts and lock acquisition transients is less than 100 MHz over several GRACE-FO orbits. These findings motivate further study of the implementation of such a demonstration.

  8. Non-intrusive measurement of inner bore temperature of small arms using integrated ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévesque, D.; Pimentel, R.; Lord, M.; Beauchesne, A.; Kruger, S. E.; Stowe, R.; Wong, F.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Management of thermal input to a small arms weapons system is a significant design and operational constraint. A collaborative project was initiated with the objective to measure non-intrusively the inner bore barrel temperature of a small arm during actual firing. The approach uses integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs) and the velocity temperature dependence of the longitudinal wave propagating through thickness. IUT is successfully implemented on a small arm at 3 locations and results from several firing tests are presented. The small but systematic increase in ultrasonic time delay of less than 1 ns after each firing shot is reliably measured, in agreement with a simple 1D model of heat conduction, and measured temperature rises are consistent with the thicknesses at the different locations. The evaluation of the peak inner bore temperatures using IUT and their validation using eroding surface thermocouples at the same locations in the barrel are discussed.

  9. Tracking illegal small arms traffic across U.S. borders through the implementation of firearm microstamping to small arms and small arms exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-05-01

    At a border security conference in August 2008, Michael Sullivan, acting director of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives stated that, "Nearly all illegal firearms (90% to 95%) seized in Mexico come from the United States"[1]. When firearms are recovered at a crime scene, the firearms can be traced providing specific details on illegal firearm dealers or straw purchasers within the United States. Criminals or narco terrorist groups target US dealers to source firearms for drug cartels in Mexico and South America. Joint law enforcement programs between the US and Mexico law enforcement have been effective, however, in most cases the firearms that are seized are only a small fraction of the firearms trafficked across the United States border. A technology called Microstamping, when applied to newly manufactured firearms will provide further opportunities for tracing illegal firearms for law enforcement in the United States and across the globe. Microstamping is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The intentional tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the Microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need to recover that firearm. Microstamping provides critical intelligence for use in border security operations and cross border violent drug related crime investigations. This paper will explain the key attributes of microstamping technology; including its potential benefits in border security operations and how data gathered from the technique can be used in geospatial information systems to identify illicit firearm sources

  10. A method of approximating range size of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    In summary, trap success trends appear to provide a useful approximation to range size of easily trapped small mammals such as Peromyscus. The scale of measurement can be adjusted as desired. Further explorations of the usefulness of the plan should be made and modifications possibly developed before adoption.

  11. Small arms video sight for the "German Army Soldier-of-the-Future Program": lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledertheil, Bernd H.; Berlips, Carsten; Ohlmann, Marco

    2009-05-01

    The Small Arms Video Sight is part of the optronical sights developed for the German IdZ-ES program (German Army Soldier-of-the Future Program - Enhanced System) [1]. The aim of the development was to use this highly integrated sight on three different rifles (G36 = the assault rifle of the German soldier optional with a 40mm underslung grenade launcher, MG 4 = a light machine gun , PZF3 = a 60mm / 110mm bazooka). The Video Sight will be used for observation, target detection, recognition and identification, direct and indirect aiming and shooting with ballistic calculation and aiming mark correction, still and video picture capturing and wireless transmission, determination of a located target position by distance and angle to the own position and so on. To perform all these tasks the Video Sight is equipped with an uncooled IR and a CCD camera, a laser range finder, a digital compass, angle sensors, electronic display, all this sensors highly integrated and controlled by an operating system.

  12. Decommissioning and Environmental Cleanup of a Small Arms Training Facility - 13225

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Karen M.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Smith, Sandra B.; Blount, Gerald C.

    2013-07-01

    US DOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  13. Small long-range alpha detector (LRAD) with computer readout

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1991-10-01

    The small long-range alpha detector developed by N-2 was described in detail in the Los Alamos publication LA-12073-MS, Long-Range Alpha Detector,'' published in 1991. Since publication of that report, a computerized data acquisition system has been added to the LRAD detector. In addition to detailing the new data acquisition system, we discuss new data generated with the enhanced system, including measurements of (1) ultimate sensitivity; (2) detector linearity; (3) ion lifetime; and (4) characteristics. Furthermore, we have expanded our understanding of ion recombination and statistical noise effects in the LRAD and have addressed them here as well as several proposed applications. 6 refs., 30 figs.

  14. A Comparison of Model Short-Range Forecasts and the ARM Microbase Data Fourth Quarter ARM Science Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, J.

    2006-09-19

    For the fourth quarter ARM metric we will make use of new liquid water data that has become available, and called the “Microbase” value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both TWP and NSA. The Microbase data have been averaged to 35 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  15. Soldiers and marksmen under fire: monitoring performance with neural correlates of small arms fire localization.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Jason; Gaston, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Important decisions in the heat of battle occur rapidly and a key aptitude of a good combat soldier is the ability to determine whether he is under fire. This rapid decision requires the soldier to make a judgment in a fraction of a second, based on a barrage of multisensory cues coming from multiple modalities. The present study uses an oddball paradigm to examine listener ability to differentiate shooter locations from audio recordings of small arms fire. More importantly, we address the neural correlates involved in this rapid decision process by employing single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG). In particular, we examine small arms expert listeners as they differentiate the sounds of small arms firing events recorded at different observer positions relative to a shooter. Using signal detection theory, we find clear neural signatures related to shooter firing angle by identifying the times of neural discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Similar to previous results in oddball experiments, we find common windows relative to the response and the stimulus when neural activity discriminates between target stimuli (forward fire: observer 0° to firing angle) vs. standards (off-axis fire: observer 90° to firing angle). We also find, using windows of maximum discrimination, that auditory target vs. standard discrimination yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 19 (BA 19), i.e., in the visual cortex. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative scalp distributions and source current localization of discriminating activity when the small arms experts discriminate between forward and off-axis fire observer positions. Furthermore, this perceptual decision implicates brain regions involved in visual processing, even though the task is purely auditory. Finally, we utilize these techniques to quantify the level of expertise in these subjects for the chosen task, having implications for human performance monitoring in combat. PMID

  16. Soldiers and marksmen under fire: monitoring performance with neural correlates of small arms fire localization

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Jason; Gaston, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Important decisions in the heat of battle occur rapidly and a key aptitude of a good combat soldier is the ability to determine whether he is under fire. This rapid decision requires the soldier to make a judgment in a fraction of a second, based on a barrage of multisensory cues coming from multiple modalities. The present study uses an oddball paradigm to examine listener ability to differentiate shooter locations from audio recordings of small arms fire. More importantly, we address the neural correlates involved in this rapid decision process by employing single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG). In particular, we examine small arms expert listeners as they differentiate the sounds of small arms firing events recorded at different observer positions relative to a shooter. Using signal detection theory, we find clear neural signatures related to shooter firing angle by identifying the times of neural discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Similar to previous results in oddball experiments, we find common windows relative to the response and the stimulus when neural activity discriminates between target stimuli (forward fire: observer 0° to firing angle) vs. standards (off-axis fire: observer 90° to firing angle). We also find, using windows of maximum discrimination, that auditory target vs. standard discrimination yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 19 (BA 19), i.e., in the visual cortex. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative scalp distributions and source current localization of discriminating activity when the small arms experts discriminate between forward and off-axis fire observer positions. Furthermore, this perceptual decision implicates brain regions involved in visual processing, even though the task is purely auditory. Finally, we utilize these techniques to quantify the level of expertise in these subjects for the chosen task, having implications for human performance monitoring in combat. PMID

  17. Small terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 2: Two new cases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.M.; Ellis, K.H.; Browne, C.E.; Barber, J.C.K.; Barker, M.; Kennedy, C.R.; Foley, H.; Patton, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    We report on 2 girls with small de novo terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 2 and breakpoints within q37. Four cases with similar or more extensive deletions have been previously reported in full. Hypotonia and psychomotor retardation were the only manifestations common to all 6 cases. The phenotype associated with small terminal 2q deletions is variable and clearly not always as mild as indicated in previous reports. The abnormality may also be more common than has been assumed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. H.; Wu, T. H.; Lin, M. H.; Yang, C. C.; Guo, W. Y.; Wang, Z. J.; Chen, C. L.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future.

  19. A Comparison of Water Vapor Quantities from Model Short-Range Forecasts and ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, J.

    2006-03-17

    Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the “Mergedsounding” value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  20. A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, J J

    2006-03-17

    Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  1. The Superiority of Intraoperative O-arm Navigation-assisted Surgery in Instrumenting Extremely Small Thoracic Pedicles of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Jin, Mengran; Qiu, Yong; Yan, Huang; Han, Xiao; Zhu, Zezhang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the accuracy of O-arm navigation-assisted screw insertion in extremely small thoracic pedicles and to compare it with free-hand pedicle screw insertion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A total of 344 pedicle screws were inserted in apical region (defined as 2 vertebrae above and below the apex each) of 46 AIS patients (age range 13–18 years) with O-arm navigation and 712 screws were inserted in 92 AIS patients (age range 11–17 years) with free-hand technique. According to the narrowest diameter orthogonal to the long axis of the pedicle on a trajectory entering the vertebral body on preoperative computed tomography, the pedicles were classified into large (>3 mm) and small (≤3 mm) subgroups. Furthermore, a subset of extremely small pedicles (≤2 mm in the narrowest diameter) was specifically discussed. Screw accuracy was categorized as grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: perforation by less than 2 mm, grade 2: perforation by 2 to 4 mm, grade 3: perforation over 4 mm. In the O-arm group, the mean thoracic pedicle diameters were 2.23 mm (range 0.7–2.9 mm) and 3.48 mm (3.1–7.1 mm) for small and large pedicles, respectively. In the free-hand group, the small and large thoracic pedicle diameters were 2.42 mm (range 0.6–2.9 mm) and 3.75 mm (3.1–6.9 mm), respectively. The overall accuracies of screw insertion in large and small thoracic pedicles (grade 0, 1) were significantly higher in O-arm group (large: 93.8%, 210/224, small: 91.7%, 110/120) than those of free-hand group (large: 84.9%, 353/416, small: 78.4%, 232/296) (P < 0.05). Importantly, the overall accuracy of screw placement in extremely small pedicles was significantly higher in the O-arm group (84.3%, 48/57) compared with 62.7% (79/126) in free-hand group (P < 0.05), and the incidence of medial perforation was significantly lower in O-arm group (11.1%, 1/9) compared with 17.0% (8/47) in free-hand group (P < 0.05). The O-arm

  2. Acoustic detection and localization of small arms, influence of urban conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, P.; Marty, Ch.; Hengy, S.; Hamery, P.

    2008-04-01

    The detection and localization of small fire arms is envisaged by use of acoustic devices. This paper describes the capability to detect and localize snipers in open field and in urban conditions. This work was performed by ISL and DGA during various national and NATO trials. During recent military conflicts, as well as for security interventions, the urban zone has taken a prominent place. Experimental results measured in free-field conditions, compared with those measured in a village used for military training, show that the streets and houses can generate many reflections of the original gunshot, requiring new signal processing techniques to separate each contribution. For this purpose a specific numerical model has been developed. A few examples of experimental and numerical results obtained for the validation of this methodology will be presented.

  3. SMALL SIZE-RANGE EXTENSION OF AN OPTICAL PARTICLE COUNTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The object of the study was to improve the small particle sensitivity and resolution of a white light optical particle counter. The particular counter chosen for study was the Model 208 manufactured by Climet Instruments.

  4. Localization of small arms fire using acoustic measurements of muzzle blast and/or ballistic shock wave arrivals.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W; Ferguson, Brian G

    2012-11-01

    The accurate localization of small arms fire using fixed acoustic sensors is considered. First, the conventional wavefront-curvature passive ranging method, which requires only differential time-of-arrival (DTOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave to estimate the source position, is modified to account for sensor positions that are not strictly collinear (bowed array). Second, an existing single-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires both DTOA and differential angle-of-arrival (DAOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave and ballistic shock wave, is improved by replacing the basic external ballistics model (which describes the bullet's deceleration along its trajectory) with a more rigorous model and replacing the look-up table ranging procedure with a nonlinear (or polynomial) equation-based ranging procedure. Third, a new multiple-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires only DTOA measurements of the ballistic shock wave to localize the point of fire, is formulated. The first method is applicable to situations when only the muzzle blast wave is received, whereas the third method applies when only the ballistic shock wave is received. The effectiveness of each of these methods is verified using an extensive set of real data recorded during a 7 day field experiment. PMID:23145587

  5. A comparison of model short-range forecasts and the ARM Microbase data

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, J J

    2006-09-22

    For the fourth quarter ARM metric we will make use of new liquid water data that has become available, and called the 'Microbase' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both TWP and NSA. The Microbase data have been averaged to 35 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  6. Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

    2011-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

  7. Small Engine Technology. Task 4: Advanced Small Turboshaft Compressor (ASTC) Performance and Range Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jeff L.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    This contact had two main objectives involving both numerical and experimental investigations of a small highly loaded two-stage axial compressor designated Advanced Small Turboshaft Compressor (ASTC) winch had a design pressure ratio goal of 5:1 at a flowrate of 10.53 lbm/s. The first objective was to conduct 3-D Navier Stokes multistage analyses of the ASTC using several different flow modelling schemes. The second main objective was to complete a numerical/experimental investigation into stall range enhancement of the ASTC. This compressor was designed wider a cooperative Space Act Agreement and all testing was completed at NASA Lewis Research Center. For the multistage analyses, four different flow model schemes were used, namely: (1) steady-state ADPAC analysis, (2) unsteady ADPAC analysis, (3) steady-state APNASA analysis, and (4) steady state OCOM3D analysis. The results of all the predictions were compared to the experimental data. The steady-state ADPAC and APNASA codes predicted similar overall performance and produced good agreement with data, however the blade row performance and flowfield details were quite different. In general, it can be concluded that the APNASA average-passage code does a better job of predicting the performance and flowfield details of the highly loaded ASTC compressor.

  8. Small image laser range finder for planetary rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Honda, Masahisa; Adachi, Tadashi; Iijima, Takahiko

    1994-10-01

    A variety of technical subjects need to be solved before planetary rover navigation could be a part of future missions. The sensors which will perceive terrain environment around the rover will require critical development efforts. The image laser range finder (ILRF) discussed here is one of the candidate sensors because of its advantage in providing range data required for its navigation. The authors developed a new compact-sized ILRF which is a quarter of the size of conventional ones. Instead of the current two directional scanning system which is comprised of nodding and polygon mirrors, the new ILRF is equipped with the new concept of a direct polygon mirror driving system, which successfully made its size compact to accommodate the design requirements. The paper reports on the design concept and preliminary technical specifications established in the current development phase.

  9. Biochar-attenuated desorption of heavy metals in small arms range soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stabilization (capping/solidification) and dilution (e.g., washing, chelate-assisted phytoremediation) represent non-removal and removal remediation technologies for heavy metal contaminated soils. Biochar is stable in soil, and contains carboxyl and other surface ligands; these properties are usef...

  10. Lead retention by broiler litter biochars in small arms range soil: Impact of pyrolysis temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus-rich manure biochar has a potential for stabilizing Pb and other heavy metal contaminants, as well as serving as a sterile fertilizer. In this study, broiler litter biochars produced at 350 and 650 °C were employed to understand how biochar’s elemental composition (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, ...

  11. Retention of heavy metals by carboxyl functional groups of biochars in small arms range soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effectiveness of biochar for heavy metal stabilization depends upon biochar’s sorptive property and recalcitrance in soil. To understand the role of carboxyl functional groups on heavy metal stabilization, cottonseed hull biochar and flax shive steam activated biochar having low O/C ratio...

  12. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  13. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  14. The AMRDEC Process for Analyzing Initiation Effectiveness Against Explosive Filled Small Arms Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Dedra

    2011-06-01

    The mortar threats, due to their small size and robust structure, present difficult challenges to new and existing systems for acquisition, tracking, intercept and defeat. Defeat must come through either the fuze or detonation of the explosive. Direct detonation of the explosive payload at the point of intercept via fragment or direct missile impact is considered a more achievable alternative. A pre-detonation of the fuze due to impact can produce similar results. However, fuzes can be a small percentage of the target area. Another possible outcome is the fuze would simply be duded. However, a dudded mortar can be indistinguishable from a non-dudded mortar until it strikes the ground. A robust process must have the capability of analyzing multiple solution types. An extensive database of single fragment impacts against threats with high explosive payloads was utilized to develop and modify models to predict explosive reaction. The goal was to create models or equations that could be incorporated into fast running simulation tools to access potential lethal mechanisms over a wide range of battlespace conditions quickly. A methodology to ascertain impact effectiveness on a typical generic threat fuze was also developed separately to be included in the simulation tools. Computational efforts and trade studies can be conducted with fast running simulation tools whose accuracy had been validated with significant test data.

  15. Pick-up, transport and release of a molecular cargo using a small-molecule robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T. L.; Leigh, David A.; Markevicius, Augustinas; Solà, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Modern-day factory assembly lines often feature robots that pick up, reposition and connect components in a programmed manner. The idea of manipulating molecular fragments in a similar way has to date only been explored using biological building blocks (specifically DNA). Here, we report on a wholly artificial small-molecule robotic arm capable of selectively transporting a molecular cargo in either direction between two spatially distinct, chemically similar, sites on a molecular platform. The arm picks up/releases a 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide cargo by formation/breakage of a disulfide bond, while dynamic hydrazone chemistry controls the cargo binding to the platform. Transport is controlled by selectively inducing conformational and configurational changes within an embedded hydrazone rotary switch that steers the robotic arm. In a three-stage operation, 79-85% of 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide molecules are transported in either (chosen) direction between the two platform sites, without the cargo at any time fully dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with other molecules in the bulk.

  16. Measurement of mid-arm muscle circumference and prognosis in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tartari, Rafaela Festugatto; Ulbrich-Kulczynski, Jane Maria; Filho, Antônio Fabiano Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Overall survival (OS) varies widely in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Strong prognostic factors are still needed to improve decision-making regarding standard treatment options, to stratify patients for inclusion in innovative therapeutic trials and to identify patients who would be best treated with palliative care rather than with systemic chemotherapy. Mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) is a bedside anthropometric measurement that estimates somatic protein reserve, an early indicator of nutritional depletion. This measurement is simple, non-invasive, objective and inexpensive to perform. We evaluated MAMC as a potential prognostic factor in patients with stage IV NSCLC. A total of 56 non-selected consecutive patients with stage IV NSCLC were evaluated. The MAMC measurement results for these patients were expressed as a percentage of the expected reference values, adjusted for gender and age. Patients were categorized as normal (MAMC ≥90%) or depleted (MAMC <90%). The mean age of patients was 63 years (range 47-80), and the mean MAMC was 89 (range 66-122), with 55% of patients classified as depleted. The median OS was 6.2 months (95% CI, 5.1-7.3). In the subgroup with normal MAMC, the median OS was 10.2 months (95% CI, 9.2-11.1). In patients classified as depleted, the median OS was 5.0 months (95% CI, 4.2-5.8). The difference in OS between these two subgroups was highly significant (p<0.001 by the log-rank test; HR=0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.5 for patients with normal MAMC). In a multivariate analysis with Karnofsky status, age and gender as covariates, the difference in OS between the MAMC groups remained statistically significant (p<0.001, according to the Cox proportional hazards model). MAMC is a strong independent prognostic factor in stage IV NSCLC patients. Patients with MAMC <90% of the expected value had poor OS. PMID:23426523

  17. Effective Long-Range Attraction between Protein Molecules in Solutions Studied by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yun; Chen, W.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero

    2005-09-09

    Small angle neutron scattering intensity distributions taken from cytochrome C and lysozyme protein solutions show a rising intensity at a very small wave vector Q, which can be interpreted in terms of the presence of a weak long-range attraction between protein molecules. This interaction has a range several times that of the diameter of the protein molecule, much greater than the range of the screened electrostatic repulsion. We show evidence that this long-range attraction is closely related to the type of anion present and ion concentration in the solution.

  18. The metabolic cost of two ranges of arm position height with and without hand weights during low impact aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M W; Otto, R M; Wygand, J

    1991-12-01

    To determine the energy cost of low impact aerobic dance while varying arm movement height and the use of hand weights, 10 adults volunteered to participate in four choreographed trials. All trials consisted of identical leg movements. Arm movements, however, were performed above shoulder level both with and without 0.9-kg hand weights and below shoulder level both with and without 0.9-kg hand weights. Open circuit spirometry was employed throughout the 10-min videotape guided trials, and heart rate was measured by telemetry. Neither the use of hand weights nor the change in arm position height significantly altered the energy cost of low impact aerobic dance. However, heart rate responses were significantly different. Caution should be observed by aerobics instructors and participants as to the use of heart rate as an indicator of intensity for low impact aerobic dance. PMID:1780565

  19. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  20. Stellar science from a blue wavelength range. A possible design for the blue arm of 4MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Seifert, W.; Koch, A.; Xu, W.; Caffau, E.; Christlieb, N.; Korn, A. J.; Lind, K.; Sbordone, L.; Ruchti, G.; Feltzing, S.; de Jong, R. S.; Barden, S.

    2015-09-01

    From stellar spectra, a variety of physical properties of stars can be derived. In particular, the chemical composition of stellar atmospheres can be inferred from absorption line analyses. These provide key information on large scales, such as the formation of our Galaxy, down to the small-scale nucleosynthesis processes that take place in stars and supernovae. By extending the observed wavelength range toward bluer wavelengths, we optimize such studies to also include critical absorption lines in metal-poor stars, and allow for studies of heavy elements (Z\\ensuremath{g}e 38) whose formation processes remain poorly constrained. In this context, spectrographs optimized for observing blue wavelength ranges are essential, since many absorption lines at redder wavelengths are too weak to be detected in metal-poor stars. This means that some elements cannot be studied in the visual-redder regions, and important scientific tracers and science cases are lost. The present era of large public surveys will target millions of stars. It is therefore important that the next generation of spectrographs are designed such that they cover a wide wavelength range and can observe a large number of stars simultaneously. Only then, we can gain the full information from stellar spectra, from both metal-poor to metal-rich ones, that will allow us to understand the aforementioned formation scenarios in greater detail. Here we describe the requirements driving the design of the forthcoming survey instrument 4MOST, a multi-object spectrograph commissioned for the ESO VISTA 4 m-telescope. While 4MOST is also intended for studies of active galactic nuclei, baryonic acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, cosmological constants, supernovae and other transients, we focus here on high-density, wide-area survey of stars and the science that can be achieved with high-resolution stellar spectroscopy. Scientific and technical requirements that governed the design are described along with a thorough

  1. Internal ballistics of small arms: Particular problems. Part 2: Thermodynamic model, powder parameters, initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celens, E.

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of the thermodynamic model was studied in small caliber weapons. The use of appropriate computer algorithms for optimal exploitation of closed vessel trials was examined. To better understand the initiation phase, the working of primary high explosive compounds was studied by visualizing the ignition phenomenon in a transparent chamber. The results obtained in these studies are summarized.

  2. Distribution, chemical speciation, and mobility of lead and antimony originating from small arms ammunition in a coarse-grained unsaturated surface sand.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Sjöström, Jan; Skyllberg, Ulf; Hägglund, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the heavy metal contamination caused by firing 500 high-velocity 7.62-mm jacketed Swedish military rounds. Contamination of solid and aqueous phases was studied, with Pb and Sb being the two contaminants of primary interest. The distribution of the Pb and Sb were measured in terms of depth of penetration in sand and grain size distribution of the bullet particles. The Pb- and Sb-contaminated sand was then used as a source material in two bench-scale unsaturated lysimeters to measure the transport of Pb and Sb through two coarse-grained sands, which were taken from the berms on two Swedish military small arms ranges. The lysimeters were subjected to an infiltration cycle that reproduced spring snowmelt, which is the most significant infiltration event of the year in northern climates. The levels of mobile Pb and Sb were monitored in the effluent from the lysimeters. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy analysis was performed on the contaminated sands to determine Pb speciation before and after leaching. Ninety-three percent of the mass of bullets was found in the top 30 cm of sand. Lead oxide was the predominant species of Pb before and after leaching. Transport of Pb was small, with aqueous concentrations remaining stable at <2 microg L(-1). Antimony was far more mobile, with solute breakthrough occurring between 5 and 14 d and concentrations rising to over 125 microg L(-1) within 1 month. PMID:20400582

  3. Physical forms of contemporary small-arms propellants and their forensic value.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2005-03-01

    Intermediate gunshot wounds typically produce powder tattooing and/or stippling of the skin. The size and density of such powder-induced injuries around an entry wound are used to estimate the separation distance between the muzzle of the responsible firearm and the entry site through test firings at selected muzzle-to-target distances, with ammunition comparable to the injury-producing round and the evidence firearm. The foregoing is well known to forensic pathologists who document and describe such powder patterns in gunshot victims and firearm examiners who customarily produce the test-fired powder patterns for subsequent range-of-fire determinations. Less known, particularly to pathologists, is the considerable variety in forms of modern nitrocellulose propellants, their effects on powder-induced injuries to human skin, and the value of these varied physical forms in the reconstruction of shooting incidents. These factors are the subject of this article. PMID:15725770

  4. [IR spectral-analysis-based range estimation for an object with small temperature difference from background].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Jie; Yang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    It is a typical passive ranging technology that estimation of distance of an object is based on transmission characteristic of infrared radiation, it is also a hotspot in electro-optic countermeasures. Because of avoiding transmitting energy in the detection, this ranging technology will significantly enhance the penetration capability and infrared conceal capability of the missiles or unmanned aerial vehicles. With the current situation in existing passive ranging system, for overcoming the shortage in ranging an oncoming target object with small temperature difference from background, an improved distance estimation scheme was proposed. This article begins with introducing the concept of signal transfer function, makes clear the working curve of current algorithm, and points out that the estimated distance is not unique due to inherent nonlinearity of the working curve. A new distance calculation algorithm was obtained through nonlinear correction technique. It is a ranging formula by using sensing information at 3-5 and 8-12 microm combined with background temperature and field meteorological conditions. The authors' study has shown that the ranging error could be mainly kept around the level of 10% under the condition of the target and background apparent temperature difference equal to +/- 5 K, and the error in estimating background temperature is no more than +/- 15 K. PMID:23586223

  5. Climate Change Risks and Conservation Implications for a Threatened Small-Range Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. Methodology/Principal Findings We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus), which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070–2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. Conclusions/Significance Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be highly vulnerable to

  6. Stratification of risk to the surgical team in removal of small arms ammunition implanted in the craniofacial region: case report.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Jonathan A; Laughlin, Ian; Newberry, Shane; Ryhn, Michael; Pasley, Jason; Newberry, Travis

    2016-09-01

    In cases of penetrating injury with implantation of small arms ammunition, it can often be difficult to tell the difference between simple ballistics and ballistics associated with unexploded ordnances (UXOs). In the operative environment, where highly flammable substances are often close to the surgical site, detonation of UXOs could have catastrophic consequences for both the patient and surgical team. There is a paucity of information in the literature regarding how to evaluate whether an implanted munition contains explosive material. This report describes a patient who presented during Operation Enduring Freedom with an implanted munition suspicious for a UXO and the subsequent workup organized by Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Company prior to surgical removal. Clinical risk factors for UXOs include assassination attempts and/or wartime settings. Specific radiological features suggestive of a UXO include projectile size greater than 7.62-mm caliber, alterations in density of the tip, as well as radiological evidence of a hollowed-out core. If an implanted UXO is suspected, risks to the surgical and anesthesia teams can be minimized by notifying the nearest military installation with EOD capabilities and following clinical practice guidelines set forth by the Joint Theater Trauma System. PMID:26832604

  7. Long-range order for the spin-1 Heisenberg model with a small antiferromagnetic interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, Benjamin

    2014-09-15

    We look at the general SU(2) invariant spin-1 Heisenberg model. This family includes the well-known Heisenberg ferromagnet and antiferromagnet as well as the interesting nematic (biquadratic) and the largely mysterious staggered-nematic interaction. Long range order is proved using the method of reflection positivity and infrared bounds on a purely nematic interaction. This is achieved through the use of a type of matrix representation of the interaction making clear several identities that would not otherwise be noticed. Using the reflection positivity of the antiferromagnetic interaction one can then show that the result is maintained if we also include an antiferromagnetic interaction that is sufficiently small.

  8. A miniature powerplant for very small, very long range autonomous aircraft. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tad McGeer

    1999-09-29

    The authors have developed a new piston engine offering unprecedented efficiency for a new generation of miniature robotic aircraft. Following Phase 1 preliminary design in 1996--97, they have gone forward in Phase 2 to complete detail design, and are nearing completion of a first batch of ten engines. A small-engine dynamometer facility has been built in preparation for the test program. Provisions have been included for supercharging, which will allow operation at ceilings in the 10,000 m range. Component tests and detailed analysis indicate that the engine will achieve brake-specific fuel consumption well below 300 gm/kWh at power levels of several hundred watts. This level of performance opens the door to development of tabletop-sized aircraft having transpacific range and multi-day endurance, which will offer extraordinary new capabilities for meteorology, geomagnetic, and a variety of applications in environmental monitoring and military operations.

  9. Photographic identification of individuals of a free-ranging, small terrestrial vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Treilibs, Claire E; Pavey, Chris R; Hutchinson, Mark N; Bull, C Michael

    2016-02-01

    Recognition of individuals within an animal population is central to a range of estimates about population structure and dynamics. However, traditional methods of distinguishing individuals, by some form of physical marking, often rely on capture and handling which may affect aspects of normal behavior. Photographic identification has been used as a less-invasive alternative, but limitations in both manual and computer-automated recognition of individuals are particularly problematic for smaller taxa (<500 g). In this study, we explored the use of photographic identification for individuals of a free-ranging, small terrestrial reptile using (a) independent observers, and (b) automated matching with the Interactive Individual Identification System (I(3)S Pattern) computer algorithm. We tested the technique on individuals of an Australian skink in the Egernia group, Slater's skink Liopholis slateri, whose natural history and varied scale markings make it a potentially suitable candidate for photo-identification. From 'photographic captures' of skink head profiles, we designed a multi-choice key based on alternate character states and tested the abilities of observers - with or without experience in wildlife survey - to identify individuals using categorized test photos. We also used the I(3)S Pattern algorithm to match the same set of test photos against a database of 30 individuals. Experienced observers identified a significantly higher proportion of photos correctly (74%) than those with no experience (63%) while the I(3)S software correctly matched 67% as the first ranked match and 83% of images in the top five ranks. This study is one of the first to investigate photo identification with a free-ranging small vertebrate. The method demonstrated here has the potential to be applied to the developing field of camera-traps for wildlife survey and thus a wide range of survey and monitoring applications. PMID:26865967

  10. Force spectroscopy with a large dynamic range using small cantilevers and an array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2002-04-01

    The important characteristics of a detector for force spectroscopy measurements are sensitivity, linearity and dynamic range. The commonly used two-segment detector that measures the position of a light beam reflected from the force-sensing cantilever in an atomic force microscope becomes nonlinear when the beam shifts significantly onto one of the segments. For a detection setup optimized for high sensitivity, such as needed for the use with small cantilevers, it is shown both experimentally and theoretically that the dynamic range extends to an upper detection limit of only about 115 nm in cantilever deflection if <10% nonlinearity is required. A detector is presented that circumvents that limitation. This detector is based on a linear arrangement of multiple photodiode segments that are read out individually. With such an array detector, the irradiance distribution of the reflected beam is measured. The reflected beam not only shifts in position but also deforms when the cantilever deflects because the bent cantilever acts as a curved mirror. The mean of the distribution, however, is a linear function of cantilever deflection in both theory and experiment. An array detector is consequently well suited for force measurements for which both high sensitivity and a large dynamic range are required.

  11. Utility of Close-Range Remote Sensing Techniques for Mapping Topography and Bathymetry in Small Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonstad, M. A.; Dietrich, J.

    2012-12-01

    River science is in the midst of a methodological revolution, where various remote sensing appraoches have been applied to the problem of mapping river forms and processes at high resolution and over large areas. Most of these advancements has been advanced by airborne and spaceborne remote sensing platforms, yielding ground resolutions at meter-scale or larger. Close-range remote-sensing approaches (helicopters, UAS platforms, helikites) have yielded much higher resolutions, but with increased costs, range limitations, and/or technical complexity. Many river researchers, however, still measure riverscapes in small study areas and with a desire for high precision measurements. As such, it is reasonable to infer that ground-based remote sensing techniques might yield highly-precise, low-cost, and easy to acquire information in small streams and be useful for a large user base. Some of the small-stream features that are potentially mappable with close-range imaging include particle sizes, riparian vegetation, water depth, water surface elevations and superelevations, and riverbank and near-floodplain topography. Some of the important comparative metrics include (a) spatial resolution, (b) precision and accuracy, (c) cost, (d) ease of use, (e) speed and ability to map large areas, (f) the importance of specific observation platform, (g) software and hardware considerations, and (h) systematic vs. random errors. In order to compare the utility of mapping approaches against these various metrics, we have mapped a 100m stream test reach in eastern Oregon with both a high-quality dSLR camera and a Kinect active near-IR distance sensor. The camera can map topography through the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric approach, and can map bathymetry using either SfM or through spectral depth approaches. The Kinect potentially can map above-water topography for land and water. We test the camera-based methods and the Kinect sensor on two platforms. First, by hand

  12. Humans and seasonal climate variability threaten large-bodied coral reef fish with small ranges.

    PubMed

    Mellin, C; Mouillot, D; Kulbicki, M; McClanahan, T R; Vigliola, L; Bradshaw, C J A; Brainard, R E; Chabanet, P; Edgar, G J; Fordham, D A; Friedlander, A M; Parravicini, V; Sequeira, A M M; Stuart-Smith, R D; Wantiez, L; Caley, M J

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most species-rich and threatened ecosystems on Earth, yet the extent to which human stressors determine species occurrences, compared with biogeography or environmental conditions, remains largely unknown. With ever-increasing human-mediated disturbances on these ecosystems, an important question is not only how many species can inhabit local communities, but also which biological traits determine species that can persist (or not) above particular disturbance thresholds. Here we show that human pressure and seasonal climate variability are disproportionately and negatively associated with the occurrence of large-bodied and geographically small-ranging fishes within local coral reef communities. These species are 67% less likely to occur where human impact and temperature seasonality exceed critical thresholds, such as in the marine biodiversity hotspot: the Coral Triangle. Our results identify the most sensitive species and critical thresholds of human and climatic stressors, providing opportunity for targeted conservation intervention to prevent local extinctions. PMID:26839155

  13. Humans and seasonal climate variability threaten large-bodied coral reef fish with small ranges

    PubMed Central

    Mellin, C.; Mouillot, D.; Kulbicki, M.; McClanahan, T. R.; Vigliola, L.; Bradshaw, C. J. A.; Brainard, R. E.; Chabanet, P.; Edgar, G. J.; Fordham, D. A.; Friedlander, A. M.; Parravicini, V.; Sequeira, A. M. M.; Stuart-Smith, R. D.; Wantiez, L.; Caley, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most species-rich and threatened ecosystems on Earth, yet the extent to which human stressors determine species occurrences, compared with biogeography or environmental conditions, remains largely unknown. With ever-increasing human-mediated disturbances on these ecosystems, an important question is not only how many species can inhabit local communities, but also which biological traits determine species that can persist (or not) above particular disturbance thresholds. Here we show that human pressure and seasonal climate variability are disproportionately and negatively associated with the occurrence of large-bodied and geographically small-ranging fishes within local coral reef communities. These species are 67% less likely to occur where human impact and temperature seasonality exceed critical thresholds, such as in the marine biodiversity hotspot: the Coral Triangle. Our results identify the most sensitive species and critical thresholds of human and climatic stressors, providing opportunity for targeted conservation intervention to prevent local extinctions. PMID:26839155

  14. Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging wild small felids from Brazil: molecular detection and genotypic characterization.

    PubMed

    Cañón-Franco, W A; Araújo, F A P; López-Orozco, N; Jardim, M M A; Keid, L B; Dalla-Rosa, C; Cabral, A D; Pena, H F J; Gennari, S M

    2013-11-01

    Brazil harbors the largest number of wild Neotropical felid species, with ten of the twelve species recorded in the American continent. Although these animals are considered to be definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii, there are few descriptions of the parasite in these species. Here, we performed a molecular detection of T. gondii by amplification of the marker ITS-1 from tissue samples obtained from 90 free-ranging wild small Neotropical felids from Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Of the sampled animals, 34.4% (n=31) were positive including the species Puma yagouaroundi - jaguarondi (9/22), Leopardus geoffroyi - Geoffroy's cat (6/22), Leopardus tigrinus - oncilla (8/28), Leopardus wiedii - margay (6/10), Leopardus pardalis - ocelot (1/1) and Leopardus colocolo - Pampas cat (1/7). Toxoplasma DNA was detected with a frequency of 14.6% (63/433) in primary samples of tongue (16/56), brain (8/43), skeletal muscle (15/83), heart (7/63), diaphragm (3/56), vitreous humor (2/44), eye muscle (6/44) and eyeball (6/44). Multilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping of eleven small Neotropical felids using the molecular markers SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3 allowed the partial characterization of eight genotypes. We fully characterized two new genotypes that have not been described previously in Brazil (Lw#31Tn from L. wiedii and Py#21Sm from P. yagouaroundi) and one genotype Py#56Br from P. yagouaroundi that has been described previously in isolates from cats, dogs and capybaras from São Paulo state. This study constitutes the first detection and genotypic characterization of T. gondii in free-ranging felids in Brazil, demonstrating the occurrence of the parasite in wild populations and suggesting its potential transmissibility to humans and other domestic and wild animals. PMID:23932730

  15. Mid-Range Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, S. E.; Tomasi, D.; Rodríguez, A. O.

    2008-08-01

    The vast majority of articles on MRI RF coils over the past two decades have focused on large coils, where sample losses dominate, or on micro-coils, where sample and capacitor losses are negligible. Few have addressed the mid-range coils, seen in the majority of small-animal applications, where all the sources of loss are important, for example, mouse brain and body coils from 125 to 750 MHz. We developed a four-saddle coil array for magnetic resonance imaging of small animals. The saddle coil elements in the array were evenly distributed to cover the rat's head. The coil array was tuned to the resonant frequency of 170 MHz. Due to the close proximity of the coil elements, it was necessary to decouple the coil array using nonmagnetic trimmers and, it was operated in the transceiver mode and quadrature-driven. To test the coil array performance at high field, phantom images were acquired with our saddle coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Ex vivo brain images of a rat were also acquired, and proved the feasibility of the scaled version of a saddle coil array and, its compatibility with standard pulse sequences when used in a high field magnetic resonance imager.

  16. Mid-Range Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, S. E.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2008-08-11

    The vast majority of articles on MRI RF coils over the past two decades have focused on large coils, where sample losses dominate, or on micro-coils, where sample and capacitor losses are negligible. Few have addressed the mid-range coils, seen in the majority of small-animal applications, where all the sources of loss are important, for example, mouse brain and body coils from 125 to 750 MHz. We developed a four-saddle coil array for magnetic resonance imaging of small animals. The saddle coil elements in the array were evenly distributed to cover the rat's head. The coil array was tuned to the resonant frequency of 170 MHz. Due to the close proximity of the coil elements, it was necessary to decouple the coil array using nonmagnetic trimmers and, it was operated in the transceiver mode and quadrature-driven. To test the coil array performance at high field, phantom images were acquired with our saddle coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Ex vivo brain images of a rat were also acquired, and proved the feasibility of the scaled version of a saddle coil array and, its compatibility with standard pulse sequences when used in a high field magnetic resonance imager.

  17. Small-angle (e-, Na) scattering in the 6-25-eV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaduszliwer, B.; Weiss, P.; Tino, A.; Bederson, B.

    1984-09-01

    We have investigated elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons by sodium atoms at intermediate energies (6-25 eV) by the atomic-recoil technique, using a new atomic-beams apparatus. The effects of the apparatus geometry, atomic velocity, and electron energy distributions on the analysis of the experimental results have been examined in detail, and their effects on small-angle scattering have been incorporated into the present work. We present absolute measurements of the elastic (e-, Na) differential cross section at 10 eV for electron polar angles ranging between 12° and 22°. These measurements are in good agreement with the normalized results of S. K. Srivastava and L. Vuskovic

    [J. Phys. B 13, 2633 (1980)]
    and in reasonable agreement with the two-state close-coupling calculation of
    M. R. Issa (Ph.D. theis, University of Durham, 1977)
    . We also present absolute measurements of an integral over small angles of the 32P impact-excitation differential cross section, together with a precise prescription for comparison with theory. We found that the distortedwave-polarized-orbital calculation of J. V. Kennedy, V. P. Myerscough, and M. R. C. McDowell
    [J. Phys. B 10 3759 (1977)]
    gives results which are too high in the forward direction, while those of Issa are somewhat low.

  18. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...°05′53″ N., 119°06′59″ W; or display of red flashing beacons in the case of night firing. (iii) Radio... not enter or remain in the danger zone when the warning flag or beacon is being displayed...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...°05′53″ N., 119°06′59″ W; or display of red flashing beacons in the case of night firing. (iii) Radio... not enter or remain in the danger zone when the warning flag or beacon is being displayed...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...°05′53″ N., 119°06′59″ W; or display of red flashing beacons in the case of night firing. (iii) Radio... not enter or remain in the danger zone when the warning flag or beacon is being displayed...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...°05′53″ N., 119°06′59″ W; or display of red flashing beacons in the case of night firing. (iii) Radio... not enter or remain in the danger zone when the warning flag or beacon is being displayed...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...°05′53″ N., 119°06′59″ W; or display of red flashing beacons in the case of night firing. (iii) Radio... not enter or remain in the danger zone when the warning flag or beacon is being displayed...

  3. Spatial concentration distribution model for short-range continuous gas leakage of small amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meirong; Wang, Lingxue; Li, Jiakun; Long, Yunting; Gao, Yue

    2012-06-01

    Passive infrared gas imaging systems have been utilized in the equipment leak detection and repair in chemical manufacturers and petroleum refineries. The detection performance mainly relates to the sensitivity of infrared detector, optical depth of gas, atmospheric transmission, wind speed, and so on. Based on our knowledge, the spatial concentration distribution of continuously leaking gas plays an important part in leak detection. Several computational model of gas diffusion were proposed by researchers, such as Gaussian model, BM model, Sutton model and FEM3 model. But these models focus on calculating a large scale gas concentration distribution for a great amount of gas leaks above over 100- meter height, and not applicable to assess detection limit of a gas imaging system in short range. In this paper, a wind tunnel experiment is designed. Under different leaking rate and wind speed, concentration in different spatial positions is measured by portable gas detectors. Through analyzing the experimental data, the two parameters σy(x) and σz (x) that determine the plume dispersion in Gaussian model are adjusted to produce the best curve fit to the gas concentration data. Then a concentration distribution model for small mount gas leakage in short range is established. Various gases, ethylene and methane are used to testify this model.

  4. Behavioral and physiological responses to fruit availability of spider monkeys ranging in a small forest fragment

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Link, Andrés; Montes-Rojas, Andrés; Di Fiore, Anthony; Heistermann, Michael; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2014-01-01

    Numerous animal species currently experience habitat loss and fragmentation. This might result in behavioral and dietary adjustments, especially because fruit availability is frequently reduced in fragments. Food scarcity can result in elevated physiological stress levels, and chronic stress often has detrimental effects on individuals. Some animal species exhibit a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics, and theory predicts that these species reduce intragroup feeding competition by modifying their subgroup size according to resource availability. Until now, however, there have been few studies on how species with such fission–fission dynamics adjust their grouping patterns and social behavior in small fragments or on how food availability influences their stress levels. We collected data on fruit availability, feeding behavior, stress hormone levels (measured through fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCM)), subgroup size, and aggression for two groups of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a small forest fragment in Colombia and examined whether fruit availability influences these variables. Contrary to our predictions, spider monkeys ranged in smaller subgroups, had higher FGCM levels and higher aggression rates when fruit availability was high compared to when it was low. The atypical grouping pattern of the study groups seems to be less effective at mitigating contest competition over food resources than more typical fission–fusion patterns. Overall, our findings illustrate that the relationship between resource availability, grouping patterns, aggression rates, and stress levels can be more complex than assumed thus far. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term consequences on the health and persistence of spider monkeys in fragmented habitats. PMID:24820229

  5. Behavioral and physiological responses to fruit availability of spider monkeys ranging in a small forest fragment.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Link, Andrés; Montes-Rojas, Andrés; Di Fiore, Anthony; Heistermann, Michael; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2014-11-01

    Numerous animal species currently experience habitat loss and fragmentation. This might result in behavioral and dietary adjustments, especially because fruit availability is frequently reduced in fragments. Food scarcity can result in elevated physiological stress levels, and chronic stress often has detrimental effects on individuals. Some animal species exhibit a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, and theory predicts that these species reduce intragroup feeding competition by modifying their subgroup size according to resource availability. Until now, however, there have been few studies on how species with such fission-fission dynamics adjust their grouping patterns and social behavior in small fragments or on how food availability influences their stress levels. We collected data on fruit availability, feeding behavior, stress hormone levels (measured through fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCM)), subgroup size, and aggression for two groups of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a small forest fragment in Colombia and examined whether fruit availability influences these variables. Contrary to our predictions, spider monkeys ranged in smaller subgroups, had higher FGCM levels and higher aggression rates when fruit availability was high compared to when it was low. The atypical grouping pattern of the study groups seems to be less effective at mitigating contest competition over food resources than more typical fission-fusion patterns. Overall, our findings illustrate that the relationship between resource availability, grouping patterns, aggression rates, and stress levels can be more complex than assumed thus far. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term consequences on the health and persistence of spider monkeys in fragmented habitats. PMID:24820229

  6. An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities.

    PubMed

    Buchhave, Lars A; Latham, David W; Johansen, Anders; Bizzarro, Martin; Torres, Guillermo; Rowe, Jason F; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brugamyer, Erik; Caldwell, Caroline; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Ford, Eric B; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Hansen, Terese; Isaacson, Howard; Laird, John B; Lucas, Philip W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Morse, Jon A; Robertson, Paul; Shporer, Avi; Stefanik, Robert P; Still, Martin; Quinn, Samuel N

    2012-06-21

    The abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) in the photospheres of stars similar to the Sun provides a 'fossil' record of the chemical composition of the initial protoplanetary disk. Metal-rich stars are much more likely to harbour gas giant planets, supporting the model that planets form by accumulation of dust and ice particles. Recent ground-based surveys suggest that this correlation is weakened for Neptunian-sized planets. However, how the relationship between size and metallicity extends into the regime of terrestrial-sized exoplanets is unknown. Here we report spectroscopic metallicities of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but on average a metallicity close to that of the Sun), whereas large planets preferentially form around stars with higher metallicities. This observation suggests that terrestrial planets may be widespread in the disk of the Galaxy, with no special requirement of enhanced metallicity for their formation. PMID:22722196

  7. Small-scale studies of roasted ore waste reveal extreme ranges of stable mercury isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robin S.; Wiederhold, Jan G.; Jew, Adam D.; Brown, Gordon E.; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2014-07-01

    Active and closed Hg mines are significant sources of Hg contamination to the environment, mainly due to large volumes of mine waste material disposed of on-site. The application of Hg isotopes as source tracer from such contaminated sites requires knowledge of the Hg isotope signatures of different materials potentially released to the environment. Previous work has shown that calcine, the waste residue of the on-site ore roasting process, can exhibit distinct Hg isotope signatures compared with the primary ore. Here, we report results from a detailed small-scale study of Hg isotope variations in calcine collected from the closed New Idria Hg mine, San Benito County, CA, USA. The calcine samples exhibited different internal layering features which were investigated using optical microscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS), and stable Hg isotope analysis. Significant Fe, S, and Hg concentration gradients were found across the different internal layers. Isotopic analyses revealed an extreme variation with pronounced isotopic gradients across the internal layered features. Overall, δ202Hg (±0.10‰, 2 SD) describing mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) ranged from -5.96 to 14.49‰, which is by far the largest range of δ202Hg values reported for any environmental sample. In addition, Δ199Hg (±0.06‰, 2 SD) describing mass-independent fractionation (MIF) ranged from -0.17 to 0.21‰. The μ-XAS analyses suggested that cinnabar and metacinnabar are the dominant Hg-bearing phases in the calcine. Our results demonstrate that the incomplete roasting of HgS ores in Hg mines can cause extreme mass-dependent Hg isotope fractionations at the scale of individual calcine pieces with enrichments in both light and heavy Hg isotopes relative to the primary ore signatures. This finding has important implications for the application of Hg isotopes as potential source tracers for Hg released to the environment from closed Hg mines and

  8. Infants' Auditory Enumeration: Evidence for Analog Magnitudes in the Small Number Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanMarle, Kristy; Wynn, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Vigorous debate surrounds the issue of whether infants use different representational mechanisms to discriminate small and large numbers. We report evidence for ratio-dependent performance in infants' discrimination of small numbers of auditory events, suggesting that infants can use analog magnitudes to represent small values, at least in the…

  9. First Experiences Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Volcano Observation in the Visible Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Bange, J.

    2007-05-01

    Many of the most active volcanoes in the world are located in Middle and South America. While permanently installed sensors for seismicity give reliable supervision of volcanic activities, they lack the possibility to determine occurrence and extent of surface activities. Both from the point of science and civil protection, visible documentation of activities is of great interest. While satellites and manned aircraft already offer many possibilities, they also have disadvantages like delayed or poor image data availability or high costs. The Institute of Aerospace Systems of the Technical University of Braunschweig, in collaboration with the spin-off company Mavionics, developed a family of extremely small and lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), with the smallest aircraft weighting only 550~g (19~ounces) at a wing span of 50 cm (20~inch). These aircraft are operating completely automatically, controlled by a highly miniaturized autopilot system. Flight mission is defined by a list of GPS waypoints using a conventional notebook. While in radio range, current position and status of the aircraft is displayed on the notebook and waypoints can easily be changed by the user. However, when radio connection is not available, the aircraft operates on its on, completing the flight mission automatically. This greatly increases the operating range of the system. Especially for the purpose of volcano observation in South America, the aircraft Carolo~P330 was developed, weighting 5~kg (11~pounds) at a wing span of 3.3~m ( 11~ft). The whole system can be easily carried by car and the electric propulsion system avoids handling of flammable liquids. The batteries can be recharged in the field. Carolo~P330 has an endurance of up to 90~minutes at a flight speed of 25~m/s, giving it a maximum range of 67 km (41~miles). It was especially designed to operate under harsh conditions. The payload is a digital still camera, which delivers aerial images with a resolution of up to 8

  10. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a) The... the area. (5) The regulations of this section shall be enforced by the Commandant, First...

  11. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a) The... the area. (5) The regulations of this section shall be enforced by the Commandant, First...

  12. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1954-01-01

    SUMMARY: A comparison is made of different methods of determining size of home range from grid trapping data. Studies of artificial populations show that a boundary strip method of measuring area and an adjusted range length give sizes closer to the true range than do minimum area or observed range length methods. In simulated trapping of artificial populations, the known range size increases with successive captures until a level is reached that approximates the true range. The same general pattern is followed whether traps are visited at random or traps nearer the center of the range are favored; but when central traps are favored the curve levels more slowly. Range size is revealed with fewer captures when traps are far apart than when they are close together. The curve levels more slowly for oblong ranges than for circular ranges of the same area. Fewer captures are required to determine range length than to determine range area. Other examples of simulated trapping in artificial populations are used to provide measurements of distances from the center of activity and distances between successive captures. These are compared with similar measurements taken from Peromyscus trapping data. The similarity of range sizes found in certain field comparisons of area trapping, colored scat collections, and trailing is cited. A comparison of home range data obtained by area trapping and nest box studies is discussed. It is shown that when traps are set too far apart to include two or more in the range of each animal, calculation of average range size gives biased results. The smaller ranges are not expressed and cannot be included in the averages. The result is that range estimates are smaller at closer spacings and greater at wider spacings, purely as a result of these erroneous calculations and not reflecting any varying behavior of the animals. The problem of variation in apparent home range with variation in trap spacing is considered further by trapping in an

  13. Hearing Protection Evaluation for the Combat Arms Earplug at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    James Lovejoy

    2007-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) for the Department of Energy. The INL Protective Security Forces (Pro Force) are involved in training exercises that generate impulse noise by small arms fire. Force-on-force (FOF) training exercises that simulate real world scenarios require the Pro Force to engage the opposition force (OPFOR) while maintaining situational awareness through verbal communications. The Combat Arms earplug was studied to determine if it provides adequate hearing protection in accordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-1474C/D. The Combat Arms earplug uses a design that allows continuous noise through a critical orifice while effectively attenuating high-energy impulse noise. The earplug attenuates noise on a non linear scale, as the sound increases the attenuation increases. The INL studied the effectiveness of the Combat Arms earplug with a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) head and torso simulator used with a selection of small arms to create impulse sound pressures. The Combat Arms earplugs were inserted into the B&K head and torso ears, and small arms were then discharged to generate the impulse noise. The INL analysis of the data indicates that the Combat Arms earplug does provide adequate protection, in accordance with MIL-STD-1474C/D, when used to protect against impulse noise generated by small arms fire using blank ammunition. Impulse noise generated by small arms fire ranged from 135–160 dB range unfiltered un-weighted. The Combat Arms earplug attenuated the sound pressure 10–25 dB depending on the impulse noise pressure. This assessment is consistent with the results of previously published studies on the Combat Arms earplug (see Section 5, “References”). Based upon these result, the INL intends to use the Combat Arms earplug for FOF training exercises.

  14. [Impulse noise at shooting from small arms and close combat weapon as the factor of military work].

    PubMed

    Akhmetzianov, I M; Zinkin, V I; Logatkin, S M; Petreev, I V; Kuznetsov, S M; Dragan, S P

    2012-06-01

    The high-intensity impulse noise which is basic source in Armed forces are the firearms, has an adverse effect on professional soldiers, leading to decrease of professional working capacity and health deterioration. Due to influence of this factor the considerable part of military men has a hearing impairment and other diseases, including an arterial hypertension. The basic directions of protection of men from impulse noise are: perfection of hygienic rationing, optimization of the using of antinoise earphones, development of new generation of means of individual defense from noise. PMID:22888703

  15. Motor commands for fast point-to-point arm movements are customized for small changes in inertial load.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Ilona J; Bobbert, Maarten F; van Soest, A J Knoek; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2011-12-01

    For repeated point-to-point arm movements it is often assumed that motor commands are customized in a trial-to-trial manner, based on previous endpoint error. To test this assumption, we perturbed movement execution without affecting the endpoint error by using a modest manipulation of inertia. Participants made point-to-point elbow flexion and extension movements in the horizontal plane, under the instruction to move as fast as possible from one target area to another. In selected trials the moment of inertia of the lower arm was increased or decreased by 25%. First, we found that an unexpected increase or decrease of inertia did not affect the open loop controlled part of the movement path (and thus endpoint error was not affected). Second, we found that when the increased or decreased inertia was presented repeatedly, after 5-11 trials motor commands were customized: the first 100ms of agonistic muscle activity in the smoothed and rectified electromyographic signal of agonistic muscles was higher for the high inertia compared to the low inertia. We conclude that endpoint error is not the only parameter that is used to evaluate if motor commands lead to movements as planned. PMID:21890379

  16. Stable isotopes of C and S as indicators of habitat use by fish in small oregon Coast range streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. We have found isotopes of C and, surprisingly, S to be very useful in discriminating rearing habitats in our small streams. We found 13C values ...

  17. Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys Spontaneously Individuate and Enumerate Small Numbers of Non-Solid Portions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.; Hauser, Marc D.; Glynn, David D.; Barner, David

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental questions in cognitive science concern the origins and nature of the units that compose visual experience. Here, we investigate the capacity to individuate and store information about non-solid portions, asking in particular whether free-ranging rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") quantify portions of a non-solid substance presented in…

  18. Close-Range Photogrammetric Tools for Small 3d Archeological Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaan, M.; Héno, R.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.

    2013-07-01

    This article will focus on the first experiments carried out for our PHD thesis, which is meant to make the new image-based methods available for archeologists. As a matter of fact, efforts need to be made to find cheap, efficient and user-friendly procedures for image acquisition, data processing and quality control. Among the numerous tasks that archeologists have to face daily is the 3D recording of very small objects. The Apero/MicMac tools were used for the georeferencing and the dense correlation procedures. Relatively standard workflows lead to depth maps, which can be represented either as 3D point clouds or shaded relief images.

  19. Modeling of 1.5 μm range gated imaging for small surface vessel identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Richard L.; Steinvall, Ove; Elmquist, Magnus; Karlsson, Kjell

    2010-10-01

    Within the framework of the NATO group (NATO SET-132/RTG-72) on imaging ladars, a test was performed to collect simultaneous multi-mode LADAR signatures of maritime objects entering and leaving San Diego Harbor. Beside ladars, passive sensors were also employed during the test which occurred during April 2009 from Point Loma and the harbor in San Diego. This paper will report on 1.5 μm gated imaging on a number of small civilian surface vessels with the aim to present human perception experimental results and comparisons with sensor performance models developed by US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD. We use controlled human perception tests to measure target identification performance and compare the experimental results with model predictions.

  20. Small-scale materials blast testing using gram-range explosives and air-shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

    2006-11-01

    Many material properties are unknown under the high strain rates of shock wave impulse from an explosion in air. Actual blast testing is required for this, but full-scale explosive tests are expensive and dangerous, and yield limited data. Here we explore the possibility that gram-range explosive charges can be used for such testing in an ordinary laboratory setting. The explosion is characterized by high-speed digital shadowgraphy and piezoelectric pressure records of shock speed and overpressure duration. These data yield an explosive impulse describing the strength of shock loading at various standoff distances from a material sample (typically 25cm diameter). Simultaneously, twin high-speed digital cameras and surface tracking software provide material displacement and strain rate data during the test. In principle, these data and the measured shock loading provide a means to find dynamic material properties by an inverse computational approach. A scaling analysis also relates the gram-range blast test to a large-scale blast from the same or a different explosive.

  1. Parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the Bolivian Chaco.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Robbins, Richard G; Maffei, Leonardo; Wade, Susan E

    2006-06-01

    Parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. Between March 2001 and March 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), eight Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the Bolivian Chaco. The objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence of parasites among the sites. The parasite community of these carnivores was diverse, with representatives from eight genera of nematodes, two families of cestodes, two protozoan species, and six arthropod species. Fecal parasites identified from 12 of the 13 felids and five of the six canids examined included Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria sp., Crenosoma sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Capillaria aerophila, Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Cystoisospora sp. Four tick species, Amblyomma parvum, A. tigrinum, A. ovale, and A. cajennense, and two flea species, Pulex irritans and Delostichus phyllotis, were identified. Two crab-eating foxes had serologic evidence of heartworm disease (HWD). Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were found in 15 of 26 animals. Although HWD was found only in canids inside the national park, parasite prevalence did not appear to differ among sites, and no evidence was found of parasite spillover from domestic to wild carnivores. PMID:17312790

  2. Post-fire runoff and erosion from simulated rainfall on small plots, Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides-Solorio, Juan; MacDonald, Lee H.

    2001-10-01

    An Erratum has been published for this article in Hydrological Processes 16(5) 2002, 1131-1133.Wildfires in the Colorado Front Range can trigger dramatic increases in runoff and erosion. A better understanding of the causes of these increases is needed to predict the effects of future wildfires, estimate runoff and erosion risks from prescribed fires, and design effective post-fire rehabilitation treatments. The objective of this project was to determine whether runoff and sediment yields were significantly related to the site variables of burn severity, percent cover, soil water repellency, soil moisture, time since burning, and slope. To eliminate the variability due to natural rainfall events, we applied an artificial storm of approximately 80 mm h-1 on 26 1 m2 plots in the summer and fall of 2000. The plots were distributed among a June 2000 wildfire, a November 1999 prescribed fire, and a July 1994 wildfire.For 23 of the 26 plots the ratio of runoff to rainfall exceeded 50%. Nearly all sites exhibited strong natural or fire-induced water repellency, so the runoff ratios were only 15-30% larger for the high-severity plots in the two more recent fires than for the unburned or low-severity plots. The two high-severity plots in the 1994 wildfire had very low runoff ratios, and this probably was due to the high soil moisture conditions at the time of the simulated rainfall and the resulting reduction in the natural water repellency. Sediment yields from the high-severity sites in the two more recent fires were 10-26 times greater than the unburned and low-severity plots. The plots burned at high severity in 1994 yielded only slightly more sediment than the unburned plots. Percent ground cover explained 81% of the variability in sediment yields, and the sediment yields from the plots in the 1994 wildfire are consistent with the observed recovery in percent ground cover.

  3. Small valley glaciers and the effectiveness of the glacial buzzsaw in the northern Basin and Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, David; Brocklehurst, Simon H.; Gawthorpe, Rob L.

    2008-12-01

    The glacial buzzsaw hypothesis suggests that efficient erosion limits topographic elevations in extensively glaciated orogens. Studies to date have largely focussed on regions where large glaciers (tens of kilometres long) have been active. In light of recent studies emphasising the importance of lateral glacial erosion in lowering peaks and ridgelines, we examine the effectiveness of small glaciers in limiting topography under both relatively slow and rapid rock uplift conditions. Four ranges in the northern Basin and Range, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, USA, were chosen for this analysis. Estimates of maximum Pleistocene slip rates along normal faults bounding the Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains (~ 0.14 mm y - 1 ), Lemhi Range (~ 0.3 mm y - 1 ) and Lost River Range (~ 0.3 mm y - 1 ) are an order of magnitude lower than those on the Teton Fault (~ 2 mm y - 1 ). We compare the distribution of glacial erosion (estimated from cirque floor elevations and last glacial maximum (LGM) equilibrium line altitude (ELA) reconstructions) and fault slip rate with three metrics of topography in each range: the along-strike maximum elevation swath profile, hypsometry, and slope-elevation profiles. In the slowly uplifting Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains, and Lemhi and Lost River Ranges, trends in maximum elevation parallel ELAs, independent of variations in fault slip rate. Maximum elevations are offset ~ 500 m from LGM ELAs in the Lost River Range, Lemhi Range, and northern Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains, and by ~ 350 m in the southern Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains, where glacial extents were less. The offset between maximum topography and mean Quaternary ELAs, inferred from cirque floor elevations, is ~ 350 m in the Lost River and Lemhi Ranges, and 200-250 m in the Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains. Additionally, slope-elevation profiles are flattened and hypsometry profiles show a peak in surface areas close to the ELA in the Lemhi Range and Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains

  4. Toxicity and population structure of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa) outside the range of an arms race with resistant predators.

    PubMed

    Hague, Michael T J; Avila, Leleña A; Hanifin, Charles T; Snedden, W Andrew; Stokes, Amber N; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2016-05-01

    Species interactions, and their fitness consequences, vary across the geographic range of a coevolutionary relationship. This spatial heterogeneity in reciprocal selection is predicted to generate a geographic mosaic of local adaptation, wherein coevolutionary traits are phenotypically variable from one location to the next. Under this framework, allopatric populations should lack variation in coevolutionary traits due to the absence of reciprocal selection. We examine phenotypic variation in tetrodotoxin (TTX) toxicity of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa) in regions of allopatry with its TTX-resistant predator, the Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). In sympatry, geographic patterns of phenotypic exaggeration in toxicity and toxin-resistance are closely correlated in prey and predator, implying that reciprocal selection drives phenotypic variation in coevolutionary traits. Therefore, in allopatry with TTX-resistant predators, we expect to find uniformly low levels of newt toxicity. We characterized TTX toxicity in northwestern North America, including the Alaskan panhandle where Ta. granulosa occur in allopatry with Th. sirtalis. First, we used microsatellite markers to estimate population genetic structure and determine if any phenotypic variation in toxicity might be explained by historical divergence. We found northern populations of Ta. granulosa generally lacked population structure in a pattern consistent with northern range expansion after the Pleistocene. Next, we chose a cluster of sites in Alaska, which uniformly lacked genetic divergence, to test for phenotypic divergence in toxicity. As predicted, overall levels of newt toxicity were low; however, we also detected unexpected among- and within-population variation in toxicity. Most notably, a small number of individuals contained large doses of TTX that rival means of toxic populations in sympatry with Th. sirtalis. Phenotypic variation in toxicity, despite limited neutral genetic

  5. Greater eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage by large versus small range of motion with the same end-point.

    PubMed

    Fochi, A G; Damas, F; Berton, R; Alvarez, I; Miquelini, M; Salvini, T F; Libardi, C A

    2016-09-01

    Several factors can affect the magnitude of eccentric exercise (ECC)-induced muscle damage, but little is known regarding the effect of the range of motion (ROM) in ECC-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elbow flexor ECC with 120° of ROM (from 60° of elbow flexion until elbow full extension - 180° [120ROM]) induces a greater magnitude of muscle damage compared with a protocol with 60° of ROM (120-180° of elbow flexion [60ROM]). Twelve healthy young men (age: 22 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 75.6 ± 13.6 kg) performed the ECC with 120ROM and 60ROM using different arms in a random order separated by 2 weeks and were tested before and 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after ECC for maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC-ISO), ROM and muscle soreness. The 120ROM protocol showed greater changes and effect sizes (ES) for MVC-ISO (-35%, ES: 1.97), ROM (-11.5°, ES: 1.27) and muscle soreness (19 mm, ES: 1.18) compared with the 60ROM protocol (-23%, ES: 0.93; -12%, ES: 0.56; 17°, ES: 0.63; 8 mm, ES: 1.07, respectively). In conclusion, ECC of the elbow flexors with 120° of ROM promotes a greater magnitude of muscle damage compared with a protocol with 60° of ROM, even when both protocols are performed at long muscle lengths. PMID:27601784

  6. Greater eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage by large versus small range of motion with the same end-point

    PubMed Central

    Fochi, AG; Damas, F; Berton, R; Alvarez, I; Miquelini, M; Salvini, TF

    2016-01-01

    Several factors can affect the magnitude of eccentric exercise (ECC)-induced muscle damage, but little is known regarding the effect of the range of motion (ROM) in ECC-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elbow flexor ECC with 120° of ROM (from 60° of elbow flexion until elbow full extension - 180° [120ROM]) induces a greater magnitude of muscle damage compared with a protocol with 60° of ROM (120-180° of elbow flexion [60ROM]). Twelve healthy young men (age: 22 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 75.6 ± 13.6 kg) performed the ECC with 120ROM and 60ROM using different arms in a random order separated by 2 weeks and were tested before and 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after ECC for maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC-ISO), ROM and muscle soreness. The 120ROM protocol showed greater changes and effect sizes (ES) for MVC-ISO (-35%, ES: 1.97), ROM (-11.5°, ES: 1.27) and muscle soreness (19 mm, ES: 1.18) compared with the 60ROM protocol (-23%, ES: 0.93; -12%, ES: 0.56; 17°, ES: 0.63; 8 mm, ES: 1.07, respectively). In conclusion, ECC of the elbow flexors with 120° of ROM promotes a greater magnitude of muscle damage compared with a protocol with 60° of ROM, even when both protocols are performed at long muscle lengths. PMID:27601784

  7. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    SciTech Connect

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  8. An elastica arm scale.

    PubMed

    Bosi, F; Misseroni, D; Dal Corso, F; Bigoni, D

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  9. An elastica arm scale

    PubMed Central

    Bosi, F.; Misseroni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Bigoni, D.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a ‘deformable arm scale’ (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  10. The uptake and effects of lead in small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range.

    PubMed

    Stansley, W; Roscoe, D E

    1996-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 micrograms/g dry weight. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and depressed ALAD activities in small mammals and frogs indicate that some of the lead deposited at the site is bioavailable. Mean tissue lead concentrations (micrograms/g dry wt.) in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) at the range liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5- to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda) captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35- to 1038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs (Rana clamitans) at the range (1,728 micrograms/g) were elevated nearly 1000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 micrograms/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P < 0.001). Hematological and histopathological lesions associated with lead toxicosis were observed in some animals. Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material

  11. Spatial resonance in a small artery excited by vibration input as a possible mechanism to cause hand-arm vascular disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnaik, Shrikant; Banerjee, Rupak; Kim, Jay

    2012-04-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is collectively a vasospastic and neurodegenerative occupational disease. One of the major symptoms of HAVS is vibration white finger (VWF) caused by exaggerated vasoconstriction of the arteries and skin arterioles. While VWF is a very painful and costly occupational illness, its pathology has not been well understood. In this study a small artery is modeled as a fluid filled elastic tube whose diameter changes along the axial direction. Equations of motion are developed by considering interactions between the fluid, artery wall and soft-tissue bed. It is shown that the resulting wave equation is the same as that of the basilar membrane in the cochlea of mammals. Therefore, the artery system shows a spatial resonance as in the basilar membrane, which responds with the highest amplitude at the location determined by the vibration frequency. This implies that a long-term use of one type of tool will induce high-level stresses at a few identical locations of the artery that correspond to the major frequency components of the tool. Hardening and deterioration of the artery at these locations may be a possible cause of VWF.

  12. A posteriori determination of the useful data range for small-angle scattering experiments on dilute monodisperse systems

    PubMed Central

    Konarev, Petr V.; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) experiments on solutions provide rapidly decaying scattering curves, often with a poor signal-to-noise ratio, especially at higher angles. On modern instruments, the noise is partially compensated for by oversampling, thanks to the fact that the angular increment in the data is small compared with that needed to describe adequately the local behaviour and features of the scattering curve. Given a (noisy) experimental data set, an important question arises as to which part of the data still contains useful information and should be taken into account for the interpretation and model building. Here, it is demonstrated that, for monodisperse systems, the useful experimental data range is defined by the number of meaningful Shannon channels that can be determined from the data set. An algorithm to determine this number and thus the data range is developed, and it is tested on a number of simulated data sets with various noise levels and with different degrees of oversampling, corresponding to typical SAXS/SANS experiments. The method is implemented in a computer program and examples of its application to analyse the experimental data recorded under various conditions are presented. The program can be employed to discard experimental data containing no useful information in automated pipelines, in modelling procedures, and for data deposition or publication. The software is freely accessible to academic users. PMID:25995844

  13. C-arm rotation as a method for reducing peak skin dose in interventional cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Pasciak, Alexander S; Bourgeois, Austin C; Jones, A Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged interventional cardiology (IC) procedures may result in radiation-induced skin injury, a potentially preventable cause of patient morbidity. Rotating the C-arm during an IC procedure may reduce this risk, although the methods by which the technique can be practically applied remains unexplored. A previous study demonstrated that C-arm rotation often increases peak skin dose (PSD) in interventional radiology procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether C-arm rotation reduces the PSD in IC procedures and, if so, under what circumstances. Materials and methods Simulations were performed using a numerical ray-tracing algorithm to analyse the effect of C-arm rotation on PSD across a range of patient sizes, C-arm configurations and procedure types. Specific data from modern fluoroscopes and patient dimensions were used as inputs to the simulations. Results In many cases, modest C-arm rotation angles completely eliminated overlap between X-ray field sites on the skin. When overlap remained, PSD increases were generally small. One exception was craniocaudal rotation, which tended to increase PSD. C-arm rotation was most effective for large patients and small X-ray field sizes. Small patients may not benefit from C-arm rotation as a procedural modification. The use of a prophylactic method where the C-arm was rotated between small opposing oblique angles was effective in reducing PSD. Conclusions With the exception of rotation to steep craniocaudal angles, rotating the C-arm reduces PSD in IC procedures when used as either a procedural modification or a prophylactic strategy. Tight collimation increases the benefit of C-arm rotation. PMID:25568803

  14. Surface hopping outperforms secular Redfield theory when reorganization energies range from small to moderate (and nuclei are classical)

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Brian R. Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2015-03-14

    We evaluate the accuracy of Tully’s surface hopping algorithm for the spin-boson model in the limit of small to moderate reorganization energy. We calculate transition rates between diabatic surfaces in the exciton basis and compare against exact results from the hierarchical equations of motion; we also compare against approximate rates from the secular Redfield equation and Ehrenfest dynamics. We show that decoherence-corrected surface hopping performs very well in this regime, agreeing with secular Redfield theory for very weak system-bath coupling and outperforming secular Redfield theory for moderate system-bath coupling. Surface hopping can also be extended beyond the Markovian limits of standard Redfield theory. Given previous work [B. R. Landry and J. E. Subotnik, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A513 (2012)] that establishes the accuracy of decoherence-corrected surface-hopping in the Marcus regime, this work suggests that surface hopping may well have a very wide range of applicability.

  15. Assessing short to medium range ensemble streamflow forecast approaches in small to medium scale watersheds across CONUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A. W.; Newman, A. J.; Brekke, L. D.; Arnold, J. R.; Clark, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service, the US National Weather Service River Forecasting Centers have implemented short to medium range ensemble streamflow forecasts. Hydrologic models are forced with meteorological forecast ensembles derived using a downscaling and calibration technique, MEFP, that leverages correlations at multiple temporal scales between large scale GEFS forecast ensemble mean and local scale observed precipitation and temperature. Strengths of MEFP include its use of multi-decade hindcast for calibration of local scale forecasts and production of verification information, but possible weaknesses include the use of precipitation and temperature ensemble mean information only, which requires the statistical synthesis of ensemble members. We explore whether using a larger set of atmospheric predictors and full ensemble members from the GEFS can lead to greater meteorological and hydrological predictability. Using 30+ year streamflow hindcasts, we evaluate 1-15 day streamflow predictions using the Snow-17/Sacramento hydrologic modeling approach in small to medium-sized watersheds across CONUS. We compare the MEFP approach and performance with regressive and analog-based statistical downscaling and calibration methods that rely on a range of atmospheric predictors to produce watershed-scale ensemble forecasts. This presentation describes the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches.

  16. A new species of nurse-frog (Aromobatidae, Allobates) from the Madeira River basin with a small geographic range.

    PubMed

    Simões, Pedro Ivo

    2016-01-01

    I describe the seventh species of nurse-frog (Allobates) from the Madeira River basin in Brazilian Amazonia. The new species is distinguished from similar congeneric species by its small body size (snout-to-vent length ranging between 14.0-14.7 mm in adult males and between 14.7-14.9 mm in adult females), by the absence of dark brown regular shapes (e.g. hourglass, "X" or polygon-like marks) on the dorsum, by the absence of transverse dark bars on the dorsal surface of the thigh, and by the light gray to white ventral surfaces, light to dark gray only on throat in live male and female specimens. Males have a distinctive advertisement call characterized by the emission of long (7-11 s) trills of short notes (0.04 s in average) with dominant frequency at 5.9-6.3 kHz and emission rate ranging between 6.7-8.7 notes/s. DNA barcode analyses based on a fragment of the 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene provides additional support to the recognition of the new taxon, which is probably distributed on the east riverbank of the Madeira River, in the interfluve between the Aripuanã and Ji-Paraná rivers. PMID:27394243

  17. Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Moinet, Marie; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Mesplède, Alain; Blanchard, Béatrice; Descarsin, Véronique; Dumas, Philippe; Dumas, Yann; Coïc, Christophe; Couzi, Laurent; Fournier, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to

  18. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment.

    The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Host Range of Small-Ruminant Lentivirus Cytopathic Variants Determined with a Selectable Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis Virus Pseudotype System

    PubMed Central

    Hötzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P.

    2001-01-01

    The small-ruminant lentiviruses ovine maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) cause encephalitis, progressive pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in sheep and goats. Icelandic MVV strains, which are lytic in tissue culture, have a wide species distribution of functional receptors, which includes human cells. In contrast, functional receptors for the nonlytic CAEV CO are absent from human cells. To determine if the wide species distribution of functional receptors is a common property of MVV strains or related to cytopathic phenotype, we tested the infectivity of viruses pseudotyped with the envelope glycoproteins of MVV K1514, CAEV CO, and lytic and nonlytic North American MVV strains to cells of different species. Replication-defective CAEV proviral constructs lacking the env, tat, and vif genes and carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase gene in the vif-tat region were developed for the infectivity assays. Cotransfection of human 293T cells with these proviral constructs and plasmids expressing CAEV, MVV, or vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoproteins produced infectious pseudotyped virus which induced resistance of infected cells to G418. Using these pseudotypes, we confirmed the wide species distribution of Icelandic MVV receptors and the narrow host range of CAEV. However, functional receptors for the two North American MVV strains tested, unlike the Icelandic MVV and similar to CAEV, were limited to cells of ruminant species, regardless of cytopathic phenotype. The results indicate a differential receptor recognition by MVV strains which is unrelated to cytopathic phenotype. PMID:11462010

  20. Pediatric Arm Function Test

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Rowe, Jan; Vogtle, Laura; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although there are several validated upper-extremity measures in young children with cerebral palsy (CP), none primarily assess capacity to carry out actions and tasks with the more-affected arm. To address this need, we developed the Pediatric Arm Function Test (PAFT), which involves behavioral observation of how children use their more-affected arm during structured play in the laboratory or clinic. This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAFT Functional Ability scale. Design In Study 1, 20 children between 2–8 years with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis due to CP completed the PAFT on two occasions separated by three weeks. In Study 2, 41 children between 2–6 years with similar characteristics completed the PAFT and received a grade reflecting severity of more-affected arm motor impairment. Results In Study 1, the PAFT test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was 0.74. In Study 2, convergent validity was supported by a strong, inverse correlation (r = −0.6, p < .001) between PAFT scores and grade of impairment. Conclusions The PAFT Functional Ability scale is a reliable and valid measure of more-affected arm motor capacity in children with CP between 2–6 years. It can be employed to measure upper-extremity neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:23103486

  1. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  2. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Mosby; 2013:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  3. JPRS report: Arms control, [June 21, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-21

    This document contains articles on arms control. Some topics discussed are chemical bombs, nuclear missiles, targeting, threats, NATO, short range missiles, military inspections, treaties, and nuclear testing.

  4. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  5. Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ application of heavy metal stabilizing agents has in some cases increased the mobility of target metal contaminants. Mechanistic understandings are necessary to better predict (1) the dynamic short- and long-term response to soil amendments, and (2) the utility of biochars in nonremoval and...

  6. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  7. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  8. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  9. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  10. Anomalous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this composite image of spiral galaxy M106 (NGC 4258), optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey is shown as yellow, radio data from the Very Large Array appears as purple, X-ray data from Chandra is coded blue, and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope appears red. Two anomalous arms, which aren't visible at optical wavelengths, appear as purple and blue emission.

  11. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  12. Performance of arm locking in LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Kirk; Spero, Robert E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2009-11-01

    , without degrading stability. With a time-delay error of 3 ns (equivalent of 1 m interspacecraft ranging error), time-delay interferometry (TDI) is capable of suppressing 300Hz/Hz of laser frequency noise to the required level. We show that if no interspacecraft laser links fail, arm locking alone surpasses this noise performance for the entire mission. If one interspacecraft laser link fails, arm locking alone will achieve this performance for all but approximately 1 h per year, when the arm length mismatch of the two remaining arms passes through zero. Therefore, the LISA sensitivity can be realized with arm locking and time-delay interferometry only, without any form of prestabilization.

  13. Three explanations for biodiversity hotspots: small range size, geographical overlap and time for species accumulation. An Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lyn G; Hardy, Nate B; Crisp, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    To understand the generation and maintenance of biodiversity hotspots, we tested three major hypotheses: rates of diversification, ecological limits to diversity, and time for species accumulation. Using dated molecular phylogenies, measures of species' range size and geographical clade overlap, niche modelling, and lineages-through-time plots of Australian Fabaceae, we compared the southwest Australia Floristic Region (SWAFR; a global biodiversity hotspot) with a latitudinally equivalent non-hotspot, southeast Australia (SEA). Ranges of species (real and simulated) were smaller in the SWAFR than in SEA. Geographical overlap of clades was significantly greater for Daviesia in the SWAFR than in SEA, but the inverse for Bossiaea. Lineage diversification rates over the past 10 Myr did not differ between the SWAFR and SEA in either genus. Interaction of multiple factors probably explains the differences in measured diversity between the two regions. Steeper climatic gradients in the SWAFR probably explain the smaller geographical ranges of both genera there. Greater geographical overlap of clades in the SWAFR, combined with a longer time in the region, can explain why Daviesia is far more species-rich there than in SEA. Our results indicate that the time for speciation and ecological limits hypotheses, in concert, can explain the differences in biodiversity. PMID:25442328

  14. Phenotypic plasticity of post-fire activity and thermal biology of a free-ranging small mammal.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-05-15

    Ecosystems can change rapidly and sometimes irreversibly due to a number of anthropogenic and natural factors, such as deforestation and fire. How individual animals exposed to such changes respond behaviourally and physiologically is poorly understood. We quantified the phenotypic plasticity of activity patterns and torpor use - a highly efficient energy conservation mechanism - in brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a small Australian marsupial mammal. We compared groups in densely vegetated forest areas (pre-fire and control) with a group in a burned, open habitat (post-fire). Activity and torpor patterns differed among groups and sexes. Females in the post-fire group spent significantly less time active than the other groups, both during the day and night. However, in males only daytime activity declined in the post-fire group, although overall activity was also reduced on cold days in males for all groups. The reduction in total or diurnal activity in the post-fire group was made energetically possible by a ~3.4-fold and ~2.2-fold increase in the proportion of time females and males, respectively, used torpor in comparison to that in the pre-fire and control groups. Overall, likely due to reproductive needs, torpor was more pronounced in females than in males, but low ambient temperatures increased torpor bout duration in both sexes. Importantly, for both male and female antechinus and likely other small mammals, predator avoidance and energy conservation - achieved by reduced activity and increased torpor use - appear to be vital for post-fire survival where ground cover and refuges have been obliterated. PMID:27001165

  15. Small- Geo Solar Array: New Generation Of Solar Arrays For Commercial Telecom Satellites For Power Ranges Between 2,5 KW And 7,5 KW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paarmann, Carola; Muller, Jens; Mende, Thomas; Borner, Carsten; Mascher, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of the ESA supported Artes 11 program a new generation of GEO telecommunication satellites is under development. This platform will cover the power range from 2 to 5 kW. ASTRIUM GmbH is contracted to develop and design the Solar Array for this platform. Furthermore the manufacturing and the qualification of a PFM wing for the first flight model is foreseen. The satellite platform, called Small-GEO, is developed under the responsibility of OHB System. This first Small-GEO satellite is designated to be delivered to HISPASAT for operation. The concept of ASTRIUM GmbH is to use all the experiences from the very successful EUROSTAR 2000+, EUROSTAR-3000 and the ALPHABUS platform and to adapt the technologies to the Small- GEO Solar Array. With the benefit of the huge in-orbit heritage of these programs, the remaining risks for the Small-GEO Solar Array can be minimized. The development of the Small-GEO Solar Array extends the ASTRIUM GmbH product portfolio by covering now the complete power range between 2 kW and 31 kW. This paper provides an overview of the different configurations, their main design features and parameters.

  16. 78 FR 27124 - Pacific Ocean Off the Kekaha Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Pacific Ocean Off the Kekaha Range Facility at... amend its regulations to establish a new danger zone in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Kekaha Range... National Guard to continue small arms training operations at the Kekaha Range Facility and to protect...

  17. Subglacial drainage characterization on a small surge type alpine glacier on the St. Elias range, Yukon Territory, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rada, C.; Schoof, C.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial drainage is known to play an important role in glacier dynamics trough its influence on basal sliding. However, drainage is also the most poorly understood dynamic process due to the difficulties of observing, identifying and modeling the physics involved. In an effort to improve understanding of subglacial hydrological processes, we have monitored a small, approximately 100 m thick surge-type alpine glacier for seven years. 225 boreholes, positioned to capture the spatial structure of the drainage system over a 0.4 km² study area in its upper ablation area, were instrumented with permanent pressure transducers, in addition to a permanent GPS array and weather station installed on the glacier. Our principal results are i) Each year the drainage system experiences a relatively brief (1-2 month) period of activity driven by diurnal surface melt, with a spring event and a spatial reorganization of the drainage system. ii) The evolution of the drainage system can lead to very narrow main drainage axes, poorly connected laterally but traceable over long downslope distances (>500 m) with very little attenuation of the pressure signal, indicating that leakage into englacial or subglacial storage is relatively small. In at least one instance, a borehole have reached directly a channel with highly turbulent water flow. iii) Our data also indicates the occurrence of distributed drainage over extended spatial regions, co-existing in close spatial proximity with channelized areas showing little evidence of hydraulic connection between them. v) Crevasses appear to have a significant influence on the pattern of drainage. vi) While most neighboring boreholes exhibit uncorrelated winter water pressures, there is strong evidence for winter-time drainage activity in the form of pressure oscillations along main drainage axes. vii) There is strong evidence for interannual variability in the distributed versus channelized character of drainage, with drainage axes shifting

  18. Gaseous Structures and Mass Drift in Spiral Galaxies: Effects of Arm Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, W.-T.

    2015-10-01

    Stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies play an important role in the formation of gaseous substructures such as gaseous feathers as well as mass inflows/outflows in the radial direction. We study nonlinear responses of self-gravitating gas to an imposed stellar spiral potential in galactic disks with differing arm strength and pattern speed. We find that the extent and shapes of gaseous arms as well as the radial mass drift rate depend rather sensitively on the arm pattern speed. Quasi-steady spiral shocks can exist only when the normal Mach number is small. The pitch angle of gaseous arms is usually smaller than that of stellar arms. The mass drift rate to the central region is in the range of ˜0.05-3.0M⊙yr-1 , with larger values corresponding to stronger and/or slower-rotating arms. Using a normal-mode linear stability analysis together with nonlinear simulations, we show that wiggle instability of spiral shocks is due to the accumulation of potential vorticity at a perturbed shock front, rather than Kelvin-Helmholtz instability as previously suggested.

  19. Master-At-Arms: Naval Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual describes the duties of the Master-at-Arms, a recent addition to the Navy's enlisted rating structure. The new Master-at-Arms must be able to plan, supervise, and perform security duties afloat and ashore. Each chapter focuses on particular responsibilities and procedures: career development, legal procedures, small arms, patrols and…

  20. Small viscosity asymptotics for the inertial range of local structure and for the wall region of wall-bounded turbulent shear flow.

    PubMed

    Barenblatt, G I; Chorin, A J

    1996-06-25

    The small viscosity asymptotics of the inertial range of local structure and of the wall region in wallbounded turbulent shear flow are compared. The comparison leads to a sharpening of the dichotomy between Reynolds number dependent scaling (power-type) laws and the universal Reynolds number independent logarithmic law in wall turbulence. It further leads to a quantitative prediction of an essential difference between them, which is confirmed by the results of a recent experimental investigation. These results lend support to recent work on the zero viscosity limit of the inertial range in turbulence. PMID:11607688

  1. Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy in the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering range.

    PubMed

    Möller, Johannes; Chushkin, Yuriy; Prevost, Sylvain; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    2016-07-01

    Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements in the ultra-small-angle range are performed using a long pinhole collimation instrument in combination with two-dimensional photon-counting and high-sensitivity imaging detectors. The feasibility of the presented setup to measure dynamics on different time and length scales pertinent to colloidal systems is shown. This setup offers new research opportunities, such as for example in the investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics in optically opaque, complex systems over length scales from tens of nanometres to several micrometres. In addition, due to the short duration of the X-ray exposure involved in the ultra-small-angle range, possible radiation-induced effects are alleviated. Furthermore, the performance of two different detectors, a photon-counting Pilatus 300K and an integrating FReLoN CCD, are compared, and their applicability for accurate XPCS measurements is demonstrated. PMID:27359141

  2. Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- ARM summary

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.J.; Ruderman, M.A.; Treiman, S.B.

    1995-07-27

    This letter report provides a summary of the authors` views on ARM. ARM is a highly focused program designed to improve understanding of the transport of infrared and solar radiation through the atmosphere. The program pays particular attention to the interaction of radiation with the three phases of water. The goals of ARM are usually articulated in terms of improvements in climate models. The authors agree that ARM can indeed make significant contributions to the understanding of climate change. In addition they believe that the results of the program will have wide applicability to a broad range of problems, including more accurate short-term and seasonal weather forecasting.

  3. Validity of a small low-cost triaxial accelerometer with integrated logger for uncomplicated measurements of postures and movements of head, upper back and upper arms.

    PubMed

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Forsman, Mikael

    2016-07-01

    Repetitive work and work in constrained postures are risk factors for developing musculoskeletal disorders. Low-cost, user-friendly technical methods to quantify these risks are needed. The aims were to validate inclination angles and velocities of one model of the new generation of accelerometers with integrated data loggers against a previously validated one, and to compare meaurements when using a plain reference posture with that of a standardized one. All mean (n = 12 subjects) angular RMS-differences in 4 work tasks and 4 body parts were <2.5° and all mean median angular velocity differences <5.0 °/s. The mean correlation between the inclination signal-pairs was 0.996. This model of the new generation of triaxial accelerometers proved to be comparable to the validated accelerometer using a data logger. This makes it well-suited, for both researchers and practitioners, to measure postures and movements during work. Further work is needed for validation of the plain reference posture for upper arms. PMID:26995040

  4. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  5. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  6. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  7. Arm dominance affects feedforward strategy more than feedback sensitivity during a postural task.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elise H E; Perreault, Eric J

    2015-07-01

    Handedness is a feature of human motor control that is still not fully understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the dominant and nondominant arm each excel at different behaviors and has proposed that this behavioral asymmetry arises from lateralization in the cerebral cortex: the dominant side specializes in predictive trajectory control, while the nondominant side is specialized for impedance control. Long-latency stretch reflexes are an automatic mechanism for regulating posture and have been shown to contribute to limb impedance. To determine whether long-latency reflexes also contribute to asymmetric motor behavior in the upper limbs, we investigated the effect of arm dominance on stretch reflexes during a postural task that required varying degrees of impedance control. Our results demonstrated slightly but significantly larger reflex responses in the biarticular muscles of the nondominant arm, as would be consistent with increased impedance control. These differences were attributed solely to higher levels of voluntary background activity in the nondominant biarticular muscles, indicating that feedforward strategies for postural stability may differ between arms. Reflex sensitivity, which was defined as the magnitude of the reflex response for matched levels of background activity, was not significantly different between arms for a broad subject population ranging from 23 to 51 years of age. These results indicate that inter-arm differences in feedforward strategies are more influential during posture than differences in feedback sensitivity, in a broad subject population. Interestingly, restricting our analysis to subjects under 40 years of age revealed a small increase in long-latency reflex sensitivity in the nondominant arm relative to the dominant arm. Though our subject numbers were small for this secondary analysis, it suggests that further studies may be required to assess the influence of reflex lateralization throughout development. PMID

  8. Arm Dominance Affects Feedforward Strategy more than Feedback Sensitivity during a Postural Task

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elise H. E.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Handedness is a feature of human motor control that is still not fully understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the dominant and nondominant arm each excel at different behaviors, and has proposed that this behavioral asymmetry arises from lateralization in the cerebral cortex: the dominant side specializes in predictive trajectory control, while the nondominant side is specialized for impedance control. Long-latency stretch reflexes are an automatic mechanism for regulating posture, and have been shown to contribute to limb impedance. To determine whether long-latency reflexes also contribute to asymmetric motor behavior in the upper limbs, we investigated the effect of arm dominance on stretch reflexes during a postural task that required varying degrees of impedance control. Our results demonstrated slightly but significantly larger reflex responses in the biarticular muscles of the nondominant arm, as would be consistent with increased impedance control. These differences were attributed solely to higher levels of voluntary background activity in the nondominant biarticular muscles, indicating that feedforward strategies for postural stability may differ between arms. Reflex sensitivity, which was defined as the magnitude of the reflex response for matched levels of background activity, was not significantly different between arms for a broad subject population ranging from 23–51 years of age. These results indicate that inter-arm differences in feedforward strategies are more influential during posture than differences in feedback sensitivity, in a broad subject population. Interestingly, restricting our analysis to subjects under 40 years of age revealed a small increase in long-latency reflex sensitivity in the nondominant arm relative to the dominant arm. Though our subject numbers were small for this secondary analysis, it suggests that further studies may be required to assess the influence of reflex lateralization throughout development. PMID

  9. Arms control and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A collection of 16 articles from the Scientific American discusses the evolution of nuclear weapons since 1945 and the attempts to control the nuclear arms race through national action and international negotiations. The articles and commentaries by political scientists Bruce M. Russett and Fred Chernoff combine technical information on weapons and deployment systems with political analysis of current arms strategies and diplomacy. The articles are grouped under three major topics: SALT and the history of arms control negotiations, current strategic arms negotiations, and European security. A separate abstract was written for each of the 16 articles selected for the Energy Data Base. 226 references.

  10. Use of a new ultra-long-range terrestrial LiDAR system to monitor the mass balance of very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M.; Huss, M.; Hoelzle, M.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring glacier mass balance is important as it directly reflects the climatic forcing on the glacier surface. Today, repeated comparison of digital elevation models (DEMs) is a popular and widely used approach to derive surface elevation, volume and mass changes for a large number of glaciers. In high-mountain environments, airborne laser scanning (ALS) techniques currently provide the most accurate and highest resolution DEMs on the catchment scale, allowing the computation of glacier changes on an annual or even semi-annual basis. For monitoring individual glaciers though, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is easier and more cost-efficiently applied on the seasonal timescale compared to ALS. Since most recently, the application of the latest generation of ultra-long-range near infrared TLS systems allows the acquisition of surface elevation information over snow and ice of unprecedented quality and over larger zones than with previous near infrared TLS devices. Although very small glaciers represent the majority in number in most mountain ranges on Earth, their response to climatic changes is still not fully understood and field measurements are sparse. Therefore, a programme was set up in 2012 to monitor both the seasonal and annual surface mass balance of six very small glaciers across the Swiss Alps using the direct glaciological method. As often nearly the entire surface is visible from one single location, TLS is a highly promising technique to generate repeated high-resolution DEMs as well as to derive seasonal geodetic mass balances of very small ice masses. In this study, we present seasonal surface elevation, volume and geodetic mass changes for five very small glaciers in Switzerland (Glacier de Prapio, Glacier du Sex Rouge, St. Annafirn, Schwarzbachfirn and Pizolgletscher) derived from the comparison of seasonally repeated high-resolution DEMs acquired since autumn 2013 with the new ultra-long-range TLS device Riegl VZ-6000. We show the different

  11. Different studies of the global pitch angle of the Milky Way's spiral arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2015-07-01

    There are many published values for the pitch angle of individual spiral arms, and their wide distribution (from -3° to -28°) begs for various attempts for a single value. Each of four statistical methods used here yields a mean pitch angle in a small range, between -12° and -14° (Table 7, Fig. 2). The final result of our meta-analysis yields a mean global pitch angle in the Milky Way's spiral arms of -13.1° ± 0.6°.

  12. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  13. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  14. This week?s Citation Classic: 'Stickel, L. F. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals. J. Mammalogy 35: 1-15, 1954.'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    During my first employment as a junior biologist conducting food habits analyses at the Patuxent Research Refuge (now Patuxent Wildlife Research Center) of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the first station director, Arnold L. Nelson, gave each staff biologist the opportunity to spend a little time conducting field studies on the 2,600-acre research area. These studies were to help in ecological evaluation of the area, but also, no doubt, functioned as a morale builder for biologists daily engaged in difficult, demanding and confining laboratory work. I undertook to measure the population density of small mammals in different habitats. The state-of-the-art methods recommended to me and prevalent in the literature worried me, especially after preliminary field work. Reading the classic, paper by W.H. Burt [Terrioriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. J. Mammalogy 24:346-352, 1943] was a turning point for me in seeing that knowledge of home-range size was the key to measuring population density. My first papers employed these concepts in field evaluations. However, they could give-only limited attention to the question of how home ranges could be measured. Furthermore, the importance of knowledge of the home range to habitat evaluation and to understanding animal behavior was becoming increasingly apparent. Advocacy of many different methods of measuring home ranges appeared in the literature. It did not seem possible to evaluate them objectively. It occurred to me that artificial populations could be used to help in understanding the mechanisms of measuring home ranges. The effects of random trap-visiting, bias toward central traps, trap-spacing, range shape, and other factors could be considered. So grids of traps were inked onto oversize graph paper, and simulated ranges were cut from plastic to be tossed as randomly as possible on the trap-grids. It was a slow, laborious job. Analysis showed that random captures in artificial populations produced

  15. Rapidly expanding genetic diversity and host range of the Circoviridae viral family and other Rep encoding small circular ssDNA genomes.

    PubMed

    Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin

    2012-03-01

    The genomes of numerous circoviruses and distantly related circular ssDNA viruses encoding a rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep) have been characterized from the tissues of mammals, fish, insects, plants (geminivirus and nanovirus), in human and animal feces, in an algae cell, and in diverse environmental samples. We review the genome organization, phylogenetic relationships and initial prevalence studies of cycloviruses, a proposed new genus in the Circoviridae family. Viral fossil rep sequences were also recently identified integrated on the chromosomes of mammals, frogs, lancelets, crustaceans, mites, gastropods, roundworms, placozoans, hydrozoans, protozoans, land plants, fungi, algae, and phytoplasma bacterias and their plasmids, reflecting the very wide past host range of rep bearing viruses. An ancient origin for viruses with Rep-encoding small circular ssDNA genomes, predating the diversification of eukaryotes, is discussed. The cellular hosts and pathogenicity of many recently described rep-containing circular ssDNA genomes remain to be determined. Future studies of the virome of single cell and multi-cellular eukaryotes are likely to further extend the known diversity and host-range of small rep-containing circular ssDNA viral genomes. PMID:22155583

  16. Rapidly expanding genetic diversity and host range of the Circoviridae viral family and other Rep encoding small circular ssDNA genomes

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of numerous circoviruses and distantly related circular DNA viruses encoding a rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep) have been characterized from the tissues of mammals, fish, insects, and plants (geminivirus and nanovirus), human and animal feces, in an algae cell, and in diverse environmental samples. We review the genome organization, phylogenetic relationships and initial prevalence studies of cycloviruses, a proposed new genus in the Circoviridae family. Viral fossil rep sequences were also identified integrated on the chromosomes of mammals, frogs, lancelets, crustaceans, mites, gastropods, roundworms, placozoans, hydrozoans, protozoans, land plants, fungi, algae, and phytoplasma bacterias and their plasmids, reflecting their past host range. An ancient origin for viruses with rep-encoding single stranded small circular genomes, predating the diversification of eukaryotes, is discussed. The cellular hosts and pathogenicity of many recently described rep-containing circular genomes remain to be determined. Future studies of the virome of single cell and multi-cellular eukaryotes are likely to further extend the known diversity and host-range of small rep-containing circular viral genomes. PMID:22155583

  17. Low-background-rate detector for ions in the 5- to 50-keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. Small, inexpensive cyclotrons serving this purpose would make the technique accessible to more researchers and inexpensive enough to compare many small samples. To this end, VC Berkeley is developing a 20-cm-diameter, 30- to 40-keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for /sup 14/C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30- to 40-keV /sup 14/C at 10/sup -1/ counts/sec in the high-background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. To meet this challenge, an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector was developed that allows dark-count rates below 10/sup -4/ counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the /sup 13/CH background peak, to the frequency for /sup 14/C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10/sup -4/ counts/sec. For each /sup 14/C ion, the detector's grazing-incidence Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Products from Principal Investigators

    DOE Data Explorer

    The PI data sets have been made available by ARM principal investigators (PI) or by others for use by the scientific community through the ARM Archive. These data are value-added products to particular ARM data sets or are derived research data of value to ARM science. Principal Investigators' names, date ranges, and research sites involved are listed in table format with the titles of the data products available. Titles are links to a page of additional details (such as the PI's contact information) and a link to the directory where the data set resides. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The URL to go directly to the ARM Archive, bypassing the information pages, is http://www.archive.arm.gov/. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE's Office of Science is responsible for the ARM Program. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. Application and validation of long-range terrestrial laser scanning to monitor the mass balance of very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias; Kummert, Mario; Hoelzle, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Due to the relative lack of empirical field data, the response of very small glaciers (here defined as being smaller than 0.5 km2) to current atmospheric warming is not fully understood yet. Investigating their mass balance, e.g. using the direct glaciological method, is a prerequisite to fill this knowledge gap. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) techniques operating in the near infrared range can be applied for the creation of repeated high-resolution digital elevation models and consecutive derivation of annual geodetic mass balances of very small glaciers. This method is promising, as laborious and potentially dangerous field measurements as well as the inter- and extrapolation of point measurements can be circumvented. However, it still needs to be validated. Here, we present TLS-derived annual surface elevation and geodetic mass changes for five very small glaciers in Switzerland (Glacier de Prapio, Glacier du Sex Rouge, St. Annafirn, Schwarzbachfirn, and Pizolgletscher) and two consecutive years (2013/14-2014/15). The scans were acquired with a long-range Riegl -6000 especially designed for surveying snow- and ice-covered terrain. Zonally variable conversion factors for firn and bare ice surfaces were applied to convert geodetic volume to mass changes. We compare the geodetic results to direct glaciological mass balance measurements coinciding with the TLS surveys and assess the uncertainties and errors included in both methods. Average glacier-wide mass balances were negative in both years, showing stronger mass losses in 2014/15 (-1.65 m w.e.) compared to 2013/14 (-0.59 m w.e.). Geodetic mass balances were slightly less negative but in close agreement with the direct glaciological ones (R2 = 0.91). Due to the dense in situ measurements, the uncertainties in the direct glaciological mass balances were small compared to the majority of measured glaciers worldwide (±0.09 m w.e. yr-1 on average), and similar to uncertainties in the TLS-derived geodetic mass

  20. Data on surface-water, streambed-interstitial water, and bed-sediment quality for selected locations in the small arms impact area of central Fort Gordon, Georgia, September 4-6, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, Sheryln; Stamey, Timothy C.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon (U.S. Department of the Army), conducted a chemical assessment of surface water, streambed-interstitial water, and bed sediments within the small arms impact area of Fort Gordon Military Installation. The study was conducted in support of the development of an Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Fort Gordon, Georgia. An effective INRMP ensures that natural resources conservation measures and U.S. Army activities on the military base are integrated and consistent with Federal requirements to manage military installations on an ecosystem basis. Filtered water samples were collected from five sites along South Prong Creek and three sites along Marcum Branch Creek for chemical analyses of major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. On-site measurements of pH, temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen were made at the eight sites. Filtered water collected showed varying concentrations in both surface- and streambed-interstitial water. Bed-sediment samples collected from South Prong Creek contain elevated levels of arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and total organic carbon relative to previous concentrations (McConnell and others, 2000). Bed-sediment samples collected from Marcum Branch Creek contain elevated levels of beryllium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium, and total organic carbon relative to previous concentrations (McConnell and others, 2000).

  1. Dabrafenib in BRAF V600E–Mutant Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: an Open-label, Single arm, Multicenter, Phase 2 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Quoix, Elisabeth; Riely, Gregory; Barlesi, Fabrice; Souquet, Pierre-John; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Kelly, Ronan J.; Cho, B. C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Pandite, Lini; Nase, Christine; Ma, Bo; D’Amelio, Anthony; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Curtis, C. Martin; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activating BRAF V600E mutations are found in approximately 1–2% of adenocarcinomas of the lung offering an opportunity to test targeted therapy for this disease. Dabrafenib is an oral selective inhibitor of the BRAF kinase. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity of dabrafenib in patients with advanced BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of previously treated and untreated patients with stage IV, metastatic NSCLC and BRAF V600E mutation, we evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR) in patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug. Safety analysis was performed on the all-treated population (all previously treated and untreated patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug). The study is ongoing but not enrolling participants in this cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Between August 2011 and February 2014 a total of 84 previously treated and untreated patients were enrolled. Investigator-assessed ORR for 78 pretreated patients was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23·1 to 44·9). Independent review committee assessment of ORR was consistent with investigator-based assessment. Four of the six previously untreated patients had an objective response. One patient died on study due to intracranial hemorrhage that was considered by the investigator to be due to study drug. Serious adverse events were reported in 35 (42%) of 84 patients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher adverse events were cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (10 [12%] of 84 patients), asthenia (4 [5%] of 84 patients), and basal cell carcinoma (4 [5%] of 84 patients). Interpretation This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective trial focusing on BRAF V600E-mutant NSCLC to show clinical activity of a BRAF inhibitor. The

  2. Feature extraction of micro-motion frequency and the maximum wobble angle in a small range of missile warhead based on micro-Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Jiang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Micro-Doppler effect is induced by the micro-motion dynamics of the radar target itself or any structure on the target. In this paper, a simplified cone-shaped model for ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation is established, followed by the theoretical formula of micro-nutation is derived. It is confirmed that the theoretical results are identical to simulation results by using short-time Fourier transform. Then we propose a new method for nutation period extraction via signature maximum energy fitting based on empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform. The maximum wobble angle is also extracted by distance approximate approach in a small range of wobble angle, which is combined with the maximum likelihood estimation. By the simulation studies, it is shown that these two feature extraction methods are both valid even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Molecular Assembly of Wheat Gliadins into Nanostructures: A Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study of Gliadins in Distilled Water over a Wide Concentration Range.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuhiro; Matsumiya, Aoi; Higashino, Yuki; Funaki, Satoshi; Kitao, Yuki; Oba, Yojiro; Inoue, Rintaro; Arisaka, Fumio; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Urade, Reiko

    2015-10-01

    Gliadin, one of the major proteins together with glutenin composing gluten, affects the physical properties of wheat flour dough. In this study, nanoscale structures of hydrated gliadins extracted into distilled water were investigated primarily by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) over a wide range of concentrations. Gliadins are soluble in distilled water below 10 wt %. Guinier analyses of SAXS profiles indicate that gliadins are present as monomers together with small amounts of dimers and oligomers in a very dilute solution. The SAXS profiles also indicate that interparticle interference appears above 0.5 wt % because of electrostatic repulsion among gliadin assemblies. Above 15 wt %, gliadins form gel-like hydrated solids. At greater concentrations, a steep upturn appears in the low-q region owing to the formation of large aggregates, and a broad shoulder appears in the middle-q region showing density fluctuation inside. This study demonstrates that SAXS can effectively disclose the nanostructure of hydrated gliadin assemblies. PMID:26365302

  4. Role of hydrophilicity and length of diblock arms for determining star polymer physical properties.

    PubMed

    Felberg, Lisa E; Brookes, David H; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Rice, Julia E; Swope, William C

    2015-01-22

    We present a molecular simulation study of star polymers consisting of 16 diblock copolymer arms bound to a small adamantane core by varying both arm length and the outer hydrophilic block when attached to the same hydrophobic block of poly-δ-valerolactone. Here we consider two biocompatible star polymers in which the hydrophilic block is composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polymethyloxazoline (POXA) in addition to a polycarbonate-based polymer with a pendant hydrophilic group (PC1). We find that the different hydrophilic blocks of the star polymers show qualitatively different trends in their interactions with aqueous solvent, orientational time correlation functions, and orientational correlation between pairs of monomers of their polymeric arms in solution, in which we find that the PEG polymers are more thermosensitive compared with the POXA and PC1 star polymers over the physiological temperature range we have investigated. PMID:25254622

  5. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Therapy as a Promising Option for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: a Single arm Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lucheng; Jing, Saisai; Wang, Bing; Wu, Kan; Shenglin, M A; Zhang, Shirong

    2016-04-01

    Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies showed satisfactory efficacy in treating non-small-cell lung cancer. We conducted this meta-analysis to explore the advantage subtypes and best therapeutic modalities of Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy on NSCLC. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. The pooled ORR, 6-month progression-free survival rate (PFSR6m), and 1-year overall survival rate (OSR1y) were calculated and compared. 15 trials were included in this meta-analysis. Our analyses demonstrated the pooled ORR of 1st line and 2nd or more line anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy were 36.5 % (21.9-51.0 %) and 17.0 % (14.3-19.7 %), respectively. While the difference was significant (Z = 3.31, p < 0.001). The pooled ORR for non-squamous and squamous cell lung cancer were 18.5 % (16.0-21.1 %) and 17.9 % (14.4-21.5 %), respectively. The difference was not significant (Z = 0.27, p = 0.791). The pooled ORR for PD-L1 positive and negative patients were 29.6 % (21.6-37.6 %) and 13.5 % (10.6-16.3 %), respectively. The difference was significant (Z = 4.39, p < 0.001). The PFSR6m for PD-L1 positive and negative NSCLC were 50.0 % (40.5-62.3 %) and 27.0 % (19.2-34.7 %). The difference was significant (Z = 3.72, p < 0.001). The OSR1y for PD-L1 positive and negative NSCLC were 66.8 % (44.8 %-88.9 %) and 54.0 % (32.6-75.3 %). The difference was not significant (Z = 0.77, p = 0.441). Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody can serve as a promising treatment option for NSCLC. Patients with positive PD-L1 expression may benefit more from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. 1st-line anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can be chosen as the best modality. Squamous cell lung cancer also benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. PMID:26552662

  6. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  7. A small-scale hyperacute compound eye featuring active eye tremor: application to visual stabilization, target tracking, and short-range odometry.

    PubMed

    Colonnier, Fabien; Manecy, Augustin; Juston, Raphaël; Mallot, Hanspeter; Leitel, Robert; Floreano, Dario; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a miniature artificial compound eye (15 mm in diameter) called the curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) was endowed for the first time with hyperacuity, using similar micro-movements to those occurring in the fly's compound eye. A periodic micro-scanning movement of only a few degrees enables the vibrating compound eye to locate contrasting objects with a 40-fold greater resolution than that imposed by the interommatidial angle. In this study, we developed a new algorithm merging the output of 35 local processing units consisting of adjacent pairs of artificial ommatidia. The local measurements performed by each pair are processed in parallel with very few computational resources, which makes it possible to reach a high refresh rate of 500 Hz. An aerial robotic platform with two degrees of freedom equipped with the active CurvACE placed over naturally textured panels was able to assess its linear position accurately with respect to the environment thanks to its efficient gaze stabilization system. The algorithm was found to perform robustly at different light conditions as well as distance variations relative to the ground and featured small closed-loop positioning errors of the robot in the range of 45 mm. In addition, three tasks of interest were performed without having to change the algorithm: short-range odometry, visual stabilization, and tracking contrasting objects (hands) moving over a textured background. PMID:25712307

  8. The future of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Mack, A.

    1987-01-01

    This collection of essays examines the issues involved in the arms negotiations between the Superpowers, and the potential for developing effective arms control in the future. Contents (partial): Preface; Reagan administration and arms control; Superpowers Arms Control: The Soviet perspective; Nuclear disengagement zones and no first use doctrines as arms control measures; Regional arms control in the South Pacific; Arms control and the Indian Ocean; Preventing Proliferation: The role of Australian uranium.

  9. Geochemical Characteristics of Overbank Deposits after a Flood Event in a Small, Mountainous River System in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of particulate organic matter (POM) transported by rivers has broad implications in our understanding of aquatic nutrient dynamics, the fate of contaminants, environmental change in watersheds, and carbon export to depositional environments. The major fraction of this POM is mobilized during storms, especially in small mountainous river systems (SMRS) producing complex spatial-temporal POM patterns poorly documented due to logistical difficulties. In this study, we examine the use of overbank flood deposits as a surrogate of a quasi-Lagrangian POM sampling scheme to supplement the conventional Eulerian sampling scheme for POM. We report on the geochemical characteristics of 11 overbank deposits created after a significant flood (10 X mean discharge) along 80 km in the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range. We measure organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, and biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols as well as particle size distribution and surface area of the deposited sediments. We compared those characteristics with the POM sampled during several storms at a fixed location. Our results suggest that despite the differences in local depositional conditions inferred from particle size distributions and texture, the geochemical properties of overbank deposits resemble the properties of the material in transport, mainly derived from a terrestrial source with a clear signal of gymnosperm wood. Furthermore, the normalized ranges of the geochemical indicators measured across space for one single event are comparable to, or even higher than, the normalized range of the same indicators measured along time at the fixed location. The implications of the amount and quality of the additional information offered by the overbank deposits in POM dynamics in watershed is discussed.

  10. Advanced 360o FOV, wide energy range, non-HV, gated time of flight mass spectrometers for Small Satellites and Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, N.; Jones, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.; Uribe, P.; Cameron, T.; Nanan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The time of flight technique is widely used for composition analysis of space plasma instruments. The foil - MCP/CEM combination is commonly used for E x TOF mass analysis at the cost of energy threshold, scattering, and direct particle interaction which ultimately affect performance. An alternative method especially effective at low energies is gated time of flight where the start foil is replaced with electric gating. There are several advantages of electric gating, including elimination of heavy HVPS required for pre-reacceleration to overcome foil thresholds, non- destructive interaction with atomic and molecular ions before analysis, and electronic controllability including geometric factor adjustment for flux dynamic range, FOV optimization, electronic filtering of most abundant elements in favor of minor species, and other properties affecting directly the scientific and engineering performance of the instruments. In addition special secondary emission surfaces can be used for triple coincidence when needed. The combination of electric gating and special surfaces works in an extensive energy range from 0 to tens of KeV without the need of start foil/HVPS making thus the use attractive to small satellites and cubesats. Those characteristics will be elaborated in the context of a gated time of flight wide field of view and energy range ion spectrometer combined with a neutral mass spectrometer (WINMS) developed at GSFC. The instrument prototypes have mass resolution adequate to separate N, O, OH, OH2; also static from ram moving H allowing thus separation of outgassing from ambient gases. A first implementation INMS with a mass <600 grams and size <1.5U is the main payload of the EXOCUBE Cubesat mission launched in January 2015 and already produced flight data; a second upgraded implementation is on onboard the GSFC Dellingr 6U CubeSat scheduled for launch in late 2015; and ongoing developments are baselined for other satellite missions.

  11. Constraints on arm position when pointing in three dimensions: Donders' law and the Fick gimbal strategy.

    PubMed

    Hore, J; Watts, S; Vilis, T

    1992-08-01

    1. While making saccades between targets with the head stationary, eye positions are constrained to two of the possible three degrees of freedom. Classically this constraint has been described by Donders' and Listing's laws. The objective was to determine whether these laws also apply for the straight arm when pointing between different targets. Thus we determined whether the arm adopts only one angular position for every pointing direction (Donders' law) and whether these positions can be described by rotations from a reference position about axes that lie in a plane (Listing's law). 2. The angular positions (orientations) of the arm in three-dimensional space were studied as subjects pointed with a straight arm at different targets. Arm position was measured with the search coil technique by means of coils attached to the back of the hand. Pointing was studied over a range of +/- 45 degrees in all directions from a central target located 45 degrees to the right of the straight-ahead position. 3. The positions of the arm in space were described by quaternion vectors, i.e., a particular position was described in terms of the axis and amplitude of a rotation from a reference position to that position. Using this description, it was found that the straight arm adopted a similar orientation (standard deviations ranged from 2.8 to 4.8 degrees) when pointing at a particular target irrespective of which target from which it had moved. 4. The angular position vectors for arm positions associated with relatively small movements (e.g., less than +/- 30 degrees) lay in a flat surface with minimal torsion. At first sight, this surface appeared to be similar to Listing's plane of the eye. However, for positions associated with larger movements (e.g., +/- 45 degrees) it became apparent that, unlike the eye, the surface deviated from one obeying Listing's law, i.e., it was twisted and showed torsion like that produced by rotations around the horizontal and vertical axes of a

  12. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  13. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 541 is co-located on the boundary of Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site and Range 65C of the Nevada Test and Training Range, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 541 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 541, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-04, Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site • 05-45-03, Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 1, 2014, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 541. The site investigation process also will be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CASs 05-23-04 and 05-45-03 are from nuclear testing activities conducted at the Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site and Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy sites. The presence and nature of

  15. Small Arms: Treated Uniforms for Personal Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permethrin-treatment of field-worn U.S. Military uniforms has been standard practice since 1991. The uniform fabric composition has changed significantly from 100% cotton to 50:50 nylon:cotton Battle Dress Uniforms (BDUs), to 50:50 nylon:cotton Army Combat Uniforms (ACUs) with wrinkle-free finish, a...

  16. Bayesian State-Space Modelling of Conventional Acoustic Tracking Provides Accurate Descriptors of Home Range Behavior in a Small-Bodied Coastal Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Balle, Salvador; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2016-01-01

    State-space models (SSM) are increasingly applied in studies involving biotelemetry-generated positional data because they are able to estimate movement parameters from positions that are unobserved or have been observed with non-negligible observational error. Popular telemetry systems in marine coastal fish consist of arrays of omnidirectional acoustic receivers, which generate a multivariate time-series of detection events across the tracking period. Here we report a novel Bayesian fitting of a SSM application that couples mechanistic movement properties within a home range (a specific case of random walk weighted by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) with a model of observational error typical for data obtained from acoustic receiver arrays. We explored the performance and accuracy of the approach through simulation modelling and extensive sensitivity analyses of the effects of various configurations of movement properties and time-steps among positions. Model results show an accurate and unbiased estimation of the movement parameters, and in most cases the simulated movement parameters were properly retrieved. Only in extreme situations (when fast swimming speeds are combined with pooling the number of detections over long time-steps) the model produced some bias that needs to be accounted for in field applications. Our method was subsequently applied to real acoustic tracking data collected from a small marine coastal fish species, the pearly razorfish, Xyrichtys novacula. The Bayesian SSM we present here constitutes an alternative for those used to the Bayesian way of reasoning. Our Bayesian SSM can be easily adapted and generalized to any species, thereby allowing studies in freely roaming animals on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of home ranges and territory establishment, both in fishes and in other taxa. PMID:27119718

  17. Bayesian State-Space Modelling of Conventional Acoustic Tracking Provides Accurate Descriptors of Home Range Behavior in a Small-Bodied Coastal Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Balle, Salvador; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2016-01-01

    State-space models (SSM) are increasingly applied in studies involving biotelemetry-generated positional data because they are able to estimate movement parameters from positions that are unobserved or have been observed with non-negligible observational error. Popular telemetry systems in marine coastal fish consist of arrays of omnidirectional acoustic receivers, which generate a multivariate time-series of detection events across the tracking period. Here we report a novel Bayesian fitting of a SSM application that couples mechanistic movement properties within a home range (a specific case of random walk weighted by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) with a model of observational error typical for data obtained from acoustic receiver arrays. We explored the performance and accuracy of the approach through simulation modelling and extensive sensitivity analyses of the effects of various configurations of movement properties and time-steps among positions. Model results show an accurate and unbiased estimation of the movement parameters, and in most cases the simulated movement parameters were properly retrieved. Only in extreme situations (when fast swimming speeds are combined with pooling the number of detections over long time-steps) the model produced some bias that needs to be accounted for in field applications. Our method was subsequently applied to real acoustic tracking data collected from a small marine coastal fish species, the pearly razorfish, Xyrichtys novacula. The Bayesian SSM we present here constitutes an alternative for those used to the Bayesian way of reasoning. Our Bayesian SSM can be easily adapted and generalized to any species, thereby allowing studies in freely roaming animals on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of home ranges and territory establishment, both in fishes and in other taxa. PMID:27119718

  18. Detection and validation of a small broad-host-range plasmid pBBR1MCS-2 for use in genetic manipulation of the extremely acidophilic Acidithiobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Hao, Likai; Liu, Xiangmei; Wang, Huiyan; Lin, Jianqun; Pang, Xin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2012-09-01

    An efficient genetic system for introducing genes into biomining microorganisms is essential not only to experimentally determine the functions of genes predicted based on bioinformatic analysis, but also for their genetic breeding. In this study, a small broad-host-range vector named pBBR1MCS-2, which does not belong to the IncQ, IncW, or IncP groups, was studied for the feasibility of its use in conjugative gene transfer into extremely acidophilic strains of Acidithiobacillus. To do this, a recombinant plasmid pBBR-tac-Sm, a derivative of pBBR1MCS-2, was constructed and the streptomycin resistant gene (Sm(r)) was used as the reporter gene. Using conjugation, pBBR-tac-Sm was successfully transferred into three tested strains of Acidithiobacillus. Then we measured its transfer frequency, its stability in Acidithiobacillus cells, and the level of resistance to streptomycin of the transconjugants and compared this with the IncQ plasmid pJRD215 control. Our results indicate that pBBR1MCS-2 provides a new and useful tool in the genetic manipulation of Acidithiobacillus strains. PMID:22705922

  19. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  20. Star formation scales and efficiency in Galactic spiral arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, D. J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Urquhart, J. S.; Elia, D.; Plume, R.; Rigby, A. J.; Thompson, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    We positionally match a sample of infrared-selected young stellar objects, identified by combining the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and Herschel Space Observatory Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey, to the dense clumps identified in the millimetre continuum by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in two Galactic lines of sight centred towards l = 30° and 40°. We calculate the ratio of infrared luminosity, LIR, to the mass of the clump, Mclump, in a variety of Galactic environments and find it to be somewhat enhanced in spiral arms compared to the interarm regions when averaged over kiloparsec scales. We find no compelling evidence that these changes are due to the mechanical influence of the spiral arm on the star formation efficiency rather than, e.g. different gradients in the star formation rate due to patchy or intermittent star formation, or local variations that are not averaged out due to small source samples. The largest variation in LIR/Mclump is found in individual clump values, which follow a lognormal distribution and have a range of over three orders of magnitude. This spread is intrinsic as no dependence of LIR/Mclump with Mclump was found. No difference was found in the luminosity distribution of sources in the arm and interarm samples and a strong linear correlation was found between LIR and Mclump.

  1. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  2. Franklin Long on arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    A series on arms control must recognize the diversity of views on the subject. A leading figure in the field lectured recently at the University of Virginia and failed to mention any of the conventional approaches to arms control. Instead he equated arms control with the Strategic Defense Initiative and limited his comments exclusively to that subject. One of the aims of this series, made possible by the W. Alton Jones Foundation, is to point up the differences in thought on the subject. Publications which treat only one viewpoint do no service to public understanding. Instead they leave an impression of unanimity of approach where none exists. They stifle rather than encourage enlightenment and public discourse. The Miller Center hopes in a small way to contribute to public understanding by bringing to the attention of the people the assumptions and thinking of some dozen experts in the field. In addition, we plan one or more volumes by multiple authors who are experts on technical subjects. Thus the present volume by Franklin A. Long of Cornell is one in a series on a subject that has far-reaching implications to human survival.

  3. 32 CFR 623.5 - Loan of arms and accouterments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (logistics control code A or B) will be filled with the lowest type classified items available. (4) Borrowers... arms and accouterments will be sent by requesting agencies through HQDA (DALO-SMD), (para 2, app B) to... data will indicate that the small arms on loan to other Government agencies are accounted for under...

  4. 32 CFR 623.5 - Loan of arms and accouterments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (logistics control code A or B) will be filled with the lowest type classified items available. (4) Borrowers... arms and accouterments will be sent by requesting agencies through HQDA (DALO-SMD), (para 2, app B) to... data will indicate that the small arms on loan to other Government agencies are accounted for under...

  5. AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF MANAGEMENT (ARM) MODEL VERSION II: REFINEMENT AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Runoff Management (ARM) Model has been refined and tested on small agricultural watersheds in Georgia and Michigan. The ARM Model simulates the hydrologic, sediment production, pesticide, and nutrient processes on the land surface and in the soil profile that det...

  6. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Ring, David

    2013-01-01

    Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness. PMID:25207288

  7. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  8. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  9. Psoriasis, guttate on the arms and chest (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... guttate (drop-shaped) psoriasis on the arms and chest. Guttate psoriasis is a rare form of psoriasis. ... streptococcal infection, appears rapidly and affects the face, chest, and nearest limbs. The patches are small and ...

  10. Proton Arc Reduces Range Uncertainty Effects and Improves Conformality Compared With Photon Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Joao; Gu, Guan; Marcelos, Tiago; Kooy, Hanne; Willers, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To describe, in a setting of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the theoretical dosimetric advantages of proton arc stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in which the beam penumbra of a rotating beam is used to reduce the impact of range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with proton SBRT underwent repeat planning with photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (Photon-VMAT) and an in-house-developed arc planning approach for both proton passive scattering (Passive-Arc) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT-Arc). An arc was mimicked with a series of beams placed at 10° increments. Tumor and organ at risk doses were compared in the context of high- and low-dose regions, represented by volumes receiving >50% and <50% of the prescription dose, respectively. Results: In the high-dose region, conformality index values are 2.56, 1.91, 1.31, and 1.74, and homogeneity index values are 1.29, 1.22, 1.52, and 1.18, respectively, for 3 proton passive scattered beams, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT. Therefore, proton arc leads to a 30% reduction in the 95% isodose line volume to 3-beam proton plan, sparing surrounding organs, such as lung and chest wall. For chest wall, V30 is reduced from 21 cm{sup 3} (3 proton beams) to 11.5 cm{sup 3}, 12.9 cm{sup 3}, and 8.63 cm{sup 3} (P=.005) for Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. In the low-dose region, the mean lung dose and V20 of the ipsilateral lung are 5.01 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), 4.38 Gy(RBE), 4.91 Gy(RBE), and 5.99 Gy(RBE) and 9.5%, 7.5%, 9.0%, and 10.0%, respectively, for 3-beam, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy with proton arc and Photon-VMAT generate significantly more conformal high-dose volumes than standard proton SBRT, without loss of coverage of the tumor and with significant sparing of nearby organs, such as chest wall. In addition

  11. A low background-rate detector for ions in the 5 to 50 keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, P.G.

    1986-11-25

    Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. We are developing a 20 cm diameter 30 to 40 keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for /sup 14/C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30 to 40 keV /sup 14/C at 10/sup -2/ counts/sec in the high background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. We have developed and tested an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector that allows dark-count rates below 10/sup -4/ counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the /sup 13/CH background peak, to the frequency for /sup 14/C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10/sup -4/ counts/sec. For each /sup 14/C ion the detectors grazing-incidence Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background. We have successfully tested the detector with positive /sup 12/C, /sup 23/Na, /sup 39/K, /sup 41/K, /sup 85/Rb, /sup 87/Rb, and /sup 133/Cs at 5 to 40 keV, and with 36 keV negative /sup 12/C and /sup 13/CH. It should detect ions and neutrals of all species, at energies above 5 keV, with good efficiency and excellent background discrimination. Counting efficiency and background discrimination improve with higher ion energy. The detector can be operated at least up to 2 x 10/sup -7/ Torr and be repeatedly exposed to air. The maximum rate is 10/sup 6.4/ ions/sec in pulse counting mode and 10/sup 9.7/ ions/sec in current integrating mode.

  12. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  13. Bruising Hands and Arms

    MedlinePlus

    ... and arms is common. Dermatologists call it 'actinic purpura', 'solar purpura' or 'Bateman's purpura'. These flat blotches start out red, then turn ... flimsy looking. Mostly seen in older individuals, actinic purpura is due to the weakened state of blood ...

  14. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  15. Hello to Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red.

    As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  16. Some recommendations for multi-arm multi-stage trials.

    PubMed

    Wason, James; Magirr, Dominic; Law, Martin; Jaki, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multi-arm multi-stage designs can improve the efficiency of the drug-development process by evaluating multiple experimental arms against a common control within one trial. This reduces the number of patients required compared to a series of trials testing each experimental arm separately against control. By allowing for multiple stages experimental treatments can be eliminated early from the study if they are unlikely to be significantly better than control. Using the TAILoR trial as a motivating example, we explore a broad range of statistical issues related to multi-arm multi-stage trials including a comparison of different ways to power a multi-arm multi-stage trial; choosing the allocation ratio to the control group compared to other experimental arms; the consequences of adding additional experimental arms during a multi-arm multi-stage trial, and how one might control the type-I error rate when this is necessary; and modifying the stopping boundaries of a multi-arm multi-stage design to account for unknown variance in the treatment outcome. Multi-arm multi-stage trials represent a large financial investment, and so considering their design carefully is important to ensure efficiency and that they have a good chance of succeeding. PMID:23242385

  17. Some recommendations for multi-arm multi-stage trials

    PubMed Central

    Magirr, Dominic; Law, Martin; Jaki, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multi-arm multi-stage designs can improve the efficiency of the drug-development process by evaluating multiple experimental arms against a common control within one trial. This reduces the number of patients required compared to a series of trials testing each experimental arm separately against control. By allowing for multiple stages experimental treatments can be eliminated early from the study if they are unlikely to be significantly better than control. Using the TAILoR trial as a motivating example, we explore a broad range of statistical issues related to multi-arm multi-stage trials including a comparison of different ways to power a multi-arm multi-stage trial; choosing the allocation ratio to the control group compared to other experimental arms; the consequences of adding additional experimental arms during a multi-arm multi-stage trial, and how one might control the type-I error rate when this is necessary; and modifying the stopping boundaries of a multi-arm multi-stage design to account for unknown variance in the treatment outcome. Multi-arm multi-stage trials represent a large financial investment, and so considering their design carefully is important to ensure efficiency and that they have a good chance of succeeding. PMID:23242385

  18. The Apocalyptic Premise: Nuclear Arms Debated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.; Hunt, E. Stephen, Ed.

    This document contains 31 position papers that reflect a wide range of views on nuclear arms policy held by political leaders, religious authorities, scholars, policy experts, journalists, and political activists. Since no judgments are made, the reader is left to decide which arguments are most compelling. Each position paper is arranged into one…

  19. Effects of spiral arms on star formation in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of spiral arms on the star formation rate (SFR) in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We find that spiral arms can be an efficient means of gas transport from the outskirts to the central parts, provided that the arms are rotating slower than the bar. While the ring star formation in models with no arms or corotating arms is active only during around the bar growth phase, arm-driven gas accretion both significantly enhances and prolongs the ring star formation in models with slow-rotating arms. The arm-enhanced SFR is larger by a factor of ∼3-20 than in the no-arm model, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. Arm-induced mass inflows also make dust lanes stronger. Nuclear rings in slow-arm models are ∼45% larger than in the no-arm counterparts. Star clusters that form in a nuclear ring exhibit an age gradient in the azimuthal direction only when the SFR is small, whereas no notable age gradient is found in the radial direction for models with arm-induced star formation.

  20. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  1. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabelsky, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Results from the first large-scale survey in the CO(J = 1 to 0) line of the Vela-Carina-Centaurus region of the Southern Milky Way are reported. The observations, made with the Columbia University 1.2 m millimeter-wave telescope at Cerro Tololo, were spaced every beamwidth (0.125 deg) in the range 270 deg is less than or = l is less than or = 300 deg and -1 deg less than or = b less then or = 1 deg, with latitude extensions to cover all Carina arm emission beyond absolute b = 1 deg. In a concurrent survey made with the same telescope, every half-degree in latitude and longitude was sampled. Both surveys had a spectral coverage of 330 km/s with a resolution of 1.3 km/s. The Carina arm is the dominant feature in the data. Its abrupt tangent at l is approx. = 280 deg and characteristic loop in the l,v diagram are unmistakable evidence for CO spiral structure. When the emission is integrated over velocity and latitude, the height of the step seen in the tangent direction suggests that the arm-interarm contrast is at least 13:1. Comparison of the CO and H I data shows close agreement between these two species in a segment of the arm lying outside the solar circle. The distribution of the molecular layer about the galactic plane in the outer Galaxy is determined. Between R = 10.5 and 12.5 kpc, the average CO midplane dips from z = -48 to -167 pc below the b = 0 deg plane, following a similar well-known warping of the H I layer. In the same range of radii the half-thickness of the CO layer increases from 112 to 182 pc. Between l = 270 deg and 300 deg, 27 molecular clouds are identified and cataloged along with heliocentric distances and masses. An additional 16 clouds beyond 300 deg are cataloged from an adjoining CO survey made with the same telescope. The average mass for the Carina arm clouds is 1.4x 10(6)M (solar), and the average intercloud spacing along the arm is 700 pc. Comparison of the distribution of the Carina arm clouds with that of similarly massive

  2. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 2; Small-Radius Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  4. Dodecaamide cages: organic 12-arm building blocks for supramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Culshaw, Jamie L; Cheng, Ge; Schmidtmann, Marc; Hasell, Tom; Liu, Ming; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2013-07-10

    A simple, one-step amidation reaction is used to produce a range of 12-arm organic building blocks for supramolecular chemistry via the derivatization of porous imine cages. As an example, microporous dendrimers are prepared. PMID:23786167

  5. Joint derivation method for determining optical properties based on steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement at small source-detector separations and large reduced albedo range: theory and simulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Fan, Ying; Zhao, Huijuan; Xu, Kexin

    2012-06-01

    Accurate determination of the optical properties (the absorption coefficient μ(a) and the reduced scattering coefficient μ(s) (')) of tissues is very important in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Optical diffusion theory is frequently used as the forward model for describing the photon transfer in media with large reduced albedos (a(')) and in large source-detector separations (SDS). Several other methods (PN approximation, hybrid diffusion-P3 approximation) have also been published that describe photon transfer in media with low a(') or small SDSs. We studied the theoretical models for the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement to accurately determine μ(a) and μ(s) (') at large a(') range but small SDSs. Instead of using a single model, a joint derivation method is proposed. The developed method uses one of the best aforementioned theoretical methods separately in five ranges of a(') determined from several forward models. In the region of small SDSs (the range between 0.4 and 8 mm) and large a(') range (between 0.5 and 0.99), the best theoretical derivation model was determined. The results indicate that the joint derivation method can improve the derivation accuracy and that a(') range can be determined by the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement. PMID:22734782

  6. Arm pain and erythema

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Pyomyositis can be a difficult diagnosis to make, as it can mimic many other disease processes. Various laboratory studies can be abnormal with pyomyositis, but none are specific to the disease. Early disease can generally be treated with antibiotics alone, whereas advanced disease frequently requires emergent surgical intervention with significant resuscitation. We describe a case of pyomyositis of the right arm. PMID:27034571

  7. Arms and the Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurney, Ramsdell, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The author traces the history of international weapons negotiations in this century and notes the world's two nuclear superpowers and chief protagonists of the arms race, the Soviet Union and the United States, must act speedily and decisively on this critical matter. (BT)

  8. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  9. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to "Arms" in the book states that it is a…

  10. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore » and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  11. Detection of short range order in SiO2 thin-films by grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Kohki; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of <10 nm thickness are presented. The microstructure was investigated using grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering methods with synchrotron radiation. The combination of a high brilliance light source and grazing incident configuration enabled the observation of very weak diffuse X-ray scattering from SiO2 thin films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.

  12. 10. Whitney Arms Company, Van Slyck steel engraving, 1880 Photocopied ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Whitney Arms Company, Van Slyck steel engraving, 1880 Photocopied from Charles B. Norton, American Inventions and Improvements in Breech-Loading Small Arms (Springfield, Mass., 1880), p. 154 The engraving does not seem to have been included in the earlier 1872 edition. This is probably the single most widely copied view of the Whitney Arms Company works, and it is without doubt the most accurate. Compare with site plan, photo CT-2-13. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  13. Arm blood flow and metabolism during arm and combined arm and leg exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Volianitis, S; Secher, N H

    2002-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to exercise with several groups of skeletal muscle suggests that work with the arms may decrease leg blood flow. This study evaluated whether intense exercise with the legs would have a similar effect on arm blood flow (Q̇arm) and O2 consumption (V̇O2,arm). Ten healthy male subjects (age 21 ± 1 year; mean ± S.D.) performed arm cranking at 80 % of maximum arm work capacity (A trial) and combined arm cranking with cycling at 60 % of maximum leg work capacity (A + L trial). The combined trial was a maximum effort for 5-6 min. Q̇arm measurement by thermodilution in the axilliary vein and arterial and venous blood samples permitted calculation of V̇O2,arm. During the combined trial, Q̇arm was reduced by 0.58 ± 0.25 l min−1 (19.1 ± 3.0 %, P < 0.05) from the value during arm cranking (3.00 ± 0.46 l min−1). The arterio-venous O2 difference increased from 122 ± 15 ml l−1 during the arm trial to 150 ± 21 ml l−1 (P < 0.05) during the combined trial. Thus, V̇O2,arm (0.45 ± 0.06 l min−1) was reduced by 9.6 ± 6.3 % (P < 0.05) and arm vascular conductance from 27 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 ml min−1 (mmHg)−1 (P < 0.05) as noradrenaline spillover from the arm increased from 7.5 ± 3.5 to 13.8 ± 4.2 nmol min−1 (P < 0.05). The data suggest that during maximal whole body exercise in humans, arm vasoconstriction is established to an extent that affects oxygen delivery to and utilisation by working skeletal muscles. PMID:12411540

  14. Armed conflict and child health

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Summary Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented. PMID:21393303

  15. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the short-range organization of dispersed CsNi[Cr(CN)6] nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridier, Karl; Gillon, Béatrice; André, Gilles; Chaboussant, Grégory; Catala, Laure; Mazérat, Sandra; Mallah, Talal

    2015-09-01

    Prussian blue analogues magnetic nanoparticles (of radius R0 = 2.4-8.6 nm) embedded in PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) or CTA+ (cetyltrimethylammonium) matrices have been studied using neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at several concentrations. For the most diluted particles in neutral PVP, the SANS signal is fully accounted for by a "single-particle" spherical form factor with no structural correlations between the nanoparticles and with radii comparable to those inferred from neutron diffraction. For higher concentration in PVP, structural correlations modify the SANS signal with the appearance of a structure factor peak, which is described using an effective "mean-field" model. A new length scale R* ≈ 3R0, corresponding to an effective repulsive interaction radius, is evidenced in PVP samples. In CTA+, electrostatic interactions play a crucial role and lead to a dense layer of CTA+ around the nanoparticles, which considerably alter the SANS patterns as compared to PVP. The SANS data of nanoparticles in CTA+ are best described by a core-shell model without visible inter-particle structure factor.

  16. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the short-range organization of dispersed CsNi[Cr(CN){sub 6}] nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ridier, Karl; Gillon, Béatrice; André, Gilles; Chaboussant, Grégory; Catala, Laure; Mazérat, Sandra; Mallah, Talal

    2015-09-21

    Prussian blue analogues magnetic nanoparticles (of radius R{sub 0} = 2.4–8.6 nm) embedded in PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) or CTA{sup +} (cetyltrimethylammonium) matrices have been studied using neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at several concentrations. For the most diluted particles in neutral PVP, the SANS signal is fully accounted for by a “single-particle” spherical form factor with no structural correlations between the nanoparticles and with radii comparable to those inferred from neutron diffraction. For higher concentration in PVP, structural correlations modify the SANS signal with the appearance of a structure factor peak, which is described using an effective “mean-field” model. A new length scale R{sup * }≈ 3R{sub 0}, corresponding to an effective repulsive interaction radius, is evidenced in PVP samples. In CTA{sup +}, electrostatic interactions play a crucial role and lead to a dense layer of CTA{sup +} around the nanoparticles, which considerably alter the SANS patterns as compared to PVP. The SANS data of nanoparticles in CTA{sup +} are best described by a core-shell model without visible inter-particle structure factor.

  17. Energy-transfer from ultra-small Au nanoclusters to Er³⁺ ions: a short-range mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cesca, Tiziana; Kalinic, Boris; Michieli, Niccolò; Maurizio, Chiara; Scian, Carlo; Devaraju, Gurram; Battaglin, Giancarlo; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Mattei, Giovanni

    2014-08-01

    Sub-nanometric Au nanoclusters are known to act as very efficient sensitizers for the luminescent emission of Er(3+) ions in silica through a non-resonant broad-band energy-transfer mechanism. In the present work the energy-transfer process is investigated in detail by room temperature photoluminescence characterization of Er and Au co-implanted silica systems in which a different degree of coupling between Er(3+) ions and Au nanoclusters is obtained. The results allow us to definitely demonstrate the short-range nature of the interaction in agreement with non-radiative energy-transfer mechanisms. Moreover, an upper limit to the interaction length is also set by the Au-Au intercluster semi-distance which is smaller than 2.4 nm in the present case. PMID:24935519

  18. Do Small Mammals and Vegetation Metacommunity Dynamics Determine the Extent and Pattern of Treeline in the High Elevation Zone of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, R. C.; Chase, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a general expectation that warming temperatures will facilitate transformation of high elevation meadows to woody dominated communities. We have been using observational and experimental approaches to analyze potential state changes of meadows and the role seed and seedling predation play in conifer expansion in the high elevation zone of the Sierra Nevada mountain range of the western United States. The observational component consists of 256 plots spanning 3 degrees of latitude and an elevation range from 3000 m to 4000 m. The experimental component consists of mammal seed predator exclosures (N = 252) allocated among three arrays at each of two sites separated by > 100 km. Three cohorts of seeds at five seed densities (1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 seeds per 0.25 m2) and one seedling cohort were placed within and immediately outside the exclosures at each site. Trend surface and distance decay analyses of community composition indicate vegetation communities in the high elevation zone have not assembled predictably along environmental or spatial gradients. Rather, we have found strong support for neutral dynamics, implying that communities assemble more stochastically as a result of dispersal limitation or priority effects. Density of mature and sapling conifers decrease as a function of distance from conifer patches, but seedling density has no relationship with distance from conifer patches. Germination of seeds outside of the exclosures was 19% compared to 65% within, and these were mainly at densities of 1 seed per 0.25 m2. None of the seeds that germinated outside the exclosures survived more than 1.5 years compared to 23% within the exclosures. Virtually all of the seedlings planted outside the exclosures were removed within a year. Collectively, these findings indicate a highly patchy rather than uniform pattern of treeline extension in the high elevation zone of the Sierra Nevada. Moreover, smaller mammals appear to be playing a critical role in

  19. Note: Seesaw actuation of atomic force microscope probes for improved imaging bandwidth and displacement range

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, H.; Torello, D.; Degertekin, F. L.

    2011-08-15

    The authors describe a method of actuation for atomic force microscope (AFM) probes to improve imaging speed and displacement range simultaneously. Unlike conventional piezoelectric tube actuation, the proposed method involves a lever and fulcrum ''seesaw'' like actuation mechanism that uses a small, fast piezoelectric transducer. The lever arm of the seesaw mechanism increases the apparent displacement range by an adjustable gain factor, overcoming the standard tradeoff between imaging speed and displacement range. Experimental characterization of a cantilever holder implementing the method is provided together with comparative line scans obtained with contact mode imaging. An imaging bandwidth of 30 kHz in air with the current setup was demonstrated.

  20. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  1. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  2. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  3. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  4. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  5. [Oversized patient arms: a problem with blood pressure measurements].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Fritz; Meyer, Thomas; Klein, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    The increase in the worldwide prevalence of obesity systematically leads to a higher number of individuals who may be wrongly diagnosed as hypertensive because their arms are too large for standard blood pressure cuffs, which are ordinarily appropriate in patients with normal sized arms. The aim was to gain real data of upper arm and wrist circumferences in 327 elected subjects with larger arms (upper arm circumference >32.5 cm) from two Bavarian general practices. We found that 93.9% of all patients had an upper arm circumference of a maximum of 41.0 cm and a wrist circumference of at most 20.5 cm. These data were then compared with the approved size ranges of six wrist blood pressure measurement devices, one special three-in-one cuff for different sizes and the two large adult cuffs recommended by the German Hypertension Society. Availability of one large cuff and one wrist blood measurement device (either used at the upper arm or at the wrist depending on patient dimensions) seems to be sufficient. This should allow for true blood pressure readings to be obtained in at least 96% of all patients with arms of more than normal circumference. PMID:16955625

  6. Accurate detection for a wide range of mutation and editing sites of microRNAs from small RNA high-throughput sequencing profiles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yun; Ji, Bo; Song, Renhua; Wang, Shengpeng; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xiaotuo; Chen, Kun; Li, Tianqing; Li, Jinyan

    2016-08-19

    Various types of mutation and editing (M/E) events in microRNAs (miRNAs) can change the stabilities of pre-miRNAs and/or complementarities between miRNAs and their targets. Small RNA (sRNA) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) profiles can contain many mutated and edited miRNAs. Systematic detection of miRNA mutation and editing sites from the huge volume of sRNA HTS profiles is computationally difficult, as high sensitivity and low false positive rate (FPR) are both required. We propose a novel method (named MiRME) for an accurate and fast detection of miRNA M/E sites using a progressive sequence alignment approach which refines sensitivity and improves FPR step-by-step. From 70 sRNA HTS profiles with over 1.3 billion reads, MiRME has detected thousands of statistically significant M/E sites, including 3'-editing sites, 57 A-to-I editing sites (of which 32 are novel), as well as some putative non-canonical editing sites. We demonstrated that a few non-canonical editing sites were not resulted from mutations in genome by integrating the analysis of genome HTS profiles of two human cell lines, suggesting the existence of new editing types to further diversify the functions of miRNAs. Compared with six existing studies or methods, MiRME has shown much superior performance for the identification and visualization of the M/E sites of miRNAs from the ever-increasing sRNA HTS profiles. PMID:27229138

  7. Strategic arms limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  8. Worldwide report, arms control

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-18

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on Arms Control. Titles include: USSR Journal Review of French Book on SDI; Moscow Talk Show Considers Possibility of Dealing with U.S.; Thatcher, Gorbachev Talks Anticipated; U.S. Presents Draft Treaty to Eliminate INF from Europe; TASS: White House Rejects Treaty of Tatotonga; Soviet Paper on Congressional Divisions on Moratorium; Turkish Officials on Deployment of Nuclear Weapons; and others.

  9. Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Goetz, W.; Hartwig, H.; Hviid, S. F.; Kramm, R.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Reynolds, R.; Shinohara, C.; Smith, P.; Tanner, R.; Woida, P.; Woida, R.; Bos, B. J.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2008-10-01

    The Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is a variable-focus color camera mounted to the Robotic Arm (RA) of the Phoenix Mars Lander. It is designed to acquire both close-up images of the Martian surface and microscopic images (down to a scale of 23 μm/pixel) of material collected in the RA scoop. The mounting position at the end of the Robotic Arm allows the RAC to be actively positioned for imaging of targets not easily seen by the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI), such as excavated trench walls and targets under the Lander structure. Color information is acquired by illuminating the target with red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes. Digital terrain models (DTM) can be generated from RAC images acquired from different view points. This can provide high-resolution stereo information about fine details of the trench walls. The large stereo baseline possible with the arm can also provide a far-field DTM. The primary science objectives of the RAC are the search for subsurface soil/ice layering at the landing site and the characterization of scoop samples prior to delivery to other instruments on board Phoenix. The RAC shall also provide low-resolution panoramas in support of SSI activities and acquire images of the Lander deck for instrument and Lander check out. The camera design was inherited from the unsuccessful Mars Polar Lander mission (1999) and further developed for the (canceled) Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander (MSL01). Extensive testing and partial recalibration qualified the MSL01 RAC flight model for integration into the Phoenix science payload.

  10. Scientific coats of arms.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-09-01

    With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science. Yet despite its chivalric origins, the ancient language of heraldry has long fascinated famous scientists. Although this idiosyncratic tradition was parodied by Victorian geologists, who laughingly replaced unicorns and griffins with images of dinosaurs that they had recently discovered, it has been perpetuated since by Ernest Rutherford, who liked to present himself as a new alchemist. PMID:16098590

  11. Robotic Arm End Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Big Data, Small Data: Accessing and Manipulating Geoscience Data Ranging From Repositories to Student-Collected Data Sets Using GeoMapApp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    We often demand information and data to be accessible over the web at no cost, and no longer do we expect to spend time labouriously compiling data from myriad sources with frustratingly-different formats. Instead, we increasingly expect convenience and consolidation. Recent advances in web-enabled technologies and cyberinfrastructure are answering those calls by providing data tools and resources that can transform undergraduate education. By freeing up valuable classroom time, students can focus upon gaining deeper insights and understanding from real-world data. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org) is a map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. GeoMapApp promotes U-Learning by working across all major computer platforms and functioning anywhere with internet connectivity, by lowering socio-economic barriers (it is free), by seamlessly integrating thousands of built-in research-grade data sets under intuitive menus, and by being adaptable to a range of learning environments - from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. GeoMapApp caters to casual and specialist users alike. Contours, artificial illumination, 3-D displays, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students better grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Layering capabilities allow easy data set comparisons. The core functionality also applies to imported data sets: Student-collected data can thus be imported and analysed using the same techniques. A new Save Session function allows educators to preserve a pre-loaded state of GeoMapApp. When shared with a class, the saved file allows every student to open GeoMapApp at exactly the same starting point from which to begin their data explorations. Examples of built-in data sets include seafloor crustal age, earthquake locations and focal mechanisms, analytical geochemistry, ocean water physical properties, US and

  13. Strategic arms limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Greb, G.A.; Johnson, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1969, the focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some form of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus that enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  14. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Surface Sampler Arm Acquiring Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Operation of the surface sampler in obtaining Martian soil for Viking 2's molecular analysis experiment last Saturday (September 25) was closely monitored by one of the Lander cameras because of the precision required in trenching the small area--8 by 9 inches-surrounded by rocks. Dubbed 'Bonneville Salt Flats,' the exposure of thin crust appeared unique in contrast with surrounding materials and became a prime target for organic analysis in spite of potential hazards. Large rock in foreground is 8 inches high. At left, the sampler scoop has touched the surface, missing the rock at upper left by a comfortable 6 inches, and the backhoe has penetrated the surface about one-half inch. The scoop was then pulled back to sample the desired point and (second photo) the backhoe furrowed the surface pulling a piece of thin crust toward the spacecraft. The initial touchdown and retraction sequence was used to avoid a collision between a rock in the shadow of the arm and a plate joining the arm and scoop. The rock was cleared by 2 to 3 inches. The third picture was taken 8 minutes after the scoop touched the surface and shows that the collector head has acquired a quantity of soil. With surface sampler withdrawn (right), the foot-long trench is seen between the rocks. The trench is three inches wide and about 1 1/2 to 2 inches deep. The scoop reached to within 3 inches of the rock at far end of trench. Penetration appears to have left a cavernous opening roofed by the crust and only about one inch of undisturbed crust separates the deformed surface and the rock.

  16. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  17. Initial Series of Four-Arm Robotic Completely Intracorporeal Ileal Ureter.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sameer; Metcalfe, Charles; Satkunasivam, Raj; Nagaraj, Shalini; Becker, Carlee; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Azhar, Raed A; Gill, Inderbir; Desai, Mihir; Aron, Monish; Berger, Andre

    2016-04-01

    Ileal ureter formation has been found to be a suitable treatment option for long, chronic ureteral strictures not amendable to less invasive forms of repair. Minimally invasive surgical techniques for this condition have been investigated. We report the first series of robotic completely intracorporeal ileal ureter using a four-arm robotic technique. Three patients underwent this procedure, including one patient with a solitary kidney. All procedures were performed effectively with a median operative time of 450 minutes (range: 420-540) and median estimated blood loss of 100 mL (range: 50-200). Postoperatively, one patient suffered volvulus and subsequent necrosis of small bowel and ileal ureter, which required re-operation and small bowel resection, including the ileal ureter. The other two patients report no surgical complications to date. This early series represents preliminary technical procedure feasibility. Further experience is necessary. PMID:26859439

  18. ARM Data Integrator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-02-06

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Integrator (ADI) streamlines the development of scientific algorithms and analysis of time-series NetCDF data, and improves the content and consistency of the output data products produced by these algorithms. The framework automates the process of retrieving and preparing data for analysis, and allows users to design output data products through a graphical interface. It also provides a modular, flexible software development architecture that scientists can use to generate C,more » Python, and IDL source code templates that embed the pre and post processing logic allowing the scientist to focus on only their science. The input data, preprocessing, and output data specifications of algorithms are defined through a graphical interface and stored in a database. ADI implements workflow for data integration and supports user access to data through a library of software modules. Data preprocess capabilities supported include automated retrieval of data from input files, merging the retrieved data into appropriately sized chunks, and transformation of the data onto a common coordinate system grid. Through the graphical interface, users can view the details of both their data products and those in the ARM catalog and allows developers to use existing data product to build new data products. Views of the output data products include an overlay of how the design meets ARM archive’s data standards providing the user with a visual cue indicating where their output violates an archive standard. The ADI libraries access the information provided through the GUI via a Postgres database. The ADI framework and its supporting components can significantly decrease the time and cost of implementing scientific algorithms while improving the ability of scientists to disseminate their results.« less

  19. ARM Data Integrator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-06

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Integrator (ADI) streamlines the development of scientific algorithms and analysis of time-series NetCDF data, and improves the content and consistency of the output data products produced by these algorithms. The framework automates the process of retrieving and preparing data for analysis, and allows users to design output data products through a graphical interface. It also provides a modular, flexible software development architecture that scientists can use to generate C, Python, and IDL source code templates that embed the pre and post processing logic allowing the scientist to focus on only their science. The input data, preprocessing, and output data specifications of algorithms are defined through a graphical interface and stored in a database. ADI implements workflow for data integration and supports user access to data through a library of software modules. Data preprocess capabilities supported include automated retrieval of data from input files, merging the retrieved data into appropriately sized chunks, and transformation of the data onto a common coordinate system grid. Through the graphical interface, users can view the details of both their data products and those in the ARM catalog and allows developers to use existing data product to build new data products. Views of the output data products include an overlay of how the design meets ARM archive’s data standards providing the user with a visual cue indicating where their output violates an archive standard. The ADI libraries access the information provided through the GUI via a Postgres database. The ADI framework and its supporting components can significantly decrease the time and cost of implementing scientific algorithms while improving the ability of scientists to disseminate their results.

  20. Light duty utility arm

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Light-Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is a mobile, multi-axis positioning system capable of deploying tools and sensors (end effecters) inside radioactive waste tanks for tank wall inspection, waste characterization, and waste retrieval. The LDUA robotic manipulator enters a tank through existing openings (risers) in the tank dome of the underground tanks. Using various end effecters, the LDUA System is a versatile system for high-level waste tank remediation. The LDUA System provides a means to deploy tools, while increasing the technology resources available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Ongoing end effecter development will provide additional capabilities to remediate the waste tanks.

  1. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. ARM AND INTERARM STAR FORMATION IN SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Foyle, K.; Rix, H.-W.; Walter, F.; Leroy, A. K.

    2010-12-10

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 {mu}m) emission allow us to identify 'arm regions' that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation-far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 {mu}m emission (Spitzer SINGS)-and cold gas-CO (HERACLES) and H I (THINGS). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 {mu}m flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 {mu}m images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occur in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffuse interarm 24 {mu}m emission. Even with a generous definition of the arms (45% highest pixels), interarm regions still contribute at least 30% to the integrated star formation rate (SFR) tracers. We look for evidence that spiral arms trigger star or cloud formation using the ratios of SFR (traced by a combination of FUV and 24 {mu}m emission) to H{sub 2} (traced by CO) and H{sub 2} to H I. Any enhancement of SFR/M(H{sub 2}) in the arm region is very small (less than 10%) and the grand-design spirals show no enhancement compared to the flocculent target. Arm regions do show a weak enhancement in H{sub 2}/H I compared to the interarm regions, but at a fixed gas surface density there is little clear enhancement in the H{sub 2}/H I ratio in the arm regions. Thus, it seems that spiral arms may only act to concentrate the gas to higher densities in the arms.

  3. 3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING AT NORTH END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. THE DYNAMICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN PURE STELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, M. S.; Baba, J.; Saitoh, T. R.; Makino, J.; Kokubo, E.; Wada, K. E-mail: wada@cfca.jp

    2011-04-01

    It has been believed that spiral arms in pure stellar disks, especially the ones spontaneously formed, decay in several galactic rotations due to the increase of stellar velocity dispersions. Therefore, some cooling mechanism, for example dissipational effects of the interstellar medium, was assumed to be necessary to keep the spiral arms. Here, we show that stellar disks can maintain spiral features for several tens of rotations without the help of cooling, using a series of high-resolution three-dimensional N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We found that if the number of particles is sufficiently large, e.g., 3 x 10{sup 6}, multi-arm spirals developed in an isolated disk can survive for more than 10 Gyr. We confirmed that there is a self-regulating mechanism that maintains the amplitude of the spiral arms. Spiral arms increase Toomre's Q of the disk, and the heating rate correlates with the squared amplitude of the spirals. Since the amplitude itself is limited by Q, this makes the dynamical heating less effective in the later phase of evolution. A simple analytical argument suggests that the heating is caused by gravitational scattering of stars by spiral arms and that the self-regulating mechanism in pure stellar disks can effectively maintain spiral arms on a cosmological timescale. In the case of a smaller number of particles, e.g., 3 x 10{sup 5}, spiral arms grow faster in the beginning of the simulation (while Q is small) and they cause a rapid increase of Q. As a result, the spiral arms become faint in several Gyr.

  7. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  8. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  9. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  10. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  11. Arm locking experiments on UFLIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yinan; Mueller, Guido

    2010-02-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will detect gravitational waves in the frequency region of 3x10-5;Hz to 1; Hz by means of laser interferometry. At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the Doppler shifts between the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, and realistic laser frequency and timing noise. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking, which synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA interferometry signals as a frequency reference. The arm locking experiments on UFLIS have already demonstrated the capability of single arm locking integrated with tunable cavity pre-stabilization as well as in the presence of a Doppler knowledge error. In this presentation we will report about experiments on advanced arm locking schemes such as dual arm locking and modified dual arm locking. We will demonstrate the noise suppression performance of dual arm locking and the capability of modified dual arm locking sensor to alleviate the frequency pulling effect due to the Doppler error. Furthermore, the limits of different noise sources such as digitization noise and clock noise in our experiments will also be discussed. This work is supported by NASA grant 07-ATFP07-0116. )

  12. Arms control: Myth versus reality

    SciTech Connect

    Staar, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on arms control. Topics considered include the strategic implications of the nuclear balance, historical aspects, the Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions (MBFR) negotiations, the European viewpoint on structural problems in negotiations, political aspects, national defense, forecasting, breaches of arms control obligations and their implications, and cultural aspects of diplomacy.

  13. Limited angle C-arm tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malalla, Nuhad A. Y.; Xu, Shiyu; Chen, Ying

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, C-arm tomosynthesis with digital detector was investigated as a novel three dimensional (3D) imaging technique. Digital tomosythses is an imaging technique to provide 3D information of the object by reconstructing slices passing through the object, based on a series of angular projection views with respect to the object. C-arm tomosynthesis provides two dimensional (2D) X-ray projection images with rotation (-/+20 angular range) of both X-ray source and detector. In this paper, four representative reconstruction algorithms including point by point back projection (BP), filtered back projection (FBP), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) were investigated. Dataset of 25 projection views of 3D spherical object that located at center of C-arm imaging space was simulated from 25 angular locations over a total view angle of 40 degrees. With reconstructed images, 3D mesh plot and 2D line profile of normalized pixel intensities on focus reconstruction plane crossing the center of the object were studied with each reconstruction algorithm. Results demonstrated the capability to generate 3D information from limited angle C-arm tomosynthesis. Since C-arm tomosynthesis is relatively compact, portable and can avoid moving patients, it has been investigated for different clinical applications ranging from tumor surgery to interventional radiology. It is very important to evaluate C-arm tomosynthesis for valuable applications.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) -- Summer 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.; Ruderman, M.; Treiman, S.

    1995-10-01

    ARM is a highly focused program designed to improve the understanding of the transport of infrared and solar radiation through the atmosphere. The program pays particular attention to the interaction of radiation with the three phases of water. The goals of ARM are usually articulated in terms of improvements in climate models. The authors agree that ARM can indeed make significant contributions to the understanding of climate change. In addition the authors believe that the results of the program will have wide applicability to a broad range of problems, including more accurate short-term and seasonal weather forecasting. This report examines the issues of anomalous atmospheric absorption and makes recommendations concerning future directions for the ARM program.

  15. Time Domain Simulations of Arm Locking in LISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, J. I.; Maghami, P.; Livas, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Arm locking is a technique that has been proposed for reducing laser frequency fluctuations in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). a gravitational-wave observatory sensitive' in the milliHertz frequency band. Arm locking takes advantage of the geometric stability of the triangular constellation of three spacecraft that comprise LISA to provide a frequency reference with a stability in the LISA measurement band that exceeds that available from a standard reference such as an optical cavity or molecular absorption line. We have implemented a time-domain simulation of arm locking including the expected limiting noise sources (shot noise, clock noise. spacecraft jitter noise. and residual laser frequency noise). The effect of imperfect a priori knowledge of the LISA heterodyne frequencies and associated "pulling" of an arm locked laser is included. We find that our implementation meets requirements both on the noise and dynamic range of the laser frequency.

  16. Global arms proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, D.

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that the United States delivered some US $11 billion of military hardware to Iran between 1969 and 1979, in the hopes of helping stabilize a volatile situation in the Middle East. That did not work. When Iran used the weapons against Iraq, the USSR, France, and a number of developing countries helped arm Iraq. It was this vast arsenal that Iraq deployed in its Kuwait-Persian Gulf War venture. Granted, those weapons were augmented by some U.S.-made equipment like TOW antitank missiles and Hawk antiaircraft missiles that were captured in the Iraqi attack on Kuwait. A report issued by the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in June cited that chain of events to demonstrate that the U.S. and other major exporters are gradually losing control of the weapons transferred (to other countries) as well as the technology and industry necessary to produce and support them.

  17. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  19. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  20. Orthotic arm joint. [for use in mechanical arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved orthopedic (orthotic) arm joint that can be used in various joint of mechanical arms is described. The arm joints includes a worm, which is coupled to an electric motor for rotating a worm gear carried within a rotatable housing. The worm gear is supported on a thrust bearing and the rotatable housing is supported on a radial thrust bearing. A bolt extends through the housing, bearings, and worm gear for securing the device together. A potentiometer extends through the bolt, and is coupled to the rotatable housing for rotating therewith, so as to produce an electrical signal indicating the angular position of the rotatable housing.

  1. Long-range nuclear cruise missiles and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.N.; Postol, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles are highly accurate and are capable of reaching most targets within the United States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) from launch points beyond their borders. Neither the United States nor the CIS has air surveillance systems capable of providing reliable warning against cruise missiles. Thus it is possible that a small-scale cruise missile attack could go entirely undetected until the nuclear weapons arrived over their targets. Such an attack could destroy the other country's entire strategic bomber force on the ground and severely damage its strategic command and control system, perhaps to the point of endangering the ability of its ICBM force to be launched on warning. This capability makes long-range nuclear cruise missiles potentially one of the most destabilizing of all nuclear weapons.

  2. Gas Sensors Based on Single-Arm Waveguide Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey; Curley, Michael; Diggs, Darnell; Adamovsky, Grigory

    1998-01-01

    Various optical technologies can be implemented in chemical sensing. Sensitive, rugged, and compact systems will be more likely built using interferometric waveguide sensors. Currently existing sensors comprise dual-arm systems with external reference arm, dual-arm devices with internal reference arm such as integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and single-arm systems which employ the interference between different waveguide modes. These latter ones are the most compact and rugged but still sensitive enough to monitor volatile pollutants such as NH3 coming out of industrial refrigerators and fertilizer plants and stocks, NO, NO2, SO2, emitted by industrial burning processes. Single-arm devices in planar waveguide configuration most frequently use two orthogonally polarized modes TE (sub i) and TM (sub i) of the same order i. Sensing effect is based on the difference in propagation conditions for the modes caused by the environment. However, dual-mode single-order interferometers still have relatively low sensitivity with respect to the environment related changes in the waveguide core because of small difference between propagation constants of TE (sub i) and TM (sub i) modes of the same order. Substantial sensitivity improvement without significant complication can be achieved for planar waveguide interferometers using modes of different orders with much greater difference between propagation constants.

  3. Arm posture score and arm movement during walking: a comprehensive assessment in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Riad, Jacques; Coleman, Scott; Lundh, Dan; Broström, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have noticeably deviant arm posture and decreased arm movement. Here we develop a comprehensive assessment method for the upper extremity during walking. Arm posture score (APS), deviation of shoulder flexion/extension, shoulder abduction/adduction, elbow flexion/extension and wrist flexion/extension were calculated from three-dimensional gait analysis. The APS is the root mean square deviation from normal, similar to Baker's Gait Profile Score (GPS) [1]. The total range of motion (ROM) was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum position in the gait cycle for each variable. The arm symmetry, arm posture index (API) was calculated by dividing the APS on the hemiplegic side by that on the non-involved side, and the range of motion index (ROMI) by dividing the ROM on the hemiplegic side by that on the non-involved side. Using the APS, two groups were defined. Group 1 had minor deviations, with an APS under 9.0 and a mean of 6.0 (95% CI 5.0-7.0). Group 2 had more pronounced deviations, with an APS over 9.0 and a mean of 13.1 (CI 10.8-15.5) (p=0.000). Total ROM was 60.6 in group 1 and 46.2 in group 2 (p=0.031). API was 0.89 in group 1 and 1.70 in group 2 (p<0.001). ROMI was 1.15 in group 1 and 0.69 in group 2 (p=0.003). APS describes the amount of deviation, ROM provides additional information on movement pattern and the indices the symmetry. These comprehensive objective and dynamic measurements of upper extremity abnormality can be useful in following natural progression, evaluating treatment and making prognoses in several categories of patients. PMID:20971011

  4. A method for removing arm backscatter from EPID images

    SciTech Connect

    King, Brian W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for removing the support arm backscatter from images acquired using current Varian electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs).Methods: The effect of arm backscatter on EPID images was modeled using a kernel convolution method. The parameters of the model were optimized by comparing on-arm images to off-arm images. The model was used to develop a method to remove the effect of backscatter from measured EPID images. The performance of the backscatter removal method was tested by comparing backscatter corrected on-arm images to measured off-arm images for 17 rectangular fields of different sizes and locations on the imager. The method was also tested using on- and off-arm images from 42 intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields.Results: Images generated by the backscatter removal method gave consistently better agreement with off-arm images than images without backscatter correction. For the 17 rectangular fields studied, the root mean square difference of in-plane profiles compared to off-arm profiles was reduced from 1.19% (standard deviation 0.59%) on average without backscatter removal to 0.38% (standard deviation 0.18%) when using the backscatter removal method. When comparing to the off-arm images from the 42 IMRT fields, the mean {gamma} and percentage of pixels with {gamma} < 1 were improved by the backscatter removal method in all but one of the images studied. The mean {gamma} value (1%, 1 mm) for the IMRT fields studied was reduced from 0.80 to 0.57 by using the backscatter removal method, while the mean {gamma} pass rate was increased from 72.2% to 84.6%.Conclusions: A backscatter removal method has been developed to estimate the image acquired by the EPID without any arm backscatter from an image acquired in the presence of arm backscatter. The method has been shown to produce consistently reliable results for a wide range of field sizes and jaw configurations.

  5. An Overview of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). NASA established the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), comprised of scientists, engineers, and technologists, which supported ARRM mission requirements formulation, answered specific questions concerning potential target asteroid physical properties, and produced a publically available report. The ARM Investigation Team is being organized to support ARM implementation and execution. NASA is also open to collaboration with its international partners and welcomes further discussions. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, and a discussion

  6. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  7. 49 CFR 572.195 - Thorax with arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thorax with arm. 572.195 Section 572.195 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female §...

  8. 49 CFR 572.196 - Thorax without arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thorax without arm. 572.196 Section 572.196 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female §...

  9. 49 CFR 572.195 - Thorax with arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Thorax with arm. 572.195 Section 572.195 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female §...

  10. 49 CFR 572.196 - Thorax without arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Thorax without arm. 572.196 Section 572.196 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female...

  11. Development of anthropomorphic multi-D.O.F. master-slave arm for mutual telexistence.

    PubMed

    Tadakuma, Riichiro; Asahara, Yoshiaki; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Naoki; Tachi, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    We developed a robotic arm for a master-slave system to support "mutual telexistence," which realizes remote dexterous manipulation tasks and close physical communication with other people using gestures. In this paper, we describe the specifications of the experimental setup of the master-slave arm to demonstrate the feasibility of the mutual telexistence concept. We developed the master arm of a telexistence robot for interpersonal communication. The last degree of the 7-degree-of-freedom slave arm is resolved by placing a small orientation sensor on the operators arm. This master arm is made light and impedance control is applied in order to grant the operator as much freedom of movement as possible. For this development stage, we compared three control methods and confirmed that the impedance control method is the most appropriate to this system. PMID:16270856

  12. A Proposal for Automatic Fruit Harvesting by Combining a Low Cost Stereovision Camera and a Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Runcan, David; Moreno, Javier; Martínez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions. PMID:24984059

  13. A proposal for automatic fruit harvesting by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Runcan, David; Moreno, Javier; Martínez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions. PMID:24984059

  14. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  15. The Perseus arm in the anticenter direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.

    2015-05-01

    The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Str&{uml;o}mgren photometric survey covering 16° ^2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6±0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4σ for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.

  16. Arms control: misplaced focus

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, W.A.; Derber, C.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the nuclear debate consists of arguments about which weapons systems should be built, controlled, canceled, frozen, or retired. Short of virtually complete, multilateral nuclear disarmament, however, no change in the pace, balance, or even the direction of the arms race can make much difference in the risk of nuclear war, the damage should one occur, or the division of international political power. This includes Star Wars, the nuclear freeze, and even large cuts in or stabilization of offensive nuclear arsenals. A better starting point for nuclear politics would be the insight that nuclear weapons have completely changed the logic of power as it has been handed down through the ages. Military force, perfected to its highest level, has invalidated itself - for in a nuclearized world, any resort to force by a nuclear power risks escalation to its ultimate level, and thus to oblivion for all. Trying to rationalize and control the ultimate force is far less realistic and important than limiting the provocation of conflict and the use of force at lower, non-nuclear levels - by the United States, it clients, and, to the extent possible, its adversaries. 13 references.

  17. Development of prosthetic arm with pneumatic prosthetic hand and tendon-driven wrist.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Kan, Hiroto; Hirano, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, various prosthetic arms have been developed, but few are both attractive and functional. Considering human coexistence, prosthetic arms must be both safe and flexible. In this research, we developed a novel prosthetic arm with a five-fingered prosthetic hand using our original pneumatic actuators and a slender tendon-driven wrist using a wire drive and two small motors. Because the prosthetic hand's driving source is comprised of small pneumatic actuators, the prosthetic hand is safe when it makes contact with people; it can also operate flexibly. In addition, the arm has a tendon-driven wrist to expand its motion space and to perform many operations. First, we explain the pneumatic hand's drive mechanism and its tendon-driven wrist. Next, we identify the characteristics of the hand and the wrist and construct a control system for this arm and verify its control performance. PMID:19964378

  18. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone. URGENT See your doctor right away. Apply ice packs to the affected area. Use a sling to ... ibuprofen to relieve pain and reduce swelling, apply ice packs to the area and rest your arm. See ...

  19. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  20. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow: Initialization, Forcing and Multiscale Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Cheng, X.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Xiao, H.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is developing a routine large-eddy simulation (LES) modeling framework at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites, known as the "LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation" (LASSO) Workflow. The routine simulations will be assessed using comprehensive ARM observations of the atmosphere and land-surface states, particularly cloud observations. Since small changes in thermodynamic profiles can manifest large changes in cloud properties, successful simulations require careful initialization, appropriate forcing, and possibly suitable lateral boundary conditions. We use a multiscale data assimilation (MS-DA) system as a major methodology for producing forcing datasets required by the LES modeling. The MS-DA will be implemented in the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a cloud resolving resolution (~1 km). MS-DA leverages existing reanalyses (e.g., the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) and operational forecasting products (e.g. the North American Mesoscale Forecast System, NAM; the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh, HRRR) products, and takes advantage of ARM observations to directly constrain the spectra of horizontal scales down to a few km. The analysis from the MS-DA allows deriving initial conditions and forcing datasets for a range of spatial and temporal scales, developing hydrometeor forcing, exploring time-varying boundary conditions, and diagnosing other needed thermodynamic variables. It is stressed that the datasets from the MS-DA are integrated with datasets from other sources to form ensembles to account for uncertainties. The methodologies, implementation and evaluations are presented.

  1. Long-range tactile masking occurs in the postural body schema.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-01

    Long-range tactile masking has been reported between mirror symmetric body locations. This suggests a general principle of contralateral inhibition between corresponding points on each side of the body that may serve to enhance distinguishing touches on the two halves of the body. Do such effects occur before or after posture is added to the body schema? Here, we address this question by exploring the effect of arm position on long-range tactile masking. The influence of arm position was investigated using different positions of both the test and masking arms. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile-masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm or to a control site on the shoulder. No difference was found in sensitivity when test arm position was varied. Physical contact between the arms significantly increased the effectiveness of a masking stimulus applied to the other arm. Long-range masking between the arms was strongest when the arms were held parallel to each other and was abolished if the position of either the test arm or the masking arm was moved from this position. Modulation of the effectiveness of masking by the position of both the test and masking arms suggests that these effects occur after posture information is added to the body's representation in the brain. PMID:26553240

  2. A review of assistive devices for arm balancing.

    PubMed

    Dunning, A G; Herder, J L

    2013-06-01

    Due to neuromuscular disorders (e.g., Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) people often loose muscle strength and become wheelchair bound. It is important to use muscles as much as possible. To allow this, and to increase independency of patients, an arm orthosis can be used to perform activities of daily life. The orthosis compensates for the gravity force of the arm, allowing people to perform movements with smaller muscle forces. For patients, the aesthetics of the orthosis is one of the critical issues. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in passive and wearable active arm orthoses, and investigates how to proceed towards a suitable structure for a wearable passive arm orthosis, that is able to balance the arm within its natural range of motion and is inconspicuous; in the ideal case it fits underneath the clothes. Existing devices were investigated with respect to the body interface, the volume, and the workspace. According to these evaluation metrics it is investigated to what extent the devices are wearable and inconspicuous. Furthermore, the balancing principle of the devices, the architecture, force transmission through the devices, and alignment with the body joints are investigated. It appears that there is only one wearable passive orthosis presented in literature. This orthosis can perform throughout the natural workspace of the arm, but is still too bulky to be inconspicuous. The other passive orthoses were conspicuous and mounted to the wheelchair. Except one, the wearable active orthoses were all conspicuous and heavy due to a large backpack to enclose the actuators. They also could not achieve the entire natural workspace of the human arm. A future design of an inconspicuous, wearable, passive arm orthoses should stay close to the body, be comfortable to wear, and supports pronation and supination. PMID:24187302

  3. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  4. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  5. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  6. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  7. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  8. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  9. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  10. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  11. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  12. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  13. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  14. Modeling of two-hot-arm horizontal thermal actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dong; Khajepour, Amir; Mansour, Raafat

    2003-03-01

    Electrothermal actuators have a very promising future in MEMS applications since they can generate large deflection and force with low actuating voltages and small device areas. In this study, a lumped model of a two-hot-arm horizontal thermal actuator is presented. In order to prove the accuracy of the lumped model, finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental results are provided. The two-hot-arm thermal actuator has been fabricated using the MUMPs process. Both the experimental and FEA results are in good agreement with the results of lumped modeling.

  15. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F.

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate

  16. Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  19. Soft-sediment deformation produced by tides in a meizoseismic area, Turnagain Arm, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Turnagain Arm is a semidiurnal hypertidal estuary in southeastern Alaska with a recorded tidal range of 9 m. Contorted bedding and flow rolls preserved in tidal sediments within the estuary have previously been interpreted as resulting from the Mw 9.2 Great Alaskan earthquake of 1964. Horizons of flow rolls between undeformed beds in sediments and rock strata have been used to infer ancient earthquakes in other areas. Although many types of soft-sediment deformation structures can be formed by earthquakes, observations of sedimentation on tidal flats in the inner parts of Turnagain Arm in the summers of 2003 and 2004 show that a wide range of soft-sediment deformation structures, similar to those inferred to have been formed by earthquakes, can form in macrotidal estuaries in the absence of seismic shock. During sedimentation rate measurements in 2004, soft-sediment deformation structures were recorded that formed during one day's tide, either in response to overpressurization of tidal flats during rapid tidal drawdown or by shear stress exerted on the bed by the passage of a 1.8 m tidal bore. Structures consisted of How rolls, dish structures, flames, and small dewatering pipes in a bed 17 cm thick. In the future, if the flow rolls in Turnagain Arm were found in isolated outcrops across an area 11 km in length, in an estuary known to have been influenced by large-magnitude earthquakes, would they be interpreted as seismites? These examples show that caution is needed when using horizons of flow rolls to infer paleoseismicity in estuarine deposits because many of the mechanisms (tidal flux, tidal bores, slumping, flooding) that can cause deformation in rapidly deposited, unconsolidated silts and sands, are orders of magnitude more common than great earthquakes. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  20. Finding and characterizing candidate targets for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, P.

    2014-07-01

    NASA's proposed Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) leverages key on-going activities in Human Exploration and Space Technology to advance NASA's goals in these areas. One primary objective of ARM would be to develop and demonstrate a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle which would have the capability of moving significant amounts of mass around the solar system. SEP would be a key technology for robust future missions to deep space destinations, possibly including human missions to asteroids or to Mars. ARM would use the SEP vehicle to redirect up to hundreds of tons of material from a near-Earth asteroid into a stable lunar orbit, where a crew flying in an Orion vehicle would rendezvous and dock with it. The crew would perform an extra-vehicular activity (EVA), sample the material, and bring it back to the Earth; follow-on visits would also be possible. Two ARM mission concepts are being studied: one is to go to a small 4-10-meter-diameter asteroid, capture the entire asteroid and guide it into lunar orbit; the other is to go to a large 100-500 meter asteroid, remove a 1-10 meter boulder, and bring the boulder back into lunar orbit. A planetary defense demonstration could be included under either concept. Although some candidate targets are already known for both mission concepts, an observation campaign has been organized to identify more mission candidates. This campaign naturally leverages off of NASA's NEO Observations Program. Enhancements to asteroid search capabilities which will come online soon should increase the discovery rates for ARM candidates and hazardous asteroids alike. For the small-asteroid ARM concept, candidate targets must be smaller than about 12 meters, must follow Earth-like orbits and must naturally approach the Earth closely in the early 2020s, providing the opportunity for a low-velocity capture into the Earth/Moon system. About a dozen candidates are known with absolute magnitudes in the right range and with orbits

  1. Non-paretic arm force does not over-inhibit the paretic arm in chronic post-stroke hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Dimyan, Michael A.; Perez, Monica A.; Auh, Sungyoung; Tarula, Erick; Wilson, Matthew; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether non-paretic arm force over-inhibits the paretic arm in patients with chronic unilateral post-stroke hemiparesis. We hypothesized that interhemispheric inhibition would increase more in healthy controls than in hemiparetic patients. Design Case-control neurophysiologic and behavioral study of patients with chronic stroke. Setting Federal research institution, outpatient clinical research setting Participants Eighty-six referred patients were screened to enroll 9 participants with greater than 6 month history of one unilateral ischemic infarct that resulted in arm hemiparesis, with residual ability to produce 1Nm of wrist flexion torque, without contraindication to transcranial magnetic stimulation. 8 age- and handedness-matched healthy volunteers without neurologic diagnosis were studied for comparison. Interventions Not Applicable Main Outcome Measures Change in interhemispheric inhibition targeting the ipsilesional primary-motor-cortex (M1) during non-paretic arm force. Results Healthy age-matched controls had significantly greater increases in inhibition from their active to resting M1 than did stroke patients from their active contralesional to resting ipsilesional M1 in the same scenario (20% ±7 vs. −1% ±4, F1,12=6.61, p=0.0245). Patients with greater increases in contralesional to ipsilesional inhibition were better performers on the nine-hole-peg-test of paretic arm function. Conclusions Our findings reveal that producing force with the non-paretic arm does not necessarily over-inhibit the paretic arm. Though limited in generalizability by the small sample size, we found that greater active contralesional to resting ipsilesional M1 inhibition was related to better recovery in this subset of chronic post-stroke patients. PMID:24440364

  2. Magnetic and gaseous spiral arms in M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, P.; Stepanov, R.; Beck, R.; Sokoloff, D.; Shukurov, A.; Ehle, M.; Lundgren, A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The magnetic field configurations in several nearby spiral galaxies contain magnetic arms that are sometimes located between the material arms. The nearby barred galaxy M83 provides an outstanding example of a spiral pattern seen in tracers of gas and magnetic field. Aims: We analyse the spatial distribution of magnetic fields in M83 and their relation to the material spiral arms. Methods: Isotropic and anisotropic wavelet transforms are used to decompose the images of M83 in various tracers to quantify structures in a range of scales from 0.2 to 10 kpc. We used radio polarization observations at λ6.2 cm and λ13 cm obtained with the VLA, Effelsberg and ATCA telescopes and APEX sub-mm observations at 870 μm, which are first published here, together with maps of the emission of warm dust, ionized gas, molecular gas, and atomic gas. Results: The spatial power spectra are similar for the tracers of dust, gas, and total magnetic field, while the spectra of the ordered magnetic field are significantly different. As a consequence, the wavelet cross-correlation between all material tracers and total magnetic field is high, while the structures of the ordered magnetic field are poorly correlated with those of other tracers. The magnetic field configuration in M83 contains pronounced magnetic arms. Some of them are displaced from the corresponding material arms, while others overlap with the material arms. The pitch angles of the magnetic and material spiral structures are generally similar. The magnetic field vectors at λ6.2 cm are aligned with the outer material arms, while significant deviations occur in the inner arms and, in particular, in the bar region, possibly due to non-axisymmetric gas flows. Outside the bar region, the typical pitch angles of the material and magnetic spiral arms are very close to each other at about 10°. The typical pitch angle of the magnetic field vectors is about 20° larger than that of the material spiral arms. Conclusions

  3. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-03-06

    The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate.

  4. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  5. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn't appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  6. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn`t appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  7. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  8. Vertical extensions of galactic spiral arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soukup, J. E.; Yuan, C.

    1981-01-01

    The vertical structure of the large scale galactic shock along spiral arms is studied in order to understand the extended features or the wings of spiral arms observed by Kepner (1970) and recently checked by Soukup (1979). Numerical calculations of two-dimensional gas flow were performed for two models of the gas. The results show that the shock front, standing perfectly perpendicular to the galactic plane, extends impressively above the scale height of the interstellar gas. In the extreme case of isothermal gas, the shock solution exists at any distance from the plane. In a realistic model in which the kinetic temperature of the gas is stratified, increasing with height, the shock can extend up to 700 pc. For both models, although the velocity component perpendicular to the galactic plane is small, the solutions corresponding to layered one-dimensional flow contain no shocks at such heights. In order to study the geometry of the shock front and the flow pattern near it, a simplified model is adopted, in which the Coriolis force is neglected. However, estimates show that including it will enhance the shock strength. The compression at the shock front makes the gas observable at high latitudes.

  9. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, S.; Jensen, M.; McCoy, R. B.; Klein, S. A.; Cederwall, R. T.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Gaustad, K. L.; Golaz, J.-C.; Hall, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Lin, Y.; Long, C. N.; Mather, J. H.; McCord, R. A.; McFarlane, S. A.; Palanisamy, G.; Shi, Y.; Turner, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (www.arm.gov) was created in 1989 to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. A central activity is the acquisition of detailed observations of clouds and radiation, as well as related atmospheric variables for climate model evaluation and improvement. Since 1992, ARM has established six permanent ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites and deployed an ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) in diverse climate regimes around the world (Fig. 1) to perform long-term continuous field measurements. The time record of ACRF data now exceeds a decade at most ACRF fixed sites and ranges from several months to one year for AMF deployments. Billions of measurements are currently stored in millions of data files in the ACRF Data Archive. The long-term continuous ACRF data provide invaluable information to improve our understanding of the interaction between clouds and radiation, and an observational basis for model validation and improvement and climate studies. Given the huge number of data files and current diversity of archived ACRF data structures, however, it can be difficult for an outside user such as a climate modeler to quickly find the ACRF data product(s) that best meets their research needs. The required geophysical quantities may exist in multiple data streams, and over the history of ACRF operations, the measurements could be obtained by a variety of instruments, reviewed with different levels of data quality assurance, or derived using different algorithms. In addition, most ACRF data are stored in daily-based files with a temporal resolution that ranges from a few seconds to a few minutes, which is much finer than that sought by some users. Therefore, it is not as convenient for data users to perform quick comparisons over large spans of data, and this

  10. Small, Lightweight Inspection Robot With 12 Degrees Of Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas S.; Ohm, Timothy R.; Hayati, Samad

    1996-01-01

    Small serpentine robot weighs only 6 lbs. and has link diameter of 1.5 in. Designed to perform inspections. Multiple degrees of freedom enables it to reach around obstacles and through small openings into simple or complexly shaped confined spaces to positions where difficult or impossible to perform inspections by other means. Fiber-optic borescope incorporated into robot arm, with inspection tip of borescope located at tip of arm. Borescope both conveys light along robot arm to illuminate scene inspected at tip and conveys image of scene back along robot arm to external imaging equipment.

  11. Trigonometric parallaxes of star forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, M.; Wu, Y. W.; Immer, K.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    We report measurements of trigonometric parallaxes for six high-mass star-forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm of the Milky Way as part of the BeSSeL Survey. Combining our measurements with 10 previous measurements from the BeSSeL Survey yields a total sample of 16 sources in the Scutum arm with trigonometric parallaxes in the Galactic longitude range from 5° to 32°. Assuming a logarithmic spiral model, we estimate a pitch angle of 19.°8 ± 3.°1 for the Scutum arm, which is larger than pitch angles reported for other spiral arms. The high pitch angle of the arm may be due to the arm's proximity to the Galactic bar. The Scutum arm sources show an average peculiar motion of 4 km s{sup –1} slower than the Galactic rotation and 8 km s{sup –1} toward the Galactic center. While the direction of this non-circular motion has the same sign as determined for sources in other spiral arms, the motion toward the Galactic center is greater for the Scutum arm sources.

  12. The ARM-GCSS Intercomparison Study of Single-Column Models and Cloud System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Cederwall, R.T.; Rodriques, D.J.; Krueger, S.K.; Randall, D.A.

    1999-10-27

    The Single-Column Model (SCM) Working Group (WC) and the Cloud Working Group (CWG) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program have begun a collaboration with the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) WGs. The forcing data sets derived from the special ARM radiosonde measurements made during the SCM Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs), the wealth of cloud and related data sets collected by the ARM Program, and the ARM infrastructure support of the SCM WG are of great value to GCSS. In return, GCSS brings the efforts of an international group of cloud system modelers to bear on ARM data sets and ARM-related scientific questions. The first major activity of the ARM-GCSS collaboration is a model intercomparison study involving SCMs and cloud system models (CSMs), also known as cloud-resolving or cloud-ensemble models. The SCM methodologies developed in the ARM Program have matured to the point where an intercomparison will help identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches. CSM simulations will bring much additional information about clouds to evaluate cloud parameterizations used in the SCMs. CSMs and SCMs have been compared successfully in previous GCSS intercomparison studies for tropical conditions. The ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site offers an opportunity for GCSS to test their models in continental, mid-latitude conditions. The Summer 1997 SCM IOP has been chosen since it provides a wide range of summertime weather events that will be a challenging test of these models.

  13. The Rutgers Arm II rehabilitation system--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Burdea, Grigore C; Cioi, Daniel; Martin, Joseph; Fensterheim, Devin; Holenski, Maeve

    2010-10-01

    The Rutgers Arm II (RA II) is a new system that trains the shoulder/arm motor control, strengthening, arm speed of motion, endurance, and grasp strength in a single rehabilitation session. The system components are a tilted low-friction table, a forearm support with markers and wireless transmitter, a shoulder appendage to detect compensatory leaning, infrared vision tracking, a large display and a PC running custom virtual reality games. Three participants in the chronic stage post-stroke were trained on the RAII for four weeks (12 sessions) and had a follow-up evaluation after three months. The results of this study indicate that the participants were able to use the technology, and preliminary results are encouraging. One participant showed improvement in all timed Jebsen-Taylor test tasks, all participants had a larger shoulder range-of-motion and pinch strength of the affected hand post-training. Computerized measure of supported arm reach area increased in two participants post-training and in all participants at follow-up. Participants reported an improved ability to perform activities of daily living with the affected arm. There was good compliance by the participants, each of whom attended all sessions. The participants accepted the training length, even with some sessions lasting 1 h (excluding rest periods). The participants' subjective evaluation rated the system an average 3.7 out of 5 (see also the accompanying taped video interview of one of the participants). PMID:20529757

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Plots and Figures

    DOE Data Explorer

    ARM Program data is available in daily diagnostic plots that can be easily grouped into daily, weekly, monthly, and even yearly increments. By visualizing ARM data in thumbnail-sized data plots, users experience highly-browsable subsets of data available at the Data Archive including complimentary data products derived from data processed by ARM. These thumbnails allow users to quickly scan for a particular type of condition, like a clear day or a day with persistent cirrus. From a diagnostics perspective, the data plots assist in looking for missing data, for data exceeding a particular range, or for loading multiple variables (e.g., shortwave fluxes and precipitation), and to determine whether a certain science or data quality condition is associated with some other parameter (e.g., high wind or rain).[taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/data_plots.stm] Several interfaces and tools have been developed to make data plots easy to generate and manipulate. For example, the NCVWeb is an interactive NetCDF data plotting tool that ARM users can use to plot data as they order it or to plot regular standing data orders. It allows production of detailed tables, extraction of data, statistics output, comparison plotting, etc. without the need for separate visualization software. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data plots are free for viewing and downloading.

  15. The Mars Surveyor '01 Rover and Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Won S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander will carry with it both a Robotic Arm and Rover to support various science and technology experiments. The Marie Curie Rover, the twin sister to Sojourner Truth, is expected to explore the surface of Mars in early 2002. Scientific investigations to determine the elemental composition of surface rocks and soil using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be conducted along with several technology experiments including the Mars Experiment on Electrostatic Charging (MEEC) and the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The Rover will follow uplinked operational sequences each day, but will be capable of autonomous reactions to the unpredictable features of the Martian environment. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Robotic Arm will perform rover deployment, and support various positioning, digging, and sample acquiring functions for MECA (Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment) and Mossbauer Spectrometer experiments. The Robotic Arm will also collect its own sensor data for engineering data analysis. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) mounted on the forearm of the Robotic Arm will capture various images with a wide range of focal length adjustment during scientific experiments and rover deployment

  16. Placement of the VenaTech LP Caval Filter in the Elderly: Feasibility and Clinical Benefits of Insertion Via the Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanche, Alain F. Pautas, Eric; Gouin, Isabelle; Baguees, Audrey; Piette, Francois; Chaibi, Pascal

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To evaluate routine use of access sites in the arm for percutaneous caval filter placement (PCFP) in elderly patients. Neck arthritis, patient anxiety, access site thrombosis or fecal/urinary incontinence complicating jugular or femoral access may require alternative access sites in this population. Methods. Access via the right arm was chosen for PCFP (VenaTech LP). The indication for PCFP was deep vein thrombosis, a history of pulmonary embolism, and a contraindication to anticoagulant therapy. Ultrasound-guided puncture was performed after diameter measurement of the arm veins (O{sub AV}). The filter was inserted with standard imaging procedures. Procedural difficulty was graded and compared with O{sub AV} and the angle from the arm vein to the superior vena cava ({alpha}{sub AV/SVC}). Results. Over 2 years, 16 patients (14 women, 2 men) with an average age of 90 years (range 79-97 years) were included in the study. The average O{sub AV} value of the basilic or brachial veins was 4.2 mm (range 3.0-5.1 mm). The minimal O{sub AV} for successful access was determined after the first 15 patients. No hematoma occurred at the puncture sites. The average {alpha}{sub AV/SVC} value was 62 deg. (range 29 deg. - 90 deg.). Arm access was possible in 12 of 16 patients (75%) with O{sub AV} {>=} 3.5 mm and {alpha}{sub AV/SVC} {>=} 29 deg. Every procedure via the arm was graded 'easy' by the operator, regardless of angulation values. Femoral access was used in one case due to the impossibility of traversing the heart (patient no. 2), and jugular access was used in 3 of 16 (19%) patients due to puncture failure (patient no. 4), small O{sub AV} (3 mm) (patient no. 6), and stenosis of the distal right subclavian vein (patient no.16), respectively. Conclusion. PCFP via the arm can be routinely accomplished in patients older than 75 years, provided O{sub AV} {>=} 3.5 mm, and {alpha}{sub AV/SVC} {>=} 200119 d.

  17. Control of a flexible robot arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, E.; Cannon, R.

    1980-01-01

    Exact equations of motion of an arm with known parameters were developed and analyzed preparatory to designing control systems for robotic manipulators. The design of an experimental one-link arm for testing control designs is presented.

  18. Rhetorical Histories and Arms Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the use of historical events as rhetorical artifacts has sustained cold war assumptions and attitudes; that rhetorical events provide composites for rhetorical histories which become the basis for argumentative appeals; and that these rhetorical histories continue to permeate American diplomacy in general and arms negotiations in…

  19. ARM Data for Cloud Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-10-02

    The PI's ARM investigation (DE-IA02-02ER633 18) developed a physically-based subgrid-scale saturation representation that fully considers the direct interactions of the parameterized subgrid-scale motions with subgrid-scale cloud microphysical and radiative processes. Major accomplishments under the support of that interagency agreement are summarized in this paper.

  20. METRIC (MREnterography or ulTRasound in Crohn’s disease): a study protocol for a multicentre, non-randomised, single-arm, prospective comparison study of magnetic resonance enterography and small bowel ultrasound compared to a reference standard in those aged 16 and over

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) is a lifelong, relapsing and remitting inflammatory condition of the intestine. Medical imaging is crucial for diagnosis, phenotyping, activity assessment and detecting complications. Diverse small bowel imaging tests are available but a standard algorithm for deployment is lacking. Many hospitals employ tests that impart ionising radiation, of particular concern to this young patient population. Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and small bowel ultrasound (USS) are attractive options, as they do not use ionising radiation. However, their comparative diagnostic accuracy has not been compared in large head to head trials. METRIC aims to compare the diagnostic efficacy, therapeutic impact and cost effectiveness of MRE and USS in newly diagnosed and relapsing CD. Methods METRIC (ISRCTN03982913) is a multicentre, non-randomised, single-arm, prospective comparison study. Two patient cohorts will be recruited; those newly diagnosed with CD, and those with suspected relapse. Both will undergo MRE and USS in addition to other imaging tests performed as part of clinical care. Strict blinding protocols will be enforced for those interpreting MRE and USS. The Harvey Bradshaw index, C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin will be collected at recruitment and 3 months, and patient experience will be assessed via questionnaires. A multidisciplinary consensus panel will assess all available clinical and imaging data up to 6 months after recruitment of each patient and will define the standard of reference for the presence, localisation and activity of disease against which the diagnostic accuracy of MRE and USS will be judged. Diagnostic impact of MRE and USS will be evaluated and cost effectiveness will be assessed. The primary outcome measure is the difference in per patient sensitivity between MRE and USS for the correct identification and localisation of small bowel CD. Discussion The trial is open at 5 centres with 46 patients

  1. Overcoming Robot-Arm Joint Singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Kinematic equations allow arm to pass smoothly through singular region. Report discusses mathematical singularities in equations of robotarm control. Operator commands robot arm to move in direction relative to its own axis system by specifying velocity in that direction. Velocity command then resolved into individual-joint rotational velocities in robot arm to effect motion. However, usual resolved-rate equations become singular when robot arm is straightened.

  2. An arm wrestling robot driven by dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Gabor; Lochmatter, Patrick; Wissler, Michael

    2007-04-01

    The first arm wrestling match between a human arm and a robotic arm driven by electroactive polymers (EAP) was held at the EAPAD conference in 2005. The primary objective was to demonstrate the potential of the EAP actuator technology for applications in the field of robotics and bioengineering. The Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Empa) was one of the three organizations participating in this competition. The robot presented by Empa was driven by a system of rolled dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators. Based on the calculated stress condition in the rolled actuator, a low number of pre-strained DE film wrappings were found to be preferential for achieving the best actuator performance. Because of the limited space inside the robot body, more than 250 rolled actuators with small diameters were arranged in two groups according to the human agonist-antagonist muscle configuration in order to achieve an arm-like bidirectional rotation movement. The robot was powered by a computer-controlled high voltage amplifier. The rotary motion of the arm was activated and deactivated electrically by corresponding actuator groups. The entire development process of the robot is presented in this paper where the design of the DE actuators is of primary interest. Although the robot lost the arm wrestling contest against the human opponent, the DE actuators have demonstrated very promising performance as artificial muscles. The scientific knowledge gained during the development process of the robot has pointed out the challenges to be addressed for future improvement in the performance of rolled dielectric elastomer actuators.

  3. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity.

    In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below.

    For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across.

    Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  5. Spirality: Spiral arm pitch angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Pfountz, Casey; Davis, Benjamin L.; Hartley, Matthew; Pour Imani, Hamed; Slade, Zac; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Spirality measures spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. Written in MATLAB, the code package also includes GenSpiral, which produces FITS images of synthetic spirals, and SpiralArmCount, which uses a one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to count the spiral arms of a galaxy after its pitch is determined.

  6. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  7. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  8. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  9. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  10. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  11. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  12. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  13. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  14. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  15. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  16. Balancing Loads Among Robotic-Manipulator Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Lokshin, Anatole

    1990-01-01

    Paper presents rigorous mathematical approach to control of multiple robot arms simultaneously grasping one object. Mathematical development focuses on relationship between ability to control degrees of freedom of configuration and ability to control forces within grasped object and robot arms. Understanding of relationship leads to practical control schemes distributing load more equitably among all arms while grasping object with proper nondamaging forces.

  17. 77 FR 30875 - Armed Forces Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8823 of May 18, 2012 Armed Forces Day, 2012 By the President of the United... circumstances. On Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to the unparalleled service of our Armed Forces and...

  18. Flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moya, Israel A. (Inventor); Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of identical modules are serially connected together with each module including a base plate and a top plate interconnected by a ball joint assembly so that the top plate is adapted to pivotally nutate around the base plate to describe a cone in space. An array of twenty-four electromagnets, sequentially energized in sets of three, are arranged in a ring around the periphery of the base plate. Selective energization of the eight sets of electromagnets causes the rim of the top plate to be magnetically attracted to the energized electromagnets. The tilt of the top pivot plate is detected and controlled over a range of 360 degrees, thus permitting a series string of modules to assume any desired elongated configuration.

  19. Comparison of upper arm and forearm blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Domiano, Kathy L; Hinck, Susan M; Savinske, Debra L; Hope, Kathryn L

    2008-11-01

    The upper arm is the primary site used to obtain a blood pressure measurement (BPM); however, when it is not possible to use the upper arm, the forearm is a commonly used alternate site. This study determines if there is a significant difference between upper arm and forearm BPMs among adults and examines the relationship of participant characteristics to the BPM difference. A convenience sample was recruited from a low-income, independent-living, 104-apartment complex in the Midwest. Of the 106 participants, 64% were female and 89% were White. Ages ranged from 20 to 85 years (M = 50.7). The investigators calculated the BMIs (range = 18 to 42, M = 29.3, SD = 5.4) for the 89% (n = 94) of participants who reported their weight. The forearm tended to have higher BPMs than the upper arm (M difference = 4.0 mm Hg systolic, 2.3 mm Hg diastolic). However, site differences were greatest for men, obese adults, and middle aged (36 to 65) adults. PMID:18927258

  20. At arms length.

    PubMed

    Stanley, B

    1990-10-01

    An estimated half-million women in 15 countries are currently protected from pregnancy for a 5-year period by the Norplant contraceptive implant. Over 55,000 women from 44 countries participated in the clinical trials that preceded the introduction of Norplant. Since the insertion of the Norplant capsules requires special skill, training centers had to be organized around the world to offer a 3-day course to health personnel. Norplant is considered an ideal method for women who are not ready to terminate childbearing through sterilization, yet do not desire more children in the immediate future. The implants are particularly suited for developing countries in that regular medical supervision is not required. It is projected that, by the year 2000, there will be 4-7 million Norplant acceptors in the developed world and 15-25 million users in developing countries. IDRC is funding several studies of user satisfaction with the Norplant method. There remains a need, however, for an even wider range of contraceptive choices. Each new method that is introduced increases the chances of reaching a share of the millions of nonacceptors remaining in the world. Since the major pharmaceutical companies are abandoning contraceptive research and development out of a fear of litigation, nonprofit organizations such as the Population Council--the developer of Norplant--will have to assume this role to a greater extent than ever before. PMID:12283521

  1. Intraoperative positioning of mobile C-arms using artificial fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Philipp; Wang, Lejing; Kutter, Oliver; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro-Michael; Navab, Nassir

    2010-02-01

    In trauma and orthopedic surgery, imaging through X-ray fluoroscopy with C-arms is ubiquitous. This leads to an increase in ionizing radiation applied to patient and clinical staff. Placing these devices in the desired position to visualize a region of interest is a challenging task, requiring both skill of the operator and numerous X-rays for guidance. We propose an extension to C-arms for which position data is available that provides the surgeon with so called artificial fluoroscopy. This is achieved by computing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from pre- or intraoperative CT data. The approach is based on C-arm motion estimation, for which we employ a Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CAMC) system, and a rigid registration of the patient to the CT data. Using this information we are able to generate DRRs and simulate fluoroscopic images. For positioning tasks, this system appears almost exactly like conventional fluoroscopy, however simulating the images from the CT data in realtime as the C-arm is moved without the application of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, preoperative planning can be done on the CT data and then visualized during positioning, e.g. defining drilling axes for pedicle approach techniques. Since our method does not require external tracking it is suitable for deployment in clinical environments and day-to-day routine. An experiment with six drillings into a lumbar spine phantom showed reproducible accuracy in positioning the C-arm, ranging from 1.1 mm to 4.1 mm deviation of marker points on the phantom compared in real and virtual images.

  2. A real-time robot arm collision detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Clifford A.; Herb, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    A data structure and update algorithm are presented for a prototype real time collision detection safety system for a multi-robot environment. The data structure is a variant of the octree, which serves as a spatial index. An octree recursively decomposes 3-D space into eight equal cubic octants until each octant meets some decomposition criteria. The octree stores cylspheres (cylinders with spheres on each end) and rectangular solids as primitives (other primitives can easily be added as required). These primitives make up the two seven degrees-of-freedom robot arms and environment modeled by the system. Octree nodes containing more than a predetermined number N of primitives are decomposed. This rule keeps the octree small, as the entire environment for the application can be modeled using a few dozen primitives. As robot arms move, the octree is updated to reflect their changed positions. During most update cycles, any given primitive does not change which octree nodes it is in. Thus, modification to the octree is rarely required. Incidents in which one robot arm comes too close to another arm or an object are reported. Cycle time for interpreting current joint angles, updating the octree, and detecting/reporting imminent collisions averages 30 milliseconds on an Intel 80386 processor running at 20 MHz.

  3. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  4. An improved instrument mounting arm.

    PubMed

    Gendeh, B S; Khalid, B A; Alberti, P W

    2001-02-01

    Although some form of commercial instrument mounting arm is available, a paucity of information in the literature may cause problems in selecting the most appropriate model for an ENT department wishing to trial their invention for use in the clinic or operating theatre. The instrument mounting arm described here is based on existing designs used by hobbyists and model makers for many years but the main benefit of this innovation is its multi-purpose use in the operating theatre and cost effectiveness since it is made of aluminum alloy. It is compact, stable and easily adjustable and can incorporate an endoscope holder or an operating end piece to mount various ENT instruments that offers considerable advantages to the unassisted operator. PMID:11320829

  5. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  6. Labs drive the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1984-11-01

    The conviction of laboratory managers that high technology can provide safety and national security in a dangerous world and that technological solutions are paramount over political solutions has been a major driving force in perpetuating the nuclear arms race. The credo in the laboratories appears to be that there are never enough designs of nuclear weapons for deterrence so that there is always a need to develop such new ideas as the nuclear-pumped X-ray laser as a defense against energy missiles. The author outlines several alternative steps, including the ratification and reaffirmation of arms control treaties, negotiations, and a halt to the Star Wars program. A central point is to stop nuclear weapons testing. 7 references.

  7. Stereotypical reaching movements of the octopus involve both bend propagation and arm elongation.

    PubMed

    Hanassy, S; Botvinnik, A; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2015-06-01

    The bend propagation involved in the stereotypical reaching movement of the octopus arm has been extensively studied. While these studies have analyzed the kinematics of bend propagation along the arm during its extension, possible length changes have been ignored. Here, the elongation profiles of the reaching movements of Octopus vulgaris were assessed using three-dimensional reconstructions. The analysis revealed that, in addition to bend propagation, arm extension movements involve elongation of the proximal part of the arm, i.e., the section from the base of the arm to the propagating bend. The elongations are quite substantial and highly variable, ranging from an average strain along the arm of -0.12 (i.e. shortening) up to 1.8 at the end of the movement (0.57 ± 0.41, n = 64 movements, four animals). Less variability was discovered in an additional set of experiments on reaching movements (0.64 ± 0.28, n = 30 movements, two animals), where target and octopus positions were kept more stationary. Visual observation and subsequent kinematic analysis suggest that the reaching movements can be broadly segregated into two groups. The first group involves bend propagation beginning at the base of the arm and propagating towards the arm tip. In the second, the bend is formed or present more distally and reaching is achieved mainly by elongation and straightening of the segment proximal to the bend. Only in the second type of movements is elongation significantly positively correlated with the distance of the bend from the target. We suggest that reaching towards a target is generated by a combination of both propagation of a bend along the arm and arm elongation. These two motor primitives may be combined to create a broad spectrum of reaching movements. The dynamical model, which recapitulates the biomechanics of the octopus muscular hydrostatic arm, suggests that achieving the observed elongation requires an extremely low ratio of longitudinal to transverse muscle

  8. Dual arm master controller concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  9. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

    2009-05-05

    This project focused on: 1) evaluating the performance of the DOE ARM SGP Raman lidar system in measuring profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and 2) the use of the Raman lidar measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles for assessing the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor simulated by global transport models and examining diurnal variability of aerosols and water vapor. The highest aerosol extinction was generally observed close to the surface during the nighttime just prior to sunrise. The high values of aerosol extinction are most likely associated with increased scattering by hygroscopic aerosols, since the corresponding average relative humidity values were above 70%. After sunrise, relative humidity and aerosol extinction below 500 m decreased with the growth in the daytime convective boundary layer. The largest aerosol extinction for altitudes above 1 km occurred during the early afternoon most likely as a result of the increase in relative humidity. The water vapor mixing ratio profiles generally showed smaller variations with altitude between day and night. We also compared simultaneous measurements of relative humidity, aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical thickness derived from the ARM SGP Raman lidar and in situ instruments on board a small aircraft flown routinely over the ARM SGP site. In contrast, the differences between the CARL and IAP aerosol extinction measurements are considerably larger. Aerosol extinction derived from the IAP measurements is, on average, about 30-40% less than values derived from the Raman lidar. The reasons for this difference are not clear, but may be related to the corrections for supermicron scattering and relative humidity that were applied to the IAP data. The investigators on this project helped to set up a major field mission (2003 Aerosol IOP) over the DOE ARM SGP site. One of the goals of the mission was to further evaluate the aerosol and water vapor retrievals from this lidar system

  10. A Donders' Like Law for Arm Movements: The Signal not the Noise.

    PubMed

    Ewart, Steven; Hynes, Stephanie M; Darling, Warren G; Capaday, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were done to determine whether the starting position of the arm influences its final configuration (posture) when pointing to, or grasping, targets located within the common workspace of the arm. Subjects were asked to point to, or grasp, each of six targets from five, or seven, widely spaced starting positions. We found that the variability (standard deviation) of the arm's configuration, measured as the angle of inclination of the plane delimited by the arm and forearm, averaged about 4° for comfortable speed pointing movements and was only slightly higher for fast pointing movements. Comfortable speed reaches to grasp the targets were associated with slightly lower variability (3.5°) in final arm configuration. The average variability of repeated movements to a given target from a single start position (3.5°) was comparable to that of movements from different start positions to the same target (4.2°). A small difference in final arm inclination angle, averaged across all subjects and targets, of 3° was found between two pairs of starting positions. This small and possibly idiosyncratic effect is within the "noise" of final arm orientation variability for repeated movements (i.e., 3.5°). Thus, the variability of final posture is not for the most part due to different start positions, it is inherent to movement per se. Our results reconcile conflicting previous studies and are consistent with past works suggesting that a Donders' like law is indeed largely upheld for unconstrained visually guided arm movements. In summary, considering movements within a typical work space, when the hand is moved voluntarily to a given spatial location the posture of the arm is nearly the same regardless of its starting position. Importantly, variability is inherent to the rule. PMID:27065836

  11. Inter-Arm Difference in Brachial Blood Pressure in the General Population of Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo Mi; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Dong Phil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the inter-arm difference in blood pressure of the general Korean population to identify associated factors. Subjects and Methods A total of 806 participants aged 30 to 64 years without history of major cardiovascular disease were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. They participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study that began in 2013. Brachial blood pressure was measured simultaneously for both arms using an automated oscillometric device equipped with two cuffs in seated position. After five minutes of rest, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured three times. The average of the three measurements was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with inter-arm differences in blood pressure. Results The mean inter-arm difference was 3.3 mmHg for SBP and 2.0 mmHg for DBP. Large inter-arm differences (≥10 mmHg) in SBP and in DBP were found in 3.7% and 0.9% of subjects, respectively. A large inter-arm difference in SBP was associated with mean SBP (p=0.002) and C-reactive protein (p=0.014) while a large inter-arm different in DBP was only associated with body mass index (p=0.015). Sex, age, and anti-hypertensive medication use were not associated with differences in inter-arm blood pressure. Conclusion Large inter-arm difference in blood pressure is only present in a small portion of healthy Korean adults. Our findings suggest that high SBP, chronic inflammation, and obesity may be associated with larger difference in inter-arm blood pressure. PMID:27275174

  12. Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Josh R.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 < R2 < 0.322) and with muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 < R2 < 0.494). While muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size. PMID:24371016

  13. Reverse-loop upper arm arteriovenous graft for chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Shin; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Chen, Jer-Shen; Chan, Chih-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Options for an upper arm arteriovenous graft (AVG) commonly include the placement of a straight prosthetic graft connecting the brachial artery to the axillary vein. However, such configuration leads to underutilization of the upper arm veins, resulting in the loss of venous capital in the upper arm for future secondary fistula creation. In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated seven patients who had upper-arm AVGs created in a reverse-loop configuration. The prosthetic graft was created by connecting the brachial artery close to the cubital fossa and tunneled subcutaneously in a looped fashion distally thereby connecting the basilic or deep brachial vein just above the elbow. Endpoints were interventions, thrombosis, and loss of access at the last examination. The brachial vein was used in two patients and the basilic vein in the other five. The median duration of follow-up with 100% patency of the AVGs was 10.0 (range, 3.0-25.0) months. Patients were able to achieve a target hemodialysis dose with a (K(urea) x t(d))/V(urea) value of 1.4 (range, 1.2-1.5). The median flow rates achieved were 205.0 (range, 203.3-236.7) and 266.7 (range, 203.3-276.7) ml/minute at the first and 3-month dialysis sessions, respectively. The median dialysis venous pressures were 128.0 (range, 108.3-178.0) and 131.0 (range, 116.7-148.7) mmHg at the first and third month after operation, respectively. The median peak systolic velocity ratios of artery-graft and vein-graft junctions were 2.1 (range, 1.4-2.4) and 3.0 (range, 2.3-3.8) cm/second, respectively. In conclusion, this is a logical approach for patients who have exhausted their forearm vessels for AVG creation. In addition, it also provides a platform for future creation of a secondary fistula in the upper arm. PMID:19799753

  14. Randomized Phase II Study of Pemetrexed, Carboplatin, and Thoracic Radiation With or Without Cetuximab in Patients With Locally Advanced Unresectable Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 30407

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Bogart, Jeffrey; Stinchcombe, Thomas; Wang, Xiaofei; Hodgson, Lydia; Kratzke, Robert; Garst, Jennifer; Brotherton, Timothy; Vokes, Everett E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a randomized phase II trial to investigate two novel chemotherapy regimens in combination with concurrent thoracic radiation therapy (TRT). Patients and Methods Patients with unresectable stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were randomly assigned to carboplatin (area under the curve, 5) and pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) every 21 days for four cycles and TRT (70 Gy; arm A) or the same treatment with cetuximab administered concurrent only with TRT (arm B). Patients in both arms received up to four cycles of pemetrexed as consolidation therapy. The primary end point was the 18-month overall survival (OS) rate; if the 18-month OS rate was ≥ 55%, the regimen(s) would be considered for further study. Results Of the 101 eligible patients enrolled (48 in arm A and 53 in arm B), 60% were male; the median age was 66 years (range, 32 to 81 years); 44% and 35% had adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, respectively; and more patients enrolled onto arm A compared with arm B had a performance status of 0 (58% v 34%, respectively; P = .04). The 18-month OS rate was 58% (95% CI, 46% to 74%) in arm A and 54% (95% CI, 42% to 70%) in arm B. No significant difference in OS between patients with squamous and nonsquamous NSCLC was observed (P = .667). The toxicities observed were consistent with toxicities associated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion The combination of pemetrexed, carboplatin, and TRT met the prespecified criteria for further evaluation. This regimen should be studied further in patients with locally advanced unresectable nonsquamous NSCLC. PMID:21747084

  15. Robotic-Arm Assisted Surgery in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elmallah, Randa K; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Jauregui, Julio J; Padden, David A; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Complications following total hip arthroplasty (THA), such as dislocation, component loosening and wear, continue to be common indications for revision surgery. Multiple studies have attributed some of these problems to poor acetabular cup alignment and placement outside of the purported radiographic safe zone. In addition, it has been shown that conventional manually performed acetabular cup placement may not lead to optimal alignment, regardless of surgical experience. Additionally, incorrect leg length and offset can lead to dissatisfaction and instability. Therefore, robotic-arm assisted surgery has been introduced to improve accuracy of cup placement and leg length, and to offset with the aim of reducing the risk of hip instability and improving satisfaction after primary THA. Our aim was to prospectively review the use of robotic-arm assisted surgery in 224 patients and to assess whether the pre-operatively determined radiographic targets were achieved post-operatively and the proportion of acetabular cups outside of the safe zone. Pre-determined anteversion and inclination were 15 and 40 degrees, respectively. Our results have shown that the use of robotic-arm assisted surgery resulted in a post-operative mean inclination of 40 degrees (range, 34 to 51 degrees) and a mean anteversion of 16 degrees (range, 9 to 25 degrees). Ninety-nine percent of the patients remained within the pre-designated safe zone. Evidence has shown that robotic-arm assisted surgery may have improved accuracy in cup placement when compared to conventional surgery and possibly to computer-assisted surgery. When compared to the literature on robotic-arm assisted surgery, our results were comparable. We believe that this surgical technique may aid in reducing post-operative THA complications, such as aseptic loosening and dislocations, but further prospective studies are needed to evaluate clinical outcomes and long-term results. PMID:26055021

  16. ASSEMBLY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 8-ARM AND 12-ARM DNA BRANCHED JUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing

    2012-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules can be assembled into objects and networks directed by sticky-ended cohesion. The connectivity of these species is limited by the number of arms flanking the branch point. To date, the only branched junctions constructed contain six or fewer arms. We report the construction of DNA branched junctions that contain either 8 or 12 double helical arms surrounding a branch point. The design of the 8-arm junction expoits the limits of a previous approach to thwart branch migration, but the design of the 12-arm junction uses a new to principle achieve this end. The 8-arm junction is stable with 16 nucleotide pairs per arm, but the 12-arm junction has been stabilized by 24 nucleotide pairs per arm. Ferguson analysis of these junctions in combination with three, four, five, and six-arm junctions indicates a linear increase in friction constant as the number of arms increases; the four-arm junction migrates anomalously at 4°C., suggesting stacking of its domains. All strands in both the 8-arm and 12-arm junctions show similar responses to hydroxyl radical autofootprinting analysis, indicating that they lack any dominant stacking structures. The stability of the 12-arm junction demonstrates that the number of arms in a junction is not limited to the case of having adjacent identical base pairs flanking the junction. The ability to construct eight-arm and twelve-arm junctions increases the number of objects, graphs and networks that can be built from branched DNA components. In principle, the stick structure corresponding to cubic close packing is now a possible target for assembly by DNA nanotechnology. PMID:17564446

  17. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  18. Intraoperative brachial plexus injury during emergence following movement with arms restrained: a preventable complication?

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Mark H; DiMatteo, Laura; Hasenboehler, Erik A; Temple, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite considerable analysis and preventive strategies, brachial plexus injuries remain fairly common in the perioperative setting. These injuries range from brief periods of numbness or discomfort in the immediate postoperative period to, in rare cases, profound, prolonged losses of sensation and function. We present a case of an orthopedic surgery patient who suffered a brachial plexus injury while under anesthesia after trying to sit upright with his arms restrained. Case presentation After the uneventful placement of an intramedullary tibial nail, an 18 year old patient tried to sit upright with his arms restrained while still under the influence of anesthesia. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient complained of a profound loss of sensation in his left arm and an inability to flex his left elbow, suppinate his arm, or abduct and rotate his shoulder. Neurological examination and subsequent studies revealed a C5-6 brachial plexus injury. The patient underwent range of motion physical therapy and, over the next three months, regained the full function and sensation of his left arm. Conclusion Restraining arms during general anesthesia to prevent injury remains a wise practice. However, to avoid injuring the brachial plexus while the arms are restrained, extra caution must be used to prevent unexpected patient movement and to ensure gentle emergence. PMID:18271944

  19. Evolution of Gas Across Spiral Arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Melissa Nicole

    To investigate the dynamic evolution of gas across spiral arms, we conducted a detailed study of the gas and star formation along the spiral arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy, M51. This nearby, face-on spiral galaxy provides a unique laboratory to study the relationship between gas dynamics and star formation. The textbook picture of interstellar medium (ISM) evolution is rapidly changing. Molecular gas was once believed to form along spiral arms from the diffuse atomic gas in the inter-arm regions. Star formation occurs within giant molecular clouds during spiral arm passage. Lastly, the molecular gas is photo-dissociated back into atomic gas by massive stars on the downstream side of the spiral arm. Recent evidence, however, is revealing a new picture of the interstellar medium and the process of star formation. We seek development of a new picture by studying the development and evolution of molecular gas and the role of large scale galactic dynamics in organizing the interstellar medium. This thesis begins by presenting work measuring the geometrical offsets between interstellar gas and recent star formation. Interstellar gas is traced by atomic hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Star formation is traced by ionized hydrogen recombination lines and infrared emission from dust warmed by young bright stars. Measuring these offsets can help determine the underlying large scale galactic dynamics. Along the spiral arms in M51, offsets between CO and the star formation tracers suggest that gas is flowing through the spiral arms, but the offsets do not show the expected signature of a single pattern speed and imply a more complicated pattern. This thesis also examines the intermediate stages of gas evolution, by studying a denser component of the ISM closer to which stars will form. Only a small percent of the bulk molecular gas will become dense enough to form stars. HCN and HCO+ probe densities ˜104 cm-3, where as the bulk gas is 500 cm-3. This thesis looks at HCN and

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Leading arm Magellanic Cloud Catalog (Venzmer+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venzmer, M. S.; Kerp, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.

    2012-08-01

    The table represents a HI cloud catalogue of the Magellanic Cloud System's Leading Arm region. The catalogue is the result of a source finding algorithm applied on Parkes Galactic all-sky (GASS) data of that region. The considered size of the Leading Arm region in Magellanic Stream (MS) coordinates is: 0°range is: -80km/sArm cloud catalog contains 449 spatial/kinetical separated emissions. (1 data file).

  1. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  2. Structure and properties of novel three-armed star-shaped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bao-Yan; Yao, Dan-Shu; Meng, Fan-Bao; Li, Yuan-Hao

    2005-05-01

    A series of novel three-armed star-shaped liquid crystals based on 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene as a core and ω-[4-( p-alkoxybenzoloxy)phenoxycarbonyl]valeric acid as mesogenic arms were synthesized. Their chemical structures were confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectra, their mesomorphic properties and phase behavior were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The results show that the three-armed star-shaped liquid crystals exhibit a broad range of liquid crystalline phases at moderate temperature, no crystallization but vitrifying to form glass-forming mesogens during cooling from the isotropic melt. The formed crystals are glassy liquid crystals. The three-armed molecules are highly thermal stable and the mesomorphic ranges (Δ T) become wider as the terminal alkoxy chains become longer. Threadlike texture, a typical nematic phase, can be observed in the liquid crystalline state.

  3. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  4. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  5. Floating-point performance of ARM cores and their efficiency in classical molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolskiy, V.; Stegailov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Supercomputing of the exascale era is going to be inevitably limited by power efficiency. Nowadays different possible variants of CPU architectures are considered. Recently the development of ARM processors has come to the point when their floating point performance can be seriously considered for a range of scientific applications. In this work we present the analysis of the floating point performance of the latest ARM cores and their efficiency for the algorithms of classical molecular dynamics.

  6. C-arm perfusion imaging with a fast penalized maximum-likelihood approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frysch, Robert; Pfeiffer, Tim; Bannasch, Sebastian; Serowy, Steffen; Gugel, Sebastian; Skalej, Martin; Rose, Georg

    2014-03-01

    Perfusion imaging is an essential method for stroke diagnostics. One of the most important factors for a successful therapy is to get the diagnosis as fast as possible. Therefore our approach aims at perfusion imaging (PI) with a cone beam C-arm system providing perfusion information directly in the interventional suite. For PI the imaging system has to provide excellent soft tissue contrast resolution in order to allow the detection of small attenuation enhancement due to contrast agent in the capillary vessels. The limited dynamic range of flat panel detectors as well as the sparse sampling of the slow rotating C-arm in combination with standard reconstruction methods results in limited soft tissue contrast. We choose a penalized maximum-likelihood reconstruction method to get suitable results. To minimize the computational load, the 4D reconstruction task is reduced to several static 3D reconstructions. We also include an ordered subset technique with transitioning to a small number of subsets, which adds sharpness to the image with less iterations while also suppressing the noise. Instead of the standard multiplicative EM correction, we apply a Newton-based optimization to further accelerate the reconstruction algorithm. The latter optimization reduces the computation time by up to 70%. Further acceleration is provided by a multi-GPU implementation of the forward and backward projection, which fulfills the demands of cone beam geometry. In this preliminary study we evaluate this procedure on clinical data. Perfusion maps are computed and compared with reference images from magnetic resonance scans. We found a high correlation between both images.

  7. Holddown arm release mechanism used on Saturn vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Tolson, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    With the development of the Saturn launch vehicle, it became mandatory to develop a system for restraining the vehicle until after all checks and engine thrust buildup were completed. The basic Saturn I holddown arm constrains the vehicle by clamping it between a fixed support and a movable jaw. The jaw is on a link pinned to rotate sufficiently to release the vehicle. There are three links in the jaw (restraining) system arranged so that with a small force provided by a pneumatic separator mechanism, the large loads of the vehicle can be restrained. Design details discussed are the link system, the separator, adjustments, and the energy absorber. The function of preloading is discussed. The secondary release system is described. Finally, the design differences between the Saturn I and the Saturn V arm are described.

  8. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, James

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  9. Simplified robot arm dynamics for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Paul, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief summary and evaluation is presented on the use of symbolic state equation techniques in order to represent robot arm dynamics with sufficient accuracy for controlling arm motion. The use of homogeneous transformations and the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics offers a convenient frame for the derivation, analysis and simplification of complex robot dynamics equations. It is pointed out that simplified state equations can represent robot arm dynamics with good accuracy.

  10. Arms races between and within species.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R

    1979-09-21

    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory. PMID:42057

  11. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Helmus, Scott Collis

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  12. World military expenditures and arms transfers, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The report, the twentieth in the series issued by the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, is intended to serve as a convenient reference on military expenditures, arms transfers, armed forces, and related economic data for 144 countries over the 1978-1988 decade. It provides comprehensive, up-to-date, and accurate data, accompanied by pertinent analyses and highlights. The issue includes two essays, one on chemical weapons proliferation and US efforts to control it, and another on diversification of sources for Third World arms imports.

  13. Disk's Spiral Arms Point to Possible Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulations of young stellar systems suggest that planets embedded in a circumstellar disk can produce many distinctive structures, including rings, gaps and spiral arms. This video compares comput...

  14. Optical method for evaluating the impact response of 1" HDD arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Shu, Dong-Wei

    2007-12-01

    Mechanical response of an actuator arm of a 1-inch hard disk drive (HDD) against a small and steep impact load is accurately measured by means of modifying the Levitation Mass Method (LMM) whose basic concept was proposed by the first author. In the method, a mass that is levitated with an aerostatic linear bearing, and hence encounters negligible friction, is made to collide with a subject actuator arm and the dynamic bending test for the arm is realized. During the collision the Doppler frequency shift of the laser beam reflecting from the mass is accurately measured using an optical interferometer. The velocity, the position, the acceleration and the inertial force of the mass are calculated from the measured time-varying Doppler frequency shift. The importance and the problems concerning the present knowledge on the mechanical response of an actuator arm of a 1-inch hard disk drive (HDD) are also discussed.

  15. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state

    PubMed Central

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state.

  16. Effects of Action Observational Training Plus Brain-Computer Interface-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation on Paretic Arm Motor Recovery in Patient with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, TaeHoon; Kim, SeongSik; Lee, ByoungHee

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether action observational training (AOT) plus brain-computer interface-based functional electrical stimulation (BCI-FES) has a positive influence on motor recovery of paretic upper extremity in patients with stroke. This was a hospital-based, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Thirty patients with a first-time stroke were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the BCI-FES group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The BCI-FES group administered to AOT plus BCI-FES on the paretic upper extremity five times per week during 4 weeks while both groups received conventional therapy. The primary outcomes were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity, Motor Activity Log (MAL), Modified Barthel Index and range of motion of paretic arm. A blinded assessor evaluated the outcomes at baseline and 4 weeks. All baseline outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. After 4 weeks, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity sub-items (total, shoulder and wrist), MAL (MAL-Activity of Use and Quality of Movement), Modified Barthel Index and wrist flexion range of motion were significantly higher in the BCI-FES group (p < 0.05). AOT plus BCI-based FES is effective in paretic arm rehabilitation by improving the upper extremity performance. The motor improvements suggest that AOT plus BCI-based FES can be used as a therapeutic tool for stroke rehabilitation. The limitations of the study are that subjects had a certain limited level of upper arm function, and the sample size was comparatively small; hence, it is recommended that future large-scale trials should consider stratified and lager populations according to upper arm function. PMID:26301519

  17. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  18. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    PubMed

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  19. The Development of Bone Mineral Lateralization in the Arms

    PubMed Central

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lee, Kwok-Choy; Abish, Sharon; Alos, Nathalie; Bell, Lorraine; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Ellsworth, Janet; Feber, Janusz; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Halton, Jacqueline; Huber, Adam M.; Israels, Sara; Jurencak, Roman; Lang, Bianca; Laverdière, Caroline; LeBlanc., Claire; Lewis, Victor; Midgley, Julian; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Oen, Kiem; Phan, Veronique; Pinsk, Maury; Rauch, Frank; Rodd, Celia; Roth, Johannes; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Wilson, Beverly; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bone mineral content (BMC) exhibits sidedness in the arms after the age of 8 years, but it is not known whether BMC is greater in the dominant arm from birth or whether lateralization develops in early childhood. To address this, we examined bone mineral status in relation to handedness and age. Methods Subjects (n = 158) were children recently initiating glucocorticoid for underlying disease (leukemia 43%, rheumatic conditions 39%, nephrotic syndrome 18%). Handedness was determined by questionnaire and BMC by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median age was 7.2 years (range, 1.5 to 17.0 years), 49% were male, and the spine BMD Z-score was −0.9 (SD, 1.3). By linear regression, BMC sidedness in the arms was significantly related to age (r = 0.294, p = 0.0005). Breakpoint analysis revealed two lines with a knot at 6.0 years (95% CI, 4.5–7.5 years). The formula for the first line was: dominant:nondominant arm BMC ratio = 0.029 × age [in years] + 0.850 (r = 0.323, p = 0.017). The slope of the second line was not different from 0 (p = 0.332), while the slopes for the two lines were significantly different (p = 0.027). Conclusions These results show that arm BMC sidedness in this patient group develops up to age six years and then remains stable into late adolescence. This temporal profile is consistent with mechanical stimulation of the skeleton in response to asymmetrical muscle use as handedness becomes manifest. PMID:22744715

  20. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  1. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  2. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  3. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  4. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  5. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us Beyond Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Lynn M

    2013-06-18

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North Slope of Alaska (NSA) meteorological and radiometric data, collected on a daily basis, could be used to evaluate and improve global climate model (GCM) simulations and their parameterizations, particularly for cloud microphysics. Although the standard ARM Program sensors for a less complete suite of instruments for cloud and aerosol studies than the instruments on an intensive field program such as the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), the advantage they offer lies in the long time base and large volume of data that covers a wide range of meteorological and climatological conditions. The challenge has been devising a method to interpret the NSA data in a practical way, so that a wide variety of meteorological conditions in all seasons can be examined with climate models. If successful, climate modelers would have a robust alternative to the usual “case study” approach (i.e., from intensive field programs only) for testing and evaluating their parameterizations’ performance. Understanding climate change on regional scales requires a broad scientific consideration of anthropogenic influences that goes beyond greenhouse gas emissions to also include aerosol-induced changes in cloud properties. For instance, it is now clear that on small scales, human-induced aerosol plumes can exert microclimatic radiative and hydrologic forcing that rivals that of greenhouse gas–forced warming. This project has made significant scientific progress by investigating what causes successive versions of climate models continue to exhibit errors in cloud amount, cloud microphysical and radiative properties, precipitation, and radiation balance, as compared with observations and, in particular, in Arctic regions. To find out what is going wrong, we have tested the models' cloud representation over the full range of meteorological conditions found in the Arctic using the ARM

  6. A Donders’ Like Law for Arm Movements: The Signal not the Noise

    PubMed Central

    Ewart, Steven; Hynes, Stephanie M.; Darling, Warren G.; Capaday, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were done to determine whether the starting position of the arm influences its final configuration (posture) when pointing to, or grasping, targets located within the common workspace of the arm. Subjects were asked to point to, or grasp, each of six targets from five, or seven, widely spaced starting positions. We found that the variability (standard deviation) of the arm’s configuration, measured as the angle of inclination of the plane delimited by the arm and forearm, averaged about 4° for comfortable speed pointing movements and was only slightly higher for fast pointing movements. Comfortable speed reaches to grasp the targets were associated with slightly lower variability (3.5°) in final arm configuration. The average variability of repeated movements to a given target from a single start position (3.5°) was comparable to that of movements from different start positions to the same target (4.2°). A small difference in final arm inclination angle, averaged across all subjects and targets, of 3° was found between two pairs of starting positions. This small and possibly idiosyncratic effect is within the “noise” of final arm orientation variability for repeated movements (i.e., 3.5°). Thus, the variability of final posture is not for the most part due to different start positions, it is inherent to movement per se. Our results reconcile conflicting previous studies and are consistent with past works suggesting that a Donders’ like law is indeed largely upheld for unconstrained visually guided arm movements. In summary, considering movements within a typical work space, when the hand is moved voluntarily to a given spatial location the posture of the arm is nearly the same regardless of its starting position. Importantly, variability is inherent to the rule. PMID:27065836

  7. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  8. Opportunity's Arm in 'Hover-Stow' Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In January 2006, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover team adopted a new strategy for carrying Opportunity's robotic arm (the instrument deployment device with its turret of four tools at the end) when the rover is driving.

    On short drives over smooth terrain, Opportunity now holds the arm in a 'hover-stow' position as shown in this image taken by the navigation camera during the rover's 706th Martian day, or sol (Jan. 18, 2006), with elbow forward and the tool turret held above the rover deck. (In this image, the Moessbauer spectrometer is facing upwards, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer faces to the right and the rock abrasion tool faces to the left). On longer or rougher drives, Opportunity still holds the arm in the original stow position used throughout the mission, tucked underneath the deck.

    During Opportunity's 654th sol (Nov. 25, 2005), symptoms began appearing that have been diagnosed as a broken wire in the motor windings for the azimuth actuator at the shoulder joint, a motor that moves the arm from side to side. The motor still works when given extra current, but the change in strategy for stowing the arm results from concern that, if the motor were to completely fail with the arm in the original stow position, the arm could no longer be unstowed for use. If that motor were to fail while the arm is in the hover-stow position, the arm could still be manipulated for full use of the tools on the turret. However, the hover-stow position gives less protection to the arm during drives. Concern about protecting the arm during drives led to the compromise strategy of using hover-stow only during short, smooth drives.

  9. Registration of 2D C-Arm and 3D CT Images for a C-Arm Image-Assisted Navigation System for Spinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ju; Lin, Geng-Li; Tse, Alex; Chu, Hong-Yu; Tseng, Ching-Shiow

    2015-01-01

    C-Arm image-assisted surgical navigation system has been broadly applied to spinal surgery. However, accurate path planning on the C-Arm AP-view image is difficult. This research studies 2D-3D image registration methods to obtain the optimum transformation matrix between C-Arm and CT image frames. Through the transformation matrix, the surgical path planned on preoperative CT images can be transformed and displayed on the C-Arm images for surgical guidance. The positions of surgical instruments will also be displayed on both CT and C-Arm in the real time. Five similarity measure methods of 2D-3D image registration including Normalized Cross-Correlation, Gradient Correlation, Pattern Intensity, Gradient Difference Correlation, and Mutual Information combined with three optimization methods including Powell's method, Downhill simplex algorithm, and genetic algorithm are applied to evaluate their performance in converge range, efficiency, and accuracy. Experimental results show that the combination of Normalized Cross-Correlation measure method with Downhill simplex algorithm obtains maximum correlation and similarity in C-Arm and Digital Reconstructed Radiograph (DRR) images. Spine saw bones are used in the experiment to evaluate 2D-3D image registration accuracy. The average error in displacement is 0.22 mm. The success rate is approximately 90% and average registration time takes 16 seconds. PMID:27018859

  10. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  11. A virtual reality system for arm and hand rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Chee Kian; Chen, I.-Ming; Yeo, Song Huat

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality (VR) system for upper limb rehabilitation. The system incorporates two motion track components, the Arm Suit and the Smart Glove which are composed of a range of the optical linear encoders (OLE) and the inertial measurement units (IMU), and two interactive practice applications designed for driving users to perform the required functional and non-functional motor recovery tasks. We describe the technique details about the two motion track components and the rational to design two practice applications. The experiment results show that, compared with the marker-based tracking system, the Arm Suit can accurately track the elbow and wrist positions. The repeatability of the Smart Glove on measuring the five fingers' movement can be satisfied. Given the low cost, high accuracy and easy installation, the system thus promises to be a valuable complement to conventional therapeutic programs offered in rehabilitation clinics and at home.

  12. Dual-arm manipulators with adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The described and improved multi-arm invention of this application presents three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative multi-arm robots which coordinate control over a common load. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through a load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions; while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are compensated for by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by novel adaptation laws.

  13. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  18. The Structuring of Neonatal Arm Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes; Ronnqvist, Louise

    1993-01-01

    The organization and structuring of spontaneous arm movements of eight neonates were studied quantitatively, with each movement divided into an acceleration phase and a deceleration phase. Found that the movements of the two arms were coupled in all three dimensions of space and had a tendency to follow the body's longitudinal axis. (MDM)

  19. Teaching Undergraduates about Nuclear Arms and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear arms education is being addressed in many academic disciplines and can be approached from many viewpoints. Rationale, ethical issues, instructional strategies, European views, and course materials are considered. A syllabus and references are also included for a course titled "Physics of Nuclear Arms and Nuclear War." (DH)

  20. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 28, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-28

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: USSR Links Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion to SDI; Computer Unreliability Demonstrated; Japanese Question US Technology; Soviet Journal Discusses Arms Proposals, Geneva Summit; French President Justifies Nuclear Arsenal; Canadian Renewal of NORAD Agreement Examined; Cruise Missile Test Discussed; and others.

  1. 75 FR 28185 - Armed Forces Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-12267 Filed 5-19-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8522 of May 14, 2010 Armed Forces Day, 2010 By the President of the United... Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to these patriots who risk their lives, sometimes giving their...

  2. Transfer of learning between the arms during bimanual reaching.

    PubMed

    Harley, Linda R; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how movement of one arm affects the rate of motor adaptation of the other arm during bimanual reaching in a viscous force-field. Forty healthy adult subjects performed four reaching tasks: (1) by dominant arm, (2) by nondominant arm, (3) by both arms with only dominant arm experiencing force-field and (4) by both arms with only nondominant arm experiencing the force-field. For dominant arm rate of motor adaptation was greater during the bimanual task than the unimanual task. For nondominant arm reaching errors were higher during the bimanual than unimanual task. These results suggest that during bimanual reaching, transfer of learning between arms occur in both directions and movement information transferred depends on arm dominance. PMID:23367487

  3. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Randall, K.J.

    1997-09-01

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion.

  4. Assessment of noise exposure for indoor and outdoor firing ranges.

    PubMed

    Murphy, William J; Tubbs, Randy L

    2007-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received an employee request for a health hazard evaluation of a Special Weapons Assault Team (SWAT) in January 2002. The department was concerned about noise exposures and potential hearing damage from weapons training on their indoor and outdoor firing ranges. NIOSH investigators conducted noise sampling with an acoustic mannequin head and 1/4 -inch microphone to characterize the noise exposures that officers might experience during small arms qualification and training when wearing a variety of hearing protection devices provided by the department. The peak sound pressure levels for the various weapons ranged from 156 to 170 decibels (dB SPL), which are greater than the recommended allowable 140 dB SPL exposure guideline from NIOSH. The earplugs, ear muffs, and customized SWAT team hearing protectors provided between 25 and 35 dB of peak reduction. Double hearing protection (plugs plus muffs) added 15-20 dB of peak reduction. PMID:17654224

  5. Anthropomorphic dual-arm space telemanipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous dual-arm manipulations are feasible with the system described and illustrated in the paper. The structure is based on an extensible host arm that carries the dual-arm robot which comprises two 7-DOF arms each of which includes a hand with a thumb and three fingers with 4 DOF each. Joint compliance can be stiffened to any level, and the operator uses arm harnesses and gloves to utilize the robotics in an anthropomorphic fashion. The configuration eliminates coordinate-transformation computations, and the system is found to achieve a control-frequency rate of 1000 Hz for its direct man/machine interfaces based on fiber-optic cables. The electronics control for the system utilizes a sensory system consisting of force, position, and compliance sensors. The robotics system is expected to be a user-friendly device that permits assembly, repair, tethering, and other complex mechanical operations.

  6. Cutaneous vascular control in the arms of women with postmastectomy oedema.

    PubMed

    Stanton, A W; Levick, J R; Mortimer, P S

    1996-05-01

    The control of forearm skin blood flow was examined in the swollen arms of twelve women with oedema caused by breast cancer treatment. The swollen arm was compared with the opposite unaffected (control) arm. Using laser Doppler flux (LDF) and continuous finger blood pressure (BP) measurements, vascular control was tested by applying a range of provocations previously shown to alter cutaneous vascular resistance (CVR) in healthy subjects. The tests and the accepted mechanism were: post-ischaemic hyperaemia (locally mediated vasodilatation), inspiratory gasp and cool reflex (both sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction), arm dependency (locally mediated vasoconstriction), and core heat load (sympathetically mediated vasodilatation). CVR was calculated as BP/(LDF-biological zero). Three differences between the control and swollen arms were identified. (i) The laser Doppler biological zero signal was significantly higher on the swollen side (P = 0.005, Student's paired t test). (ii) Baseline LDF was significantly lower on the swollen side (P = 0.002), and apparent CVR correspondingly higher. (iii) Cumulative reactive hyperaemia (area under the LDF curve above baseline) was significantly less on the swollen side (P = 0.03), although peak flux was not significantly different. Inspiratory gasp, cool reflex, arm dependency and core heat load produced changes of similar magnitude in both arms. It appears that sympathetic neural control and local vasoconstrictor control in arm dependency are normal in arm lymphoedema but that locally mediated vasodilator control is impaired. In addition, baseline skin blood flow may be reduced in this condition. The results provide no support for impairment of vascular tone as a contributory factor to the oedematous state. PMID:8737078

  7. Exact positioning of the robotic arm end effector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-07-01

    Orbital service becomes a new challenge of space exploration. The necessity to introduce it is connected first of all with an attractive opportunity to prolong the exploitation terms of expensive commercial satellites by, e.g., refilling of fuel or changing batteries. Other application area is a fight with permanently increasing amount of space litter - defunct satellites, burnt-out rocket stages, discarded trash and other debris. Now more than few tens of thousands orbiting objects larger than 5-10 cm (or about 1 million junks larger than 1 cm) are a huge problem for crucial and costly satellites and manned vehicles. For example, in 2014 the International Space Station had to change three times its orbit to avoid collision with space debris. So the development of the concepts and actions related to removal of space debris or non-operational satellites with use of robotic arm of a servicing satellite is very actual. Such a technology is also applicable for unmanned exploratory missions in solar system, for example for collecting a variety of samples from a celestial body surface. Naturally, the robotic arm movements should be controlled with great accuracy at influence of its non-rigidity, thermal and other factors. In these circumstances often the position of the arm end effector has to be controlled with high accuracy. The possibility of coordinate determination for the robotic arm end effector with use of a low frequency active electromagnetic system has been considered in the presented report. The proposed design of such a system consists of a small magnetic dipole source, which is mounted inside of the arm end effector and two or three 3-component magnetic field sensors mounted on a servicing satellite body. The data from this set of 3-component magnetic field sensors, which are fixed relatively to the satellite body, allows use of the mathematical approach for determination of position and orientation of the magnetic dipole source. The theoretical

  8. Torque Generation by Axonemal Outer-Arm Dynein

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shin; Saito, Kei; Sutoh, Miki; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Yoko Y; Yajima, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Outer-arm dynein is the main engine providing the motive force in cilia. Using three-dimensional tracking microscopy, we found that contrary to previous reports Tetrahymena ciliary three-headed outer-arm dynein (αβγ) as well as proteolytically generated two-headed (βγ) and one-headed (α) subparticles showed clockwise rotation of each sliding microtubule around its longitudinal axis in microtubule corkscrewing assays. By measuring the rotational pitch as a function of ATP concentration, we also found that the microtubule corkscrewing pitch is independent of ATP concentration, except at low ATP concentrations where the pitch generated by both three-headed αβγ and one-headed α exhibited significantly longer pitch. In contrast, the pitch driven by two-headed βγ did not display this sensitivity. In the assays on lawns containing mixtures of α and βγ at various ratios, the corkscrewing pitch increased dramatically in a nonlinear fashion as the ratio of α in the mixture increased. Even small proportions of α-subparticle could significantly increase the corkscrewing pitch of the mixture. Our data show that torque generation does not require the three-headed outer-arm dynein (αβγ) but is an intrinsic property of the subparticles of axonemal dyneins and also suggest that each subparticle may have distinct mechanical properties. PMID:25692592

  9. Mars Science Laboratory with Arm Extended, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like in Martian terrain, from a side aft angle.

    The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments onto selected rocks or soil targets and also to collect samples for analysis by other instruments. Near the base of the arm is a sample preparation and handling system designed to grind samples, such as rock cores or small pebbles, and distribute the material to analytical instruments.

    The mast, rising to about 2.1 meters (6.9 feet) above ground level, supports two remote-sensing instruments: the Mast Camera for stereo color viewing of surrounding terrain and material collected by the arm, and the ChemCam for analyzing the types of atoms in material that laser pulses have vaporized from rocks or soil targets up to about 9 meters (30 feet) away.

  10. Films on the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, J.

    1983-01-01

    Films convey the historical perspectives, the biographical stories, the insights of the participants, and the horror of nuclear war - far better than can any physicist. While films are not very efficient for covering details, derivation, or numbers, they can not be beaten in showing what really happens in a nuclear explosion, in getting across general concepts, in illustrating the parameters of a problem, and the problem itself. Most importantly, films and TV can reach the people who must be informed about these issues if we are to resolve the problems. The author points out how films can contribute to an understanding of the issues of the arms race and nuclear war, with references to specific films. An annotated bibliography of 37 films is then presented.

  11. Systematics of small Gehyra (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the southern Kimberley, Western Australia: redescription of G. kimberleyi Börner & Schüttler, 1983 and description of a new restricted range species.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Paul M; Bourke, Gayleen; Pratt, Renae C; Doughty, Paul; Moritz, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing fieldwork and molecular research continues to reveal that the monsoonal tropics of northern Australia contain more vertebrate species than currently recognised. Here we focus on two morphologically distinctive, yet unrecognised forms in the genus Gehyra from the southern Kimberley region and surrounding deserts. We base our descriptions on a combination of unpublished genetic data and a morphological examination of voucher specimens. We recognise and redescribe G. kimberleyi, a species with a broad distribution extending over most of the south-west Kimberley, across the Great Sandy Desert and into the far northern Pilbara. This species has been previously assigned to G. pilbara owing to its frequent occurrence on termite mounds and short snout, but can be distinguished from G. pilbara and other regionally sympatric Gehyra by its moderate body size, moderate number of pre-cloacal pores in males (12-17) and aspects of dorsal colouration. We also describe G. girloorloo sp. nov., a small rock-dwelling species with a short snout, low number of pre-cloacal pores in males (8-11) and pinkish-grey dorsal colouration with alternating series of indistinct pale spots and irregular transversely-aligned dark blotches. The new species appears to be restricted to a relatively small region of exposed limestone karst in the south-west Kimberley and is entirely circumscribed by morphologically similar congeners. PMID:27394804

  12. An ARM Mobile Facility Designed for Marine Deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Program is designing a Mobile Facility exclusively for marine deployments. This marine facility is patterned after ARM's land Mobile Facility, which had its inaugural deployment at Point Reyes, California, in 2005, followed by deployments to Niger in 2006 and Germany in 2007 (ongoing), and a planned deployment to China in 2008. These facilities are primarily intended for the study of clouds, radiation, aerosols, and surface processes with a goal to include these processes accurately in climate models. They are preferably embedded within larger field campaigns which provide context. They carry extensive instrumentation (in several large containers) including: cloud radar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared spectrometers, broadband and narrowband radiometers, sonde-launching facilities, extensive surface aerosol measurements, sky imagers, and surface latent and sensible heat flux devices. ARM's Mobile Facilities are designed for 6-10 month deployments in order to capture climatically-relevant datasets. They are available to any scientist, U.S. or international, who wishes to submit a proposal during the annual Spring call. The marine facility will be adapted to, and ruggedized for, the harsh marine environment and will add a scanning two-frequency radar, a boundary-layer wind profiler, a shortwave spectrometer, and aerosol instrumentation adapted to typical marine aerosols like sea salt. Plans also include the use of roving small UAVs, automated small boats, and undersea autonomous vehicles in order to address the point-to-area-average problem which is so crucial for informing climate models. Initial deployments are planned for small islands in climatically- interesting cloud regimes, followed by deployments on oceanic platforms (like decommissioned oil rigs and the quasi-permanent platform of this session's title) and eventually on large ships like car carriers plying routine routes.

  13. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  14. Magic - Marine Arm Gpci Investigation of Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, E. R.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Albrecht, B. A.; Bland, G.; Flagg, C. N.; Klein, S. A.; Kollias, P.; Mace, G. G.; Reynolds, M.; Schwartz, S. E.; Siebesma, P.; Teixeira, J.; Wood, R.; Zhang, M.

    2012-12-01

    MAGIC, the Marine ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program) GPCI Investigation of Clouds, will deploy the Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship M/V Spirit traversing the route between Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI from October, 2012 through September, 2013 (except from a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this time AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs), one in January, 2013 and one in July, 2013 during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made. Clouds remain a major source of uncertainty in climate projections. In this context, subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds play a key role in cloud-climate feedbacks that are not well understood yet play a large role in biases both in seasonal coupled model forecasts and annual mean climate forecasts. In particular, current climate models do not accurately represent the transition from the stratocumulus (Sc) regime, with its high albedo and large impact on the global radiative balance of Earth, to shallow trade-wind cumulus (Cu), which play a fundamental role in global surface evaporation and also albedo. Climate models do not yet adequately parameterize the small-scale physical processes associated with turbulence, convection, and radiation in these clouds. Part of this inability results from lack of accurate data on these clouds and the conditions responsible for their properties, including aerosol properties, radiation, and atmospheric and oceanographic conditions. The primary objectives of MAGIC are to improve the representation of the Sc-to-Cu transition in climate models by characterizing the essential properties of this transition, and to produce the observed

  15. MiniAERCam Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) is designing a small, remotely controlled vehicle that will carry two color and one black and white video cameras in space. The device will launch and retrieve from the Space Vehicle and be used for remote viewing. Off the shelf cellular technology is being used as the basis for communication system design. Existing plans include using multiple antennas to make simultaneous estimates of the azimuth of the MiniAERCam from several sites on the Space Station and use triangulation to find the location of the device. Adding range detection capability to each of the nodes on the Space Vehicle would allow an estimate of the location of the MiniAERCam to be made at each Communication And Telemetry Box (CATBox) independent of all the other communication nodes. This project will investigate the techniques used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) to achieve accurate positioning information and adapt those strategies that are appropriate to the design of the CATBox range determination system.

  16. Experimental Research Regarding The Motion Capacity Of A Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Violeta Cristina

    2015-09-01

    This paper refers to the development of necessary experiments which obtained dynamic parameters (force, displacement) for a modular mechanism with multiple vertebrae. This mechanism performs functions of inspection and intervention in small spaces. Mechanical structure allows functional parameters to achieve precise movements to an imposed target. Will be analyzed the dynamic of the mechanisms using simulation instruments DimamicaRobot.tst under TestPoint programming environment and the elasticity of the tension cables. It will be changes on the mechanism so that spatial movement of the robotic arm is optimal.

  17. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  18. Feasibility of a Short-Arm Centrifuge for Mouse Hypergravity Experiments.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hironobu; Obata, Koji; Abe, Chikara; Shiba, Dai; Shirakawa, Masaki; Kudo, Takashi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a novel mouse habitat cage unit that can be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility in the Kibo module of the International Space Station. The Cell Biology Experiment Facility has a short-arm centrifuge to produce artificial 1 g gravity in space for mouse experiments. However, the gravitational gradient formed inside the rearing cage is larger when the radius of gyration is shorter; this may have some impact on mice. Accordingly, biological responses to hypergravity induced by a short-arm centrifuge were examined and compared with those induced by a long-arm centrifuge. Hypergravity induced a significant Fos expression in the central nervous system, a suppression of body mass growth, an acute and transient reduction in food intake, and impaired vestibulomotor coordination. There was no difference in these responses between mice raised in a short-arm centrifuge and those in a long-arm centrifuge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a short-arm centrifuge for mouse experiments. PMID:26221724

  19. Feasibility of a Short-Arm Centrifuge for Mouse Hypergravity Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Hironobu; Obata, Koji; Abe, Chikara; Shiba, Dai; Shirakawa, Masaki; Kudo, Takashi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a novel mouse habitat cage unit that can be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility in the Kibo module of the International Space Station. The Cell Biology Experiment Facility has a short-arm centrifuge to produce artificial 1 g gravity in space for mouse experiments. However, the gravitational gradient formed inside the rearing cage is larger when the radius of gyration is shorter; this may have some impact on mice. Accordingly, biological responses to hypergravity induced by a short-arm centrifuge were examined and compared with those induced by a long-arm centrifuge. Hypergravity induced a significant Fos expression in the central nervous system, a suppression of body mass growth, an acute and transient reduction in food intake, and impaired vestibulomotor coordination. There was no difference in these responses between mice raised in a short-arm centrifuge and those in a long-arm centrifuge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a short-arm centrifuge for mouse experiments. PMID:26221724

  20. Cannibalization of Dwarf Galaxies by the Milky Way: Distance to the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antwi-Danso, Jacqueline; Barger, Kathleen; Haffner, L. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Tidal interactions between two dwarf galaxies near the Milky Way, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, have caused large quantities of gas to be flung into the halo of the Milky Way. Much of this tidal debris, known as the Magellanic System, is currently headed towards the disk of the Milky Way, spearheaded by the Leading Arm, with the Bridge connecting the two dwarf galaxies, and the trailing Magellanic Stream at the end. Estimates for the amount of gas that the Magellanic System contains are in the range of (2 - 4) × 109 M⊙ and this could supply our Galaxy with (3.7 - 6.7) M⊙ yr-1 (Fox et al. 2014). Although this is higher than the present star-formation rate of the Galaxy, the position of the tidal debris predisposes it to ionizing radiation from the extragalactic background and Galactic disk, as well as ram-pressure stripping from the halo, hindering gas accretion. Some parts of the Leading Arm, however, appear to have already survived the trip to the disk as their morphology is indicative of interaction with the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. The exact amount of gas that this structure contains is uncertain because of weak constrains in its distance. In this study, we made seven pointed Hα observations using the Wisconsin Hα Mapper Telescope and then compared the Hα intensity we obtained to models of the anticipated ionizing flux from the Milky Way and extragalactic background. From this, we calculated the distance from the Sun to the Leading Arm of the Magellanic System at the locations of our observations.

  1. Dose and image quality for a cone-beam C-arm CT system

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrig, Rebecca; Dixon, Robert; Payne, Thomas; Morin, Richard L.; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Strobel, Norbert

    2006-12-15

    We assess dose and image quality of a state-of-the-art angiographic C-arm system (Axiom Artis dTA, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) for three-dimensional neuro-imaging at various dose levels and tube voltages and an associated measurement method. Unlike conventional CT, the beam length covers the entire phantom, hence, the concept of computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is not the metric of choice, and one can revert to conventional dosimetry methods by directly measuring the dose at various points using a small ion chamber. This method allows us to define and compute a new dose metric that is appropriate for a direct comparison with the familiar CTDI{sub W} of conventional CT. A perception study involving the CATPHAN 600 indicates that one can expect to see at least the 9 mm inset with 0.5% nominal contrast at the recommended head-scan dose (60 mGy) when using tube voltages ranging from 70 kVp to 125 kVp. When analyzing the impact of tube voltage on image quality at a fixed dose, we found that lower tube voltages gave improved low contrast detectability for small-diameter objects. The relationships between kVp, image noise, dose, and contrast perception are discussed.

  2. Back Home on the Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breining, Greg

    1992-01-01

    Presents the history of the buffalo's demise and reemergence in the United States and Canada. Discusses the problems facing herds today caused by a small genetic pool, disease, range concerns, lack of predation, and culling. Points out the benefits of buffalo raising as compared to cattle raising, including the marketing advantages. (MCO)

  3. Adaptive control of dual-arm robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative dual-arm robots are described. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through the load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions, while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are rejected by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. The controllers have simple structures and are computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates.

  4. The evolution of neuroArm.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Garnette R; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Lama, Sanju; Zarei-nia, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative imaging disrupts the rhythm of surgery despite providing an excellent opportunity for surgical monitoring and assessment. To allow surgery within real-time images, neuroArm, a teleoperated surgical robotic system, was conceptualized. The objective was to design and manufacture a magnetic resonance-compatible robot with a human-machine interface that could reproduce some of the sight, sound, and touch of surgery at a remote workstation. University of Calgary researchers worked with MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates engineers to produce a requirements document, preliminary design review, and critical design review, followed by the manufacture, preclinical testing, and clinical integration of neuroArm. During the preliminary design review, the scope of the neuroArm project changed to performing microsurgery outside the magnet and stereotaxy inside the bore. neuroArm was successfully manufactured and installed in an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging operating room. neuroArm was clinically integrated into 35 cases in a graded fashion. As a result of this experience, neuroArm II is in development, and advances in technology will allow microsurgery within the bore of the magnet. neuroArm represents a successful interdisciplinary collaboration. It has positive implications for the future of robotic technology in neurosurgery in that the precision and accuracy of robots will continue to augment human capability. PMID:23254809

  5. Collecting Survey Data during Armed Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha; Williams, Nathalie E.

    2012-01-01

    Surveys provide crucial information about the social consequences of armed conflict, but armed conflict can shape surveys in ways that limit their value. We use longitudinal survey data from throughout the recent armed conflict in Nepal to investigate the relationship between armed conflict events and survey response. The Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) provides a rare window into survey data collection through intense armed conflict. The CVFS data reveal that with operational strategies tailored to the specific conflict, duration of the panel study is the main determinant of attrition from the study, just as in most longitudinal studies outside of conflict settings. Though minor relative to duration, different dimensions of armed conflict can affect survey response in opposing directions, with bombings in the local area reducing response rates but nationwide political events increasing response rates. This important finding demonstrates that survey data quality may be affected differently by various dimensions of armed conflict. Overall, CVFS response rates remained exceptionally high throughout the conflict. We use the CVFS experience to identify principles likely to produce higher quality surveys during periods of generalized violence and instability. PMID:23420645

  6. Image quality of a cone beam O-arm 3D imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Weir, Victor; Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Hsiang; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2009-02-01

    The O-arm is a cone beam imaging system designed primarily to support orthopedic surgery and is also used for image-guided and vascular surgery. Using a gantry that can be opened or closed, the O-arm can function as a 2-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy device or collect 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging data like a CT system. Clinical applications of the O-arm in spine surgical procedures, assessment of pedicle screw position, and kyphoplasty procedures show that the O-arm 3D mode provides enhanced imaging information compared to radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. In this study, the image quality of an O-arm system was quantitatively evaluated. A 20 cm diameter CATPHAN 424 phantom was scanned using the pre-programmed head protocols: small/medium (120 kVp, 100 mAs), large (120 kVp, 128 mAs), and extra-large (120 kVp, 160 mAs) in 3D mode. High resolution reconstruction mode (512×512×0.83 mm) was used to reconstruct images for the analysis of low and high contrast resolution, and noise power spectrum. MTF was measured using the point spread function. The results show that the O-arm image is uniform but with a noise pattern which cannot be removed by simply increasing the mAs. The high contrast resolution of the O-arm system was approximately 9 lp/cm. The system has a 10% MTF at 0.45 mm. The low-contrast resolution cannot be decided due to the noise pattern. For surgery where locations of a structure are emphasized over a survey of all image details, the image quality of the O-arm is well accepted clinically.

  7. Promoting Positive Emotional Health of Children of Transient Armed Forces Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eodanable, Miranda; Lauchlan, Fraser

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research was to promote emotional health in a small primary school (n = 180), with a highly transient pupil population of armed forces children (Service children). Negative effects of pupil mobility have been found to relate to academic attainment (Dobson, Henthorne, & Lynas, 2000; Mott, 2002), but its effect on social and…

  8. A comparison of ARMS and DNA sequencing for mutation analysis in clinical biopsy samples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We have compared mutation analysis by DNA sequencing and Amplification Refractory Mutation System™ (ARMS™) for their ability to detect mutations in clinical biopsy specimens. Methods We have evaluated five real-time ARMS assays: BRAF 1799T>A, [this includes V600E and V600K] and NRAS 182A>G [Q61R] and 181C>A [Q61K] in melanoma, EGFR 2573T>G [L858R], 2235-2249del15 [E746-A750del] in non-small-cell lung cancer, and compared the results to DNA sequencing of the mutation 'hot-spots' in these genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour (FF-PET) DNA. Results The ARMS assays maximised the number of samples that could be analysed when both the quality and quantity of DNA was low, and improved both the sensitivity and speed of analysis compared with sequencing. ARMS was more robust with fewer reaction failures compared with sequencing and was more sensitive as it was able to detect functional mutations that were not detected by DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing was able to detect a small number of lower frequency recurrent mutations across the exons screened that were not interrogated using the specific ARMS assays in these studies. Conclusions ARMS was more sensitive and robust at detecting defined somatic mutations than DNA sequencing on clinical samples where the predominant sample type was FF-PET. PMID:20925915

  9. Extended moment arm anti-spin device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A device which corrects aerodynamic spin is provided in which a collapsible boom extends an aircraft moment arm and an anti-spin parachute force is exerted upon the end of the moment arm to correct intentional or inadvertent aerodynamic spin. This configuration effects spin recovery by means of a parachute whose required diameter decreases as an inverse function of the increasing length of the moment arm. The collapsible boom enables the parachute to avoid the aircraft wake without mechanical assistance, retracts to permit steep takeoff, and permits a parachute to correct spin while minimizing associated aerodynamic, structural and in-flight complications.

  10. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    SciTech Connect

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro E-mail: kokubo@th.nao.ac.jp

    2014-06-01

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  11. The Perseus arm stellar overdensity at 1.6 kpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.

    2014-07-01

    The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Strömgren photometric survey covering 16∘2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6 ± 0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4σ for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.

  12. Overview: Mechanism and Control of a Prosthetic Arm.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Tushar; Uddanwadiker, Rashmi

    2015-09-01

    Continuous growth in industrialization and lack of awareness in safety parameters the cases of amputations are growing. The search of safer, simpler and automated prosthetic arms for managing upper limbs is expected. Continuous efforts have been made to design and develop prosthetic arms ranging from simple harness actuated to automated mechanisms with various control options. However due the cost constraints, the automated prosthetic arms are still out of the reach of needy people. Recent data have shown that there is a wide scope to develop a low cost and light weight upper limb prosthesis. This review summarizes the various designs methodologies, mechanisms and control system developed by the researchers and the advances therein. Educating the patient to develop acceptability to prosthesis and using the same for the most basic desired functions of human hand, post amputation care and to improve patient's independent life is equally important. In conclusion it can be interpreted that there is a wide scope in design in an adaptive mechanism for opening and closing of the fingers using other methods of path and position synthesis. Simple mechanisms and less parts may optimize the cost factor. Reduction in the weight of the prosthesis may be achieved using polymers used for engineering applications. Control system will remain never ending challenge for the researchers, but it is essential to maintain the simplicity from the patients perspective. PMID:27281955

  13. Time domain simulations of arm locking in LISA

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, J. I.; Livas, J.; Maghami, P.

    2011-06-15

    Arm locking is a proposed laser frequency stabilization technique for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a gravitational-wave observatory sensitive in the milliHertz frequency band. Arm locking takes advantage of the geometric stability of the triangular constellation of three spacecraft that compose LISA to provide a frequency reference with a stability in the LISA measurement band that exceeds that available from a standard reference such as an optical cavity or molecular absorption line. We have implemented a time-domain simulation of a Kalman-filter-based arm-locking system that includes the expected limiting noise sources as well as the effects of imperfect a priori knowledge of the constellation geometry on which the design is based. We use the simulation to study aspects of the system performance that are difficult to capture in a steady-state frequency-domain analysis such as frequency pulling of the master laser due to errors in estimates of heterodyne frequency. We find that our implementation meets requirements on both the noise and dynamic range of the laser frequency with acceptable tolerances and that the design is sufficiently insensitive to errors in the estimated constellation geometry that the required performance can be maintained for the longest continuous measurement intervals expected for the LISA mission.

  14. Three-dimensional moment arms and architecture of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) leg musculature

    PubMed Central

    Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    The muscular and skeletal morphology of the chimpanzee ankle and foot differs from that of humans in many important respects. However, little information is available on the moment arms and architecture of the muscles that function around chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. The main goals of this study were to determine the influence of changes in leg and foot position on the moment arms of these muscle–tendon units (MTUs), and provide new measurements of their architecture. Three-dimensional moment arm data were collected from two adult, cadaveric Pan troglodytes specimens for 11 MTUs that cross the ankle and foot joints. Tendon-excursion measurements were made throughout the full range of plantarflexion–dorsiflexion (PF–DF) and eversion–inversion (EV–IN), including repeated measurements for mm. gastrocnemius at 0 °, 45 °, 90 ° and 135 ° of knee flexion. The total range of motion was calculated from three-dimensional joint motion data while ensuring that foot movement was restricted to a single plane. Measurements of muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were then collected for each MTU. Our results demonstrate that joint position has a significant effect on moment arm lengths, and that in some cases this effect is counterintuitive. These new data contribute to filling a significant gap in previously published chimpanzee moment arm data, providing a comprehensive characterization of the MTUs that move the chimpanzee ankle and foot joints. They also provide empirical support to the notion that chimpanzees have larger ranges of motion at these joints than humans. Comparison of osteometric estimates of moment arm lengths to direct tendon-excursion measures provides some guidance for the use of skeletal features in estimations of PF–DF moment arms. Finally, muscle architecture data are consistent with the findings of previous studies, and increase the sample size of the chimpanzee data that are currently

  15. Small RNAs in plant defense responses during viral and bacterial interactions: similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    Peláez, Pablo; Sanchez, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs constitute an important class of gene expression regulators that control different biological processes in most eukaryotes. In plants, several small RNA (sRNA) silencing pathways have evolved to produce a wide range of small RNAs with specialized functions. Evidence for the diverse mode of action of the small RNA pathways has been highlighted during plant–microbe interactions. Host sRNAs and small RNA silencing pathways have been recognized as essential components of plant immunity. One way plants respond and defend against pathogen infections is through the small RNA silencing immune system. To deal with plant defense responses, pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid and counterattack this defense strategy. The relevance of the small RNA-mediated plant defense responses during viral infections has been well-established. Recent evidence points out its importance also during plant–bacteria interactions. Herein, this review discusses recent findings, similarities and differences about the small RNA-mediated arms race between plants and these two groups of microbes, including the small RNA silencing pathway components that contribute to plant immune responses, the pathogen-responsive endogenous sRNAs and the pathogen-delivered effector proteins. PMID:24046772

  16. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    SciTech Connect

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  17. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Megan O.; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A.; Schmit, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity. PMID:26633892

  18. Monitoring functional arm movement for home-based therapy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, R; Reinkensmeyer, D; Shah, P; Liu, J; Rao, S; Smith, R; Cramer, S; Rahman, T; Bobrow, J

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a means for individuals with stroke to practice arm movement therapy at home with remote monitoring. We previously developed a Web-based system for repetitive movement training (Java Therapy). This paper describes a new input device for the system that measures and assists in naturalistic arm movement, as well as software enhancements. The new input device is an instrumented, adult-sized version of Wilmington robotic exoskeleton (WREX), which is a five degrees-of-freedom orthosis that counterbalances the weight of the arm using elastic bands. To test the ability of the new device (Training-WREX or "T-WREX") to measure and assist in functional arm movements, we measured five chronic stroke subjects' movement ability while wearing the orthosis without gravity balance compared to wearing the orthosis with gravity balance. T-WREX's gravity balance function improved a clinical measure of arm movement (Fugl-Meyer Score), range of motion of reaching movements, and accuracy of drawing movements. Coupled with an enhanced version of Java Therapy, T-WREX will thus provide a means to assist functional arm movement training at home, either over the Web in real-time, or stand-alone with periodic communication with a remote site. PMID:17271381

  19. Neuromuscular dysfunction with the experimental arm acting as its own reference following eccentric and isometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Anastassios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Maridaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Eccentric exercise has been extensively used as a model to study muscle damage-induced neuromuscular impairment, adopting mainly a bilateral matching task between the reference (unexercised) arm and the indicator (exercised) arm. However, little attention has been given to the muscle proprioceptive function when the exercised arm acts as its own reference. This study investigated muscle proprioception and motor control, with the arm acting both as reference and indicator, following eccentric exercise and compared them with those observed after isometric exercise. Fourteen young male volunteers were equally divided into two groups and performed an eccentric or isometric exercise protocol with the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm on an isokinetic dynamometer. Both exercise protocols induced significant changes in indicators of muscle damage, that is, muscle soreness, range of motion and maximal isometric force post-exercise (p < 0.05-0.001), and neuromuscular function was similarly affected following both protocols. Perception of force was impaired over the 4-day post-exercise period (p < 0.001), with the applied force being systematically overestimated. Perception of joint position was significantly disturbed (i.e., target angle was underestimated) only at one elbow angle on day 4 post-exercise (p < 0.05). The misjudgements and disturbed motor output observed when the exercised arm acted as its own reference concur with the view that they could be a result of a mismatch between the central motor command and an impaired motor control after muscle damage. PMID:20553224

  20. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Megan O; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity. PMID:26633892

  1. The arms race between fishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  2. Serpentine Robot Arm Contains Electromagnetic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moya, Israel A.; Studer, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    Identical modules assembled into flexible robot arm configured in serpentlike fashion to manipulate objects while avoiding obstacles. Each module includes integral electromagnetic actuators energized selectively to produce variety of motions, stationary configurations, and combinations thereof.

  3. MiniSAR composite gimbal arm development.

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, Paul Richard; Winscott, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory effort in the application of carbon epoxy composite structural materials to a multi-axis gimbal arm design is described. An existing design in aluminum was used as a baseline for a functionally equivalent redesigned outer gimbal arm using a carbon epoxy composite material. The existing arm was analyzed using finite element techniques to characterize performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and weight. A new design was virtually prototyped. using the same tools to produce a design with similar stiffness and strength, but reduced overall weight, than the original arm. The new design was prototyped using Rapid Prototyping technology, which was subsequently used to produce molds for fabricating the carbon epoxy composite parts. The design tools, process, and results are discussed.

  4. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, R. S.; Grabelsky, D. A.; May, J.; Alvarez, H.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1985-01-01

    From a new survey of the 2.6 mm line of CO in the southern Milky Way, 37 molecular clouds were identified along the Carina arm from l = 282 deg to 336 deg with masses generally greater than 10 to the 5th solar mass. The clouds lie approximately every 700 pc along a spiral segment that is nearly 25 kpc long and has a pitch of about 10 deg. The total mass of these clouds is 40 x 10 to the 6th solar mass, or rougly 1 x 10 to the 6th solar mass each on average. The abrupt tangent point in molecular clouds at l = 280 deg and the characteristic loop structure in the l-v diagram are unmistakable evidence of a CO spiral arm in Carina. This arm apparently connects with the northern hemisphere Sagittarius arm to form a single 10 deg spiral which extends more than two-thirds of the way around the Galaxy.

  5. Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.

  6. Self-locking telescoping manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, M. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A telescoping manipulator arm and pivotable finger assembly are disclosed. The telescoping arm assembly includes a generally T-shaped arm having three outwardly extending fingers guided on grooved roller guides to compensate for environmental variations. The pivotable finger assembly includes four pivoting fingers. Arcuate teeth are formed on the ends of the fingers. A rack having teeth on four sides meshes with each one of the fingers. One surface of the rack includes teeth along its entire surface which mesh with teeth of one of the fingers. The teeth at the remote end of the rack engage teeth of a gear wheel. The wheel includes a worm which meshes with a worn drive shaft of the drive motor providing a ninety degree self-locking drive for locking the fingers in a desired position. A similar drive provides a self-locking drive for positioning the telescoping arm.

  7. One regional ARM guide for climatic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    One of the early tasks of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program is to provide climatic guides for site selection purposes including possible continental, regional, local and on-site locations. The first guide A Preliminary ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluations'' provided some climate data on a continental scale; this one is an attempt to show the variability that exists over a region. Kansas was chosen for this particular guide because it satisfies most of the requirements given in the ARM Program Plan, i.e., climatic significance, potential for synergism with other programs and scientific and logistical viability. Kansas has extreme climatic variations, is centrally located, is compatible with other large scale programs (Fife), has good airfields and accommodations to minimize time and effort in planning and operating an ARM site for continuous use and special campaigns.

  8. One regional ARM guide for climatic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    One of the early tasks of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program is to provide climatic guides for site selection purposes including possible continental, regional, local and on-site locations. The first guide ``A Preliminary ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluations`` provided some climate data on a continental scale; this one is an attempt to show the variability that exists over a region. Kansas was chosen for this particular guide because it satisfies most of the requirements given in the ARM Program Plan, i.e., climatic significance, potential for synergism with other programs and scientific and logistical viability. Kansas has extreme climatic variations, is centrally located, is compatible with other large scale programs (Fife), has good airfields and accommodations to minimize time and effort in planning and operating an ARM site for continuous use and special campaigns.

  9. Radiation Pattern of Chair Armed Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rabindra Kishore; Sahu, Kumar Satyabrat

    2016-07-01

    This work analyzes planar antenna conformable to chair arm shaped surfaces for WLAN application. Closed form expressions for its radiation pattern are developed and validated using measurements on prototype and commercial EM code at 2.4 GHz.

  10. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 547.301... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or related materiel of all types, including military aircraft and equipment, but excludes:...

  11. 49 CFR 234.255 - Gate arm and gate mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gate arm and gate mechanism. 234.255 Section 234... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.255 Gate arm and gate mechanism. (a) Each gate arm and gate mechanism shall be inspected at least once each month. (b) Gate arm movement shall...

  12. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 547.301... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or related materiel of all types, including military aircraft and equipment, but excludes:...

  13. 49 CFR 234.255 - Gate arm and gate mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gate arm and gate mechanism. 234.255 Section 234....255 Gate arm and gate mechanism. (a) Each gate arm and gate mechanism shall be inspected at least once each month. (b) Gate arm movement shall be observed for proper operation at least once each month....

  14. 49 CFR 234.255 - Gate arm and gate mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gate arm and gate mechanism. 234.255 Section 234....255 Gate arm and gate mechanism. (a) Each gate arm and gate mechanism shall be inspected at least once each month. (b) Gate arm movement shall be observed for proper operation at least once each month....

  15. 49 CFR 234.255 - Gate arm and gate mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gate arm and gate mechanism. 234.255 Section 234... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.255 Gate arm and gate mechanism. (a) Each gate arm and gate mechanism shall be inspected at least once each month. (b) Gate arm movement shall...

  16. 49 CFR 234.255 - Gate arm and gate mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gate arm and gate mechanism. 234.255 Section 234....255 Gate arm and gate mechanism. (a) Each gate arm and gate mechanism shall be inspected at least once each month. (b) Gate arm movement shall be observed for proper operation at least once each month....

  17. The molecular spiral arms of NGC 6946

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Xie, S.

    1990-01-01

    From CO-12(J=1 to 0) observations at 45 seconds resolution Tacconi and Young (1989) have found evidence for enhancements in both the CO emissivity and the massive star formation efficiency (MSFE) on optical spiral arms of the bright spiral galaxy NGC 6946. In the optically luminous and well-defined spiral arm in the NE quadrant, there are enhancements in both the H2 surface density and MSFE relative to the interarm regions. In contrast, a poorly defined arm in the SW shows no arm-interarm contrast in the MSFE. To further investigate the molecular gas content of these two spiral arms, researchers have made CO-12 J=2 to 1 and 3 to 2 observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. In the J=2 to 1 line, they made observations of the NE and SW spiral arm and interarm regions in 4 x 9 10 seconds spaced grids (36 points per grid). Because of decreased sensitivity in the J=3 to 2 line, they were limited to mapping the two arm regions in 2 x 3 10 seconds spaced grids (6 points per grid). The centers of each of the grids lie 2.4 minutes to the NE and 2.3 minutes to the SW of the nucleus of NGC 6946. With the CO J=2 to 1 data researchers are able to fully resolve the two observed spiral arms in NGC 6946. In both cases the CO emission is largely confined to the optical spiral arm regions with the peak observed T asterisk sub A being up to 4 times higher on the spiral arms than in the interarm regions. Researchers are currently estimating massive star formation efficiencies on and off the spiral arms through direct comparison of the CO maps with an H alpha image. They are also comparing the CO J=2 to 1 data with an HI map made at similar resolution. Thus, they will be able to determine structure in all components of the IS on scales of less than 20 inches.

  18. Superpower arms control. Setting the record straight

    SciTech Connect

    Carnesale, A.; Haass, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book identifies the preconceptions about the arms control process and tests them against the historical record of negotiations and accords. The result is much-needed evidence and analysis of issues too often obscured by emotion and ideology, as well as important new conclusions about how arms control agreements have - or have not - influenced verification, meaningful restraints on new technology development, Soviet domestic policy, and U.S. defense spending.

  19. Force Sensor for Large Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Primus, H. C.; Scheinman, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Modified Maltese-cross force sensor larger and more sensitive than earlier designs. Measures inertial forces and torques exerted on large robot arms during free movement as well as those exerted by claw on manipulated objects. Large central hole of sensor allows claw drive mounted inside arm instead of perpendicular to its axis, eliminating potentially hazardous projection. Originally developed for Space Shuttle, sensor finds applications in large industrial robots.

  20. Comparison of Arm and Interarm Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, H. G.; Moon, D. S.; Stark, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    The physical properties of the molecular clouds in the arm and interarm region of the inner Galalxy are compared. We used Bell Laboratories Galactic Plane 13CO Survey data and UMSB Galactic Plane 12CO Survey data. The LCO/M of the interarm molecular clouds is much smaller that of arm molecular clouds. Several physical properties, including abundance ratio of molecular clouds in two regions are discussed.