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1

Analysis of detention ponds for storm water quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow capture efficiency and average detention time are the performance measures commonly used in assessing the long-term pollutant removal effectiveness of storm water detention ponds. A statistical formulation is presented for estimating these two performance measures for typical detention ponds where outflow is controlled by an orifice or weir type structure. The flow capture efficiency is determined with the estimation

Yiping Guo; Barry J. Adams

1999-01-01

2

Surface Water Quality Pollutant Removal Efficacy of Three Wet Detention Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

conducted, Cahoon (1994) conducted a survey of 16 wet detention ponds. He found that approximately half of Monthly inflow and outflow data were collected from three wet the ponds surveyed had higher total phosphorus in the detention ponds in Wilmington, North Carolina, for a 29-mo period. Two ponds drained urban areas consisting primarily of residential, pond effluents than at sites

Michael A. Mallin; Scott H. Ensign; Tracey L. Wheeler; David B. Mayes

3

Systematic evaluation of pollutant removal by urban wet detention ponds  

SciTech Connect

Three urban wet detention ponds in the Piedmont of North Carolina were monitored to investigate long-term pollutant removal as a function of surface to area ratios. Eleven storm events were monitored over a sampling period of 13 months. Urban runoff originating from the study area was characterized by event-mean concentrations for total suspended solids (135 mg/L), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (0.88 mg/L), total iron (6.11 mg/L), and total zinc (66 ug/L). Concentrations of copper and lead were consistently below the detection limits of 30 ug/L and 100 ug/L, respectively. The observed event-mean concentrations were generally lower than the national values reported by the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. Particle sizes of sediment discharged in runoff were much finer than the national averages due to the predominant clayey soils in the region. This study demonstrates that surface to area ratio can be a useful predictor of wet pond performance. Utilizing 1--2% of the watershed area for the development of wet detention ponds at strategic locations could reduce pollutant loadings to meet targeted requirements of water quality improvement.

Wu, J.S. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Holman, R.E. [North Carolina Water Resource Research Inst., Raleigh, NC (United States); Dorney, J.R. [Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

4

The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven

J Coty; M Stevenson; K A Vogt

2002-01-01

5

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in stormwater detention pond sediments in coastal South Carolina.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of stormwater detention ponds in coastal South Carolina. Levels of the sum of PAH analytes were significantly higher in the sediments of commercial ponds compared to that of reference, golf course, low-density residential, and high-density residential ponds. Isomer ratio analysis suggested that the predominant source of PAHs were pyrogenic; however, many ponds had a PAH signature consistent with mixed uncombusted and combusted PAH sources. PAH levels in these sediments could be modeled using both pond drainage area and pond surface area. These results demonstrate that the sediment from most commercial ponds, and a few residential and golf course ponds, were moderately contaminated with PAHs. PAH levels in these contaminated ponds exceeded between 42% and 75% of the ecological screening values for individual PAH analytes established by US EPA Region IV, suggesting that they may pose a toxicological risk to wildlife. PMID:19229645

Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R

2009-02-20

6

Modeling Sediment Detention Ponds Using Reactor Theory and Advection-Diffusion Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented to model the sedimentation process in detention ponds. This algorithm is based on a mass balance for an infinitesimal layer that couples reactor theory concepts with advection-diffusion processes. Reactor theory concepts are used to (1) determine residence time of sediment particles and to (2) mix influent sediment with previously stored flow. Advection-diffusion processes are used to

Bruce N. Wilson; Billy J. Barfield

1985-01-01

7

Field investigation of a dry detention pond with underground detention storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dry pond is an urban drainage component designed to temporarily store stormwater runoff and to encourage infiltration of surface water to the subsurface layer. This paper investigates field measurement of a dry pond at Taiping Health Clinic, Perak, Malaysia that has been functioning well for five years. The pond has a surface area of 195 m, maximum depth of

Sai Hin Lai; Darrien Yau Seng Mah

2012-01-01

8

Lagoonal stormwater detention ponds as promoters of harmful algal blooms and eutrophication along the South Carolina coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rapidly urbanizing coastal zone of South Carolina, intensive landscape maintenance and turf management are significant sources of nonpoint source pollutant loadings. The best management practice of choice for stormwater in this region is wet detention ponds, the majority of which are brackish lagoons. Typically, stormwater is piped directly into the ponds, but ponds have limited capacity for processing

Alan J. Lewitus; Larissa M. Brock; Marianne K. Burke; Krista A. DeMattio; Susan B. Wilde

2008-01-01

9

3D modelling of transport, deposition and resuspension of highway deposited sediments in wet detention ponds.  

PubMed

The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of flows and transport of primarily particle bound pollutants in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to evaluate the quality of long term simulation based on historical rains series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and mud transport model is used for the investigation. The transport model has been calibrated and validated on e.g. experiments in a 30 m long concrete channel with width of 0.8 m and a water depth of approximately 0.8 m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account. PMID:20706022

Bentzen, T R

2010-01-01

10

Evaluation of the storm-water treatment facilities at the Lake Angel detention pond, Orange County, Florida. Final report, 2 Jan 90-1 Jul 91  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report on the use of Granulated Active Carbon (GAC) beds of Filtrasorb 400 in series to reduce the Trihalomethane Formation Potential (THMFP) concentrations at the Lake Angel detention pond, Orange County, Florida. The detention pond accepts runoff from an interstate highway and a commercial area. Breakthrough time was estimated from laboratory analyses and used to design

M. Wanielista; J. Charba; J. Dietz; B. Russell

1991-01-01

11

Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (?ESB-TU) derived for

John E. Weinstein; Kevin D. Crawford; Thomas R. Garner; Alan J. Flemming

2010-01-01

12

Detection of Small Ponds on ERTS-1 Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. It has been determined that ponds within forested areas as small as one hectare (2.5) acres are detectable from the ERTS-1 data. This finding was made from the analysis of scene No. 1037-16244 o...

R. B. Erb

1973-01-01

13

Ammonium sulfate solar pond: Observations from small-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

Using the fertilizer salt (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the authors established a salinity gradient solar pond in a small outdoor tank. The hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of the pond was similar to that observed in the past for solar ponds containing NaCl. For temperature gradients between 50 and 300 K/m and salinity gradients between 200 and 1400 kg/m{sup 4}, data relating the gradients to erosion and growth of the gradient zone were generally consistent with the Nielsen boundary criterion for NaCl. With a salinity difference of 20% between the upper and lower zones and a maximum lower-zone temperature of 83{degree}C, no instabilities were observed in the interior of the gradient zone. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in controlling algal populations and maintaining good brine transparency.

Hull, J.R. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA)); Bushnell, D.L.; Sempsrote, D.G. (Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb (USA)); Pena, A. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso (USA))

1989-01-01

14

Small ponds with major impact: The relevance of ponds and lakes in permafrost landscapes to carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ponds make up roughly half of the total area of surface water in permafrost landscapes, their relevance to carbon dioxide emissions on a landscape scale has, to date, remained largely unknown. We have therefore investigated the inflows and outflows of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon from lakes, ponds, and outlets on Samoylov Island, in the Lena Delta of northeastern Siberia in September 2008, together with their carbon dioxide emissions. Outgassing of carbon dioxide (CO2) from these ponds and lakes, which cover 25% of Samoylov Island, was found to account for between 74 and 81% of the calculated net landscape-scale CO2 emissions of 0.2-1.1 g C m-2 d-1 during September 2008, of which 28-43% was from ponds and 27-46% from lakes. The lateral export of dissolved carbon was negligible compared to the gaseous emissions due to the small volumes of runoff. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ponds were found to triple during freezeback, highlighting their importance for temporary carbon storage between the time of carbon production and its emission as CO2. If ponds are ignored the total summer emissions of CO2-C from water bodies of the islands within the entire Lena Delta (0.7-1.3 Tg) are underestimated by between 35 and 62%.

Abnizova, A.; Siemens, J.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

2012-06-01

15

LONG TERM DETENTION FOR THE STABILIZATION OF WASTEWATER BIOSOLIDS FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Treated biosolids from small wastewater treatment plants in mid-western US are usually disposed off by land application. This practice allows for the recycling of the nutrients present in the biosolids for food and fiber production and can help re-vegetate sites destroyed by mini...

16

Survival of monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little information is available on the survival of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ponds &mdash especially on the survival of fry to large fingerling stage, during the time when the most mortality would be expected. Development of monosex (all female) grass carp at the Fish Farming Experimental Station by the technique of artificial gynogenesis (Stanley et al. 1975) enabled us to observe survival to the large fingersling stage under several stocking densities and pond conditions. These limited observations, made incidentally to other studies, may provide clues for the development of management techniques to reduce mortality. Monosex fry were used in these observations, but there is no reason to suppose that survival of bisexual fry would have been different.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.

1977-01-01

17

Carbon and Oxygen fluxes from small ponds: a significant carbon source to the atmosphere from small headwater systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 250 days of 0.5 hr profiles (six level) have been analysed to determine the gas exchange fluxes of CO2 and O2 from a small pond (approx. 100mx100m; 1.2m max depth). Mirror Lake (Storrs, CT) exhibits net fluxes of both O2 and CO2 to the atmosphere of the order 83±90 mmoles CO2 m-2 day-1and 15±70 mmoles O2 m-2 day-1 indicating the pond is both highly productive and heterotrophic. The temporal variability of C flux is -10 to +1000mmoles CO2 m-2 day-1. If this pond is considered typical, the net flux of CO2 to the atmosphere from small ponds is order 1-3 x 1014 gC yr-1 making a net contribution to the carbon cycle comparable to lakes (1.4 x 1014 gC yr-1; Cole et al 1994) and rivers (3 x1014 gC yr-1; Maybeck 1993) and confirms a significant role for shallow aquatic systems in the carbon cycle. Microbial processing of allochthonous carbon in the pond strongly favors C export relative to O2 consumption via microbial pathways that utilize NO3 or fermentation; allochthonous terrestrial organic material exacerbates the export of carbon. Given the growth in number and area devoted to man-made ponds/impoundments and the large number of natural ponds (277million) worldwide, these small, shallow hydrologic systems represent an additional concern for global change and the carbon cycle.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.

2006-12-01

18

Ecological Studies on the Planktonic Protozoa of a Small Artificial Pond1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-year survey was conducted on a small artificial pond to determine environmental relationships of planktonic protozoa to physical and inorganic chemical factors. Collections were made at 9:00 A. M., Eastern Standard Time, every other day. Plank- tonic samples were taken from the surface and bottom, and sunlight intensity and tempera- ture were measured. Chemical analyses included alkalinity, carbon dioxide,

STUART S. BAMFORTII

19

Fate and biological effects of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) in small artificial ponds.  

PubMed

The effects from a simulated accidental pollution event in a pond with polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) on different trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem were investigated in small artificial ponds. Three 4.5-m3 volume ponds, interconnected with closable locks, were provided with natural lake sediment and ground water. Caged fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) were added to each pond, and the interconnecting locks were kept open to establish nearly identical physicochemical and biological conditions. At this stage, the ponds were isolated from one another and MDI was added at a dosage of 1 g/liter on top of the sediment of treated part of the first pond, 10 g/liter to the second pond, and 0 g/liter to the third pond (untreated control). Neither the applied monomer MDI nor its potential reaction product MDA (4,4'-diphenylmethanediamine) was detected in water or accumulated by fish. The MDI polymerized to inert polyurea on the sediment of the test ponds. This polymerization formed carbon dioxide, released as bubbles which floated to the water surface. Some carbon dioxide was solubilized in water and reduced the water pH of about 9 by 2.0 units as an average in the high-dosed pond and 0.7 in the low-dosed pond. This reduction caused some other minor changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the pond water. Neither application rate caused any direct effect on the pelagic community (phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes) of the test ponds. Some minor indirect effects caused by the production of carbon dioxide were observed in phyto- and zooplankton community structures. Also, an increase of macrophyte growth was noted. Organisms living in the untreated part of the sediment (macrobenthos) were affected as a result of physical obstructions in this habitat. These populations, however, regained densities equivalent to the control after some weeks, except for Bivalvia which have too long of a generation time for the test period of this study. PMID:8723751

Heimbach, F; Jaeger, K; Sporenberg, W

1996-03-01

20

Courtside: Constitutionalizing "Detentions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis of a November 2001 case in Botetourt County, Virginia, looks at whether the Fourth Amendment right against an unreasonable "seizure" or the 14th Amendment "liberty" for parents to control the care and custody of their children requires a ban on, or at least immediate notification regarding, detentions of a certain length when public…

Zirkel, Perry A.

2005-01-01

21

Missile Launcher Detent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The launcher is for launching a rocket propelled missile from a ship. The detent system positively locks the missile against longitudinal movement along its launching rail until the missile is ready to be launched, thereby retaining the missile in the lau...

R. Cromwell J. T. Bratton

1965-01-01

22

Technical and economic aspects of small-scale solar-pond-powered seawater desalination systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of potable water from sea- or brackish water can be achieved using a solar pond as a heat source coupled to a desalination unit. This paper describes the self-regulating ATLANTIS “Autoflash” multistage desalination system coupled to a solar pond. The operating principles of the desalination unit as well as of the solar pond are reviewed. Performance and layout

Tamás Szacsvay; Patrick Hofer-Noser; Mario Posnansky

1999-01-01

23

Design of a detention reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution contains the reasons for and the methods of flood protection for villages in small valleys attacked by flash floods, which cause high economic, cultural and social damage. One of the possible solutions is to build a detention reservoir, which has to retain the flood wave and prevent an odd amount of water from flowing out of the river bed. In this paper a model example is given. The aim of the example is to show (according to hydrological data) how to design the dimension parameters of the dam, i.e. the height of the dam, the outlet structure capacity, the spillway capacity, the stilling basin and the necessary river bed lining. Attention is paid to stability problems, as well.

Cipovová, K.

2011-03-01

24

Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.; Greenland, D. C.

1979-01-01

25

The Water Balance of a Small Pond in the High Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tundra ponds are ubiquitous features in the High Arctic. The water balance of one such pond situated on Ellesmere Island was found to be dependent upon the groundwater supplies from the internally-drained basin in which it was located. For the basin as a whole, evaporation constituted an important component of the water balance, accounting for over 90 per-cent of the

P. MARSH; M. K. WOO

26

Stormwater ponds and biofilters for large urban sites: Modeled arrangements that achieve the phosphorus reduction target for Boston's Charles River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban rivers daily receive tons of phosphorus and other pollutants from stormwater generated by impervious surfaces. Constructed detention ponds and biofiltration cells (biofilters) are often effective for localized stormwater treatment, yet less is known about their effectiveness for large built areas. Our goals were to assess stormwater phosphorus-removal relative to total percent cover, number, size, and configuration of detention ponds

Stephanie E. Hurley; Richard T. T. Forman

2011-01-01

27

Detention Operations: The Strategic Wildcard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the historical background of detention operations and current detainee missions, specifically, the detainee assessment process and its effect at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war. Further, it examines the value of ...

S. L. Donaldson

2011-01-01

28

Effects of acidification of metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Pb,Mg,Mn,Hg,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentration of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations in water significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal

Peter H. Albers; Michael B. Camardese

1993-01-01

29

Restoration of floating mat bog vegetation after eutrophication damages by improving water quality in a small pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied vegetation changes in a small floating mat bog in Mizorogaike Pond (Kyoto, Japan), which had experienced a severe\\u000a decrease in the number and area of hummocks caused by nutrient loading in the 1960s and 1970s, to examine whether reducing\\u000a the extent of nutrient loading can restore degraded wetland vegetation. However, nutrient loading in the region has been minimized

Riyou TsujinoNoboru; Noboru Fujita; Masao Katayama; Daiju Kawase; Kiyoshi Matsui; Akihiro Seo; Tetsuya Shimamura; Yasuhiro Takemon; Nozomi Tsujimura; Takakazu Yumoto; Atushi Ushimaru

2010-01-01

30

Special Detention Cases: Strategies for Handling Difficult Populations. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses strategies for handling difficult juvenile detention populations (warrant cases, probation violators, and post-adjudication detention). It offers strategies used in the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites and in other jurisdictions to reduce unnecessary detention in these special cases. Chapter 1, "Why…

Steinhart, David

31

Does biodiversity of macroinvertebrates and genome response of Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) reflect heavy metal pollution in a small pond?  

PubMed

The investigation was carried out on a small pond situated on a recent mine spoil at Boles?aw in the Olkusz region with Zn-Pb ore deposits. Water of the pond had pH 7.2-8.5 and low concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of Pb (487 ?g g(?-?1)) and Zn (1,991 ?g g(?-?1)) in the sediment were very high and potentially could lead to toxicological effects. In the pond, 48 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to Oligochaeta and water stages of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Diptera (mainly Chironomidae family) were found. The influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrates diversity was not found. Effect of heavy metal pollution was observed on the appearance of chromosome aberrations in the polytene chromosomes of Chironomidae larvae. It was manifested by two ways: (1) in Kiefferulus tendipediformis and Chironomus sp. chromosome rearrangements in fixed state (tandem fusion and homozygous inversions), indicated intensive process of speciation; (2) in Chironomus sp., K. tendipediformis, Glyptotendipes gripekoveni (Chironomidae) somatic chromosome rearrangements (inversions, deficiencies, specific puffs, polyploidy) affected few cells of every individual. The somatic functional and structural alterations in Chironomidae species are particular suitable as biomarkers-they can be easily identified and used for detecting toxic agents in the environment. PMID:21404014

Michailova, Paraskeva; Warcha?owska-?liwa, Elzbieta; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Kownacki, Andrzej

2011-03-15

32

Reducing Racial Disparities in Juvenile Detention. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1992, the Annie E. Casey Foundation launched a multiyear, multisite project known as the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). This report focuses on reducing racial disparities in juvenile detention. The number of youth held in secure detention nationwide increased by 72% from 1985 to 1995. During this period, the number of white…

Hoytt, Eleanor Hinton; Schiraldi, Vincent; Smith, Brenda V.; Ziedenberg, Jason

33

The JDAI Story: Building a Better Juvenile Detention System. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform. Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph describes the work of five Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites designed to streamline and rationalize local juvenile detention systems and to reduce overcrowding in juvenile detention centers, thus improving conditions and saving jurisdictions money in overtime and additional staff and millions of dollars to…

Stanfield, Rochelle

34

Reducing Racial Disparities in Juvenile Detention. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992, the Annie E. Casey Foundation launched a multiyear, multisite project known as the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). This report focuses on reducing racial disparities in juvenile detention. The number of youth held in secure detention nationwide increased by 72% from 1985 to 1995. During this period, the number of white…

Hoytt, Eleanor Hinton; Schiraldi, Vincent; Smith, Brenda V.; Ziedenberg, Jason

35

Effects of three highway-runoff detention methods on water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida was evaluated at one exfiltration pipe, two ponds (detention and retention), and two swales in central Florida, representing three runoff-detention methods, to detect any effect from infiltrating highway runoff. Concentrations of major ions, metals, and nutrients in groundwater and bottom sediments were measured from 1984 through 1986. At each study area, constituent concentrations in groundwater near the structure were compared to concentrations in groundwater from an upgradient control site. Groundwater quality data were also pooled by detention method and statistically compared to detect any significant differences between methods. Significantly greater mean phosphorus concentrations in groundwater near the exfiltration pipe than those in the control well was the only evidence of increasing constituent concentrations in groundwater near structures. The quality of water was more variable, and had greater constituent concentrations in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone near the exfiltration pipe. Values of water quality variables measured in groundwater at all study areas generally were within State drinking water standards. The main exception was dissolved iron, which commonly exceeded 300 micrograms/L at one swale and the detention pond. Results of the study indicate that natural processes occurring in soils attenuate inorganic constituent concentrations prior to reaching the receiving groundwater. However, organic compounds detected in bottom sediments at the retention pond indicate a potential problem that may eventually affect the quality of the receiving groundwater. (USGS)

Schiffer, D. M.

1989-01-01

36

Solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

1980-04-01

37

Youth in detention and handguns.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to describe the frequency and correlates of handgun ownership and firearm injury experiences among youth in a detention facility. A convenience sample of 89 males detained in the King County Youth Services Center, a short-term holding facility, voluntarily completed an anonymous survey. Results showed that 59% of the youth reported owning a handgun. Firearm experiences included carrying a gun to school (46%); firing at another person (68% of handgun owners); firearm injury to self (27%); death of a close friend or family member to firearm homicide or suicide (35%). Personal safety far exceeded recreational use of guns as motivation for self-arming (52% versus 4%). Handgun ownership was more common among youth who reported problem behaviors. Adjusting for age and controlling for covariation of the problem behaviors, gang membership [odds ratio (OR) 6.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-26.1], committing assault and battery (OR 7.7; 95% CI 2.2-26.8) and selling drugs (OR 3.6; 95% CI 0.99-13.4) were associated with handgun ownership. Our conclusion was that firearm experiences for youth in detention pose health risks equal to or far exceeding other high-risk behaviors in this population. PMID:8399245

Callahan, C M; Rivara, F P; Farrow, J A

1993-07-01

38

Solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

Tabor, H.

39

Big fish in a small pond: advantages and disadvantages of a first-mover strategy.  

PubMed

The case of a free-standing psychiatric hospital moving into a small rural market as the sole provider of hospital-based psychiatric services is examined as an example of a first-mover strategy. The theoretical bases for a first mover advantage are considered together with an analysis of the situational factors necessary to the strategy's success. The case study illustrates some of the potential consequences of success, namely the attraction of a new competitor with a broader scope of services. The case also illustrates other lessons for market niche competitors in enhancing their likelihood of survival and success in their selected market. PMID:10170368

Fuller, D A; Scammon, D L; Davis, R T

1995-01-01

40

9. Photocopy of a 1942 architectural drawing titled: 'Detention Ward, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of a 1942 architectural drawing titled: 'Detention Ward, WARD-L-H. Elevation, Sections & Roof Framing.' 10-31-42 - Madigan Hospital, Detention Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

41

10. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Detention Ward, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Detention Ward, WARD-S-H. Plan & Schedules.' 6-22-43 - Madigan Hospital, Detention Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

42

Desktop Guide to Good Juvenile Detention Practice. Research Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Volunteer Network; In Memoriam; Foreword; Introduction; Part I PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS: Historical Perspective; Juvenile Detention and the Law; Defining Juvenile Detention; Adolescent Development and Delinquency; Rights and Responsibili...

D. W. Roush

1996-01-01

43

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective...

2009-01-01

44

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective...

2010-01-01

45

Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.|

Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

2007-01-01

46

Determinants of Length of Stay at Woodside Juvenile Detention Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study used both quantitative and qualitative data to examine determinants of length of stay at Woodside Juvenile Detention Center, Vermont's only locked juvenile detention facility. We analyzed Woodside data for the 358 admissions that occurred betwe...

M. L. Bellas W. H. Clements

2004-01-01

47

21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2013-04-01

48

The Little School Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)|

Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

1973-01-01

49

Measuring infiltrability in an Australian dryland soil: inconsistent results from ponded cylinder infiltrometry and simulated rainfall over small plots.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dryland soils present challenges to the field measurement of infiltrability, which may include stoniness, brittle surface seals and crusts, high mechanical strength, tendency to slake rapidly, and changes in properties arising during desiccation and re-wetting. In a contour-aligned mosaic shrubland, soil infiltrabilities were measured on initially dry soils using simulated rainfall of moderate intensity (10 mm/h), on plots 0.5 x 0.5 m. Experiments were run until runoff had stabilised and infiltrability was then calculated as the difference between the equilibrium rainfall and runoff rates. The plots were allowed to dry, following which ponded cylinder infiltrometer tests were carried out within the boundaries of each plot. These used cylinders of 100 mm diameter and ponding depths of 10 mm. Cylinder tests suggested infiltrabilities averaging 11.5 mm/h (range 2.2 - 37.1 mm/h). In contrast, the rainfall simulation plots yielded a mean of 4.2 mm/h (range 2.74 - 7.63 mm/h). Across 14 plots, test results from the two methods were moderately well correlated (r2 = 0.7). Apart from differences in the areal scale of the tests (plot area was ~ 32 times cylinder area) and probably greater evaporative loss from splash droplets (plots), the major reason for the differing results appeared to be the absence of droplet impacts and seal formation in ponded tests. Though the ranking of sites in terms of infiltrability did not differ greatly with the method of measurement, the differing absolute values are important. Ponded tests suggest that little overland flow would arise in the local climate, whilst the plot results suggest that moderately frequent rainfall events would exceed soil infiltrability. The next phase of this work is to examine the significance of imposed rainfall rate and the temporal variability of rainfall on the apparent soil infiltrabilty, using data derived from local pluviograph records.

Dunkerley, David

2010-05-01

50

Hydrologic considerations associated with dredging spring ponds in Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring ponds (small spring-fed bodies of water) are natural features of some glaciated areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrology of three spring ponds in northeastern Wisconsin and the effects that dredging has had on the ponds. Sediments were dredged from Sunshine and Krause Ponds. Maxwell Pond, which was not dredged, was used as a hydrologic control. Sediment accumulation since glaciation caused a 2-fold reduction in the surface area of Sunshine Pond and a 4-fold reduction in the area of Krause Pond. Volume reduction caused by sediment accumulation was 9-fold in Sunshine Pond and 28-fold in Krause Pond. Dredging 4.2 acre-feet of sediment from Sunshine Pond caused a 41-percent increase in ground-water inflow. Dredging 4.0 acre-feet of sediments from Krause Pond caused only a 2-percent increase in ground-water inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

Rose, William J.

1977-01-01

51

Sexuality Education Groups in Juvenile Detention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a coeducational sex education program for 15 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility. Subjects completed Hudson's Index of Self-Esteem and a knowledge/attitude test. Results indicated improved knowledge and attitudes about sexuality, contraception and venereal disease, as well as improved self-esteem. (JAC)

Farrow, James A.; Schroeder, Elaine

1984-01-01

52

Immigration-Related Detention: Current Legislative Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] As Congress considers reforming the nation’s immigration system, the detention of noncitizens in the United States will likely be an issue. Under the law, there is broad authority to detain aliens while awaiting a determination of whether the noncitizen should be removed from the United States. The law also mandates that certain categories of aliens are subject to mandatory

Chad C Haddal; Alison Siskin

2010-01-01

53

Detention of U.S. Citizens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1971, Congress passed legislation to repeal the Emergency Detention Act of 1950 and to enact the following language: 'No citizen shall be imprisoned or otherwise detained by the United States except pursuant to an Act of Congress.' The new language, co...

L. Fisher

2005-01-01

54

Detention of American Citizens as Enemy Combatants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Supreme Court in 2004 issued three decisions related to the detention of 'enemy combatants,' including two that deal with U.S. citizens in military custody on American soil. In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, a plurality held that a U.S. citizen allegedly captured...

J. K. Elsea

2005-01-01

55

Human Rights and the Elusive Universal Subject: Immigration Detention Under International Human Rights and EU Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The right to liberty is ubiquitous in human rights instruments, in essence protecting all individuals from arbitrary arrest and detention. Yet, in practice, immigration detention is increasingly routine, even automatic, across Europe. Asylum seekers in particular have been targeted for detention. While international human rights law limits detention, its protections against immigration detention are weaker than in other contexts, as

Cathryn Costello

2012-01-01

56

HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard\\u000a living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and\\u000a other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics\\u000a in the communities to which prisoners return upon their

Ralf Jürgens; Manfred Nowak; Marcus Day

2011-01-01

57

Formal justifications for compulsory psychiatric detention.  

PubMed

The formal justifications for all detentions under s.2 of the Mental Health Act 1983 within an inner-city mental health trust were examined over a 12-month period. The study explored: the nature of the justifications for detention; the extent to which these were associated with patient characteristics; and the extent to which the two medical practitioners involved in each case agreed on the justifications. The justifications reflected a greater emphasis on the protection of the individual concerned rather than the protection of others. A content analysis of the textual justifications revealed five broad themes: the nature of the risk posed by the patient; the patient's capacity to provide informed consent; their need for hospitalization; their lack of consent to informal admission; and their reliability or likely compliance. There was a significant association between patients' sex, ethnic group, diagnosis and the nature of risk indicated in the documentation, but further research is needed to clarify the nature of this association. The study found that in nearly a quarter of cases, the two professionals did not agree about whether or not the patient presented a danger to others. This lack of agreement was not associated with any patient or professional characteristics, and may reflect the complexity of this area of risk assessment. The authors suggest that the issue of 'risk' needs to be addressed in a more sophisticated manner within the Mental Health Act. Specifically, further guidance is needed as to the nature and levels of risk that constitute grounds for detention. Further guidance is also needed regarding the issues that need to be recorded on the legal documentation for detention. PMID:11281354

Dixon, M; Oyebode, F; Brannigan, C

2000-10-01

58

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Metals in Florida Stormwater Ponds and Assessment as Alternative Water Supplies for Irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclaimed water treated to achieve public access irrigation water quality is currently used and regulated as a water resource management technique to supplement potable water. It is believed that stormwater from detention ponds can also be used for irrigation at public access areas such as golf courses, parks, schools, and residences in the State of Florida. To date little work

Theresa R. Slifko; Marty Wanielista

59

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other...MERCHANDISE Merchandise Subject to Economic Sanctions § 12.150 Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or...

2009-04-01

60

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other...MERCHANDISE Merchandise Subject to Economic Sanctions § 12.150 Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or...

2013-04-01

61

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other...MERCHANDISE Merchandise Subject to Economic Sanctions § 12.150 Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or...

2010-04-01

62

Using Media Advocacy to Promote Detention Reform: A Practice Guide to Juvenile Detention Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written specifically for juvenile justice advocates and officials, this handbook provides step-by-step media approaches to promote the system reforms achieved through the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Those interested in learning all the nuts and bolts of media advocacy may choose to read this guide from cover to cover.…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

63

Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMany adolescents admitted to detention facilities have serious mental and physical health problems. Little is known about policies for the delivery of mental and physical health care in these settings. Our objective was to describe current health care policies in U.S. detention facilities.

KATHLEEN A. PAJER; KELLY KELLEHER; RAVINDRA A. GUPTA; JENNIFER ROLLS; WILLIAM GARDNER

2007-01-01

64

Nonarrest Investigatory Detentions in Search and Seizure Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under current law the police may detain a suspect for investigatory purposes without meeting the legal requirements that protect individuals who are placed under arrest. Police authority to conduct such investigatory detentions, however, is limited by fourth amendment considerations and, in some jurisdictions, by local statutory and case law. There is a tendency to view issues arising from nonarrest detentions

George E. Dix

1985-01-01

65

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

2013-04-01

66

27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26.194 Section 26.194 Alcohol...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...Puerto Rico § 26.194 Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a...

2013-04-01

67

The Restorative Justice Center: An Alternative to School Detention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The traditional "stay silent, sit still, do nothing" school detention approach is a punitive and ineffective way to change behavior. It does little to create positive school climates. For children who have been traumatized through fear, isolation, and emotional abuse, poorly managed detention can add to that trauma. A restorative justice approach…

Ashworth, Julie; Van Bockern, Steve; Ailts, Julie; Donnelly, Jason; Erickson, Kelsey; Woltermann, Jenna

2008-01-01

68

In Aid of Removal: Due Process Limits on Immigration Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Article, I seek to demonstrate the radical consequences that taking due process seriously would have for immigration detention as currently practiced. Part I lays out the general principles that apply to civil preventive detention, which establish that substantive due process is violated without an individualized showing after a fair adversarial hearing that there is something to prevent, namely

David D. Cole

2002-01-01

69

28 CFR 0.123 - Federal Detention Trustee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...law related to the detention of Federal prisoners in non-Federal institutions or otherwise in the custody of the United States Marshals Service in accordance with 28 U.S.C. 530C(b)(7). (b) The Detention Trustee shall: (1) Manage funds...

2013-07-01

70

Detente: A Role for U.S.-Soviet Exchanges?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contribution of international exchanges (e.g., cultural activities, tourism, student exchange) to detente enhancement is assessed. International exchanges have a capacity for engendering trust and for providing cultural, political, and economic benefit, two characteristics of policy acts which tend to enhance detente. A comparison of four very…

Herman, Paul F., Jr.

71

Juvenile Jailhouse Rocked: Reforming Detention in Chicago, Portland, and Sacramento.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1992, the Annie E. Casey Foundation launched the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI), which sought to demonstrate that communities could improve their detention systems without sacrificing public safety. It awarded grants to five urban jurisdictions in order to: reach consensus among all juvenile justice agencies about the…

Rust, Bill

72

Mathematical modeling of ultimate heat sink cooling ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general treatment of ultimate heat sink (UHS) cooling pond thermal performance is proposed through the application of a three-dimensional grid model. Validation of the model has been shown through comparisons of predictions with data from a field and laboratory pond. The advantage of the model lies in its ability to determine the detailed character of the flow field whether it be one, two, or three dimensional. Existing models require a priori knowledge of the character and dimensionality of the flow field in such ponds. Application of the model to a prototype UHS pond revealed that the balance of physical mechanisms involved in the thermal hydraulics of these ponds is quite different than for ponds used in normal cooling. The small, heavily-loaded, irregularly-shaped nature of the UHS pond should, in many cases, lead to a vertically mixed pond with only a one-dimensional (longitudinal) variation in pond temperature.

Policastro, A. J.; Wastag, M.; Dunn, W. E.; Leylak, J.; Gavin, F.; Carhart, R. A.

1985-03-01

73

OPTIMIZING FRY POND FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pond fertilization practices for channel catfish fry are discussed, with recommendations made for improving zooplankton composition in earthen ponds. We suggest using only established ponds for fry culture, filling ponds 7-10 d before stocking, and applying inorganic fertilizer at an initial rate o...

74

Habitats of the Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners locate and study plants and animals in several freshwater pond habitats. Learners take various samples from the pond, identify organisms using a pond guide, and collaborate to create a pond map. Includes background information, but it is recommended that learners do the activity What Lives Here?, also by OBIS, before this activity.

Science, Lawrence H.

1981-01-01

75

Overflow risk analysis for designing a nonpoint sources control detention.  

PubMed

This paper presents a design method by which the overflow risk related to a detention for managing nonpoint pollutant sources in urban areas can be evaluated. The overall overflow risk of a nonpoint pollutant sources control detention can be estimated by inherent overflow risk and operational overflow risk. For the purpose of calculating overflow risk, the 3-parameter mixed exponential distribution is applied to describe the probability distribution of rainfall event depth. As a rainfall-runoff calculation procedure required for deriving a rainfall capture curve, the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service runoff curve number method is applied to consider the nonlinearity of the rainfall-runoff relation. Finally, the detention overflow risk is assessed with respect to the detention design capacity and drainage time. The proposed overflow risk assessment is expected to provide a baseline to determine quantitative parameters in designing a nonpoint sources control detention. PMID:22852429

Choi, Chi Hyun; Cho, Seonju; Park, Moo Jong; Kim, Sangdan

2012-05-01

76

Stratification dynamics in wastewater stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements show that wastewater stabilization ponds although often only 1–2 m deep stratify and destratify intermittently depending primarily on weather. Stratification can be observed in vertical profiles of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and other water quality parameters. In three stabilization ponds of a small Minnesota town, stratification develops primarily by differential heating of the pondwater through its surface and,

Ruochuan Gu; Heinz G. Stefan

1995-01-01

77

HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

2011-01-01

78

Sexuality education groups in juvenile detention.  

PubMed

Several major studies have described the magnitude and character of adolescent sexual activity and sexual knowledge related to contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (Diepold & Young, 1979; Hass, 1979; Sorenson, 1973; Zelnick & Kantner, 1980). Few systematic studies have been conducted, however, which analyze the attitudes toward sexuality and contraception of delinquent adolescents who are generally school dropouts and who may engage in socially unacceptable behaviors such as running away, drug abuse, and prostitution. Delinquent youths, especially delinquent girls, have been characterized as being more sexually active and less sexually knowledgeable than their nondelinquent peers (Gibbon, 1981; Mannarino & Marsh, 1978). Despite the assumed high-risk nature of this delinquent population, few juvenile detention facilities have offered systematically evaluated coeducational sex education programs. One barrier to implementation of such programs in juvenile detention centers is the lack of a treatment or program orientation of most staff, and/or staff denial of adolescent sexuality in general, an attitude which suppresses the development of healthier sexual values and often promotes pathologic sexual interaction within institutions (Shore & Gochros, 1981). A recent survey of adolescent sexuality (Diepold, 1979) points out that teenagers' feelings about their "sexual selves" impacts greatly upon their general self-image. Low self-esteem is more frequently found among delinquents than nondelinquents (Jones & Swain, 1977; Lund & Salury, 1980), and treatment for delinquent girls often focuses on increasing self-esteem and developing assertiveness skills based on feelings of self-worth (DeLange, Lanahan, & Barton, 1981; NiCarthy, 1981). Two studies carried out with juvenile detainees from a large urban center confirmed that sexual activity among delinquent adolescents is significantly greater than that of the general adolescent population, and that the delinquents have little or no knowledge of birth control methods or venereal disease (Deisher, 1980; Schroeder, 1981). Further, these adolescents appear to endorse constricted and conventional values related to sexual activity, abortion, and relationship issues and frequently have a background of sexual abuse and prostitution. These findings form the basis of the current study which attempts to develop an effective coeducational sex education program for this population within a detention facility. This program is specifically designed for a sexually active adolescent group aged 14 to 17. PMID:6516931

Farrow, J A; Schroeder, E

1984-01-01

79

Estimating Effective Vertical Diffusivity in Shallow Ponds by a Constrained Flux-Gradient Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow ponds have been used to mitigate the deleterious effects of storm water run-off by acting as detention\\/retention basins that sequester run-off associated pollutants in sediments. Studies show that the retention efficiency of these systems can decrease over time as a result of the internal loading of nutrients\\/contaminants from the sediments back to the water column where they are available

J. R. Bean; T. Torgersen

2004-01-01

80

8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 236.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF...Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria Philippines Poland 4 4 Consular communication...

2009-01-01

81

8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 236.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF...Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria Philippines Poland 4 4 Consular communication...

2010-01-01

82

28 CFR 541.23 - Administrative detention status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hearing for possibly violating a Bureau regulation or criminal law; (2) Transfer. You are pending transfer to another...Post-disciplinary detention. You are ending confinement in disciplinary segregation status, and your return to the general population...

2013-07-01

83

13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast from bed of Abram Creek. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

84

Design and Use of Brushless DC Motor Without Detent Torque.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two applications of motors which cannot accept a residual detent torque due to the rotor magnets are presented. The first application concerns the joint mechanism of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/HERA project. The brushless torque motor drives ...

N. Wavre

1990-01-01

85

FDA Issues Interim Final Rule on Administrative Detention of ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... News & Events. Constituent Updates. -. FDA Issues Interim Final Rule on Administrative Detention of Food and Feed Products. May 4, 2011. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates

86

Retention deficit: Evaluating retention pond effectiveness at controlling suburban stormwater runoff, James City County, Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stormwater retention ponds (SRP) have become a significant component of suburban hydrology. SRPs are designed to protect streams by releasing storm runoff slowly, reducing peak flows generated from developed surfaces. Despite widespread use, little data has been collected to assess their success at controlling stormwater quantity. We present data from two SRPs in James City County, Virginia, to assess whether they manage stormwater as designed and achieve stream protection goals. Pond A collects runoff from a ~7 acre residential development (~23 homes on ~0.25 acre lots), and Pond B collects runoff from a ~22 acre development (~50 homes on ~0.3 acre lots). The SRPs are designed to retain the runoff produced by the one year, 24 hr storm (2.8 inches) for 24 hrs as well as to reduce peak discharge below uncontrolled conditions. At each pond, a pressure transducer connected to a datalogger records pond elevation every 15 min, from which pond outflow and inflow are obtained. A tipping bucket raingage at each site records rainfall totals. We analyzed data for 16 significant rainfall events from July through December 2004. All rainfall was less than the one yr, 24 hr design storm, and pond flows should therefore be less than the flow expected to occur in such an event. However, pond flows frequently exceeded this threshold. At Pond A, flows exceeded that predicted for the one year storm at least four times. Inflow exceeded the predicted 2 yr storm response four times, and outflow exceeded the 25 yr storm response three times. At Pond B, inflow exceeded the one yr storm response five times, while outflow exceeded the one yr storm response nine times, with one exceedence of the 10 yr outflow. In 16 events, Pond A met the 24 hr runoff detention goal only once, with detention ranging from 0.5 -10.5 hrs during other events. These results suggest that these SRPs receive and release higher peak discharges than intended, and often release captured stormwater over periods much shorter than the regulatory goal. The receiving streams are exposed to higher peak discharges and to larger sustained high flows. The failure to perform as designed may result from underprediction of developed runoff in pond design, leading to undersized ponds, and/or to a lack of pond maintenance following construction.

Hancock, G. S.; Popkin, M. B.

2005-12-01

87

Solar pond technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar pond technology has made substantial progress in the last fifteen years. This paper reviews the basic principles of\\u000a solar ponds and the problems encountered in their operation and maintenance. The factors which influence the technical and\\u000a economic viability of solar ponds for thermal applications and power generation have been discussed.

J Srinivasan

1993-01-01

88

Viscosity stabilized solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar pond is a device proposed for collecting and storing solar energy. Originally proposed as a heat source for a central solar power plant, a solar pond can be used also to supply domestic heat. For the latter application, it is proposed to render the pond static through addition of thickeners to the fluid. Data on the total solar

L. H. Shaffer

1978-01-01

89

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

90

ExplorA-Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ExplorA-Pond is an online opportunity for collaborative science among classrooms from around the world. Classrooms that register with the site can adopt a local pond and submit the results of one or more of the Pond Activities/ Lesson Plans. Regardless of whether your classroom chooses to register, the activities and lesson plans designed for K-6th graders provide a hands-on approach to science and math lessons. A virtual pond option is even provided in the event that it is impractical for classrooms to visit and survey a real local pond.

2008-09-10

91

[Legal probation after deferred retrospective preventive detention: implications for the amended regulations on preventive detention].  

PubMed

The study examines the legal probation of offenders who are considered to be highly dangerous but due to the decision of the Federal High Court were not in retrospective preventive detention (§ 66b StGB). In view of the current discussion, in anticipation of a detailed presentation of the study results the relevant criteria "probation behavior", "personality characteristics" and "prognosis quality" are picked out. The results are evaluated with respect to knowledge of the restrictions conditioned by the study regarding the usefulness for the prognosis of reoffending. The results of this study suggest that it might be useful to describe psychological criteria for the not seriously reoffending group of probands. PMID:22588561

Müller, J L; Stolpmann, G; Fromberger, P; Haase, K A; Jordan, K

2013-03-01

92

No refuge from terror: the impact of detention on the mental health of trauma-affected refugees seeking asylum in Australia.  

PubMed

The final decades of the twentieth century were accompanied by an upsurge in the number of persons fleeing persecution and regional wars. To stem the flow of asylum seekers, several countries in the west introduced policies of deterrence, including detention. Although many countries detain asylum seekers, Australia has been unique in establishing a policy of mandatory, indefinite detention. The impact of prolonged detention on the mental health of asylum seekers drew commentary from mental health professionals soon after the policy was introduced, but administrators and politicians disputed the assertion that detention was a factor in causing or exacerbating mental disorder. This overview examines the impact of mandatory, indefinite detention on the mental health of asylum seekers by drawing on evidence gathered during Commissions of Inquiry, from observations of health and mental health professionals who have worked in detention centres, and from the small body of systematic research undertaken among immigration detainees. The data from all sources converge in demonstrating that prolonged detention has adverse mental health and psychosocial impacts on adults, families and children. Recent studies suggest that the mental health effects may be prolonged, extending well beyond the point of release into the community. The Australian experience offers general lessons to health professionals worldwide about the importance of remaining vigilant in protecting the rights of vulnerable groups, and more specifically, to ensure that the traumas that cause mental suffering in refugees are not compounded as a consequence of immigration policy decisions in recipient countries. Documentation and research can be vital in achieving policy change in these settings. PMID:17938152

Silove, Derrick; Austin, Patricia; Steel, Zachary

2007-09-01

93

Sediment management in sustainable urban drainage system ponds.  

PubMed

Since removal and disposal of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) sediment can incur high maintenance costs, assessments of sediment volumes, quality and frequency of removal are required. Sediment depth and quality were surveyed annually from 1999-2003 in three ponds and one wetland in Dunfermline, Scotland, UK. Highest sediment accumulation occurred in Halbeath Pond, in the most developed watershed and with no surface water management train. From comparison of measured potentially toxic metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) with standards, the average sediment quality should not impair aquatic ecosystems. 72-84% of the metal flux into the SUDS was estimated to be associated with coarse sediment (> 500 microm diameter) suggesting that management of coarse sediment is particularly important at this site. The timing of sediment removal for these SUDS is expected to be determined by loss of storage volume, rather than by accumulation of contaminants. If sediment removal occurs when 25% of the SUDS storage volume has infilled, it would be required after 17 years in Halbeath Pond, but only after 98 years in Linburn Pond (which has upstream detention basins). From the quality measurements, sediment disposal should be acceptable on adjacent land within the boundaries of the SUDS studied. PMID:16838706

Heal, K V; Hepburn, D A; Lunn, R J

2006-01-01

94

42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or conditional release of individuals, for the purpose of preventing the introduction,...

2011-10-01

95

42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or conditional release of individuals, for the purpose of preventing the introduction,...

2012-10-01

96

48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal... 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA),...

2012-10-01

97

48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal... 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA),...

2011-10-01

98

9 CFR 329.1 - Article or livestock subject to administrative detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Article or livestock subject to administrative detention...CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.1 Article or livestock subject to administrative detention...carcass, meat or meat food product of livestock, or article exempted from the...

2013-01-01

99

21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2013-04-01

100

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2013-04-01

101

Seasonal Evolution of Surface Detention and Retention Properties with Rain Erosivity, at the Interill Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-topography, in interaction with the global slope, triggers and directs surface runoff. By concentrating the overland flow, it can promote the development of eroded pathways, while, by delimiting depressions where water accumulates, it can favor sedimentation. These erosion-deposition processes will in turn modify the micro-topography. The erosion-deposition processes depend on the runoff velocity field. Locally, velocity is a function of the water depth, of the local slope, of the friction of the bed and of backwater effects due to constrictions by obstacles. All those factors will evolve with the history of a particular site, favoring the connectivity of the runoff. According to the spatial patterns of the micro-topography, the runoff may conceptually be distributed among two compartments, each influencing the runoff connectivity: the surface retention and the surface detention. The surface retention (also called depression storage or dead storage) is the amount of water stored in surface pits and depressions. This water will subsequently infiltrate or evaporate. On the contrary, the surface detention corresponds to the water storage in excess of depression storage. It is due to the presence of flowing water and is proportional to the discharge itself. This amount of water will deplete as discharge decreases, and flow away at the end of the rain event. The velocity of the runoff is highly variable in space and particularly between the surface retention zones and the surface detention zones. In order to understand the connectivity evolution of a soil surface subjected to rainfall and runoff, we studied the seasonal evolution of the surface detention and retention hydrologic properties, for a bare soil just after tillage. Since surface detention and retention are not easily measured in situ due to the perturbing effect of the infiltration that occurs simultaneously during a rain event, we developed a fast and cheap in situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates a stable, and almost impermeable artificial reproduction (to within 1 mm) of the in situ soil micro-topography, preserving the small scale overhangs. Ten molds (0.5 m2 each) were thus made, at 5 different stages during a 3 month period. Rainfall and runoff experiments with a dye tracer have been made on the artificial micro-topographies, under laboratory conditions. For each micro-topography, the volume of the depression storage and its relative surface connection function is computed, as well as the volume of the surface detention and its tortuosity as a function of the rain intensity. From this data set, we propose simple models for the evolution, at the early stage, of the surface detention and retention properties as a function of cumulative rainfall erosivivity.

Bielders, C.; Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.

2009-12-01

102

Peaceful Coexistence and Detente: The Soviet Quest for Security in the Post-War Era.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cyclical nature of Soviet interest in peaceful coexistence and detente is demonstrated by the 1955 Geneva summit, the 1959 'spirit of Camp David,' the 1963 Moscow accords, the detente of the SALT I period, and the renewed Soviet interest in detente as...

P. J. Ryan

1979-01-01

103

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention order? 1.393...for Human or Animal Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order?...

2010-04-01

104

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention order? 1.393...for Human or Animal Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order?...

2009-04-01

105

Prison Exit Samples as a Source for Indicators of Pretrial Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many governments, civil society organizations, and international development agencies today seek to limit the use of pretrial detention in criminal justice. Motivations vary. Some believe that pretrial detention is ordered indiscriminately and employed for unreasonably long periods; others are concerned with the conditions of confinement and the burdens detention places on families; still others worry about the criminogenic effects of

Todd S Foglesong; Christopher Stone

2011-01-01

106

Watershed Interactions Affecting Pond Acidification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Watershed history and geochemistry, and pond response to snowmelt were studied at six remote ponds in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Changes in pond chemistry have resulted from watershed disturbances, particularly forest fires and beaver activitie...

D. C. Buso S. W. Bailey S. F. Baird J. W. Hornbeck C. W. Martin

1984-01-01

107

Koi in pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Koi fish are somewhat related to goldfish. You can think of them as very large goldfish. Koi fish are usually kept in large ponds. Goldfish are often kept as pets in fish bowls or ponds. They are domesticated animals from a carp species and are not often found in the wild.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-12-09

108

Indoor Pond Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This year-long science program involved fifth grade students in the investigation of a meadow pond. Two field trips to collect pond water and organisms were arranged for the beginning and conclusion of the program. Classroom activities were designed to study aquatic organisms, life cycles, populations, and ecosystems. (MA)|

Kunkel, Erika R.

1977-01-01

109

Jail Pedagogy: Liberatory Education inside a California Juvenile Detention Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Approximately 2 million juveniles are arrested each year. Half are sentenced to serve terms of incarceration. Although many scholars have written about teaching in detention facilities, few directly address how prisoners are being taught. This research explores the experiences, teaching philosophy, and practices of correctional educators. To…

Flores, Jerry

2012-01-01

110

Is the Preventive Detention of Dangerous Offenders Justifiable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preventive detention of dangerous offenders involves detaining individuals to keep them from committing crimes in the future. In terms of logic, this idea sounds good; after all, prevention is better than dealing with the aftermath of crimes committed. This especially holds true for serious crimes such as rape, murder, and other offenses that endanger life and limb, which preventive

Jessica Black

2011-01-01

111

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or (3) A private family home approved by the tribe. (b) A minor who is 16 years of age or older may be detained in a jail facility used for the detention of adults only if: (1) A facility in paragraph (a) of this section is not available...

2011-04-01

112

HIV\\/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Injection drug use (IDU) is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV\\/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in

Weidong Zhang; Xinya Wang; Xi Chen; Fan Lv

2010-01-01

113

Conditions of Confinement: Juvenile Detention and Corrections Facilities. Research Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The most comprehensive nationwide research ever conducted on the juvenile detention and corrections field was a study by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) assessing conditions of confinement for juveniles and determining the extent to which those conditions conform to recognized national professional standards. The…

Parent, Dale G.; And Others

114

Conditions of Confinement: Juvenile Detention and Corrections Facilities. Research Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most comprehensive nationwide research ever conducted on the juvenile detention and corrections field was a study by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) assessing conditions of confinement for juveniles and determining the extent to which those conditions conform to recognized national professional standards. The…

Parent, Dale G.; And Others

115

Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss

S. Förster; B. Kuhlmann; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; A. Bronstert

2008-01-01

116

Preventive Detention, Character Evidence, and the New Criminal Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new criminal law has emerged in the last quarter century. The dominant goal of the new criminal law is preventive detention-incarceration to incapacitate dangerous persons. The emergence of the new criminal law has remade both sentencing law and definitions of crimes themselves. The new criminal law has also begun to remake the law of evidence. As incapacitation has become

Ted Sampsell-Jones

2010-01-01

117

Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

2006-01-01

118

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01

119

The Woods and Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

120

Thermal structure of cooling ponds  

SciTech Connect

Technical report:The thermal stratification of cooling ponds used for power plant operation is analyzed. Stratification mechanisms in cooling ponds are identified. Differences in thermal structure between shallow and deep cooling ponds are discussed. Well-stratified cooling ponds are characterized by a uniform thin surface layer. A mathematical model that describes the degree of vertical stratification in shallow ponds is presented. (2 diagrams, 7 graphs, 22 references)

Jirka, G.H.; Watanabe, M.

1980-05-01

121

Exploring Pond Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)|

Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

1975-01-01

122

Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

123

COMORBID PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate six-month prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (gender, race/ethnicity, and age). Design Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3) to randomly selected detainees. Setting A large temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3). Results Significantly more females (56.5%) than males (45.9%) met criteria for 2 or more of the following disorders: major depressive, dysthymic, manic, psychotic, panic, separation-anxiety, overanxious, generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive, attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional-defiant, alcohol, marijuana, and other substance; 17.3% of females and 20.4% of males had only one disorder. We also examined types of disorder: affective, anxiety, substance use and ADHD/behavioral. The odds of having comorbid disorders were higher than expected by chance for most demographic subgroups, except when base rates of disorders were already high, or when cell sizes were small. Nearly 14% of females and 11% of males had both a major mental disorder (psychosis, manic episode, or major depressive episode) and a substance use disorder. Compared to participants with no major mental disorder (the residual category), those with a major mental disorder had significantly greater odds (1.8–4.1) of having substance use disorders. Nearly 30% of females and over 20% of males with substance use disorders had major mental disorders. Rates of some types of comorbidity were higher among non-Hispanic whites and older adolescents. Conclusion Comorbid psychiatric disorders are a major health problem among detained youth. We recommend directions for research and discuss how to improve treatment and reduce health disparities in the juvenile justice and mental health systems.

Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2010-01-01

124

The experience of detention under the Mental Health Act (1983)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the experiences of detention under the Mental Health Act (1983) of people with learning disabilities. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews (N = 7) were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants had mild learning disabilities and had been detained under the Mental Health Act in England for compulsory assessment and treatment within a two-year period prior to the study. A

Carolyn McNally; Nigel Beail; Stephen Kellett

2007-01-01

125

8 CFR 1241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION...241.13. (2) Jurisdiction . The immigration judges and the Board have...

2013-01-01

126

Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

1995-01-01

127

Saltless solar pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

Lin, E. I. H.

1984-09-01

128

Flood-frequency and detention-storage characteristics of Bear Branch watershed, Murfreesboro, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model [DR3M] was applied to a 2.27-square-mile portion of Bear Branch watershed at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, to demonstrate the application of this model to small urban watersheds in central Tennessee. Kinematic wave theory was used to route excess rainfall overland and through a branched system of stream channels. The model was calibrated with hyetographs from two raingages, hydrographs from two streamflow gages, and peak-stage elevations from two crest-stage gages that were operated in the watershed from March 1989 through July 1992. Standard errors of estimate for peak discharge at Northfield Boulevard and Compton Road are 41.1 and 92.2 percent, respectively. Standard errors of estimate for runoff volumes at Northfield Boulevard and Compton Road are 53.5 and 97.6 percent, respectively. The calibrated model was used to simulate flood hydrographs for 73 large storms occurring during the period 1901-1990 and the simulated flood peaks were used to develop flood-frequency relations for present (1992) conditions in the watershed. Flood discharges for the 100-year recurrence-interval storm were estimated as 350 cubic feet per second at Northfield Boulevard, 1,000 cubic feet per second upstream of DeJarnett Lane, 610 cubic feet per second downstream of DeJarnett Lane, 800 cubic feet per second upstream of Osborne Lane, 790 cubic feet per second downstream of Osborne Lane, and 1,000 cubic feet per second at Compton Road. The effect of detention storage on flood hydrographs was simulated at several locations in the watershed. Detention storage upstream of DeJarnett Lane significantly reduces downstream flood peaks, whereas detention storage upstream of Osborne Lane has almost no effect. The results of this study indicate that the Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model could be an important tool for testing the effects of future development and flood storage alternatives on flooding in small urban watersheds throughout the area.

Outlaw, G. S.

1996-01-01

129

Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.

Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-02-01

130

Control of a solar pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar ponds hold the promise of providing an alternative to diesel generation of electricity at remote locations in Australia where fuel costs are high. However, to reliably generate electricity with a solar pond requires high temperatures to be maintained throughout the year; this goal had eluded the Alice Springs solar pond prior to 1989 because of double-diffusive convection within the

B. S. Sherman; J. Imberger

1991-01-01

131

31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking...suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking...are suspected of a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions...

2010-07-01

132

31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking...suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking...are suspected of a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions...

2009-07-01

133

Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region  

SciTech Connect

The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. (Univ. of Qatar, Doha (Qatar)); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

1989-01-01

134

Solar ponds and their applications  

SciTech Connect

Solar ponds are probably the simplest and least expensive technology for conversion of solar energy to thermal energy. The solar pond is unique in its ability to act both as collector and as storage. The cost of a solar pond per unit area is considerably less than that of any active collector available today. The combination of their economic and technical factors make solar ponds attractive for district heating and industrial process heat applications. Solar ponds have the potential to displace significant quantities of fossil fuel in low-temperature heating applications in nonurban areas.

Jayadev, T. S.; Edesess, M.

1980-03-01

135

Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to inaccurate water storage data. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using Landsat, a satellite-based dataset, an empirical storage classification method and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various sizes of flow detention and regulation facilities. The SWAT2005 is enhanced by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the surface area and volume of each type of water storages, ranging from small-sized flow detention ponds to medium- and large-sized reservoirs with the various flow regulation functions; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for both physical and human interference parameters. Through a real-world watershed case study, it is found that the improved SWAT2005 more accurately models small- and medium-sized storages than the original model in reproducing streamflows in the watershed. The improved SWAT2005 can be an effective tool to assess the impact of water storage on hydrologic processes, which has not been well addressed in the current modelling exercises.

Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Zhang, A.

2012-11-01

136

Nursing in asylum seeker detention in Australia: care, rights and witnessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system of asylum seeker detention in Australia is one in which those seeking refuge are stripped of many of their rights, including the right to health. This presents serious ethical problems for healthcare providers working within this system. In this article we describe asylum seeker detention and analyse the role of nurses. We discuss how far an ''ethics of

D Zion; L Briskman; B Loff; Paul Farmer

2010-01-01

137

Race and the Impact of Detention on Juvenile Justice Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the growing number of minority youth disproportionately confined in secure detention facilities has led to a search for a better understanding of this occurrence. Explanations vary but tend to center on either differential offending or selection bias. The present study examines the extent both may explain decision making by specifically assessing the effect of race on detention

Michael J. Leiber; Kristan C. Fox

2005-01-01

138

49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...noncomplying containers subject to detention or control. 453.1 Section 453.1 Transportation... SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.1 Unsafe...noncomplying containers subject to detention or control. (a) Any container used in...

2011-10-01

139

49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...noncomplying containers subject to detention or control. 453.1 Section 453.1 Transportation... SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.1 Unsafe...noncomplying containers subject to detention or control. (a) Any container used in...

2012-10-01

140

The Land of the Free: Human Rights Violations at Immigration Detention Facilities in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In America today, aliens who commit even minor visa violations can be detained in one of many immigration detention facilities throughout the U.S. These detainees may be transferred to a facility far away from their homes, families, and attorneys. While imprisoned in these detention facilities, some detainees are treated as and housed with criminals. Their substantive and procedural rights are

Caitlin J. Mitchel

2007-01-01

141

Brutal Borders? Examining the Treatment of Deportees During Arrest and Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent legislation has produced a dramatic rise in the detention and removal of immigrants from the United States. Drawing on interviews with a random sample of Salvadoran deportees, we examine treatment during arrest and detention. Our fi ndings indicate: (1) deportees are often subject to verbal harassment, procedural failings and use of force; (2) force tends to be excessive; (3)

Scott Phillips; Jacqueline Maria Hagan; Nestor Rodriguez

2006-01-01

142

Suspensions and Detentions in an Urban, Low-Income School: Punishment or Reward?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disciplinary records for 3rd through 8th grade students (n = 314) in an inner-city, public school were examined for one school year to assess students' variation in response to discipline. Rates of disciplinary referrals were compared for students who received no detentions or suspensions throughout the year (“never group” n = 117), students who received one or more detention or

Marc S. Atkins; Mary M. McKay; Stacy L. Frazier; Lara J. Jakobsons; Patrice Arvanitis; Tim Cunningham; Catherine Brown; Linda Lambrecht

2002-01-01

143

Geography in Ominous Intersection with Interrogation and Torture: reflections on detention in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and reflects on the author's detention as a prominent Palestinian geographer in an Israeli prison for 23 days by the Israeli Security Police (Shin Bet) in July 2006, and the nightmare of abuse, debasement and physical coercion, amounting to torture, he was subjected to during this ordeal. The author argues that the detention was political, punishment for

Ghazi-Walid Falah

2008-01-01

144

Homing and movement of yellow-phase American eels in freshwater ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ten yellow-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata, were captured from Hammond Pond, a small freshwater pond located in central Maine, U.S.A. The eels were implanted with radio transmitters and released into nearby Hermon Pond. At the same time, 10 eels were captured from Hermon Pond, implanted with radio transmitters and returned to Hermon Pond to serve as a control group. The two ponds are connected by a 1.6km section of Souadabscook Stream. We tracked the 20 eels over the 90-day duration of the experiment. Four of the ten displaced eels returned to their home pond. None of the control fish were located outside of their home pond during the study. Three of the four eels that successfully returned to their home pond did so under the darkness of the new moon and the fourth made the journey during the first quarter moon phase. Location data showed that translocated and native eels tended to occupy different areas of Hermon Pond. This study provides evidence of homing behavior in American eels living in small freshwater ponds and indications that homing activity may be linked to lunar cycle.

Lamothe, P. J.; Gallagher, M.; Chivers, D. P.; Moring, J. R.

2000-01-01

145

Changes in sediment phosphate composition of seasonal ponds during filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most ponds from the Doñana National Park are shallow temporary freshwater bodies on eolian sands. The total phosphate concentration and the fractional P-composition of the sediments from two small ponds were studied before and inmediately after they were filled (autumn, 1996). Total phosphorus concentration was measured in 2 different size fractions: 2–0.1 mm (coarse) and 2-EDTA extracts which contained high

A. Díaz-Espejo; L. Serrano; J. Toja

1999-01-01

146

Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Youth in Juvenile Detention  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, lethality of suicide attempts, and the relationship between psychiatric disorder and recent attempts in newly detained juveniles. Methods The sample included 1829 juveniles, aged 10 to 18 years, sampled after intake to a detention center in Chicago, IL. Interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) to assess for thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, suicide plans, lifetime suicide attempts, number of attempts, age at first attempt, attempts within the last 6 months, method of suicide attempts, and psychiatric disorder. Results More than one-third of juvenile detainees and nearly half of females had felt hopeless or thought about death in the 6 months prior to detention. Approximately 1 of 10 (10.3%, CI: 7.7% – 12.8%) juvenile detainees had thought about committing suicide in the past 6 months, and 1 of 10 (11.0%, CI: 8.3% – 13.7%) had ever attempted suicide. Recent suicide attempts were most prevalent in females and youth with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Fewer than half of detainees with recent thoughts of suicide had told anyone about their ideation. Identifying youth at risk for suicide -- especially those suffering from depressive and anxiety disorders -- is a crucial step to preventing suicide.

Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Teplin, Linda A.; King, Devon C.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2010-01-01

147

Antibiotic resistance of bacteria from shrimp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of antibiotic resistance was compared in bacteria isolated from pond water, pond sediment, water and sediment from the receiving environment (area where water from pond drains, which is 0 and 50 m away from the exit gate, in this study) and cultured shrimp from ponds that have not used any antimicrobials, ponds that have previously used antimicrobials and

Eleonor A Tendencia; Leobert D de la Peña

2001-01-01

148

Thermal Image of Pu'u '? '? Pond  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This thermal image shows the lava pond within Pu`u `? `? crater. The view is towards the southeast. The pond is fed from two upwelling sources, one on the south margin of the pond and one on the north margin....

2010-06-18

149

Design and use of brushless dc motor without detent torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two applications of motors which cannot accept a residual detent torque due to the rotor magnets are presented. The first application concerns the joint mechanism of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/HERA project. The brushless torque motor drives a reversible harmonic drive with a high gear ratio of 500. The motor is designed to produce a stall torque of 3.0 Nm with a total imput power of 30 W for a total weight of 1.5 kg, with a no load speed of 500 rpm. The second application concerns the driving mechanism of an infrared sensor. The need to take all geometrical and magnetic parameters into consideration in designing space mechanisms is stressed.

Wavre, N.

1990-03-01

150

Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

Danks, Sharon Gamson

2001-01-01

151

Energy production from solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for obtaining solar energy in a useful form by utilizing solar ponds is described. The method comprises direct or indirect contact of hot liquid from the pond with a low boiling point immiscible working fluid for transfer of the heat energy from the liquid to the working fluid. The heated working fluid is separated from the liquid and

1977-01-01

152

State-of-the-Art Review of Solar Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a brief but concise review of solar pond technologies and their potential for application within the military. The report covers salt gradient solar ponds (SGSP), shallow solar ponds (SSP), saltless convecting solar ponds, gel ponds, ...

W. A. Tolbert

1981-01-01

153

Control of a solar pond  

SciTech Connect

Solar ponds hold the promise of providing an alternative to diesel generation of electricity at remote locations in Australia where fuel costs are high. However, to reliably generate electricity with a solar pond requires high temperatures to be maintained throughout the year; this goal had eluded the Alice Springs solar pond prior to 1989 because of double-diffusive convection within the gradient zone. This paper presents control strategies designed to provide successful high temperature operation of a solar pond year-round. The strategies, which consist mainly of manipulating upper surface layer salinity and extracting heat from the storage zone are well suited to automation. They were tested at the Alice Springs solar pond during the summer of 1989 and maintained temperatures in excess of 85{degree}C for several months without any gradient stability problems.

Sherman, B.S.; Imberger, J. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia))

1991-01-01

154

8 CFR 241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances. 241.14 Section 241.14 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2011-01-01

155

8 CFR 241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION...13. (2) Jurisdiction. The immigration judges and the Board have jurisdiction...A) or (B) of the Act: (i) An immigration officer shall, if possible,...

2013-01-01

156

78 FR 21085 - Establishment of a Public Docket for Administrative Detention Under the Food and Drug...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Detention Under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...with respect to drugs under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act...

2013-04-09

157

9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination...

2013-01-01

158

8 CFR 1241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances. 1241.14 Section 1241.14 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR...

2012-01-01

159

8 CFR 241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances. 241.14 Section 241.14 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-01-01

160

Spaceship and the Lifeboat: Metaphors for the 1990s. Detente as Future History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world trends beginning to emerge in the 1960's and '70's are qualitatively new and change fundamentally the traditional concepts of relations among states. There may be, therefore, no proper historical antecedents to the detente developing between the...

J. E. Trinnaman J. G. Thompson

1975-01-01

161

8 CFR 241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances. 241.14 Section 241.14 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2009-01-01

162

8 CFR 241.14 - Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continued detention of removable aliens on account of special circumstances. 241.14 Section 241.14 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2010-01-01

163

21 CFR 1.384 - When does a detention order terminate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption General Provisions § 1.384...

2013-04-01

164

21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption General Provisions § 1.378...

2013-04-01

165

Experimental study of the salt gradient solar pond stability  

SciTech Connect

Many natural systems such as oceans, lakes, etc.., are influenced by the effect of double-diffusive convection. This phenomenon, which is a combination of heat and mass transfer, can destroy the stability of system-flows. In the case of solar ponds the middle layer, that is linearly stratified, acts as a thermal and mass insulator for the lower layer. This middle layer, called the Non-Convective Zone (NCZ), needs special care to avoid convection and to maintain its stability. In fact, due to an excess of heat stored, a thermal gradient occurs within the NCZ. A convective movement appears at the bottom of the stratified-layers and then grows to a double-diffusive convection movement. This movement transforms the stratified-layers into a well mixed layer, reducing the storage capacity of the pond. Laboratory small-scale pond and middle-scale outdoor solar ponds were designed and built to provide both quantitative data and to study the dynamic processes in solar ponds, including the behavior of the gradient zone. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualization-experiments carried out in the mechanical and energetic laboratory in the engineering school of Tunisia and experiments in the field showed that the instability of solar ponds could be limited by using porous media placed in the lower layer of the stratification. (author)

Karim, Choubani; Slim, Zitouni; Kais, Charfi; Jomaa, Safi Mohamed [Ecole National d'Ingenieurs de Tunis, Unite de Recherche Mecanique-Energetique, 1002 El Belvedere, BP 37 (Tunisia); Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy CARE Group, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, P.O. Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Melbourne (Australia)

2010-01-15

166

State-of-the-art study of nonconvective solar ponds for power generation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art study of non-convective solar ponds has been conducted to evaluate the potential use of the technology for the generation of electrical power. The basic physics and engineering of solar ponds have been established. Large solar pond systems were constructed in Israel, however, in the US the development of the technology has been at a modest scale. The ponds could be constructed using conventional methods to clear the site and to form the dikes. The power plants could be of conventional design except that refrigerant vapors may be used in place of steam for this application. No technical breakthroughs are required to implement this technology, although more information is needed to confirm that large ponds operate in a similar manner to small experimental solar ponds.

Carmichael, A.D.; Markow, M.J.; Dintrans, P.L.; Salhotra, A.M.; Adams, E.E.; Marks, D.H.; Mukherji, S.; Thurston, D.L.

1985-01-01

167

Infiltration and Ponding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of infiltration and ponding relies heavily on Buckingham's concepts and Green and Ampt(GA) results. At a higher level of approximation the need for a discontinuous profile and a constant diffusivity which is fundamental in GA,can be relaxed.For instance the more physical conductivity suggested by Wilford Gardner represents a great improvement to GA assumptions.At this level approximate results like the time compression analysis (TCA) are readily derived,showing the need for yet a higher level of approximation. This 3rd level is obtained following the approach of Heaslet and Alksne and extending it to include gravity and arbitrary diffusivities.At this level the accuracy of approximate results like TCA,can be estimated.

Parlange, J.; Barry, D. A.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2006-12-01

168

Hilton Pond Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History is a nonprofit education and research organization based in York, South Carolina whose mission is to "conserve plants, animals, birds, and other natural components of the Piedmont Region of the eastern United States through observation, scientific study, and education for students of all ages." This colorful site provides a range of information on all sorts of nature topics and consists of sections like plant inventory, animal inventory, and ecological investigations. It also contains a link to the Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project Web site, which is a cross-disciplinary project in which participants in the US, Canada, Mexico, and Central America collaborate to study behavior and distribution of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Both sites are excellent resources for science teachers, students, parents, bird lovers, and conservationists interested in Piedmont natural history.

2002-01-01

169

Effect of upstream ponds on stream temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many tributaries feeding streams are connected to ponds that heat up during summer months; however, the influence of these ponds on receiving stream temperature was not known. Stream temperature affects microfauna and fish habitats in aquatic ecosystems. Three tributaries with headwater ponds exposed to sunlight and one tributary unassociated with a large, upstream pond were selected for study within the

J. Ham; L. Toran; J. Cruz

2006-01-01

170

Enrollment in a drug-free detention program: The prediction of successful behavior change of drug-using inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors predicting the behavior change of drug-using detainees were investigated in detainees in two penitentiaries in The Netherlands. Subjects attended either a standard program or a Drug-Free Detention Program (DFDP) and were assessed at the beginning of detention, at release\\/transfer, and at 2 years after the end of detention. Predictors of postprogram contact with treatment agencies and changes in criminal

Marinus H. M. Breteler; Arie A. Van Den Hurk; Gerard M. Schippers; Gert-Jan Meerkerk

1996-01-01

171

The onset of thermohaline convection in the advanced solar pond (ASP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript concerns the onset of thermohaline convection in a solar pond subject to field conditions as well as a small scale laboratory test section simulating the solar pond performance. The onset of thermohaline convection is analyzed in this study by means of a linear stability analysis in which the flow field perturbations are expended in sets of complete orthonormal

G. A. Bemporad; H. Rubin

1992-01-01

172

Digital Discovery of Ephemeral Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Endangered Species Act requires Federal agency land owners, including military installations, to manage their lands in a manner that enhances the survival of Federally listed species. Many species become at risk due to the loss of ephemeral ponds, ...

J. D. Westervelt

2012-01-01

173

Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds  

SciTech Connect

Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic How do rates of organic production vary temporally Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of {sup 14}C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two.

Weisburd, R.S.J.

1988-01-01

174

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

175

POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND TRAUMA IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and 12-month rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, and age). Design Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the posttraumatic stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) to randomly selected detainees. Setting A large, temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 898 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (532 males, 366 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Results Most participants (92.5%) had experienced one or more traumas (mean = 14.6 incidents, median = 6 incidents). Significantly more males (93.2%) than females (84.0%) reported at least one traumatic experience; 11.2% of the sample met criteria for PTSD in the past year. Over half of the participants with PTSD reported witnessing violence as the precipitating trauma. Conclusion Trauma and PTSD appear to be more prevalent among juvenile detainees than in community samples. We recommend directions for research and discuss implications for mental health policy.

Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; Charles, Devon R.; Longworth, Sandra L.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2010-01-01

176

Feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for brine unmixing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study was to investigate in the laboratory the feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for unmixing a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams for salinity gradient energy conversion systems. This objective was accomplished by conducting experiments on laboratory saturated ponds using borax, potassium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, disodium phosphate and potassium alum. Results from ponds using borax, potassium nitrate and disodium phosphate conclusively demonstrated that saturated solar ponds can self-generate and self-maintain a stable density gradient. Moreover, these ponds reestablished stable density profiles after the ponds were externally mixed. Based on preliminary results, the residence time for unmixing of a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams varies from a few days for the borax pond to about two weeks for the disodium phosphate pond, depending upon the characteristics of the individual saturated solution. Because of only a very small increase in the density of saturated solutions from 25/sup 0/C to 90/sup 0/C, the potassium perchlorate pond could not establish a stable density stratification.

Not Available

1980-09-30

177

The origin and fate of arsenic in coalbed natural gas-produced water ponds.  

PubMed

Coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water contains small amounts of trace metals that can accumulate over time in produced water retention ponds. Within the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming, high concentrations of trace metals in pond water and their effect on shallow groundwater are potential concerns. A pond with a maximum As concentration of 146 microg L(-1) was studied in detail to determine the potential for groundwater pollution and to explain the cause for the high concentration of As. Infiltration characteristics, subsurface hydrology, our fall and pond water quality, isotope signatures, and trace metal balances were examined to assess the hydrology and geochemistry of the pond. The results indicated minimum or no infiltration of pond water and no measurable contamination of the shallow groundwater. The high As concentrations in the pond were determined to be the result of semi-continuous inputs of CBNG-produced water with low As concentrations (0.20-0.48 microg L(-1)), exasperated by low pond volumes during drought conditions. Because of reduced infiltration and high evaporation rates, As became concentrated over time. Reduced infiltration was most likely caused by the high sodium concentration and high sodium adsorption ratio of the CBNG-produced water, which disrupt soil structure. The findings for the pond and the techniques used may serve as a template for future impact assessments of other CBNG-produced water ponds and are relevant for the approximately 4000 ponds currently permitted in the PRB and for future ponds. Further studies are recommended in the use of playa landforms to store marginal-quality produced water. PMID:21043266

Sowder, J T; Kelleners, T J; Reddy, K J

178

Analysis of evaporation data from heated ponds: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation plays an important role in determining station performance and water consumption for electric power plants that employ cooling impoundments. To improve understanding of the evaporation process, especially at high thermal loading, controlled experiments were performed at two sites. Water and energy budget measurements were taken on a small (0.3 ha) lined pond at the East Mesa site near El

E. E. Adams; D. J. Cosler; K. R. Helfrich

1987-01-01

179

Solar pond\\/fuel assisted water desalination plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a thermodynamic analysis for a proposed hybrid system suitable for producing power or fresh water for small communities. The system includes a power generation loop and a desalination loop. These loops can work separately to produce power or combined to produce fresh water. The power loop comprises a solar pond, flashing chamber, vapour compressor VCI, steam superheater,

S. E. Aly; S. Arabia

1986-01-01

180

Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1984-01-01

181

Saturated solar ponds: 2. Parametric studies  

SciTech Connect

The effects of following parameters on the performance of saturated solar ponds are studied: thickness of upper convective zone, nonconvective zone, and lower convective zone; starting time of the pond; water table depth below the pond; ground thermal conductivity; transmissivity of salt solution; incident radiation; ambient air temperature, humidity, and velocity; thermophysical properties of salt solution; pond bottom reflectivity; convection, evaporation, radiation, and ground heat losses; temperature and rate of heat removal; type of salt. Magnesium chloride and potassium nitrate salt ponds located at Madras (India) are considered for the parametric study. A comparison is also made with an unsaturated solar pond.

Subhakar, D.; Murthy, S.S. (Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India))

1993-04-01

182

Risk Factors for Chlamydia Among Young Women in a Northern California Juvenile Detention Facility: Implications for Community Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives\\/Goal: Chlamydia infections are increasing in California, with rates highest in young women aged 15 to 24. Juvenile detention facilities are important venues for screening high-risk youth who may not otherwise access care. We, therefore, sought to identify risk factors for urogenital chlamydia among young women in a county juvenile detention facility between 2002 and 2005. Study Design: With the

Diana D. Mcdonnell; Vivian Levy; Theresa J. M. Morton

2009-01-01

183

Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article presents a meta-analysis of all existing surveys on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in order to assess the prevalence of mental disorders. Findings indicate adolescents in detention are 10 times more likely to suffer from psychosis than the general adolescent…

Fazel, Seena; Doll, Helen; Langstrom, Niklas

2008-01-01

184

Preventive Detention: The Impact of the 1984 Bail Reform Act in the Eastern Federal District of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing a longitudinal research design, this study evaluates the impact of the 1984 Bail Reform Act in the Eastern Federal District of California. Contrary to other experiments with preventive detention in the U.S., it was found that this legislation is being implemented on a substantial scale. The substitution of detention orders for secured bonds in most cases suggests that preventive

Rodney Kingsnorth; Carole Barnes; Cynthia Davis; Tina Hodgins; Camille Nicholes

1987-01-01

185

Metal sorption to natural filter substrates for storm water treatment—column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm water generated from road runoff contains pollutants such as metals that are either dissolved in storm water or bound to particulates. Using detention ponds for the treatment of storm water from road runoff, where particles can settle, can reduce the level of particulate-bound metals in the water, while small particles and dissolved matter pass through the detention pond. Some

Carina Färm

2002-01-01

186

Follow-Up Study of Female Delinquent Adolescents in a Detention Centre: Effectiveness of Psychiatric Intervention as a Mental Health Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Results of previous studies suggest that many female offenders have co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which require mental health services. However, few longitudinal studies examined subjects during incarceration or detention. This study compares depressive symptoms, abnormal eating behaviour and impulsivity before release from a detention centre and after incarceration, thereby indicating the effectiveness of psychiatric intervention in a Japanese detention centre.Method:

Michio Ariga; Toru Uehara; Kazuo Takeuchi; Yoko Ishige; Reiko Nakano; Masahiko Mikuni

2010-01-01

187

Contesting Institutional Discourse to Create New Possibilities for Understanding Lived Experience: Life-Stories of Young Women in Detention, Rehabilitation, and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter-stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15-19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the…

Sharma, Suniti

2010-01-01

188

Contesting institutional discourse to create new possibilities for understanding lived experience: life?stories of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter?stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15–19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the study comprises their autobiographies, official documents of their

Suniti Sharma

2010-01-01

189

Potabilizacion de las Aguas de Estanques o Jagueyes (Pond Water Treatment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin discusses private use of surface waters and treatment plants and operation, on a small scale for potable water on a farm or rural homestead. Ponds, rivers, lakes and reservoirs are good sources of water; treatment includes filtration, chlorin...

1965-01-01

190

Cultivo y Manejo de Estanques Pesqueros de Agua Fresca (Freshwater Fish Pond Culture and Management).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a guide to planning, constructing and maintaining small-scale fish pond operations, with information on selecting warmwater fish, fish diseases and fish preservation. It is produced as a joint project with VITA.

M. Chakroff

1983-01-01

191

Distribution of Cobalt 60, Zinc 65, Strontium 85, and Cesium 137 in a Freshwater Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data were obtained on the physical, chemical, and ecological distribution of four radionuclides added to a small pond. The conditions were comparable to those in an accidental release of radionuclides to an impoundment. Cobalt 60, zinc 65, strontium 85, a...

W. A. Brungs

1967-01-01

192

Disparities in justice and care: persons with severe mental illnesses in the U.S. immigration detention system.  

PubMed

As the total number of persons held within the U.S. immigration detention system has grown, the number of detained persons with severe mental illnesses has grown correspondingly. Reports issued by the government, legal and human rights advocates, and the media have brought to light a problematic and growing detention system with pervasive legal and mental health care disparities. Described are the structure and funding of the U.S. immigration detention system, the legal state of affairs for immigration detainees with mental illnesses, and what is known about the present system of mental health care within the U.S. immigration detention system. Attention is given to the paucity of legal protections for immigration detainees with severe mental illnesses, such as no right to appointed legal counsel and no requirement for mental competence before undergoing deportation proceedings. A case example and discussion of potential alternatives to detention highlight the need for wide-ranging reform. PMID:20852226

Ochoa, Kristen C; Pleasants, Gregory L; Penn, Joseph V; Stone, David C

2010-01-01

193

The new preventive detention: psychiatry's problematic responsibility for the control of violence.  

PubMed

The legal doctrine of the duty to protect potential victims of patients' violent acts has created problems beyond those usually discussed, which involve breach of patients' confidentiality. Fear of liability has led some psychiatrists to hospitalize, solely for the purpose of preventing violence, patients who do not otherwise require inpatient care. The result has been the creation of a de facto system of preventive detention that consumes psychiatric resources intended to serve therapeutic ends and compels psychiatrists to share the social control responsibilities of the criminal justice system. The author explores the costs and benefits of various means of removing the burden of preventive detention from psychiatry. PMID:3381921

Appelbaum, P S

1988-07-01

194

Predicting Nighttime Oxygen Depletion in Catfish Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inadequate concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) has long been recognized as a critical factor in the intensive production of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in ponds. Emergency aeration should be initiated in ponds when the DO concentration declin...

R. P. Romaire C. E. Boyd

1978-01-01

195

Pond Design and Management for Coastal Aquaculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pond design and layout will ultimately determine the degree to which a pond can be managed. Preliminary survey of a prospective site should include soil analysis for water retention capabilities. Promising sites with permeable soils can sometimes be seale...

R. V. Minton

1983-01-01

196

Viscosity-stabilized solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work previously completed on polymer stabilized solar ponds is described. A detailed outline is provided of work proposed to expand upon and complete the work and to determine the feasibility, both technical and economic, of a polymer stabilized solar pond. Information is presented on the polymers that have been reported in the literature and by the manufacturer of the polymer Carbopol. Proposed management and schedules and descriptions of the proposed personnel and facilities are included. Some candidate organic materials are described. Data relating to solar input, the relationship between the total energy available, the requirements for domestic heat, and present preliminary design ideas are discussed.

1981-08-01

197

Preliminary design of sedimentation ponds  

SciTech Connect

Almost one-hundred sedimentation ponds were conceptually designed for a large surface mining study are in northeast Texas. An approximate procedure was developed to economically estimate construction quantities in order to predict surface water control costs. This procedure utilized site-specific empirical relationships developed from detailed analyses on a representative number of proposed sedimentation ponds. Use of these equations provided earthwork volumes, and spillway pipe lengths. The procedure developed for this study is presented along with the results of a verification analysis.

Wilson, L.C.; Wayland, L.D.

1982-12-01

198

Regional assessment of solar pond energy costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost estimates are developed for solar pond energy output, using varied assumptions about application, location, pond size, and other system design and financial parameters. These estimates are compared with energy costs from alternatives, to indicate regions and applications where solar pond development may be economically viable.

S. C. Jones; E. I. H. Lin; A. L. Walton

1982-01-01

199

Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

2003-01-01

200

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

201

Unusual monomixis in two saline Arizona ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red Pond and Green Pond are shallow, saline pools in Apache County, Arizona, that stratify chemically during winter and circulate in midsummer. Stability is brought about by addition of dilute runoff and seep water to the surfaces; circulation occurs bccausc evaporation increases the salinity of the upper waters and lowers the pond surfaces. Iso- thermy, dichothermy, mcsothermy, and poikilothermy occur

GERALD A. COLE; MELBOURNE C. WHITESIDE; ROBERT J. BROWN

1967-01-01

202

Leachate-recycle infiltration ponds  

SciTech Connect

A leachate-recycle system (LRS) consisting of four infiltration ponds was operated and monitored over a 28-month period at an active lined landfill in Florida. Ponds were constructed by excavating into the landfilled waste and by compacting lifts of solid waste to form the pond walls. A total of 36,470 m{sup 3} of leachate were recirculated, representing 63% of the total volume of leachate generated. The entire leachate stream was not recycled because of the large volume of leachate and the low leachate infiltration rates into the landfill. Water budgets conducted on individual ponds over the first 16 months of operation revealed that the infiltration rates ranged from 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec. The vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the compacted waste was estimated in the range of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} {minus} 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec, lower than values reported in the literature.

Townsend, T.G.; Miller, W.L.; Earle, J.F.K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-06-01

203

A preliminary evaluation of the occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds of the Maryland shores of the Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, a preliminary investigation of occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. These small ponds occur commonly along the Bay shore. A sand berm separates the freshwaters of the ponds from the saline waters of the Bay; this berm is occasionally breached permitting interchange between ponds and Bay. A survey of aerial maps and photographs has revealed approximately 1800 ponds bordering the mid and upper Bay.

Not Available

1980-10-01

204

Trauma Affect Regulation Psychoeducation Group and Milieu Intervention Outcomes in Juvenile Detention Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports outcomes of Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET), a group and milieu intervention, in three juvenile detention facilities, controlling for site, length of stay, ethnicity, number of arrests, mental health and traumatic stress problems, and cohort effects. Linear multiple regression results showed that every session of TARGET received in the first seven days of

Julian D. Ford; Josephine Hawke

2012-01-01

205

Detention Short of Arrest for Questioning: The United States, England, and Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of detention short of arrest for purposes of questioning by a comparison of the law in the United States, England, and Scotland. It finds the response of these three countries, who have relatively similar values, to be significantly different. On the level of applied law in the United States is the most restrictive; England is

FRANCIS EDWARD DEVINE

1986-01-01

206

Academic Potential Among African American Adolescents in Juvenile Detention Centers: Implications for Reentry to School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explores Black adolescent detainees' academic potential and motivation to return to school, to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from 1 male and 1 female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed postdetention educational plans, as well as social and emotional characteristics, and criminal history. Multivariate

Ivory A. Toldson; Kamilah M. Woodson; Ronald Braithwaite; Rhonda C. Holliday; Mario De La Rosa

2010-01-01

207

Detention Home Teens as Tutors: A Cooperative Cross-Age Tutoring Pilot Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned professionals in the juvenile justice field frequently express concern for effective programs that help youth offenders successfully rejoin society. This mixed-method pilot study involved detention home teens functioning as tutors for special education students in a public school. Tutors were selected who, based on previous assessment as…

Lazerson, David B.

2005-01-01

208

Detention under the Mental Health Act: balancing rights, risks and needs for services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health law has to balance considerations of both justice, and health and welfare. In the political climate of the 1990s mental health services have become targeted on those with serious mental illness, to address the objectives of containing risks and limiting service expenditure. This paper identifies that increasing rates of detention under the Mental Health Act through the 1990s

Barbara Hatfield; Valerie Antcliff

2001-01-01

209

Prevalence of Chlamydial and Gonorrheal Infections Among Females in a Juvenile Detention Facility, Honolulu, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited studies have shown high rates of gonorrheal and chlamydial infections among incarcerated adolescents, however, this population has not been routinely targeted for sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening. This study was done to ascertain the feasibility of screening females for STDs at a juvenile detention facility in Honolulu, Hawaii, and to determine the prevalence of chlamydial and gonorrheal infections in

Alan R. Katz; Maria Veneranda C. Lee; Roy G. Ohye; Paul V. Effler; Elmer C. Johnson; Steven M. Nishi

2004-01-01

210

Health and Human Rights Concerns of Drug Users in Detention in Guangxi Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough confinement in drug detoxification (“detox”) and re-education through labor (RTL) centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to

J. Elizabeth Cohen; Joseph J Amon

2008-01-01

211

Work Environment Correlates of Staff Stress in a Youth Detention Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We intensively interviewed 53 staff members of a state-operated regional children's detention center, located in a large, metropolitan, southern city. The center houses both delinquent and status offender youths, incarcerated on a variety of charges ranging from truancy to homicide. Staff stress was related to key features of their work environment. Concern about detainee acting out behavior, the perceived frequency

RICHARD DEMBO; MAX DERTKE

1986-01-01

212

The Arts As A Catalyst For Improved Learning Outcomes For Youth In Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that youth in detention are characteristically not highly motivated to participate in educational programs that demand concentrated effort or study. If they do choose to participate, they often do not display behaviours consistent with high levels of engagement and persistence while on task. Therefore a strong need exists for educational programs that not only stimulate interest

Carolyn Broadbent

213

A COMPARISON OF WET DETENTION SYSTEM WATER QUALITY TO THEIR EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) conducted a survey of permitted wet detention systems to compare the water quality in front of the outfall weir to that of its effluent during flow conditions. In addition, this study compared the data with Class III Florida State Water Quality Standards. Analyses were performed to detect statistical differences between constituent data collected

David W. Carr

214

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in juvenile detention entrants, Oregon, 1994–1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested sera originally collected from 1335 juvenile detention entrants for an HIV study in 1994–1996 for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies; we found that the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV antibody was 2% and 1%, respectively. HBV was associated with Asian race, whereas HCV infection was associated with injection drug use and female gender.

Ann R. Thomas; William E. Keene; Paul R. Cieslak

2005-01-01

215

Assessment of Space Needs in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities. Report to Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In its appropriation for the U.S. Department of Justice for Fiscal Year 1998, Congress asked the Office of Justice Programs to assess present and future needs for space in the Nations juvenile detention and correctional facilities. In response to that req...

1998-01-01

216

The Comparative Risk of Mistreatment for Juveniles in Detention Facilities and State Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists on the prevalence of victimization among young people in juvenile correctional facilities and adult jails and prisons. The limited extant research suggests that youth incarcerated in adult prisons and jails are at greater risk for physical and sexual abuse (Redding, 1999) compared to both adult inmates in the same facilities and youths in juvenile detention centers. Yet

Lacey Levitt

2010-01-01

217

Academic Potential among African American Adolescents in Juvenile Detention Centers: Implications for Reentry to School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explores Black adolescent detainees' academic potential and motivation to return to school, to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from 1 male and 1 female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed postdetention educational…

Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.; De La Rosa, Mario

2010-01-01

218

Results and Analysis of a Computer Assisted Instructional Program in Basic Skills in a Detention Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of a computer assisted educational (CAE) program using the PLATO system at a Texas detention center included an examination of attitudes and perceptions from (1) inmates participating and not participating in jail education programs, (2) trustees, (3) educational program staff, (4) chaplaincy staff, (5) guards assigned to the…

Diem, Richard A.

219

Significant Race Differences in Factors Related to the Detention Recidivism of Youthful Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of youthful offenders in the United States are held in juvenile court detention centers. Of broad concern is the disproportionate impact these placements have on minority youth, with African American and Hispanic youth much more frequently detained in these facilities compared to Caucasian youth. This U.S. study of a 2-county youthful offender population in the Midwest (1

Christopher A. Mallett; Miyuki Fukushima; Patricia Stoddard-Dare; Linda M. Quinn

2012-01-01

220

Guilty Until Proven Innocent: An Examination of the Growing Use of Preventive Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detention of accused terrorist at Guantanamo Bay, internet sex stings, civil commitment, conspiracy charges, and a plethora of criminal charges focused on one’s “intent” have greatly expanded government’s power to punish people before they commit crimes. Whether it is a potential terrorist attack, sexual assault against a child, drug trafficking, murder or a white collar crime, government has decided to

Richard Wright

2008-01-01

221

Detention Home Teachers in Virginia: Who Are They and What Is Their Job Like?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of 84 detention home teachers in Virginia found the majority were white females with elementary-secondary certification; they had strong feelings of teaching efficacy and believed behavior management and communication skills were most important. Those with higher efficacy rated their ability to individualize instruction and provide…

Weiss, Margaret P.; Lloyd, John Wills; Haynes, Nancy

2001-01-01

222

Reducing Unnecessary Delay: Innovations in Case Processing. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses how to reduce unnecessary delay in the juvenile justice system, presenting data from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Focus on Unnecessary Delay?" explains the negative effects of unnecessary delays. Chapter 2, "Guiding Principles," examines principles inherent in all case processing…

Henry, D. Alan

223

Correlates of Jail Overcrowding: A Case Study of a County Detention Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overcrowding in local jails has emerged as an important social problem in recent years. Many have assumed that this problem has resulted from rising crime rates and general population growth, but recent research has called into question such claims. This study examines jail overcrowding in the county detention center in Las Vegas, Nevada. The data show that the major causes

Randall G. Shelden; William B. Brown

1991-01-01

224

Picnic at the Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is competition for water among organisms along a river during the dry season in Kruger National Park in South Africa. Narrated video footage shows how a number of African animals share a small watering hole and acquire water necessary for survival while avoiding predation.

225

Response of shallow lakes and ponds to contemporary climate change in the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ponds and shallow lakes are a ubiquitous feature of Arctic coastal plains. In Canada, they are particularly prevalent in the Hudson Bay Lowland and the Mackenzie River Delta region. Recent ground-based and remote sensing observations have shown a general decreasing trend in arctic lake\\/pond surface area over the past 50 years, suggesting that small water bodies at high latitudes are

C. R. Duguay; M. L. Macrae; J. A. Parrott; L. Brown; N. Svacina

2009-01-01

226

Environmental Services from Agricultural Stormwater Detention Systems in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural Stormwater Detention Areas (ADAs) commonly exist for the purpose of downstream flood protection in high water table regions of Florida. In addition to flood protection, they are also considered an important Best Management Practice due to their presumed effectiveness in reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades (KLE) ecosystem. The KLE ecosystem has been adversely impacted due to excessive P loads. Despite their presumed water quality effectiveness, limited data exist on actual N and P treatment efficiencies. A study was conducted at two ADAs (ADA 1 and ADA 2) located in two row crop farms to quantify the total N and P treatment efficiencies. Water, N, and P inflow and outflows at both ADAs were monitored for a year. Results from ADA 1 suggested that P treatment efficiency was below zero indicating that the ADA was a source of P rather than a sink. On the other hand, N treatment efficiency was found to be 20%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 1 were 1.6 and 1.4 mg/l respectively, indicating a 9% reduction. Mean inflow and outflow P concentrations were 0.04 and 0.06 mg/l respectively, showing an increase of 67%. Although ADA 1 was effective in retaining N it was not for P. In contrast to ADA 1, the P treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was positive (20%). Nitrogen treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was 22%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 2 were 4.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively, indicating 50% reduction. A reduction of 32% was observed for P concentrations with mean inflow and outflow P concentrations of 0.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively. No P retention at ADA 1 was mainly due to low P adsorption capacity of the soil. Analysis of surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) soil P retention characteristics suggested that ADA 1 had no remaining P storage capacity which resulted in it being a source of P. At ADA 2, a large fraction of the area still had P storage capacity which resulted in positive treatment efficiency. Several modifications were identified for the two ADAs to increase N and P treatment efficiencies. These modifications include increasing the travel time, available water storage, changing inflow locations, modifying outlet control structure and biomass harvesting. Biomass harvesting has the potential to make these systems play an important role in providing environmental services. The harvested biomass can not only remove N and P from the system but also acts as a source of bioenergy feedstock. Biomass N and P storage at ADA 2 suggested that harvesting of easily accessible biomass could account for removal of 157 kg from the ADA which accounts for 76% of the annual P retention. Biomass harvesting can become a potential source of additional income for producers for providing the environmental services of not only additional nutrient treatment but also bioenergy. The comparison between these two ADAs suggested that the P treatment by these systems can vary considerably depending on hydraulic, hydrologic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. Future research needs for making these systems provide additional environmental services such as increased P treatment, bioenergy, and carbon sequestration were identified.

Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Knowles, J. M.

2011-12-01

227

The Kingston Pond: A Case Study of Stormwater Pond Upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a decade of interdisciplinary research and our relations with stakeholders at the Kingston Pond stormwater\\u000a management facility provide an excellent background for recommending retrofits that are likely to be effective in removing\\u000a the priority pollutants of today. However, there are two challenges to implementation. First, the community, as represented\\u000a by it elected officials and public employees, may

E D Watt; Jiri Marsalek; Bruce Anderson

228

Orientation and migration distances of a pond-breeding salamander (Notophthalmus perstriatus, Salamandridae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat loss and modification have played a significant role in the decline of amphibian populations and species. Loss of wetlands, which are used as breeding sites for many amphibians, has contributed to the decline. The protection of small, isolated wetlands and core areas of associated uplands is one way in which population declines in certain species can be slowed or prevented. Nevertheless, migration distances of individuals of most amphibian species from their breeding sites are unknown. Using drift fences and pitfall traps, I studied migration distance and orientation of striped newts (Notophthalmus perstriatus) at a breeding pond in northern Florida, USA. Newts entered (immigration) and exited (emigration) the pond basin in a nonrandom fashion but no obvious effects of upland habitat were apparent. Patterns of emigration and immigration differed significantly between sexes, life-history stages, and migration events. Individuals tended to exit and enter the pond basin within the same quadrant, sometimes leaving and returning at the same point. Newts moved hundreds of meters into the sandhill uplands surrounding the pond. I found an inverse relationship between the proportion of newts migrating and distance from the pond. Nonetheless, I estimated that at least 16% of individuals breeding at the pond migrated in excess of 500 m from the pond. Thus, a core of protected upland with a radius of approximately 800 m from the pond would be needed to preserve the area used by the vast majority of individuals that breed at the pond. These data underscore the need to study upland habitat requirements for amphibians; findings for one taxon (e.g. ambystomatids) may not be applicable to others (e.g., salamandrids). Without such data, designating terrestrial core habitat to conserve aquatic-breeding amphibians will be difficult or impossible. However, without better protection of small, isolated wetlands, arguments to preserve surrounding uplands are irrelevant.

Johnson, S. A.

2003-01-01

229

2101-M Pond closure plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) operated by the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). Although the US Government holds legal title to this facility, the DOE-RL, for the purposes of defining Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) facilities, is considered the legal owner of the facility under existing US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) interpretive regulations (EPA 1986f). The 2101-M Pond will be closed in accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. 90 refs., 30 figs., 28 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

230

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0m2 and a depth of 1.5m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16°27?N102°E). Heat was successfully extracted

Sura Tundee; Pradit Terdtoon; Phrut Sakulchangsatjatai; Randeep Singh; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

2010-01-01

231

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m² and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E).

Sura Tundee; Pradit Terdtoon; Phrut Sakulchangsatjatai; Randeep Singh; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

2010-01-01

232

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2011-01-01

233

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-01-01

234

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-01-01

235

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2010-01-01

236

8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01...Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2009-01-01

237

Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth values ranging from 15 to 30 cm. The values of other environmental variables were significantly correlated with high correlations among Ca, Mg and Sr (r = 0.89 to 0.92). Similar to Duff et al. (1999) significant but weak correlations were found between conductivity, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and DOC values. While arctic pond ecosystems are highly sensitive to the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation, such elevated DOC values in the study ponds might contribute to better resilience of the pond ecosystem.

Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

2010-05-01

238

Estimating Effective Vertical Diffusivity in Shallow Ponds by a Constrained Flux-Gradient Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow ponds have been used to mitigate the deleterious effects of storm water run-off by acting as detention/retention basins that sequester run-off associated pollutants in sediments. Studies show that the retention efficiency of these systems can decrease over time as a result of the internal loading of nutrients/contaminants from the sediments back to the water column where they are available for export downstream. Quantifying the vertical transport of gases (down) and sediment derived materials (up) is vital to the modeling and understanding of the processes that contribute to the magnitude of internal loading. A critical parameter is the effective vertical diffusion coefficient: Kz=Dmolecular +Deddy (cm2 sec-1). The flux gradient method for estimating effective vertical thermal diffusivity has been applied with success in large lakes which undergo stratification cycles on seasonal or longer time scales. We offer a constrained version of the flux-gradient method that has been adapted for use in a shallow pond with a daily stratification cycle. The method employs heat as a tracer and assumes that transport in the face of a stable gradient is diffusive. By shrinking the spatial and temporal resolution of measurement to scales appropriate to the system of interest and carefully accounting for internal source and sink terms of heat (e.g solar radiation and sediment heat fluxes) we are able to calculate Kz as a function of time and depth during periods of stable stratification, i.e when the pond is not vertically well-mixed. Results show the magnitude of Kz varies from ca. 10-3 to 10-1 (cm2 sec-1) under stratified conditions depending primarily on the strength of stratification.

Bean, J. R.; Torgersen, T.

2004-12-01

239

Treatment of harvest discharge from intensive shrimp ponds by settling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from intensively managed shrimp ponds was examined during harvest when ponds were drained. Concentrations of nutrients and solids in effluents were significantly higher during the final 20 cm of discharge (16% of pond volume), but greatest increases occurred during the final 5 cm of discharge (3.9% of pond volume). When the final 20 cm of pond discharge was allowed

D. R. Teichert-Coddington; D. B. Rouse; A. Potts; C. E. Boyd

1999-01-01

240

Assessing Storm Water Detention Systems Treating Road Runoff with an Artificial Neural Network Predicting Fecal Indicator Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether multiple regression analysis and neural network models can be applied successfully for the indirect\\u000a prediction of the runoff treatment performance with water quality indicator variables in an experimental storm water detention\\u000a system rig. Five biologically mature experimental storm water detention systems with different designs treating concentrated\\u000a gully pot liquor (spiked with dog droppings) were assessed. The

S. Kazemi Yazdi; M. Scholz

2010-01-01

241

Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant  

SciTech Connect

White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

Ojeda, J.L.W.

1983-01-01

242

A solar-pond power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar pond power plants are discussed in light of the construction and operation of an experimental 150-kW installation in Ein Bokek, Israel. The principle of the collection and storage of solar energy in salt ponds where the salinity increases with depth is introduced, and the six polar ponds constructed by Israel since 1960 to test the theory of solar pond energy conversion are indicated. The facilities and operation of the Ein Bokek plant, which utilizes a 75,000 sq m, 2.5-m deep pond in which the bottom temperature reaches 93 C, are presented, and the design of a basic nonconvecting solar pond for a 20 MW electric power plant is examined, with attention given to the water layers, pumps, evaporator, organic vapor turbogenerator and condenser. The performance characteristics of solar pond power plants, which can be started up in a few minutes and deliver up to ten times or more of their rated output power, are pointed out as the basis for the suggestion that they can be used initially as peaking plants in the power grid. The future plans of the Israeli solar pond program, which expects to be supplying up to 2000 MW by the year 2000, are outlined, and potential sites for solar pond installations in other countries are indicated.

Bronicki, Y. L.

1981-02-01

243

Inside truths: 'truth' and mental illness in the Australian asylum seeker and detention debates.  

PubMed

This article examines some of the key debates and interactions between the Australian government and medical profession in relation to the mental health consequences of the policy of mandatory detention of asylum seekers. It explores how, in a series of episodes between 2001 and 2005, each side claimed to represent accurately the 'true' nature of the detention system through asserting superior 'objectivity' and commitment to 'scientific truth' in their representations of the mental health of asylum seekers. Placing these debates within the particular political objectives of the Liberal Party during John Howard's term as Prime Minister, the article explores how science and medical advocacy have been characterized and made to signify larger conflicts within the Australian political arena. It shows how populist political ideas of 'elitism' have been used by the government to represent as 'elitist untruths' psychiatric research which has demonstrated a direct causal links between government border control policies and mental ill-health. PMID:20433096

Maglen, Krista

2007-10-01

244

Crisis intervention team (CIT) training in the jail/detention setting: a case illustration.  

PubMed

Research has documented the over-representation of persons with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMJ) in jails and prisons. Further increased attention has been directed to jail diversion programs and other attempts to prevent incarceration of adults with SPMI. Yet, regardless of available diversion programs, and recent trends in mental health within correctional settings, jails continue to see a disproportionate increase in inmates with SPMI. Thepurpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research, public policy, and current best practices for the development and implementation of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Training as an in-house intervention in jail/detention-based settings. Our review provides support for deploying this specialized law enforcement response program to address the needs of mentally ill persons within jail settings. Strategies and issues in the utilization of the CIT model in detention contexts are discussed. PMID:23894801

Tucker, Abigail S; Mendez, Jennifer; Browning, Samuel L; Van Hasselt, Vincent B; Palmer, Libbi

2012-01-01

245

Preventive detention of sex offenders: the American experience versus international human rights norms.  

PubMed

Nearly two decades after the birth of American Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) laws and the tolerant review of their legitimacy by American courts, European courts and international bodies are beginning to develop a jurisprudence of their own with regard to preventive detention. Applying international human rights norms, these bodies have been significantly less tolerant of preventive detention, looking not only at their design but also at their implementation. Simultaneously, American courts are showing the beginnings of a second look at SVP laws, inspired and informed not by promises about the future implementation of newly passed SVP laws, but rather by the sorry record of two decades of implementation. This article examines an American SVP scheme as it has been implemented over 20 years, contrasts the international perspective, and offers some speculation about the path of reform for American SVP schemes. PMID:23686678

Janus, Eric S

2013-05-20

246

Maintenance strategy for a salt gradient solar pond coupled with an evaporation pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, the authors presented a simple mathematical model for predicting the ratio of the evaporation pond area to that of a salt gradient solar pond area. The evaporation pond idea provides a very attractive method of salt recycling by evaporation, especially in areas of high evaporation and low rates of rain as it is the case for

K. R. Agha; S. M. Abughres; A. M. Ramadan

2004-01-01

247

Psychometric Status and Clinical Utility of the MAYSI-2 with Girls and Boys in Juvenile Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study replicates and extends studies of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in a sample of 479 urban, rural, and suburban 12–16 year old youths (68% boys; 41% African American, 23% Latino)\\u000a consecutively admitted to juvenile detention centers. Six principal components replicated the MAYSI-2 factor-analytically-derived\\u000a subscales except for Depression\\/Anxiety, and suggested modifications of specific items in each sub-scale.

Julian D. Ford; John F. Chapman; Geraldine Pearson; Randy Borum; Jennifer Meltzer Wolpaw

2008-01-01

248

The compulsory detention of Afro?Caribbeans under the Mental Health Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four interrelated studies are described. These show that not only do more Afro?Caribbeans than expected enter the psychiatric in?patient system, but they are more likely to be detained under the Mental Health Act and to receive treatment in secure facilities. At each point in the system the proportion of Afro?Caribbeans increases, from informal to civil commitment to detention on forensic

Rosemarie Cope

1989-01-01

249

In-depth learning of cogging\\/detenting torque through experiments and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity of in-depth learning of cogging\\/detent torque for mainly undergraduates is discussed with particular attention to its method and tools. The experimental tools developed include a cogging-torque tester, variable-skew rotors for a DC motor and a three-phase hybrid stepping motor having a special rotor construction to eliminate certain harmonic components of cogging torque. Two pieces of software are presented

T. Kikuchi; T. Kenjo

1998-01-01

250

Who Am I? Plant and Animal Life in a Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use questioning skills to ascertain which pond plant or animal they are. In previous lessons, students have visited the neighborhood pond, made observations, and become familiar with pond life.

251

Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83%) was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity) and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality). Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention), although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.

Hamerlynck, Sannie MJJ; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres MC; Bezemer, Pieter D; Doreleijers, Theo AH

2007-01-01

252

Beyond best management practices: pelagic biogeochemical dynamics in urban stormwater ponds.  

PubMed

Urban stormwater ponds are considered to be a best management practice for flood control and the protection of downstream aquatic ecosystems from excess suspended solids and other contaminants. Following this, urban ponds are assumed to operate as unreactive settling basins, whereby their overall effectiveness in water treatment is strictly controlled by physical processes. However, pelagic microbial biogeochemical dynamics could be significant contributors to nutrient and carbon cycling in these small, constructed aquatic systems. In the present study, we examined pelagic biogeochemical dynamics in 26 stormwater ponds located in southern Ontario, Canada, during late summer. Initially, we tested to see if total suspended solids (TSS) concentration, which provides a measure of catchment disturbance, landscape stability, and pond performance, could be used as an indirect predictor of plankton stocks in stormwater ponds. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using TSS as a surrogate for external loading suggested that TSS was an imperfect predictor. TSS masked plankton-nutrient relationships and appeared to reflect autochthonous production moreso than external forces. When TSS was excluded, the SEM model explained a large amount of the variation in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics (55-75%) but a small amount of the variation in plankton stocks (3-38%). Plankton stocks were correlated positively with particulate nutrients and extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting rapid recycling of the fixed nutrient and carbon pool with consequential effects on DOM. DOM characteristics across the ponds were mainly of autochthonous origin. Humic matter from the watershed formed a larger part of the DOM pool only in ponds with low productivity and low dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Our results suggest that in these small, high nutrient systems internal processes might outweigh the impact of the landscape on carbon cycles. Hence, the overall benefit that constructed ponds serve to protect downstream environments must be weighed with the biogeochemical processes that take place within the water body, which could offset pond water quality gains by supporting intense microbial metabolism. Finally, TSS did not provide a useful indication of stormwater pond biogeochemistry and was biased by autochthonous production, which could lead to erroneous TSS-based management conclusions regarding pond performance. PMID:24147410

Williams, Clayton J; Frost, Paul C; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

2013-09-01

253

Heat rejection and energy extraction within solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the heat transfer and fluid flow processes governing heat rejection to the surface layer and energy extraction from the storage zone has been carried out. The literature available on this and other related problems was studied in detail to determine the nature of the recirculating flows that arise and the effect they might have on the stability of the gradient layer. Simplified analytical models were considered to determine the governing parameters and their effect on the performance and efficiency of the solar pond. Estimates of the surface temperature rise and the increase in evaporation caused by heat rejection were made. Two flow configurations, end-to-end and top-to-bottom, were considered for every extraction and the spread of the flow in the storage zone was studied. It was found that the limited penetration of the top-to-bottom configuration restricts its satisfactory operation to small ponds.

Jaluria, Y.

1982-02-01

254

Aquatic Studies of Gable Mountain Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the biotic and abiotic components of the Gable Mountain Pond (HAPO cooling water disposal pond) ecosystem were undertaken to determine if there was a potential problem for off-site transfer of radioactivity to man originating with the aquatic f...

C. E. Cushing D. G. Watson

1974-01-01

255

EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE MINE SEDIMENTATION PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

An in-field evaluation of the effectiveness of sediment ponds in reducing suspended solids in the runoff from surface mining activities was performed. Nine selected sedimentation ponds in the three eastern coal-mining States of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky were sampl...

256

100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

Petersen, S.W.

1997-09-01

257

Organic Materials as Fertilizers for Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fish in ponds can be increased by the use of organic fertilizers such as cottonseed meal and soybean meal, and productivity can be further increased by the addition of superphosphate to these meals. From the standpoint of fish production alone, such organic materials are worthy of consideration as fertilizers for fish ponds.There are certain limitations to the

E. V. Smith; H. S. Swingle

1943-01-01

258

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

259

Integration of Solar Ponds with Agricultural Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar ponds have promise for use in many parts of the agricultural system. The pond design can be adapted for these applications in many different climates. Specific examples are given for grain drying in both temperate and humid tropical conditions, gree...

J. R. Hull

1987-01-01

260

Thermal Image of Pu'u '? '? Pond  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

"Rootless" lava shields are those built over a lava tube, as opposed to those which develop over the vent. This rootless shield was built over the past week, and hosted a lava pond at its summit. Overflows from the pond cascaded down the steep flanks. A short lava flow, in the lower right portion of...

2010-06-18

261

Saturated solar ponds: 1. Simulation procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass and energy balances on the upper convective zone, nonconvective zone, and lower convective zone of a saturated solar pond are written to yield a set of nonlinear partial differential equations. These are solved numerically to predict the thermal performance of the pond over a long period of time for various initial and boundary conditions. This model considers external

D. Subhakar; S. S. Murthy

1993-01-01

262

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

263

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

264

100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The

1997-01-01

265

Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the organic matter is a critical factor for water quality control and nutrient recycle. Usually, management

B. Torres Beristain

2005-01-01

266

216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (D...

1994-01-01

267

Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Youth in Juvenile Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

duct, oppositional defiant, alcohol, marijuana, and other substance; 17.3% of females and 20.4% of males had only one disorder. We also examined types of disorder: affec- tive, anxiety, substance use, and attention-deficit\\/ hyperactivity or behavioral. The odds of having comor- biddisorderswerehigherthanexpectedbychanceformost demographic subgroups, except when base rates of dis- orders were already high or when cell sizes were small. Nearly

Karen M. Abram; Linda A. Teplin; Gary M. McClelland; Mina K. Dulcan

2003-01-01

268

Evapotranspiration from Wetland Pond Complexes in the Western Boreal Forest, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands on the Canadian Western Boreal Plain account for as much as 50 % of the landscape and provide one of the most important waterfowl habitats in North America as well as representing a significant regional water resource and carbon pool. In this sub-humid region potential evapotranspiration (PET) exceeds precipitation in most years and consequently these wetland complexes are very vulnerable to any climate change that may alter patterns of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The permanence of these wetland and pond systems depends on the underlying glacial deposits, topography and evapotranspiration. Flow within these wetland pond catchments is from the pond to the hillslope for most of the time and small changes in precipitation can result in a dramatic change in runoff. Increased climatic variability (natural or anthropogenic) will likely influence the duration of drought cycles. However, whether or not, or for how long these ponds may dry completely remains unknown. Thus, it is essential to understand the ecological and physiographic factors within these complexes that control evapotranspiration, and how these are influenced by large scale climate and climate cycles. This paper investigates not only open water evaporation from the ponds, but also the role of ET from the surrounding riparian peatlands, and illustrates how the evaporative regimes from these units and their linkages with the ponds are significant to the permanence of these water bodies.

Petrone, R. M.; Silins, U.; Devito, K. J.

2004-05-01

269

Technical manual for calculating cooling pond performance  

SciTech Connect

This manual is produced in response to a growing number of requests for a technical aid to explain methods for simulating cooling pond performance. As such, it is a compilation of reports, charts and graphs developed through the years for use in analyzing situations. Section II contains a report summarizing the factors affecting cooling pond performance and lists statistical parameters used in developing performance simulations. Section III contains the graphs of simulated cooling pond performance on an hourly basis for various combinations of criteria (wind, solar, depth, air temperature and humidity) developed from the report in Section II. Section IV contains correspondence describing how to develop further data from the graphs in Section III, as well as mathematical models for the system of performance calculation. Section V contains the formulas used to simulate cooling pond performances in a cascade arrangement, such as the Fermilab Main Ring ponds. Section VI contains the calculations currently in use to evaluate the Main Ring pond performance based on current flows and Watts loadings. Section VII contains the overall site drawing of the Main Ring cooling ponds with thermal analysis and physical data.

Krstulovich, S.F.

1988-07-01

270

Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

1980-01-01

271

Two dimensional computational fluid dynamic models for waste stabilisation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional waste stabilisation pond (WSP) models encounter problems predicting pond performance because they cannot account for the influence of pond features, such as inlet structure or pond geometry, on fluid hydrodynamics. In this study, two dimensional (2-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were compared to experimental residence time distributions (RTD) from literature. In one of the three geometries simulated, the

M. G Wood; T Howes; J Keller; M. R Johns

1998-01-01

272

Time dependence of ground heat loss from solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time dependence of ground heat loss from solar ponds is examined by detailed analysis of the ground temperature histories from two experimental solar ponds, a 400 m² pond at the Ohio State University, and a 1000 m² pond at Argonne National Laboratory. An analytical method is presented that solves for the thermal diffusivity of the soil as a function

J. R. Hull; J. Kamal; C. E. Nielsen

1983-01-01

273

Time dependence of ground heat loss from solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time dependence of ground heat loss from solar ponds is examined by detailed analysis of the ground temperature histories from two experimental solar ponds, a 400 m² pond at the Ohio State University, and a 1000 m² pond at Argonne National Laboratory. An analytical method is presented that solves the thermal diffusivity of the soil as a function of

J. R. Hull; J. Kamal; C. E. Nielsen

1983-01-01

274

Water quality and restoration in a coastal subdivision stormwater pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to a number of water quality problems including high nutrient, chemical contaminant, and bacterial levels. This study examined the interaction between land use and coastal pond water quality in a South Carolina residential subdivision pond. Eutrophic levels

Lorimar Serrano; Marie E. DeLorenzo

2008-01-01

275

Solar ponds. Citations from the NTIS data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federally funded research on the design, performance, and use of solar ponds is discussed on these. Topic areas cover the use of solar ponds in industrial process heat production, roof ponds for passive solar buildings, and solar ponds use in the production of biomass for renewable fuels.

Hundemann, A. S.

1980-08-01

276

An Assessment of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Detention Risk Assessment Instrument on Youths Screened and Processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening data, including information obtained from the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Detention Risk Assessment Instrument and the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers developed by NIDA, on arrested youths processed at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC) in November 1993 are analyzed. The results provide support for the effectiveness of the Detention Risk Assessment Instrument

Richard Dembo; Glenn Turner; Camille Chin Sue; James Schmeidler; Polly Borden; Darrell Manning

1995-01-01

277

Developing Learning Identities in and through Music: A Case Study of the Outcomes of a Music Programme in an Australian Juvenile Detention Centre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The last decades have witnessed significant growth in music programmes targeted at various populations in detention, including those in male and female prisons and juvenile detention centres. The aspirations of such programmes have included a concern to improve detainees' mental and physical health and well-being, develop pro-social behaviours…

Barrett, Margaret S.; Baker, Jane S.

2012-01-01

278

9 CFR 329.3 - Notification of detention to the owner of the article or livestock detained, or the owner's agent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...detention to the owner of the article or livestock detained, or the owner's agent, and...detention to the owner of the article or livestock detained, or the owner's agent, and...custody. (a) When any article or livestock is detained under this part, an...

2013-01-01

279

A Preliminary Evaluation of the Occurrence and Characteristics of Cut-Off Ponds of the Maryland Shores of the Chesapeake Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the auspices of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, a preliminary investigation of occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. These small ponds occur commonly along the Bay shore...

1980-01-01

280

100-D Ponds groundwater quality assessment  

SciTech Connect

The 100-D Ponds facility is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The pH of groundwater in a downgradient well is statistically different than local background, triggering an assessment of groundwater contamination under 40 CFR 265.93. Results of a similar assessment, conducted in 1993, show that the elevated pH is caused by the presence of alkaline ash sediments beneath the ponds, which are not part of the RCRA unit. The 100-D Ponds should remain in indicator evaluation monitoring.

Hartman, M.J.

1996-04-11

281

Solar ponds in hydrometallurgy and salt production  

SciTech Connect

The possibilities of using solar ponds in the mining industry are explored. Their advantages are identified from an economic point of view and the main technical points for proper operation are discussed. A short account is given of the hydrometallurgical and salt production processes of interest from the point of view of solar ponds. Solar ponds can provide a working environment for many mineral processing systems, not only as a source of energy, but also as a large basin maintained at nearly constant temperature where different operations can be performed. Examples are described for applications in the production of sodium sulfate, boric acid, copper, potassium chloride, and sodium borate.

Lesino, G.; Saravia, L. (Univ. Nacional de Salta, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

1991-01-01

282

Nekton Density Patterns in Tidal Ponds and Adjacent Wetlands Related to Pond Size and Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the distribution of nekton across the marsh landscape using a 1-m2 drop sampler to compare nekton densities across three different salinity zones (intermediate, brackish, saline), three pond\\u000a sizes (diameter 750 m?=?large), and two habitat types (pond, adjacent marsh) in the Barataria\\u000a Bay Estuary, Louisiana. Nekton assemblages of ponds and the adjacent marsh appeared to be structured by the responses

Lawrence P. Rozas; Thomas J. Minello

2010-01-01

283

The immigration detention health plan: an acute care model for a chronic care population.  

PubMed

Immigration detention is the fastest-growing form of incarceration in the U.S. Numerous reports by advocacy groups and detainees themselves have alleged substandard medical care for detainees. We have undertaken an analysis of the health plan that regulates reimbursement of much of detainee health care. We conclude that this plan may place detainees at risk of receiving inadequate care, particularly if they have chronic medical problems or would benefit from routine health screening exams. We present several concrete measures that could immediately improve the level of medical care afforded to this vulnerable population. PMID:20168008

Venters, Homer D; Keller, Allen S

2009-11-01

284

Detention of British citizens as hostages in the Gulf--health, psychological, and family consequences.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To describe the physical, psychological, and family consequences of the detention of British subjects as hostages in Kuwait or Iraq, or both, after the invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 and to investigate the relation between types of trauma experienced and these reactions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire. SUBJECTS--381 respondents. RESULTS--Many health, social, and psychological sequelae were identified. Problems with present finance, accommodation, and work are important causes of distress. Many hostages coped well and gained self esteem. CONCLUSIONS--A minority of respondents require further support and treatment. Expatriates in risk areas should retain assets in their home country.

Easton, J A; Turner, S W

1991-01-01

285

Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-08-01

286

Acidification as environmental pollution: effects on fish-pond ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the impact of acidity on fish production in ponds, experiments were conducted in fertilized sunfish (Lepomis spp.) ponds and fed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds. The alkalinity and pH of pond water were lowered by additions of HâSOâ. Total alkalinity levels were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 mg\\/liter in sunfish ponds and 0, 5, and 20 in

Murad

1987-01-01

287

Physicochemical condition of two nursery ponds at Iswarganj, Mymensingh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was conducted to measure the nursery pond water quality parameters during the period of June 2006 to May 2007 in Mymensingh. The highest value of water temperature, alkalinity, ammonia, free carbon dioxide, DO, P H and hardness was 30.2 0 C (May'07) in pond-1, 174ppm (Feb.'07) in pond-2, 3.5ppm(July'06) in pond-1, 8.5ppm (Dec.'06&Jan.'07) in pond-1, 9ppm (July;06)

M. Kabil Hossain; M. D. Hossain; M. Habibur Rahman; R. Afza; D. A. Khanom

2008-01-01

288

Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. (Atomindex citation 23:028522)

Song Kehui Li Shensheng

1991-01-01

289

Ecologic simulation of warm water aquaculture ponds  

SciTech Connect

A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized warm-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of environmental parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of environmental conditions.

Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.

1983-06-01

290

DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual provides a concise overview of wastewater stabilization pond systems through discussion of factors affecting treatment, process design principles and applications, aspects of physical design and construction, suspended solids removal alternatives, and cost and energy r...

291

This Pond Is Not for Ducks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The latest development in solar energy is a four-acre pond planned for Clark College in Vancouver (Washington). Filled with brine, it will serve both as collector and heat storage tank for the entire campus. (Author)|

American School and University, 1980

1980-01-01

292

Solar perspectives - Israel, solar pond innovator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing and planned solar pond electricity producing power plants in Israel and California are discussed. Salt ponds, with salinity increasing with depth, are coupled with low temperature, organic working fluid Rankine cycle engines to form self-storage, nonpolluting, electric plants. Average pond thermal gradients range from 25 C surface to 90 C at the bottom; 160 GW of potential power have been projected as currently available from existing natural solar ponds from a partial survey of 14 countries. The largest installation to date has a 220 kW output, and a 5 MW plant is scheduled for completion in 1983. Efficiencies of 10% and a cost of $2,000/kW for a 40 MW plant are projected, a cost which is comparable to that of conventional plants. The 40 MW plant is an optimized design, allowing for modular plant additions to increase capacity.

Winsberg, S.

1981-07-01

293

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

SciTech Connect

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-05

294

Material selection consideration for solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the various candidate materials tested, stainless steel shows the best potential for applications as heat exchanger components in solar ponds. Even stainless steel may lead to pitting type of corrosion. Weight loss measurements are probably unsatisfactory for corrosion evaluation in solar pond situations. Also included are the results from the potentiodynamic anodic polarization analysis, corrosion rate calculation via corrosion behavior diagrams, and immersion weight loss measurements.

Sastri, S.; Vaidyanathan, T. K.; Marsh, H. E.; French, R. L.

1984-09-01

295

LilyPond 2.11  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you want to add a touch of elegance to your chaconne, gavotte, or just a plain old ditty, LilyPond 2.11 is an application worth taking an interest in. Visitors can use the application to typeset popular music, or also have the program convert existing music notation into a format that is both crisp and elegant. The LilyPond site contains an introduction, a FAQ section, and a few testimonials. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2008-09-25

296

Spatial and temporal variability of ribotyping results at a small watershed in South Carolina.  

PubMed

The utility of library-based ribotyping methods for a very small study area was evaluated through comparison of local results to libraries with differing spatial and temporal scales. Ribotyping of Escherichia coli isolates was used to evaluate sources of fecal pollution at a coastal golf course in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Thirty-five E. coli isolates were obtained from water samples from a detention pond for testing against several local and regional libraries of known-source isolate patterns. A library of 92 E. coli ribotype patterns was created from wildlife feces obtained on the site. Additional libraries were available for comparison, including a library from Morgan Island, a small, geographically isolated area (including a monkey colony), and a library from ongoing statewide assessments. Seventeen (49%) of the unknown E. coli isolates matched isolates from raccoon and deer scat from the local library. Two isolates (6%) were matched with monkey sources from Morgan Island, and 13 (37%) were matched to raccoon, deer, and cows from the statewide assessment. Evaluation of repeated ribotyping analyses at the study area revealed evidence of temporal variability of potential sources in the local library. Only one of the isolates from the second year of fecal samples successfully matched with a fecal isolate from the previous year. The results from this study suggest that source identification results were variable both spatially and temporally, and that local, temporally specific libraries are most appropriate for library-based MST studies in small watersheds. Results also suggest that it will be difficult to employ adequate sample sizes to satisfactorily address unknown pattern variability. PMID:18206209

Kelsey, R Heath; Webster, Laura F; Kenny, David J; Stewart, Jill R; Scott, Geoffrey I

2007-12-14

297

Performance model for ultimate heat spray ponds  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for the performance of spray ponds is developed using a detailed computational approach. The model considers heat transfer and evaporation from individual droplets of sprayed water and the pond surface, and drift loss from the sprays. Modification of the temperature and humidity of the surrounding air is taken into account in calculating heat and mass transport from the sprays. Flow of air through the spray field is considered to be either driven by the ambient wind, or by natural convection. Relationships for heat and mass transfer from the drops are derived from the empirical studies of Ranz and Marshall. Numerical experiments demonstrate that simplified models can still be useful for spray pond performance assessments. The models are validated with data on several industrial and nuclear power plant spray ponds, and with data from an extensively instrumented, experimental spray pond. Results of the validation studies demonstrate generally good agreement. These models are used in a complex methodology for predicting the performance of spray ponds used for nuclear power plant service, although it is not limited to this application. A companion paper describes the overall assessment methodology.

Codell, R.B.; Asce, A.M.

1986-08-01

298

Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

2010-12-01

299

POND-AGE WATER COLUMN TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS IN CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS PRODUCTION PONDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term temporal succession changes in nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton have not been previously investigated in aquaculture ponds. This study analyzed relationships of pond age with nutrients, zooplankton and phytoplankton populations, and incidence of off-flavor occurrence. Nutrient le...

300

Design methodology for a salt gradient solar pond coupled with an evaporation pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a simple mathematical model for predicting the ratio of the evaporation pond (EP) area to that of a Salt Gradient Solar Pond (SGSP) area. The EP idea provides a very attractive method of salt recycling by evaporation, especially in areas of high rates of evaporation and low rates of rain as it is the

K. R. Agha; S. M. Abughres; A. M. Ramadan

2002-01-01

301

Electrostatic dust transport on Eros: 3-D simulations of pond formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEAR-Shoemaker spacecraft images of the surface of the near-Earth Asteroid 433 Eros reveal that more than 200 craters on Eros are partially filled with smooth deposits, termed ponds [Veverka, J., and 32 colleagues, 2001a. Science 292, 484-488]. These ponds appear smooth even at a high resolution of 1.2 cm/pixel and spectral analysis suggests that they may be made up of particles ?50 ?m in size [Robinson, M.S., Thomas, P.C., Veverka, J., Murchie, S., Carcish, B., 2001. Nature 413, 396-400; Riner, M.A., Eckart, J.M., Gigilio, J.G., Robinson, M.S., 2006. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVII. Abstract 2291]. Coupled with the concentration of ponds at low latitudes, the possible small particle size suggests that these deposits might be related to electrostatic transport of dust near the local terminator [Robinson, M.S., Thomas, P.C., Veverka, J., Murchie, S., Carcish, B., 2001. Nature 413, 396-400]. The work presented here incorporates the precise lighting geometry within a crater at a specified latitude into two models for electrostatic transport of dust grains in order to explore dust deposition and pond formation via this mechanism, particularly as a function of latitude. We find that micrometer-sized dust particles are preferentially transported into craters at latitudes where solar illumination angles are often low. In addition we find that if particles are electrostatically lifted off the surface they are preferentially transported into topographic depressions independent of whether the particles undergo stable levitation. The primary limiting factor for our model is uncertainty concerning the dust launching mechanism. Despite that, and though it does not match the observed north-south asymmetry in pond distribution, our model demonstrates potential for good general agreement between future predictions of pond formation via electrostatic transport of dust and observations of pond locations on the surface of Eros.

Hughes, Anna L. H.; Colwell, Joshua E.; DeWolfe, Alexandria Ware

2008-06-01

302

DESIGN FEATURES OF A CONSTRUCTED MINI WET POND FOR WATER QUALITY CONTROL AND RUNOFF STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In stormwater management, controlling water quantity and stormwater generated pollution at the source needs to be practised towards achieving ecologically sustainable development in urban areas in Malaysia. Constructed mini wet ponds can be used for small scale runoff\\/flow attenuation which provide temporary runoff storage to reduce downstream flow peaks; stormwater quality management and control through removing of nutrients and pollutants

Mohamed Roseli; Bin Zainal Abidin; Jalil Bin Hassan

303

Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)|

Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

1977-01-01

304

Representing the effects of lateral spreading during ponded infiltration: an inverse modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

While vertical unsaturated flow may occur during natural infiltration, lateral spreading is unavoidable in field infiltration experiments, where water is ponded over a small area. However, the calculation of soil-water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves from such experiments is usually done with major simplifying assumptions of flow geometry and heterogeneity, assuming that all flow moves one-dimensionally downward. The effects of

B. B. Mirus; J. R. Nimmo; K. S. Perkins; K. Singha

2006-01-01

305

Electrical detection of leaks in lined waste disposal ponds  

SciTech Connect

A method for detecting and locating leaks in the plastic liner of a waste disposal pond has been implemented and tested at a site near Budmerice in Slovakia. The method is based on detecting electric current flowing through holes in the insulating lining membrane. Unlike similar methods employed elsewhere, this implementation allows monitoring for leaks that may develop during and after filling the pond with electrically inhomogeneous solid waste. To accomplish this goal, sensing electrodes were placed below the membrane during construction. In operation, current was passed between an electrode inside the pond and another outside; the voltage caused by this current was observed on the buried sensing electrodes. The data were then processed to detect and locate any leaks in the membrane. An important practical concern is achieving acceptable detectability and location accuracy while using a sufficiently sparse grid of sensing electrodes. This problem was overcome by two processing steps: (1) calculating electrical potentials from the observed voltages and (2) performing a nonlinear inversion on subsets of the data. With this technique, observations made with a 10- x 8-m grid of electrodes, a relatively low-power current source, and a simple receiver can provide accurate location information, even for small leaks. In a blind test, the system accurately predicted the locations of six leaks that were subsequently verified visually. Five of the leaks were cuts in the plastic typically measuring less than 2 x 0.1 cm, whereas the sixth leak was a ground of many small holes. For the five, the typical location accuracy was about 30 cm, comparable to the basic survey location accuracy of the sensing electrodes.

Frangos, W.

1997-11-01

306

The geopolitics of vulnerability: children's legal subjectivity, immigrant family detention and US immigration law and enforcement policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 2006, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) began detaining noncitizen families at the T. Don Hutto Family Residential Facility, a former medium-security prison operated by the Corrections Corporation of America. In April 2007, a group of lawyers sued DHS, arguing that Hutto's conditions violated children's rights. This article first situates family detention in relation to two relatively

Lauren Martin

2011-01-01

307

Evaluation Report of a Detention-Based Student Disciplinary Program in a Honduran/International Primary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Escuela Internacional Sampedrana (EIS) in Honduras implemented a new discipline program in its Primary School during the 1996-97 school year. This paper contains findings from three evaluations of the program--an initial analysis, a midyear report, and a year-end report. The first report analyzed the number of suspensions and detentions, as…

Evans, Thomas J.

308

The Mental and Physical Health Difficulties of Children Held within a British Immigration Detention Center: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The present study aimed to assess the mental and physical health of children held within a British immigration detention center. Method: A total of 24 detained children (aged 3 months to 17 years) were assessed with their parents or carer after being referred by a registered legal charity. Thirteen were seen by a pediatrician alone, 4…

Lorek, Ann; Ehntholt, Kimberly; Nesbitt, Anne; Wey, Emmanuel; Githinji, Chipo; Rossor, Eve; Wickramasinghe, Rush

2009-01-01

309

Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

Hull, J.R.

1982-09-29

310

A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

Lin, E. I. H.

1982-01-01

311

Sunlight, season, snowmelt, storm, and source affect E. coli populations in an artificially ponded stream  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reducing fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), in streams is important for many downstream areas. E. coli concentrations within streams may be reduced by intervening ponds or wetlands through a number of physical and biological means. A section of Dunes Creek, a small coastal stream of southern Lake Michigan, was impounded and studied for 30??months from pre-through post-construction of the experimental pond. E. coli reduction became more predictable and effective with pond age. E. coli followed the hydrograph and increased several-fold during both rainfall and snowmelt events. Seasonally, the pond was more effective at reducing E. coli during summer than winter. Late summer, non-solar reduction or inactivation of E. coli in the pond was estimated at 72% and solar inactivation at 26%. E. coli DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that the winter population was genetically more homogeneous than the summer population. Detection of FRNA coliphages suggests that there was fecal contamination during heavy rain events. An understanding of how environmental factors interact with E. coli populations is important for assessing anticipated contaminant loading and the reduction of indicator bacteria in downstream reaches. ?? 2007.

Whitman, R. L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D. A.; Nevers, M. B.; Byappanahalli, M. N.

2008-01-01

312

Sunlight, season, snowmelt, storm, and source affect E. coli populations in an artificially ponded stream.  

PubMed

Reducing fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), in streams is important for many downstream areas. E. coli concentrations within streams may be reduced by intervening ponds or wetlands through a number of physical and biological means. A section of Dunes Creek, a small coastal stream of southern Lake Michigan, was impounded and studied for 30 months from pre-through post-construction of the experimental pond. E. coli reduction became more predictable and effective with pond age. E. coli followed the hydrograph and increased several-fold during both rainfall and snowmelt events. Seasonally, the pond was more effective at reducing E. coli during summer than winter. Late summer, non-solar reduction or inactivation of E. coli in the pond was estimated at 72% and solar inactivation at 26%. E. coli DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that the winter population was genetically more homogeneous than the summer population. Detection of FRNA coliphages suggests that there was fecal contamination during heavy rain events. An understanding of how environmental factors interact with E. coli populations is important for assessing anticipated contaminant loading and the reduction of indicator bacteria in downstream reaches. PMID:18031792

Whitman, Richard L; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Shively, Dawn A; Nevers, Meredith B; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N

2007-11-26

313

Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions.

2011-01-01

314

Metal Cycling in Polymictic Suburban Retention Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratified conditions in lakes have been demonstrated to enhance metal species mobilization as well as the potential for mercury methylation. However, few studies have been conducted in shallow engineered systems. Although each system is relatively small in area, the overall number of such engineered systems is large (and increasing) and warrants consideration within overall landscape nutrient cycling. Previous research has documented strong diel stratification cycles and the frequent development of anoxia within the bottom waters of such polymictic systems compared with larger, dimictic lakes. We examined the impact of polymixis and the shorter hydraulic residence time on the bioavailability and the downstream transport of Hg species and other trace metals. Filtered and unfiltered lake water samples were collected at 15 and 50 cm above the sediment as well as the surface of the 1-m deep Mirror Lake retention pond on the University of Connecticut Storrs campus. Additional samples were collected from the lake outlet under baseflow and elevated discharge conditions, including the capture of initial mobilization during precipitation events. Samples were analyzed for Hg speciation as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total suspended solids, cations (including Cu, Zn and Pb) and anions. We measured stage height at the lake outlet to calculate flux. Lake total Hg (THg) concentrations were generally less than 4 ng/L with the majority in the particulate phase. Outlet THg increased to 32 ng/L and dissolved THg increased to 1.2 ng/L during high flow events likely due to enhanced mobilization of particulates from the sediment and runoff from impervious surfaces, respectively. In contrast, DOC concentrations decreased as runoff contributions increased and were not correlated with dissolved THg. In addition, THg concentrations increased following copper algaecide applications, possibly due to re- suspension in the water column of biotic material.

Segal, C. A.; Bushey, J. T.; Torgersen, T.

2009-05-01

315

Prevalence and Persistence of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Context Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Most juveniles eventually return to their communities, where they become the responsibility of the community mental health system. Yet, no large-scale study has examined psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. Objective To examine changes in prevalence and persistence of disorders during the 5 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design Prospective longitudinal study with up to 5 interviews (N = 1829). To ensure representation of key demographic subgroups, the randomly selected sample was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic), age, and legal status (juvenile or adult court). Setting The Northwestern Juvenile Project, sampling youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois. Participants Detained youth, 10 to 18 years at baseline interview. Main Outcome Measures At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (Child and Young Adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). Results Five years after baseline, more than 45% of males and nearly 30% of females had one or more psychiatric disorders with associated impairment. Substance use disorders were the most common disorders; males, however, had higher rates over time (5 years after baseline, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.61; 95% CI, 1.96–3.47). Non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics also had higher rates of substance use disorders compared with African Americans (respectively, AOR, 1.96, 95% CI, 1.54–2.49; AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.24–2.03). Females had higher rates of major depression over time (AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.22–2.08). Conclusions Although prevalence rates of most psychiatric disorders declined over time, a substantial proportion of delinquent youth continue to have disorders. There were notable sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and persistence of disorders.

Teplin, Linda A.; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2013-01-01

316

Administrative Detention  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of ... Facebook; YouTube; Flickr. For Government; For Press. Combination Products; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/administrativedetention

317

Preventive detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly fifty years, any discussion of “refugees” presupposed “exile” as a tautological given, the starting point either for providing temporary asylum or for solving the refugee problem. During that time, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) promoted three durable solutions for refugees: (1) voluntary repatriation, (2) local settlement, or (3) third?country resettlement. Each solution took exile as its

Bill Frelick

1993-01-01

318

Stabilising solar ponds by utilising porous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear instability of a solar pond containing porous material in the lower convective zone (LCZ) is investigated. It is found that, in general, for physically realistic values, solar ponds that contain porous material are more stable than ones that do not. Interestingly, it is found that the percentage of porous material contained in the LCZ does not stabilise the system in a linear fashion and, in particular, approximately 60% of porous material in the LCZ appears to optimise the maximum temperature that can be stored in the LCZ provided the proportion of heat flux extracted at the base of the pond, f, is held fixed at a physically realistic value of f=0.5. When f is varied it is found that there is a critical value of f = 0.6 below which inclusion of porous material stabilises the system but above which it does not.

Hill, A. A.; Carr, M.

2013-10-01

319

Thermal Effects on Biological Production in Nutrient Rich Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physical, chemical, and biological differences between two similar ponds were studied. One pond was heated to 5 C above ambient temperature, while the other served as a reference. Two hundred and fifty green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, were planted in eac...

H. Siewaert

1972-01-01

320

ESTIMATING AMPHIBIAN OCCUPANCY RATES IN PONDS UNDER COMPLEX SURVEY DESIGNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitoring the occurrence of specific amphibian species in ponds is one component of the US Geological Survey's Amphibian Monitoring and Research Initiative. Two collaborative studies were conducted in Olympic National Park and southeastern region of Oregon. The number of ponds...

321

Cotreatment of sewage and septage in waste stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

A one year study was carried out in a waste stabilization ponds system where septage and sewage are cotreated. The system consists of two septage ponds which operate alternately followed by two ponds in series which receive the combined effluent. The septage ponds also act as evaporation ponds for the accumulated sludge. The monitoring program was divided in two phases. The results of the first phase indicate that the effluent of septage ponds has an adequate quality to be discharged into the waste stabilization ponds designed to treat sewage and that is possible to use the septage ponds to dry the accumulated sludge. Further investigation is needed to find suitable post-treatment of the sludge in order to use it in agriculture. PMID:11833736

Ingallinella, A M; Sanguinetti, G; Fernández, R G; Strauss, M; Montangero, A

2002-01-01

322

Transport of a Conservative Solute through a Shallow Pond Bottom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field experiment has been performed in an evaporation pond at Kesterson Reservoir, Merced County, California, aimed at determining average solute fluxes through pond sediments and at estimating the magnitude and degree of spatial variability of water an...

R. H. Long S. Benson M. Alavi T. N. Narasimhan

1988-01-01

323

Anaerobic - Aerobic Ponds for Beet Sugar Waste Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sugarbeet factory transport (flume) water wastes were treated in pilot-sized anaerobic, facultative and aerobic ponds to remove BOD. Physical, chemical and mechanical data were collected on the performance of each pond which showed cause for abandoning th...

W. J. Oswald R. A. Tsugita C. G. Golueke R. C. Cooper

1973-01-01

324

Positive attitudes and self-harming behavior of adolescents in a juvenile detention house in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the less stigmatizing positivity construct screening measurement and its association with recent self-harming behaviors among adolescents. Participants were 193 detained Taiwanese adolescents. Questionnaires consisted of a deliberate self-harm inventory, a positivity construct measurement, a depression scale, data concerning risky health behaviors and demographics. The prevalence rate of recent self-harming behavior among adolescents in the detention house was 43.5%. The logistic model showed that age, gender and level of positivity demonstrated significant odds ratios for self-harm behavior. Results showed that younger age and female gender increased self-harming behavior. In addition, low score on positivity construct screening measurement increased the probability of self-harming behavior. Furthermore, these adolescents also engaged in risky health behaviors and were more depressed. Parental and school awareness for these risky behaviors should be enhanced and appropriate early interventions implemented to prevent negative health outcomes. PMID:21691933

Tsai, Mei-Hua; Fang, Kai-Chi; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Chih-Dao; Hsieh, Chi-Pan; Chen, Tsung-Tai

2011-06-21

325

The gap between voluntary admission and detention in mental health units.  

PubMed

This paper presents the case of a young man with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, who agreed to inpatient treatment primarily to avoid being formally detained. I draw on Peter Breggin's early critique of coercion of informal patients to supply an updated discussion of the ethical issues raised. Central questions are whether the admission was coercive, and if so, whether unethical. Whether or not involuntary admission would be justified, moral discomfort surrounds its appearance as a threat. This arises in part from ambivalence about autonomy: although a 'choice' is made, the threat of detention impinges on the patient's choice. Recent legal developments provide some experience of safeguarding those whose consent is not obtained. This highlights the lack of safeguards in this 'gap' and suggests that we have the tools with which to begin to deal with the problem. PMID:22174329

Bingham, Rachel

2011-12-14

326

Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budget in scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85 %) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44 %) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34 %) of added OC, respectively. PMID:23832231

Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Adhikari, Subhendu; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

2013-07-07

327

Response of shallow lakes and ponds to contemporary climate change in the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ponds and shallow lakes are a ubiquitous feature of Arctic coastal plains. In Canada, they are particularly prevalent in the Hudson Bay Lowland and the Mackenzie River Delta region. Recent ground-based and remote sensing observations have shown a general decreasing trend in arctic lake/pond surface area over the past 50 years, suggesting that small water bodies at high latitudes are drying. However, the majority of the work that has been done on drying ponds and shallow lakes (with the exceptional cases of increases in areal extent in a few regions found in the continuous permafrost zone) has been conducted in Alaska and Siberia. The objectives of this work are twofold: (1) to examine trends and seasonal variability in pond and shallow lake water levels and surface area during the open water season; and (2) to examine trends and variability in the duration of ice cover in ponds and shallow lakes in this region, as open water season evaporation totals have been shown to be strongly influenced by ice cover duration. Preliminary results related to the first objective of this study reveal that annual precipitation (primarily summer rainfall) and evaporation have increased between 1955 and 2008; however, rainfall appears to be increasing at a faster rate than evaporation. There is still a moisture deficit over the summer months in this region because evaporation exceeds precipitation, although this deficit appears to be lessening. Thus, conditions in this region appear to be becoming more wet. A change detection study conducted on a subset of ponds for four years using air photographs and a SPOT image show that pond surface areas appear to have fluctuated over the study period but do not show a consistent trend. Different pond sizes appear to be showing different trends. Small ponds are showing opposing trends to medium and large sized ponds and lakes. The behaviour of the small ponds appears to strongly reflect seasonality in pond-atmosphere hydrologic exchange, and observed changes in pond surface area are synchronous with “wet” periods and “dry” periods. Regarding trends and variability in ice cover duration, results from simulations of pond ice thickness, break-up and freeze-up dates, and duration of open water season over the period 1955-2008 suggest that temperatures are warming in this region, and that these changes are seen across winter, spring and summer. Correspondingly, break-up appears to be occurring earlier and freeze-up appears to be occurring later, leading to a prolonged ice-free season; though none of these trends are statistically significant over the past 54 years. Radar images taken over the past 14 years are currently being processed to examine temporal changes and spatial patterns in pond/lake ice cover across the study area. Results from this analysis will also be presented. Finally, the approaches developed in this study could form the basis of a general methodology for investigating the contemporary status of ponds and shallow lakes in the Arctic.

Duguay, C. R.; Macrae, M. L.; Parrott, J. A.; Brown, L.; Svacina, N.

2009-12-01

328

Performance of stormwater detention tanks for urban drainage systems in northern Italy.  

PubMed

The performance of stormwater detention tanks with alternative design configurations (insertion in the storm sewer network; volume per impervious hectare) and operating conditions (continuous and intermittent emptying rules) have been evaluated according to an integrated approach. Various performance indices have been adopted to describe the mitigation of the pollution impact to the natural environment, the reduction of the management and maintenance charges for the urban drainage system, the preservation of the normal purification efficiency, and the limitation of the costs at the treatment plant. The US EPA Storm Water Management Model has been used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process and the pollutant dynamics on theoretical catchments and storm sewer networks for an individual event, as well as for a continuous run of events and inter event periods of one year recorded at the rain gauge of Cascina Scala (Pavia, northern Italy). Also the influence of the main characteristics of the urban catchment and the drainage system (area of the catchment and slope of the network) on the performance of alternative design and operating solutions has been examined. Stormwater detention tanks combined with flow regulators demonstrated good performance with respect to environmental pollution: satisfactory performance indicators can be obtained with fairly low flow rates of flow regulators (0.5-1 L/s per hectare of impervious area) and tank volumes of about 35-50 m(3) per impervious hectare. Continuous emptying guaranteed the lowest number and duration of overflows, while an intermittent operation minimised the volume sent for purification reducing the costs and the risks of impairment in the normal treatment efficiency of the plant. Overall, simulation outcomes revealed that the performance indexes are scarcely affected by the area of the catchment and the slope of the drainage network. The result of this study represents a key issue for the implementation of environmental policies in large urban areas. PMID:22387328

Todeschini, Sara; Papiri, Sergio; Ciaponi, Carlo

2012-03-03

329

Viscosity-stabilized solar ponds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Work previously completed on polymer-stabilized solar ponds is described. A detailed outline is provided of work proposed to expand upon and complete the work and to determine the feasibility, both technical and economic, of a polymer-stabilized solar pond. Information is presented on the polymers that have been reported in the literature and by the manufacturer of the polymer Carbopol. Proposed management and schedules and descriptions of the proposed personnel and facilities are included. A paper is included which describes some candidate organic materials, discusses data relating to solar input, the relationship between the total energy available, and the requirements for domestic heat, and present preliminary design ideas. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-08-07

330

Waste Recycling in Fish Pond Culture through Integrated Culture Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new culture strategies, have been developed to recycle feeding waste derived from intensive aquaculture within a single pond, enhance nutrient utilization efficiency, reduce the nutrient contents in effluents discharged from intensive culture ponds, and mitigate eutrophication in receiving waters. In the integrated cage-cum-pond culture system, high value species are stocked in cages sus- pended in ponds, and filter-feeding species

Yang Yi; C. Kwei Lin; James S. Diana

331

Optimization of solar pond electrical power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the potential of using a solar pond for the generation of electricity in Jordan. A solar pond power plant model is presented to simulate and optimize such a system under the Jordanian climatic conditions. A Rankine cycle analysis is carried out using an environmentally friendly working fluid, Refrigerant 134a.It was found that using a solar pond for

R. A. Haj Khalil; B. A. Jubran; N. M. Faqir

1997-01-01

332

A Review of the Salt-Gradient Solar Pond Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is conc...

E. I. H. Lin

1982-01-01

333

Analysis of seepage in an on-farm evaporation pond  

SciTech Connect

A nine-month field study has been conducted to assess the occurrence of seepage and potential groundwater contamination from a 90-acre drainwater evaporation pond. Pond water balances and point seepage measurements described the temporal and spatial variation of seepage. Pond seepage impacts on shallow groundwater elevations and salinity appeared to be negligible.

McCullough-Sanden, B.L.; Gates, T.K.; Grismer, M.E.

1986-01-01

334

Factors influencing uranium reduction and solubility in evaporation pond sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, USA that are used for the disposal of irrigation drainage waters, contain elevated levels of U that may be a threat to pond wildlife. The ponds support euryhaline algae, which become incorporated in the sediments as depositional organic matter (OM) – facilitating reducing conditions. Our earlier studies have shown that U

Martine C. Duff; Douglas B. Hunter; Paul M. Bertsch; Christopher Amrhein

1999-01-01

335

Planning and scheduling of salt harvest in solar evaporation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemicals are produced from brines by solar crystallization using solar ponds. The process of salt harvest consists on mechanically retiring the salts precipitated in the solar evaporation ponds and to leave them in their respective stockpile. In an industrial operation several ponds are used for the salt crystallization, and hence the harvest planning can be a nontrivial task. Therefore,

Karla Ossandón; Patricio Pinto; Luis A. Cisternas

2010-01-01

336

Factors influencing uranium reduction and solubility in evaporation pond sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, USA that are used for the disposal of irrigation drainage waters, contain elevated levels of U that may be a threat to pond wildlife. The ponds support euryhaline algae, which become incorporated in the sediments as depositional organic matter (OM) — facilitating reducing conditions. Our earlier studies have shown that U

Martine C. Duff; Douglas B. Hunter; Paul M. Bertsch; Christopher Amrhein

1999-01-01

337

Simulation of melt pond evolution on level ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A melt pond model is presented that predicts pond size and depth changes, given an initial ice thickness field and representative surface fluxes. The model is based on the assumption that as sea ice melts, fresh water builds up in the ice pore space and eventually saturates the ice. Under these conditions, a water table is defined equal to the draft of the ice or sea level, and ponds are produced in ice surface depressions, much like lakes in a watershed. Pond evolution is forced by applying fluxes of heat at the pond surface and a radiative transfer model for solar radiation that penetrates the pond. Results from the model using forcing data from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment and representative pond parameters indicate that the model accurately simulates pond depth and fractional area over the summer melt season, with fractional area increasing linearly. Overall, ice albedo is affected primarily by the increase in pond coverage. Decrease in pond albedo from pond deepening has a much lower influence on the total albedo. Cases with predominately sunny conditions are shown to produce more rapid pond expansion than overcast cases. In both sunny and cloudy cases the fractional area increases linearly.

Skyllingstad, Eric D.; Paulson, Clayton A.; Perovich, Donald K.

2009-12-01

338

Solar ponds as a source of low temperature heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt-gradient solar ponds are potentially attractive for electric power generation. The progress of salt-gradient solar pond development, both in the United States and abroad is reviewed. Technical problem areas and their implications for commercialization are discussed. Potential market applications for solar ponds are examined.

Neeper, D. A.; Meyer, K. A.

1981-01-01

339

Transformation of chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline in aquaculture pond sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation processes of two antibiotics, chloramphenicol (CM) and oxytetracycline (OTC), in aquaculture pond sediments collected from a freshwater eel pond and a marine shrimp pond were investigated. The sorption rates of CM in the freshwater and marine sediment slurries (10%, wt\\/vol) were 4% and 2%, respectively. In contrast, the sorption rates of OTC in the freshwater and marine sediment slurries

1995-01-01

340

Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa  

SciTech Connect

A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

Atekwana, E.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. (Univ. of Yaounde (Cameroon). Dept. of Plant Biology)

1994-04-01

341

UHS. Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond and Spray Pond Analysis Models  

SciTech Connect

Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function of windspeed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted.

Codell, R.; Nuttle, W.K. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1980-01-01

342

The Bag-Sampler: A Simple Device for Collecting Zooplankton in Shallow Vegetated Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton in temporary ponds is often collected with gear originally designed for lakes, and mostly unsuitable for sampling shallow habitats. We describe a new simple and inexpensive device for sampling zooplankton in very shallow, vegetated temporary ponds. We tested the sampling efficiency by comparing species composition and density of cyclopoid copepods, an important component of the zooplankton, by sampling with both the new bag sampler and a plastic beaker frequently employed for collections of zooplankton in small waterbodies. With the bag sampler we collected a larger number of species and higher densities of copepods due to its higher efficiency in vegetated areas and near the sediment. The beaker appeared to sample almost only the water surface. The samples collected with the bag sampler revealed a distinct distribution of copepod life cycle stages in a shallow pond, which differed between depths and microhabitats. Additional advantages of the bag sampler are its small size and weight, and the possibility of fast exchange of sample bags between sample locations, thus preventing accidental faunal exchange between sample locations. We conclude that the bag sampler is a device especially useful for sampling zooplankton of shallow ponds and wetlands rich in vegetation, for diversity studies as well as for quantitative sampling.

Frisch, Dagmar; Wohltmann, Andreas

2005-12-01

343

(PALLAS) FROM JANNAPURA POND, KARNATAKA, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) commonly known as 'Chamari meenu' in Karnataka is widely distributed in ponds, pools, lakes, tanks and reservoirs of India. Notopterus notopterus is included in the suborder Notopteroidei under the order Osteoglassiformes and family Notopteridae. It is a popular food for economically weak communities because of low price. It has enormous potential for high productivity and is known

B. R. Kiran; E. T. Puttaiah; K. Harish Kumar

344

Plankton Management for Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We conducted a series of studies examining the fertilization practices used for channel catfish nursery ponds. The best fertilization protocol would be one that uses low-cost fertilizers, quickly establishes a desirable phytoplankton bloom, and produces the greatest number of large zooplankton. In...

345

Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

346

ANL-W 779 pond seepage test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ANL-W 779 sanitary wastewater treatment ponds are located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), north of the Argonne National Laboratory -- West (ANL-W) site A seepage test was performed for two Argonne National Laboratory -- West (ANL-...

D. R. Braun

1992-01-01

347

Viscosity-Stabilized Solar Ponds. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work previously completed on polymer-stabilized solar ponds is described. A detailed outline is provided of work proposed to expand upon and complete the work and to determine the feasibility, both technical and economic, of a polymer-stabilized solar pon...

1981-01-01

348

MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

349

MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP currently being monitored, a retention pond with wetland plantings, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed part of New Yor...

350

Chemical Budgets for Channel Catfish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budgets for water, nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (organic matter), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were estimated over a growing season (March-October) for three Alabama ponds used for culture of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. In addition to rainfall and runoff, 190 cm of water were applied from a pipe line to offset seepage and evaporation. Production of each kilogram of live

Claude E. Boyd

1985-01-01

351

Evaluation of a Decommissioned Radwaste Pond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eight hectare radwaste pond (216-S-17) which received cooling water effluent from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Hanford from 1951 to 1954 was contaminated due to unplanned releases. Subsequently, it was decommissioned by covering the area with 4...

D. Paine K. R. Price R. M. Mitchell

1979-01-01

352

ZOOPLANKTON NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NURSERY POND FERTILIZATION EFFECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little information is available on the utilization of natural productivity (i.e. zooplankton) by catfish fry. Although fry and fingerlings survive on prepared diets, many nutrients acquired by fry in ponds are most likely derived from natural food consumption. Experiments were conducted to answer ...

353

Saturated solar ponds: 1. Simulation procedure  

SciTech Connect

The mass and energy balances on the upper convective zone, nonconvective zone, and lower convective zone of a saturated solar pond are written to yield a set of nonlinear partial differential equations. These are solved numerically to predict the thermal performance of the pond over a long period of time for various initial and boundary conditions. This model considers external parameters such as hourly variation of incident solar radiation, ambient temperature, air velocity, and relative humidity. Temperature and concentration dependence of density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and mass diffusivity are taken into account. Heat transfer modes considered between the upper convective zone and the ambient are convection, evaporation, and radiation. Ground heat losses from the lower convective zone are also considered. This model is used to study the development of temperature and concentration profiles inside a saturated solar pond. This model can also be used to predict the long-term performance of a saturated solar pond for various heat extraction temperatures and rates. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Subhakar, D.; Murthy, S.S. (Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India))

1993-03-01

354

Update: Cooling tower and spray pond technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 9th Cooling Tower and Spray Pond Symposium, under the auspices of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, took place at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium, in September 1994. Technical topics discussed included cooling system design, performance, operation, environmental effects, modeling and components. Symposium proceedings will not be published. However, information of primary interest to staffs of

Bartz

1995-01-01

355

Pond Secrets: Reflections for Thought and Virtue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pond secrets is an original play designed to create a context for motivating children to learn and practice critical thinking in its strongest sense through reflective dialogue and improvisational drama. The story's design, content, and suggested methodology are theoretically consistent with Brain-based learning theory, which asserts that memorable learning occurs when children can integrate concepts, emotions, and values in a

Franco Carnelli

1997-01-01

356

Excavations in Hanford ponds, cribs, or ditches  

SciTech Connect

This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Unplanned Excavation/Drilling in Pond/Ditch/Crib. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-30

357

TWO TYPES OF JOURNALING BEFORE POND STUDY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a two part journaling activity prior to an existing week long biology field lab. The journaling activities described here have been added to the beginning of the Pond Study Lab to enhance student learning of observation and quality journaling skills.

358

Building a Pond on the School Grounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the efforts of two teachers to construct a pond and woods on school grounds. The teachers used specialized student teams for working on a wetland study and the building project. An advisory committee including teachers, the principal, and the custodian worked through maintenance issues. Relates teaching surprises associated with the…

Pope, Jonathan

1998-01-01

359

Changes in Tundra Pond Limnology: Resampling Alaskan Ponds After 40 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arctic tundra ponds at the International Biological Program (IBP) site in Barrow, AK, were studied extensively in the\\u000a 1970s; however, very little aquatic research has been conducted there for over three decades. Due to the rapid climate changes\\u000a already occurring in northern Alaska, identifying any changes in the ponds’ structure and function over the past 30–40 years\\u000a can help identify

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Malcolm G. Butler; Daniel C. McEwen; John E. Hobbie

2011-01-01

360

Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.  

PubMed

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

2012-07-30

361

Enhancing Nitrification at Low Temperature with Zeolite in a Mining Operations Retention Pond  

PubMed Central

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July–September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1–20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass.

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y.

2012-01-01

362

Dead fish in a pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These fish died because of excessive pollution in the lake. The pollution is the result of runoff and chemical pollution dumped directly into the water. Acid rain can also cause fish and other organisms to die is small bodies of water because it raises water temperatures and makes the water more acidic.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

363

Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1990-05-01

364

Purification and production of inorganic fertilizers in solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

The separation of sodium nitrate from caliche and potassium chloride from silvinita, and the obtention of potassium nitrate from double decomposition of sodium nitrate and potassium chloride in aqueous solution, using the differential solubility method, has been treated. The necessary energy for solving salts and heating solutions can be provided by the sun if solar ponds - of caliche, silvinita or a mixture of both ores - are built. It has been found that this solar pond application is feasible, and the cycling pond efficiency could be improved beyond the typical 20% at low operating temperatures. The amount of nitrate or chloride obtained per liter of solution depends on the temperature at the bottom of the pond, the ambient temperature and, especially, on their difference. Finally, pond stability is improved to the higher solubility of the salts used, and the pond of silvinita could be stable even if evolving to a saturation operational pond.

Doria, J.; de Andres, M.C.; Armenta, C. (Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain))

1990-01-01

365

The Materialization of Sadism; Archaeology of Architecture in Clandestine Detention Centers (Argentinean Military Dictatorship, 1976–1983)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a On May 9, 1976, I arrived at Vesubio, a clandestine detention center at Camino de Cintura and Richieri highway (Mantanza Department).\\u000a Four individuals following Suárez Mason’s orders got me out of a Ford Falcon. I was hooded and my hands were tied behind my\\u000a back. Meanwhile, the four individuals insulted me and hit me, forcing me into a room. Once

Andrés Zarankin; Claudio Niro

366

Implementation Outcomes of Multidimensional Family Therapy-Detention to Community: A Reintegration Program for Drug-Using Juvenile Detainees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to urgent calls for effective interventions to address young offenders’ multiple and interconnected problems, a new variant of an existing empirically-validated intervention for drug-using adolescents, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT)—Detention to Community (DTC) was tested in a two-site controlled trial. This article (a) outlines the rationale and protocol basics of the MDFT-DTC intervention, a program for substance-using juvenile offenders that

Howard A. Liddle; Gayle A. Dakof; Craig Henderson; Cindy Rowe

2011-01-01

367

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021  

SciTech Connect

The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2006-08-25

368

Phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameter data from Par Pond and Pond B during the first six months of a study initiated in December 1983 and scheduled to continue through June 1985. A total of 195 phytoplankton taxa from Par Pond and 105 taxa from pond B were recorded during this study. A total of 89 zooplankton taxa from Par Pond and 58 taxa from Pond B were identified during this study.

Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.

1985-04-01

369

Magnetic properties of marine magnetotactic bacteria in a seasonally stratified coastal pond (Salt Pond, MA, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of suspended material in the water columns of freshwater and marine environments provide snapshots of magnetic biomineralization that have yet to be affected by the eventual time-integration and early diagenetic effects that occur after sediment deposition. Here, we report on the magnetism, geochemistry and geobiology of uncultured magnetite- and greigite-producing magnetotactic bacteria (MB) and magnetically responsive protists (MRP) in Salt Pond (Falmouth, MA, USA), a small coastal, marine basin (~5 m deep) that becomes chemically stratified during the summer months. At this time, strong inverse O2 and H2S concentration gradients form in the water column and a well-defined oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) is established at a water depth of about 3.5 m. At least four morphological types of MB, both magnetite and greigite producers, and several species of magnetically responsive protists are found associated with the OAI and the lower sulphidic hypolimnion. Magnetic properties of filtered water were determined through the water column across the OAI and were consistent with the occurrence of magnetite- and greigite-producing MB at different depths. Sharp peaks in anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and single-domain (SD) values of ARM/SIRM occur within the OAI corresponding to high concentrations of MB and MRP with magnetically derived cell densities of 104-106 ml-1. Low-temperature (<300 K) remanence indicated that while only magnetite producers inhabit the OAI, both magnetite and greigite producers inhabit the sulphidic hypolimnion below the OAI. Magnetic measurements also show that the amount of Fe sequestered in magnetite magnetosomes within the OAI is no more than 3.3 per cent of the total available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column. However, below the OAI, magnetic minerals constitute a much larger fraction of the total dissolved Fe(II) ranging from 13.6 to 32.2 per cent depending on magnetic mineralogy. Most of this iron is possibly in the form of nanophase magnetic particles, possibly associated with biologically induced mineralization processes occurring below the OAI. Still, the OAI is a narrow but intense zone of SD particle production. Despite using just a small fraction of available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column for magnetosome production, the total number of MB living within an OAI, such as at Salt Pond, is all that is needed to produce the biogenic SD concentrations observed in some sediments. We also observed that Verwey transition temperatures fell within a narrow range of values between 95 and 105 K that were independent of both water depth and geochemical conditions. Reduced Verwey transition temperatures (Tv < 120 K) appear to be an intrinsic property of magnetite magnetosomes whether grown in pure laboratory cultures or from a diverse population of magnetite-producing MB in the environment. This indicates that a limited amount of oxygen non-stoichiometry (<1 per cent) is present within magnetite magnetosomes, produced either initially during magnetosome formation or subsequently as an ``aging'' process in living magnetite-producing MB. Therefore, reduced values of the Verwey transition in biogenic SD magnetite in sediments do not necessarily indicate diagenetic alteration.

Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Egli, Ramon; Frankel, Richard B.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-07-01

370

The mechanisms of sea ice melt pond formation and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of observations were made on melting first year, landfast Arctic sea ice near Barrow, Alaska to explore the seasonal evolution of melt pond coverage. Observations of pond coverage, albedo, and ice properties are combined with terrestrial lidar measurements of surface topography and meltwater balance to quantitatively identify the timing and role of mechanisms driving pond coverage. The formation of interposed fresh ice is found to eliminate meltwater percolation through early pond formation and allow widespread ponding well above sea level. Pond drainage to sea level occurs principally by horizontal meltwater transport over the ice surface to macroscopic flaws. Freeboard loss, caused by buoyancy decline as the ice thins, controls pond growth late in the melt season after percolation begins. The majority of the macroscopic flaws that drain melt ponds to sea level are observed to develop from brine drainage channels within the ice. A simple thermodynamic model of meltwater percolation illustrates that fresh meltwater inflow causes pores in the ice to either shrink and freeze shut or enlarge based on initial size and ice temperature. This threshold behavior of pore diameter controls both the blockage of smaller pores with interposed ice and the enlargement of larger brine drainage channels to allow meltwater drainage. The results identify links between the temporal evolution of pond coverage and ice temperature, salinity, and thickness, providing new opportunities to realistically parameterize ponds and summer ice albedo within sea ice models.

Polashenski, Chris; Perovich, Donald; Courville, Zoe

2012-01-01

371

Local and landscape determinants of amphibian communities in urban ponds.  

PubMed

Urbanization is currently responsible for widespread declines of amphibian populations globally through the loss, isolation, and degradation of habitat. However, it is not clear how urbanization affects amphibian communities at both local (pond) and landscape scales. We assessed the breeding distribution of frogs in ponds along an urban-rural gradient in Greater Melbourne, Australia, and examined community relationships with habitat quality and landscape context. We sampled frog larvae at 65 ponds on four separate occasions and collected data on local pond and landscape variables. Using Bayesian Poisson regression modeling we found that species richness decreased at ponds surrounded by high densities of human residents and at ponds with high water conductivity, whereas species richness increased substantially at ponds surrounded by a high proportion of green open space. Ordination of individual species presence-absence data by canonical correspondence analysis largely confirmed these findings. Ordination also highlighted the negative influences of pond shading and density of predatory fish, and the positive influence of aquatic vegetation, on community composition. Individual species' responses to urbanization varied. Urbanization had strong negative effects on species that were associated with well-vegetated, sunny, fish-free ponds. Our study highlights the importance of strategic management actions in urban landscapes to improve terrestrial habitat and connectivity around ponds and other wetlands, and local management actions to improve water quality, remove predatory fish, and plant aquatic vegetation at breeding sites. PMID:21563570

Hamer, Andrew J; Parris, Kirsten M

2011-03-01

372

Water quality and restoration in a coastal subdivision stormwater pond.  

PubMed

Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to a number of water quality problems including high nutrient, chemical contaminant, and bacterial levels. This study examined the interaction between land use and coastal pond water quality in a South Carolina residential subdivision pond. Eutrophic levels of chlorophyll and phosphorus were present in all seasons. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms were prevalent during the summer months. Microcystin toxin and fecal coliform bacteria levels were measured that exceeded health and safety standards. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D) were also detected during summer months. Drainage from the stormwater pond may transport contaminants into the adjacent tidal creek and estuary. A survey of residents within the pond's watershed indicated poor pet waste management and frequent use of fertilizers and pesticides as possible contamination sources. Educational and outreach activities were provided to community members to create an awareness of the water quality conditions in the pond. Pond management strategies were then recommended, and selected mitigation actions were implemented. Water quality problems identified in this study have been observed in other coastal stormwater ponds of varying size and salinity, leading this project to serve as a potential model for coastal stormwater pond management. PMID:17368919

Serrano, Lorimar; DeLorenzo, Marie E

2007-03-21

373

Engineered design of SSC cooling ponds  

SciTech Connect

The cooling requirements of the SSC are significant and adequate cooling water systems to meet these requirements are critical to the project`s successful operation. The use of adequately designed cooling ponds will provide reliable cooling for operation while also meeting environmental goals of the project to maintain streamflow and flood peaks to preconstruction levels as well as other streamflow and water quality requirements of the Texas Water Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency.

Bear, J.B.

1993-05-01

374

Par Pond refill water quality sampling  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

1996-08-01

375

Relationship Between Woody Plant Colonization and Typha L. Encroachment in Stormwater Detention Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied stormwater detention basins where woody vegetation removal was suspended for 2 years in Virginia, USA to determine if woody vegetation can control Typha populations and how early woody plant succession interacts with Typha, other herbaceous vegetation, and site factors. Distribution and composition of woody vegetation, Typha and non- Typha herbaceous vegetation biomass, and site factors were assessed at 100 plots in four basins ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. A greenhouse study examined the interaction of shade and soil moisture on Typha biomass and persistence. Principal component analysis identified an environmental gradient associated with greater water table depths and decreased elevation that favored Typha but negatively influenced woody vegetation. Elevation was correlated with litter layer distribution, suggesting that initial topography influences subsequent environmental characteristics and thus plant communities. Soil organic matter at 0-10 cm ranged from 5.4 to 12.7 %. Woody plants present were native species with the exception of Ailanthus altissima and Pyrus calleryana. In the greenhouse, shade and reduced soil moisture decreased Typha biomass and rhizome length. The shade effect was strongest in flooded plants and the soil moisture effect was strongest for plants in full sun. Typha in dry soil and heavy shade had 95 % less total biomass and 83 % smaller rhizomes than Typha in flooded soil and full sun, but even moderate soil moisture reductions decreased above- and below-ground biomass by 63 and 56 %, respectively. Suspending maintenance allows restoration of woody vegetation dominated by native species and may suppress Typha invasion.

Plumb, Priscilla Bocskor; Day, Susan D.; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa M.; Seiler, John R.

2013-10-01

376

Impact of storm water on groundwater quality below retention/detention basins.  

PubMed

Groundwater from 33 monitoring of peripheral wells of Karachi, Pakistan were evaluated in terms of pre- and post-monsoon seasons to find out the impact of storm water infiltration, as storm water infiltration by retention basin receives urban runoff water from the nearby areas. This may increase the risk of groundwater contamination for heavy metals, where the soil is sandy and water table is shallow. Concentration of dissolved oxygen is significantly low in groundwater beneath detention basin during pre-monsoon season, which effected the concentration of zinc and iron. The models of trace metals shown in basin groundwater reflect the land use served by the basins, while it differed from background concentration as storm water releases high concentration of certain trace metals such as copper and cadmium. Recharge by storm water infiltration decreases the concentration and detection frequency of iron, lead, and zinc in background groundwater; however, the study does not point a considerable risk for groundwater contamination due to storm water infiltration. PMID:19241126

Zubair, Arif; Hussain, Asif; Farooq, Mohammed A; Abbasi, Haq Nawaz

2009-02-25

377

An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy.  

PubMed

During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories.This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public. PMID:18726007

Johnson, Bruce D; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J

2008-01-01

378

An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy  

PubMed Central

During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories. This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public.

Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

379

[Beriberi, recurrent nutritional disease in a detention house in Côte-d'Ivoire].  

PubMed

As a re-emerging disease, beriberi caused by a lack of thiamine in food threatens more and more prisons in developing countries. Indeed in 2008, a beriberi epidemic occurred in a detention house of Côte-d'Ivoire called Maca. The goal of our retrospective investigation was to describe this epidemic in order to improve prisoners' health. The study related to 131 subjects, 64% of cases affected (N = 205). The total rate of beriberi attack was estimated at 38.6‰. The mean age was 33; all patients were male and they were detained in "Batiment C" (70.2%), synonymous with heavy punishment. They spent about 28.1 month in Maca. The clinical symptoms were neurological signs (swarming: 41%) and cardiovascular signs (dyspnoea: 42%, thoracic pain: 35%). Half of the patients (51%) presented oedemas of the lower limbs. The rate of healing was about 97% when patients followed treatment. Providing good nutrition to the prisoners and the distribution of vitamin complements will avoid other epidemics. PMID:21336653

Aké-Tano, O; Konan, E Y; Tetchi, E O; Ekou, F K; Ekra, D; Coulibaly, A; Dagnan, N S

2011-02-18

380

Light attenuation parameters for waste stabilisation ponds.  

PubMed

Effective modelling of shallow water ecosystems, including waste stabilisation ponds, is strongly dependent on the availability of good estimates of the light attenuation coefficient k (m(-1)). Experimental data is presented on its determination using purpose-built laboratory apparatus with a near-parallel halogen light source and an array of photodiodes allowing measurements of irradiance at different depths. The equipment was used to compare k values from 4 different pure cultures, and mixed cultures of algae taken from a pilot-scale WSP. Laboratory values were compared with in situ measurements in the pond. At concentrations above 50 mg l(-1) the relationship between k and suspended solids is non-linear; k also varied with depth. This could be modelled by a single equation, suggesting similarity of response in different cultures. At shallow depths and low suspended solids concentrations k values are variable and hard to measure reliably. The results highlight the need to standardise on a method for the measurement and reporting of k values if these are to be widely applicable in the development of pond models. PMID:16114677

Heaven, S; Banks, C J; Zotova, E A

2005-01-01

381

Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11.4 µGy/hr; birds - 6.3 µGy/hr; mammals - 15.1 µGy/hr; reptilians - 10.3 µGy/hr, with the recommended maximum allowable limit of 40 µGy/hr. The conservative risk coefficient ranged from 0.51 for birds to 1.82 for amphibians. In spite of a high contamination level of the shoreline areas, the current total doses received by the animals do not reach the recommended maximum allowable doses. However, drainage of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is likely to increase the dose rates as follows: amphibians - 94.5, birds - 95.2, mammals - 284.0, reptilians - 847.0 µGy/hr, which will significantly exceed the maximum allowable values. These predictions are conservative and prior to making the final decision on the fate of the ChNPP Cooling Pond, a detailed radio-ecological assessment of its drainage will have to be performed.

Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

2009-12-01

382

Seasonal variations in the morphology of bloom-forming cyanobacteria in a eutrophic pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in the cell volume, number of cells in a colony and trichome length of nine bloom-forming cyanobacteria\\u000a species were investigated in a small eutrophic pond from May to November 2005. The main genera of cyanobacteria were Microcystis and Anabaena, which formed a dense bloom from July to August. M. aeruginosa, M. viridis and M. wesenbergii were present throughout

Yoshimasa Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Nakahara

2009-01-01

383

Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extraced from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

Leboeuf, C. M.; May, E. K.

1982-08-01

384

Windpowered irrigation system for small farm applications  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of the project was to conserve water on a small-scale truck patch vegetable gardening operation. The main thrust centered on improving water usage in the already-existing windmill/storage tank/house/farm pond setup. Most of the funds were spent on a trickle (drip) irrigation system linked into the existing wetup. Other areas improved were the farm pond itself, backup pumping for windmill and farm pond, and greywater reclamation. In spite of problems which had to be restudied and corrected, the project was an overall success both in terms of results and budget.

England, B.

1982-01-01

385

A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-02-01

386

Evaporation ponds as a drainwater disposal management option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed evaporation ponds are being utilized for disposalof saline subsurface drainage waters in San Joaquin Valley,California. These terminal evaporation ponds are located inhydrologically closed basins and\\/or regions with no surfacedrainage out of the valley. The saline drainwaters disposedinto the ponds are sodium-sulfate or sodium-sulfate-chloridetype waters and upon desiccation produces mirabilite andhalite. The drainwaters contain excessive levels of traceelements from geochemical

K. Tanji; D. Davis; C. Hanson; A. Toto; R. Higashi; C. Amrhein

2002-01-01

387

Classification of ponds from high-spatial resolution remote sensing: Application to Rift Valley Fever epidemics in Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the rainy season the abundance of mosquitoes over the Ferlo region (Senegal) is linked to dynamic, vegetation cover and turbidity of temporary and relatively small ponds. The latter create a variable environment where mosquitoes can thrive and thus contribute to diffusion and transmission of diseases such as the Rift Valley Fever (RVF, with Aedes vexans arabiensis and Culex poicilipes

J. P. Lacaux; Y. M. Tourre; C. Vignolles; J. A. Ndione; M. Lafaye

2007-01-01

388

Tree-regeneration and mortality patterns and hydrologic change in a forested karst wetland--Sinking Pond, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple lines of evidence point to climate change as the driving factor suppressing tree regeneration since 1970 in Sinking Pond, a 35-hectare seasonally flooded karst depression located on Arnold Air Force Base near Manchester, Tennessee. Annual censuses of 162-193 seedling plots from 1997 through 2001 demonstrate that the critical stage for tree survival is the transition from seedling to sapling and that this transition is limited to shallow (less than 0.5 meters) ponding depths. Recruitment of saplings to the small adult class also was restricted to shallow areas. Analysis of the spatial and elevation distribution of tree-size classes in a representative 2.3-hectare area of Sinking Pond showed a general absence of overcup oak saplings and young adults in deep (ponding depth greater than 1 meter) and intermediate (ponding depth 0.5-1 meter) areas, even though overcup oak seedlings and mature trees are concentrated in these areas. Analysis of tree rings from 45 trees sampled in a 2.3-hectare spatial-analysis plot showed an even distribution of tree ages across ponding-depth classes from the 1800s through 1970, followed by complete suppression of recruitment in deep and intermediate areas after 1970. Trees younger than 30 years were spatially and vertically concentrated in a small area with shallow ponding depth, about 0.5 meter below the spillway elevation. Results of hydrologic modeling, based on rainfall and temperature records covering the period January 1854 through September 2002, show ponding durations after 1970 considerably longer than historical norms, across ponding-depth classes. This increase in ponding duration corresponds closely with similar increases documented in published analyses of streamflow and precipitation in the eastern United States and with the suppression of tree regeneration at ponding depths greater than 0.5 meter indicated by tree-ring analysis. Comparison of the simulated stage record for Sinking Pond with the ages and elevations of sampled trees shows that prolonged (200 days or more per year) inundation in more than 2 of the first 5 years after germination is inversely related to successful tree recruitment and that such inundation was rare before 1970 and common afterwards.

Wolfe, William J.; Evans, Jonathan P.; McCarthy, Sarah; Gain, W. Scott; Bryan, Bradley A.

2004-01-01

389

On solar ponds: salty fare for the world's energy appetite  

SciTech Connect

It is shown how a uniquely simple salt-gradient solar-energy trap is proving an economical source of electricity and low-temperature heat at various sites around the world. Problems with solar ponds include the thickening of the surface layer despite grids of wave-suppressors; the economics of using solar ponds to generate power and desalt water depend largely on the ability to operate without a synthetic liner; and some solar ponds lose much more heat to the ground than predicted. It is concluded that development of solar ponds is likely to depend on energy demand.

Edesess, M.

1982-11-01

390

Uranium studies in the Tims Branch and Steed Pond system  

SciTech Connect

During the weekend of September 2--3, 1984, a part of the wooden spillway for Steed Pond gave way and the pond slowly drained. Consideration is being given to leaving Steed Pond dry. Steed Pond has accumulated some of the uranium discharged from 300 Area operations and past surveys have shown that the uranium concentration in the sediments ranges between 20 and 531 pCi/gm. The recently completed aerial survey of the exposed area of Steed Pond showed that the uranium was widely spread in the sediments of Steed Pond. Until ground cover is established over the exposed pond sediments, they will be subject to erosion. As much as 90 tons of sediment could be eroded from the exposed sediments in Steed Pond the first year, but the erosion could be reduced to 5--15 tons by establishing a ground cover such as rye grass. Only about 40% of the eroded sediment would be delivered to Upper Three Runs Creek, because most of the eroded sediment deposited before it reaches Upper Three Runs Creek. Less than 20 mCi of uranium would be transported downstream the first year from erosion of Steed Pond sediments, and this could be reduced to 2-- 5 mCi/year if ground cover is established.

Hayes, D.W.

1984-11-01

391

Direct-contact condensers for solar pond power production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of direct-contact condensers in a solar pond Rankine cycle is evaluated. The system of interest is a power plant in which the working fluid (pentane) is boiled by brine from the storage layer of the solar pond and condensed by brine from the evaporating pond that provides concentrated replacement brine to the solar pond. Three possible direct-contact condenser designs are considered: drop-type, bubble-type, and packed-bed. Size and cost are estimated for each direct-contact condenser and the accompanying deaerator and degasser.

Fisher, E. M.; Wright, J. D.

1984-05-01

392

Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate projections. By analyzing area-perimeter data from hundreds of thousands of melt ponds, we find here an unexpected separation of scales, where pond fractal dimension D transitions from 1 to 2 around a critical length scale of 100 m2 in area. Pond complexity increases rapidly through the transition as smaller ponds coalesce to form large connected regions, and reaches a maximum for ponds larger than 1000 m2 whose boundaries resemble space filling curves with D ? 2. These universal features of Arctic melt pond evolution are similar to phase transitions in statistical physics. The results impact sea ice albedo, the transmitted radiation fields under melting sea ice, the heat balance of sea ice and the upper ocean, and biological productivity such as under ice phytoplankton blooms.

Hohenegger, C.; Alali, B.; Steffen, K. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Golden, K. M.

2012-06-01

393

Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate projections. By analyzing area-perimeter data from hundreds of thousands of melt ponds, we find here an unexpected separation of scales, where pond fractal dimension D transitions from 1 to 2 around a critical length scale of 100 m2 in area. Pond complexity increases rapidly through the transition as smaller ponds coalesce to form large connected regions, and reaches a maximum for ponds larger than 1000 m2, whose boundaries resemble space-filling curves, with D ? 2. These universal features of Arctic melt pond evolution are similar to phase transitions in statistical physics. The results impact sea ice albedo, the transmitted radiation fields under melting sea ice, the heat balance of sea ice and the upper ocean, and biological productivity such as under ice phytoplankton blooms.

Hohenegger, C.; Alali, B.; Steffen, K. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Golden, K. M.

2012-10-01

394

Minimizing contamination hazards to waterbirds using agricultural drainage evaporation ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In much of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, inadequate drainage of applied irrigation water and accumulating salts in the soil have necessitated the installation of subsurface tile drainage systems to preserve crop productivity. At present, these subsurface drainage waters are disposed of by means of evaporation ponds or discharges into the San Joaquin River. Unfortunately, most of these agricultural drainage waters contain high concentrations of salts and naturally occurring trace elements, such as selenium, and recent evidence indicates that substantial numbers of waterbirds are exposed to contamination by selenium in the evaporation ponds. In order to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the adverse impacts on wildlife using the ponds, alternative pond management methods must be identified and evaluated for implementation. A number of methods have the potential to be cost-effective in significantly reducing the contamination hazard to birds using agricultural evaporation ponds. Twenty general methods were evaluated in this study, and four methods are recommended for implementation: remove levee vegetation, remove windbreaks, deepen the ponds, and haze birds. A number of other methods are recommended for further consideration because they appear to have good prospects for reducing the contamination hazard: steepen interior levee slopes, apply herbicides and insecticides, place netting on pond shorelines, and provide freshwater habitat adjacent to evaporation ponds. It may be necessary to use a combination of methods to effectively control selenium contamination of aquatic birds because it is unlikely that a single affordable pond management method will be able to entirely eliminate the contamination hazard.

Bradford, David F.; Smith, Lynda A.; Drezner, Deborah S.; Shoemaker, J. David

1991-11-01

395

Sensitivity to acidification of subalpine ponds and lakes in north-western Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although acidifying deposition in western North America is lower than in many parts of the world, many high-elevation ecosystems there are extremely sensitive to acidification. Previous studies determined that the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area (MZWA) has the most acidic snowpack and aquatic ecosystems that are among the most sensitive in the region. In this study, spatial and temporal variability of ponds and lakes in and near the MZWA were examined to determine their sensitivity to acidification and the effects of acidic deposition during and after snowmelt. Within the areas identified as sensitive to acidification based on bedrock types, there was substantial variability in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), which was related to differences in hydrological flowpaths that control delivery of weathering products to surface waters. Geological and topographic maps were of limited use in predicting acid sensitivity because their spatial resolution was not fine enough to capture the variability of these attributes for lakes and ponds with small catchment areas. Many of the lakes are sensitive to acidification (summer and autumn ANC < 100 ?eq L-1), but none of them appeared to be threatened immediately by episodic or chronic acidification. In contrast, 22 ponds had minimum ANC < 30 ?eq L-1, indicating that they are extremely sensitive to acidic deposition and could be damaged by episodic acidification, although net acidity (ANC < 0) was not measured in any of the ponds during the study. The lowest measured pH value was 5.4, and pH generally remained less than 6.0 throughout early summer in the most sensitive ponds, indicating that biological effects of acidification are possible at levels of atmospheric deposition that occurred during the study. The aquatic chemistry of lakes was dominated by atmospheric deposition and biogeochemical processes in soils and shallow ground water, whereas the aquatic chemistry of ponds was also affected by organic acids and biogeochemical processes in the water column and at the sediment-water interface. These results indicate that conceptual and mechanistic acidification models that have been developed for lakes and streams may be inadequate for predicting acidification in less-understood systems such as ponds.

Campbell, D. H.; Muths, E.; Turk, J. T.; Corn, P. S.

2004-10-01

396

Ponds and the importance of their history: an audit of pond numbers, turnover and the relationship between the origins of ponds and their contemporary plant communities in south-east Northumberland, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing focus of interest in ponds over the last two decades arose largely because of concerns at the loss of ponds\\u000a in intensively developed landscapes. In the UK, pond numbers declined from approximately 800,000 in the nineteenth century\\u000a to 200,000 by the 1980s. Since then pond numbers have started to increase. The focus on overall pond numbers overlooks the

M. J. Jeffries

397

Can Boulders Supply Material for Ponds on the Asteroid 433 Eros?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that boulders, thermally eroding in place, may provide material for ponds on Eros. Ponds appear preferentially located on locally low slopes and at higher elevations, suggesting regolith thickness plays a role in pond formation.

Dombard, A. J.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Thomas, P. C.; Prockter, L. M.; Cheng, A. F.

2007-03-01

398

The role of an Indigenous Health Worker in contributing to equity of access to a mental health and substance abuse service for Indigenous young people in a youth detention centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous youth in detention have been identified as a priority category in national and state policies in relation to their mental health and drug and alcohol service needs. This article describes the development of the role of Indigenous Health Worker in the Mental Health Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drugs Service (MHATODS) at a youth detention centre. It provides an account

Stephen Stathis; Eva Dacre; Ivan Doolan; Karla Heath; Bec Litchfield

2007-01-01

399

Relationship between woody plant colonization and typha L. Encroachment in stormwater detention basins.  

PubMed

We studied stormwater detention basins where woody vegetation removal was suspended for 2 years in Virginia, USA to determine if woody vegetation can control Typha populations and how early woody plant succession interacts with Typha, other herbaceous vegetation, and site factors. Distribution and composition of woody vegetation, Typha and non-Typha herbaceous vegetation biomass, and site factors were assessed at 100 plots in four basins ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. A greenhouse study examined the interaction of shade and soil moisture on Typha biomass and persistence. Principal component analysis identified an environmental gradient associated with greater water table depths and decreased elevation that favored Typha but negatively influenced woody vegetation. Elevation was correlated with litter layer distribution, suggesting that initial topography influences subsequent environmental characteristics and thus plant communities. Soil organic matter at 0-10 cm ranged from 5.4 to 12.7 %. Woody plants present were native species with the exception of Ailanthus altissima and Pyrus calleryana. In the greenhouse, shade and reduced soil moisture decreased Typha biomass and rhizome length. The shade effect was strongest in flooded plants and the soil moisture effect was strongest for plants in full sun. Typha in dry soil and heavy shade had 95 % less total biomass and 83 % smaller rhizomes than Typha in flooded soil and full sun, but even moderate soil moisture reductions decreased above- and below-ground biomass by 63 and 56 %, respectively. Suspending maintenance allows restoration of woody vegetation dominated by native species and may suppress Typha invasion. PMID:23925899

Plumb, Priscilla Bocskor; Day, Susan D; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa M; Seiler, John R

2013-08-08

400

Smooth pond-like deposits on asteroid 4 Vesta: First results from the Dawn mission.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft arrived at Vesta on July 16, 2011 to study the asteroid with a Framing Camera (FC), a Visible & Infrared Spectrometer (VIR), and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1]. Dawn provides the first high-resolution data from its survey orbit, high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO), and low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO). FC data revealed smooth pond-like deposits of ambiguous origin, similar to deposits on other asteroids, including Eros and Itokawa [2,3]. Several scenarios for the origin of these deposits can be tested with Dawn data, including volcanism, impact sedimentation, impact melt deposition, dust levitation and transport, seismic shaking, or landslides. We measured 83 small (~7 km2 average size) smooth deposits distributed across the surface of Vesta. Most ponds on Vesta occur on the floors of impact craters and in irregular depressions. We did not observe inflow of material into the depressions. Most of these deposits have well-defined geological contacts, indicating that they are younger than the surrounding terrain. However, lunar impact melt pools that formed contemporaneously with surrounding ejecta blankets show similar stratigraphic relationships. Sometimes the albedo of these ponds is lower than the surrounding terrain, in other cases the ponds are indistinguishable from the adjacent terrain. The ponds preferentially occur in a band between -10 and 30 degrees latitude with fewer ponds north of ~30 degrees and even fewer ponds in the southern hemisphere, i.e., the Rheasilvia region. The largest cluster of ponds occurs in the vicinity of the Marcia impact crater, which is part of the so-called snowman craters. Similar, but smaller (<230 m diameter) smooth ponds were also reported from the surface of asteroid Eros [2]. Robinson et al. [2] found that most smooth ponds on Eros occur in equatorial regions and concluded that the most likely process for their formation is electrostatic levitation and redistribution of the finest regolith components (<100 µm). Sierks et al. [4] argued that along the terminator, particularly strong electric fields can develop between the sun-lit and shaded areas, e.g., within craters, resulting in particle motion from sun-lit to dark regions. Dust levitation and transport was also discussed for asteroid 25143 Itokawa [3]. [1] Russell et al., (2007), Earth Moon Planets, 101; [2] Robinson et al., (2002), Met. Planet. Sci., 37; [3] Yano et al., (2006), Science, 312; [4] Sierks et al., (2011), Space Sci. Rev., doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9745-4. This research has been supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) and NASA. We would like to thank the Dawn Operations Team for their success-ful planning and acquisition of high-quality Vesta data.

Hiesinger, H.; Ruesch, O.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

2012-04-01

401

Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History is a nonprofit research organization dedicated to the study of the plants, animals, and environments of the Piedmont physiographic province, in particular the banding of birds. Site materials include general information and photographs of the flora and fauna found in habitats of the Piedmont Region of the eastern United States. There are descriptions of the center's research projects, especially bird banding; educational opportunities such as field trips, workshops, and presentations; links to the center's publications; and featured weekly articles and announcements on birds, native cultures, and other topics related to the Piedmont province.

402

Correlation between snails and fish in fish ponds of World Fish Center (ICLARM) with special reference to snail vectors of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis.  

PubMed

The abundance of snail species in earthen fish ponds, irrigation and drainage canals at World Fish Center (ICLARM) in descending order was Bellamya unicolor (50.89%) > Physa acuta (18.94%) > Cleopatra bulimoides (7.6%) > Lanistes carinatus (6.73%) > Bulinus truncatus (5.19%) > Melanoides tuberculata (4.83%) > Lymnaea natalensis (3.14%) > Gabbiella senaariensis (0.9%) > Biomphalaria alexandrina (0.55%) > Lym naea truncatula (0.4%) > Planorbis planorbis and Succinea cleopatra (0.33%) > Ferrissia isseli (0.18%). Dead snails constituted about 5.19% of all the collected specimens. There were dramatic decrease in the total number of pulmonates in fish ponds which contained only Tilapia sp., and a very small number of cat fish, whereas the numbers of prosobranchia snails were much higher in these ponds. In fish ponds which accommodated a variety of fish species, the most dominant snail was B. unicolor followed by L. carinatus. However, pulmonate snails were absent in these ponds. B. truncatus was the only snail species found in concrete tank which contained only young tilapias with a very small size (5-8 cm in standard length). In irrigation canals, the number of snails and diversity was much higher than those in fish ponds. Out of 191 snails collected from inlet irrigation canal, 71 were dead, but in the outside irrigation canals, seven out of 564 snails were dead. P. acuta was absent in all examined fish ponds, but it was alive and in a high number (497 snails) in the outside irrigation canals. The number of snails collected from Bahnasawy drain was remarkably low (128 snails), however the diversity of snails was much higher compared to those in fish ponds and irrigation canals. Snail populations were stable with constant recruitment of young to adult snails for all the studied species. PMID:14964656

Ismail, Nahed M M; El Gamal, Abd El Rahman A

2003-08-01

403

Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000  

SciTech Connect

Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

Dunn, D.L.

2001-01-29

404

Systematic method for oxidation pond conversion for the production of site specific energy sources  

SciTech Connect

Primary sources of solar derived biomass (sugarcane, wood, and aquatic plants), are of considerable future importance as energy producing substrates. The waste products of agriculture and husbandry represent a viable and potentially significant energy source, also. Solar energy, produced photosynthetically, is available not only by combustion or conversion of plant materials, but also by utilizing metabolic products of succeeding trophic levels. Animal wastes, produced in massive quantities from dairy, swine, and poultry operations, can be converted to energy by the relatively simple and well understood technology of bioconversion, or anaerobic digestion. Currently, the principle method for disposal of these wastes is by oxidation ponds, solving neither environmental nor energy problems. Conversion, in situ of farm oxidation ponds to anaerobic digestion systems, can be easily and economically achieved resulting in development of small site specific decentralized energy sources (methane); simultaneously resolving a rapidly growing environmental and social problem.

Werner, E.; Rodriguez, T.

1981-01-01

405

Modeling the summertime evolution of sea-ice melt ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a mathematical model describing the summer melting of sea ice. We simulate the evolution of melt ponds and determine area coverage and total surface ablation. The model predictions are tested for sensitivity to the melt rate of unponded ice, enhanced melt rate beneath the melt ponds, vertical seepage, and horizontal permeability. The model is initialized with surface topographies

M. Lüthje; D. L. Feltham; P. D. Taylor; M. G. Worster

2006-01-01

406

A model of melt pond evolution on sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional, thermodynamic, and radiative model of a melt pond on sea ice is presented that explicitly treats the melt pond as an extra phase. A two-stream radiation model, which allows albedo to be determined from bulk optical properties, and a parameterization of the summertime evolution of optical properties, is used. Heat transport within the sea ice is described using

P. D. Taylor; D. L. Feltham

2004-01-01

407

Intensification of pond aquaculture and high rate photosynthetic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture production systems may range from tanks and raceways, in which water quality is controlled by water dilution and discharge to the environment to captive water systems, in which water quality is controlled by microbial reactions within the tank or pond. Attempts at intensification of pond aquaculture beyond the commonplace practice of supplemental aeration may be classified into categories of

D. E. Brune; G. Schwartz; A. G. Eversole; J. A. Collier; T. E. Schwedler

2003-01-01

408

Importance of SCARP Evaporation Ponds as Aquatic Bird Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic birds were counted on four different ponds of the SCARP wetland in district Rahim Yar Khan Punjab, Pakistan during February and September, 2000 and 2001. With respect to the number of birds, the two counting years did not differed significantly, however, the February and September counting sessions differed statistically significantly. Different study ponds also attracted different number of aquatic

ANWAR HUSSAIN GILL; MIRZA AZHAR BEG; SHAHNAZ AKHTAR RANA

409

Sludge accumulation in polishing ponds treating anaerobically digested wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

When ponds are used for wastewater treatment, settleable solids will form a steadily growing bottom sludge layer, which reduces their effective volume. Eventually this sludge must be removed to ensure that the pond maintains the required retention time to keep performing properly. The settleable solids may either be present in the influent or they are formed during the treatment as

P. F. F. Cavalcanti; A. van Haandel; G. Lettinga

2002-01-01

410

Cultivation of Gracilaria in outdoor tanks and ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the major problems of unattached Gracilaria intensive cultivation in outdoor tanks and ponds. These problems are presented through the main variables affecting the Gracilaria annual yield and the updated solutions evolved. The physical variables include tank and pond structure, seawater characteristics\\u000a such as velocity, agitation practice, exchange rate, and salinity, light characteristics such as quantity and

M. Friedlander; I. Levy

1995-01-01

411

Boulders and ponds on the Asteroid 433 Eros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are ˜300 features on the Asteroid 433 Eros that morphologically resemble ponds (flat-floored and sharply embaying the bounding depression in which they sit). Because boulders on Eros are apparently eroding in place and because ponds with associated boulders tend to be larger than ponds without blocks, we propose that ponds form from thermally disaggregated and seismically flattened boulder material, under the assumption that repeated day/night cycling causes material fatigue that leads to erosion of the boulders. Results from a simple boulder emplacement/thermal erosion model with boulders emplaced in a few discrete events (i.e., large impacts) match well the observed size distribution. Under this scenario, the subtle color differences of ponds (somewhat bluer than the rest of the surface) might be due to some combination of less space-weathered material and density stratification of silicate-rich chondrules and more metal-rich matrix from a disaggregated boulder. Volume estimates of ponds derived from NEAR Laser Rangefinder profiles are consistent with what can be supplied by boulders. Ponds are also observed to be concentrated in regions of low slope and high elevation, which suggests the presence of a less mobile regolith and thus a contrast in the resistance to seismic shaking between the pond material and the material that makes up the bounding depression. Future tests include shake-table experiments and temperature cycling (fatigue) of ordinary chondrites to test the thermal erosion mechanism.

Dombard, Andrew J.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Prockter, Louise M.; Thomas, Peter C.

2010-12-01

412

3D model for a secondary facultative pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a comprehensive model of wastewater treatment in secondary facultative ponds, which combines 3D hydrodynamics with a mechanistic water quality model. The hydrodynamics are based on the Navier–Stokes equation for incompressible fluids under shallow water and Boussinesq assumptions capturing the flow dynamics along length, breadth and depth of the pond. The water quality sub model is based on

Leena Sah; Diederik P. L. Rousseau; Christine M. Hooijmans; Piet N. L. Lens

2011-01-01

413

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117.598 Navigation...Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply... (i) At all times on Christmas, New Years, Easter and all Sundays in...

2013-07-01

414

A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and evaluates shrimp pond culture in the Philippines and its ecological and socioeconomic effects. The intertwined histories of the country's mangrove forests and culture ponds are treated in depth; brackishwater aquaculture and the different shrimp culture systems are described. Intensive farming is discussed in terms of feed and water requirements, chemical inputs and waste production, and the

J. Honculada Primavera

1993-01-01

415

Heat transfer from a solar pond through saturated groundwater flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat losses from a salt gradient solar pond through saturated groundwater flow was studied by developing a finite difference computer model. The first part of the model calculates the rate of the seepage from the solar pond and measures the velocity components for the nodes of the hydraulic flownet created by the seepage flow. The second part of the model

Dadkhah

1985-01-01

416

Phosphate recycling from saline sediments in constructed ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar salt fields are marine to hypersaline wetlands. Many of the species found within the constructed ponds are common to the adjacent coastal areas. The ponds act as natural accumulators of nutrients with the sediment, rich in organic material, gradually becoming deeper over time. The phosphate concentrations in the sediments were determined as part of a program studying the role

Mark Coleman

2005-01-01

417

Survival dynamics of fecal bacteria in ponds in agricultural watersheds of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal agriculture in watersheds produces manure bacteria that may contaminate surface waters and put public health at risk. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (commensal Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci) and manure pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7), and physic–chemical parameters in pond inflow, within pond, pond outflow, and pond sediments in three ponds in agricultural watersheds. Bishop Pond with perennial

Michael B. Jenkins; Dinku M. Endale; Dwight S. Fisher; M. Paige Adams; Richard Lowrance; G. Larry Newton; George Vellidis

418

Densification of pond ash by blasting  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash from thermal power plants is disposed, in huge quantities in ash ponds, which occupy large land areas otherwise useful for agriculture, housing, or other development. For effective rehabilitation of ash ponds, densification of the slurry deposit is essential to increase the bearing capacity and to improve its resistance to liquefaction. Extensive field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of deep blasting for densification of deposited fly ash. Ninety explosions comprising 15 single blasts, with varying depths and quantities of charges, and 3 group blasts, each having 25 charges placed at various spacings, were carried out. The compaction achieved in terms of an increase in relative density was evaluated from surface settlement measurements. Extensive field monitoring was undertaken through pore-water pressure measurements, vibration measurements, penetration tests, and block vibration tests. For the average charge of 2--4 g of explosive per cubic meter of untreated deposit, the average relative density was found to improve from 50% to 56--58%. Analysis of the test results indicates that deep blasting may be an effective technique for modest compaction of loose fly ash deposits. The field testing program presented in this paper provides valuable information that can be used for planning blast densification of fly ash deposits.

Gandhi, S.R.; Dey, A.K.; Selvam, S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)

1999-10-01

419

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

Grace, J.B.

1985-08-01

420

2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

1990-09-01

421

Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase as plant nutrients, organic matter, and soil are leached and eroded from the surrounding watershed. This process is known as eutrophication. The term 'cultural eutrophication' refers to an accelerated form of the natural process in which extra soil and nutrients are derived from people's use of fertilizer, rerouting of surface drainage, and disposal of domestic and industrial waste. Cultural eutrophication can lead to excessive growth of aquatic plants, pond filling by decayed plants and eroded soils, reduced water clarity, and depletion of dissolved oxygen in deep water with subsequent loss of cold-water fish habitat. In order to document the longterm ecological health of Walden Pond, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), working in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management (MDEM), is investigating factors that could contribute to cultural eutrophication of Walden. Through measurements of mass balance of nutrients and oxygen in the pond's deep water, the investigation will establish a baseline data set on Walden's trophic state, which is a measure of the pond's ability to support plant growth. The baseline data will be used to detect trends and give early warning of trophic changes or trophic response to pond remediation projects. This Fact Sheet provides background information on the environmental setting, limnological features, and cultural eutrophication of Walden Pond, and describes the joint USGS/MDEM study.

Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

1998-01-01

422

Crossing the final ecological threshold in high Arctic ponds  

PubMed Central

A characteristic feature of most Arctic regions is the many shallow ponds that dot the landscape. These surface waters are often hotspots of biodiversity and production for microorganisms, plants, and animals in this otherwise extreme terrestrial environment. However, shallow ponds are also especially susceptible to the effects of climatic changes because of their relatively low water volumes and high surface area to depth ratios. Here, we describe our findings that some high Arctic ponds, which paleolimnological data indicate have been permanent water bodies for millennia, are now completely drying during the polar summer. By comparing recent pond water specific conductance values to similar measurements made in the 1980s, we link the disappearance of the ponds to increased evaporation/precipitation ratios, probably associated with climatic warming. The final ecological threshold for these aquatic ecosystems has now been crossed: complete desiccation.

Smol, John P.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.

2007-01-01

423

Crossing the final ecological threshold in high Arctic ponds.  

PubMed

A characteristic feature of most Arctic regions is the many shallow ponds that dot the landscape. These surface waters are often hotspots of biodiversity and production for microorganisms, plants, and animals in this otherwise extreme terrestrial environment. However, shallow ponds are also especially susceptible to the effects of climatic changes because of their relatively low water volumes and high surface area to depth ratios. Here, we describe our findings that some high Arctic ponds, which paleolimnological data indicate have been permanent water bodies for millennia, are now completely drying during the polar summer. By comparing recent pond water specific conductance values to similar measurements made in the 1980s, we link the disappearance of the ponds to increased evaporation/precipitation ratios, probably associated with climatic warming. The final ecological threshold for these aquatic ecosystems has now been crossed: complete desiccation. PMID:17606917

Smol, John P; Douglas, Marianne S V

2007-07-02

424

Closure plan for the X-230J7 Holding Pond  

SciTech Connect

The X-230J7 Holding Pond is identified as NPDES outfall 001. The pond was constructed to control sediments in stormwater runoff from storm sewers D and E and the east drainage ditch which drain the mid-northeastern area of the plant site. The pond also accepts once-through cooling water (water that passes once through the plant air conditioning system and is discharged to the storm sewer system). Until November 1988, the east drainage ditch received effluent from the X-701B holding pond (NPDES 601). The concentration of trichloroethylene entering X-230J7 from X-701B was monitored and averaged 400--600 ppb (parts per billion). Potential contaminants include caustic soda, nitric acid, uranium, sodium bifluoride, oil, PCBs, diesel fuel, sulfuric acid, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report describes the closing of this pond.

Not Available

1992-07-01

425

Biological productivity in small impoundments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most ponds and small impoundments are built or used with a principal use in mind. That use may be recreational fishing, commercial aquaculture, waterfowl hunting, potable water storage, irrigation water supply, livestock watering, stormwater retention, landscaping, swimming, or others. In practice, ...

426

Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

2010-12-01

427

78 FR 15017 - Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...comment stated that it would like to ensure that FDA makes sound decisions based on testing from qualified laboratories...testing methods that have been accredited and approved. Sound science is the cornerstone of FDA regulatory programs and...

2013-03-08

428

Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction, 2005-2006 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2005-September 2006. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in 2005 and 2006 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Twenty-six turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 62 at the Oregon Zoo in fall 2005. These turtles joined two that were held back from release in summer 2005 due to their small size. All 90 juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2006. Twenty-eight juvenile turtles were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 19 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 944; 285 for the Klickitat ponds, 158 for the Klickitat lake, 227 for the Skamania pond complex, and 274 at Pierce NWR. In 2006, 20 females from the Klickitat population were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Fifteen nests were located and protected; these produced 55 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. One wild hatchling captured in spring 2006 was placed in the head-start program to attain more growth in captivity. During the 2006 field season trapping effort, 414 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 374 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 179 individual painted turtles captured in 2006 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population.

Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavens, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)

2006-11-01

429

Data validation report for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit: 100-D ponds sampling  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that 100 percent of the Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit Sampling Investigation. Therefore the data from the chemical analysis of all 30 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site.

Stankovich, M.T.

1994-01-04

430

Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.  

PubMed

The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d < 1.5 m) corresponding to a high oxygen production of algae. For the layout of the individual components: photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy. PMID:14510232

Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

2003-01-01

431

Solar pond research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A description of solar pond research at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. The main issues in the theory of solar ponds are discussed. Among these are the interfacial-boundary-layer model, models for interface motion and pond performance, heat extraction, and ground heat loss. The core of the research effort at Los Alamos was the development of a one-dimensional computer program to accurately predict dynamic performance of a solar pond. The computer model and the experiments that were designed and performed to validate it are described. The experiments include two laboratory tanks wherein temperature, salinity, and flow visualization data were obtained and a 232 m/sup 2/ outdoor solar pond. Results from preliminary validation show good agreement between the pond's predicted dynamic behavior and that which actually occurred in the experiments. More validation using data from full-sized solar ponds is needed. A new correlation for the ratio of interfacial salt-flux to heat-flux is proposed which agrees well with our data. Recommendations for future research are given.

Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Grimmer, D.P.

1984-01-01

432

Performance of a baffled facultative pond treating piggery wastes.  

PubMed

This paper shows the performance of a baffled facultative pond for the treatment of piggery wastes. The full-scale system is composed of an equalizer, one decanter (DP), two anaerobic ponds (LA1 and LA2), one facultative pond (LF), with five baffles, and one maturation pond with water hyacinths (LAG). The studies were conducted over a 12 month period in the west region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The system was supplied daily with a volume of 3 m3/day of farm wastes. A good performance of the treatment system was obtained with average removal efficiencies of 98% for chemical oxygen demand, 93% for total solids, 98% for total phosphorus, 92% for total nitrogen, 7 log units of faecal coliforms and 5 log units of total coliforms. The facultative pond performed well, removing 43% of the chemical oxygen demand, 47% of total nitrogen and 54% of total phosphorus. It was found that the first baffle in the facultative pond was mainly responsible for the efficiency of this pond, and compared with another study the introduction of the baffles improved the removal efficiency by 20% for total phosphorus. PMID:11841057

Zanotelli, C T; Medri, W; Belli, Filho P; Perdomo, C C; Mulinari, M R; Costa, R H R

2002-01-01

433

Juvenile Justice Reform and the Difference it Makes: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Policy Change on Detention Worker Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increasing interest in policy implementation and reform, few studies have examined the impact of criminal justice reforms on staff attitudes. This article compares several dimensions of staff attitudes in two similar juvenile detention facilities: one that has undergone significant reform in policy and practice governing staff\\/detainee interaction and one that has not. Based on survey data gathered from workers

Gordon Bazemore; Todd J. Dicker; Ron Nyhan

1994-01-01

434

The Likelihood of Successful Crime Prevention: Norwegian Detainees on Preventive Detention Views on Programmes and Services Organized and Provided by the Criminal Justice System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewpoints from 26 inmates on preventive detention regarding their own risk for reoffending, once out of prison, showed that 73% of the detainees acknowledged this risk and specifically explained their vulnerability. Fifty-eight percent expressed themselves negatively regarding rehabilitation programmes and the availability of various services. Clearly, the prisoners' own expectations were not in accordance with their expectations as to the

Henning Værøy; Klaus Andreson; Petter Mowinkel

2011-01-01

435

Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

2013-01-01

436

Challenges and Opportunities in U.S. Immigrant Detention Policy Reform: Addressing the Need for Legally Enforceable Standards to Protect Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, immigrant rights advocates have criticized certain policies of the U.S. Immigration and Custom Enforcement (ICE) system of immigration detention, including the widespread use of private contractors, the lack of proper oversight, the grouping of violent criminals and non-violent undocumented immigrants (particularly minority women and children) in holding cells, and the neglect of detained immigrants in need of

Jose Villalobos

437

Characterization of syncrude sludge pond tailings  

SciTech Connect

The hot water process used by Suncor and Syncrude to extract bitumen from the Athabasca Oil Sands produces large volumes of tailings slurry. The fine grained sludge component of this waste is the most troublesome because of its stability and poor compaction potential. The sludge apparently owes its stability substantially to a complex interaction between organic coated amorphous particles, clays and bitumens. In this study the authors have investigated the nature of both the minerals and the associated organic matter present in a thickened, aqueous tailings sludge sample, from the syncrude Canada Limited plant. The findings of this study could be helpful in providing some insight into the nature of tailings pond sludge, a problem which poses the most imminent environmental constraint to future use of the hot water process.

Majid, A.; Boyko, V.J.; Sparks, B.D.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Kodama, H. (Chemistry and Biology Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1990-01-01

438

Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

2007-12-01

439

Phytoplankton production from melting ponds on Arctic sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the areal extent of melt ponds within sea ice has rapidly increased during the Arctic Ocean summer. However, the biological impacts of melt ponds on the Arctic marine ecosystem have rarely been studied. Carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of phytoplankton were measured at 26 different melt ponds in 2005 and 2008, using a 13C-15N dual stable isotope tracer technique. Generally, the open ponds had relatively higher nutrients than closed ponds, but the nutrient concentrations in the open ponds were within a range similar to those in surrounding surface seawaters. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in melt ponds ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 mg Chl a m-3 with a mean of 0.6 mg Chl a m-3 (SD = ±0.8 mg Chl a m-3) in the Canada Basin in 2005, whereas the range of the Chl a concentrations was from 0.1 to 0.3 mg Chl a m-3 with a mean of 0.2 mg Chl a m-3 (SD = ±0.1 mg Chl a m-3) in the central Arctic Ocean in 2008. The average annual carbon production in sea ice melt ponds was 0.67 g C m-3 (SD = ±1.03 g C m-3) in the Arctic Ocean. Based on this study, recent annual carbon production of all melt ponds was roughly estimated to be approximately 2.6 Tg C, which is less than 1% of the total production in the Arctic Ocean.

Lee, Sang H.; Stockwell, Dean A.; Joo, Hyoung-Min; Son, Young Baek; Kang, Chang-Keun; Whitledge, Terry E.

2012-04-01

440

The physicochemistry of some dune ponds on the Outer Banks, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the chemical composition of five coastal dune ponds on the Outer Banks, North Carolina, showed the ponds to be more similar to underlying groundwater than to dilute seawater or average river water. With a mean total ionic content of 3.14 mmol l?1 the ponds were decidedly fresh. Variations in chemistry between the ponds resulted from physiographic association

George W. Kling

1986-01-01

441

SODIUM BICARBONATE, INORGANIC FERTILIZER AND PH IN SUNSHINE BASS FINGERLING CULTURE PONDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High pH levels in ponds are often the result of low buffering capacity and high photosynthesis rates. In sunshine bass fingerling production ponds high pH levels occur during the first phytoplankton bloom after ponds are filled and fertilized. That is when its optimal for stocking fry into ponds: ...

442

Salt gradient solar pond research and demonstration facility at Utah State University. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Construction included two identical ponds for purposes of conducting comparative experiments, two evaporation ponds for management purposes and for recycling the salt, and an experimental greenhouse complex to use the heat produced by the ponds. The solar ponds were each 50 foot squared at the surface with sides sloping at 45/sup 0/ to a vertical depth of 12 ft.

Batty, J.C.; Riley, J.P.

1984-03-16

443

Effluent characteristics of domestic sewage oxidation ponds and their potential impacts on rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effluent characteristics of 18 domestic sewage oxidation ponds designed to national specifications were examined. Measurements covering a wide range of parameters were made monthly over at least 1 year in ponds from three regions (Auckland, Manawatu, and Southland). There was considerable variation in effluent composition within ponds with time and between different ponds. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations (overall

Christopher W. Hickey; John M. Quinn

1989-01-01

444

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m{sup 2} and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E). Heat was successfully extracted from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond by using a heat pipe heat exchanger made from 60 copper tubes with 21 mm inside diameter and 22 mm outside diameter. The length of the evaporator and condenser section was 800 mm and 200 mm respectively. R134a was used as the heat transfer fluid in the experiment. The theoretical model was formulated for the solar pond heat extraction on the basis of the energy conservation equations and by using the solar radiation data for the above location. Numerical methods were used to solve the modeling equations. In the analysis, the performance of heat exchanger is investigated by varying the velocity of inlet air used to extract heat from the condenser end of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). Air velocity was found to have a significant influence on the effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger. In the present investigation, there was an increase in effectiveness by 43% as the air velocity was decreased from 5 m/s to 1 m/s. The results obtained from the theoretical model showed good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

Tundee, Sura; Terdtoon, Pradit; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Singh, Randeep; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Bundoora East Campus, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

2010-09-15

445

Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).

Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.

2004-01-01

446

Power series solution for falling head ponded infiltration with evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assumptions for many of the derived analytical infiltration models are either a constant infiltration rate or a constant head at the soil surface. For many realistic infiltration situations a falling head boundary condition is more appropriate. Philip showed that both the wetting profiles and the cumulated infiltration, in one-dimensional infiltration into homogenous soil with constant head at the upper boundary, can be written as a power series in t?. Presently, it is shown that a power series solution can be applied for falling head infiltration with evaporation. When comparing with the constant head solution, the falling head solution differs only from the second term, i.e., the sorptivity remains unchanged, a result which can be applied to falling head infiltrometer technique. The effect of a constant evaporation rate in the falling head scenario appears from the third term. In the presented numerical examples the retention model by van Genuchten and the hydraulic conductivity model by Mualem are applied. By comparing the wetting profiles obtained with a FEM solution it is shown that the discrepancies between the models are very small. Also, the estimation of the time at which the pond is emptied is concordant. The infiltration model is compared with a model by Parlange and colleagues, and a simple infiltrometer method for determining the saturated hydraulic conductivity is proposed.

Mollerup, M.; Hansen, S.

2007-03-01

447

Enrichment of a Backish-Water Pond for Shellfish Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major objective of this project was to explore the feasibility of increasing the productivity of a brackish pond, currently used for commercial production of seed oysters (Crassostrea virginica), by means ofan artificial upwelling system. This system,...

G. C. Matthiessen

1983-01-01

448

Rearing Pacific Salmon in Saltwater Ponds Fertilized with Domestic Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rearing juvenile salmonid fishes in brackish-waters fertilized withtreated domestic wastewater during 1975-76 season achieved levels of growth and survival envisioned for the system. Coho salmon fingerlings showed a 45% survival in South Pond from October...

G. H. Allen

1976-01-01

449

10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. PHOTO TAKEN FROM WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25). - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

450

Utilization of Fly Ash in Polishing Oxidation Pond Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixteen fly ashes were investigated for their organic pollutant removal efficiency in the tertiary treatment of oxidation pond effluents in eastern North Dakota. The majority of fly ashes used were from the northcentral region including North Dakota, Sout...

Y. T. Hung

1976-01-01

451

54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from the east (similar to HALS no. LA-1-24) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

452

53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" looking from the southwest (similar to HALS no. LA-1-23) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

453

52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in background looking from the northeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-22) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

454

2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE SOURIS RIVER VALLEY, DUE SOUTH OF THE LOOKOUT TOWER - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

455

Ice Growth on Post Pond, 1973-1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements and analysis of seasonal ice growth and decay on Post Pond, New Hampshire, for the period 1973-1982 are presented. Observations included ice thickness measurements, examination of the various ice types contributing to the ice cover, and measu...

A. J. Gow J. W. Govoni

1983-01-01

456

Whitman's Pond Diagnostic Study, April 1980-March 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes data from Whitman's Pond, MA to provide limnological profile, estimate trophic condition, and determine the cause of nuisance aquatic plants and algal blooms. The principal problems were associated with stormwater runoff and leachate f...

L. F. Valutkevich P. W. Mallard R. S. McVoy

1983-01-01

457

Aquatic Survey of the Kona Coast Ponds, Hawaii Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a 17-month period beginning July 1972, 318 shoreline ponds were located and surveyed in the five land districts of Hawaii Island's leeward coast. The survey concerned an inventory of environmental and biological characteristics for the purpose of a...

J. A. Maciolek R. E. Brock

1974-01-01

458

Reduction of radioactive cesium content in pond smelt by cooking.  

PubMed

In Japan, seafood may be eaten raw or after having been cooked in diverse ways. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of cooking on the extent of contamination with radioactive materials in order to avoid internal exposure to radioactive materials via seafood. In this study, we investigated the changes in radioactive cesium content in pond smelt cooked in four different ways: grilled, stewed (kanroni), fried and soaked (nanbanzuke). The radioactive cesium content in grilled, kanroni and fried pond smelt was almost unchanged compared with the uncooked state. In contrast, radioactive cesium content in nanbanzuke pond smelt was decreased by about 30%. Our result suggests that soaking cooked pond smelt in seasoning is an effective method of reducing the burden radioactive cesium. PMID:24025209

Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

2013-01-01

459

Mallard Reproductive Testing in a Pond Environment: A Preliminary Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproducti...

S. M. Meyers J. D. Gile

1986-01-01

460

1. VIEW EAST, TANK POND, OIL HOUSE, WATER TOWER, BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW EAST, TANK POND, OIL HOUSE, WATER TOWER, BOILER HOUSE AND ASSEMBLY PLANT WITH MANHATTAN IN BACKGROUND - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

461

An Evaluation of an Effluent Filtration Stormwater Pond System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stormwater pond is located at the Florida Aquarium in Tampa and is designed to treat 4.2 hectares (10.4 acres) of street and urban runoff. It is an effluent filtration system that incorporates artificial side bank filters packed in aggregate to slowly release storm runoff after rain events. The pond was monitored throughout a two-year period. Year 1 includes data

Betty Rushton; Kara Teague

462

Experiments on Fertilization of Sport-Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four fertilizer application intervals (1 d, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks) were established in sunfish (Centrarchidae) ponds. All ponds received the same total amount of liquid fertilizer of a grade 11-37-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O) during the study. Fertilization at 4-week intervals was as effective in promoting sunfish production as fertilization at shorter intervals. Phosphate-only fertilization was as efficient as fertilization

Areena Murad; Claude E. Boyd

1987-01-01

463

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails.\\u000a In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish\\u000a but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an

Andrew M. Turner; Michael F. Chislock

2007-01-01

464

Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

Koch, J. II

1996-12-01

465

Calibration of laboratory bioassays with results from microcosms and ponds  

SciTech Connect

Effects of an organic contaminant (a synthetic coal-derived crude oil) were measured in outdoor ponds and indoor pond-derived microcosms and compared with results of laboratory bioassays. Ponds and microcosms were treated with the oil continuously for 8 weeks. Concentrations of phenolic compounds (the major water-soluble constituents of the oil) spanned the range of acute and chronic toxicity concentrations determined in single-species bioassays. Effects were similar in microcosms and ponds, implying that microcosms are suitable models for field studies for some purposes. Significant changes in community metabolism and zooplankton populations occurred in microcosms and ponds exposed to less than 0.05 mg/litre phenols, near the 28-day Lowest Observed Effect Concentration for Daphnia magna. Ponds and microcosms were seriously damaged at concentrations near acute bioassay LC50 values. Indirect effects in the ecosystems occurred at all treatment levels, and included changes in water quality, replacement of sensitive taxa by more tolerant competitors, and changes in abundance of some species because of increases or decreases in their predators or grazers. The safe exposure level determined from the ecosystem experiments were accurately predicted by an application factor of 0.03 in conjunction with the most sensitive acute bioassay result (the D. magna 48-h LC50). Less conservative extrapolation methods overestimated the safe concentration of this material in these ecosystems. 28 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

Giddings, J.M.; Franco, P.J.

1983-01-01

466

Calibration of laboratory bioassays with results from microcosms and ponds  

SciTech Connect

Effects of an organic contaminant (as synthetic coal-derived crude oil) were measured in outdoor ponds and indoor pond-derived microcosms and compared with results of laboratory bioassays. Ponds and microcosms were treated with the oil continuously for eight weeks. Concentrations of phenolic compounds spanned the range of acute and chronic toxicity concentrations determined in single-species bioassays. Effects were similar in microcosms and ponds, implying that microcosms are suitable models for field studies for some purposes. Significant changes in community metabolism and zooplankton populations occurred in microcosms and ponds exposed to less than 0.05 mg/L phenols, near the 28-day lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Daphnia magna. Ponds and microcosms were seriously damaged at concentrations near acute bioassay mean lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) values. Indirect effects in the ecosystems occurred at all treatment levels, and included changes in water quality, replacement of sensitive taxa by more tolerant competitors, and changes in abundance of some species because of increases or decreases in their predators or grazers. The safe exposure level determined from the ecosystem experiments was accurately predicted by an application factor of 0.03 in conjunction with the most sensitive acute bioassay result (the D. magna 48-h LC/sub 50/). Less conservative extrapolation methods overestimated the safe concentration of this material in these ecosystems. 32 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

Giddings, J.M.; Franco, P.J.

1985-01-01

467

Degradation of pesticides in nursery recycling pond waters.  

PubMed

Recycling or collection ponds are often used in outdoor container nursery production to capture and recycle runoff water and fertilizers. Waters in recycling ponds generally have high concentrations of nutrients, pesticides, and dissolved organic matter, as well as elevated salinity and turbidity. Little is known about pesticide degradation behavior in the unique environment of nursery recycling ponds. In this study, degradation of four commonly used pesticides diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, and pendimethalin in waters from two nursery recycling ponds was investigated at an initial pesticide concentration of 50 microg/L. Results showed that the persistence of diazinon and chlorpyrifos appeared to be prolonged in recycling pond waters as compared to surface streamwaters, possibly due to decreased contribution from biotic transformation, while degradation of chlorothalonil and pendimethalin was enhanced. Activation energies of biotic degradation of all four pesticides were lower than abiotic degradation, indicating that microbial transformation was less affected by temperature than chemical transformation. Overall, the pesticide degradation capacity of recycling ponds was better buffered against temperature changes than that of surface streamwaters. PMID:16569058

Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng; Newman, Julie; Faber, Ben; Gan, Jianying

2006-04-01

468

Truscott brine lake solar pond system conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction by the Army Corps of Engineers near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extracted from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

Leboeuf, C.M.

1982-01-01

469

Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R. [Foothill Engineering, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

1994-12-31

470

Isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria from an integrated-farming pond and palm-oil mill effluent ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial isolates from two environments, an integrated-farming pond in the university and palm-oil mill effluent (POME) ponds at a local palm-oil-processing factory, were screened for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Initially Sudan Black B staining was performed to detect lipid cellular inclusions. Lipid-positive isolates were then grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium containing 2% (w\\/v) glucose to promote accumulation of PHA before the subsequent

G. Redzwan; S.-N. Gan; I. K. P. Tan

1997-01-01

471

Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond  

SciTech Connect

Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Scott, T.G.

1983-01-01

472

An off-line filtering ditch–pond system for diffuse pollution control at Wuhan City Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

An off-line filtering ditch–pond system was designed and constructed to control the small point and runoff pollution at the Wuhan City Zoo, Hubei Province, China. The quantity and quality of wastewater discharge and runoff from 16 rainfall events were measured to test the effectiveness of the off-line treatment train. The results showed that the water quality was improved and high

Qingfeng Chen; Baoqing Shan; Chengqing Yin; Chengxiao Hu

2007-01-01

473

Cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on ammonia-depleted effluents from sewage oxidation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented represent an initial, limited attempt on a small scale to cultivate nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on both chemically defined media and low nitrogen sewage pond effluents. The rates of blue-green algal biomass production were low compared to those of green algae. Nevertheless, it appears that cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae is possible on sewage effluents where these algae

J. C. Weissman; D. M. Eisenberg; J. R. Benemann

1978-01-01

474

Level-ice melt ponds in the Los Alamos sea ice model, CICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new meltpond parameterization has been developed for the CICE sea ice model, taking advantage of the level ice tracer available in the model. The ponds evolve according to physically based process descriptions, assuming a depth-area ratio for changes in pond volume. A novel aspect of the new scheme is that the ponds are carried as tracers on the level ice area of each thickness category, thus limiting their spatial extent based on the simulated sea ice topography. This limiting is meant to approximate the horizontal drainage of melt water into depressions in ice floes. Simulated melt pond processes include collection of liquid melt water and rain into ponds, drainage through permeable sea ice or over the edges of floes, infiltration of snow by pond water, and refreezing of ponds. Furthermore, snow that falls on top of ponds whose top surface has refrozen blocks radiation from penetrating into the ponds and sea ice below.

Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Hebert, David A.; Lecomte, Olivier

2013-11-01

475

Rift Valley Fever in Small Ruminants, Senegal, 2003  

PubMed Central

During the 2003 rainy season, the clinical and serologic incidence of Rift Valley fever was assessed in small ruminant herds living around temporary ponds located in the semi-arid region of the Ferlo, Senegal. No outbreak was detected by the surveillance system. Serologic incidence was estimated at 2.9% (95% confidence interval 1.0–8.7) and occurred in 5 of 7 ponds with large variations in the observed incidence rate (0%–20.3%). The location of ponds in the Ferlo Valley and small ponds were correlated with higher serologic incidence (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.005, respectively). Rift Valley fever surveillance should be improved to allow early detection of virus activity. Ruminant vaccination programs should be prepared to confront the foreseeable higher risks for future epidemics of this disease.

Lancelot, Renaud; Thiongane, Yaya; Sall, Baba; Diaite, Amadou; Mondet, Bernard

2005-01-01

476

Development of an Improved Isolation Approach and Simple Sequence Repeat Markers To Characterize Phytophthora capsici Populations in Irrigation Ponds in Southern Georgia?  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora capsici, the causal agent of Phytophthora blight, is a major concern in vegetable production in Georgia and many other states in the United States. Contamination of irrigation water sources by P. capsici may be an important source of inoculum for the pathogen. A simple method was developed in this study to improve the efficiency of recovering P. capsici from fruits used as baits in irrigation ponds. In contrast to direct isolation on agar plates, infected fruit tissues were used to inoculate stems of pepper seedlings, and the infected pepper stems were used for isolation on agar plates. With isolation through inoculation of pepper stems, the frequency of recovering P. capsici from infected eggplant and pear fruits increased from 13.9% to 77.7% and 8.1% to 53.5%, respectively, compared with direct isolation on agar plates. P. capsici was isolated from seven out of nine irrigation ponds evaluated, with most of the ponds containing both A1 and A2 mating types and a 4:5 ratio of A1 to A2 when isolates from all ponds were calculated. All P. capsici isolates were pathogenic on squash plants, and only a small proportion (8.2%) of the isolates were resistant or intermediately sensitive to mefenoxam. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified through bioinformatics mining of 55,848 publicly available expressed sequence tags of P. capsici in dbEST GenBank. Thirty-one pairs of SSR primers were designed, and SSR analysis indicated that the 61 P. capsici isolates from irrigation ponds were genetically distinct. Cluster analysis separated the isolates into five genetic clusters with no more than two genetic groups in one pond, indicating relatively low P. capsici genetic diversity in each pond. The isolation method and SSR markers developed for P. capsici in this study could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the genetic diversity of this important pathogen.

Wang, Ziying; Langston, David B.; Csinos, Alexander S.; Gitaitis, Ronald D.; Walcott, Ronald R.; Ji, Pingsheng

2009-01-01

477

Development of an improved isolation approach and simple sequence repeat markers to characterize Phytophthora capsici populations in irrigation ponds in southern Georgia.  

PubMed

Phytophthora capsici, the causal agent of Phytophthora blight, is a major concern in vegetable production in Georgia and many other states in the United States. Contamination of irrigation water sources by P. capsici may be an important source of inoculum for the pathogen. A simple method was developed in this study to improve the efficiency of recovering P. capsici from fruits used as baits in irrigation ponds. In contrast to direct isolation on agar plates, infected fruit tissues were used to inoculate stems of pepper seedlings, and the infected pepper stems were used for isolation on agar plates. With isolation through inoculation of pepper stems, the frequency of recovering P. capsici from infected eggplant and pear fruits increased from 13.9% to 77.7% and 8.1% to 53.5%, respectively, compared with direct isolation on agar plates. P. capsici was isolated from seven out of nine irrigation ponds evaluated, with most of the ponds containing both A1 and A2 mating types and a 4:5 ratio of A1 to A2 when isolates from all ponds were calculated. All P. capsici isolates were pathogenic on squash plants, and only a small proportion (8.2%) of the isolates were resistant or intermediately sensitive to mefenoxam. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified through bioinformatics mining of 55,848 publicly available expressed sequence tags of P. capsici in dbEST GenBank. Thirty-one pairs of SSR primers were designed, and SSR analysis indicated that the 61 P. capsici isolates from irrigation ponds were genetically distinct. Cluster analysis separated the isolates into five genetic clusters with no more than two genetic groups in one pond, indicating relatively low P. capsici genetic diversity in each pond. The isolation method and SSR markers developed for P. capsici in this study could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the genetic diversity of this important pathogen. PMID:19581483

Wang, Ziying; Langston, David B; Csinos, Alexander S; Gitaitis, Ronald D; Walcott, Ronald R; Ji, Pingsheng

2009-07-06

478

Comparison of maturation ponds and constructed wetlands as the final stage of an advanced pond system.  

PubMed

The treatment performance of a maturation pond (MP), the typical final polishing stage of an Advanced Pond System (APS), is compared with that of a surface-flow constructed wetland (CW) over 19 months. Both received approximately 67 mm d-1 of wastewater after passage through upstream stages of the APS. The MP, with greater sunlight exposure, had higher algal biomass (and associated suspended solids) than the CW, showed higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and greater diurnal variation in DO and pH. Neither polishing stages reduced nutrients markedly, with the CW exporting slightly more NH(3)-N and DRP, and less NO(3)-N than the MP. Disinfection was more efficient in the MP (geometric mean 1 log load removal, 12 MPN (100ml)-1) compared to the CW (0.47 log load removal, 53 MPN (100ml)-1). Incorporation of a final rock filter (28% of area) reduced median solids levels to < 10 g m(-3) in both the MP and CW. A hybrid between MPs and CWs with alternating zones of open-water (for enhanced disinfection and zooplankton grazing of algal solids) and wetland vegetation (promoting sedimentation and denitrification, and providing refugia for zooplankton) may provide more consistent effluent quality that either stage alone. PMID:16114699

Tanner, C C; Craggs, R J; Sukias, J P S; Park, J B K

2005-01-01

479

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

480

Modelling of melt ponds on a sea ice floe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During winter the ocean surface at the poles freezes over to form sea ice. Sea ice floats on the ocean surface and has a matrix structure caused by the rejection of salts during freezing. In the summer sea ice melts at its surface creating melt ponds. An accurate estimate of the fraction of the upper sea-ice surface covered in melt ponds during the summer melt season is essential for a realistic estimate of the albedo for global climate models. We present a sea ice model that simulates the two-dimensional (areal) evolution of melt ponds on an Arctic sea-ice surface. Water transport across and through the sea-ice surface is described by the major hydraulic processes believed to be present. Thermodynamic processes are modelled using heat flux equations. Lateral and vertical melt water transport is described by Darcy's Law. The model simulates a section of a sea ice floe where edge effects such as the presence of leads are neglected. The model consists of a grid of cells, each of which can be in one of four possible configurations: snow covered ice; bare ice; melt pond covered ice or open water. A cluster of adjacent cells containing melt water may be considered to have formed a melt pond. The model is initialised with ice topographies that represent either first-year or multi-year sea ice, these are reconstructed from ice thickness data using standard statistical methods; in this way characteristic examples of both first-year ice and multi-year ice can be constructed. The roughness of the ice and snow surfaces were altered and the sensitivity of the model to the initial data was tested. First-year ice and multi-year ice simulations agreed with observed differences in individual pond size and depth. Sensitivity studies showed that pond fraction is most sensitive to mean initial snow depth in first-year ice simulations and reduction of ice permeability all cases.

Scott, F.; Feltham, D.

2009-04-01

481

How the drainage of melting ponds leads to cracks? - Evidence revealed from Formosat-2 high spatiotemporal optical images of Ward-Hunt Ice Shelf, Summer 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For years, formation and extinction of melting pond have been regarded as one of the main precursors to the "rapid" disintegration of large ice shelves. Many models of calving and crack propagation have been proposed in regard with melting ponds as well. However, the existing spaceborne sensors all have constraints over the Polar Regions. Narrow cracks and their propagation are not easily observed and measured, and the area change of many small melting ponds is easily under-estimated. Formosat-2 is able to provide high spatiotemporal imagery of the Polar Regions, which provides an ideal source of data to investigate the rapid disintegration caused by tiny cracks and melting ponds over the ice shelves. In this research, we compiled a series of Formosat-2 time-sequential (16 scenes) and high-spatiotemporal (daily revisited orbit; 4 multispectral bands with 8 m, plus 1 panchromatic with 2 m) optical imagery of the Ward-Hunt Ice Shelf (WHIS) taken in the summer of 2008. Sea ice and open regions were masked prior to semi-automatic warping, minimizing errors of change detection. Fifteen out of sixteen scenes of multi-temporal imagery (from June 5th to August 30th, 2008) have been spatially co-registered with the base of the middle date (July 28th). A total of 16 sub-sets were intensively investigated, including the calved (ice island A and B, separated on July 24 and July 26 respectively) and non-calved coastal areas (in the North-eastern coast of WHIS), the southern calved coast, the crack complex in the south of Ward-Hunt Island (WHI), and other typical undulated ice shelf regions. Finally, length of cracks and area of melting ponds in the sub-sets were carefully extracted, estimated and assessed. The results show that a series of melting ponds drained and rifts formed and propagated consequently at various scales in most regions of WHIS. In addition, in some coastal areas, drainage of melting ponds is also highly related to the process of calving events. In conclusion, the propagation of the rifts (length) was highly correlated with the abrupt decreasing of the area of melting ponds, especially in the coastal areas. Capability for change detection over cracks and melting ponds with small scale would enhance the understanding of their impacts to ice shelves.

Chang, Y.-C.; Liu, C.-C.

2009-04-01

482

Winter performance of an urban stormwater pond in southern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence from cold regions in North America has shown that the performance of stormwater ponds differs between winter and summer. The pond hydraulics change seasonally, and winters have lowered removal efficiency due to a combination of an ice cover, cold water and de-icing salts. This study examines the function of the Bäckaslov stormwater pond under the more mild conditions of southern Sweden, where there are several snow and melt cycles per year.Event sampling in the summer of 1997 showed good removal efficiencies for nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS) and a selection of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), but winter grab-tests taken in 1995-96 and 1997-98 suggest that the pond acts as a pollutant source under cold conditions. To better assess winter and spring pond performance, water at the inflow and outflow was sampled from January to April 2003. The low intensity of runoff delivery and slow inflow velocities meant that time- rather than flow-weighted sampling was used. Five consecutive events were sampled and analysed for TSS, chloride and the metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. YSI probes were in place at both the inlet (pH, temperature) and outlet (pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen) to determine the timing of pollution flows. In addition, profiles of the same quality indicators allowed snapshots of pond processes.De-icing salt has a major effect on pond hydraulics. Strong stratification occurred after each snowmelt-generated flow event and up to 80% of chloride could be retained by the pond. However, continuous conductivity measurements show that chloride is flushed between events. Ice changes retention times and causes oxygen depletion, but bed scour was not observed. Pond performance decreased during the winter and spring, albeit not as badly as the grab tests suggest. A seasonal comparison of the removal efficiencies showed that removal of Cd (75%) and Cu (49%) was about the same for summer and winter-spring, but removal of Pb, Zn and TSS dropped from 79%, 81% and 80% to 42%, 48% and 49% respectively. The removal efficiencies for the other metals sampled in 2003 were: As, 50%; Cr, 39%; Hg, 56%; Ni, 41%.

Semadeni-Davies, Annette

2006-01-01

483

Electrokinetic densification of solids in a coal-mine sediment pond: A feasibility study (in two parts). 2. Design of an operational system. Report of Investigations/1988  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted a feasibility study and designed an operational system for consolidating waste coal sludge in a 110-acre pond by applying direct current between buried and floating electrodes. Consolidation would reduce the sludge to half its present volume, thereby extending the working life of the pond as well as creating a safe, stable impoundment. The project was conducted by the Bureau under an agreement with the Washington Irrigation and Devevelopment Co. (WIDCO), located near Centralia, WA. Part 1 of the report, published as Report of Investigations 8666 in 1982, covers the results of laboratory tests at the Bureau's Spokane Research Center and of a small-scale field test at WIDCO's coal preparation plant. Test results show the process is efficient and cost-effective when power is applied at low current density. Part 2(the paper ) describes a detailed design for an electrokinetic system to dewater WIDCO's 110-acre pond with a 27.4-acre electrode array. Densification of the inactive sludge pond will require 3.6 yr of treatment for a total cost of $1,450,000. The study and design are site specific, but design procedures and analyses are sufficiently detailed to serve as a guide for applying the process to any sludge pond.

Sprute, R.H.; Kelsh, D.J.; Thompson, S.L.

1988-01-01

484

Probabilistic analysis of maintenance and operation of artificial recharge ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifer artificial recharge from surface infiltration ponds is often conducted to replenish depleted aquifers in arid and semi-arid zones. Physical and bio-geochemical clogging decreases the host soil's infiltration capacity, which has to be restored with periodic maintenance activities. We develop a probabilistic modeling framework that quantifies the risk of a pond's infiltration capacity falling below its target value due to soil heterogeneity and clogging. This framework can act as a tool to aid managers in optimally selecting and designing maintenance strategies. Our model enables one to account for a variety of maintenance strategies that target different clogging mechanisms. The framework is applied to an existing pond in Barcelona, Spain as well as to several synthetic infiltration ponds with varying statistical distributions of initial infiltration capacity. We find that physical clogging mechanisms induce the greatest uncertainty and that maintenance targeted at these can yield optimal results. However, considering the fundamental role of the spatial variability in the initial properties, we conclude that an adequate initial characterization of the surface infiltration ponds is crucial to determining the degree of uncertainty of different maintenance solutions and thus to making cost-effective and reliable decisions.