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1

Sound management of sediment yields at the catchment scale by small detention ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keywords: small detention pond, sediment deposits, reservoir silting, urban catchment Globally observed land use and climate changes have a clear impact on the sediment yields deriving from the catchment. Released sediments may originate from different point and non-point sources. Thereby it is difficult to manage and reduce sediment loads directly at the source without undertaking detailed and expensive monitoring programs. Small detention ponds are therefore frequently used water management systems in urban settlements to improve water quality at the catchment scale. Such ponds located at the outlet of small basins allow reducing sediment loads downstream. Additionally, they capture sediment-associated contaminants as heavy metals, nutrients and micropollutants. On the other hand, a sedimentation within the pond may be a severe problem because it decreases over the time its retention capacity. This is especially significant for small detention ponds, where the siltation rate is high. These ponds can loose their total capacity already after few years of their exploitation when no dredging operations are considered. Unfortunately, maintenance costs of small ponds are expensive and usually not taken into account when planning and constructing such ponds. Consequently, many small detention ponds become inefficient after an entire use of their capacity. Therefore careful planning of maintenance options is essential to keep an effectiveness of such ponds on the expected level. Within presented here study we addressed the problem of silting small detention ponds and we assessed an applicability of such ponds to manage sediment yields discharged from small urban catchments. To this end, a periodic measurement of deposited sediments within a small detention pond (1.35 ha, 5 years old, Warsaw, Poland) has been undertaken. This pond receives a polluted runoff from a small urbanized basin (30 km2), for which no routine sediment measurement exists. The spatial sediment thickness within the pond was measured twice (in 2009 and 2011) by the echo sounding technique. A resulting sediment deposit volume was computed by constructing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the pond. An alternating reservoir volume was estimated for both measurements and confronted with the initial characteristics (2007). Our first results demonstrate that the pond will loose its sufficient capacity after about ten years if no regular sediment dredging is undertaken. Moreover, the useful time of the pond will decrease by two years when the catchment area increases by 10% due to expected urbanization. Furthermore, different scenarios of maintenance options were analyzed and recommendations for sound sediment management of similar small ponds in urban catchments were given.

Sikorska, A. E.; Wasilewicz, M.; Banasik, K.

2012-04-01

2

Experimental Aquatic Ecology in Stormwater Detention Ponds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The exercises described in the article focus on the water quality management of small aquatic ecosystems, namely, stormwater detention ponds. One exercise focuses on management of sedimentation and another on nutrient management.

Cahoon, Lawrence B.

2010-02-16

3

Using Stormwater Detention Ponds for Aquatic Science Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of recently constructed stormwater detention ponds to conduct a set of field and laboratory exercises in an undergraduate limnology course. Provides a number of logistical advantages that can benefit those teaching aquatic sciences. (JRH)

Cahoon, Lawrence B.

1996-01-01

4

Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond - Wetlands system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Suspended-phase efficiencies for solids, lead, and zinc ranged between 42 and 66%. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72%. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. Total (dissolved + suspended) solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 41 and 73%. Efficiencies for total nitrogen and phosphorus were 21 and 17%, respectively. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond of wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents. Total solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 55 and 83%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies were 36 and 43%, respectively.The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72 percent. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond and wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents.

Martin, E. H.

1988-01-01

5

Analysis of detention ponds for storm water quality control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow capture efficiency and average detention time are the performance measures commonly used in assessing the long-term pollutant removal effectiveness of storm water detention ponds. A statistical formulation is presented for estimating these two performance measures for typical detention ponds where outflow is controlled by an orifice or weir type structure. The flow capture efficiency is determined with the estimation of the total spill volume. The total spill volume is calculated as the combination of the event spill volume and the carryover spill volume. Thus the carryover effect of consecutive runoff events is quantified. A closed-form analytical expression is derived for estimating the average volume-weighted detention time, taking into account the variable inflow and outflow rates and the random spacing between runoff events. Analytical determinations of the average detention time are confirmed by continuous simulation modeling. Statistical solutions of flow capture efficiency closely resemble those obtained from continuous simulation models. The statistical models presented, and the insights gained from their use, can be applied in the design or evaluation of detention ponds for storm water quality control.

Guo, Yiping; Adams, Barry J.

1999-08-01

6

Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented here increased the pond's TSS (and associated pollution) removal efficiency from 46% (current state) to between 70 and 90%, depending on the pond's capacity considered. The RTC strategies allow simultaneously maximizing the detention time of water, while minimizing the hydraulic shocks induced to the receiving water bodies and preventing overflow. A constraint relative to a maximum time of 4 days with water accumulated in the pond was thus respected to avoid mosquito breeding issues. The predictive control schemes (taking rainfall forecasts into consideration) can further reinforce the safety of the management strategies, even if meteorological forecasts are, of course, not error-free. With RTC, the studied pond capacity could thus have been limited to 1250 m3 instead of the 4000 m3 capacity currently used under static control. References Marsalek, J. 2005. Evolution of urban drainage: from cloaca maxima to environmental sustainability. Paper presented at Acqua e Citta, I Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica Urbana, Cent. Stud. Idraul. Urbana, Sant'Agnello di Sorrento, Italy, 28- 30 Sept. Middleton, J.R. and Barrett, M.E. 2008. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin. Water Environment Research, 80 (2): 172-178. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143007X220842 Muschalla, D., Pelletier, G., Berrouard, É., Carpenter, J.-F., Vallet, B., and Vanrolleghem, P.A. 2009. Ecohydraulic-driven real-time control of stormwater basins. In: Proceedings 8th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling (8UDM), Tokyo, Japan, September 7-11. National Research Council, 1993. Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shammaa, Y., Zhu, D.Z., Gyürék, L.L., and Labatiuk C.W. 2002. Effectiveness of dry ponds for stormwater total suspended solids removal. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29 (2): 316-324 (9). Doi: 10.1139/l02-008

Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

2013-04-01

7

Evaluating Optimal Detention Pond Locations at a Watershed Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural BMPs like stormwater basins (detention and retention basins), wetlands, filter strips and grassland swales are extensively used as stormwater runoff controls. BMPs are often designed for peak flow reduction or pollution control or can be considered for dual purpose in that they provide both water quality and quantity benefits by relying upon storage allocation and key mechanisms of setting

P. Kaini; K. Artita; J. W. Nicklow

8

Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

Fernandez, Mario, Jr.; Hutchinson, C. B.

1993-01-01

9

Effects of urban runoff from a detention pond on water quality, temperature and caged Gammarus minus (Say) (Amphipoda) in a headwater stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thompson Run, a headwater stream in central Pennsylvania (U.S.A.), supports an impaired macroinvertebrate community downstream of the outlet of a detention pond that receives urban runoff. To determine if toxicity from the metals or other pollutants in urban runoff contributed to impairment, we exposed adult, male Gammarus minus to urban runoff during a 42-day in situ bioassay that included 12

David A. Lieb; Robert F. Carline

2000-01-01

10

The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms (dissolved solids) and increases in retention efficiency for constituents that settle out of pond and wetland storage between storms. The greatest increase in retention efficiencies in the detention pond was observed for total lead, which increased from 19 percent before modification to 73 percent after modification. However, retention efficiencies for nutrients for nutrients and suspended constituents decreased in the wetland after modification. This was probably because of the flushing of accumulated sediments as a result of a change in flow path through the wetland. As a result, the overall effect of modification on the system (pond and wetland retention efficiencies combined) was a reduction in retention efficiency for all but two constituents (total zinc and total ammonia nitrogen).

Gain, W. S.

1996-01-01

11

Trapping carbon in small ponds and wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no doubt that carbon (C) is on the move. Recent estimates have suggested that the global sediment flux in agricultural landscapes due to water and tillage erosion is 35±10 Pg C y-1. Some of this C is oxidised and lost to the atmosphere, other material may be deposited and burried in colluvium and some may be delivered through both surface and subsurface flow paths to surface waters. In many agricultural landscapes these surface waters may take the form of small ponds and wetlands (field wetlands). In this paper we explore the potential of field wetlands to trap particulate C and influence the fate of dissolved organic carbon within the context of a small agricultural catchments in England. Since 2008 the mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment project (MOPS) has established ten monitored field wetlands across three catchments in the UK at Crake Trees, Cumbria (silt soils, rainfall 1500 mm y-1), Whinton Hill Cumbria (sandy soils, rainfall 1200 mm y-1), Newton Rigg, Cumbria (Silt soils, rainfall c1200 mm y-1) and Loddington, Leicestershire (Clay soils, rainfall 650 mm y-1). Although originally designed to capture sediment and phosphorus, their potential for influencing catchment scale C dynamics is becoming apparent. The C contents of sediments from the three catchments are typically in the range of 1.8 - 3.0% at Crake Trees Catchment, 2.5 to 9% at Whinton Hill and 2.0 to 3.1 % at Crake Trees. At the high rainfall sites the wetlands trap upwards of 20 t y-1 of sediment equating to several hundred kilograms of C. There is also some evidence that the ponds and wetlands may influence DOC, with DOC concentrations falling from approximately 35 mg l-1 to 15 mg l-1 at the Whinton Hill site as water passes through a series of field wetlands. In this paper we will present data from the last two years of monitoring and consider the wider implications for C sequestration by ponds and wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

Quinton, J. N.; Ockenden, M. C.; Deasy, C.; Favaretto, N.

2012-04-01

12

Chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and heavy metal) levels in contaminated stormwater and sediments from a motorway dry detention pond drainage system.  

PubMed

Chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon - PAH and heavy metal) levels in stormwater and sediment samples collected from the London Orbital (M25) motorway drainage dry detention pond at Oxted, Surrey, UK were determined. Such chemicals are derived from vehicular combustion products and the wear and tear materials deposited onto the motorway surface. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in motorway drainage sediments. The GC-MS method, incorporating a solid phase extraction step, provides detection limits ranging from 0.17 to 0.41 mg kg(-1)(dry weight). Almost all of the 16 USEPA listed PAHs were detected. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (PAH numbers 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 16) were among the PAHs found at "higher" levels (ranging from 0.3-10.2 mg kg(-1), dry weight) in the sediment samples. PAH levels show little change along the motorway drainage silt trap (facility for reducing the levels of suspended particulate matter in the stormwater). PAH concentrations are considerably higher in the dry detention pond outflow interceptor. Statistical analysis showed that significant correlation coefficients (based on a t-test at the 95% confidence interval) were obtained between those PAHs found at high concentrations over all of the sampling sites. Several PAHs were dispersed beyond the treatment facility and accumulation in the sediment of the deer park resulted in levels ranging from 0.3-1.6 mg kg(-1), dry weight. These PAHs found beyond the treatment facility (in the local farm deer park) may contribute a serious health threat to farm animals or even fish in the aquatic environment. Heavy metal levels (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb and Pb) of the drainage stormwater and sediments were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with quality control evaluation using two certified reference materials. Typical detection limits were found to be below 0.1 [micro sign]g l(-1) for stormwater and 0.005 mg kg(-1) for acid digested sediments. Raised heavy metal levels were found throughout the dry detention pond facility and only decrease when the stormwater is diluted following discharge into the river Eden. Statistical analysis also confirms that some significant correlations exist between various heavy metals and PAHs. However, no overall conclusive trend is found indicating that a particular PAH is deposited in sediment relative to a specific heavy metal/s. These results raise some serious concerns about the dispersion and accumulation of chemicals in the sediments of motorway stormwater drainage systems and the need for maintenance and clean-up of contaminated material from such systems. PMID:14999315

Kamalakkannan, Ragunathan; Zettel, Vic; Goubatchev, Alex; Stead-Dexter, Karen; Ward, Neil I

2004-03-01

13

Ammonium sulfate solar pond: Observations from small-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

Using the fertilizer salt (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the authors established a salinity gradient solar pond in a small outdoor tank. The hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of the pond was similar to that observed in the past for solar ponds containing NaCl. For temperature gradients between 50 and 300 K/m and salinity gradients between 200 and 1400 kg/m{sup 4}, data relating the gradients to erosion and growth of the gradient zone were generally consistent with the Nielsen boundary criterion for NaCl. With a salinity difference of 20% between the upper and lower zones and a maximum lower-zone temperature of 83{degree}C, no instabilities were observed in the interior of the gradient zone. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in controlling algal populations and maintaining good brine transparency.

Hull, J.R. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA)); Bushnell, D.L.; Sempsrote, D.G. (Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb (USA)); Pena, A. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso (USA))

1989-01-01

14

Waste Stabilization Ponds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste stabilization ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…

Koundakjian, Philip

15

Investigation of pond velocities using dye and small drogues: a case study of the Nelson City waste stabilisation pond.  

PubMed

The city of Nelson, New Zealand, has a 27 hectare oxidation pond as its primary wastewater treatment facility. Recent changes in the configuration of the pond and installation of a mixer/aerator raised concerns that pond treatment rates and effluent quality may be affected by high internal pond velocities and short retention times. This paper presents the findings of an investigation into wastewater velocity and movement within the pond using qualitative dye dispersion and tracking of small-scale "holey-sock" drogues. Simultaneous deployment of drogues and dye allowed methods to be compared, since small-scale drogues have not commonly been used in wastewater ponds. Dye dispersion was assessed using low-level aerial photography from a tethered helium blimp to track short term movement and mixing, while a datalogger and fluorometer were used to measure pond retention time. Drogue movement was tracked in conjunction with the dye study from a small boat using hand-held GPS. The dye study found that: (i) the first portion of pond influent discharged from the pond after 37.5 hours, substantially quicker than the theoretical pond retention time of 27 days. However, the measured retention time was with a mixer in place and the theoretical time was without a mixer; (ii) the position of the paddle wheel mixer/aerator was not optimally placed for mixing the influent and a quiescent region existed adjacent to the influent point; and (iii) the low-level aerial photography was an effective method of evaluating larger pond systems. The "holey-sock" drogue studies showed that: (i) the drogues accurately followed the movement and velocity of dyed influent within the pond; (ii) wastewater velocity and movement was dominated by the paddle wheel mixer/aerator; and (iii) wind direction had a minor influence on wastewater velocity and movement in areas not directly affected by the paddle wheel mixer/aerator. The study demonstrated that the combined use of dye and drogues was a relatively low-cost and effective means of determining internal pond velocities and movement. Future studies using similar methods will be useful in helping validate computer-modelled movement and velocity. PMID:14510205

Barter, P J

2003-01-01

16

Evaluation of Wet Ponds for Protection of Public Water Supplies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extensive field study was conducted to evaluate pollutant removal in two regional wet detention ponds near High Point, NC. Substantial differences in influent pollutant concentrations between the two ponds resulted in significant differences in pond wa...

R. C. Borden J. L. Dorn J. B. Stillman S. K. Liehr

1997-01-01

17

LONG TERM DETENTION FOR THE STABILIZATION OF WASTEWATER BIOSOLIDS FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Treated biosolids from small wastewater treatment plants in mid-western US are usually disposed off by land application. This practice allows for the recycling of the nutrients present in the biosolids for food and fiber production and can help re-vegetate sites destroyed by mini...

18

Effects of a vegetated stormwater-detention basin on chemical quality and temperature of runoff from a small residential development in Monroe County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vegetated stormwater-detention basin at a small residential development in Monroe County, N.Y. has been shown to be effective in reducing loads of certain chemical constituents to receiving waters. Loads of suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus have been reduced by an average of 14 to 62 percent. The basin has little effect on the temperature of runoff between the inflow and the outflow; water temperatures at the outflow during summer storms averaged 0.5 degrees Celsius higher than those at the inflow.

Sherwood, Donald A.

2001-01-01

19

Methane production in sediments of small tundra ponds during winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow tundra ponds in the Churchill region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) store large quantities of organic material in the form of sediments. Organic sediments in ponds and wetlands have been identified as a source of atmospheric methane (CH4) during the summer season in many landscapes. However, less is known about CH4 production and emission during the winter months, following the formation of an ice layer on the water surface. Unfrozen sediments may continue to produce methane (CH4) during this time, which may become trapped in the ponds beneath the ice layer. This occurrence has been identified in some regions through the sampling and analysis of CH4 bubbles frozen in lake ice. The goal of this project is to examine the potential for the production and trapping of CH4 in ponds beneath the pond ice (water/ice and sediment profiles) in the Churchill region of the HBL. Thermistor and gas sampling arrays were installed in the water and sediments of two ponds. Gas samples were collected at 1-4 week intervals at the sediment-water interface and at 0-15cm and 20-35 cm depth. Results show that sediments are indeed thawed for 3-4 months of the winter season, and deeper sediments remain within the range of 0 to -5 C whereas shallow sediment temperatures ranged between 10 and -10 C over an annual cycle. Laboratory experiments showed that little difference in CH4 production was observed at sediment temperatures between -2 and 5 C, whereas production was very low at -10 C. No significant differences in CH4 production rates were observed for different sediment depths in the laboratory. Field data collected between August 2010 and June 2011 showed consistent accumulation of CH4 in sediments following the formation of an ice layer on pond surfaces. However, CH4 concentrations in gas samplers decreased in February through April after sediments were frozen, but began to increase again (May-June) as sediments thawed and began to warm. Future work will include the examination of gas fluxes from pond surfaces and mechanisms influencing variable CH4 concentrations in pond sediments.

Macrae, M. L.; Fishback, L.; Bourbonniere, R. A.; Duguay, C. R.; Soliman, A. S.

2011-12-01

20

Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms.  

PubMed

In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated the effect of bordering land use on prevalence and FZT burden in snails in different areas within small-scale aquaculture ponds. Nine sampling areas within a pond were assigned in six ponds. For each sampling area, about 120 Melanoides tuberculata snails were collected. Based on land use bordering a sampling area, these were categorized in 5 risk-categories: low-risk (road, rice planted in pond, agriculture, or middle of pond), human access point to pond, livestock sty (pigs or poultry), both human access point and livestock sty, and water connection to canal. In total, 5392 snails were collected. Percentages of snails with parapleurolophocercous cercariae varied between 6% in areas categorized as low-risk and areas with livestock sty only to 15% in areas with both human access point and livestock sty; only this 15% was significantly different from the prevalence in the low-risk category. Percentages of snails with xiphidio cercariae did not differ between risk-categories and varied between 5% and 10%. Mean snail size was 15.2mm, and was significantly associated with both the probability of infection as well as parasite burden. Very small differences in parasite burden were found at different land use areas; the maximum difference was about 11 cercariae. This study demonstrated only small differences between areas surrounding a pond on risk of snails to be infected with fish-borne trematodes within different pond areas. In field studies on FZTs in M. tuberculata snails in ponds, sampling from ponds can therefore be done without considering areas within ponds. PMID:23200642

Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M

2013-03-01

21

Survival of monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little information is available on the survival of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ponds &mdash especially on the survival of fry to large fingerling stage, during the time when the most mortality would be expected. Development of monosex (all female) grass carp at the Fish Farming Experimental Station by the technique of artificial gynogenesis (Stanley et al. 1975) enabled us to observe survival to the large fingersling stage under several stocking densities and pond conditions. These limited observations, made incidentally to other studies, may provide clues for the development of management techniques to reduce mortality. Monosex fry were used in these observations, but there is no reason to suppose that survival of bisexual fry would have been different.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.

1977-01-01

22

Carbon and Oxygen fluxes from small ponds: a significant carbon source to the atmosphere from small headwater systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 250 days of 0.5 hr profiles (six level) have been analysed to determine the gas exchange fluxes of CO2 and O2 from a small pond (approx. 100mx100m; 1.2m max depth). Mirror Lake (Storrs, CT) exhibits net fluxes of both O2 and CO2 to the atmosphere of the order 83±90 mmoles CO2 m-2 day-1and 15±70 mmoles O2 m-2 day-1 indicating the pond is both highly productive and heterotrophic. The temporal variability of C flux is -10 to +1000mmoles CO2 m-2 day-1. If this pond is considered typical, the net flux of CO2 to the atmosphere from small ponds is order 1-3 x 1014 gC yr-1 making a net contribution to the carbon cycle comparable to lakes (1.4 x 1014 gC yr-1; Cole et al 1994) and rivers (3 x1014 gC yr-1; Maybeck 1993) and confirms a significant role for shallow aquatic systems in the carbon cycle. Microbial processing of allochthonous carbon in the pond strongly favors C export relative to O2 consumption via microbial pathways that utilize NO3 or fermentation; allochthonous terrestrial organic material exacerbates the export of carbon. Given the growth in number and area devoted to man-made ponds/impoundments and the large number of natural ponds (277million) worldwide, these small, shallow hydrologic systems represent an additional concern for global change and the carbon cycle.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.

2006-12-01

23

Characterizing seasonal markers using high-resolution water temperature data from small mountain ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small mountain ponds in western Maine are near local topographic highs and are typically associated with distinctive ecological zones because of their elevation. Long-term historic records of seasonal markers such as ice-out for large, low elevation lakes in the region indicate that climate warming is affecting these large water bodies, but little data exist for the smaller, remote, higher elevation ponds. These ponds are typically 700 m elevation, have a surface area of about 4 hectares, and a maximum depth of 10 m. Because these ponds are associated with habitats restricted from migrating in response to climate change, characterizing and documenting the timing of seasonal markers such as ice-out and other events is important to assess whether these smaller ponds are following similar trends to the larger lakes, or if they might be more sensitive to climate forcing. High-resolution water temperature and light data collected at several depths by data loggers at study sites across the region since 2007 have been analyzed to characterize major seasonal markers that cannot be otherwise determined because of the remote character of the ponds. Ice-in and ice-out dates can be identified by characteristic signatures in the surface and bottom water temperatures; differences in the timing of the events among sites may be explained by elevation or basin aspect. Summer temperatures records also revealed multiple turnover events during some summer seasons, indicating that these ponds should be classified as discontinuous cold polymictic water bodies . These turnover events were nearly simultaneous at multiple study sites fifty kilometers apart, suggesting forcing by regional weather events. These high-resolution records permit long-term monitoring of sensitive, remote sites that will contribute to understanding the magnitude of the response to climate change in these small subalpine watersheds, as well as the spatial and temporal complexity of climate change in the northeastern United States.

Daly, J.; Engel, B.; Hansen, J.

2010-12-01

24

Characterizing seasonal markers using high-resolution water temperature data from small mountain ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mountain ponds in western Maine are near local topographic highs and are typically associated with distinctive ecological zones because of their elevation. Long-term historic records of seasonal markers such as ice-out for large, low elevation lakes in the region indicate that climate warming is affecting these large water bodies, but little data exist for the smaller, remote, higher elevation

J. Daly; B. Engel; J. Hansen

2010-01-01

25

The Arapahoe Detention Alternatives Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efforts of the Colorado Division of Youth Services to develop a program that would reduce the inappropriate use of secure detention of juveniles by providing intake/screening units and various nonsecure alternative detention services are described. Program goals are discussed and criteria on which detention decisions were based for the…

Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

26

Carbon and oxygen fluxes from a small pond to the atmosphere: Temporal variability and the CO2\\/O2 imbalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the relative strength of sediment processes compared to water column processes, natural and anthropogenic ponds represent an important component of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle and a site for recycling carbon to the atmosphere. Over 250 d of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured on the 0.5 h timescale in a small Connecticut pond. Using approximately 8000

T. Torgersen; B. Branco

2008-01-01

27

Design of a detention reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution contains the reasons for and the methods of flood protection for villages in small valleys attacked by flash floods, which cause high economic, cultural and social damage. One of the possible solutions is to build a detention reservoir, which has to retain the flood wave and prevent an odd amount of water from flowing out of the river bed. In this paper a model example is given. The aim of the example is to show (according to hydrological data) how to design the dimension parameters of the dam, i.e. the height of the dam, the outlet structure capacity, the spillway capacity, the stilling basin and the necessary river bed lining. Attention is paid to stability problems, as well.

Cipovová, K.

2011-03-01

28

Detention Center in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a clinical inquiry at how one young male ex-offender described his time in custody, how his time had been constructively spent during detention, and the effect of a detention center order on his offending behavior one year after his discharge. In so doing, it allowed him to talk about his institutionalized experience and to assess the impact

Wing Hong Chui

2005-01-01

29

Fate of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin in small ponds: a mass balance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate and distribution of ¹⁴C-radiolabeled deltamethrin (1(R)(la(S),3a)-cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate) were monitored for 306 days, following a single application at 10 g\\/ha to two small outdoor ponds (17 m² surface area). Initial concentrations of the insecticide in filtered water ranged from 1.28 to 2.50 ..mu..g\\/L. Deltamethrin ((¹⁴C)cyclopropyl acid or benzyl alcohol labeled) rapidly partitioned into suspended solids, plants, sediment, and air,

D. C. G. Muir; G. P. Rawn; N. P. Grift

2009-01-01

30

Fate and biological effects of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) in small artificial ponds.  

PubMed

The effects from a simulated accidental pollution event in a pond with polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) on different trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem were investigated in small artificial ponds. Three 4.5-m3 volume ponds, interconnected with closable locks, were provided with natural lake sediment and ground water. Caged fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) were added to each pond, and the interconnecting locks were kept open to establish nearly identical physicochemical and biological conditions. At this stage, the ponds were isolated from one another and MDI was added at a dosage of 1 g/liter on top of the sediment of treated part of the first pond, 10 g/liter to the second pond, and 0 g/liter to the third pond (untreated control). Neither the applied monomer MDI nor its potential reaction product MDA (4,4'-diphenylmethanediamine) was detected in water or accumulated by fish. The MDI polymerized to inert polyurea on the sediment of the test ponds. This polymerization formed carbon dioxide, released as bubbles which floated to the water surface. Some carbon dioxide was solubilized in water and reduced the water pH of about 9 by 2.0 units as an average in the high-dosed pond and 0.7 in the low-dosed pond. This reduction caused some other minor changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the pond water. Neither application rate caused any direct effect on the pelagic community (phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes) of the test ponds. Some minor indirect effects caused by the production of carbon dioxide were observed in phyto- and zooplankton community structures. Also, an increase of macrophyte growth was noted. Organisms living in the untreated part of the sediment (macrobenthos) were affected as a result of physical obstructions in this habitat. These populations, however, regained densities equivalent to the control after some weeks, except for Bivalvia which have too long of a generation time for the test period of this study. PMID:8723751

Heimbach, F; Jaeger, K; Sporenberg, W

1996-03-01

31

Small Thaw Ponds: An Unaccounted Source of Methane in the Canadian High Arctic  

PubMed Central

Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, 14C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate.

Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J.; Galand, Pierre E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

2013-01-01

32

Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.; Greenland, D. C.

1979-01-01

33

Carbon and oxygen fluxes from a small pond to the atmosphere: Temporal variability and the CO2/O2 imbalance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the relative strength of sediment processes compared to water column processes, natural and anthropogenic ponds represent an important component of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle and a site for recycling carbon to the atmosphere. Over 250 d of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured on the 0.5 h timescale in a small Connecticut pond. Using approximately 8000 half-hour time intervals, Mirror Lake (Storrs, Connecticut) exhibits net annual fluxes for 2002 and 2003 of 80 and 86 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 (±26%) and 25 and -7.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (±20%), respectively (positive flux is to the atmosphere). The instantaneous (0.5 h) fluxes of both CO2 and O2 to the atmosphere exhibit a standard deviation in the flux (measured every 0.5 h) of the order 100%, indicating a high degree of daily, weekly, and seasonal variability in the controlling processes, and the two gases rarely follow Redfield ratio stoichiometry. This net carbon flux to the atmosphere agrees with the range of carbon fluxes from various shallow inland aquatic waters. Using CO2 and O2 mass balances, the minimum bacterial production of CO2 in the pond is estimated to be 100 and 81mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 for 2002 and 2003 (same order as the net CO2 flux from the pond), indicating the importance of the bacterial processes in pond carbon dynamics. Bacterial pathways that utilize NO3-1 or fermentation strongly favor CO2 production relative to O2 consumption and may provide a mechanistic explanation for the (instantaneous to annual) CO2 to O2 imbalance relative to the Redfield ratio. Thus, while natural and man-made ponds do provide advantages for flood control, sediment settling, and some degree of contaminant removal, ponds may also provide a locus for the processing of terrestrial carbon into a CO2 source to the atmosphere. Given the number of small ponds and their location in the hydrologic cycle, pond systems represent a coupling of hydrology and the carbon cycle worthy of greater investigation.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.

2008-02-01

34

Assimilative capabilities of retention ponds. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of a detention-pond and wetlands temporary storage system to reduce constituents loads in urban runoff was determined. The reduction efficiencies for 22 constituents, including the dissolved, suspended, and total phases of many of the constituents were investigated. A new method not previously discussed in technical literature was developed to determine the efficiency of a temporary storage-system unit such

E. H. Martin; J. L. Smoot

1986-01-01

35

Storage Life of Thermal Detents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thermal detent is an irreversible locking mechanism which is activated upon reaching a critical temperature. The locking occurs when two or more parts joined by a fusible alloy separate after heating the fusible alloy to a temperature at which it begins...

F. G. Yost A. D. Romig

1984-01-01

36

Effects of a small seagull colony on trophic status and primary production in a Mediterranean coastal system (Marinello ponds, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colonies of seabirds have been shown to influence nutrient cycling and primary production of coastal areas, but knowledge is still limited above all for smaller colonies. This study evaluates the influence of a small resident seagull colony (Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840) on a Mediterranean coastal system (Marinello ponds, Sicily, Italy). The presence of ornithogenic organic matter from seagull guano was first assessed at increasing distances from the colony using ?15N to indicate the effects of guano on the trophic status and primary production. The pond directly affected by guano deposition showed an anomalous water and sediment chemistry, especially regarding physico-chemical variables (pH), nitrogen isotopic signature, nutrient balance and phytoplankton biomass. These effects were not observed in the adjacent ponds, highlighting pronounced, small spatial-scale variability. Given the worldwide presence of seabird colonies and the scarcity of research on their effect on coastal marine areas, the study shows that seabird-mediated input may be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics of coastal areas, even where both the system in question and the colony are small.

Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

2012-10-01

37

Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.  

PubMed

A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses. PMID:20480764

Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

2010-05-01

38

28 CFR 0.123 - Federal Detention Trustee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Federal Detention Trustee. 0.123 Section 0.123 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ...3-Office of the Federal Detention Trustee § 0.123 Federal Detention Trustee. (a) The...

2013-07-01

39

Detente and Deterrence: From Kissinger to Carter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interrelationships between detente and deterrence are often confusing and misinterpreted. For one group of Americans, detente is a no-win policy. The US has acquiesced at every encounter but gained nothing in return from the USSR. As Senator Clifford ...

K. A. Dunn

1977-01-01

40

Special Education in Wisconsin's Juvenile Detention System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looks at incarcerated youth in the public juvenile detention facilities of Wisconsin. State percentages of youth in Wisconsin public schools with Emotional, Learning, Cognitive, and/or Low Incidence Disabilities are compared to percentages reported from the state and county operated juvenile detention facilities. The study investigates…

Zenz, Tamara; Langelett, George

2004-01-01

41

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

1993-01-01

42

Effects of three highway-runoff detention methods on water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida was evaluated at one exfiltration pipe, two ponds (detention and retention), and two swales in central Florida, representing three runoff-detention methods, to detect any effect from infiltrating highway runoff. Concentrations of major ions, metals, and nutrients in groundwater and bottom sediments were measured from 1984 through 1986. At each study area, constituent concentrations in groundwater near the structure were compared to concentrations in groundwater from an upgradient control site. Groundwater quality data were also pooled by detention method and statistically compared to detect any significant differences between methods. Significantly greater mean phosphorus concentrations in groundwater near the exfiltration pipe than those in the control well was the only evidence of increasing constituent concentrations in groundwater near structures. The quality of water was more variable, and had greater constituent concentrations in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone near the exfiltration pipe. Values of water quality variables measured in groundwater at all study areas generally were within State drinking water standards. The main exception was dissolved iron, which commonly exceeded 300 micrograms/L at one swale and the detention pond. Results of the study indicate that natural processes occurring in soils attenuate inorganic constituent concentrations prior to reaching the receiving groundwater. However, organic compounds detected in bottom sediments at the retention pond indicate a potential problem that may eventually affect the quality of the receiving groundwater. (USGS)

Schiffer, D. M.

1989-01-01

43

19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.19 Detention; samples. (a) The port director shall detain all shipments of such products for...

2013-04-01

44

Cycloheximide induced amnesia: Its interaction with detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

After training in a passive avoidance task, mice were detained in the safe compartment of the conditioning apparatus. This\\u000a detention produced an impairment of rentention on the retest trial.\\u000a \\u000a Detention did not prolong the cycloheximide susceptible phase of memory formation. A summation of the amnestic effects of\\u000a the two treatments occurred only at a time when both were effective alone.

Anne Geller; Francesco Robustelli; Murray E. Jarvik

1971-01-01

45

Feasibility of waste stabilization pond technology for small municipalities in Colombia.  

PubMed

The selection of any wastewater treatment technology should take into consideration both "software" and "hardware" aspects. There are contrasting opinions regarding the feasibility of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP): some emphasise their advantages while others are concerned with their high land area requirements. As with any technology, WSP are feasible under specific circumstances related to the context where they are to be implemented. In this study data were collected from three regions in Colombia (Nariño, Tolima and Valle del Cauca) in order to assess the feasibility of WSP under real conditions in a tropical country. A feasibility matrix was developed in order to organise and synthesise the information gathered. The results obtained showed that WSP are highly feasible in Tolima and Valle del Cauca due to the fact that these regions have geographical, socio-economic and technical characteristics that enhance the advantages of WSP technology. Nariño has a very mountainous topography along with other local limitations that hinder the application of WSP technology. The cost of land was not found to be a real limitation for the technology, whereas the availability of land is. Finally, the feasibility matrix may be a good planning tool at regional or national levels in order to help decision-making regarding cost-effective wastewater treatment alternatives on the basis of local conditions. PMID:11833722

Peña, M R; Madera, C A; Mara, D D

2002-01-01

46

Solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

1980-04-01

47

Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

2007-01-01

48

The nature of small-scale flooding, muddy floods and retention pond sedimentation in central Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the spatial variation of small-scale flooding and muddy floods in rural areas in a medium sized study area (5516 km2) and the linkage with controlling factors. A questionnaire set up in central Belgium indicates that 43% of the municipalities have to deal from time to time with muddy floods generated from direct runoff from arable land and

Gert Verstraeten; Jean Poesen

1999-01-01

49

Solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

Tabor, H.

50

Big fish in a small pond: advantages and disadvantages of a first-mover strategy.  

PubMed

The case of a free-standing psychiatric hospital moving into a small rural market as the sole provider of hospital-based psychiatric services is examined as an example of a first-mover strategy. The theoretical bases for a first mover advantage are considered together with an analysis of the situational factors necessary to the strategy's success. The case study illustrates some of the potential consequences of success, namely the attraction of a new competitor with a broader scope of services. The case also illustrates other lessons for market niche competitors in enhancing their likelihood of survival and success in their selected market. PMID:10170368

Fuller, D A; Scammon, D L; Davis, R T

1995-01-01

51

A Community Response to a Crisis. The Effective Use of Detention and Alternatives to Detention in Jefferson County, Kentucky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jefferson County, Kentucky youth detention practices were studied after alleged incidents of physical and sexual abuse. For many years juvenile detention practices had been the subject of local controversy. Strict, objective, and specific criteria for detention were implemented on a trial basis. These criteria described specific crimes or…

Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

52

Early20th Century Environmental Changes Inferred Using Subfossil Diatoms from a Small Pond on Melville Island, N.W.T., Canadian High Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatom-based paleolimnological studies are being increasingly used to track long-term environmental change in arctic regions. Little is known, however, about the direction and nature of such environmental changes in the western Canadian high Arctic. In this study, shifts in diatom assemblages preserved in a 210Pb-dated sediment core collected from a small pond on Melville Island, N.W.T., were interpreted to record

Bronwyn E. Keatley; Marianne S. V. Douglas; John P. Smol

2006-01-01

53

Peace without Detente: Living with the Russians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1970s, Soviet positions have hardened and detente has failed. Despite this, the United States must seek arms control agreements with the Soviet Union to prevent nuclear war. Arms control proposals offered by the Reagan administration are reviewed. (IS)

Bresler, Robert J.

1983-01-01

54

Immigration-Related Detention: Current Legislative Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] As Congress considers reforming the nation’s immigration system, the detention of noncitizens in the United States will likely be an issue. Under the law, there is broad authority to detain aliens while awaiting a determination of whether the noncitizen should be removed from the United States. The law also mandates that certain categories of aliens are subject to mandatory

Chad C Haddal; Alison Siskin

2010-01-01

55

Monoculture Yield Trials of an All-Male Hybrid Tilapia in Small Farm Ponds in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of an all-male tilapia hybrid in monoculture was tested in two earthen farm ponds near Mayaguez, in western Puerto Rico, from January to June 1976. Hybrid fingerlings were first produced in plastic-lined pools from crosses between female Tilapia n...

M. J. Fram F. A. Pagan-Font

1979-01-01

56

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Wetlands for Flood Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a link-node model in modeling hydrodynamics of wetland areas related to flood detention design is presented through the description of modeling and design efforts of an actual project, the first privately-owned wetland mitigation bank in Florida. The 142-ha project is located in the Chapel Trail Preserve of the City of Pembroke Pines, South Florida, where a degraded

Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis; David L. John; Paul J. Tremblay

1998-01-01

57

HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard\\u000a living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and\\u000a other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics\\u000a in the communities to which prisoners return upon their

Ralf Jürgens; Manfred Nowak; Marcus Day

2011-01-01

58

Bioflocculating high-rate algal ponds: Control and implementation of an innovative wastewater treatment technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Rate Algal Ponds (HRPs) are multi-channel racetrack designs 0.2-0.5 meters deep, with pump or paddlewheel mixing, operated at 2-10 days detention time. HRPs produce higher algal concentrations (200-300 mg\\/L) than conventional oxidation ponds, requiring effluent algal removal to meet discharge limits. This study investigated the long-term performance of bioflocculation and sedimentation for HRP algal removal. Thirteen experiments were conducted

Hall

1989-01-01

59

The Little School Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

1973-01-01

60

Assessing the Performance of two Stormwater Management Ponds in Waterloo, Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stormwater runoff in urban areas represents a major pathway for pollutant transfer to receiving waters. Stormwater management (SWM) ponds are used as a best management practice to help mitigate the negative effects of stormwater. This study examines the performance of two SWM pond designs (conventional and extended detention) in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. A mass balance approach is used to quantify the concentration of total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total suspended solids (TSS) at the inlet(s) and outlet of each pond. These parameters were sampled and characterized for 30 baseflow observations and 10 stormflow events in order to calculate the trap efficiency for each pond. The results show that, baseflow reduction for all constituents was low for both ponds. Pond 33 (extended detention design) was a source of TP and SRP during baseflow periods with trap efficiencies of -34% and -61% respectively. Pond 45 (conventional design) retained 65% of influent TP and 36% SRP. Both ponds were sinks for TSS during baseflow periods with 61% and 48% of SS retained for Pond 33 and Pond 45 respectively. Retention during storm events was higher compared to baseflow periods. Pond 33 retained 11%, 40% and 66% of TP, SRP and TSS, whereas Pond 45 had a higher trap efficiency of 90%, 93% and 97% for TP, SRP and TSS. Trap efficiency of these constituents are governed by pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen, as well as sediment geochemistry, P speciation and cycling at the sediment-water interface. Additional research focusing on P cycling in SWM ponds is required to improve trap efficiencies through improved pond design.

Mulroy, K.; Stone, M.

2009-05-01

61

27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26.194 Section 26.194 Alcohol...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...Puerto Rico § 26.194 Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a...

2013-04-01

62

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

...2014-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004 Indians...Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile...the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the tribe;...

2014-04-01

63

Detention Center in Hong Kong: A Young Offender's Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a clinical inquiry at how one young male ex-offender described his time in custody, how his time had been constructively spent during detention, and the effect of a detention center order on his offending behavior one year after his discharge. In so doing, it allowed him to talk about his institutionalized experience and to…

Chui, Wing Hong

2005-01-01

64

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004 Indians BUREAU... Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile...

2013-04-01

65

HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

2011-01-01

66

Toxicity of ammonia to algae in sewage oxidation ponds.  

PubMed

Ammonia, at concentrations over 2.0 mM and at pH values over 8.0, inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Scenedesmus obliquus, a dominant species in high-rate sewage oxidation ponds. Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Anacystis nidulans, and Plectonema boryanum is also susceptible to ammonia inhibition. Dark respiration and cell morphology were unaffected by any combination of pH and ammonia concentrations tested, thus limiting the apparent effect to inhibition of the normal function of the chloroplasts. Methylamine had the same effect as ammonia, and its penetration into the cells was found to be pH dependent. Therefore, the dependence of toxicity of amines to algae on pH apparently results from the inability to penetrate the cell membrane in the ionized form. When operated at 120-h detention time of raw wastewater, the high-rate oxidation pond maintained a steady state with respect to algal growth and oxygen concentration, and the concentration of ammonia did not exceed 1.0 mM. Shifting the pond to 48-h detention time caused an increase in ammonia concentration in the pond water to 2.5 mM, and the pond gradually turned anaerobic. Photosynthesis, which usually elevates the pH of the pond water to 9.0 to 10.0, could not proceed beyond pH 7.9 because of the high concentration of ammonia, and the algal population was washed out and reduced to a concentration that could maintain a doubling time of 48 h without photosynthesis bringing the pH to inhibitory levels. Under these conditions, the pH of the bond becomes a factor that limits the operational efficiency of the oxidation pond. PMID:7192

Abeliovich, A; Azov, Y

1976-06-01

67

Toxicity of ammonia to algae in sewage oxidation ponds.  

PubMed Central

Ammonia, at concentrations over 2.0 mM and at pH values over 8.0, inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Scenedesmus obliquus, a dominant species in high-rate sewage oxidation ponds. Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Anacystis nidulans, and Plectonema boryanum is also susceptible to ammonia inhibition. Dark respiration and cell morphology were unaffected by any combination of pH and ammonia concentrations tested, thus limiting the apparent effect to inhibition of the normal function of the chloroplasts. Methylamine had the same effect as ammonia, and its penetration into the cells was found to be pH dependent. Therefore, the dependence of toxicity of amines to algae on pH apparently results from the inability to penetrate the cell membrane in the ionized form. When operated at 120-h detention time of raw wastewater, the high-rate oxidation pond maintained a steady state with respect to algal growth and oxygen concentration, and the concentration of ammonia did not exceed 1.0 mM. Shifting the pond to 48-h detention time caused an increase in ammonia concentration in the pond water to 2.5 mM, and the pond gradually turned anaerobic. Photosynthesis, which usually elevates the pH of the pond water to 9.0 to 10.0, could not proceed beyond pH 7.9 because of the high concentration of ammonia, and the algal population was washed out and reduced to a concentration that could maintain a doubling time of 48 h without photosynthesis bringing the pH to inhibitory levels. Under these conditions, the pH of the bond becomes a factor that limits the operational efficiency of the oxidation pond.

Abeliovich, A; Azov, Y

1976-01-01

68

Solar pond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

1978-01-01

69

The treatment ideal and detention reality: Demographic, professional\\/ occupational and organizational influences on detention worker punitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time, corrections researchers have focused on the punitive and rehabilitative orientations of correctional officers.\\u000a Relatively little research attention, however, has been devoted to understanding the support for these orientations among\\u000a correctional workers responsible for the care and custody of juvenile delinquents. Based on survey data drawn from a sample\\u000a of detention care workers (DCWs) in two facilities in

Gordon Bazemoret; Todd J. Dickert; Hamad AI-Gadheebt

1994-01-01

70

Pregnancy resolution decisions in juvenile detention.  

PubMed

A group of detained pregnant adolescents and expectant teenage fathers served as participants in a qualitative research project designed to describe how adolescents residing in a large metropolitan area juvenile detention facility make health- and pregnancy-related decisions. During the course of the study and clinical work with this population, it was found that although troubled and troublesome, these teenagers do not present as bleak and depressing a picture as might appear on the surface. Three primary themes emerged from the study findings: responsibility, reputation, and respect. These themes were bound to the important relationships in the teenagers' lives. The participants also presented some surprising strengths and resolutions for the future that psychiatric and liaison nurses working in the setting can use in program planning and clinical interventions. PMID:2260892

Anderson, N L

1990-10-01

71

Greenville County Public Safety Study. Part I: Detention Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study constitutes one element of the Community Facilities Plan and Program for Greenville County. The scope of the investigation is to determine the level of adequacy of all detention facilities in Greenville County and the determination of appropriat...

1968-01-01

72

19 CFR 12.123 - Procedure after detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.123 Procedure after detention. (a) Submission of written documentation. ...of chemical substance, mixture, or article is released to the importer under...

2013-04-01

73

HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Injection drug use (IDU) is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956) who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956) elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.

2010-01-01

74

[The mission of caregivers in an administrative detention centre].  

PubMed

Working as a nurse in a medical unit of an administrative detention centre is a choice. The work is made all the more complex by the context of confinement, the diversity of the languages and cultures and the undetermined duration of the detention. It is with a humanitarian approach that the nursing team of the Geispolsheim centre in Alsace deals every day with the health problems of vulnerable migrants confronted with insecurity and uncertainty. PMID:24881238

Boeckel, Martine; Durand, Elisabeth; Hifi, Cherifa; Lahmar, Saliha

2014-04-01

75

Treatability Studies for Waters in Oil Pond No. 1, Oil Pond No. 2, and the Oil Seep.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory and pilot plant studies have investigated treatment methods for water contained in 2 small ponds located at the Bear Creek burial grounds. The sediments in the bottom of the pond are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and plans t...

J. M. Napier C. W. Hancher G. E. Harris M. E. Johnson B. C. Padgett

1988-01-01

76

Appropriate medical care for persons in detention.  

PubMed

The people who are in detention are screened by the Medical Officer of the Prison and if they are found to be unwell, these prisoners will be accommodated in the sickbay and medical treatment will be provided. If their sickness needs further investigations and management, they will be sent to the Government Hospital. If the prisoners are found to have infectious or contagious diseases, steps will be taken to prevent the spread of these diseases to other prisoners in the prison. Prisoners are given time to exercise to maintain good health and their clothing are regularly washed to make sure that they will not contract skin diseases, e.g. scabies, ringworm, etc. The Prison Department since 1989 has increasing numbers of HIV positive prisoners. The Department complies with this problem by sending staff for courses, lectures and seminars so that they will be able to handle these prisoners more efficiently in the prison. When these HIV/AIDS prisoners' condition turns bad, they are usually transferred to a Government Hospital. Another of the Prison Department's prominent medical problem among the prisoners is drug addiction. Staff trained with skill and techniques are counselors for the drug related prisoners. Realizing and in anticipation that the sickbays in the prisons are going to be full of HIV/AIDS prisoners and drug related prisoners, special attention will be given to more allocation to upgrade the sickbays in the prison. White attires will be provided to the sick prisoners in the sickbays so that they will look neat and clean. More doctors, medical assistants and nurses will be employed so that appropriate medical care or rather more appropriate medical care can be provided to the sick prisoners in the prisons. The Prison Department is in the process of privatizing medical care for prisoners in the prison and the Department is also trying to convert some prisons to be medical prisons so that adequate medical care can be given to the sick prisoners. PMID:14556359

Idris, I

2003-03-01

77

Treatability studies for waters in oil pond No. 1, oil pond No. 2, and the oil seep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and pilot plant studies have investigated treatment methods for water contained in 2 small ponds located at the Bear Creek burial grounds. The sediments in the bottom of the pond are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and plans to close out these ponds and remove the sediments have been prepared. These laboratory and pilot plant studies show that the

J. M. Napier; C. W. Hancher; G. E. Harris; M. E. Johnson; B. C. Padgett

1988-01-01

78

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other...OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Subject to Economic Sanctions § 12.150 Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or...

2013-04-01

79

19 CFR 133.25 - Procedure on detention of articles subject to restriction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Procedure on detention of articles subject to restriction. 133.25 ...133.25 Procedure on detention of articles subject to restriction. (a) In general. Articles subject to the restrictions...

2013-04-01

80

42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and detention of persons with specific diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public...and detention of persons with specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this...transmission, and spread of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order...

2013-10-01

81

Detente and Alliance Politics in the Postwar Era: Strategic Dilemmas in United States - West German Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the postwar period, detente has been a central issue in relations between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. This thesis argues that detente is inherently limited: as a strategy for achieving objectives that have remained re...

S. Foerster

1982-01-01

82

THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF PONDS AND WETLANDS AS "BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS)" FOR STREAMS IN DEVELOPING LANDSCAPES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ponds and constructed wetlands, also referred to as detention/retention basins, have a long history as best management practices (BMPs) used to mitigate the impacts of stormwater runoff from developed lands on receiving waters. Initially designed for flood control by peak flow at...

83

Perched Ponds: An Arctic Variety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data obtained during several seasons of field research on a small drainage basin in the Colville River delta of northern Alaska were used in a study of permafrost as an aquaclude for the maintenance of a pond above the regional water table. The developmen...

H. J. Walker M. K. Harris

1977-01-01

84

Seasonal Evolution of Surface Detention and Retention Properties with Rain Erosivity, at the Interill Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-topography, in interaction with the global slope, triggers and directs surface runoff. By concentrating the overland flow, it can promote the development of eroded pathways, while, by delimiting depressions where water accumulates, it can favor sedimentation. These erosion-deposition processes will in turn modify the micro-topography. The erosion-deposition processes depend on the runoff velocity field. Locally, velocity is a function of the water depth, of the local slope, of the friction of the bed and of backwater effects due to constrictions by obstacles. All those factors will evolve with the history of a particular site, favoring the connectivity of the runoff. According to the spatial patterns of the micro-topography, the runoff may conceptually be distributed among two compartments, each influencing the runoff connectivity: the surface retention and the surface detention. The surface retention (also called depression storage or dead storage) is the amount of water stored in surface pits and depressions. This water will subsequently infiltrate or evaporate. On the contrary, the surface detention corresponds to the water storage in excess of depression storage. It is due to the presence of flowing water and is proportional to the discharge itself. This amount of water will deplete as discharge decreases, and flow away at the end of the rain event. The velocity of the runoff is highly variable in space and particularly between the surface retention zones and the surface detention zones. In order to understand the connectivity evolution of a soil surface subjected to rainfall and runoff, we studied the seasonal evolution of the surface detention and retention hydrologic properties, for a bare soil just after tillage. Since surface detention and retention are not easily measured in situ due to the perturbing effect of the infiltration that occurs simultaneously during a rain event, we developed a fast and cheap in situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates a stable, and almost impermeable artificial reproduction (to within 1 mm) of the in situ soil micro-topography, preserving the small scale overhangs. Ten molds (0.5 m2 each) were thus made, at 5 different stages during a 3 month period. Rainfall and runoff experiments with a dye tracer have been made on the artificial micro-topographies, under laboratory conditions. For each micro-topography, the volume of the depression storage and its relative surface connection function is computed, as well as the volume of the surface detention and its tortuosity as a function of the rain intensity. From this data set, we propose simple models for the evolution, at the early stage, of the surface detention and retention properties as a function of cumulative rainfall erosivivity.

Bielders, C.; Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.

2009-12-01

85

Corrosive places, inhuman spaces: mental health in Australian immigration detention.  

PubMed

Since their establishment in 1992, Australian Immigration Detention Centres have been the focus of increasing concern due to allegations of their serious impact on the mental health of asylum seekers. Informed by Foucault's treatise on surveillance and the phenomenological work of Casey, this paper extends the current clinical data by examining the architecture and location of detention centres, and the complex relationships between space, place and mental health. In spatialising these relationships, we argue that Immigration Detention Centres operate not only as Panopticons, but are embodied by asylum seekers as 'anti-places': as places that mediate and constitute thinned out and liminal experiences. In particular, it is the embodied effects of surveillance and suspended liminality that impact on mental health. An approach which locates the embodiment of place and space as central to the poor mental health of asylum seekers adds an important dimension to our understandings of (dis)placement and mental health in the lives of the exiled. PMID:17693119

McLoughlin, Pauline; Warin, Megan

2008-06-01

86

Depression, anxiety, and history of substance abuse among Norwegian inmates in preventive detention: Reasons to worry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders\\u000a and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance\\u000a abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of

Henning Værøy

2011-01-01

87

Controlling the Front Gates: Effective Admissions Policies and Practices. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies policies and practices essential to overcoming problems with admissions to juvenile detention facilities, using information from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Objective Admissions Policies and Practices Are Critical to Detention Reform," describes factors contributing to uncontrolled…

Orlando, Frank

88

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention order? 1.393...for Human or Animal Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order?...

2010-04-01

89

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention order? 1.393...for Human or Animal Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order?...

2009-04-01

90

Freshwater Fish Pond Culture and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a guide to planning, constructing and maintaining small-scale fish pond operations, with information on selecting warmwater fish, fish diseases and fish preservation. It is produced as a joint project with VITA.

M. Chakroff

1976-01-01

91

Stonehouse Pond Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a catch and release, fly-fishing-only trout pond, 241-acre Stonehouse Pond offers anglers a wilderness experience more commonly associated with the North Country than New Hampshire's increasingly urbanized coastal area. While primarily used by anglers,...

2010-01-01

92

Viscosity stabilized solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar pond is a device proposed for collecting and storing solar energy. Originally proposed as a heat source for a central solar power plant, a solar pond can be used also to supply domestic heat. For the latter application, it is proposed to render the pond static through addition of thickeners to the fluid. Data on the total solar

L. H. Shaffer

1978-01-01

93

Solar pond technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar pond technology has made substantial progress in the last fifteen years. This paper reviews the basic principles of\\u000a solar ponds and the problems encountered in their operation and maintenance. The factors which influence the technical and\\u000a economic viability of solar ponds for thermal applications and power generation have been discussed.

J Srinivasan

1993-01-01

94

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

95

Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France).  

PubMed

Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu(diss)) and total Cu (Cu(tot)) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu(tot) concentrations in entering water was 53.6 microg/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 microg/L in seepage. Cu(tot) concentrations in basin water (>100 microg/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC(50) values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu(tot)). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu(diss) variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. PMID:19762134

Banas, D; Marin, B; Skraber, S; Chopin, E I B; Zanella, A

2010-02-01

96

50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the detention, describe the general nature of the tests or inquiries to be conducted, and indicate that if the releasability...exporter, consignor, or consignee to establish such identity by scientific name to the species level or, if any subspecies is...

2013-10-01

97

HIV\\/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Injection drug use (IDU) is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV\\/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in

Weidong Zhang; Xinya Wang; Xi Chen; Fan Lv

2010-01-01

98

Depression, anxiety, and history of substance abuse among Norwegian inmates in preventive detention: Reasons to worry?  

PubMed Central

Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substance abuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS), and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were used. Results Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (? = 0.57). The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (? = 0.61). Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Conclusions Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substance abuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems.

2011-01-01

99

Roof pond systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a single-source document useful to architects, engineers, builders, and homeowners that addresses numerous aspects of roof pond design, construction, and performance. An introduction to the roof pond passive solar space heating and cooling concept is provided, including basic methods of operation and system configurations adaptable to different climates. A brief history of the development of the roof pond concept is presented, and several existing roof pond buildings located throughout the United States are described. The regional applicability of roof ponds in both heating and cooling service; design considerations relating to architecture, heating and cooling aspects, and structural requirements; and current heat transfer relations important in roof pond design are examined. A chapter on roof pond system materials and components is included. It contains tables of material properties; descriptions of available and installed components; installation, operation, and maintenance concerns; and a compilation of operating experience to date. The results of actual performance testing of several instrumented roof pond buildings are presented, and in certain cases, these results are compared with roof pond performance simulation results. A life-cycle cost study of two roof pond homes is developed, and the results are compared with the life-cycle costs of two similar conventional residences. This document has application to many related roof pond concepts, such as the Cool Pool and Energy Roof. An extensive bibliography is provided.

Marlatt, W.P.; Murray, K.A.; Squier, S.E.

1984-04-01

100

COMORBID PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate six-month prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (gender, race/ethnicity, and age). Design Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3) to randomly selected detainees. Setting A large temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3). Results Significantly more females (56.5%) than males (45.9%) met criteria for 2 or more of the following disorders: major depressive, dysthymic, manic, psychotic, panic, separation-anxiety, overanxious, generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive, attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional-defiant, alcohol, marijuana, and other substance; 17.3% of females and 20.4% of males had only one disorder. We also examined types of disorder: affective, anxiety, substance use and ADHD/behavioral. The odds of having comorbid disorders were higher than expected by chance for most demographic subgroups, except when base rates of disorders were already high, or when cell sizes were small. Nearly 14% of females and 11% of males had both a major mental disorder (psychosis, manic episode, or major depressive episode) and a substance use disorder. Compared to participants with no major mental disorder (the residual category), those with a major mental disorder had significantly greater odds (1.8–4.1) of having substance use disorders. Nearly 30% of females and over 20% of males with substance use disorders had major mental disorders. Rates of some types of comorbidity were higher among non-Hispanic whites and older adolescents. Conclusion Comorbid psychiatric disorders are a major health problem among detained youth. We recommend directions for research and discuss how to improve treatment and reduce health disparities in the juvenile justice and mental health systems.

Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2010-01-01

101

Post-release growth and dispersal of pond and hatchery-reared European grayling Thymallus thymallus compared with their wild conspecifics in a small stream.  

PubMed

The growth, and dispersal of stocked European grayling Thymallus thymallus, reared in a hatchery (fed dry food pellets) or in a pond (fed natural food), compared with their wild conspecifics was assessed from the recapture of individually tagged fish 168 days after their release into the Blanice River, Czech Republic. Recapture rates and site fidelity were higher for wild T. thymallus than for artificially reared fish. Specific growth rate and upstream or downstream dispersal did not significantly differ between any of the groups of fish. An influence of rearing conditions (pond v. hatchery) on the overall performance of stocked fish was not demonstrated. Initially, lower condition factors of reared T. thymallus were equal to wild fish after recapture, suggesting adaptation of artificially reared fish that remained in the sections studied. PMID:20666905

Turek, J; Randák, T; Horký, P; Zlábek, V; Velísek, J; Slavík, O; Hanák, R

2010-02-01

102

Functional Impairment in Youth Three Years after Detention  

PubMed Central

Purpose This article examines functional impairment across global and specific dimensions among youth 3 years after their detention. Methods Functional impairment was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) in a large, stratified, random sample of formerly detained youth (N = 1653). Results More than one-fifth of the sample were scored as having marked impairment that required, at minimum, “multiple sources of care” (CAFAS Total Score of 100 or higher); 7.0% required “intensive intervention” (CAFAS Total Score ?140). Most of the sample had impairment; only 7.5% of the sample had “no noteworthy impairment” (CAFAS Total Score ?10). Significantly more males were impaired than females. Among males living in the community at follow-up, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be impaired than non-Hispanic whites. In comparison to males living in the community, males who were incarcerated at follow-up were significantly more likely to have impaired thinking and impaired functioning at their place of residence but less likely to have substance use problems. Conclusions Three years after detention, most youth struggle in one or more life domains; more than one in five have marked impairment in functioning. These findings underscore the ongoing costs, to both youth and society, of our failure to provide effective rehabilitation to youth after detention.

Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin G.; Teplin, Linda A.

2009-01-01

103

Watershed Interactions Affecting Pond Acidification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Watershed history and geochemistry, and pond response to snowmelt were studied at six remote ponds in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Changes in pond chemistry have resulted from watershed disturbances, particularly forest fires and beaver activitie...

D. C. Buso S. W. Bailey S. F. Baird J. W. Hornbeck C. W. Martin

1984-01-01

104

A Virtual Pond Dip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a jar of pond water containing microorganisms. As users click on various pond organisms, "factfiles" containing descriptive information (name, size, notes, classification, etc.) appears. Users may access actual images and additional information from the "further details" links in the factfiles.

105

Solar pond. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to design, construct, operate, and test a prototype solar collector, thermal storage, and heat exchange system. This system was named a Solar Pond due to its configuration, but should not be confused with the salt brine pond system of the same name. This prototype system consists of a closable reflector top, horizontal plate collector

Kreul

1981-01-01

106

Indoor Pond Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year-long science program involved fifth grade students in the investigation of a meadow pond. Two field trips to collect pond water and organisms were arranged for the beginning and conclusion of the program. Classroom activities were designed to study aquatic organisms, life cycles, populations, and ecosystems. (MA)

Kunkel, Erika R.

1977-01-01

107

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01

108

Physics of the Solar Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physics of the solar pond and the results to date from an experimental solar pond are discussed. The pond is located at Living History Farms near Des Moines, Iowa. A mathematical model and a computer simulation of the pond are presented. The theory of...

J. R. Hull

1986-01-01

109

The Woods and Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

110

25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...detention, and conservation enforcement functions...THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT...detention, and conservation enforcement functions...facilities, and conservation enforcement...contracting the law enforcement...

2013-04-01

111

U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Inspector General Interim Report of Indian Country Detention Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 2003, we began an assessment of Indian Country detention facilities. Our focus is on whether the funds designated for Indian Country detention facilities were properly expended and whether these facilities are safe and secure. Although this r...

2004-01-01

112

25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12... LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities § 12.4 Who...police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? The agency...

2011-04-01

113

Suspensions and Detentions in an Urban, Low-Income School: Punishment or Reward?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disciplinary records for 3rd through 8th grade students (n = 314) in an inner-city, public school were examined for one school year to assess students' variation in response to discipline. Rates of disciplinary referrals were compared for students who received no detentions or suspensions throughout the year (“never group” n = 117), students who received one or more detention or

Marc S. Atkins; Mary M. McKay; Stacy L. Frazier; Lara J. Jakobsons; Patrice Arvanitis; Tim Cunningham; Catherine Brown; Linda Lambrecht

2002-01-01

114

Brutal Borders? Examining the Treatment of Deportees During Arrest and Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent legislation has produced a dramatic rise in the detention and removal of immigrants from the United States. Drawing on interviews with a random sample of Salvadoran deportees, we examine treatment during arrest and detention. Our fi ndings indicate: (1) deportees are often subject to verbal harassment, procedural failings and use of force; (2) force tends to be excessive; (3)

Scott Phillips; Jacqueline Maria Hagan; Nestor Rodriguez

2006-01-01

115

Race and the Impact of Detention on Juvenile Justice Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the growing number of minority youth disproportionately confined in secure detention facilities has led to a search for a better understanding of this occurrence. Explanations vary but tend to center on either differential offending or selection bias. The present study examines the extent both may explain decision making by specifically assessing the effect of race on detention

Michael J. Leiber; Kristan C. Fox

2005-01-01

116

Life as a Library Media Specialist within a Juvenile Detention School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norfolk Detention School is an alternative school for juveniles under the age of 18 who are awaiting adjudication by the court and those who are awaiting transfer to another facility. This article describes the author's experience as a library media specialist in this juvenile detention school. She describes how she has promoted and encouraged…

Parker, Meredith

2008-01-01

117

Ponds: Planning, Design, Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Handbook Describes Embankment and Excavated Ponds and Oulines the Requirement for Building each. The Infomation comes from the Field Experience and Observation of Land User, Engineers, Conservationists, and Other Specialists.

C. Deal D. Woodward J. Edwards N. Perliman R. W. Tuttle

1987-01-01

118

Exploring Pond Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)

Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

1975-01-01

119

Animals in a Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by faculty members of the University of Southampton, explains the importance of combining biology and statistics together to lead to understanding of both. It suggests bringing pond life in to the classroom to illustrate a wide range of concepts and methods. Some of the concepts that can be studied using the classroom pond include descriptive statistics, sample size, sums of random variables, central limit theorem, hypothesis testing, and the Poisson distribution.

Meacock, S. E.; Parsons, P. S.; Shahani, A. K.

2009-03-11

120

Two Ponds Wetland Preserve: Land Protection Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In late 1990, Two Ponds Preservation Foundation, a nonprofit citizens' group, contacted and solicited U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) involvement in acquiring a small site in Arvada, Colorado--a city within the Denver-Boulder Metropolitan area. S...

1992-01-01

121

Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

122

Urban flood management: on the optimal design of off-line detention basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detention basin is a structural measure used to manage floods by temporarily storing a fraction of the incoming water volume into selected areas. The design of the inlet and outlet structures is crucial for the optimal efficiency of the detention system. This research work investigates the sensitivity of flood attenuation, by means of an off-line detention basin, to the design characteristics of the inlet structures. The response of the attenuation efficiency is studied by varying the design characteristics of the different inlet components: elevation and length of the lateral weir and elevation, location and type of inline structure. The response of the detention basin to the different inlet layouts is evaluated by means of three performance criteria, two at the detention basin section and one at a downstream control section. Laboratory data available for the detention basin under implementation on the Navile channel (Italy) were used to calibrate a 1D numerical model in steady state conditions. The calibrated model was then used in simulating different inlet alternatives in unsteady state to determine the most influencing layout characteristics on attenuation. The results of this study can provide general guidelines for the design of the inlet structure of detention basins having similar structural components.

Segni Abawallo, S.; Brandimarte, L.; Maglionico, M.

2012-04-01

123

Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

1995-01-01

124

Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.

Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-02-01

125

Diverse small circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in a freshwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica).  

PubMed

Antarctica has some of the harshest environmental conditions for existence of life on Earth. In this pilot study we recovered eight diverse circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viral genome sequences (1904-3120nts) from benthic mats dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria in a freshwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf sampled in 1988. All genomes contain two to three major open reading frames (ORFs) that are uni- or bi-directionally transcribed and all have an ORF encoding a replication-associated protein (Rep). In one genome, the second ORF has similarity to a capsid protein (CP) of Nepavirus which is most closely related to geminiviruses. Additionally, all genomes have two intergenic regions that contain putative stem loop structures, six genomes have NANTATTAC as the nonanucleotide motif, while one has CCTTATTAC, and another has a non-canonical stem loop. In the large intergenic region, we identified iterative sequences flanking the putative stem-loop elements which are a hallmark of most circular ssDNA viruses encoding rolling circle replication (RCR) initiators of the HUH endonuclease superfamily. The Reps encoded by ssDNA viral genomes recovered in this study shared <38% pairwise identity to all other Reps of known ssDNA viruses. A previous study on Lake Limnopolar (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), using next-generation sequencing identified circular ssDNA viruses and their putative Reps share <35% pairwise identity to those from the viral genomes removed in this study. It is evident from our pilot study that the global diversity of ssDNA viruses is grossly underestimated and there is limited knowledge on ssDNA viruses in Antarctica. PMID:24859088

Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; Kraberger, Simona; Julian, Laurel; Stainton, Daisy; Broady, Paul A; Varsani, Arvind

2014-08-01

126

Advanced pond system: performance with high rate ponds of different depths and areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many domestic Wastewater Stabilisation Ponds (WSPs) or oxidation ponds in New Zealand require upgrading to reduce pollution of receiving waters. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) consisting of an Advanced Facultative Pond, High Rate Pond, Algae Settling Pond and Maturation Pond may provide a cost effective upgrade option. This paper presents the results of a 2-year study of the performance of two

R. J. Craggs; R. J. Davies-Colley; C. C. Tanner; J. P. Sukias

127

Solar Pond. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to design, construct, operate, and test a prototype solar collector, thermal storage, and heat exchange system. This system was named a Solar Pond due to its configuration, but should not be confused with the salt brine pon...

B. H. Kreul

1981-01-01

128

Blogging from North Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in

C. G. Marziali; K. J. Edwards

2009-01-01

129

Preventive detention in Germany: an overview and empirical data from two federal states.  

PubMed

Eighty years ago, preventive detention for dangerous offenders was implemented in the German Penal Code (Section 66). In 2011, about 500 individuals were incarcerated under a preventive detention order in Germany. Through semi-structured clinical interviews and/or collateral file review, the present investigators assessed the sociobiographic, criminological, and clinical characteristics of 58 men for whom preventive detention had been ordered in two German federal states. In addition, risk assessment instruments were administered. The majority of the inmates were sexual offenders. The main mental health problems were antisocial personality disorder (APD), substance abuse/disorder, and paraphilias. Most individuals had a history of poor socialization. Structured clinical judgment as well as actuarial risk assessment instruments identified all inmates as high-risk offenders. Future development of preventive detention in Germany must emphasize treatment interventions. Given the life histories and the mental health problems of the detainees assessed in the present study, the implementation of effective treatment will prove difficult. PMID:23670896

Basdekis-Jozsa, Raphaela; Mokros, Andreas; Vohs, Knut; Briken, Peer; Habermeyer, Elmar

2013-01-01

130

8 CFR 1241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances. 1241.14 Section 1241.14 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR...

2010-01-01

131

Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.  

PubMed

According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

2014-01-01

132

Microalgal separation from high-rate ponds  

SciTech Connect

High rate ponding (HRP) processes are playing an increasing role in the treatment of organic wastewaters in sunbelt communities. Photosynthetic oxygenation by algae has proved to cost only one-seventh as much as mechanical aeration for activated sludge systems. During this study, an advanced HRP, which produces an effluent equivalent to tertiary treatment has been studied. It emphasizes not only waste oxidation but also algal separation and nutrient removal. This new system is herein called advanced tertiary high rate ponding (ATHRP). Phosphorus removal in HRP systems is normally low because algal uptake of phosphorus is about one percent of their 200-300 mg/L dry weights. Precipitation of calcium phosphates by autofluocculation also occurs in HRP at high pH levels, but it is generally not complete due to insufficient calcium concentration in the pond. In the case of Richmond where the studies were conducted, the sewage is very low in calcium. Therefore, enhancement of natural autoflocculation was studied by adding small amounts of lime to the pond. Through this simple procedure phosphorus and nitrogen removals were virtually complete justifying the terminology ATHRP.

Nurdogan, Y.

1988-01-01

133

POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND TRAUMA IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and 12-month rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, and age). Design Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the posttraumatic stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) to randomly selected detainees. Setting A large, temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 898 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (532 males, 366 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Results Most participants (92.5%) had experienced one or more traumas (mean = 14.6 incidents, median = 6 incidents). Significantly more males (93.2%) than females (84.0%) reported at least one traumatic experience; 11.2% of the sample met criteria for PTSD in the past year. Over half of the participants with PTSD reported witnessing violence as the precipitating trauma. Conclusion Trauma and PTSD appear to be more prevalent among juvenile detainees than in community samples. We recommend directions for research and discuss implications for mental health policy.

Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; Charles, Devon R.; Longworth, Sandra L.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2010-01-01

134

Spatial variability of sediment ecotoxicity in a large storm water detention basin.  

PubMed

Detention basins are valuable facilities for urban storm water management, from both the standpoint of flood control and the trapping of pollutants. Studies performed on storm water have shown that suspended solids often constitute the main vector of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), etc.). In order to characterise the ecotoxicity of urban sediments from storm water detention basins, the sediments accumulated over a 6-year period were sampled at five different points through the surface of a large detention basin localised in the east of Lyon, France. A specific ecotoxicological test battery was implemented on the solid phase (raw sediment) and the liquid phase (interstitial water of sediments). The results of the study validated the method formulated for the ecotoxicological characterization of urban sediments. They show that the ecotoxicological effect of the sediments over the basin is heterogeneous and greater in areas often flooded. They also show the relationship between, on one hand, the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments and, on the other hand, their ecotoxicity. Lastly, they contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of the pollution close to the bottom of detention basins, which can be useful for improving their design. The results of this research raise particularly the issue of using oil separators on the surface of detention basins. PMID:24243265

Merchan, Carolina Gonzalez; Perrodin, Yves; Barraud, Sylvie; Sébastian, Christel; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Bazin, Christine; Kouyi, Gislain Lipeme

2014-04-01

135

METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING  

EPA Science Inventory

Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

136

[Environmental effects of combined sewage detention tank in central Shanghai].  

PubMed

Through measuring the processes of precipitation, discharge and pollutant concentration over 20 times from 2006 to 2008 in Chendulu combined sewerage system (CSS) along Suzhou Creek in central Shanghai, the environmental effects of Chendulu combined sewage detention tank (CSDT), the first running CSDT in China, were studied. The results show that CSDT could improve CSS discharge capacity effectively with promoted interception ratio from 3.87 to 6.90-9.92. The mean annual combined sewer overflow (CSO) reduction and reduction rate are 9.10 x 10(4) m3 and 9.00%, respectively, and those of sanitary waste discharged directly to Suzhou Creek in non-rain-weather are 8.37 x 10(4) m(3) and 100% , respectively. The mean annual pollutants decrease rate of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N and TP of CSO are 13.76%, 19.69%, 15.29%, 18.24% and 15.10%, respectively, and those CSO pollutants decrease 41.21 t, 12.37 t, 50.10 t, 2.12 t and 0.29 t annually, respectively. The CSDT also could decrease sanitary waste discharged to Suzhou Creek totally, and those decreased pollutants are 20.75 t, 4.87 t, 14.90 t, 4.49 t and 0.30 t annually, respectively. The analysis shows that the CSDT design standard, running models and rainfall characteristics are the important influencing factors to realize the environmental effects of CSDT. PMID:19799280

Cheng, Jiang; Lü, Yong-peng; Huang, Xiao-fang; Guo, Sheng

2009-08-15

137

Exploring Trees and Ponds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees and Ponds is a collection of activities to be implemented with middle school youth in out-of-school environments. The website provides a rationale and goal of the activities, curriculum activities and resources such as relevant digital photos. Available for free as downloadable PDFs, these activities provide a structure for youth in out-of-school programs to carry out long-term observations of natural objects. This project uses a qualitative approach, where changes over time are studied, recorded (by youth through writing, drawing, and digital photography), and discussed.

138

Fate of an artificial pond receiving drainage from a reclained coal refuse and slurry area  

SciTech Connect

An artificial pond was created as part of a reclamation effort at an abandoned deep coal mine site near Staunton, Illinois. The pond was designed to help contain and control runoff from the site and to provide wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities. The benthic macroinvertebrate community was analyzed as part of the program to evaluate site reclamation success. Macroinvertebrates were collected from the pond created as part of the reclamation activities, a small retention pond that received drainage directly from the gob pile, and a small farm pond that was not linked hydrologically to the mine drainage and that served as a control. Reclamation activities began in 1976 and samples were collected from the ponds in 1977. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Vinikour, W.S.; LaGory, K.E.; Pentecost, E.D.

1988-01-01

139

The Pond Is Our Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This science teacher's laboratory is a pond within walking distance of his school that provides a stimulating environment for exploring the natural world. With simple materials students practice making careful observations, taking measurements and compiling and graphing information for their science studies. They also extend their pond experiences…

Marchewka, Barbara Turco

1978-01-01

140

Treating faecal sludges in ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste stabilisation ponds are a widely accepted and proven technology to treat wastewater. It is often stipulated (and also practised) that the design of ponds for faecal sludges (FS), septage in particular, should follow the same principles as for wastewater. Field research conducted by SANDEC and its partners at the Water Research Institute in Ghana, and information gathered from the

M. Strauss; S. A. Larmie; U. Heinss; A. Montangero

141

Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

Danks, Sharon Gamson

2001-01-01

142

Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.

Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

2013-01-01

143

Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.  

PubMed

Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population. PMID:24773008

Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

2014-04-01

144

Effect of nutrient loading and retention time on performance of high rate algal ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small pilot ponds in a glasshouse at the Scottish Agricultural College (Auchincruive) were used to investigate the effects\\u000a of changing C:N:P loading rate and retention time on pond performance as measured by nutrient removal and dry matter biomass.\\u000a One experiment investigated ponds operated at two C:N:P ratios: low (9:7:1) and high (104:10:1) and two retention times (4\\u000a and 7 days

Nancy J. Cromar; Howard J. Fallowfield

1997-01-01

145

Solar pond. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to design, construct, operate, and test a prototype solar collector, thermal storage, and heat exchange system. This system was named a Solar Pond due to its configuration, but should not be confused with the salt brine pond system of the same name. This prototype system consists of a closable reflector top, horizontal plate collector integral with a 3000 gallon water storage pit; and simple pumps, piping, heat exchangers, and automatic controls necessary for operation. The application was to provide heat for an existing 3000 sq ft greenhouse presently being heated with natural gas as fuel. It was desired to design a system; technologically simple, low in cost, one that could be scaled up to a specific need, and one that could be constructed with locally purchased materials by non-skilled or semi-skilled workers. The total project cost was $2361.00, including design fees, transportation, etc. It is estimated that when scaled up, the cost per Btu could be significally reduced. The projected annual net heat production (over the 6 month heating season) is approximately 28 million Btu's. At current gas rates, this will result in an approximate annual savings of $157.93. Were the fuel source butane, propane, fuel oil, or electricity, the savings would be several times greater.

Kreul, B.H.

1981-04-23

146

Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a meta-analysis of all existing surveys on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in order to assess the prevalence of mental disorders. Findings indicate adolescents in detention are 10 times more likely to suffer from psychosis than the general adolescent…

Fazel, Seena; Doll, Helen; Langstrom, Niklas

2008-01-01

147

Disparities in justice and care: persons with severe mental illnesses in the U.S. immigration detention system.  

PubMed

As the total number of persons held within the U.S. immigration detention system has grown, the number of detained persons with severe mental illnesses has grown correspondingly. Reports issued by the government, legal and human rights advocates, and the media have brought to light a problematic and growing detention system with pervasive legal and mental health care disparities. Described are the structure and funding of the U.S. immigration detention system, the legal state of affairs for immigration detainees with mental illnesses, and what is known about the present system of mental health care within the U.S. immigration detention system. Attention is given to the paucity of legal protections for immigration detainees with severe mental illnesses, such as no right to appointed legal counsel and no requirement for mental competence before undergoing deportation proceedings. A case example and discussion of potential alternatives to detention highlight the need for wide-ranging reform. PMID:20852226

Ochoa, Kristen C; Pleasants, Gregory L; Penn, Joseph V; Stone, David C

2010-01-01

148

Hilton Pond Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History is a nonprofit education and research organization based in York, South Carolina whose mission is to "conserve plants, animals, birds, and other natural components of the Piedmont Region of the eastern United States through observation, scientific study, and education for students of all ages." This colorful site provides a range of information on all sorts of nature topics and consists of sections like plant inventory, animal inventory, and ecological investigations. It also contains a link to the Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project Web site, which is a cross-disciplinary project in which participants in the US, Canada, Mexico, and Central America collaborate to study behavior and distribution of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Both sites are excellent resources for science teachers, students, parents, bird lovers, and conservationists interested in Piedmont natural history.

2002-01-01

149

Experimental study of the salt gradient solar pond stability  

SciTech Connect

Many natural systems such as oceans, lakes, etc.., are influenced by the effect of double-diffusive convection. This phenomenon, which is a combination of heat and mass transfer, can destroy the stability of system-flows. In the case of solar ponds the middle layer, that is linearly stratified, acts as a thermal and mass insulator for the lower layer. This middle layer, called the Non-Convective Zone (NCZ), needs special care to avoid convection and to maintain its stability. In fact, due to an excess of heat stored, a thermal gradient occurs within the NCZ. A convective movement appears at the bottom of the stratified-layers and then grows to a double-diffusive convection movement. This movement transforms the stratified-layers into a well mixed layer, reducing the storage capacity of the pond. Laboratory small-scale pond and middle-scale outdoor solar ponds were designed and built to provide both quantitative data and to study the dynamic processes in solar ponds, including the behavior of the gradient zone. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualization-experiments carried out in the mechanical and energetic laboratory in the engineering school of Tunisia and experiments in the field showed that the instability of solar ponds could be limited by using porous media placed in the lower layer of the stratification. (author)

Karim, Choubani; Slim, Zitouni; Kais, Charfi; Jomaa, Safi Mohamed [Ecole National d'Ingenieurs de Tunis, Unite de Recherche Mecanique-Energetique, 1002 El Belvedere, BP 37 (Tunisia); Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy CARE Group, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, P.O. Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Melbourne (Australia)

2010-01-15

150

US EPA WINTER FLOUNDER PROJECTS AND OTHER WORK IN RHODE ISLAND SALT PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

We will briefly summarize selected EPA research in Rhode Island's salt ponds from 2000 through 2003. In one project, during the summer of 2000, we used a 1.75 m2 drop sampler to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond. Mean abundance ...

151

Reducing Unnecessary Delay: Innovations in Case Processing. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses how to reduce unnecessary delay in the juvenile justice system, presenting data from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Focus on Unnecessary Delay?" explains the negative effects of unnecessary delays. Chapter 2, "Guiding Principles," examines principles inherent in all case processing…

Henry, D. Alan

152

Rap, Recidivism and the Creative Self: A Popular Music Programme for Young Offenders in Detention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular music is increasingly being viewed by local, state and national governments as a useful form of creative activity for at-risk youth both within and outside young offender institutions. This paper examines a music programme operating for a group of predominantly black youth within one North American detention centre, and considers the range…

Baker, Sarah; Homan, Shane

2007-01-01

153

Results and Analysis of a Computer Assisted Instructional Program in Basic Skills in a Detention Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of a computer assisted educational (CAE) program using the PLATO system at a Texas detention center included an examination of attitudes and perceptions from (1) inmates participating and not participating in jail education programs, (2) trustees, (3) educational program staff, (4) chaplaincy staff, (5) guards assigned to the…

Diem, Richard A.

154

Trauma Affect Regulation Psychoeducation Group and Milieu Intervention Outcomes in Juvenile Detention Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports outcomes of Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET), a group and milieu intervention, in three juvenile detention facilities, controlling for site, length of stay, ethnicity, number of arrests, mental health and traumatic stress problems, and cohort effects. Linear multiple regression results showed that every session of TARGET received in the first seven days of

Julian D. Ford; Josephine Hawke

2012-01-01

155

Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Youth in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This practice parameter presents recommendations for the mental health assessment and treatment of youths in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Mental and substance-related disorders are significant public health problems affecting youths in juvenile justice settings. Sufficient time is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnostic assessment, in- terview collateral historians, and review pertinent records to identify primary and comorbid conditions. Potential

Christopher Thomas; William Bernet; Oscar G. Bukstein; Valerie Arnold; Joseph Beitchman; R. Scott Benson; Joan Kinlan; Jon McClellan; Jon Shaw; Saundra Stock; Louis Kraus; David Fassler; William Arroyo; Andres J. Pumariega; Diane H. Schetky

2005-01-01

156

Academic Potential Among African American Adolescents in Juvenile Detention Centers: Implications for Reentry to School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores Black adolescent detainees' academic potential and motivation to return to school, to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from 1 male and 1 female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed postdetention educational plans, as well as social and emotional characteristics, and criminal history. Multivariate

Ivory A. Toldson; Kamilah M. Woodson; Ronald Braithwaite; Rhonda C. Holliday; Mario De La Rosa

2010-01-01

157

Litigation as an Instrument for Change in Juvenile Detention: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litigation is an expensive and contentious means to solve the twin problems of over-crowding and dangerous conditions in juvenile detention centers. However, it is possible to use lawsuits as effective agents for change. Willingness to mediate settlement and develop a common approach to problems causes greater change than through trial and court-imposed injunction or consent decree. This alternative approach obligates

Michael J. Dale; Carl Sanniti

1993-01-01

158

Significant Race Differences in Factors Related to the Detention Recidivism of Youthful Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of youthful offenders in the United States are held in juvenile court detention centers. Of broad concern is the disproportionate impact these placements have on minority youth, with African American and Hispanic youth much more frequently detained in these facilities compared to Caucasian youth. This U.S. study of a 2-county youthful offender population in the Midwest (1

Christopher A. Mallett; Miyuki Fukushima; Patricia Stoddard-Dare; Linda M. Quinn

2012-01-01

159

Health and Human Rights Concerns of Drug Users in Detention in Guangxi Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Although confinement in drug detoxification (''detox'') and re-education through labor (RTL) centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats

J. Elizabeth Cohen; Joseph J. Amon

2008-01-01

160

Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of stormwater retention and detention basins has become a popular method for managing urban and suburban stormwater runoff. Infiltration of stormwater through these basins may increase the risk to ground-water quality, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the wate...

161

Girls in DetentionThe Results of Focus Group Discussion Interviews and Official Records Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the risk factors related to delinquency in an effort to describe the problem of rising female juvenile delinquency. It also examined the context of family environments in which female juvenile delinquents live. Using a triangulated methods approach, the data collected via focus group discussions with 30 female residents in a Regional Detention Center and 100 official intake

Suman Kakar; Marie-Luise Friedemann; Linda Peck

2002-01-01

162

The Challenges of Reintegrating Indigenous Youth after Their Release from Detention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the greatest challenges for the juvenile justice system is to successfully reintegrate young offenders back to their communities so that they do not re-offend and return to detention. This challenge is even greater for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth who are over-represented in the Queensland juvenile justice system in…

Dawes, Glenn Desmond

2011-01-01

163

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION...and are complying with the Indian Law Enforcement Reform Act of 1990. Self-governance...Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C....

2011-04-01

164

Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Endangered Species Act requires Federal agency land owners, including military installations, to manage their lands in a manner that enhances the survival of Federally listed species. Many species become at risk due to the loss of ephemeral ponds, ...

J. D. Westervelt

2012-01-01

165

Evaporative Losses from Cooling Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cooling ponds have been routinely utilized for the dissipation of industrial waste heat. The present study describes some analyses of this evaporation and means to measure and/or calculate it. Mathematical models using an energy budget approach are shown ...

B. L. Sill

1983-01-01

166

Pond Ecology in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities with organisms from freshwater ponds and ditches. Several experiments involve predation, some involve habitat choices, and one addressees the role of sunlight in supporting plant-eating animals. (PR)

Kneidl, Sally Stenhouse

1993-01-01

167

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

168

Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds  

SciTech Connect

Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic How do rates of organic production vary temporally Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of {sup 14}C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two.

Weisburd, R.S.J.

1988-01-01

169

Metal sorption to natural filter substrates for storm water treatment—column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm water generated from road runoff contains pollutants such as metals that are either dissolved in storm water or bound to particulates. Using detention ponds for the treatment of storm water from road runoff, where particles can settle, can reduce the level of particulate-bound metals in the water, while small particles and dissolved matter pass through the detention pond. Some

Carina Färm

2002-01-01

170

Macroinvertebrates of Par Pond and Pond B: Final report, January 1984-June 1985  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B macroinvertebrate sampling program from January 1984 through June 1985. It includes data on quantitative and qualitative benthic sampling, quantitative meroplankton sampling and quarterly diel sample. The basic objectives were to: (1) characterize the benthic and meroplankton macroinvertebrate communities of Par Pond and Pond B, with respect to taxonomic composition and diversity, density and relative abundance of functional feeding groups; (2) assess the impact of thermal discharges on the macroinvertebrate community of Par Pond; (3) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of macroinvertebrate meroplankton from Par Pond; and (4) compare Par Pond macroninvertebrate communities with those in Pond B.

Kondratieff, B.C.; Chimney, M.J.; Painter, W.B.

1985-08-01

171

The origin and fate of arsenic in coalbed natural gas-produced water ponds.  

PubMed

Coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water contains small amounts of trace metals that can accumulate over time in produced water retention ponds. Within the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming, high concentrations of trace metals in pond water and their effect on shallow groundwater are potential concerns. A pond with a maximum As concentration of 146 microg L(-1) was studied in detail to determine the potential for groundwater pollution and to explain the cause for the high concentration of As. Infiltration characteristics, subsurface hydrology, our fall and pond water quality, isotope signatures, and trace metal balances were examined to assess the hydrology and geochemistry of the pond. The results indicated minimum or no infiltration of pond water and no measurable contamination of the shallow groundwater. The high As concentrations in the pond were determined to be the result of semi-continuous inputs of CBNG-produced water with low As concentrations (0.20-0.48 microg L(-1)), exasperated by low pond volumes during drought conditions. Because of reduced infiltration and high evaporation rates, As became concentrated over time. Reduced infiltration was most likely caused by the high sodium concentration and high sodium adsorption ratio of the CBNG-produced water, which disrupt soil structure. The findings for the pond and the techniques used may serve as a template for future impact assessments of other CBNG-produced water ponds and are relevant for the approximately 4000 ponds currently permitted in the PRB and for future ponds. Further studies are recommended in the use of playa landforms to store marginal-quality produced water. PMID:21043266

Sowder, J T; Kelleners, T J; Reddy, K J

2010-01-01

172

Solar pond power plant feasibility study for Davis, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layout, and a preliminary cost estimate were studied. It was concluded that a solar pond power plant is technically feasible, but economically unattractive. The relatively small scale of the proposed plant and the high cost of importing salt resulted in a disproportionately high capital investment with respect to the annual energy production capacity of the plant. Cycle optimization and increased plant size would increase the economical attractiveness of the proposed concept.

Wu, Y. C.; Singer, M. J.; Marsh, H. E.; Harris, J.; Walton, A. L.

1982-01-01

173

Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1984-01-01

174

Solar pond power plant feasibility study for Davis, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layout, and a preliminary cost estimate were studied. It was concluded that a solar pond power plant is technically feasible, but economically unattractive. The relatively small scale of the proposed plant and the high cost of importing salt resulted in a disproportionately high capital investment with respect to the annual energy production capacity of the plant. Cycle optimization and increased plant size would increase the economical attractiveness of the proposed concept.

Wu, Y. C.; Singer, M. J.; Marsh, H. E.; Harris, J.; Walton, A. L.

1982-02-01

175

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2008-01-01 2008-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2008-01-01

176

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2011-01-01

177

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2007-01-01 2007-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2007-01-01

178

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-01-01

179

8 CFR 1241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2005-01-01 2005-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 1241.4 Section 1241.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF...

2005-01-01

180

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2006-01-01 2006-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2006-01-01

181

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2005-01-01 2005-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2005-01-01

182

76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Federal Food, Drug...to provide individuals in the human and animal food industries...

2011-10-25

183

25 CFR 10.2 - Who is responsible for developing and maintaining the policies and standards for detention and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...detention and holding facilities in Indian country? The Director, Office of Law Enforcement Services who reports to the Deputy Commissioner...establishes policies, procedures, and standards for the operations, design, planning, maintenance, renovation, and construction of...

2011-04-01

184

Selenium transformations in ponded sediments  

SciTech Connect

Features of the sediment contamination process that occurred during disposal of seleniferous agricultural drainage waters at Kesterson Reservoir (California) were simulated in the laboratory. Selenium was introduced by ponding 3.0 mM solutions of Se(VI) over previously uncontaminated soils. Analyses of soil waters and ponded waters with conventional laboratory methods [hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) and redox electrodes] and with x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements on sediment and water samples provided direct Se speciation of the dominant valence states. The XAS demonstrated that Se in a contaminated sediment from Kesterson Reservoir occurs primarily as the red, monoclinic elemental form. Selenium (VI) reduction to Se(IV) and removal of both species from the aqueous phases (ponded and pore waters) was observed with HGAAS. Reduction of Se(VI) to Se(0) in the sediments was confirmed with XAS. The XAS on all shallow sediments at the end of the ponding period (48 to 51 d) demonstrated that 99{+-}5% of the Se occurred as Se(0). Rapid reoxidation of Se(0) was observed in some of the previously ponded sediments. About 60% of the Se inventory was reoxidized to a mixture of Se(IV) and Se(VI) in unamended sediments within 2 d after sampling. Selenium in sediments that were amended with organic matter remained in the Se(0) state during this short period. 78 refs., 9 figs.

Tokunaga, Tetsu K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Pickering, I.J. [Stanford Synchrontron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Brown, G.E. Jr. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-05-01

185

Absence of Antiretroviral Therapy and Other Risk Factors for Morbidity and Mortality in Malaysian Compulsory Drug Detention and Rehabilitation Centers  

PubMed Central

Background Throughout Asia, people who use drugs are confined in facilities referred to as compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centers. The limited transparency and accessibility of these centers has posed a significant challenge to evaluating detainees and detention conditions directly. Despite HIV being highly prevalent in this type of confined setting, direct evaluation of detainees with HIV and their access to medical care has yet to be reported in the literature. Methods We evaluated the health status of 100 adult male detainees with HIV and their access to medical care in the two largest Malaysian compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centers holding HIV-infected individuals. Results Approximately 80% of all detainees with HIV were surveyed in each detention center. Most participants reported multiple untreated medical conditions. None reported being able to access antiretroviral therapy during detention and only 9% reported receiving any HIV-related clinical assessment or care. Nearly a quarter screened positive for symptoms indicative of active tuberculosis, yet none reported having been evaluated for tuberculosis. Although 95% of participants met criteria for opioid dependence prior to detention, none reported being able to access opioid substitution therapy during detention, with 86% reporting current cravings for opioids and 87% anticipating relapsing to drug use after release. Fourteen percent of participants reported suicidal ideation over the previous two weeks. Conclusion We identified a lack of access to antiretroviral therapy in two of the six compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centers in Malaysia designated to hold HIV-infected individuals and found significant, unmet health needs among detainees with HIV. Individuals confined under such conditions are placed at considerably high risk for morbidity and mortality. Our findings underscore the urgent need for evidence-based drug policies that respect the rights of people who use drugs and seek to improve, rather than undermine, their health.

Fu, Jeannia J.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Altice, Frederick L.; Mohamed, Mahmood N.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

2012-01-01

186

216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

Not Available

1994-10-01

187

The limnology, primary production, and fish production in a tropical pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The productivity of a small tropical temple pond was studied by the light-and-dark bottle method and by following the natural changes in carbon dioxicle and oxygen. Pro- duction varied from 6.0 g C\\/m\\

A. SREENIVASAN

1964-01-01

188

Cultivo y Manejo de Estanques Pesqueros de Agua Fresca (Freshwater Fish Pond Culture and Management).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a guide to planning, constructing and maintaining small-scale fish pond operations, with information on selecting warmwater fish, fish diseases and fish preservation. It is produced as a joint project with VITA.

M. Chakroff

1983-01-01

189

Administrative detention of drugs intended for human or animal use. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is implementing administrative detention authority with respect to drugs intended for human or animal use as authorized by amendments made to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). FDA's administrative detention authority with respect to drugs allows FDA to better protect the integrity of the drug supply chain. Specifically, FDA is able to administratively detain drugs encountered during an inspection that an authorized FDA representative conducting an inspection has reason to believe are adulterated or misbranded. This authority is intended to protect the public by preventing distribution or subsequent use of drugs encountered during inspections that are believed to be adulterated or misbranded, until FDA has had time to consider what action it should take concerning the drugs, and to initiate legal action, if appropriate. PMID:24873018

2014-05-29

190

Treatability studies for waters in oil pond No. 1, oil pond No. 2, and the oil seep  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and pilot plant studies have investigated treatment methods for water contained in 2 small ponds located at the Bear Creek burial grounds. The sediments in the bottom of the pond are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and plans to close out these ponds and remove the sediments have been prepared. These laboratory and pilot plant studies show that the water in the ponds contained no significant amounts of metals and only trace quantities of organics. The amount of PCB in the water was near the detection level. The biological quality of the water before treatment was excellent. Unit operations examined in these studies included filtration, air stripping and carbon filtration. Air stripping removed all of the trace amounts of volatile organics and carbon filtration removed all of the detectable quantities of other organics except for the low amounts of total organic carbon. Based on these tests it has been recommended that the water in the ponds be filtered and released without additional treatment through a permitted discharge point. Water from any oil seep is recommended to be collected and treated using filtration, air stripping and carbon filtration. Any water released from this process should meet the permitted discharge quality plus meet a biological test specified by the permitting agency. 2 figs., 16 tabs.

Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.W.; Harris, G.E.; Johnson, M.E.; Padgett, B.C.

1988-05-03

191

A New Method for Reduction of Detent Force in Permanent Magnet Flux-Switching Linear Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permanent magnet (PM) flux-switching linear motor, which is developed from the PM flux-switching rotary machine, possesses similar advantages such as high power density and simple structure. Furthermore, the PM flux-switching linear motor has a potential for mass production at low cost, since the expensive coils and magnets are both set on the short mover. However, the detent force which

Can-Fei Wang; Jian-Xin Shen; Yu Wang; Li-Li Wang; Meng-Jia Jin

2009-01-01

192

Reaffirming Rights: Human Rights Protections of Migrants, Asylum Seekers, and Refugees in Immigration Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR) addresses migrants’ rights in a variety of contexts, and this paper looks closely at some of the most crucial rights that apply to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers who are held in immigration detention.\\u000aMigrants, refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to a broad range of rights protections. These protections are spelled out

Eleanor Acer; Jake Goodman

2010-01-01

193

Psychometric Status and Clinical Utility of the MAYSI-2 with Girls and Boys in Juvenile Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study replicates and extends studies of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in a sample of 479 urban, rural, and suburban 12–16 year old youths (68% boys; 41% African American, 23% Latino)\\u000a consecutively admitted to juvenile detention centers. Six principal components replicated the MAYSI-2 factor-analytically-derived\\u000a subscales except for Depression\\/Anxiety, and suggested modifications of specific items in each sub-scale.

Julian D. Ford; John F. Chapman; Geraldine Pearson; Randy Borum; Jennifer Meltzer Wolpaw

2008-01-01

194

Preliminary design of sedimentation ponds  

SciTech Connect

Almost one-hundred sedimentation ponds were conceptually designed for a large surface mining study are in northeast Texas. An approximate procedure was developed to economically estimate construction quantities in order to predict surface water control costs. This procedure utilized site-specific empirical relationships developed from detailed analyses on a representative number of proposed sedimentation ponds. Use of these equations provided earthwork volumes, and spillway pipe lengths. The procedure developed for this study is presented along with the results of a verification analysis.

Wilson, L.C.; Wayland, L.D.

1982-12-01

195

Flood detention area modelling based on nationwide topographic data: ALS-DTMs vs. conventional DTMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic depressions have an important role in hydrology. These effects on hydrological processes are caused by changes in the water balance and runoff response of a watershed. Nevertheless, research has focused in detail neither on the effects of acquisition and processing methods nor on the effects of resolution of nationwide grid digital terrain models (DTMs) on topographic depressions. Recently, many countries have conducted nationwide ALS (Airborne laser scanning) surveys for DTM purposes. Thus, detailed comparison between nationwide ALS-DTMs with different grid sizes and DTMs that represent more conventional acquisition methods, such as photogrammetric methods, is needed for different study fields. In here, the objective is to delineate the difference of depression variables between nationwide DTMs with different acquisition methods, processing methods and grid sizes. Our depression detection is based on nationwide 25x25 m and 10x10 m DTMs and 2x2 m ALS-DTM produced by NLS of Finland. ALS-DTM2 was resampled to 10x10 and 25x25 m DTMs. Thus, it was possible to compare DTMs that represent the same grid size but different acquisition and processing methods. The variables considered are the mean depth of the depression, the number of its pixels, and its area and volume. Shallow and single-pixel depressions and the impact of mean filtering on ALS-DTM were also examined. Quantitative methods and error models were applied. According to our study, the depression variables were dependent on the scale, area and acquisition method. When the depths of depression pixels were compared with the most accurate DTM based on accurate VRNS-GNSS (Virtual Reference Stations, Global Navigation Satellite Systems) field survey data, the maximum errors created the largest differences between DTMs and hence represented the amount of the depth error. The mean filtering of ALS-DTM2 focuses on the small and shallow depressions, and is thus suitable for using in flood risk management. According to our results, the decision about the suitability of the available DTMs for a specific purpose is good to make on the demands of the problem settings. In studies with a relatively low demand for accuracy, awareness of the error, its level and effects on analyses in general is sufficient. In more accurate studies, the awareness of the varying spatial accuracy and the knowledge about certain typical characteristics of available DTMs to represent a studied terrain variables is essential. On the whole, the ability of a DTM to accurately represent depressions varied uniquely according to each depression, although DTMs also displayed certain typical characteristics. Thus, a DTM's higher resolution is no guarantee of a more accurate representation of topography in flood detention studies.

Vesakoski, Jenni-Mari; Alho, Petteri; Hyyppä, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Flener, Claude; Hyyppä, Hannu

2014-05-01

196

Alternatives for physically modifying John Sevier detention dam to allow fish passage  

SciTech Connect

Studies conducted in the vicinity of John Sevier Steam-Electric Plant (JSF) indicated some modification of the fish assemblage from that expected. By blocking movements of fish between Cherokee Reservoir and the upper Holston River, John Sevier detention dam has affected the fisheries in both systems. Providing passage for river-spawning fish at John Sevier detention dam might improve fish communities and fisheries in Cherokee Reservoir as well as upstream habitats. This would include enhanced reproductive success of river-spawning species found in Cherokee Reservoir (e.g., white bass and possibly striped bass and paddlefish) and repopulation of John Sevier Reservoir and the upper Holston River by several species presently found only downstream of the detention dam. TVA has identified and studied several alternatives that alone or in combination might improve the fisheries. Cost estimates were developed for three alternatives. These three alternatives with cost estimates are discussed briefly along with two other alternatives for which cost estimates have not been made. Merits of the three alternatives which have at least some possibility to improve migratory fish stocks are discussed in detail. 5 references.

Not Available

1984-09-01

197

Transportation and Bioavailability of Copper and Zinc in a Storm Water Retention Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highway runoff has been identified as a non-point source of metals to storm water retention ponds. Zinc and copper are major components of tires and brake pads, respectively. As these automobile parts degrade, they deposit particulates onto the roadway surface. During a storm event, these metal containing particulates are washed into a storm water retention pond where they can then accumulate over time. These metals may be available to organisms inhabiting the pond and surrounding areas. This study focuses on tracking the metals from their deposition on the roadway to their transport and accumulation into a retention pond. The retention pond is located in Owings Mills, MD and collects runoff from an adjacent four lane highway. Pond sediments, background soils, road dust samples, and storm events were collected and analyzed. Copper and zinc concentrations in the pond sediments are higher than local background soils indicating that the pond is storing anthropogenically derived metals. Storm event samples also reveal elevated levels of copper and zinc transported through runoff, along with a large concentration of total suspended solids. After looking at the particulate and dissolved fractions of both metals in the runoff, the majority of the Zn and Cu are in the particulate fraction. Changes in TSS are proportional with changes in particulate bound Zn, indicating that the solid particulates that are entering into the pond are a major contributor of the total metal loading. Sequential extractions carried out on the road dust show that the majority of zinc is extracted in the second and third fractions and could become available to organisms in the pond. There is a small amount of Cu that is being released in the more available stages of the procedure; however the bulk of the Cu is seen in the more recalcitrant steps. In the pond sediments however, both Cu and Zn are only being released from the sediments in the later steps and are most likely not highly available.

Camponelli, K.; Casey, R. E.; Wright, M. E.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.

2006-05-01

198

Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

2003-01-01

199

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

200

Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive…

Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

201

Arizona's Salt Gradient Solar Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research project for designing and constructing a salt gradient solar pond within the State of Arizona was requested by the Arizona Solar Energy Commission during a period when an oil embargo was still a possibility. The project was built at the Gray ...

J. B. Hauskins F. Mancini R. Kolaja

1987-01-01

202

Picnic at the Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is competition for water among organisms along a river during the dry season in Kruger National Park in South Africa. Narrated video footage shows how a number of African animals share a small watering hole and acquire water necessary for survival while avoiding predation.

203

A preliminary evaluation of the occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds of the Maryland shores of the Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, a preliminary investigation of occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. These small ponds occur commonly along the Bay shore. A sand berm separates the freshwaters of the ponds from the saline waters of the Bay; this berm is occasionally breached permitting interchange between ponds and Bay. A survey of aerial maps and photographs has revealed approximately 1800 ponds bordering the mid and upper Bay.

Not Available

1980-10-01

204

Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Youth in Juvenile Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

duct, oppositional defiant, alcohol, marijuana, and other substance; 17.3% of females and 20.4% of males had only one disorder. We also examined types of disorder: affec- tive, anxiety, substance use, and attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity or behavioral. The odds of having comor- biddisorderswerehigherthanexpectedbychanceformost demographic subgroups, except when base rates of dis- orders were already high or when cell sizes were small. Nearly

Karen M. Abram; Linda A. Teplin; Gary M. McClelland; Mina K. Dulcan

2003-01-01

205

Pond 2: Life in a Drop of Pond Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate the living creatures in a drop of pond water under magnification. This lesson is the second in a two-part series on microorganisms. It is designed to follow the first lesson, but can also stand alone. Students observe microscopic organisms found in pond water using a hand lens, 30x magnification, and 100x magnification. Observing these organisms should stimulate discussions about how single-celled living things might satisfy their needs for food, water, and air. They can do this by comparing the needs of macroscopic organisms to those of microscopic ones. It is important to remember that while watching microorganisms is informative, it is not always likely that students will be able to observe these tiny cells performing such functions as dividing or taking in food. Thus direct observation should be supplemented with films of living cells or by using prepared materials.

206

Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project. FY 1982 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that have been built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to...

R. L. French H. E. Marsh E. J. Roschke Y. C. Wu

1984-01-01

207

Albedo and the Mechanisms of Melt Pond Evolution on Seasonal Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On undeformed seasonal ice, melt pond formation and evolution is the predominate driver of albedo shifts after the onset of melt. Due to the low topographic relief of this ice type, small variations in melt water balance can drive large changes in pond coverage. These changes in total pond coverage regularly exceed 50% and occur over time spans of just a few days or less. A field program was conducted on seasonal landfast ice in northern Alaska from March to late June 2009 to track the formation and evolution of melt ponds as well as the corresponding changes in the ice surface albedo. The observations were framed around monitoring the melt water balance on the ice surface through the principal stages of pond flooding, drainage, and lateral widening, with the intent of developing a mechanistic understanding of the processes which force these rapid changes in pond coverage on seasonal ice. Time series surface based LiDAR surveys, aerial photographs, albedo surveys, and radiation measurements provide high resolution information on the surface mass balance, energy budget, pond area, and pond growth rate over two representative study areas. A floe-wide water balance was conducted to determine the dominant water balance terms during early melt. Aerial photographs were obtained to confirm the generality of the findings over a larger area of both shorefast ice and nearby pack ice. Pond formation and early season evolution are found to be strongly dependent on melt rate and the horizontal transport of surface melt water to macroscopic ice flaws. Later in the season, pond evolution is found to be controlled largely by lateral melting at the pond perimeter and changes in freeboard caused by thinning. Key findings of this experiment demonstrate i) the importance of over-ice horizontal melt water transport and ice topography in the early-season coverage of melt ponds; ii) a phenomena of brine drainage channels widening to produce macroscopic drainage points in otherwise impermeable ice, and iii) the role of lateral melt rates in pond evolution later in the melt season. The results enhance a mechanistic understanding of melt pond evolution which may serve as a framework for improving albedo modeling on seasonal ice.

Polashenski, C.; Courville, Z.; Perovich, D. K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Sturm, M.; Druckenmiller, M.; Eicken, H.; Petrich, C.

2009-12-01

208

Design, construction, and initial operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory salt-gradient solar pond  

SciTech Connect

A 232 m/sup 2/ solar pond was constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of studying pond hydrodynamics on a large scale and to complement the flow visualization and one-dimensional pond simulator experiments that are ongoing at the Laboratory. Design methods and construction techniques, some of which are unique to this pond, are described in detail. The pond was excavated from a soft volcanic rock known as tuff; such rock forms a large fraction of the Los Alamos area surface geology. Because tuff has a small thermal conductivity, little insulation was required to reduce perimeter energy losses. In addition, the strength of tuff permitted the pond to be built with vertical side walls; this design eliminated local side wall convection in the gradient zone that is possible with sloping side walls. Instrumentation in the pond consists of traversing and fixed rakes of thermometers and salinity probes, an underwater pyranometer, and a weather station. The traversing rake is a wheeled trolley driven vertically on a rectangular rail. Installed on the trolley are coplanar platinum RTDs, a point conductivity probe, and an induction salinometer. The stationary rake supports 28 thermocouples and 28 sample-fluid withdrawal taps located every 10 cm. About 127 T of sodium chloride has been introduced and is nearly dissolved. A 120-cm-thick salinity gradient was established and the pond is heating. Preliminary results indicate a lower-convective-zone heating rate of 1.2/sup 0/C/day during the pond's first month of operation. Recommendations on pond design, construction, and instrumentation are presented.

Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Dreicer, J.S.; Grimmer, D.P.

1983-01-01

209

Winter operation of an on-stream stormwater management pond.  

PubMed

The winter operation of an on-stream stormwater management pond in Kingston, Canada is characterised. The pond froze over in late November. Ice thickness varied from 0.2 to 0.5 m, and initially, was well described by Stefan's formula. The measured and modelled velocity field indicated a fast flow region, a small dead zone and a large recirculating zone. During a snowmelt event, near-bottom velocities reached 0.05 m x s(-1), but were not sufficient to scour the bottom sediment. Pond water temperature increased with depth, from 0.5 degrees C to 3.5 degrees C. The dissolved oxygen (DO) levels observed in the pond (6-13 mg x L(-1)) indicated stable aerobic conditions at the sediment-water interface. In one brief episode, DO fell to zero after a long cold spell. Reduction in DO readings from inlet to outlet indicated an oxygen consumption of about 1.7 kg x day(-1). pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.9. Conductivity readings indicated large quantities of total dissolved solids, representing mostly chloride from de-icing agents. During baseflow, conductivity increased with depth (total dissolved solids concentrations up to 1,200 mg x L(-1) near the bottom), indicating density stratification. Average trace metal concentrations were mostly below detection limits. PMID:14703147

Marsalek, P M; Watt, W E; Marsalek, J; Anderson, B C

2003-01-01

210

Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention: Role of Adverse Life Experiences  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family) on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. Materials and Methods The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. Results Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation) and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio?=?2.75; 95% confidence interval ?=?2.08–3.63) and homelessness (1.51; 1.17–1.94) were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22–4.08), homelessness (1.49; 1.12–1.98), and running away from home (1.38; 1.06–1.81) were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41–25.37) to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. Conclusions Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention.

Bhatta, Madhav P.; Jefferis, Eric; Kavadas, Angela; Alemagno, Sonia A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy

2014-01-01

211

Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.  

PubMed

Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. PMID:23869702

Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

2013-12-01

212

Detention of British citizens as hostages in the Gulf--health, psychological, and family consequences.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To describe the physical, psychological, and family consequences of the detention of British subjects as hostages in Kuwait or Iraq, or both, after the invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 and to investigate the relation between types of trauma experienced and these reactions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire. SUBJECTS--381 respondents. RESULTS--Many health, social, and psychological sequelae were identified. Problems with present finance, accommodation, and work are important causes of distress. Many hostages coped well and gained self esteem. CONCLUSIONS--A minority of respondents require further support and treatment. Expatriates in risk areas should retain assets in their home country.

Easton, J A; Turner, S W

1991-01-01

213

Computational fluid dynamics modelling of flow and particulate contaminants sedimentation in an urban stormwater detention and settling basin.  

PubMed

Sedimentation is a common but complex phenomenon in the urban drainage system. The settling mechanisms involved in detention basins are still not well understood. The lack of knowledge on sediment transport and settling processes in actual detention basins is still an obstacle to the optimization of the design and the management of the stormwater detention basins. In order to well understand the sedimentation processes, in this paper, a new boundary condition as an attempt to represent the sedimentation processes based on particle tracking approach is presented. The proposed boundary condition is based on the assumption that the flow turbulent kinetic energy near the bottom plays an important role on the sedimentation processes. The simulated results show that the proposed boundary condition appears as a potential capability to identify the preferential sediment zones and to predict the trapping efficiency of the basin during storm events. PMID:24390197

Yan, Hexiang; Lipeme Kouyi, Gislain; Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Sebastian, Christel; Barraud, Sylvie; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

2014-04-01

214

Developing Learning Identities in and through Music: A Case Study of the Outcomes of a Music Programme in an Australian Juvenile Detention Centre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decades have witnessed significant growth in music programmes targeted at various populations in detention, including those in male and female prisons and juvenile detention centres. The aspirations of such programmes have included a concern to improve detainees' mental and physical health and well-being, develop pro-social behaviours…

Barrett, Margaret S.; Baker, Jane S.

2012-01-01

215

An Assessment of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Detention Risk Assessment Instrument on Youths Screened and Processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening data, including information obtained from the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Detention Risk Assessment Instrument and the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers developed by NIDA, on arrested youths processed at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC) in November 1993 are analyzed. The results provide support for the effectiveness of the Detention Risk Assessment Instrument

Richard Dembo; Glenn Turner; Camille Chin Sue; James Schmeidler; Polly Borden; Darrell Manning

1995-01-01

216

An Assessment of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Detention Risk Assessment Instrument on Youths Screened and Processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes screening data on arrested youths (n=361) at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center in November 1993. Results provide support for the effectiveness of the Detention Risk Assessment Instrument in differentiating among youths released to the community unsupervised, youths placed on home detention, and youths placed in…

Dembo, Richard; And Others

1994-01-01

217

Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth values ranging from 15 to 30 cm. The values of other environmental variables were significantly correlated with high correlations among Ca, Mg and Sr (r = 0.89 to 0.92). Similar to Duff et al. (1999) significant but weak correlations were found between conductivity, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and DOC values. While arctic pond ecosystems are highly sensitive to the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation, such elevated DOC values in the study ponds might contribute to better resilience of the pond ecosystem.

Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

2010-05-01

218

Treatment of harvest discharge from intensive shrimp ponds by settling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from intensively managed shrimp ponds was examined during harvest when ponds were drained. Concentrations of nutrients and solids in effluents were significantly higher during the final 20 cm of discharge (16% of pond volume), but greatest increases occurred during the final 5 cm of discharge (3.9% of pond volume). When the final 20 cm of pond discharge was allowed

D. R. Teichert-Coddington; D. B. Rouse; A. Potts; C. E. Boyd

1999-01-01

219

Review of SERI solar pond work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides documentation of SERI's solar pond research effort, which began in 1979. The SERI staff analyzed solar pond topics from modeling and feasibility studies to laboratory experiments on physical properties and hydrodynamical stability. The SERI's perspective on the maturity of this solar technology is described, including the technical state-of-the-art of salt-gradient solar ponds, state of knowledge of pond design, estimated cost ranges for various locations and applications, and perceived barriers to commercial development. Recommendations for future work are also presented. The SERI research and development on solar ponds is described, emphasizing analytical and experimental tools developed at SERI. All AERI and subcontract reports dealing with solar ponds or related system components are summarized, and a bibliography is provided.

Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

1985-07-01

220

Parametric study of salt gradient solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for efficiency of a salt gradient solar pond is described. Heat losses from the bottom of the pond have been calculated, and the results for the effective thermal conductivity with the thicknesses of various insulating materials have been presented. The effect of the ground thermal resistance on the efficiency of the pond for different values of ..delta..T/S/sup 0/ are also shown.

Beniwal, R.S.; Saxena, N.S.; Bhandari, R.C.

1986-02-01

221

Rabies death attributed to exposure in Central America with symptom onset in a U.S. detention facility - Texas, 2013.  

PubMed

On June 7, 2013, a man was diagnosed in a Texas hospital with rabies. He had been detained in a U.S. detention facility during his infectious period. To identify persons exposed to rabies who might require rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), CDC and the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) conducted investigations at four detention facilities, one medical clinic, and two hospitals. In all, 25 of 742 persons assessed for rabies exposure were advised to receive PEP. Early diagnosis of rabies is essential for implementation of appropriate hospital infection control measures and for rapid assessment of potential contacts for PEP recommendations. PMID:24848216

Wallace, Ryan M; Bhavnani, Darlene; Russell, John; Zaki, Sherif; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Hayden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Aplícano, Ricardo Mena; Peruski, Leonard; Vora, Neil M; Balter, Sharon; Elson, Diana; Lederman, Edith; Leeson, Ben; McLaughlin, Thomas; Waterman, Steve; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Blanton, Jesse; Franka, Richard; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Niezgoda, Michael; Orciari, Lillian; Recuenco, Sergio; Damon, Inger; Hanlon, Cathleen; Jackson, Felix; Dyer, Jessie; Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Robinson, Laura

2014-05-23

222

Determination of Summertime VOC Emission Rates from Produced Water Ponds in the Uintah Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observance of excess ozone concentrations in Utah's Uintah Basin over past several years has prompted several investigations into the extent and causes of the elevated ozone. Among these is the assessment of potential emissions of reactive VOCs. Evaporation ponds, used a remediation technique for treatment of contaminated production and other waters, are one potential source of significant VOC emissions and is estimated that there are around 160 such ponds within the Uintah Basin's oil and gas production areas. In June 2012 VOC emission rates for several reactive VOCs were derived for an evaporation facility consisting of a small inlet pond (?0.03 acres) and two larger, serial ponds (?4.3 acres each). The emission rates were determined over three sampling periods using an inverse modeling approach. Under this methodology, ambient VOC concentrations are determined at several downwind locations through whole-air collection into SUMMA canisters, followed by GC/MS quantification and compared with predicted concentrations using an EPA-approved dispersion model, AERMOD. The presumed emission rates used within the model were then adjusted until the modeled concentrations approach the observed concentrations. The derived emission rates for the individual VOCs were on the order of 10-3 g/s/m2 from the inlet pond and 10-6 g/s/m2 from the larger ponds. The emissions from the 1st pond in series after the inlet pond were about 3-4x the emissions from the 2nd pond. These combined emission rates are about an order of magnitude those reported for a single study in Colorado (Thoma, 2009). It should be noted, however, that the variability about each of the VOC emission rates was significant (often ×100% at the 95% confidence interval). Extrapolating these emission rates to the estimated total areas of all the evaporation ponds within Basin resulted in calculated Basin-wide VOC emissions 292,835 tons/yr. However, Bar-Ilan et al. (2009) estimated 2012 VOC oil and gas related emissions within the Uintah Basin to be 119,974 tons/yr. Given the large observed variabilities and the uncertainties with extrapolating the derived emission rates across varying pond types and differing climatic conditions, the comparisons are not unreasonable. If the lower, literature emission rates of Thoma (2009) are used the estimated Basin-wide evaporation emissions, the pond emissions would still be approximately 30% of the total emissions compiled by Bar-Ilan et al. (2009). Although the study described herein only represents a single facility and a single set of seasonal conditions, extrapolating these rates can give potential insight into the significance of VOC emissions into the Basin atmosphere from evaporation ponds.

Martin, R. S.; Woods, C.; Lyman, S.

2013-12-01

223

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area.

E. Farfan; T. Jannik

2011-01-01

224

A solar-pond power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar pond power plants are discussed in light of the construction and operation of an experimental 150-kW installation in Ein Bokek, Israel. The principle of the collection and storage of solar energy in salt ponds where the salinity increases with depth is introduced, and the six polar ponds constructed by Israel since 1960 to test the theory of solar pond energy conversion are indicated. The facilities and operation of the Ein Bokek plant, which utilizes a 75,000 sq m, 2.5-m deep pond in which the bottom temperature reaches 93 C, are presented, and the design of a basic nonconvecting solar pond for a 20 MW electric power plant is examined, with attention given to the water layers, pumps, evaporator, organic vapor turbogenerator and condenser. The performance characteristics of solar pond power plants, which can be started up in a few minutes and deliver up to ten times or more of their rated output power, are pointed out as the basis for the suggestion that they can be used initially as peaking plants in the power grid. The future plans of the Israeli solar pond program, which expects to be supplying up to 2000 MW by the year 2000, are outlined, and potential sites for solar pond installations in other countries are indicated.

Bronicki, Y. L.

1981-02-01

225

Heavy metal removal in waste stabilisation ponds and high rate ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) removal in two wastewater treatment units were compared. One of the systems consisted of a train of Waste Stabilisation Ponds (WSP) including one anaerobic, three facultative in series and two maturation ponds, also in series. The other system, called High Rate Ponds (HRP) consisted of one anaerobic, one High Rate Algal

A. Toumi; A. Nejmeddine; B. El Hamouri

226

Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis Liquid Oxygen Prevalve Detent Roller Cracking Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During routine inspections of the Space Shuttle's Main Propulsion System (MPS) Liquid Oxygen (LO2) pre-valve, the mechanism provided to maintain the valve in the open position was found cracked. The mechanism is a Vespel roller held against the valve visor by a stack of Belleville springs. The roller has been found cracked 3 times. All three instances were in the same valve in the same location. There are 6 pre-valves on each orbiter, and only one has exhibited this problem. Every-flight inspections were instituted and the rollers were found to be cracked after only one flight. Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center worked together to determine a solution. There were several possible contributors to the failure: a mis-aligned visor, an out of specification edge with a sharp radius, an out of specification tolerance stack up of a Belleville spring stack that caused un-predicted loads on the Vespel SP-21 roller, and a dimple machined into the side of the roller to indicate LO2 compatibility that created a stress riser. The detent assembly was removed and replaced with parts that were on the low-side of the tolerance stack up to eliminate the potential for high loads on the detent roller. After one flight, the roller was inspected and showed fewer signs of wear and no cracks.

Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David; Richard, James; Jacobs, Rebecca

2008-01-01

227

Who Am I? Plant and Animal Life in a Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use questioning skills to ascertain which pond plant or animal they are. In previous lessons, students have visited the neighborhood pond, made observations, and become familiar with pond life.

228

Culture et Gestion d'Etangs a Poissons d'Eau Douce (Freshwater Fish Pond Culture and Management).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a guide to planning, constructing and maintaining small-scale fish pond operations, with information on selecting warmwater fish, fish diseases and fish preservation. Produced as a joint project with VITA.

M. Chakroff

1976-01-01

229

Solar Pond Technology for Navy Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many of the Navy and Marine Corps bases have potential for thermal solar pond systems that can cost-effectively displace existing thermal and electrical loads. The salt-gradient solar pond offers a simple method of collecting solar insulation while provid...

L. C. P. Huang W. R. Major

1985-01-01

230

Get the Turtle to the Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online applet provides for creative problem solving while encouraging young students to estimate length. Using the Turtle Pond Applet, students will direct the turtle to the pond by choosing a sequence of commands. Then the student will select play and watch the turtle move along the path as directed by the commands.

Illuminations, Nctm

2012-07-10

231

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

232

The role of microorganisms in aquaculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms have major roles in pond culture, particularly with respect to productivity, nutrient cycling, the nutrition of the cultured animals, water quality, disease control and environmental impact of the effluent. Management of the activities of microorganisms in food webs and nutrient cycling in ponds is necessary for optimising production, but the objectives will differ with the type of aquaculture, the

David J. W. Moriarty

1997-01-01

233

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

234

Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the organic matter is a critical factor for water quality control and nutrient recycle. Usually, management

B. Torres Beristain

2005-01-01

235

Phytoplankton as bioindicator for waste stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste stabilization ponds are an appropriate technology for domestic onsite wastewater treatment. It is a low-cost technology, requires low maintenance, is highly efficient, mostly natural and remarkablably sustainable. In facultative ponds, the existence of an algal population is very important for the stability of the symbiotic relation with aerobic bacteria. The aim of this work is to determine the pattern

Caterina Amengual-Morro; Gabriel Moyà Niell; Antoni Martínez-Taberner

236

EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE MINE SEDIMENTATION PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

An in-field evaluation of the effectiveness of sediment ponds in reducing suspended solids in the runoff from surface mining activities was performed. Nine selected sedimentation ponds in the three eastern coal-mining States of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky were sampl...

237

Heat rejection and energy extraction within solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the heat transfer and fluid flow processes governing heat rejection to the surface layer and energy extraction from the storage zone has been carried out. The literature available on this and other related problems was studied in detail to determine the nature of the recirculating flows that arise and the effect they might have on the stability of the gradient layer. Simplified analytical models were considered to determine the governing parameters and their effect on the performance and efficiency of the solar pond. Estimates of the surface temperature rise and the increase in evaporation caused by heat rejection were made. Two flow configurations, end-to-end and top-to-bottom, were considered for every extraction and the spread of the flow in the storage zone was studied. It was found that the limited penetration of the top-to-bottom configuration restricts its satisfactory operation to small ponds.

Jaluria, Y.

1982-02-01

238

Prevalence and Persistence of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Context Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Most juveniles eventually return to their communities, where they become the responsibility of the community mental health system. Yet, no large-scale study has examined psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. Objective To examine changes in prevalence and persistence of disorders during the 5 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design Prospective longitudinal study with up to 5 interviews (N = 1829). To ensure representation of key demographic subgroups, the randomly selected sample was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic), age, and legal status (juvenile or adult court). Setting The Northwestern Juvenile Project, sampling youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois. Participants Detained youth, 10 to 18 years at baseline interview. Main Outcome Measures At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (Child and Young Adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). Results Five years after baseline, more than 45% of males and nearly 30% of females had one or more psychiatric disorders with associated impairment. Substance use disorders were the most common disorders; males, however, had higher rates over time (5 years after baseline, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.61; 95% CI, 1.96–3.47). Non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics also had higher rates of substance use disorders compared with African Americans (respectively, AOR, 1.96, 95% CI, 1.54–2.49; AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.24–2.03). Females had higher rates of major depression over time (AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.22–2.08). Conclusions Although prevalence rates of most psychiatric disorders declined over time, a substantial proportion of delinquent youth continue to have disorders. There were notable sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and persistence of disorders.

Teplin, Linda A.; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2013-01-01

239

Characteristics of road sediment fractionated particles captured from paved surfaces, surface run-off and detention basins.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of evaluating changes in properties of road sediment fractionated particles at the source (dry pavement), during transport (highway runoff) and after deposition (dry detention basin). A total of 38 solid particle samples were collected from paved surface, highway runoff, and from three locations within detention basins. Each sample was size-fractionated ranging from 38 ?m to 1000 ?m. Key results were that: (i) less than 2% of total particle mass in four vacuumed solid samples was associated with the <38 ?m fraction compared to 47 to 82% in centrifuged highway runoff samples and 25% for detention basin sediments, (ii) based on number concentrations more than 90% of particles from all sources were smaller than 38 ?m, (iii) the densities of fractionated particles were generally within the range from 1.5 to 2.2g/cm(3); (iv) all collected particles were predicted to resist aggregation in solution with a typical measure of surface potential, the zeta potential, typically ranging from -15 to -30 mV, (v) metal concentrations increased with decreasing particle size for vacuumed samples from the highway shoulder and parking lot, however, size dependent trends in metal concentrations were less apparent in centrifuged highway runoff samples and detention basin sediment samples; (vi) the distributions of metal mass across sieved size fractions generally followed patterns of particle mass distribution in which less than 10% of the total Cu, Pb, and Zn mass was associated with particles <38 ?m; (vii) metal mass distributions tended toward increasing metal fractions in finer particle fractions along a gradient from the inlet to the outlet of the detention basins; and (viii) individual particle morphology (1 < d(p) < 10 ?m) showed that particles were not smooth or spherical, clearly deviating from the assumptions typically used in estimating particle settling velocities using Stokes' Law. PMID:23063923

Kayhanian, M; McKenzie, E R; Leatherbarrow, J E; Young, T M

2012-11-15

240

USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS  

EPA Science Inventory

We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

241

CO? efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO?) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO? efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO? efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO? emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO? emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO? released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

2013-01-01

242

Evapotranspiration from Wetland Pond Complexes in the Western Boreal Forest, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands on the Canadian Western Boreal Plain account for as much as 50 % of the landscape and provide one of the most important waterfowl habitats in North America as well as representing a significant regional water resource and carbon pool. In this sub-humid region potential evapotranspiration (PET) exceeds precipitation in most years and consequently these wetland complexes are very vulnerable to any climate change that may alter patterns of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The permanence of these wetland and pond systems depends on the underlying glacial deposits, topography and evapotranspiration. Flow within these wetland pond catchments is from the pond to the hillslope for most of the time and small changes in precipitation can result in a dramatic change in runoff. Increased climatic variability (natural or anthropogenic) will likely influence the duration of drought cycles. However, whether or not, or for how long these ponds may dry completely remains unknown. Thus, it is essential to understand the ecological and physiographic factors within these complexes that control evapotranspiration, and how these are influenced by large scale climate and climate cycles. This paper investigates not only open water evaporation from the ponds, but also the role of ET from the surrounding riparian peatlands, and illustrates how the evaporative regimes from these units and their linkages with the ponds are significant to the permanence of these water bodies.

Petrone, R. M.; Silins, U.; Devito, K. J.

2004-05-01

243

Two dimensional computational fluid dynamic models for waste stabilisation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional waste stabilisation pond (WSP) models encounter problems predicting pond performance because they cannot account for the influence of pond features, such as inlet structure or pond geometry, on fluid hydrodynamics. In this study, two dimensional (2-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were compared to experimental residence time distributions (RTD) from literature. In one of the three geometries simulated, the

M. G Wood; T Howes; J Keller; M. R Johns

1998-01-01

244

Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

1980-01-01

245

This Pond Is Not for Ducks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest development in solar energy is a four-acre pond planned for Clark College in Vancouver (Washington). Filled with brine, it will serve both as collector and heat storage tank for the entire campus. (Author)

American School and University, 1980

1980-01-01

246

Ecologic simulation of warm water aquaculture ponds  

SciTech Connect

A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized warm-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of environmental parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of environmental conditions.

Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.

1983-06-01

247

Solar perspectives - Israel, solar pond innovator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing and planned solar pond electricity producing power plants in Israel and California are discussed. Salt ponds, with salinity increasing with depth, are coupled with low temperature, organic working fluid Rankine cycle engines to form self-storage, nonpolluting, electric plants. Average pond thermal gradients range from 25 C surface to 90 C at the bottom; 160 GW of potential power have been projected as currently available from existing natural solar ponds from a partial survey of 14 countries. The largest installation to date has a 220 kW output, and a 5 MW plant is scheduled for completion in 1983. Efficiencies of 10% and a cost of $2,000/kW for a 40 MW plant are projected, a cost which is comparable to that of conventional plants. The 40 MW plant is an optimized design, allowing for modular plant additions to increase capacity.

Winsberg, S.

1981-07-01

248

Zeolite Ammonia Removal from Catfish Pond Waters,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research focused on developing a zeolite filtration system which will prevent toxic ammonia build-up in catfish ponds. Zeolites are ion exchangers and some natural species are capable of selectively removing ammonia from various types of water systems...

W. R. Reynolds C. W. Williford

1987-01-01

249

Zeolite Ammonia Removal from Catfish Pond Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of fish production can also be resolved by increasing fish density in existing ponds. Unfortunately, increasing fish density would also produce toxic buildup of ammonia and nitrate. The problem, however, can be alleviated by employing an ammon...

W. R. Reynolds C. W. Williford

1988-01-01

250

Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-08-01

251

Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond surfaces. These compounds are highly reactive and, because of their relatively high water solubility, tend to concentrate in produced water. The average methanol emission rate from unfrozen pond surfaces was more than 100 mg m-2 h-1. Methanol, used as an antifreeze and anti-scaler in the oil and gas industry, is abundant during winter inversions in the Uintah Basin and may also be a significant precursor to ozone production. Total VOC and methanol emissions from produced water ponds during winter were estimated to be 178 and 83 tons month-1, respectively, for the entire Uintah Basin.

Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

2013-12-01

252

Material selection consideration for solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the various candidate materials tested, stainless steel shows the best potential for applications as heat exchanger components in solar ponds. Even stainless steel may lead to pitting type of corrosion. Weight loss measurements are probably unsatisfactory for corrosion evaluation in solar pond situations. Also included are the results from the potentiodynamic anodic polarization analysis, corrosion rate calculation via corrosion behavior diagrams, and immersion weight loss measurements.

Sastri, S.; Vaidyanathan, T. K.; Marsh, H. E.; French, R. L.

1984-09-01

253

Phytoplankton as bioindicator for waste stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

Waste stabilization ponds are an appropriate technology for domestic onsite wastewater treatment. It is a low-cost technology, requires low maintenance, is highly efficient, mostly natural and remarkably sustainable. In facultative ponds, the existence of an algal population is very important for the stability of the symbiotic relation with aerobic bacteria. The aim of this work is to determine the pattern of microalgae in the facultative and maturation ponds to obtain information for the operation and maintenance work. The important parameters for phytoplankton measured in this study are the organic load, temperature, light penetration, dissolved oxygen and nutrients. Methodology consists in: analysis of main water quality parameters, plankton taxonomic determination and abundance calculation related with the maintenance operations. Results show that cyanobacteria are present in under-loaded conditions and chlorophyceae are present when the pond is overloaded. Using this methodology over time we can obtain a year round pattern to use the phytoplankton as a bioindicator of the pond's conditions. Our conclusion is that the phytoplankton determination and density can be used to know the pond's performance and help the operation and maintenance tasks. PMID:21820796

Amengual-Morro, Caterina; Moyà Niell, Gabriel; Martínez-Taberner, Antoni

2012-03-01

254

Studies on membrane viscosity stabilized solar pond  

SciTech Connect

In this nonsalt type of solar pond, the nonconvecting layer is composed of a viscous polymer solution partitioned by a number of transparent films. An advantage of partitioning is that a thinner polymer solution can be used and that the light transmittance increases. Results of experimental and theoretical investigations on the performance of this solar pond are summarized as follows: (1) ionized polyacrylamide solution was chosen as the thickener based on tests about solubility, viscosity, light transmittance and stability; (2) the critical temperature difference for the onset of convection in the polymer layer ({Delta}T/L){sub cr} ({degree}C/m) was given by the following formula based on the measurements in various thicknesses of the polymer layers (L) (m) and various concentrations ({zeta}) (%), ({Delta}T/L){sub cr} = (55 {minus} 185 lnL)exp(4.66 L{sup 0.505} ln{zeta}); (3) an outdoor model pond, 200 {times} 150 cm surface and 100 cm depth, was constructed in Osaka. Four types of model ponds were tested, and the availability of membrane type with partition films was confirmed; (4) the theoretical temperature rise of the pond using a one-dimensional model was calculated by solving the equations of the heat balance in the pond. As a result, the optimum values of thickness of polymer layer and number of films was determined.

Taga, M. (Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan)); Matsumoto, T.; Ochi, T. (Osaka Prefectural College of Technology (Japan))

1990-01-01

255

Contradictory Australian National Policies on Self-Harm And Suicide: The Case of Asylum Seekers in Mandatory Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper argues that the decision by the Australian Commonwealth Government to continue its policy of indefinite mandatory detention, without review, in the face of the accumulated evidence regarding the harmful effects, amounts to state-sponsored trauma and child neglect and\\/or abuse.Conclusions: The Australian government's policies supporting successful suicide prevention programs stand in contrast to its policy regarding indefinite mandatory

Michael Dudley

2003-01-01

256

30 CFR 816.56 - Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments, and treatment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...56 Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...reclaimed, and that all permanent sedimentation ponds, diversions,...

2010-07-01

257

30 CFR 817.56 - Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments, and treatment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...56 Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...reclaimed, and that all permanent sedimentation ponds, diversions,...

2010-07-01

258

30 CFR 816.56 - Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments, and treatment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...56 Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...reclaimed, and that all permanent sedimentation ponds, diversions,...

2013-07-01

259

30 CFR 817.56 - Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments, and treatment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...56 Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...reclaimed, and that all permanent sedimentation ponds, diversions,...

2009-07-01

260

30 CFR 817.56 - Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments, and treatment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...56 Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...reclaimed, and that all permanent sedimentation ponds, diversions,...

2013-07-01

261

Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

2010-12-01

262

Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

2013-04-01

263

Seasonal Performance of Constructed Wetland and Winter Storage Pond for Sewage Treatment in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study was performed from July 1998 to December 2002 to examine the feasibility of a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment in small communities of Korea. To maintain treatment performance during the winter period, an intermittent-discharge pond was connected to the wetland; its effects were evaluated from December 2001 to April 2003. The subsurface flow (SSF) wetland was

Jong-Hwa Ham; Chun G. Yoon; Soon-Jin Hwang; Kwang-Wook Jung

2004-01-01

264

Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

1977-01-01

265

Monitoring of the Restorational Dredging of Ann Lee Pond, Colonie, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ann Lee Pond, a small eutrophic lake located in the Town of Colonie, Albany County, New York was rehabilitated by hydraulic dredging during the late summer and fall 1980. As part of the grant award requirements, a limnological monitoring program was prepa...

1982-01-01

266

DESIGN FEATURES OF A CONSTRUCTED MINI WET POND FOR WATER QUALITY CONTROL AND RUNOFF STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In stormwater management, controlling water quantity and stormwater generated pollution at the source needs to be practised towards achieving ecologically sustainable development in urban areas in Malaysia. Constructed mini wet ponds can be used for small scale runoff\\/flow attenuation which provide temporary runoff storage to reduce downstream flow peaks; stormwater quality management and control through removing of nutrients and pollutants

Mohamed Roseli; Bin Zainal Abidin; Jalil Bin Hassan

267

Ecology of Tundra Ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain: A Community Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arctic Coastal Plain is a flat or gently rolling area of tundra which covers the entire coastal region of northern Alaska. This profile synthesizes data on the ecology of the thousands of small shallow ponds that form an important wetland community on...

J. E. Hobbie

1984-01-01

268

A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

Lin, E. I. H.

1982-01-01

269

The phenomenology and course of depressive syndromes in pre-trial detention.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the prevalence, the phenomenology and the course of depressive syndromes in pre-trial confinement. In the course of the first examination, socio-biographic data and information pertaining to subjects' psychiatric and forensic record and their current situation in imprisonment were collected from a random sample of 105 male prisoners in a Berlin pre-trial detention center, with the help of a semi-structured interview. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), each a self-rating questionnaire, taken together with a clinician rating were successively performed to assess the level of depression. A further examination was conducted approximately three weeks later. The subjects in the follow-up group (n=67) were questioned in a semi-structured follow-up interview regarding their confinement conditions and were requested again to fill in the BDI-II and HAMD questionnaires. The statistical analysis compares the results from administration of the two instruments at two points in time. Individual's symptoms of depression as well as potentially aggravating or protective factors relating to the development of depressive symptoms are taken note of separately. The results of the study reveal the prevalence of mild depressive syndromes in a pre-trial prison population and a tendency to improve within the period of pre-trial confinement. PMID:22425763

Cassau, Jan S; Goodwin, Danielle Eva

2012-01-01

270

Accumulated sediments in a detention basin: chemical and microbial hazard assessment linked to hydrological processes.  

PubMed

Accumulated sediments in a 32,000-m(3) detention basin linked to a separate stormwater system were characterized in order to infer their health hazards. A sampling scheme of 15 points was defined according to the hydrological behaviour of the basin. Physical parameters (particle size and volatile organic matter content) were in the range of those previously reported for stormwater sediments. Chemical analyses on hydrocarbons, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals showed high pollutant concentrations. Microbiological analyses of these points highlighted the presence of faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci) and actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. These are indicative of the presence of human pathogens. E. coli and enterococcal numbers in the sediments were higher at the proximity of the low-flow gutter receiving waters from the catchment. These bacteria appeared to persist over time among urban sediments. Samples highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were also shown to be heavily contaminated by these bacteria. These results demonstrated for the first time the presence of Nocardial actinomycetes in such an urban context with concentrations as high as 11,400 cfu g(-1). PMID:24337992

Sébastian, C; Barraud, S; Ribun, S; Zoropogui, A; Blaha, D; Becouze-Lareure, C; Kouyi, G Lipeme; Cournoyer, B

2014-04-01

271

The nucleolar detention pathway: A cellular strategy for regulating molecular networks.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics ensures that proteins and other factors reach their site of action in a timely and efficient manner. This is essential to the formation of molecular complexes, as they require an ever-changing framework of specific interactions to facilitate a model of self-assembly. Therefore, the absence or reduced availability of any key component would significantly impair complex formation and disrupt all downstream molecular networks. Recently, we identified a regulatory mechanism that modulates protein mobility through the inducible expression of a novel family of long noncoding RNA. In response to diverse environmental stimuli, the nucleolar detention pathway (NoDP) captures and immobilizes essential cellular factors within the nucleolus away from their effector molecules. The vast array of putative NoDP targets, including DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and the delta catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase (POLD1), suggests that this may be a common and significant regulatory mechanism. Here, we discuss the implications of this new posttranslational strategy for regulating molecular networks. PMID:22580471

Audas, Timothy E; Jacob, Mathieu D; Lee, Stephen

2012-06-01

272

Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

Fischer, D.; Charles, E. G.; Baehr, A. L.

2003-01-01

273

Mass mortality of pond-reared Carassius gibelio caused by Myxobolus ampullicapsulatus in China.  

PubMed

From June to August 2009, allogynogenetic silver crucian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch) pond-cultured at the Nanquan Experimental Station, China, were found to be heavily infected with myxosporeans, which caused mortalities ranging from 33% (13/40) to 90% (36/40) in the cages. The pharynxes of infected fish were swollen, nodular, and severely damaged. Based on morphological characters and 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence similarity, the myxosporean was identified as Myxobolus ampullicapsulatus. This is the first report of M. ampullicapsulatus causing mass mortality of pond-reared C. gibelio. PMID:21516979

Xi, B W; Xie, J; Zhou, Q L; Pan, L K; Ge, X P

2011-02-22

274

Heat extraction from a large solar pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States, occupying 2000 squares meters, was constructed during 1978 in Miamisburg, Ohio. The heat from this solar pond, nearly 1055 GJ/y (1000 million Btu/y) is used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreation building during part of the winter. A new heat exchanger system was installed externally to the pond and operated successfully to deliver 391 GJ (271 million Btu) of heat during May to June. Hot brine water is drawn through a diffuser by a self-priming pump fabricated from fiberglass reinforced plastic. The brine water passes through copper 10% nickel tubes of a tube-and-shell heat exchanger and is then returned to the bottom of the pond. Cooling water from the swimming pool circulates through the shell side of the heat exchanger. Several designs and flow velocities of the brine inlet and outlet diffusers into the pond were tested in order to minimize the effect of turbulence upon the salt gradient zone.

Wittenberg, L. J.; Etter, D. E.

1982-08-01

275

Application of Aerosondes to melt-pond observation over Arctic sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous observation of sea ice using a small robotic aircraft called the Aerosonde was made over the Arctic Ocean from Barrow, Alaska, on 20-21 July 2003. Over a region of 350 km off the coast of Barrow, ice concentration data that consists of ice and ponded areas was made using images taken by the aircraft. Melt- pond fraction (A_p) increased northward from 15 % to 30 % as the ice fraction (A_i) increased. However, the fraction of the ice that is ponded (A_p/(A_i+A_p)) was over 30 % in the perennial ice zone while about 25 % in the first year ice zone, suggesting the different stages of melt-pond evolution in each regions. AMSRE-derived ice concentration was underestimated 7% as compared with the observed one (A_i+A_p). These analyses demonstrate new technology for monitoring the spatial variations in the sea ice with melt ponds that would be very difficult to measure using satellites.

Inoue, J.; Curry, J. A.

2006-12-01

276

Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project - FY 1982 Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

French, R. L.; Marsh, H. E.; Roschke, E. J.; Wu, Y. C.

1984-01-01

277

Large Lava Pond Complex on the Juan de Fuca Ridge: an Effusive, Energetic Eruption that Drained Away  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explored an unusually large, deep, drained lava lake complex on the south rift of Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge during three dives with the ROV Tiburon in August 2005. The complex of five large ponds, first identified from EM300 multibeam bathymetry, is 5 km long and more than 1 km wide. The ponds are separated from one another by narrow levees that rise about 90 meters above the pond floors. The levees are all about the same depth, which suggests that the ponds formed at the same time. The volume of the lake, prior to draining, was 0.2-0.4 km3, making it the largest lava lake known along the ridge system. The outer slopes of the pond levees are constructed of elongate pillows that flowed down the steep slopes. The rims are narrow, level plateaus of lobate flows with many collapses. The inner walls are vertical cliffs, overhanging in places, with horizontal shelves from the top of the levees down to the floors of the ponds. Left like bathtub rings, these shelves mark former surfaces of the lava pond as it drained away while the lava was still molten. In many places, this veneer has collapsed to reveal truncated lobate flows and pillows. The floor of one small pond was entirely talus blocks. However, the floors of the other, larger ponds had little talus and, instead, were vast expanses of thin broken crusts, lobate flows, and very fluid, chaotic, folded and jumbled sheet flows. The lavas from each pond have abundant large feldspar and rarer olivine crystals, suggesting that all were from the same eruption. This eruption apparently began with sheet flows whose advance was limited by topography. It then ponded and built up the levees that were left when the lava drained away. On the floor of one pond we found a deposit several meters tall that was delicate and difficult to sample, and turned out to be agglutinated spatter. Limu o Pele (lava bubble wall fragments) was abundant in all the sediment samples in and around the ponds. The spatter and limu demonstrate that the eruptions were magmatic-gas-rich and mildly explosive to the end, with strombolian-like bursts and even fire fountains, though such activity had been presumed to be impossible at 2300m depth. We did not find obvious signs where the lavas went that drained from the ponds. A delta-like fan of partially drained and collapsed lobate flows extended from breaches in two adjacent levees, but since the pond floors are considerably deeper than the breaches and delta surface, the lake must have drained elsewhere after it breached the levees. The ridge axis outside the pond complex is severely tectonized, with numerous faults, gaping fissures, and shattered lavas of similar, unusually feldspar-rich composition, so there is no evidence that the ponds drained down-rift. We propose that the drained lava was recycled back into a crustal magma chamber below the ponds.

Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Davis, A. S.; Chadwick, W.; Cousens, B. L.; Embley, R. W.

2005-12-01

278

1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

279

2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY WITH FOREBAY IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

280

Spy Pond: A Diagnostic Study 1980-1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the information obtained during a diagnostic study of Spy Pond in Arlington, Massachusetts, conducted from March 1980 to April 1981. The diagnostic study estimated and characterized the pond's current limnological condition by examin...

E. W. Chesebrough, C. Duerring

1982-01-01

281

Algal bioflocculation and energy conservation in microalgal sewage ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled bioflocculation for harvesting of microalgae produced during municipal wastewater treatment in high-rate ponds was investigated. Nonflocculant algal cultures were produced in high-rate ponds operated at very high dilution rates or with poor mixing. Bioflocculation of such cultures was achieved by isolating them in secondary ponds, but isolation periods of up to 29 days were required. In-pond sedimentation of flocculant

D. M. Eisenberg; B. Koopman; J. R. Benemann; W. J. Oswald

1981-01-01

282

Short-Term Effect of Diuron on Catfish Pond Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of diuron treatment on catfish pond ecology under commercial culture conditions. Nine weekly treatments of diuron (0.01 mg\\/L) were applied to eight 0.4-ha experimental ponds; seven ponds served as controls. Water and fish samples were collected from all ponds each week for chemical and biological analysis. Data on mechanical aeration (hours of supplemental aeration required by

Paul V. Zimba; Craig S. Tucker; Charles C. Mischke; Casey C. Grimm

2002-01-01

283

Response of shallow lakes and ponds to contemporary climate change in the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ponds and shallow lakes are a ubiquitous feature of Arctic coastal plains. In Canada, they are particularly prevalent in the Hudson Bay Lowland and the Mackenzie River Delta region. Recent ground-based and remote sensing observations have shown a general decreasing trend in arctic lake/pond surface area over the past 50 years, suggesting that small water bodies at high latitudes are drying. However, the majority of the work that has been done on drying ponds and shallow lakes (with the exceptional cases of increases in areal extent in a few regions found in the continuous permafrost zone) has been conducted in Alaska and Siberia. The objectives of this work are twofold: (1) to examine trends and seasonal variability in pond and shallow lake water levels and surface area during the open water season; and (2) to examine trends and variability in the duration of ice cover in ponds and shallow lakes in this region, as open water season evaporation totals have been shown to be strongly influenced by ice cover duration. Preliminary results related to the first objective of this study reveal that annual precipitation (primarily summer rainfall) and evaporation have increased between 1955 and 2008; however, rainfall appears to be increasing at a faster rate than evaporation. There is still a moisture deficit over the summer months in this region because evaporation exceeds precipitation, although this deficit appears to be lessening. Thus, conditions in this region appear to be becoming more wet. A change detection study conducted on a subset of ponds for four years using air photographs and a SPOT image show that pond surface areas appear to have fluctuated over the study period but do not show a consistent trend. Different pond sizes appear to be showing different trends. Small ponds are showing opposing trends to medium and large sized ponds and lakes. The behaviour of the small ponds appears to strongly reflect seasonality in pond-atmosphere hydrologic exchange, and observed changes in pond surface area are synchronous with “wet” periods and “dry” periods. Regarding trends and variability in ice cover duration, results from simulations of pond ice thickness, break-up and freeze-up dates, and duration of open water season over the period 1955-2008 suggest that temperatures are warming in this region, and that these changes are seen across winter, spring and summer. Correspondingly, break-up appears to be occurring earlier and freeze-up appears to be occurring later, leading to a prolonged ice-free season; though none of these trends are statistically significant over the past 54 years. Radar images taken over the past 14 years are currently being processed to examine temporal changes and spatial patterns in pond/lake ice cover across the study area. Results from this analysis will also be presented. Finally, the approaches developed in this study could form the basis of a general methodology for investigating the contemporary status of ponds and shallow lakes in the Arctic.

Duguay, C. R.; Macrae, M. L.; Parrott, J. A.; Brown, L.; Svacina, N.

2009-12-01

284

Effect of Soil Conditions on Solar Pond Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent effort to design a one-acre solar pond at the US Air Force Academy brought up several research issues pertaining to solar pond performance prediction. This report addresses those issues. Interactions of the pond with the soil below it have histor...

C. M. Leboeuf D. H. Johnson

1984-01-01

285

Factors influencing uranium reduction and solubility in evaporation pond sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, USA that are used for the disposal of irrigation drainage waters, contain elevated levels of U that may be a threat to pond wildlife. The ponds support euryhaline algae, which become incorporated in the sediments as depositional organic matter (OM) – facilitating reducing conditions. Our earlier studies have shown that U

Martine C. Duff; Douglas B. Hunter; Paul M. Bertsch; Christopher Amrhein

1999-01-01

286

Fate and Transport of Copper Applied in Channel Catfish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale study and field measurements at commercial ponds were conducted to investigate the environmental fate of copper (Cu) applied as an algaecide in commercial catfish ponds. In the pilot study, a total of 774 g Cu(II) was applied to an experimental catfish pond over a period of 16 summer weeks. More than 90% of Cu applied became associated with

Ruiqiang Liu; Dongye Zhao; Mark O. Barnett

2006-01-01

287

Transformation of chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline in aquaculture pond sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation processes of two antibiotics, chloramphenicol (CM) and oxytetracycline (OTC), in aquaculture pond sediments collected from a freshwater eel pond and a marine shrimp pond were investigated. The sorption rates of CM in the freshwater and marine sediment slurries (10%, wt\\/vol) were 4% and 2%, respectively. In contrast, the sorption rates of OTC in the freshwater and marine sediment slurries

1995-01-01

288

One year's experience with an operating saturated solar pond  

SciTech Connect

While the saturated non-convecting solar pond concept is not new, the borax pond at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) is the first application of the concept to an operating solar pond. As with any new application there have been experimentally identified problem areas. Four of these problems are discussed: 1) departure from saturation, 2) contamination, 3) bottom crystalization, and 4) covers.

Ochs, T.L.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Day, D.L.

1980-01-01

289

Does size matter? The relationship between pond area and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larger areas support more species. To test the application of this biogeographic principle to ponds, we consider the relationship between size and diversity for 80 ponds in Switzerland, using richness (number of species) and conservation value (score for all species present, according to their degree of rarity) of aquatic plants, molluscs (Gastropoda, Sphaeriidae), Coleoptera, Odonata (adults) and Amphibia. Pond size

Beat Oertli; Dominique Auderset Joye; Emmanuel Castella; Raphaëlle Juge; Diana Cambin; Jean-Bernard Lachavanne

2002-01-01

290

Economic and performance comparisons of salty and saltless solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimum solar pond design is site-dependent and application-dependent. Foremost of the design decisions is the choice of a salty (nonconvecting) pond or a saltless (convecting) pond. The decision variables are: local availability and cost of salt, type of salt available and its properties, and possible environmental factors such as the effects of salt runoff and the existence of ground

M. Edesess; D. Benson; J. Henderson; T. S. Jayadev

1979-01-01

291

Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Ecological Assessment of Kirk Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kirk Pond is a 29-ha man-made pond adjacent to Fern Ridge Reservoir, OR. It is the central feature of Kirk Park, a multiple day-use park at the project. Kirk Pond supports a naturally reproducing warmwater fishery and a put-and-take trout fishery. For man...

J. D. Madsen G. O. Dick D. Honnell J. Shearer R. M. Smart

1994-01-01

292

Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa  

SciTech Connect

A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

Atekwana, E.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. (Univ. of Yaounde (Cameroon). Dept. of Plant Biology)

1994-04-01

293

Jon C. Herron Software : FrogPond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FrogPond is interactive evolution simulation software that challenges the user to design experiments that will establish the cause of deformities in a model frog population. This webpage has applications available for both Mac and Windows systems. It also provides a tutorial (pdf version) to guide the user.

Herron, Jon C.

2010-02-16

294

MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP currently being monitored, a retention pond with wetland plantings, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed part of New Yor...

295

2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation

M. A. Chamness; S. P. Luttrell; D. J. Bates; W. J. Martin

1990-01-01

296

Actinide Behavior in a Freshwater Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entir...

J. R. Trabalka M. A. Bogle T. G. Scott

1983-01-01

297

Building a Pond on the School Grounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the efforts of two teachers to construct a pond and woods on school grounds. The teachers used specialized student teams for working on a wetland study and the building project. An advisory committee including teachers, the principal, and the custodian worked through maintenance issues. Relates teaching surprises associated with the…

Pope, Jonathan

1998-01-01

298

Insecticide Contamination in a Farm Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on water quality and aquatic life of parathion and other insecticides used in peach culture were studied. Part I describes the magnitude, origin, and duration of insecticide pollution, and Part II describes the biological effects.The study pond was located in a 40-acre watershed where peaches are the principal crop. Parathion and minor amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides were

Gerald J. Lauer; Alfred R. Grzenda; Donald W. Shanklin; Hubert J. Webb; Robert E. OBrien; H. Page Nicholson

1962-01-01

299

Freshwater Fish Pond Culture and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growing fish in ponds is a very old practice. This method of farming can accomplish the dual purposes of providing a reliable food supply and of making the best possible use of the land. This book is a how-to manual designed to aid in the establishment an...

M. Chakroff

1978-01-01

300

Pond Secrets: Reflections for Thought and Virtue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pond secrets is an original play designed to create a context for motivating children to learn and practice critical thinking in its strongest sense through reflective dialogue and improvisational drama. The story's design, content, and suggested methodology are theoretically consistent with Brain-based learning theory, which asserts that memorable learning occurs when children can integrate concepts, emotions, and values in a

Franco Carnelli

1997-01-01

301

TWO TYPES OF JOURNALING BEFORE POND STUDY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a two part journaling activity prior to an existing week long biology field lab. The journaling activities described here have been added to the beginning of the Pond Study Lab to enhance student learning of observation and quality journaling skills.

302

EXPERIMENTAL PONDS FOR EVALUATING BIOASSAY PREDICTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental pond studies were used to demonstrate a means of assessing the accuracy of laboratory and in situ bioassays predicting the effects of chemical stress on phytoplankton. A short-term batch bioassay using changing carbon uptake in photosynthesis predicted an immediate (...

303

MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

304

Microalgal separation from high-rate ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rate ponding (HRP) processes are playing an increasing role in the treatment of organic wastewaters in sunbelt communities. Photosynthetic oxygenation by algae has proved to cost only one-seventh as much as mechanical aeration for activated sludge systems. During this study, an advanced HRP, which produces an effluent equivalent to tertiary treatment has been studied. It emphasizes not only waste

Nurdogan

1988-01-01

305

Predaceous Arthropods, A Problem in Your Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquatic insects such as the dragonfly, various families of aquatic beetles, and water bugs act as major carnivores in the aquatic ecosystem. The creatures are as predaceous as the most vicious muskie or charging bass. Areas along the edges of ponds and la...

J. E. Barr J. V. Huner

1977-01-01

306

Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.  

PubMed

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

2012-01-01

307

Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1990-05-01

308

Anxiety, depression, impulsivity and substance misuse in violent and non-violent adolescent boys in detention in China.  

PubMed

The present investigation aims to identify the factors which differentiate violent from non-violent juvenile offenders, with a particular emphasis on the association between internalizing psychiatric morbidity (i.e. anxiety and depression), impulsivity, substance misuse, and violence. A total of 323 incarcerated male juvenile offenders from one of three Youth Detention Centers (YDCs) in China were recruited between August 2007 and November 2008. Interviews were conducted by trained psychiatrists using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), and the Birleson Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) to assess impulsivity, anxiety and depression, respectively. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was also used to assess psychiatric diagnoses. Violent offenders had significantly higher BIS-11 total scores, and attention and nonplanning subscale scores (p<0.05). In the multiple logistic regression model, substance use disorders (SUD) and BIS-11 total scores independently predicted violence. Prison-based treatment services designed to reduce impulsivity and substance misuse in juvenile detention facilities should be prioritized. PMID:24612970

Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Zhang, Yingdong; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Changjian; Cao, Liping; Wang, Xiaoping

2014-05-30

309

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021  

SciTech Connect

The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2006-08-25

310

78 FR 15017 - Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...21 CFR part 1, subpart K, implementing section 304(h) of the FD&C Act, as added by the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. This document had also served as FDA's guidance for 21 CFR part 1, subpart K...

2013-03-08

311

Magnetic properties of marine magnetotactic bacteria in a seasonally stratified coastal pond (Salt Pond, MA, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of suspended material in the water columns of freshwater and marine environments provide snapshots of magnetic biomineralization that have yet to be affected by the eventual time-integration and early diagenetic effects that occur after sediment deposition. Here, we report on the magnetism, geochemistry and geobiology of uncultured magnetite- and greigite-producing magnetotactic bacteria (MB) and magnetically responsive protists (MRP) in Salt Pond (Falmouth, MA, USA), a small coastal, marine basin (~5 m deep) that becomes chemically stratified during the summer months. At this time, strong inverse O2 and H2S concentration gradients form in the water column and a well-defined oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) is established at a water depth of about 3.5 m. At least four morphological types of MB, both magnetite and greigite producers, and several species of magnetically responsive protists are found associated with the OAI and the lower sulphidic hypolimnion. Magnetic properties of filtered water were determined through the water column across the OAI and were consistent with the occurrence of magnetite- and greigite-producing MB at different depths. Sharp peaks in anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and single-domain (SD) values of ARM/SIRM occur within the OAI corresponding to high concentrations of MB and MRP with magnetically derived cell densities of 104-106 ml-1. Low-temperature (<300 K) remanence indicated that while only magnetite producers inhabit the OAI, both magnetite and greigite producers inhabit the sulphidic hypolimnion below the OAI. Magnetic measurements also show that the amount of Fe sequestered in magnetite magnetosomes within the OAI is no more than 3.3 per cent of the total available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column. However, below the OAI, magnetic minerals constitute a much larger fraction of the total dissolved Fe(II) ranging from 13.6 to 32.2 per cent depending on magnetic mineralogy. Most of this iron is possibly in the form of nanophase magnetic particles, possibly associated with biologically induced mineralization processes occurring below the OAI. Still, the OAI is a narrow but intense zone of SD particle production. Despite using just a small fraction of available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column for magnetosome production, the total number of MB living within an OAI, such as at Salt Pond, is all that is needed to produce the biogenic SD concentrations observed in some sediments. We also observed that Verwey transition temperatures fell within a narrow range of values between 95 and 105 K that were independent of both water depth and geochemical conditions. Reduced Verwey transition temperatures (Tv < 120 K) appear to be an intrinsic property of magnetite magnetosomes whether grown in pure laboratory cultures or from a diverse population of magnetite-producing MB in the environment. This indicates that a limited amount of oxygen non-stoichiometry (<1 per cent) is present within magnetite magnetosomes, produced either initially during magnetosome formation or subsequently as an ``aging'' process in living magnetite-producing MB. Therefore, reduced values of the Verwey transition in biogenic SD magnetite in sediments do not necessarily indicate diagenetic alteration.

Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Egli, Ramon; Frankel, Richard B.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-07-01

312

Results from a high resolution model of melt ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During winter the ocean surface in polar regions freezes over to form sea ice. Sea ice floats on the ocean and has a matrix structure caused by the rejection of salts during freezing. In the summer the upper layers of sea ice and snow melts producing meltwater that accumulates in Arctic melt ponds on the surface of sea ice. A melt-pond--sea ice model is introduced to describe the evolution of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice. This model used realistic ice and snow topographies, meltwater transport rates calculated from hydraulic gradients and ice permeability, and a detailed one-dimensional, thermodynamic-radiative balance. The model was used to simulate the evolution of the melt-pond--sea ice system for typical first-year and multi-year sea ice floes. Here we present simulations in which we investigate the sensitivity of pond fraction, pond depth and ice ablation to changes in ice topography, snow topography and vertical ice permeabilty. The impact on pond coverage, and total ablation, of changes in topography, ice and snow thickness area not always obvious. Snow was generally found to have an important impact mainly at the start of the melt season, whereas initial ice topography strongly controlled pond size and pond fraction throughout the melt season. A reduction in ice permeability allowed surface flooding of relatively flat, first-year ice but had little impact on the pond coverage of rougher, multi-year ice.

Feltham, Daniel; Scott, Fern

2010-05-01

313

Par Pond refill water quality sampling  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

1996-08-01

314

Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

2005-01-01

315

Intensive Feeding of Grass Carp in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and feed consumption were determined for yearling grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stocked at a rate of 8,000\\/hectare in earthen ponds and fed either a practical-type catfish diet or diets in which dehydrated alfalfa meal comprised either 19 or 38% of the formula. The diets were formulated to be approximately equal in estimated digestible energy (2.9 kcal\\/g) and digestible protein

B. O. Mgbenka; R. T. Lovell

1986-01-01

316

Oxyeleotris marmoratus, predator or by-product in integrated aquaculture ponds.  

PubMed

Participating farms in the Muang district of Nong Khai Province, were selected for the investigation of management practices and yields of marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus, in integrated culture with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The research took place from February to May, 2007. The observed production of O. marmoratus in integrated aquaculture ponds indicated a wide range of management practices. The yields of Oxyeleotris marmoratus were between 22.1 to 316 kg ha(-1) (average 81+/-78 kg ha(-1)). The farmers tended to prefer Oxyeleotris marmoratus not only as a by-product, but also as the main product from their ponds. Most farmers realized that Oxyeleotris marmoratus predate Nile tilapia fingerlings from the natural spawning of mature Nile tilapia in the ponds. With respect to consumed prey, the frequency of occurrence of prawns was 73.3%, whilst that of small fish was 43.3%. In terms of prey biomass, prawns were also the most abundant food item, giving the relative abundance of 56.0%. A preliminary trial on predation pressure was conducted to confirm the role of Nile tilapia fingerling as live feed for Oxyeleotris marmoratus in integrated aquaculture ponds and it was found that the daily predation pressure was between 1.90 to 2.46 fish day(-1). PMID:18817122

Jiwyam, Wirat

2008-02-15

317

Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

Rees, T. F.; Cleveland, J. M.; Carl, Gottschall, W.

1978-01-01

318

Cultural Resource Survey of Ten Proposed Dry Detention Basins in the Harding Ditch Area of St. Clair County, Illinois. St. Louis District Cultural Resource Management Report Number 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a cultural resource survey of ten parcels of land proposed for development as dry detention basins in the Harding Ditch area of St. Clair County, Illinois. The study area consisted of ca. 1,880 acres situated in the ea...

B. Koldehoff C. L. Wells W. I. Woods

1983-01-01

319

A Report on Special Populations. Alternate Schools Area Learning Centers. Connections/Detention Centers. Residential Treatment Centers. Minnesota Student Survey, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings of a 1991 survey of 3,573 adolescents in Area Learning Centers and Alternative Schools, in Corrections and Detention Centers, and in Residential Treatment Centers in Minnesota. The study focused on six environmental stressors: family alcohol problems, family drug problems, experiencing or witnessing physical abuse,…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

320

Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

2013-01-01

321

[Persons held in preventive detention (§ 66 Criminal Code): characteristics of offenders and the impact on prospects for successful completion of therapy].  

PubMed

With its verdict in May 2011 the German Federal Constitutional Court declared the current law for preventive detention unconstitutional and obliged the legislative bodies to undertake a freedom- and treatment-oriented reform. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists are bound to provide therapeutic concepts. Currently there is a lack of information on the intended clientele. In our study we examined 26 persons serving preventive detention, 32 regular prisoners and 29 non-delinquent probands. The groups were matched according to age and intelligence. We gathered sociodemographic data, criminal records and conducted the tests SCID I, SCID II und PCL-R, K-FAF and BIS-11 to obtain diagnoses and characteristics. Based on this information, the HCR-20 and GAF were performed. In comparison to regular prisoners and non-delinquents, the group of those serving preventive detention is characterised by medium to advanced age, antisociality, psychopathy, substance abuse or addiction, aggressivity, a strong criminal record, years of imprisonment, insufficient educational and vocational training and a high risk of recidivism. In our examination of persons serving preventive detention, we demonstrate that this clientele is a group of recidivists difficult to treat. The current laws and a lack of early intervention programs have prevented and delayed their timely and possibly successful treatment. From a psychiatric point of view, there is a strong need for new therapeutic concepts to meet this challenge. PMID:22215222

Gairing, S K; de Tribolet-Hardy, F; Vohs, K; Habermeyer, E

2013-01-01

322

Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11.4 µGy/hr; birds - 6.3 µGy/hr; mammals - 15.1 µGy/hr; reptilians - 10.3 µGy/hr, with the recommended maximum allowable limit of 40 µGy/hr. The conservative risk coefficient ranged from 0.51 for birds to 1.82 for amphibians. In spite of a high contamination level of the shoreline areas, the current total doses received by the animals do not reach the recommended maximum allowable doses. However, drainage of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is likely to increase the dose rates as follows: amphibians - 94.5, birds - 95.2, mammals - 284.0, reptilians - 847.0 µGy/hr, which will significantly exceed the maximum allowable values. These predictions are conservative and prior to making the final decision on the fate of the ChNPP Cooling Pond, a detailed radio-ecological assessment of its drainage will have to be performed.

Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

2009-12-01

323

Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extracted from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

Leboeuf, C.M.; May, E.K.

1982-08-01

324

Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 ?g L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas. PMID:24845333

Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

2014-01-01

325

Review of TVA's non-convecting solar pond activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has been involved in solar pond feasibility assessments since mid 1979. TVA's non-convecting solar pond (NCSP) activities are reviewed. At the conclusion of a TVA-funded Arthur D. Little feasibility study, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the design and erection of a plant non-convecting solar pond is economically justified. Using levelized costs as the

Kuberg

1981-01-01

326

Antarctica: The Microbiology of an Unfrozen Saline Pond.  

PubMed

A saline pond in a region in Antarctia where other lakes and ponds are frozen remains unfrozen at the prevailing low temperatures. The ecology of the pond is unique. A distinctive aerobic microbial population, though restricted to this natural habitat, adapts to growth in artificial culture. The growth habit of these organisms, as seen in nature and in laboratory culture, indicates a possible relationship between growth at high salt concentration, at low temperatures, and in media of low organic content. PMID:17772969

Meyer, G H; Morrow, M B; Wyss, O; Berg, T E; Littlepage, J L

1962-12-01

327

Bacterial Flora of Artemia Cultured in Earthen Saline Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic bacteria in pond water, sediments, and Artemia in earthen saline ponds in Saudi Arabia were quantified. Total viable counts (TVC; mean ± SD) in pond water ranged between 7.9 ± 4.8 × 10 and 1.6 ± 3.7 × 10 colony forming units (cfu)\\/mL; in sediments between 7.1 ± 4.2 × 10 and 6.5 ± 3.8 × 10 cfu\\/g; on

Ahmed H. Al-Harbi; M. Naim Uddin

2010-01-01

328

A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-02-01

329

Emissions of greenhouse gases from ponds constructed for nitrogen removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane and carbon dioxide emission from three constructed ponds were monitored during an annual cycle. Water temperature was a good predictor of methane emission in all three ponds. In the most intensively studied pond, nitrate concentration in the bottom water could further explain the amount of methane emitted. When water temperature exceeded 15°C between 1 and 54mg, CH4m?2h?1 was emitted

Johanna Stadmark; Lars Leonardson

2005-01-01

330

Waterfowl and the bacteriological quality of amenity ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study investigated,the impact,of waterfowl,on the bacteriological quality of village ponds,in East Yorkshire, north-east England. Water and sediment samples were collected from ponds with and without,resident ducks,and geese; faecal indicator and potentially pathogenic,bacteria were,assayed by membrane filtration and by selective enrichment. Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci and, to a degree, Clostridium perfringens were more abundant in ponds with waterfowl; Salmonella

H. H. Abulreesh; T. A. Paget; R. Goulder

2004-01-01

331

Windpowered irrigation system for small farm applications  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of the project was to conserve water on a small-scale truck patch vegetable gardening operation. The main thrust centered on improving water usage in the already-existing windmill/storage tank/house/farm pond setup. Most of the funds were spent on a trickle (drip) irrigation system linked into the existing wetup. Other areas improved were the farm pond itself, backup pumping for windmill and farm pond, and greywater reclamation. In spite of problems which had to be restudied and corrected, the project was an overall success both in terms of results and budget.

England, B.

1982-01-01

332

Direct-contact condensers for solar pond power production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of direct-contact condensers in a solar pond Rankine cycle is evaluated. The system of interest is a power plant in which the working fluid (pentane) is boiled by brine from the storage layer of the solar pond and condensed by brine from the evaporating pond that provides concentrated replacement brine to the solar pond. Three possible direct-contact condenser designs are considered: drop-type, bubble-type, and packed-bed. Size and cost are estimated for each direct-contact condenser and the accompanying deaerator and degasser.

Fisher, E. M.; Wright, J. D.

1984-05-01

333

Convecting solar pond experiments. Progress report for FY 1980  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this work is to determine the thermal, optical, and mechanical performance of several low-cost glazing and insulating materials in conjunction with a freshwater (convecting) solar pond. The effect of implementing a pond filtration system will also be examined. Progress is reported. Although actual pond performance data is not yet being collected, much progress has been made on this task during FY 1980. Several glazing materials were analyzed in various configurations and material properties of optical transmissivity and thermal conductivity were measured. In addition, the pond test facility was designed, constructed, and is nearly ready for testing the first surface treatment.

Leboeuf, C.M.

1980-11-01

334

Retrofitting a stormwater retention pond using a deflector island.  

PubMed

Stormwater retention ponds are one of the principal methods to treat stormwater runoff. Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) curves can be used to evaluate the capability of these ponds for sediment removal. Deflector islands have been suggested as a means of improving the performance of retention ponds, due to their diffusing the inlet jet. In this study, the effect of an island on retention pond performance was investigated using a physical model of an existing stormwater retention pond. The physical model is a trapezoidal pond having top dimensions 4.1 x 1.5 x 0.23 m and side slopes of 2:1 (h:v). Three different arrangements were studied. The results show that placing an island to deflect the influent to a stormwater retention pond does not improve pond performance, rather it stimulates short-circuiting. This unexpected behaviour, in relation to previous studies, is considered to be a consequence of the model pond incorporating sloping walls; which is a novel aspect of this paper. PMID:22049712

Khan, S; Melville, B W; Shamseldin, A Y

2011-01-01

335

Aspects of the Life History of the Pond Smelt (Hypomesus olidus) in the Yukon and Northwest Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pond smelt (Hypomesus olidus) has a limited North American distribution, being restricted to the west coast of Alaska and the drainage of the lower Mackenzie River, N.W.T. This study examined an isolated population in a small tundra lake on the Yukon coastal plain. Otolith interpretation revealed that most adult fish sampled in Lake 100 were age 4 + and

DIRK A. DEGRAAF

1986-01-01

336

Classification of ponds from high-spatial resolution remote sensing: Application to Rift Valley Fever epidemics in Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the rainy season the abundance of mosquitoes over the Ferlo region (Senegal) is linked to dynamic, vegetation cover and turbidity of temporary and relatively small ponds. The latter create a variable environment where mosquitoes can thrive and thus contribute to diffusion and transmission of diseases such as the Rift Valley Fever (RVF, with Aedes vexans arabiensis and Culex poicilipes

J. P. Lacaux; Y. M. Tourre; C. Vignolles; J. A. Ndione; M. Lafaye

2007-01-01

337

Tree-regeneration and mortality patterns and hydrologic change in a forested karst wetland--Sinking Pond, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple lines of evidence point to climate change as the driving factor suppressing tree regeneration since 1970 in Sinking Pond, a 35-hectare seasonally flooded karst depression located on Arnold Air Force Base near Manchester, Tennessee. Annual censuses of 162-193 seedling plots from 1997 through 2001 demonstrate that the critical stage for tree survival is the transition from seedling to sapling and that this transition is limited to shallow (less than 0.5 meters) ponding depths. Recruitment of saplings to the small adult class also was restricted to shallow areas. Analysis of the spatial and elevation distribution of tree-size classes in a representative 2.3-hectare area of Sinking Pond showed a general absence of overcup oak saplings and young adults in deep (ponding depth greater than 1 meter) and intermediate (ponding depth 0.5-1 meter) areas, even though overcup oak seedlings and mature trees are concentrated in these areas. Analysis of tree rings from 45 trees sampled in a 2.3-hectare spatial-analysis plot showed an even distribution of tree ages across ponding-depth classes from the 1800s through 1970, followed by complete suppression of recruitment in deep and intermediate areas after 1970. Trees younger than 30 years were spatially and vertically concentrated in a small area with shallow ponding depth, about 0.5 meter below the spillway elevation. Results of hydrologic modeling, based on rainfall and temperature records covering the period January 1854 through September 2002, show ponding durations after 1970 considerably longer than historical norms, across ponding-depth classes. This increase in ponding duration corresponds closely with similar increases documented in published analyses of streamflow and precipitation in the eastern United States and with the suppression of tree regeneration at ponding depths greater than 0.5 meter indicated by tree-ring analysis. Comparison of the simulated stage record for Sinking Pond with the ages and elevations of sampled trees shows that prolonged (200 days or more per year) inundation in more than 2 of the first 5 years after germination is inversely related to successful tree recruitment and that such inundation was rare before 1970 and common afterwards.

Wolfe, William J.; Evans, Jonathan P.; McCarthy, Sarah; Gain, W. Scott; Bryan, Bradley A.

2004-01-01

338

Restoration of ponds in rural landscapes: modelling the effect on nitrate contamination of surface water (the Seine River Basin, France).  

PubMed

Ponds were ubiquitous features of the traditional rural waterscape in the Seine watershed, as shown by the 18th century Cassini map. Using the result of a water quality survey at the entrance and the outlet of a small pond receiving agricultural drainage water, the Seneque/Riverstrahler biogeochemical model was shown to accurately simulate the observed 30% reduction in nitrogen fluxes crossing this pond. The model was then used to simulate the effect of various scenarios of pond restoration (inspired by their 18th century geographical distribution as revealed by the Cassini map) on surface water nitrate contamination at different spatial scales. In regions with an impermeable lithological substrate, the restoration of ponds at a density of 5% of the agricultural area would reduce the riverine nitrogen export by up to 25% on an annual basis. It is suggested that such waterscape management, used in conjunction with more preventive measures, can be a useful means to reduce nitrate contamination of water resources. PMID:22682989

Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Fesneau, Corinne; Tournebize, Julien

2012-07-15

339

Smooth pond-like deposits on asteroid 4 Vesta: First results from the Dawn mission.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft arrived at Vesta on July 16, 2011 to study the asteroid with a Framing Camera (FC), a Visible & Infrared Spectrometer (VIR), and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1]. Dawn provides the first high-resolution data from its survey orbit, high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO), and low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO). FC data revealed smooth pond-like deposits of ambiguous origin, similar to deposits on other asteroids, including Eros and Itokawa [2,3]. Several scenarios for the origin of these deposits can be tested with Dawn data, including volcanism, impact sedimentation, impact melt deposition, dust levitation and transport, seismic shaking, or landslides. We measured 83 small (~7 km2 average size) smooth deposits distributed across the surface of Vesta. Most ponds on Vesta occur on the floors of impact craters and in irregular depressions. We did not observe inflow of material into the depressions. Most of these deposits have well-defined geological contacts, indicating that they are younger than the surrounding terrain. However, lunar impact melt pools that formed contemporaneously with surrounding ejecta blankets show similar stratigraphic relationships. Sometimes the albedo of these ponds is lower than the surrounding terrain, in other cases the ponds are indistinguishable from the adjacent terrain. The ponds preferentially occur in a band between -10 and 30 degrees latitude with fewer ponds north of ~30 degrees and even fewer ponds in the southern hemisphere, i.e., the Rheasilvia region. The largest cluster of ponds occurs in the vicinity of the Marcia impact crater, which is part of the so-called snowman craters. Similar, but smaller (<230 m diameter) smooth ponds were also reported from the surface of asteroid Eros [2]. Robinson et al. [2] found that most smooth ponds on Eros occur in equatorial regions and concluded that the most likely process for their formation is electrostatic levitation and redistribution of the finest regolith components (<100 µm). Sierks et al. [4] argued that along the terminator, particularly strong electric fields can develop between the sun-lit and shaded areas, e.g., within craters, resulting in particle motion from sun-lit to dark regions. Dust levitation and transport was also discussed for asteroid 25143 Itokawa [3]. [1] Russell et al., (2007), Earth Moon Planets, 101; [2] Robinson et al., (2002), Met. Planet. Sci., 37; [3] Yano et al., (2006), Science, 312; [4] Sierks et al., (2011), Space Sci. Rev., doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9745-4. This research has been supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) and NASA. We would like to thank the Dawn Operations Team for their success-ful planning and acquisition of high-quality Vesta data.

Hiesinger, H.; Ruesch, O.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

2012-04-01

340

Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

2007-01-01

341

Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000  

SciTech Connect

Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

Dunn, D.L.

2001-01-29

342

Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond…

Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

2011-01-01

343

A DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL MODEL FOR TRANSMITTANCE IN SOLAR PONDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality and clarity of water have profound influence on the transmittance of solar radiation in solar ponds and affect its performance considerably. This paper examines models describing the existing transmittance of solar radiation in solar ponds. An analysis of the measured and estimated data shows that a single profile of transmittance is unlikely to be applicable for different quality

M. N. A. HAWLADER; J. C. HO; N. E. WIJEYSUNDERA; T. H. KHO

1989-01-01

344

Monitoring, sizing and removal efficiency in stormwater ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention ponds and wetlands are frequently used in stormwater management to remove pollutants, reduce flow peaks and improve scenic views in parks and along roads. This study analyzes the correlation between long-term removal efficiency of pollutants (total suspended solids and heavy metals) and specific pond area (ratio between effective drainage area and surface area). For this purpose, all data on

Jesper Persson; Thomas J. R. Pettersson

2009-01-01

345

Solar Pond for Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar pond heating system has been designed for the old farmhouse at the entrance to the Maine Audubon Society headquarters site. The 1600 ft exp 2 pond would be 40 x 40 ft wide, and occupy a space of about 80 x 80 ft if the sloping embankment is constr...

R. K. Multer

1981-01-01

346

A safety assessment of the new Xiangyun phosphogypsum tailings pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphogypsum tailings are piled up to form a phosphogypsum tailings pond. In the design and operation stages of a tailings project, the stability of the tailings pond, the control capacity for flood, and the reliability of the drainage and safety monitoring facilities should be fully evaluated. Key contents of the safety assessment are analyzed in view of the new Xiangyun

T. Wang; Y. Zhou; Q. Lv; Yuanle Zhu; C. Jiang

2011-01-01

347

Summary of radiological impacts of Par Pond drawdown.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 14, 1991, a ten square foot depression was discovered on the lower downstream slope of Par Pond Dam. The water level in the pond was lowered about 19 feet during the period June 28--September 19, 1991, as a safety precaution to significantly redu...

W. L. Marter A. L. Boni

1991-01-01

348

Solar pond driven distillation and power production system  

SciTech Connect

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. 4 refs.

Johnson, D.H.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Waddington, D.

1981-01-01

349

Steady-State Analysis of the Rising Solar Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rising solar pond is a configuration in which high salinity brine is injected into the pond at the bottom of the gradient zone to replenish the salt diffusing upward and to alter the salinity profile to help minimize surface erosion. Steady-state sali...

J. R. Hull, C. E. Nielsen

1987-01-01

350

NEBRASKA MODIFIED ROOF POND: 1985 SUMMER PERFORMANCE RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of three of the tests performed on the Nebraska modified roof pond. During the summer of 1985,? with the test room decoupled from the roof pond itself, several series of tests were initiated. The first experiment (fig. 1) was to test the overall response of the system by forcing the temperature in storage to

Bing Chen; Raymond Guenther; John Maloney; John Kasher

351

Mangroves and brackishwater pond culture in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 50% of mangrove loss in the Philippines can be traced to brackishwater pond construction. The decrease in mangroves from 450 000 ha in 1920 to 132 500 ha in 1990 has been accompanied by expansion of culture ponds to 223 000 ha in 1990. The history of fishpond development in the country includes a government-sponsored fishpond boom in the

J. Honculada Primavera

1995-01-01

352

A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and evaluates shrimp pond culture in the Philippines and its ecological and socioeconomic effects. The intertwined histories of the country's mangrove forests and culture ponds are treated in depth; brackishwater aquaculture and the different shrimp culture systems are described. Intensive farming is discussed in terms of feed and water requirements, chemical inputs and waste production, and the

J. Honculada Primavera

1993-01-01

353

STORMWATER TREATMENT: WET/DRY PONDS VS. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Extant data were used to assess the relative effectiveness of ponds vs. wetland-type BMPs. Compared to wet ponds, wetlands tended toward higher constituent concentrations in effluent, were inefficient at nitrogen removal, and appeared to preferentially retain phosphorous. These d...

354

Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

1996-01-01

355

A Experimental Study of a Potassium Nitrate Salt - Solar Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection and storage of solar energy in a body of water is possible by preventing convection with a stabilizing salinity gradient. An outdoor salt gradient solar pond using KNO(,3) was designed, constructed, and studied at the University of New Mexico. This experimental pond was formed using a steel cylindrical shell eight feet in diameter and 13 feet long embedded

Abdullatif Ibrahim Salamah

1982-01-01

356

Experimental study of a KNOâ salt-gradient solar pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection and storage of solar energy in a body of water is possible by preventing convection with a stabilizing salinity gradient. An outdoor salt gradient solar pond using KNOâ was designed, constructed, and studied at the University of New Mexico. This experimental pond was formed using a steel cylindrical shell eight feet in diameter and 13 feet long embedded

Salamah

1982-01-01

357

The Survival of Human Enteric Viruses in Holding Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inactivation of Poliovirus I and Coxsackievirus B-3 was studied in model wastewater holding ponds. The ponds are constructed at cast concrete tanks 5 feet in diameter and 18, 30, 42 and 90 inches deep. Experiments were conducted using either settled w...

B. P. Sagik S. W. Funderburg B. E. Moore R. C. Tripathi C. A. Sorber

1978-01-01

358

Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds  

EPA Science Inventory

The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

359

Intensification of pond aquaculture and high rate photosynthetic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture production systems may range from tanks and raceways, in which water quality is controlled by water dilution and discharge to the environment to captive water systems, in which water quality is controlled by microbial reactions within the tank or pond. Attempts at intensification of pond aquaculture beyond the commonplace practice of supplemental aeration may be classified into categories of

D. E. Brune; G. Schwartz; A. G. Eversole; J. A. Collier; T. E. Schwedler

2003-01-01

360

Characterisation of phosphorus in sediments from waste stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The waste stabilization pond (WSP) systems are useful for the treatment of wastewater. Despite agood knowledge of these systems, the dynamics of phosphorus elimination in these systems are not well known, especially concerning the forms of phosphorus in the sediment. Phosphorus dynamics,were studied with data collected from the three stabilization ponds of the Mèze (France) system. A conceptual model

E. gómez; J. Paing; C. Casellas; B. Picot

361

Modelling sunlight disinfection in a high rate pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of disinfection in conventional waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) suggest that sunlight is an important factor, sometimes interacting with elevated dissolved oxygen and pH. Shallow depth and mixing in ecologically engineered high rate ponds (HRPs) enable greater exposure of wastewater to sunlight than in conventional WSPs, and we hypothesised that the reported efficient disinfection in HRPs may reflect this. We

Rupert J Craggs; Alec Zwart; John W Nagels; Robert J Davies-Colley

2004-01-01

362

Decommissioning of Uranium mill tailings ponds at WISMUT (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 577 ha of Uranium mill tailings ponds containing approx. 154 Mio. m3 of mill tailings were left as part of the legacy of the uranium mining and milling in Eastern Germany. The decommissioning of these tailings ponds belongs to the most challenging tasks of the entire Wismut remediation project. The remediation activities started in 1990 with defence measures against

Albrecht Neudert; Ulf Barnekow

363

Influence of size fraction of ponded ash on its pozzolanic activity  

SciTech Connect

The paper examines the role of different size fractions of ponded ash, characterized in terms of their physical nature and chemical composition, on the lime-reactivity strength of ash-lime-sand mortars. The paper also presents SEM and MIP characterization of different size fractions. The results of the investigation show the strong influence of the fine particles on their physical properties and lime-reactivity strength of mortars. Ponded ash contains both reactive, small particles and non-reactive or poorly reactive large particles, due to which it loses its overall pozzolanicity. Its use as a pozzolan in cement concrete will only be possible if the non-reactive large sizes particles are separated from it. The paper concludes that the practice of wet disposal of fly ash adopted mostly in India is detrimental to the pozzolanic activity of the ash.

Ranganath, R.V.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Krishnamoorthy, S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-05-01

364

Crossing the final ecological threshold in high Arctic ponds  

PubMed Central

A characteristic feature of most Arctic regions is the many shallow ponds that dot the landscape. These surface waters are often hotspots of biodiversity and production for microorganisms, plants, and animals in this otherwise extreme terrestrial environment. However, shallow ponds are also especially susceptible to the effects of climatic changes because of their relatively low water volumes and high surface area to depth ratios. Here, we describe our findings that some high Arctic ponds, which paleolimnological data indicate have been permanent water bodies for millennia, are now completely drying during the polar summer. By comparing recent pond water specific conductance values to similar measurements made in the 1980s, we link the disappearance of the ponds to increased evaporation/precipitation ratios, probably associated with climatic warming. The final ecological threshold for these aquatic ecosystems has now been crossed: complete desiccation.

Smol, John P.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.

2007-01-01

365

Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase as plant nutrients, organic matter, and soil are leached and eroded from the surrounding watershed. This process is known as eutrophication. The term 'cultural eutrophication' refers to an accelerated form of the natural process in which extra soil and nutrients are derived from people's use of fertilizer, rerouting of surface drainage, and disposal of domestic and industrial waste. Cultural eutrophication can lead to excessive growth of aquatic plants, pond filling by decayed plants and eroded soils, reduced water clarity, and depletion of dissolved oxygen in deep water with subsequent loss of cold-water fish habitat. In order to document the longterm ecological health of Walden Pond, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), working in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management (MDEM), is investigating factors that could contribute to cultural eutrophication of Walden. Through measurements of mass balance of nutrients and oxygen in the pond's deep water, the investigation will establish a baseline data set on Walden's trophic state, which is a measure of the pond's ability to support plant growth. The baseline data will be used to detect trends and give early warning of trophic changes or trophic response to pond remediation projects. This Fact Sheet provides background information on the environmental setting, limnological features, and cultural eutrophication of Walden Pond, and describes the joint USGS/MDEM study.

Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

1998-01-01

366

Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

2010-12-01

367

Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

1996-12-31

368

Chemistry of runoff and shallow ground water at the Cattlemans Detention basin site, South Lake Tahoe, California, August 2000-November 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study at the Cattlemans detention basin site began in November 2000. The site is adjacent to Cold Creek in South Lake Tahoe, California. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of the detention basin on ground-water discharge and changes in nutrient loads to Cold Creek, a tributary to Trout Creek and Lake Tahoe. The study is being done in cooperation with the Tahoe Engineering Division of the El Dorado County Department of Transportation. This report summarizes data collected prior to and during construction of the detention basin and includes: (1) nutrient and total suspended solid concentrations of urban runoff; (2) distribution of unconsolidated deposits; (3) direction of ground-water flow; and (4) chemistry of shallow ground water and Cold Creek. Unconsolidated deposits in the area of the detention basin were categorized into three classes: fill material consisting of a red-brown loamy sand with some gravel and an occasional cobble that was placed on top of the meadow; meadow deposits consisting of gray silt and sand with stringers of coarse sand and fine gravel; and a deeper brown to yellow-brown sand and gravel with lenses of silt and sand. Prior to construction of the detention basin, ground water flowed west-northwest across the area of the detention basin toward Cold Creek. The direction of ground-water flow did not change during construction of the detention basin. Median concentrations of dissolved iron and chloride were 500 and 30 times higher, respectively, in ground water from the meadow deposits than dissolved concentrations in Cold Creek. Median concentration of sulfate in ground water from the meadow deposits was 0.4 milligrams per liter and dissolved oxygen was below the detection level of 0.3 milligrams per liter. The relatively high concentrations of iron and the lack of sulfate in the shallow ground water likely are caused by chemical reactions and biological microbial oxidation of organic matter in the unconsolidated deposits that result in little to no dissolved oxygen in the ground water. The higher chloride concentrations in ground water compared with Cold Creek likely are caused from the application of salt on Pioneer Trail and streets in Montgomery Estates subdivision during the winter. Runoff from these roads contributes to the recharge of the shallow ground water. The range of dissolved constituents generally was greater in the meadow deposits than in the deeper sand and gravel. Ammonia plus organic nitrogen were the dominant forms of dissolved nitrogen and concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 18 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Highest concentration was beneath the middle of the detention basin. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were low (<0.33 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) throughout the area and dissolved phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.001 to 0.34 milligrams per liter. Nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon showed no consistent pattern in the direction of ground-water flow, which suggests that, similar to iron and sulfate, local variations in the chemical and biological reactions within the meadow deposits controlled the variation in nitrogen concentrations. The gradual increase in dissolved phosphorus along the direction of ground-water flow suggest that phosphorus may be slowly dissolving into ground water. Dissolved phosphorus was consistently low in July, which may be the result of greater microbial activity in the unconsolidated deposits or from uptake by roots during the summer.

Prudic, David E.; Sager, Sienna J.; Wood, James L.; Henkelman, Katherine K.; Caskey, Rachel M.

2005-01-01

369

Data validation report for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit: 100-D ponds sampling  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that 100 percent of the Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit Sampling Investigation. Therefore the data from the chemical analysis of all 30 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site.

Stankovich, M.T.

1994-01-04

370

Crossing the Pond: A Probability Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This primary probability game is designed to give students a basic understanding of probability while practicing their subtraction skills. The object of the game is to be the first team to move their playing pieces(eight frogs) across the pond on the numbered (from 1-11) lily pads. When the team spins the double spinner and the difference between the two numbers matches a number that has one of their frogs on it, then that frog safely crosses to the other side. Students keep track on a bar graph of the resulting differences so they can revise their strategy halfway through the game. All worksheets for the game are included in PDF format.

Snider, Allyn; Burk, Donna

2000-01-01

371

Solar pond research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A description of solar pond research at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. The main issues in the theory of solar ponds are discussed. Among these are the interfacial-boundary-layer model, models for interface motion and pond performance, heat extraction, and ground heat loss. The core of the research effort at Los Alamos was the development of a one-dimensional computer program to accurately predict dynamic performance of a solar pond. The computer model and the experiments that were designed and performed to validate it are described. The experiments include two laboratory tanks wherein temperature, salinity, and flow visualization data were obtained and a 232 m/sup 2/ outdoor solar pond. Results from preliminary validation show good agreement between the pond's predicted dynamic behavior and that which actually occurred in the experiments. More validation using data from full-sized solar ponds is needed. A new correlation for the ratio of interfacial salt-flux to heat-flux is proposed which agrees well with our data. Recommendations for future research are given.

Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Grimmer, D.P.

1984-01-01

372

CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere.

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

373

Interactions between snow and melt ponds in sea ice models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover on sea ice at the end of the winter persists into the early part of the sea ice melt season, and the spatial distribution of snow affects the surface topography, the distribution of initial melt pond formation and its subsequent evolution. After the initial formation of melt ponds, the low albedo of the ponds compared to snow or bare ice causes the ponds to preferentially absorb solar radiation and therefore further affects surface ice melt. A physically based melt pond model was coupled to the thermodynamic-dynamic Louvain-la-Neuve Sea-Ice Model (LIM, version 3), which recently includes a representation of snow properties and processes. In the new snow scheme, snow is represented in multiple layers with varying thermo-physical properties, and simple parameterizations for blowing snow and fresh water refreezing into the snow were implemented. Several simulations were performed using the combined snow and melt pond configuration to study the impacts of the processes described above on the Arctic sea ice melt pond fractions. Preliminary results lead to two expected but uncorroborated model behaviors. In the simulations, blowing snow tends to decrease the average snow depth on sea ice due to losses into leads, thus allowing wider but shallower ponds on multiyear ice, while no significant effect is noticeable on first-year ice. Similarly, the refreezing of water in the snow curtails the amount of meltwater available to feed melt ponds on thick ice categories, where some snow may persist through the melt season, but has a limited or no impact on thin ice where snow melts away rapidly.

Lecomte, Olivier; Fichefet, Thierry; Flocco, Daniela; Schroeder, David; Vancoppenolle, Martin

2014-05-01

374

Control of chironomid midge larvae in wastewater stabilisation ponds: comparison of five compounds.  

PubMed

Chironomid midge larvae are a valuable component of wastewater stabilisation pond (WSP) ecology. However, in high numbers, adult midge swarms can be a nuisance to near-by urban areas. Improving WSP treatment by incorporating aerobic or maturation ponds or by the addition of pre-treatment to reduce organic loading also increases the availability of aerobic sediment (midge larva habitat) in the pond system and the potential for midge nuisance problems. The efficacy of Maldison, an organophosphate traditionally used to control midge larvae in New Zealand WSPs, was compared to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), Methoprene, Pyriproxyfen and Diflubenzuron which are all more specific to insects and have fewer adverse environmental effects. Initial laboratory trials established the concentration of each compound required to achieve 95% control of the midge population. During 21-day small-scale trials within the WSP, Bti, Diflubenzuron and Maldison reduced live larvae numbers substantially (80-89%) compared to controls and adult midge emergence was markedly reduced by all compounds (72-96%). Large-scale trials with Bti (Vectobac WG) powder (1000 microg/L) only caused a slight reduction in midge larvae numbers compared to controls and had little effect on adult emergence, however, Methoprene (Prolink XRG granules) (50 microgAI/L) reduced midge adult emergence by approximately 80% over 25 days and has been used successfully to control several midge nuisance outbreaks. PMID:16114682

Craggs, R; Golding, L; Clearwater, S; Susarla, L; Donovan, W

2005-01-01

375

Water Management to Control Clam Shrimp, Cyzicus morsie in Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, Production Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clam shrimp, Cyzicus morsie , can occur in hatchery ponds in such dense numbers that they interfere with production of fish. Hatchery ponds are frequently left dry during the fall and winter and are filed in spring or early summer, simulating the vernal pools where clam shrimp naturally occur. Ponds left dry over winter and ponds that were full over

James M. Czarnezki; Ernest J. Hamilton; Bruce A. Wagner

1994-01-01

376

Evaluation of the Rulison drilling effluent pond as trout habitat  

SciTech Connect

The Rulison Site is located in Section 25, township 7 South, Range 95 West, Garfield County, Colorado. The site is approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. Project Ruhson was an experiment conducted jointly by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and Austral Oil Company to test the feasibility of using a nuclear device to increase natural gas production in low permeability geological formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 meters (m) (8,426 feet [ft]) below the ground surface (DOE, 1994). The Rulison Drilling Effluent Pond (called `the pond`) is an engineered structure covering approximately 0.2 hectare (0.5 acre), which was excavated and used to store drilling fluids during drilling of the device emplacement well. The drilling fluids consisted of bentonitic drilling mud with additives such as diesel fuel and chrome lignosulfonate. Most of the drilling muds were removed from the pond when the site was decommissioned in 1976, and the pond was subsequently stocked with rainbow trout by the land owner and used as a fishing pond. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted sampling of the pond to evaluate residual contamination from the drilling fluids. Based on the results of this sampling, the DOE conducted a voluntary cleanup action in order to reduce the levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons and chromium in pond sediments. The cleanup was conducted between August and mid-November of 1995. At the end of cleanup activities, the pond was lined with a clay geofabric and left dry. The geofabric was covered with sod to protect it. The pond has since been refilled by snowmelt and inflow from a spring. Prior to remediation, the pond apparently had sufficient water quality and food resources to support stocked rainbow trout. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the present ecological status of the pond and to determine if post-remediation water quality and food resources are adequate to support stocked rainbow trout. Sampling of the pond was conducted by IT Corporation (IT) on September 10, 1996.

NONE

1998-06-23

377

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m{sup 2} and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E). Heat was successfully extracted from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond by using a heat pipe heat exchanger made from 60 copper tubes with 21 mm inside diameter and 22 mm outside diameter. The length of the evaporator and condenser section was 800 mm and 200 mm respectively. R134a was used as the heat transfer fluid in the experiment. The theoretical model was formulated for the solar pond heat extraction on the basis of the energy conservation equations and by using the solar radiation data for the above location. Numerical methods were used to solve the modeling equations. In the analysis, the performance of heat exchanger is investigated by varying the velocity of inlet air used to extract heat from the condenser end of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). Air velocity was found to have a significant influence on the effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger. In the present investigation, there was an increase in effectiveness by 43% as the air velocity was decreased from 5 m/s to 1 m/s. The results obtained from the theoretical model showed good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

Tundee, Sura; Terdtoon, Pradit; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Singh, Randeep; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Bundoora East Campus, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

2010-09-15

378

Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).

Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.

2004-01-01

379

Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The trophic ecology and ground-water contributing area of Walden Pond, in Concord and Lincoln, Mass., were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management from April 1997 to July 2000. Bathymetric investigation indicated that Walden Pond (24.88 hectares), a glacial kettle-hole lake with no surface inlet or outlet, has three deep areas. The maximum depth (30.5 meters) essentially was unchanged from measurements made by Henry David Thoreau in 1846. The groundwater contributing area (621,000 square meters) to Walden Pond was determined from water-table contours in areas of stratified glacial deposits and from land-surface contours in areas of bedrock highs. Walden Pond is a flow-through lake: Walden Pond gains water from the aquifer along its eastern perimeter and loses water to the aquifer along its western perimeter. Walden Pond contributing area also includes Goose Pond and its contributing area. A water budget calculated for Walden Pond, expressed as depth of water over the lake surface, indicated that 45 percent of the inflow to the lake was from precipitation (1.215 meters per year) and 55 percent from ground water (1.47 meters per year). The groundwater inflow estimate was based on the average of two different approaches including an isotope mass-balance approach. Evaporation accounted for 26 percent of the outflow from the lake (0.71 meters per year) whereas lake-water seepage to the groundwater system contributed 74 percent of the outflow (1.97 meters per year). The water-residence time of Walden Pond is approximately 5 years. Potential point sources of nutrients to ground water, the Concord municipal landfill and a trailer park, were determined to be outside the Walden Pond groundwater contributing area. A third source, the septic leach field for the Walden Pond State Reservation facilities, was within the groundwater contributing area. Nutrient budgets for the lake indicated that nitrogen inputs (858 kilograms per year) were dominated (30 percent) by plume water from the septic leach field and, possibly, by swimmers (34 percent). Phosphorus inputs (32 kilograms per year) were dominated by atmospheric dry deposition, background ground water, and estimated swimmer inputs. Swimmer inputs may represent more than 50 percent of the phosphorus load during the summer. The septic-system plume did not contribute phosphorus, but increased the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio for inputs from 41 to 59, on an atom-to-atom basis. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in input loads and within the lake indicated algal growth would be strongly phosphorus limited. Nitrogen supply in excess of plant requirements may mitigate against nitrogen fixing organisms including undesirable blooms of cyanobacteria. Based on areal nutrient loading, Walden Pond is a mesotrophic lake. Hypolimnetic oxygen demand of Walden Pond has increased since a profile was measured in 1939. Currently (1999), the entire hypolimnion of Walden Pond becomes devoid of dissolved oxygen before fall turnover in late November; whereas historical data indicated dissolved oxygen likely remained in the hypolimnion during 1939. The complete depletion of dissolved oxygen likely causes release of phosphorus from the sediments. Walden Pond contains a large population of the deep-growing benthic macro alga Nitella, which has been hypothesized to promote water clarity in other clear-water lakes by sequestering nutrients and keeping large areas of the sediment surface oxygenated. Loss of Nitella populations in other lakes has correlated with a decline in water quality. Although the Nitella standing crop is large in Walden Pond, Nitella still appears to be controlled by nutrient availability. Decreasing phosphorus inputs to Walden Pond, by amounts under anthropogenic control would likely contribute to the stability of the Nitella population in the metalimnion, may reverse oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion, and decreas

Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

2001-01-01

380

Effects of Jefferson Road stormwater-detention basin on loads and concentrations of selected chemical constituents in East Branch of Allen Creek at Pittsford, Monroe County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge and water-quality data collection at East Branch Allen Creek from 1990 through 2000 provide a basis for estimating the effect of the Jefferson Road detention basin on loads and concentrations of chemical constituents downstream from the basin. Mean monthly flow for the 5 years prior to construction of the detention basin (8.71 ft3/s) was slightly lower than after (9.08 ft3/s). The slightly higher mean monthly flow after basin construction may have been influenced by the peak flow for the period of record that occurred in July 1998 or variations in flow diverted from the canal. No statistically significant difference in average monthly mean flow before and after basin installation was indicated. Total phosphorus was the only constituent to show no months with significant differences in load after basin construction. Several constituents showed months with significantly smaller loads after basin construction than before, whereas some constituents showed certain months with smaller and some months with greater loads, after basin construction. Statistical analysis of the 'mean monthly load' for all months before and all months after construction of the detention basin showed only one constituent (ammonia + organic nitrogen) with a significantly lower load after construction and none with higher loads. Median concentrations of ammonia + organic nitrogen showed a statistically significant decrease (from 0.78 mg/L to 0.60 mg/L) after basin installation, as did nitrite + nitrate (from 1.50 mg/L to 0.96 mg/L); in contrast, the median concentration of dissolved chloride increased from 95.5 mg/L before basin installation to 109 mg/L thereafter. A trend analysis of constituent concentrations before and after installation of the detention basin showed that total phosphorus had a downward trend after installation. Analysis of the data collected at East Branch Allen Creek indicates that the Jefferson Road detention basin, in some cases, provides an improvement (reduction) in loads of some constituents. These results are uncertain, however, because hydrologic conditions before basin installation differed from those in the 5 years that followed, and because inflow from the Erie-Barge canal may alter the water quality in the 1-mi reach between the basin outflow and the gaging station.

Sherwood, Donald A.

2004-01-01

381

Management and conservation of San Francisco Bay salt ponds: Effects of pond salinity, area, tide, and season on pacific flyway waterbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the world, coastal salt ponds provide habitat for large numbers and diversities of waterbirds. San Francisco Bay contains the most important coastal salt pond complexes for waterbirds in the United States, supporting more than a million waterbirds through the year. As an initial step in attempting to understand how the anticipated conversion of salt ponds to tidal marsh might affect the Bay's bird populations, the number of birds using salt ponds on high and low tides was counted during the winter months of 1999/00 and 2000/01. Behavior and habitat use of birds in these ponds were assessed, and the effects of tide cycle, pond salinity, and pond area on bird use were examined. We recorded 75 species of waterbirds in surveys of salt ponds in the South Bay from September 1999 to February 2001, totaling over a million bird use days on high tide. Shorebirds and dabbling ducks were the most abundant groups of birds using the salt ponds. Waterbird numbers and diversity were significantly affected by the salinity of ponds in a non-linear fashion with lower numbers and diversity on the highest salinity ponds. With the exception of ducks and Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), tide height at the Bay significantly affected bird numbers in the salt ponds with ponds at high tides having higher numbers of birds than the same ponds on low tides. Considerable numbers of birds fed in the salt ponds on high and low tides, although this varied greatly by species. Habitat use varied by tide. Management recommendations include maintaining ponds of varying salinities and depths. Restoring salt ponds to tidal marsh should proceed with caution to avoid loss of waterbird diversity and numbers in San Francisco Bay.

Warnock, N.; Page, G. W.; Ruhlen, T. D.; Nur, N.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Hanson, J. T.

2002-01-01

382

Under the surface: the dynamic interpersonal and affective world of psychopathic high-security and detention prisoners.  

PubMed

The present study yields an in-depth examination of the interpersonal and affective world of high-security and detention prisoners with possible (Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version [PCL:SV] ? 13) and strong (PCL:SV ? 18) indications of psychopathy. A group of male inmates (n = 16) was compared with noncriminal and non-personality disordered controls (n = 35) on measures of self and other (Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form [YSQ-SF], Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales [IIP-C]), and the experience and regulation of affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule [PANAS], Emotion Control Questionnaire 2 [ECQ2]). Results confirm the established grandiose, dominant, and callous characteristics of the psychopath (PCL:SV, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders [SCID-II], DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire [DIP-Q], IIP-C), while demonstrating personal distress and important nuances and variations in psychopathic offenders' interpersonal and affective functioning (YSQ-SF, PANAS, ECQ2, SCID-II, DIP-Q). These preliminary findings support, expand, and challenge the ordinary portrayal of the psychopath and, if replicated in larger samples, point to a need for an expansion or reformulation of the concept, measurement, and treatment of psychopathy. PMID:21791461

Gullhaugen, Aina Sundt; Nøttestad, Jim Aage

2012-09-01

383

56. LOOKING WEST AT CONCRETE TUNNEL DIVERING LOG POND OUTFLOW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. LOOKING WEST AT CONCRETE TUNNEL DIVERING LOG POND OUTFLOW AWAY FROM SAWMILL SUPPORTS. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1954. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

384

Maintenance of Brine Transparency in Salinity Gradient Solar Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experience with maintenance of brine transparency during the more than eight years of operation of the 100 square meter Research Salinity Gradient Solar Pond at Argonne National Laboratory suggests that, for many sodium chloride brines, algal growth may b...

J. R. Hull

1989-01-01

385

Perspective circular rearing ponds on north side of hatchery. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective circular rearing ponds on north side of hatchery. View to the west, northwest. Includes view of ditch and step up to hatchery building on left side of image. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

386

Management of Recycled Waste-Process Water Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Successful operation is described of a storage pond used to collect treated wastewaters and runoff for recycle to manufacturing operations under conditions of drought and severe water shortages. Treated sewage and cafeteria wastes are stored in an air spa...

C. E. Renn

1973-01-01

387

17. View of the lily pond in the northern portion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. View of the lily pond in the northern portion of the hillside garden, from the southeast (more distant view). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

388

ALGAL METABOLITE INFLUENCE ON BLOOM SEQUENCE IN EUTROPHIED FRESHWATER PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The extracellular metabolites of planktonic bloom dominant algae play a most significant role in the determination of bloom sequence in a eutrophied freshwater pond. Certain extracellular metabolites of planktonic blue-green algae substantially inhibit the growth of planktonic di...

389

Utilization of Fly Ash in Polishing Oxidation Pond Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixteen fly ashes were investigated for their organic pollutant removal efficiency in the tertiary treatment of oxidation pond effluents in eastern North Dakota. The majority of fly ashes used were from the northcentral region including North Dakota, Sout...

Y. T. Hung

1976-01-01

390

Technology demonstration assessment report for X-701B Holding Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Technology Demonstration Assessment Report (TDAR) was developed to evaluate and recommend the most feasible approach for cleanup of contaminated Minford soils below the X-701B Holding Pond and to summarize closure activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous...

1992-01-01

391

Environmental Impacts of Retention, Removal or Maintenance of Sedimentation Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a summary of the environmental impacts associated with: (1) compliance; (2) regulations as currently written; and (3) alternative actions as a result of possible regulatory changes. Environmental impacts of retaining sedimentation pond...

1982-01-01

392

Science From the Pond Up: Using Measurement to Introduce Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors engaged nonscience majors enrolled in an integrated science course with a prototype activity designed to change their mindset from cookbook to inquiry science. This article describes the activity, the Warm Little Pond, which helped students de

Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Frank; Abell, Sandra K.

2010-03-01

393

Solar Pond Power Plant Feasibility Study for Davis, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layou...

Y. C. Wu M. J. Singer H. E. Marsh J. Harris A. L. Walton

1982-01-01

394

Hydrodynamic Study of Davis Pond, Near New Orleans, LA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study characterizes water levels in the Davis Pond floating marsh created by the diversion of fresh water from the Mississippi River. The model was validated to observed field data collected from November 2003 to January 2004. After model validation,...

J. V. Letter S. K. Martin T. O. McAlpin

2008-01-01

395

Ecosystem Metabolism and Air-Water Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in High Arctic Wetland Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater lakes and wetlands can be very productive systems on the Arctic landscape compared to terrestrial tundra ecosystems and provide valuable resources to many organisms, including waterfowl, fish and humans. Rates of ecosystem productivity dictate how much energy flows through food webs, impacting the abundance of higher-level organisms (e.g., fish), as well as the net carbon balance, which determines whether a particular ecosystem is a source or sink of carbon. Climate change is predicted to result in warmer temperatures, increased precipitation and permafrost melting in the Arctic and is already altering northern ecosystems at unprecedented rates; however, it is not known how freshwater systems are responding to these changes. To predict how freshwater systems will respond to complex environmental changes, it is necessary to understand the key processes, such as primary production and ecosystem respiration, that are driving these systems. We sampled wetland ponds (n=8) and lakes (n=2) on northern Ellesmere Island (81° N, Nunavut, Canada) during the open water season for a suite of biogeochemical parameters, including concentrations of dissolved gases (O2, CO2, CH4, N2O) as well as stable-isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (?13C-DIC), dissolved oxygen (?18O-DO), and water (?18O-H2O). We will present rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, modeled from the concentration and stable isotope ratios of DIC and DO, as well as air-water gas exchange of greenhouse gases in these high Arctic ponds and lakes. Preliminary results demonstrate that ecosystem metabolism in these ponds was high enough to result in significant deviations in the isotope ratios of DIC and DO from atmospheric equilibrium conditions. In other words ecosystem rates of primary production and respiration were faster than gas exchange even in these small, shallow, well-mixed ponds. Furthermore, primary production was elevated enough at all sites except Lake Hazen, a large cold ultra-oligotrophic lake, to result in a shift in the ?18O of DO towards more depleted values. Two of the ponds also exhibited enriched ?13C-DIC indicative of high rates of DIC uptake and primary production. However most sites appear to be net heterotrophic systems, with the exception of a few net autotrophic ponds. Interestingly, due to the high DIC concentrations in pond waters, ?13C-DIC values are reflective of ecosystem metabolism on a somewhat longer time scale than ?18O-DO values, which might be useful for examining temporal changes in production and respiration. Finally, most ponds were sources of both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, but were surprisingly under-saturated with respect to N2O, demonstrating that they are sinks for atmospheric N2O. Rates of N2O consumption (denitrification) were modeled from concentration-time data and ranged from <0.1 to 1.1 nmol L-1 h-1.

Lehnherr, I.; Venkiteswaran, J.; St. Louis, V. L.; Emmerton, C.; Schiff, S. L.

2012-12-01

396

Trophic structure and energy flow in a Texas pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual energy flow and mean annual biocontent of eighteen compartments were determined for a 1.0 ha north central Texas pond ecosystem. Annual primary production was 7,789 kcal m-2 yr-1, and community production-to-respiration ratio was 1.49. One-third of annual primary production accumulated on the substrate as silt and sedimentation. Biocontents of four trophic levels in the pond were all of the

W. Michael Childress; Lloyd C. Fitzpatrick; William D. Pearson

1981-01-01

397

Evaluation of pollutant removal in a constructed irrigation pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A year-long study on the water quality and hydrology was carried out to investigate the characteristics of the pollutant concentrations\\u000a and pollutant removal in a constructed irrigation pond. The pond is part of a circular irrigation system for paddy fields\\u000a within Lake Kasumigaura watershed, Japan. The average concentrations of the total nitrogen (TN), chemical oxygen demand (COD),\\u000a total phosphorus (TP),

Tasuku Kato; Hisao Kuroda; Hideo Nakasone; Hirohide Kiri

2007-01-01

398

Restoration of Anadromous Alewives at Long Pond, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1950 through 1953, 1,403 to 1,793 near-ripe anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, were stocked annually at Long Pond, Hancock County, Maine, to restore an alewife run in the Long Pond drainage. The four stockings produced alewife runs of approximately 11,000 to 51,000 fish in a 3- to 5-year period following each stocking. Later runs (1958-59) produced by progeny of stocked

Keith A. Havey

1961-01-01

399

Truscott brine lake solar pond system conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction by the Army Corps of Engineers near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extracted from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

Leboeuf, C.M.

1982-01-01

400

2101-M pond closure plan. Volume 1, Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment.

Not Available

1993-06-01

401

The reasons behind the performance superiority of a high rate algal pond over three facultative ponds in series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a tracer study were used to determine and to compare actual and standard (k20°C) first order reaction rate constants for COD removal in a High Rate Algal Pond (HRAP) and in 3 facultative ponds (FP) in series. An annual average k20°C of 0.123 day-1 was found for the HRAP while the values of 0.097 , 0.025 and 0.003

B. El Hamouri; A. Rami; J.-L. Vasel

402

Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond  

SciTech Connect

Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Scott, T.G.

1983-01-01

403

Radiocesium uptake by a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) inhabiting the banks of a radioactive liquid waste pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mean population of 20 cotton rats inhabited the banks of a small radioactive liquid waste pond (=0.39 ha) in Tennessee during the summer of 1977. Radiocesium concentrations in common shoreline plants (Eleocharis, Juncus, Typha, and Polygonum) ranged from 80 pCi\\/dry g in Juncus to 35,800 pCi\\/dry g in Eleocharis. The mean (+\\/-S.E.) 137Cs concentration in cotton rat GI tracts

Charles T. Garten; Charles T

1979-01-01

404

Cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on ammonia-depleted effluents from sewage oxidation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented represent an initial, limited attempt on a small scale to cultivate nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on both chemically defined media and low nitrogen sewage pond effluents. The rates of blue-green algal biomass production were low compared to those of green algae. Nevertheless, it appears that cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae is possible on sewage effluents where these algae

J. C. Weissman; D. M. Eisenberg; J. R. Benemann

1978-01-01

405

Zooplankton food limitation and grazing impact in a eutrophic brackish-water tropical pond (Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gut fluorescence, feeding and egg production rates of zooplankton assemblages were measured in a shallow, eutrophic brackish-water\\u000a pond for 24 days. Brachionus plicatilis, Hexarthra intermedia and Apocyclops panamensis successively developed and exhibited\\u000a differences in food selectivity. Rotifers selected small particles but also had a preference for larger particles (15–21 ?m,\\u000a Equivalent Spherical Diameter, ESD). B. plicatilis appeared less selective than

Marc Pagano; Lucien Saint-Jean; Robert Arfi; Marc Bouvy; Daniel Guiral

1998-01-01

406

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

407

Modelling faecal coliform mortality in water hyacinths ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of faecal coliforms was investigated in pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. The investigation was conducted to evaluate the role of solar intensity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, sedimentation, and attachment of faecal coliforms on Eichhornia crassipes on disappearance of bacteria in water hyacinths ponds. A mathematical model that used the plug flow philosophy and incorporating the aforementioned factors was developed to predict faecal coliform mortality rate. The proposed multifactor model satisfactorily predicted mortality rate of faecal coliforms in a pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. After optimization of the parameters, mortality rate constant for pH ( kpH) was 0.001, mortality rate constant for DO ( kDO) was 0.0037 and solar intensity mortality rate constant k s was 0.0102 cm 2/cal. The results also showed that the thickness of biofilm ( Lf) was 2.5 × 10 -4 m, and the effective surface area of water hyacinths roots per unit surface area of pond ( Rs) was 10.4 m 2/m 2. The results further showed that environmental factors such as solar intensity and pH were the key factors when water hyacinths ponds have a large exposed surface area. However, attachment of bacteria to water hyacinths played a major role in ponds fully covered with water hyacinths. The inclusion of sedimentation parameters in the model improved model efficiency by only 3.2%. It was concluded that sedimentation is not a major factor governing faecal coliform disappearance in water hyacinths pond systems receiving pretreated wastewaters.

Mayo, A. W.; Kalibbala, M.

408

National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Bigney Pond Dam (MA 00422), Massachusetts-Rhode Island Coastal Basin, Brockton, Massachusetts. Phase I, Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bigney Pond Dam is formed by an approximately 180 ft. length of earth embankment confined by vertical atone masonry retaining walls about 11 ft. high. The dam is in good condition. It has a low hazard potential and is small in size. The city of Brockton s...

1978-01-01

409

Winter performance of an urban stormwater pond in southern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence from cold regions in North America has shown that the performance of stormwater ponds differs between winter and summer. The pond hydraulics change seasonally, and winters have lowered removal efficiency due to a combination of an ice cover, cold water and de-icing salts. This study examines the function of the Bäckaslov stormwater pond under the more mild conditions of southern Sweden, where there are several snow and melt cycles per year.Event sampling in the summer of 1997 showed good removal efficiencies for nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS) and a selection of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), but winter grab-tests taken in 1995-96 and 1997-98 suggest that the pond acts as a pollutant source under cold conditions. To better assess winter and spring pond performance, water at the inflow and outflow was sampled from January to April 2003. The low intensity of runoff delivery and slow inflow velocities meant that time- rather than flow-weighted sampling was used. Five consecutive events were sampled and analysed for TSS, chloride and the metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. YSI probes were in place at both the inlet (pH, temperature) and outlet (pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen) to determine the timing of pollution flows. In addition, profiles of the same quality indicators allowed snapshots of pond processes.De-icing salt has a major effect on pond hydraulics. Strong stratification occurred after each snowmelt-generated flow event and up to 80% of chloride could be retained by the pond. However, continuous conductivity measurements show that chloride is flushed between events. Ice changes retention times and causes oxygen depletion, but bed scour was not observed. Pond performance decreased during the winter and spring, albeit not as badly as the grab tests suggest. A seasonal comparison of the removal efficiencies showed that removal of Cd (75%) and Cu (49%) was about the same for summer and winter-spring, but removal of Pb, Zn and TSS dropped from 79%, 81% and 80% to 42%, 48% and 49% respectively. The removal efficiencies for the other metals sampled in 2003 were: As, 50%; Cr, 39%; Hg, 56%; Ni, 41%.

Semadeni-Davies, Annette

2006-01-01

410

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-11-01

411

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-09-01

412

Biogeochemistry of dimethylsulfide in a seasonally stratified coastal salt pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is the major volatile reduced organic sulfur compound in the water column of coastal Salt Pond, Cape Cod, MA. DMS concentration and vertical distributions vary seasonally in response to changing biogeochemical processes in the pond. When the pond is thermally stratified in summer, maximum DMS concentrations of up to 60 nmol/1 were found in the oxygen-deficient metalimnion. DMS concentrations in the epilimnion (typically 5-10 nmol/1) were always an order of magnitude higher than in the hypolimnion (<0.2 nmol/1). The most likely precursor for DMS is algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which showed vertical profiles similar to those of DMS. Laboratory experiments show that microorganisms in the pond, especially in the metalimnion, are capable of decomposing DMSP to DMS, while photosynthetic sulfur bacteria in the hypolimnion can consume DMS. Estimates of DMS production and consumption in Salt Pond have been made, considering production of DMS in the epilimnion and metalimnion and removal of DMS via gas exchange to the atmosphere, tidal exchange and microbial consumption in the hypolimnion.

Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.; Dacey, J. W. H.; Schwarzenbach, R. P.; Zeyer, J.

1987-06-01

413

Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation in the Arctic is unclear and the sources of MeHg to arctic freshwater ecosystems are still largely unidentified. Our research is demonstrating that some shallow and warm wetland ponds on the Arctic landscape contain high MeHg concentrations compared to nearby deep and cold lakes. We used a mass-balance approach to measure the net in-pond production of MeHg in two warm wetland ponds (Ponds 1 and 2) near Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (81° N latitude). We quantified external inputs and outputs of MeHg to and from the ponds, as well as the accumulation of MeHg in the water column during the summers of 2005 and 2008. Any changes in water column MeHg concentrations that could not be accounted for by external inputs or sinks were attributed to in-pond production. The principal external input and sink of MeHg was, respectively, wet atmospheric deposition and water-column MeHg photodemethylation. For 2005, we estimate that the net flux of MeHg from sediments into the water column was 0.015 ?g m-2 d-1 in Pond 1 and 0.0016 ?g m-2 d-1 in Pond 2. Compared to sediment-water MeHg fluxes measured in Alaskan tundra lakes (0.0015-0.0045 ?g m-2 d-1), Pond 1 sediments are a greater source of MeHg while Pond 2 is similar to the Alaskan lakes. Furthermore, the accumulation of MeHg in the water column of Pond 1 (0.0061 ?g m-2 d-1) was similar to the net yield of MeHg from temperate boreal wetlands (0.0005-0.006 ?g m-2 d-1), demonstrating that these Arctic wetlands are important sites of MeHg production. In addition, we used mercury stable-isotope tracers to quantify methylation and demethylation rates in intact sediment cores collected in 2007 from 8 sites encompassing a range of physico-chemical parameters to investigate why concentrations of MeHg measured in wetland ponds vary greatly among sites, despite superficial similarities in site characteristics. Our presentation will explore spatial and temporal variability in MeHg dynamics in Arctic wetlands in an attempt to determine the biogeochemical factors controlling MeHg cycling and abundance in Arctic freshwater systems.

Lehnherr, I.; St. Louis, V. L.

2010-12-01

414

Parameters for the Operation of Bacterial Thiosalt Oxidation Ponds  

PubMed Central

Shake flask and pH-controlled reactor tests were used to determine the mathematical parameters for a mixed-culture bacterial thiosalt treatment pond. Values determined were as follows: Km and Vmax (thiosulfate), 9.83 g/liter and 243.9 mg/liter per h, respectively; Ki (lead), 3.17 mg/liter; Ki (copper), 1.27 mg/liter; Q10 between 10 and 30°C, 1.95. From these parameters, the required bioxidation pond volume and residence time could be calculated. Soluble zinc (0.2 g/liter) and particulate mill products and by-products (0.25 g/liter) were not inhibitory. Correlation with an operating thiosalt biooxidation pond showed the parameters used to be valid for thiosalt concentrations up to at least 2 g/liter, lead concentrations of at least 10 mg/liter, and temperatures of >2°C.

Silver, M.

1985-01-01

415

Industrial production of sodium sulfate using solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

An example of the use of a solar pond in the mining industry, the production of industrial grade sodium sulfate from a mineral consisting in a mixture of sulfate decahydrate, sodium chloride and clays, is described. The industrial solar process uses the solar pond as a basin where the mineral is dissolved at temperatures around 40{degree}C. The sodium sulfate is separated from the concentrated hot solution by fractional crystallization during the night, at low temperature. This design was tested successfully in a prototype with a 400 m{sup 2} pond. An industrial plant using this process has been working in a batch mode for several years. The plant is described and its operation and costs are analyzed. They compare favorably with the results obtained with a conventional plant because of lower initial investments and operational costs.

Lesino, G.; Saravia, L. (Universidad Nacional de Salta, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Galli, D. (Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, San Salvador de Jujuy (Argentina))

1990-01-01

416

Characterization of arctic leads and melt ponds from airborne observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft observations over the Beaufort and eastern Chukchi Seas during 1998 and over the Beaufort Sea in 1994 are analyzed to characterize springtime arctic leads and summertime and autumn arctic melt ponds and open water. The description of leads includes distributions for lead width and orientation, as well as estimates of lead fraction, and is derived from airborne passive microwave retrievals. Lead fraction near SHEBA declined from 8.6% on May 11 to 3.9% on May 18, as a result of ice pack convergence, observed by RGPS. A lead width distribution during May favors smaller (<100 m wide) leads, with the number of leads decreasing exponentially with increasing lead width. Mean lead orientation is northwesterly and is related to prevailing wind conditions. Summertime melt pond and open water characterization is inferred from airborne observations from a downward-looking color video camera. Pond areal coverage near the SHEBA camp is found to increase from 24.6% on July 8, 1998 to 34.1% by July 24, then decrease to 26.3% by July 26. Open water fraction was 5--6% for most of July, but increased to 9% between July 24 and 26. The influence of open water and ponds on the summertime surface albedo is assessed from analysis of upward and downward-looking broadband hemispheric radiometers and is compared to an ice model parameterization. The summertime arctic surface albedo within the ice pack varied from 0.3 to 0.55. For most areas within the pack, the melt pond fraction had the greatest influence on albedo, since their areal coverage was higher than open water. Despite the anomalous thin ice cover in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas encountered during SHEBA, the characterization of leads, melt ponds and open water are comparable to previous observations during periods of more typical conditions.

Tschudi, Mark Anders

2000-10-01

417

Farm Ponds as Critical Habitats for Native Amphibians: Field Season 2000 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We studied constructed farm ponds in the Driftless Area Ecoregion of southeastern Minnesota, western Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa. These ponds represent potentially significant breeding, rearing, and over-wintering habitat for amphibians in a landscap...

2001-01-01

418

Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Breeding amphibians were found in 21 of 24 ponds examined on the Ollis Creek Surface Mine in Campbell County, Tennessee. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that range from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. Findings indicated high biological productivity in the surface mine ponds examined. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species.

Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

1981-06-01

419

Diagnostic/Feasibility Study: Ball Pond, New Fairfield, Connecticut, 1979. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ball Pond is a significant recreational waterbody located in the town of New Fairfield, Connecticut. The diagnostic/feasibility study was conducted to provide a detailed evaluation of the eutrophication process of Ball Pond. Water quality conditions in th...

1979-01-01

420

Farm Ponds as Critical Habitats for Native Amphibians: Field Season 2001 Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We studied constructed farm ponds in the Driftless Area Ecoregion of southeastern Minnesota during 2000 and 2001. These ponds represent potentially significant breeding, rearing, and over-wintering habitat for amphibians in a landscape where natural wetla...

2002-01-01

421

Prototype Computer-Interactive Goundwater Monitoring Methodology: An Example for Sedimentation Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a prototype computer-interactive system that assists the development of a groundwater monitoring program for sedimentation ponds at coal strip mines. Even though the monitoring of sedimentation ponds is used as an example, the system...

K. Tempo L. G. Everett W. O. Rasmussen

1983-01-01

422

EFFECT OF FISH AQUACULTURE ON WATER QUALITY IN RESTORED, HISTORICAL FISH PONDS ON MOLOKAI ISLAND, HAWAII  

EPA Science Inventory

The Molokoi Fish Pond Project is designed to determine effects on water quality of commercial fish production within several different historical fish ponds and immediately offshore in order to establish appropriate water quality standards and discharge permit conditions for the ...

423

Temperature Preferences and Tolerances of Three Fish Species Inhabiting Hyperthermal Ponds on Mangrove Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fish species Cyprinidon artifrons, Floridichthys carpio, and Gambusia yucatana inhabit shallow mangrove ponds off the coast of Belize. Portions of these ponds experience a diurnal temperature change from 26 C at night to 40 C and above during midday. ...

A. G. Heath B. J. Turner W. P. Davis

1993-01-01

424

Limnological studies of and primary production in temple pond ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three temple ponds with permanent blooms of blue green algae were highly productive. They all showed high alkalinity, hardness, electrical conductivity and pH. Organic carbon and nitrogen were highest in Sarvatheertham pond—60 to 79.6 mg.\\/l. C and 4.10 to 7.60 mg.\\/l. N. In Tamaraikulam it was 16.5 to 20.3 mg. C\\/l. and 1.03 to 1.32 mg. N\\/l. In Sarvatheertham, the

A. Sreenivasan

1976-01-01

425

Bioaccumulation and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in an experimental freshwater pond  

SciTech Connect

An acute release of /sup 95m/Tc was made to a small experimental freshwater pond to determine the behavior of technetium in a freshwater ecosystem. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in the components of the ecosystem and (2) to determine the concentration in freshwater biota. Prior to the release of /sup 95m/Tc, the pond was stocked with aquatic macrophytes, fish, and invertebrates. All components of the pond were sampled for a period of 37 d. Analyses of filtered and unfiltered water samples showed that /sup 95m/Tc did not sorb significantly to particulates suspended in the water but remained dissolved. Sediments accumulated /sup 95m/Tc slowly as the experiment progressed. In the biota, periphyton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, reaching the highest concentration (3482 dpm/g dry wt) 4 h after the release and maintaining a relatively high concentration throughout the experiment. Fish and invertebrates accumulated /sup 95m/Tc gradually. Elimination studies and tissue analyses showed that a large percentage of the body burden was in the digestive system of all fish, suggesting that fish were accumulating /sup 95m/Tc through the food chain. Biological half-lives determined from elimination studies for carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 2.5, 4.3, and 21.3 d, respectively. Calculated concentration factors for the same species were 11 for carp, 75 for mosquito fish, and 121 for snails. The estimated size of the biomass components in the ecosystem in descending order were: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and algae. Based on biomass estimates and concentrations of the /sup 95m/Tc in the aquatic biota, approximately 1% of the /sup 95m/Tc accumulated in the biota.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

1981-01-01

426

Dissolved oxygen requirements for hatching success of two ambystomatid salamanders in restored ephemeral ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess feasibility of reintroduction of extirpated spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in restored flatwoods wetlands, hatching rates were monitored using pond enclosures.Ambystoma maculatum hatching success was compared to that of conspecifics in source ponds and to blue-spotted salamanders (Ambystoma laterale) that had persisted in restored ponds despite habitat degradation. Restored ephemeral ponds with hypoxic conditions had consistent\\u000a hatching failure forA.

Allison B. Sacerdote; Richard B. King

2009-01-01

427

Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians  

SciTech Connect

Of 24 ponds examined on Ollis Creek Surface Mine, Campbell County, Tennessee, 21 contained breeding amphibians. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that ranged from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. The average pH of ponds occupied by each amphibian species varied. Spring peepers (Hyla crucifer) occupied ponds with the lowest average pH (5.22) while upland chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata feriarum) utilized ponds with the highest average pH (6.33). Findings indicated high biological productivity in surface mine ponds. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Large mammals (3 species), waterbirds (17 species), and snakes (2 species) were among those species observed. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species and therefore improve the quality of wildlife habitat on the surface mines. In some areas, mine ponds are the only source of surface water available for wildlife use. 23 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

1981-06-01

428

Adsorption and release of phosphorus in the surface sediment of a wastewater stabilization pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wastewater stabilization ponds, sedimentary phosphorus usually presents significant release and adsorption differences from that in lakes. However, their mobile potentials in stabilization pond have seldom been studied. In this study, the transformation characteristics of sedimentary phosphate in a wastewater stabilization pond are studied. The adsorption and release potential under different pH and Eh conditions is investigated and possible mechanisms

Jian-feng Peng; Bao-zhen Wang; Yong-hui Song; Peng Yuan; Zhenhua Liu

2007-01-01

429

Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary estimates of the ratio of mangrove forest: shrimp pond area necessary to remove nutrients from shrimp pond effluent are made using budgets of nitrogen and phosphorus output for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds combined with estimates of total net primary production in Rhizophora-dominated mangrove forests in tropical coastal areas. If effluent is delivered directly to mangrove forest plots, it

A. I. Robertson; M. J. Phillips

1995-01-01

430

Farm Ponds as Critical Habitats for Native Amphibians: Final Report. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We studied constructed farm ponds and natural wetlands in southeastern Minnesota during the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001. We collected amphibian and habitat data from 40 randomly selected ponds, 10 ponds in each of four surrounding land use classes:...

2002-01-01

431

Relative prawn production and benthic macroinvertebrate densities in unfed, organically fertilized, and fed pond systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative prawn production rates in unfed, organically fertilized, and fed pond systems were evaluated. Populations of benthic macroinvertebrates that potentially serve as forage organisms in these systems were also evaluated and compared with ponds without prawns to evaluate forage preferences. Juvenile prawns (x? = 0.36 ± 0.02 g) were stocked into nine 0.04 ha ponds at a density of 39

James H Tidwell; Shawn D Coyle; Carl D Webster; John D Sedlacek; Paul A Weston; Wanda L Knight; Sankie J Hill; Louis R D'Abramo; William H Daniels; Marty J Fuller

1997-01-01

432

Nitrogen transformations and removal mechanisms in algal and duckweed stabilisation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the results of a comparative study of the performance of algae-based ponds (ABPs) and duckweed-based ponds (DBPs) for wastewater treatment, with emphasis on nitrogen transformations and removal mechanisms.Batch experiments simulating algae and duckweed ( Lemna gibba ) stabilisation ponds for domestic wastewater treatment were conducted to quantify the importance of various nitrogen removal mechanisms under controlled conditions

O. Zimmo

2003-01-01

433

Identification and Characterization of Bacteria in a Selenium contaminated Hypersaline Evaporation Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar evaporation ponds are commonly used to reduce the volume of seleniferous agricultural drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. These hypersaline ponds pose an environmental health hazard because they are heavily contaminated with selenium (Se), mainly in the form of selenate. Se in the ponds may be removed by microbial Se volatilization, a bioremediation process whereby toxic, bioavailable

M. P. de Souza; M. P. De; M. A. Dojka; I. J. Pickering; S. C. Dawson; N. R. Pace; N. Terry

2001-01-01

434

The trophic state ‘chain of relationships’ in ponds: does size matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to shallow lakes, factors affecting trophic state in ponds are not well described, and may include unique effects related to pond size. We examined the interdependence of ambient N and P, phytoplankton biomass, light penetration and stratification in 13 ponds of varying area and mean depth in Chester County, PA (USA) during March, May and July of 2002.

G. Winfield Fairchild; Jamie N. Anderson; David J. Velinsky

2005-01-01

435

Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50 ponds during spring and early summer showed strong variability in fluxes of carbon dioxide (-0.01-2.09 g C m-2 d-1), methane (0.02-13.95 mg C m-2 d-1), and nitrous oxide (-0.15-3.94 mg N m-2 d-1). These differences in GHG fluxes are primarily related to hydrological settings of ponds at PBP. These ponds are strong GHG sources in comparison to ponds in other circumpolar environments. Our findings highlight the importance of water budget dynamics in understanding nutrient and carbon fluxes in Canadian High Arctic ponds and indicate the need for long-term monitoring studies.

Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

2012-12-01

436

Methylmercury cycling in High Arctic wetland ponds: sources and sinks.  

PubMed

The sources of methylmercury (MeHg; the toxic form of mercury that is biomagnified through foodwebs) to Arctic freshwater organisms have not been clearly identified. We used a mass balance approach to quantify MeHg production in two wetland ponds in the Lake Hazen region of northern Ellesmere Island, NU, in the Canadian High Arctic and to evaluate the importance of these systems as sources of MeHg to Arctic foodwebs. We show that internal production (1.8-40 ng MeHg m(-2) d(-1)) is a much larger source of MeHg than external inputs from direct atmospheric deposition (0.029-0.051 ng MeHg m(-2) d(-1)), as expected. Furthermore, MeHg cycling in these systems is dominated by Hg(II) methylation and MeHg photodemethylation (2.0-33 ng MeHg m(-2) d(-1)), which is a sink for a large proportion of the MeHg produced by Hg(II) methylation in these ponds. We also show that MeHg production in the two study ponds is comparable to what has previously been measured in numerous more southerly systems known to be important MeHg sources, such as temperate wetlands and lakes, demonstrating that wetland ponds in the High Arctic are important sources of MeHg to local aquatic foodwebs. PMID:22779785

Lehnherr, Igor; St Louis, Vincent L; Emmerton, Craig A; Barker, Joel D; Kirk, Jane L

2012-10-01

437

1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

438

Norovirus removal and particle association in a waste stabilization pond.  

PubMed

The presence of norovirus (NoV) genogroup I (GI) and II (GII) was evaluated using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in the influent, two midtreatment locations, and final effluent of a three-pond serial waste stabilization pond system from December 2005 through June 2006. Additionally, influent and effluent samples were filtered through a cascade of three membrane filters with sequentially smaller pores to determine the size range of particles with which GI and GII were associated. NoV GI and GII removal occurs primarily in the third pond. Viruses were found on large settleable particles (retained on a 180 microm filter), on smaller suspended particles (retained on a 0.45 microm filter), on colloidal particles (retained on a positively charged 0.45 microm filter), and in the final filtrate. Both GI and GII in influent samples were found to be dominantly associated with particles smaller than 180 microm, thereby suggesting that particle settling is not the main virus removal mechanism in the waste stabilization pond system. On average, NoV detected in filtered effluent samples were associated with particles between 0.45 and 180 microm in diameter (47 and 67% of detected GI and GII, respectively). The presence of NoV GI and GII in the final filtrate of influent and effluent samples shows that positively charged membrane filters often used for viral concentration methods are not capable of trapping all viruses present in wastewater samples. PMID:19174885

da Silva, Allegra K; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Pommepuy, Monique; Montgomery, Maggie A; Elimelech, Menachem

2008-12-15

439

Direct-Contact Condensers for Solar Pond Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct-contact condensers for an organic Rankine cycle solar pond power plant are compared with conventional shell-and-tube condensers. Three types of direct contact systems are evaluated: drop type, bubble type, and packed columns. Methods used in the de...

E. M. Fisher J. D. Wright

1984-01-01

440

Direct-Contact Condensers for Solar Pond Power Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of a direct-contact condenser as a way of reducing the cost of electricity from an organic Rankine cycle power plant coupled to a solar pond is examined. Three possible direct-contact heat exchangers are considered: drop-type, bubble-type, and pac...

E. M. Fisher J. D. Wright

1984-01-01

441

DESIGN OF A MONITORING PROGRAM FOR ASH POND EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a procedure for designing an effective monitoring program for fossil-fueled power plant ash pond effluents. Factors that influence effluent characteristics and are important in designing such a monitoring program were determined following a review of plant op...

442

Pond culture of seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum in southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum is widely distributed throughout the coastal waters of Asia and has high commercial value. In recent years, its natural biomass has declined due to over-exploitation and environmental pollution. To seek for a feasible way to culture this seaweed efficiently, we designed a simple long-line system in a shrimp pond for the culture during winter, and the growth and nutritional composition of the seaweed were examined. Results show that the culture system was durable and flexible allowing S. hemiphyllum to grow vertically off the muddy bottom of the pond. Although the length of pondcultured S. hemiphyllum was inhibited by water depth, the weight-specific growth rate ((1.65±0.17)%/d) was nearly three times higher than that of wild plants ((0.62±0.19)%/d). The crude protein (6.92%±0.88%) and ash content (21.52%±0.07%) of the pond-cultured seaweed were significantly lower than those of the wild plants (9.38%±0.43% and 26.93%±0.07%, respectively); however, crude fat (1.01%±0.04%) was significantly higher than that of the wild plants (0.87%±0.02%). In addition, the nutritional composition of both pond-cultured and wild S. hemiphyllum was comparable to or even higher than those of other common seaweeds being used as food and/or aquaculture fodder. Future studies shall be focused on the impact of environmental parameters on its growth and nutritional composition.

Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun; Sun, Hongyan; Li, Haipeng; Peng, Pengfei

2013-03-01

443

Drainage of Ponded Surface by an Array of Ditches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive analytical solution for the quantity of seepage into an array of fully penetrating ditches from a ponded surface has been obtained using hodograph and Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The solution includes equations for the quantity of seepage from the seepage face part as well as the water depth part of the ditch. The solution also comprises expressions for the velocity

Bhagu R. Chahar; Ghanshyam P. Vadodaria

2008-01-01

444

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-07-01

445

57. View of the lily pond in the northern portion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. View of the lily pond in the northern portion of the hillside garden, from the southeast. The view includes stone footbridges, a directed fall of water through rocks at center, and a tariki stoneware bench by Eric O'Leary (1992) at the top of the waterfall. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

446

Groundwater and Contaminant Transport Modelling at the Sydney Tar Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muggah Creek estuary has accumulated contaminants from 100 years of iron, steel and coke manufacturing in its contributing watershed. The estuary, locally known as the Tar Ponds, contains sediments contaminated with PAHs and PCBs. A program of groundwater modelling was aimed at estimating current contaminant fluxes to the estuary and site streams, via groundwater. The conceptual model developed for

Mark King

447

25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ON LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. THE SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 IS OFF VIEW TO THE RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

448

Mapping peat morphology in sag pond with ground penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the tropics peat is commonly found in low-land areas. In certain condition, however, peat could also be found in high elevation, such as in sag ponds near fault zones. Information regarding thickness and morphology of peat in Sag Pond can be used to infer fault activities in the past. In this study, we attempt to identify the thickness and morphology of peat in a sag pond at Karyawangi Village near the Lembang fault, to the north of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. We use ground penetrating radar (GPR) method with 250 Mhz antennae in several lines. The data were them processes using Reflexw software. The results show that in each survey line, peat layer is clearly identifiable. In some lines, the peat layer is continous while in some other, the peat layer is undulated. The peat layer in general in about 0.5 to 2 m thick. In conclusion, the GPR method with 250 Mhz antennae is suitable for mapping peat thickness and morphology in Sag Pond.

Iryanti, Mimin; Nugraha, Harya Dwi; Setiawan, Tedy; Bijaksana, Satria

2013-09-01

449

Harmful cyanobacterial toxic blooms in waste stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coccoid picocyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (0.6-2 µm of cell diameter) was found to be dominant during summer period in the experimental wastewater stabilisation pond of Marrakesh. The taxono- my of this isolated strain was confirmed by electron microscope study. The general patterns of ultrastructure and the mode of cell division resemble Chroococcales. The cyanobacterium strain was axenic and cultured on

B. Oudra; M. El Andaloussi; S. Franca; P. Barros; R. Martins; K. Oufdou; B. Sbiyyaa; M. Loudiki; N. Mezrioui; V. Vasconcelos

2000-01-01

450

How Universal Is the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the article by Marsh and Hau (see record 2003-06802-005), who tested the negative effects of attending academically selective schools; that is, a student will have lowered academic self-concept in a selective school than in a nonselective school, a big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). The current author suggests that a major problem of…

Dai, David Yun

2004-01-01

451

Risks associated with the use of chemicals in pond aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common substances used in pond aquaculture are fertilizers and liming materials. Fertilizers are highly soluble and release nutrients that can cause eutrophication of natural waters. Fertilizers are also corrosive and some are highly explosive, so proper handling is necessary to prevent accidents. Some liming materials are caustic and can be hazardous to workers if proper precautions are not

Claude E. Boyd; Laurence Massaut

1999-01-01

452

12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

453

Test of system for circulating water supply with cooling pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of spray cooling devices and cooling ponds for cooling thermal power plants are discussed. Spray cooling devices have attracted increased attention in connection with the requirements for protection of natural bodies of water from the harmful effects of thermal effluents from these power plants. The efficient and economical operation of this type of cooling system is discussed.

Kikish

1982-01-01

454

MONITORING OF A RETENTION POND BEFORE AND AFTER MAINTENANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA?s Urban Watershed Management Branch monitored a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed. This BMP, designated RC-5, is owned and operated by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection?s (DEP) as part of the Bluebelt progr...

455

The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has distinguished between the components of competency and affect in students' academic self-concept. The competency component operates on the basis of a comparison with peers. This comparison may lead to a big-fish-little-pond (BFLP) effect. To investigate the sustainability of the BFLP effect, a sample of 7th graders from 6…

Lee, Frances Lai-Mui; Wu, Jun; Dai, Jing; Wu, Huixian; Liu, Winnie Puiling; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

2005-01-01

456

Effects of Phytoplankton on Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Catfish Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dense populations of blue-green algae frequently develop in fish ponds at Auburn, Alabama, during windy weather in March and early April. Massive die-offs of the algae can be expected when surface scums form during prolonged periods of calm, clear, warm w...

C. E. Boyd E. Johnston C. S. Tucker R. Romaire J. Davis

1977-01-01

457

Extremely Halophilic Bacteria in Crystallizer Ponds from Solar Salterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that hypersaline environments with sodium chloride concentrations close to satu- ration are dominated by halophilic members of the domain Archaea, while Bacteria are not considered to be relevant in this kind of environment. Here, we report the high abundance and growth of a new group of hitherto-uncultured Bacteria in crystallizer ponds (salinity, from 30 to 37%)

JOSEFA ANTON; R. Rossello-Mora; FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ-VALERA; RUDOLF AMANN

2000-01-01

458

The fate of heavy metals in wastewater stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

(RecewedMay 1986) Abstract--The distribution of toxic heavy metals was studied throughout the process of treatment of domestic wastewater by stabilization ponds. The concentrations and distribution of free and bound zinc, cadmium, lead and copper through the various stages of a treatment plant were analyzed by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV). Only a slight decrease in the total metals concentration was observed

DRORA KAPLAN; AHARON ABELIOVICH; SAM BEN-YAAKOV

1987-01-01

459

Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

1991-10-25

460

A flotation study of refuse pond coal slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flotation behavior of a refuse pond fine coal slurry sample was studied using mechanical and column flotation techniques. Flotation parameters investigated included type and dosage of frother and collector, agitation speed, scrubbing time, slurry pH, etc. for the mechanical flotation cell, and air flow rate, feed flow rate, and wash water flow rate for the column flotation. Flotation kinetics

D. Tao; B. Li; S. Johnson; B. K. Parekh

2002-01-01

461

Ponds Freeze in Winter -- Why Doesn't the Ocean?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how salt water freezes in comparison to fresh water. Use this experiment to consider how pond animals survive cold winters in comparison to animals that live in the ocean. This resource includes information about freezing points as well as examples of how different animals respond to the winter cold.

Aquarium, New E.

2011-01-01