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Sample records for small detention ponds

  1. Sound management of sediment yields at the catchment scale by small detention ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, A. E.; Wasilewicz, M.; Banasik, K.

    2012-04-01

    Keywords: small detention pond, sediment deposits, reservoir silting, urban catchment Globally observed land use and climate changes have a clear impact on the sediment yields deriving from the catchment. Released sediments may originate from different point and non-point sources. Thereby it is difficult to manage and reduce sediment loads directly at the source without undertaking detailed and expensive monitoring programs. Small detention ponds are therefore frequently used water management systems in urban settlements to improve water quality at the catchment scale. Such ponds located at the outlet of small basins allow reducing sediment loads downstream. Additionally, they capture sediment-associated contaminants as heavy metals, nutrients and micropollutants. On the other hand, a sedimentation within the pond may be a severe problem because it decreases over the time its retention capacity. This is especially significant for small detention ponds, where the siltation rate is high. These ponds can loose their total capacity already after few years of their exploitation when no dredging operations are considered. Unfortunately, maintenance costs of small ponds are expensive and usually not taken into account when planning and constructing such ponds. Consequently, many small detention ponds become inefficient after an entire use of their capacity. Therefore careful planning of maintenance options is essential to keep an effectiveness of such ponds on the expected level. Within presented here study we addressed the problem of silting small detention ponds and we assessed an applicability of such ponds to manage sediment yields discharged from small urban catchments. To this end, a periodic measurement of deposited sediments within a small detention pond (1.35 ha, 5 years old, Warsaw, Poland) has been undertaken. This pond receives a polluted runoff from a small urbanized basin (30 km2), for which no routine sediment measurement exists. The spatial sediment

  2. Using Stormwater Detention Ponds for Aquatic Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of recently constructed stormwater detention ponds to conduct a set of field and laboratory exercises in an undergraduate limnology course. Provides a number of logistical advantages that can benefit those teaching aquatic sciences. (JRH)

  3. Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond - Wetlands system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Suspended-phase efficiencies for solids, lead, and zinc ranged between 42 and 66%. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72%. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. Total (dissolved + suspended) solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 41 and 73%. Efficiencies for total nitrogen and phosphorus were 21 and 17%, respectively. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond of wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents. Total solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 55 and 83%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies were 36 and 43%, respectively.The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72 percent. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond and wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents.

  4. The Role of Stormwater Detention Ponds in Nitrogen Cycling in Urban Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B. R.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    Stormwater detention ponds may serve as important control points for the cycling of nitrogen in urban watersheds. They may function as landscape scale "sinks" for nitrogen by providing the retention time and biogeochemical conditions needed for nitrogen removal mechanisms, such as denitrification, to be significant. They may also function as landscape-scale "sources" of mobile nitrogen, since the soils of many detention ponds will undergo augmented cycles of wetting and drying. During dry periods, significant quantities of bound nitrogen may be transformed into highly mobile nitrate, which may subsequently be flushed out during the next wetting event. We expect that the actual function of detention ponds in nitrogen cycling will vary temporally as well as with the design, age and maintenance of the pond. We are conducting field monitoring in the Harry's Brook Watershed in Princeton, New Jersey, a small urban/suburban drainage basin that possesses several large detention ponds. Our results to date have shown a flush of nitrate following rainstorm events, even in stream reaches that are controlled by detention ponds. We plan to use the data we collect from our fieldwork in numerical models to better understand the key nitrogen cycling processes.

  5. Load-detention efficiencies in a dry-pond basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Hess, Larry G.

    1989-01-01

    Inflow and outflow to a dry-pond detention basin in Topeka, Kansas, were monitored for 19 storms during a 14-month period. Samples of runoff were collected automatically at two inflow and one outflow locations. Inflow and outflow constituent loads were computed with subsequent computation of load-detention efficiencies. Three constituents (dissolved solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, and total organic carbon) had negative (larger loads out than in) median detention efficiencies (-78.5 percent, -9.0 percent, and -3.0 percent, respectively). Median detention efficiencies for the other constituents were: suspended solids (2.5 percent), chemical oxygen demand (15.5 percent), nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen (20.0 percent), ammonia nitrogen (69.0 percent), total phosphorus (18.5 percent), dissolved phosphorus (0.0 percent), total lead (66.0 percent), and total zinc (65.0 percent).

  6. Geochemistry and toxicity of sediment porewater in a salt-impacted urban stormwater detention pond.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T; Rochfort, Q; Borgmann, U; Snodgrass, W

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to investigate the impacts of road salts on the benthic compartment of a small urban detention facility, Rouge River Pond. Although the pond is an engineered water body, it is representative of many small urban lakes, ponds and wetlands, which receive road runoff and are probable high impact areas. Specific objectives of the study were to document the porewater chemistry of an aquatic system affected by elevated salt concentrations and to carry out a toxicological assessment of sediment porewater to determine what factors may cause porewater toxicity. The results indicate that the sediment porewater may itself attain high salt concentrations. The computations show that increased chloride levels have important implications on the Cd complexation, augmenting its concentration in porewater. The toxicity tests suggest that the toxicity in porewater is caused by metals or other toxic chemicals, rather than high levels of chloride. PMID:18242807

  7. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented

  8. Effects of detention on water quality of two stormwater detention ponds receiving highway surface runoff in Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, nutrients, and heavy metals following ten storm events at two stormwater detention ponds that receive highway surface runoff in the Jacksonville, Florida, metropolitan area. The purpose of the sampling program was to detect changes in constituent concentration with time of detention within the pond system. Statistical inference of a relation with total rainfall was found in the initial concentrations of 11 constituents and with antecedent dry period for the initial concentrations of 3 constituents. Based on graphical examination and factor analysis , constituent behavior with time could be grouped into five relatively independent processes for one of the ponds. The processes were (1) interaction with shallow groundwater systems, (2) solubilization of bottom materials, (3) nutrient uptake, (4) seasonal changes in precipitation, and (5) sedimentation. Most of the observed water-quality changes in the ponds were virtually complete within 3 days following the storm event. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Continuous Monitoring of Nitrogen Retention in an Urban Stormwater Detention Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    Stormwater detention ponds have become ubiquitous in urbanized areas and have been suggested as potential ‘hotspots’ of nitrogen transformation within urban watersheds. As a result, there is a great deal of interest in the use of detention ponds as structural ‘best mangagement practices’ to reduce the excessive nitrogen export from these watersheds. We conducted continuous monitoring of the influent and effluent nitrogen loads of a stormwater detention pond located on the Princeton University campus in Princeton, New Jersey, USA. Our monitoring was conducted during 4, 21-day periods representing the 4 seasons of the northeastern United States. Laboratory incubations of sediments and surface water from the detention pond were also conducted to provide insight on the mechanisms of nitrogen retention and removal. The results of our monitoring show considerable seasonal variation in nitrogen retention within the detention pond. While retention of nitrate, the most dominant form of nitrogen in the influent stormwater, was observed during the spring and summer sampling periods, no significant nitrate retention was observed during the two cold-weather sampling periods. The initial results of our laboratory experiments suggest that the observed nitrate retention arises both from permanent removal by denitrification as well as temporary uptake by nuisance algae present in the detention pond during warmer months. Also, we observed that particulate nitrogen, which is often neglected in urban stormwater monitoring, was found to make up a significant fraction of the stormwater nitrogen load entering this detention pond (20-40% of the cumulative influent nitrogen load). A net retention of particulate nitrogen was observed during all 4 sampling periods, resulting in the retention of up to 20% of the total influent nitrogen load within the 21-day timeframe of our sampling periods. The results of this study provide important initial data on the role of stormwater detention

  10. Fast eutrophication assessment for stormwater wet detention ponds via fuzzy probit regression analysis under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Tahsin, Subrina; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds have been a commonly employed best management practice for stormwater management throughout the world for many years. In the past, the trophic state index values have been used to evaluate seasonal changes in water quality and rank lakes within a region or between several regions; yet, to date, there is no similar index for stormwater wet detention ponds. This study aimed to develop a new multivariate trophic state index (MTSI) suitable for conducting a rapid eutrophication assessment of stormwater wet detention ponds under uncertainty with respect to three typical physical and chemical properties. Six stormwater wet detention ponds in Florida were selected for demonstration of the new MTSI with respect to total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and Secchi disk depth (SDD) as cognitive assessment metrics to sense eutrophication potential collectively and inform the environmental impact holistically. Due to the involvement of multiple endogenous variables (i.e., TN, TP, and SDD) for the eutrophication assessment simultaneously under uncertainty, fuzzy synthetic evaluation was applied to first standardize and synchronize the sources of uncertainty in the decision analysis. The ordered probit regression model was then formulated for assessment based on the concept of MTSI with the inputs from the fuzzy synthetic evaluation. It is indicative that the severe eutrophication condition is present during fall, which might be due to frequent heavy summer storm events contributing to high-nutrient inputs in these six ponds. PMID:26733470

  11. Monitoring nitrogen loading and retention in an urban stormwater detention pond.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Bernice R; Smith, James A; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Jaffé, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater detention ponds have become ubiquitous in urbanized areas and have been suggested as potential hotspots of N transformation within urban watersheds. As a result, there is a great deal of interest in their use as structural best management practices to reduce the excessive N export from these watersheds. We conducted continuous monitoring of the influent and effluent N loads of a stormwater detention pond located on the Princeton University campus in Princeton, New Jersey. Our monitoring was conducted during four 21-d periods representing the four seasons of the northeastern United States. Water quality samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate (NO3-) during all four monitoring periods. During two of these periods, loads of ammonium (NH4+), dissolved organic N, and particulate N (PN) were measured. Our results show that NO3- dominated the influent N load, particularly in dry weather inflows to the detention pond. However, PN, which is often neglected in stormwater quality monitoring, made up as much as 30% of the total load and an even greater fraction during storm events. The results of our monitoring suggest that seasonal variation may play an important role in N retention within the detention pond. Although retention of NO3-, the most dominant fraction of N in the influent stormwater, was observed during the summer sampling period, no significant NO3- retention was observed during the spring or the two cold-weather sampling periods. PMID:21520767

  12. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Matamoros, Víctor; Vollertsen, Jess; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of sigmaPAH in the sediments varied between 6 +/- 5 and 2,222 +/- 603 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean +/- standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect different activities in the catchments. In general, the concentrations of PAHS in the sediments decreased from inlet to outlet, especially in the systems with good conditions for sedimentation such as systems with flow perpendicular sand dikes and extensive submerged vegetation. High molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the sediments indicating the pyrogenic origin of the PAHS. There was no correlation between PAH species concentrations in water or sediments and their hydrophobicity (log K(ow)). PAH concentrations in water fluctuated in response to intensity and frequency of rain events, whereas concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHS in the effluents below the detection level. PMID:22097066

  13. Water quality of an urban wet detention pond in Madison, Wisconsin, 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, L.B.; Waschbusch, R.J.; Hughes, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    A 5,670-sq m wet detention pond was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine its effect on the water quality of urban runoff. The pond has a drainage area of 0.96-sq km, composed primarily of single-family residential land use. Event-mean concentrations (EMC) were determined from samples collected for sediment, nutrients, and selected metals at the pond's inflow and outflow sites. EMC samples were collected for 64 runoff events during the study period from February 1987 to April 1988. Storm precipitation ranged from 1 to 51 mm during these events. Inflow and outflow EMC and constituent loads were compared to determine the trap efficiency of the pond. Trap efficiency varied considerably among water-quality constituents. In general, the detention pond decreased the EMC of sampled constituents at the outlet compared to the inlet. The median decrease in EMC for suspended solids was 88 percent, 60 percent for total chemical oxygen demand (COD), 43 percent for total phosphorus, 38 percent for total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 65 percent for total nitrite plus nitrate, and 71 percent for total lead. A notable exception to the general decrease in EMC is for chloride. The EMC for chloride was generally higher in outflow from the pond than in the inflow. This is attributed to an unmonitored influx of chloride to the pond during the winter that subsequently was flushed out during monitored runoff events. The total study-period loads of most constituents were less leaving the pond than the loads entering it. This decrease is attributed to the constituents transported on suspended sediment being deposited in the pond. The decrease in total load of suspended solids was 88 percent, 62 percent for total COD, 58 percent for total phosphorus, 46 percent for total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 62 percent for total nitrite plus nitrate, 97 percent for total copper, and 93 percent for total lead. (USGS)

  14. Heavy metal accumulation and transport through detention ponds receiving highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Y A; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Harper, H H; Lin, L Y

    1990-04-01

    Sediment accumulations and associated heavy metal concentrations into retention/detention ponds receiving highway runoff from several ponds and metal concentrations in various sediment layers were analyzed to determine the extent of vertical migration. Extraction of heavy metals had been evaluated using various solutions including the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures (TCLP). Also, sediments were incubated under various conditions of redox potential and pH to investigate the effects of changes in sediment conditions on the stability of metal-sediment associations. PMID:2360026

  15. The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

    2002-02-01

    The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

  16. Trace metals in urban streams and detention ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Licsko, Z.J.; Struger, J.

    1995-12-31

    Trace metal levels were monitored over a nine month period in two urban creeks in the Hamilton Harbour watershed and in two urban stormwater retention ponds in Guelph, Ontario. Samples were collected both during dry or non-event periods and immediately after wet weather events. Both water and surficial sediment samples were collected and tested for cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. In almost all cases during wet weather conditions, Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the protection of freshwater aquatic life were exceeded in water for lead (>7 mg/L), copper (>4 mg/L), and zinc (>30 mg/L) . Both stormwater ponds accumulated trace metals in sediment to levels above the lowest effect level guideline for the protection and management of aquatic sediment in Ontario, and, in the case of zinc (> 820 ug/g), above the severe effect level guideline. These levels of contamination raise serious concerns about the use of these and similar facilities as habitat for biota.

  17. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention ponds - Sediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure.

    PubMed

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. PMID:27302374

  18. Tropical stormwater nutrient degradation using nano-TiO2 in photocatalytic reactor detention pond.

    PubMed

    Rad, Saeed; Shamsudin, Supiah; Taha, Mohd Raihan; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2016-01-01

    The photo-degradation of nutrients in stormwater in photocatalytic reactor wet detention pond using nano titanium dioxide (TiO2) in concrete was investigated in a scale model as a new stormwater treatment method. Degradation of phosphate and nitrate in the presence of nano-TiO2 under natural ultra violet (UV) from tropical sunlight was monitored for 3 weeks compared with normal ponds. Two types of cement, including ordinary Portland and white cement mixed with TiO2 nano powder, were used as a thin cover to surround the body of the pond. Experiments with and without the catalyst were carried out for comparison and control. Average Anatase diameter of 25 nm and Rutile 100 nm nano particles were applied at three different mixtures of 3, 10 and 30% weight. The amounts of algae available orthophosphate and nitrate, which cause eutrophication in the ponds, were measured during the tests. Results revealed that the utilization of 3% up to 30% weight nano-TiO2 can improve stormwater outflow quality by up to 25% after 48 h and 57% after 3 weeks compared with the control sample in normal conditions with average nutrient (phosphate and nitrate) removal of 4% after 48 h and 10% after 3 weeks. PMID:26819397

  19. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  20. Development of baseline water quality stormwater detention pond model for Chesapeake Bay catchments

    SciTech Connect

    Musico, W.J.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    An environmental impact assessment is required for every proposed development in the Commonwealth of Virginia to help identify areas of potential concerns. The purpose of the Chesapeake Bay Local Assistance Department (CBLAD), Guidance Calculation Procedures is to ensure that development of previously constructed areas do not further exacerbate current problems of stormwater-induced eutrophication and downstream flooding. The methodology is based on the post development conditions that will not generate greater peak flows and will result in a 10% overall reduction of total phosphorus. Currently, several well-known models can develop hydrographs and pollutographs that accurately model the real response of a given watershed to any given rainfall event. However, conventional method of achieving the desired peak flow reduction and pollutant removal is not a deterministic procedure, and is inherently a trail and error process. A method of quickly and accurately determining the required size of stormwater easements was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative stormwater collection and treatment systems. In this method, predevelopment conditions were modeled first to estimate the peak flows and subsequent pollutants generation that can be used as a baseline for post development plan. Resulting stormwater easement estimates facilitate decision-making processes during the planning and development phase of a project. The design can be optimized for the minimum cost or the smallest-possible pond size required for peak flow reduction and detention time given the most basic data such as: inflow hydrograph and maximum allowable pond depth.

  1. Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrowitz, I.H.; Woodham, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A multipurpose wet stormwater detention pond in Pinellas Park, Florida was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing the load of selected water-quality constituents commonly found in urban streamflow. Water-quality samples, and data on streamflow and precipitation were collected at the outflow and principal inflow of detention area 3 on Saint Joe Creek. To compare the constituent loads entering and leaving the detention pond, flows and water quality were monitored simultaneously at the inflow and outflow sites for six storms, and were monitored intermittently during periods of base flow. Lodas od 19 selected chemical and physical constituents were determined. Because all the stormwater entering the detention pond was not measured at the inflow site, computed stormwater inflow loads were adjusted to account for loads from the unmonitored areas. The ratio of storm- water volume measured at the outflow site to stormwater volume measured at the inflow site was used to adjust inflow loads for individual storms. Pond efficiencies for selected water- quality constituents for each of the storms were estimated by dividing the difference in outflow and adjusted inflow loads by the adjusted inflow load. Stormwater loads of the major ions (chloride, calcium and bicarbonate) and dissolved solids at the outflow site exceeded loads at the inflow site, partly as a result of mixing with base flow stored within the pond. However, the detention pond was effective in reducing the stormwater load of such urban-runoff contaminants as metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Estimated median pond efficiencies for reducing constituent loads ranged from 25 to more than 60 percent for metals, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 7 to 11 percent for two measurements of suspended solids, and 16 to 49 percent for the oxygen- consuming substances. The reductions of constituent loads in stormwater are probably a result of

  2. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms

  3. Best management practices - effectiveness of retention/detention ponds for control of contaminants in highway runoff. Final report, January 1983-August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Yousef, Y.A.; Wanielista, M.P.; Harper, H.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    1986-08-01

    The fate of nutrients and heavy metals in highway runoff entering retention/detention ponds was studied. Investigations on characterization of highway runoff, water quality in receiving ponds and surrounding drainage basins, isolation chamber studies, accumulation of contaminants by bottom sediments, speciation of heavy metals in the sediments, release studies under various pH and redox potential and groundwater monitoring surrounding the pond area were carried out in two sites at Maitland Interchange and EPCOT Interchange located in Orange County, Central Florida. Removal efficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals in a well-established pond operating for 7-8 years at Maitland site and a newly constructed pond at EPCOT site were evaluated. Most of the metals accumulated in the pond sediments are immobile under current conditions of pH and redox potential.

  4. Monitoring the startup of a wet detention pond equipped with sand filters and sorption filters.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, J; Lange, K H; Pedersen, J; Hallager, P; Bruus, A; Laustsen, A; Bundesen, V W; Brix, H; Nielsen, A H; Nielsen, N H; Wium-Andersen, T; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T

    2009-01-01

    The startup of a wet retention pond designed for extended stormwater treatment was monitored by more than one year of continual measurement of hydraulic parameters, nutrients and quality parameters in the pond itself (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity). The data revealed that photosynthesis played an important role for dissolved oxygen and pH for most of the year. Another important observation was that the pond behaved more like a completely mixed reactor than like a plug flow reactor--even though the length to width ratio was as high as 4.5:1. The pond was equipped with sand filters and sorption filters whereby very good nutrient removal efficiencies were achieved. PMID:19700847

  5. Treatment efficiency of a wet detention pond combined with filters of crushed concrete and sand: a Danish full-scale study of stormwater.

    PubMed

    Sønderup, Melanie J; Egemose, Sara; Bochdam, Timm; Flindt, Mogens R

    2015-12-01

    Traditional wet detention ponds and sand filters remove particles efficiently, whereas only a minor part of the dissolved and bioavailable load is removed. To improve the retention of dissolved substances, we tested crushed concrete as a filter material simultaneously with a traditional sand filter placed after an existing wet pond. The particulate fractions (particles, organic matter, phosphorus, and heavy metals) were removed efficiently in the pond and both filter materials, with the concrete filter often being best seen over a year. Dissolved heavy metals (lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd)) were largely retained, though a washout was observed from the pond (Ni and Cu), concrete filter (Cr), and sand filter (Ni) during the first month. The pond only retained total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) during summer. Crushed concrete and sand had a high (>70%) retention of TDP within the first months of operation, but the retention dropped in both filters due to a large oil load into the system (4 kg impermeable ha(-1) in 1 month). The poor retention might to some degree be due to mineralization processes turning particulate phosphorus (PP) into TDP. The massive oil load was retained efficiently (99.3%) in the pond and both filters, clearly illustrating that both filter materials were able to retain either oil or TDP. An additional pilot study showed that at residence times of 1 h, crushed concrete bound 90% TDP whereas sand only bound 22% TDP. Retention of TDP and PP decreased with shorter residence time in both materials, but fastest in sand. PMID:26577218

  6. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in

  7. Ammonium sulfate solar pond: Observations from small-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R. ); Bushnell, D.L.; Sempsrote, D.G. ); Pena, A. )

    1989-01-01

    Using the fertilizer salt (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the authors established a salinity gradient solar pond in a small outdoor tank. The hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of the pond was similar to that observed in the past for solar ponds containing NaCl. For temperature gradients between 50 and 300 K/m and salinity gradients between 200 and 1400 kg/m{sup 4}, data relating the gradients to erosion and growth of the gradient zone were generally consistent with the Nielsen boundary criterion for NaCl. With a salinity difference of 20% between the upper and lower zones and a maximum lower-zone temperature of 83{degree}C, no instabilities were observed in the interior of the gradient zone. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in controlling algal populations and maintaining good brine transparency.

  8. A holistic water depth simulation model for small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir; Ghosh, Narayan C.; Mishra, P. K.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    Estimation of time varying water depth and time to empty of a pond is prerequisite for comprehensive and coordinated planning of water resource for its effective utilization. A holistic water depth simulation (HWDS) and time to empty (TE) model for small, shallow ephemeral ponds have been derived by employing the generalized model based on the Green-Ampt equation in the basic water balance equation. The HWDS model includes time varying rainfall, runoff, surface water evaporation, outflow and advancement of wetting front length as external inputs. The TE model includes two external inputs; surface water evaporation and advancement of wetting front length. Both the models also consider saturated hydraulic conductivity and fillable porosity of the pond's bed material as their parameters. The solution of the HWDS model involved numerical iteration in successive time intervals. The HWDS model has successfully evaluated with 3 years of field data from two small ponds located within a watershed in a semi-arid region in western India. The HWDS model simulated time varying water depth in the ponds with high accuracy as shown by correlation coefficient (R2 ⩾ 0.9765), index of agreement (d ⩾ 0.9878), root mean square errors (RMSE ⩽ 0.20 m) and percent bias (PB ⩽ 6.23%) for the pooled data sets of the measured and simulated water depth. The statistical F and t-tests also confirmed the reliability of the HWDS model at probability level, p ⩽ 0.0001. The response of the TE model showed its ability to estimate the time to empty the ponds. An additional field calibration and validation of the HWDS and TE models with observed field data in varied hydro-climatic conditions could be conducted to increase the applicability and credibility of the models.

  9. Small zebrafish in a big chemical pond.

    PubMed

    Helenius, I Taneli; Yeh, J-R Joanna

    2012-07-01

    The number of possible small organic molecules of different structure is virtually limitless. One of the main goals of chemical biologists is to identify, from this "chemical space", entities that affect biological processes or systems in a specific manner. This can lead to a better understanding of the regulation and components of various biological machineries, as well as provide insights into efficacious therapeutic targets and drug candidates. However, the challenges confronting chemical biologists are multiple. How do we efficiently identify compounds that possess desirable activities without unwanted off-target effects? Once a candidate compound has been found, how do we determine its mode of action? In this Prospects piece, we call attention to recent studies using embryonic and larval zebrafish to illustrate the breadth and depth of questions in chemical biology that may be addressed using this model, and hope that they can serve as catalysts for future investigational ideas. PMID:22396148

  10. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (<75 μm) was low, even minus results being recorded, especially for particles smaller than 25 μm. The length of GSs is a key factor in its performance. The WDPs can remove particles of all sizes by sedimentation. In addition, WDPs can improve water quality due to their buffering and dilution capacity during rainfall as well as their water purification ability during dry periods. Overall, the ecological system of GSs coupled with WDPs is an effective system for agricultural runoff pollution control. PMID:26832867

  11. Waste Stabilization Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundakjian, Philip

    This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste stabilization ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…

  12. Hydrologic modeling of detention pond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban watersheds produce an instantaneous response to rainfall. That results in stormwater runoff in excess of the capacity of drainage systems. The excess stormwater must be managed to prevent flooding and erosion of streams. Management can be achieved with the help of structural stormwater Best...

  13. Production ecology of invertebrates in small experimental ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Franco, P.J.; Goyert, J.C.; Lesslie, P.A.

    1986-07-01

    Production of invertebrates is estimated for a series of small experimental ponds in Tennessee. Annual dry weight production of predator insects is about 4.5 g/m/sup 2/ and of herbivore-detritivore insects about 3.8 g/m/sup 2/; insects whose trophic position could not be classified account for an annual dry weight production of about 0.3 g/m/sup 2/. Annual dry weight production of zooplankton is about 14.5 t/m/sup 2/, of annelids 25.4 g/m/sup 2/ and of snails 3.1 g/m/sup 2/. The data are consistent with published information that the predator insects probably depend on a variety of energy sources to support their estimated production rate.

  14. Economics in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elonge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Economics in Detention is a University of Maryland Extension program that teaches inmates essential principles of economics as a foundation to a spectrum of decision making. Also, the program includes an emphasis on starting a small business after incarceration. The idea of this program emanates from an invitation by the Baltimore City Detention…

  15. Large contribution to inland water CO2 and CH4 emissions from very small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Although they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of carbon processing in these waters are uncertain. The global extent of very small ponds, with surface areas of less than 0.001 km2, is particularly difficult to map, resulting in their exclusion from greenhouse gas budget estimates. Here we combine estimates of the lake and pond global size distribution, gas exchange rates, and measurements of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations from 427 lakes and ponds ranging in surface area from 2.5 m2 to 674 km2. We estimate that non-running inland waters release 0.583 Pg C yr-1. Very small ponds comprise 8.6% of lakes and ponds by area globally, but account for 15.1% of CO2 emissions and 40.6% of diffusive CH4 emissions. In terms of CO2 equivalence, the ratio of CO2 to CH4 flux increases with surface area, from about 1.5 in very small ponds to about 19 in large lakes. The high fluxes from very small ponds probably result from shallow waters, high sediment and edge to water volume ratios, and frequent mixing. These attributes increase CO2 and CH4 supersaturation in the water and limit efficient methane oxidation. We conclude that very small ponds represent an important inland water carbon flux.

  16. LONG TERM DETENTION FOR THE STABILIZATION OF WASTEWATER BIOSOLIDS FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated biosolids from small wastewater treatment plants in mid-western US are usually disposed off by land application. This practice allows for the recycling of the nutrients present in the biosolids for food and fiber production and can help re-vegetate sites destroyed by mini...

  17. 78 FR 15017 - Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... regulations in 21 CFR part 1, subpart K (76 FR 25538), that pertain to the criteria for ordering... Administrative Detention of Foods,'' (76 FR 66073, October 25, 2011). The guidance was intended to provide... February 5, 2013 (78 FR 7994), FDA issued a final rule adopting the IFR as final without changes. The...

  18. Could high salinity be used to control bullfrogs in small ponds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Finch, Colton; Blasius, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    We examined survival of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) eggs and tadpoles at 3 ppt and 6 ppt salinity in the laboratory to determine if low-level salinity could be used to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds that contain native fishes. Bullfrog eggs and tadpoles <10 days old experienced 100% mortality when held at 6 ppt salinity for 10 days. Bullfrog tadpoles 10–15 days old experienced significantly reduced survival when exposed to salinity of 6 ppt for 10 days. Older bullfrog tadpoles (>9 months old) appeared unaffected by 14 days of 6 ppt salinity. Salinity of 3 ppt did not impact survival of bullfrog tadpole eggs or tadpoles at any of the life stages we tested. Adding salt to ponds in the early spring to increase salinity to 6 ppt may be a cost effective way to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds without harming native fishes.

  19. Effects of a vegetated stormwater-detention basin on chemical quality and temperature of runoff from a small residential development in Monroe County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    The vegetated stormwater-detention basin at a small residential development in Monroe County, N.Y. has been shown to be effective in reducing loads of certain chemical constituents to receiving waters. Loads of suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus have been reduced by an average of 14 to 62 percent. The basin has little effect on the temperature of runoff between the inflow and the outflow; water temperatures at the outflow during summer storms averaged 0.5 degrees Celsius higher than those at the inflow.

  20. Helpful Juvenile Detention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive, research-based rationale for rejecting "get-tough," punitive approaches to juvenile detention and implementing "helpful programs" in detention settings instead. Offers a review of the information that explains why and how juvenile detention should be a first step in the treatment of young offenders, rather than simply a…

  1. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of water for fish production using small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, Felix W.; Edema, Mojisola O.

    The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of water in fish ponds were investigated with a view to optimise the conditions for fish productivity using small ponds. Five fish ponds were used in the study. The water samples were collected in each pond at a depth of 10-15 cm from the surface over a period of six months and analysed for pH, temperature, DO, alkalinity. The fish activity and growth rates were also assessed. The results showed that the ponds were slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.69-7.66). The mean lowest and highest values of DO were 9.05 and 9.93 mg/L while the values for alkalinity were 67.86 and 90.57 mg/L respectively. The bacterial counts were in the order of 10 6 and the populations comprised Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Azotobacter, Arthrobacter species and Escherichia coli. It was also observed that the fish activity increased as the temperature of the water varied from April to September as given by the activity ranges of 55-95, 40-80, 55-80, 70-95 and 55-95/m 2 for ponds P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, respectively. The lowest values were in the months of April, May and June and highest values were in the months of July, August and September. The optimum conditions for increased fish productivity were found to be the warm temperatures (20 < t < 30 °C), adequate DO level (>4 mg/L) and appropriate pH (6 < pH < 9) and alkalinity (Alk) (80 < Alk < 200 mg/L). The correlations between characteristics were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels (2 tailed). Therefore, the fish productivity can be enhanced if the conditions in the ponds were maintained at optimum levels.

  2. The nature of small-scale flooding, muddy floods and retention pond sedimentation in central Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Poesen, Jean

    1999-09-01

    This study investigates the spatial variation of small-scale flooding and muddy floods in rural areas in a medium sized study area (5516 km 2) and the linkage with controlling factors. A questionnaire set up in central Belgium indicates that 43% of the municipalities have to deal from time to time with muddy floods generated from direct runoff from arable land and 36% with flooding of permanent streams. A strong relation exists between the nature of the problem and the site in relation to topography and landuse. Areas suffering from muddy floods have significantly steeper cultivated slopes compared to areas suffering only from small-scale flooding. The high spatial and temporal frequency of small-scale flooding and muddy floods results in emotional and significant economic damage to private households. As a control measure more than 100 retention ponds have been constructed with 50 more to be built in the near future. The mean cost for the construction of a retention pond amounts to 380,000 EURO. These retention ponds store large quantities of sediment from runoff events and must thus be dredged regularly with costs of the order of 1.5 million EURO yearly. The dredged sediment volumes can be used to assess and predict sediment yield for these drainage basins; values vary between 0.19 and 6 m 3 ha -1 year -1 for basins ranging from 25 to 5000 ha.

  3. Improving microalgal growth with small bubbles in a raceway pond with swing gas aerators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongbo; Cheng, Jun; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-09-01

    A novel swing gas aerator was developed to generate small bubbles for improving the mass transfer coefficient and microalgal growth rate in a raceway pond. A high-speed photography system (HSP) was used to measure the bubble diameter and generation time, and online precise dissolved oxygen probes and pH probes were used to measure the mass transfer coefficient and mixing time. Bubble generation time and diameter decreased by 21% and 9%, respectively, when rubber gas aerators were swung in the microalgae solution. When water pump power and gas aeration rate increased in a raceway pond with swing gas aerators and oscillating baffles (SGAOB), bubble generation time and diameter decreased but solution velocity and mass transfer coefficient increased. The mass transfer coefficient increased by 25% and the solution velocity increased by 11% when SGAOB was used, and the microalgal biomass yield increased by 18%. PMID:27243604

  4. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  5. Small Thaw Ponds: An Unaccounted Source of Methane in the Canadian High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J.; Galand, Pierre E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, 14C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate. PMID:24236014

  6. The Arapahoe Detention Alternatives Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    The efforts of the Colorado Division of Youth Services to develop a program that would reduce the inappropriate use of secure detention of juveniles by providing intake/screening units and various nonsecure alternative detention services are described. Program goals are discussed and criteria on which detention decisions were based for the…

  7. Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, A.E.; Carter, R.R.; Greenland, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

  8. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  9. Replicating Detention Reform: Lessons from the Florida Detention Initiative. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Donna M.; Griset, Pamala L.

    This report describes lessons learned from the Broward Detention Initiative (BDI) in Broward County, Florida, a successful detention reform effort that led to attempts at replication. Chapter 1, "The Predecessor Program: The Broward Detention Initiative," explains key factors in BDI's success (e.g., the site was ready, problems were effectively…

  10. Don Quixote Pond: A Small Scale Model of Weathering and Salt Accumulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S. N.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Don Quixote Pond in the North Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for unique terrestrial calcium, chlorine, and sulfate weathering, accumulation, and distribution processes. The formation of Don Quixote Pond by simple shallow and deep groundwater contrasts more complex models for Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley. Our study intends to understand the formation of Don Quixote Pond as unique terrestrial processes and as a model for Ca, C1, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  11. Detention Room Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Terry

    1973-01-01

    This article describes how the detention room in one school system was changed in favor of group counseling sessions. In the counseling sessions, the counselors could aid students in identifying the problems which disturb them in order to improve self-understanding and status in school. (JC)

  12. 15N tracer application to evaluate nitrogen dynamics of food webs in two subtropical small-scale aquaculture ponds under different managements.

    PubMed

    Pucher, Johannes; Mayrhofer, Richard; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Focken, Ulfert

    2014-01-01

    Small, semi-intensively managed aquaculture ponds contribute significantly to the food security of small-scale farmers around the world. However, little is known about nutrient flows within natural food webs in such ponds in which fish production depends on the productivity of natural food resources. (15)N was applied as ammonium at 1.1 and 0.4 % of total nitrogen in a traditionally managed flow-through pond and a semi-intensively managed stagnant pond belonging to small-scale farmers in Northern Vietnam and traced through the natural food resources over 7 days. Small-sized plankton (1-60 μ m) was the dominant pelagic biomass in both ponds with higher biomass in the stagnant pond. This plankton assimilated major portions of the applied tracer and showed a high sedimentation and turnover rate. High re-activation of settled nutrients into the pelagic food web was observed. The tracer was removed more quickly from the flow-through pond than from the stagnant pond. A steady nutrient supply could increase fish production. PMID:24995524

  13. Estimation of Time Variant Water Availability and Irrigation Potential of Small Ponds in a Semi-arid Region of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir

    2016-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess water availability and irrigation potential of two small, shallow and Ephemeral ponds located in a small watershed of the semi-arid region of Rajasthan, India. The Holistic Water Depth Simulation (HWDS) model was employed for estimating the pond water availability with 3 years field data (2006-2008). The analysis revealed that the value of depth of water in the selected ponds predicted by the HWDS model had closed match to the field data. The index of agreement between measured and predicted values of depth of water in the selected ponds was found to be ranged from 0.93 to 0.94 for the pool data sets. The F and Student's T test between measured and predicted values revealed that model estimates were not statistically different from measured values at 0.01 % level of significance. Analysis revealed that mean pond volumetric water availability for the selected ponds ranged from 1448 to 5001 m3 during the study period. During the off monsoon seasons, water availability period was varied between 35 and 78 days with a mean of 61 days. Analyses revealed that water availability in the selected ponds lasted at least 48-61 days. The off monsoon season irrigation potential of ponds with one and two irrigations for the rainfed crops at critical growth stage in the region was estimated to be 12.6 and 6.3 ha, respectively.

  14. An environmental problem hidden in plain sight? Small human-made ponds, emergent insects, and mercury contamination of biota in the Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of small human-made ponds and surrounding terrestrial communities may be 1 of the largest unstudied Hg-pollution problems in the United States. Humans have built millions of small ponds in the Great Plains of the United States, and these ponds have become contaminated with atmospherically deposited mercury. In aquatic ecosystems, less toxic forms of Hg deposited from the atmosphere are converted to highly toxic methylmercury (MeHg). Methylmercury is incorporated into the aquatic food web and then can be transferred to terrestrial food webs via emergent aquatic insects. The authors present a conceptual model that describes the movement of MeHg produced in aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial consumers via insects emerging from small human-made ponds. The authors hypothesize that pond permanence and the level of Hg contamination of the food web control this emergent insect-mediated flux of MeHg. The highest insect-mediated flux of MeHg is predicted to be from fishless semipermanent ponds with food webs that are highly contaminated with MeHg. Further development and testing of the conceptual model presented in the present column, particularly in the context of a changing climate, will require research at the regional, watershed, and pond scales. PMID:26013117

  15. Uncertainty in measuring runoff from small watersheds using instrumented outlet-pond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study quantified the uncertainty associated with event runoff quantity monitored at watershed outlet ponds. Inflow and outflow depth data were collected from 2004 to 2011 at seven instrumented monitoring stations at the outlet of watersheds ranging in size from 35.2 to 159.5 ha on the USDA-ARS ...

  16. Assimilative capabilities of retention ponds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.H.; Smoot, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The efficiency of a detention-pond and wetlands temporary storage system to reduce constituents loads in urban runoff was determined. The reduction efficiencies for 22 constituents, including the dissolved, suspended, and total phases of many of the constituents were investigated. A new method not previously discussed in technical literature was developed to determine the efficiency of a temporary storage-system unit such as a detention pond or wetlands. The method provides an efficiency, called the regression efficiency, determined by a regression made of loads-in against loads-out of a unit with the intercept of the regression constrained to zero. The regression efficiency of the treatment unit is defined as unity minus the regression slope. The system (pond and wetlands) achieved appreciable reductions of loads for most constituents.

  17. Effects of acidification of metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Pb,Mg,Mn,Hg,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentration of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations in water significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seems to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes..

  18. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

  19. Complex interactions among nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and microcystins in three stormwater wet detention basins with floating treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Nicholas; Marimon, Zachary; Xuan, Zhemin; Cormier, Jessica; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds hold a permanent pool of water and offer many beneficial uses including flood mitigation, pollution prevention, downstream erosion control, increased aesthetics, and recreational uses. Although the removal of nutrients is generally low for stormwater wet detention ponds in urban areas, floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) can be installed to offer an innovative solution toward naturally removing excess nutrients and aiding in stormwater management. To improve the stormwater reuse potential, this study assessed nutrient, microcystin, and chlorophyll-a interactions in three Florida stormwater wet detention ponds with recently implemented FTWs. Both episodic (storm events) and routine (non-storm events) sampling campaigns were carried out at the three ponds located in Ruskin, Gainesville, and Orlando. The results showed a salient negative correlation between total phosphorus and microcystin concentrations for both storm and non-storm events across all three ponds. The dominant nutrient species in correlation seemed to be total phosphorus, which correlated positively with chlorophyll-a concentrations at all ponds and sampling conditions, with the exception of Orlando non-storm events. These results showed a correlation conditional to the candidate pond and sampling conditions for microcystin and chlorophyll-a concentrations. PMID:26386430

  20. 9 CFR 381.211 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 381.211 Section 381.211 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.211 Method of detention; form of detention tag....

  1. 9 CFR 329.2 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 329.2 Section 329.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... detention; form of detention tag. An authorized representative of the Secretary shall detain any article...

  2. 9 CFR 381.211 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 381.211 Section 381.211 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.211 Method of detention; form of detention tag....

  3. 9 CFR 329.2 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 329.2 Section 329.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... detention; form of detention tag. An authorized representative of the Secretary shall detain any article...

  4. 9 CFR 381.211 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 381.211 Section 381.211 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.211 Method of detention; form of detention tag....

  5. 9 CFR 329.2 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 329.2 Section 329.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... detention; form of detention tag. An authorized representative of the Secretary shall detain any article...

  6. 9 CFR 329.2 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 329.2 Section 329.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... detention; form of detention tag. An authorized representative of the Secretary shall detain any article...

  7. 9 CFR 381.211 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 381.211 Section 381.211 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.211 Method of detention; form of detention tag....

  8. 9 CFR 381.211 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 381.211 Section 381.211 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.211 Method of detention; form of detention tag....

  9. 9 CFR 329.2 - Method of detention; form of detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of detention; form of detention tag. 329.2 Section 329.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... detention; form of detention tag. An authorized representative of the Secretary shall detain any article...

  10. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative detention. 800.55 Section 800.55...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Administrative Practices and Procedures § 800.55 Administrative detention. (a... believed to be adulterated or misbranded. Administrative detention is intended to protect the public...

  11. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  12. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  13. Freshwater ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes aquaculture pond ecology. The underlying theme is how ponds supply essential life-support functions (food, oxygen, and waste treatment) and how those functions are subsidized by external resources as culture intensity increases. Ponds are confined bodies of standing wate...

  14. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The different types of solar ponds are described, including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. Then the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds are discussed and costs are compared. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirement is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  15. Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

    2010-05-01

    A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses. PMID:20480764

  16. Collaboration and Leadership in Juvenile Detention Reform. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feely, Kathleen

    This report addresses governance and leadership prerequisites for implementing specific strategies essential to juvenile detention reform. Chapter 1, "Why Are Collaboration and Leadership Essential to Detention Reform?" discusses principles of collaboration and leadership that emerged from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI).…

  17. Reducing Racial Disparities in Juvenile Detention. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoytt, Eleanor Hinton; Schiraldi, Vincent; Smith, Brenda V.; Ziedenberg, Jason

    In 1992, the Annie E. Casey Foundation launched a multiyear, multisite project known as the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). This report focuses on reducing racial disparities in juvenile detention. The number of youth held in secure detention nationwide increased by 72% from 1985 to 1995. During this period, the number of white…

  18. The JDAI Story: Building a Better Juvenile Detention System. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Rochelle

    This monograph describes the work of five Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites designed to streamline and rationalize local juvenile detention systems and to reduce overcrowding in juvenile detention centers, thus improving conditions and saving jurisdictions money in overtime and additional staff and millions of dollars to…

  19. Consider the Alternatives: Planning and Implementing Detention Alternatives. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Paul

    This report presents the experiences of and lessons learned by Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites regarding the development of effective alternatives to secure detention. Each site expanded or enhanced its program repertoire as part of its detention system reform efforts. Chapter 1, "Why We Need Effective Alternatives to…

  20. Big fish in a small pond: advantages and disadvantages of a first-mover strategy.

    PubMed

    Fuller, D A; Scammon, D L; Davis, R T

    1995-01-01

    The case of a free-standing psychiatric hospital moving into a small rural market as the sole provider of hospital-based psychiatric services is examined as an example of a first-mover strategy. The theoretical bases for a first mover advantage are considered together with an analysis of the situational factors necessary to the strategy's success. The case study illustrates some of the potential consequences of success, namely the attraction of a new competitor with a broader scope of services. The case also illustrates other lessons for market niche competitors in enhancing their likelihood of survival and success in their selected market. PMID:10170368

  1. Big Fish in Small Ponds: massive stars in the low-mass clusters of M83

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; McElwee, Sean; Chandar, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B.; O'Connell, R. W. E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu

    2014-09-20

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages ≤ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the ∼<10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  2. Special Education in Wisconsin's Juvenile Detention System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenz, Tamara; Langelett, George

    2004-01-01

    This study looks at incarcerated youth in the public juvenile detention facilities of Wisconsin. State percentages of youth in Wisconsin public schools with Emotional, Learning, Cognitive, and/or Low Incidence Disabilities are compared to percentages reported from the state and county operated juvenile detention facilities. The study investigates…

  3. A survey of metal and pesticide levels in stormwater retention pond sediments in coastal South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Kevin D; Weinstein, John E; Hemingway, Ronald E; Garner, Thomas R; Globensky, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    During the summer of 2007, sediment samples were collected from 16 stormwater detention ponds and 2 reference ponds located in coastal South Carolina. The sediments were analyzed for more than 30 pesticides with current and historical uses, six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and seven metals. The results are compared with established screening assessment parameters, with copper found to be the contaminant of highest concern. Lead levels were found to correlate well with pond drainage area, while copper and zinc levels correlated with both pond drainage area and pond surface area. Chlorpyrifos levels were found to correlate with pond surface area. Our results also show that ponds draining commercial areas were likely to have higher levels of zinc and lead in the sediments compared to other pond classes. PMID:19499159

  4. Solar Pond Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the solar pond research was to obtain an indepth understanding of solar pond fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The key product was the development of a validated one-dimensional computer model with the capability to accurately predict time-dependent solar pond temperature, salinities, and interface motions. Laboratory scale flow visualization experiments were conducted to better understand layer motion. Two laboratory small-scale ponds and a large-scale outdoor solar pond were designed and built to provide quantitative data. This data provided a basis for validating the model and enhancing the understanding of pond dynamic behavior.

  5. Youth in detention and handguns.

    PubMed

    Callahan, C M; Rivara, F P; Farrow, J A

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this work was to describe the frequency and correlates of handgun ownership and firearm injury experiences among youth in a detention facility. A convenience sample of 89 males detained in the King County Youth Services Center, a short-term holding facility, voluntarily completed an anonymous survey. Results showed that 59% of the youth reported owning a handgun. Firearm experiences included carrying a gun to school (46%); firing at another person (68% of handgun owners); firearm injury to self (27%); death of a close friend or family member to firearm homicide or suicide (35%). Personal safety far exceeded recreational use of guns as motivation for self-arming (52% versus 4%). Handgun ownership was more common among youth who reported problem behaviors. Adjusting for age and controlling for covariation of the problem behaviors, gang membership [odds ratio (OR) 6.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-26.1], committing assault and battery (OR 7.7; 95% CI 2.2-26.8) and selling drugs (OR 3.6; 95% CI 0.99-13.4) were associated with handgun ownership. Our conclusion was that firearm experiences for youth in detention pose health risks equal to or far exceeding other high-risk behaviors in this population. PMID:8399245

  6. Modelling the impact of retention-detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, Søren; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Taylor, Heidi; Bockhorn, Britta; Larsen, Hauge; Kjølby, Morten Just; Blicher, Anne Steensen; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater management using water sensitive urban design is expected to be part of future drainage systems. This paper aims to model the combination of local retention units, such as soakaways, with subsurface detention units. Soakaways are employed to reduce (by storage and infiltration) peak and volume stormwater runoff; however, large retention volumes are required for a significant peak reduction. Peak runoff can therefore be handled by combining detention units with soakaways. This paper models the impact of retrofitting retention-detention units for an existing urbanized catchment in Denmark. The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m³/100 m² (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous simulations covering 22 years showed that annual stormwater runoff was reduced by 68-87%, and that the retention volume was on average 53% full at the beginning of rain events. The effect of different retention-detention volume combinations was simulated, and results showed that allocating 20-40% of a soakaway volume to detention would significantly increase peak runoff reduction with a small reduction in the annual runoff. PMID:25812100

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Stormwater Detention Basin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifman, L. A.; Kasaraneni, V. K.; Boving, T. B.; Craver, V.

    2015-12-01

    Stormwater runoff is a conduit for several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into surface and ground water bodies. The control of runoff and pollutants is typically addressed by best management practices, such as retention/detention ponds. While the effectiveness of catchment basins in runoff volume reduction and removal of some contaminants has been established, very little is known about contaminant fate within these structures. Particularly in coastal regions and places with shallow groundwater tables PAH accumulation in the bottom sediments poses a potential threat for groundwater contamination. The concentrations of PAHs accumulated in the sediments of these catchment basins will primarily depend on the sources of runoff origin and the surrounding land use. Here, five stormwater catchment basins along the I-95 corridor in Rhode Island were selected based on the stormwater runoff origin and land use (industrial, urban, highway, and commercial). To study the stratification of PAHs one foot sediment cores were collected and analyzed for 17 PAHs (16 EPA parent PAH and Retene). The concentrations of PAHs in sediments of detention ponds in urban and industrial land use areas ranged from 20 μg/g to 200 μg/g. Generally higher concentrations of contaminants were found in sediments near the pond inlet and a decreasing concentration gradient is observed laterally and vertically throughout the pond. To compare stormwater ponds in various land use settings a new index based on sediment contamination, pond size and age, and catchment area will be presented. Further, it will be investigated whether BMP maintenance has to be targeted towards pollutant removal to maintain an effective stormwater treatment system.

  8. Effectiveness of a stormwater collection and detention system for reducing constituent loads from bridge runoff in Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.

    1996-01-01

    The quantity and quality of stormwater runoff from the Bayside Bridge were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the stormwater collection and detention pond system of the bridge in reducing constituent loads to Old Tampa Bay. Water-quality samples of stormwater runoff from the bridge and outflow from the detention pond were collected during and after selected storms. These samples were used to compute loads for selected constituents. Stormwater on the Bayside Bridge drained rapidly during rain events. The volume of stormwater runoff from 24 storms measured during the study ranged from 4,086 to 103,705 cubic feet. Storms were most frequent during July through September and were least frequent from February through May. Concentrations of most constituents in stormwater runoff before the bridge opened to traffic were less than or equal to concentrations measured after the bridge was opened to traffic. However, concentrations of arsenic in the outflow from the detention pond generally were greater before the bridge opened than concentrations after, and concentrations of orthophosphorus in the stormwater runoff and outflow from the pond were greater before the bridge opened than during over half the sampled storms after the bridge opened. Concentrations of most constituents measured in stormwater runoff from the bridge were greatest at the beginning of the storm and decreased as the storm continued. Variations in suspended solids, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were not always concurrent with each other. The source of the measured constituent (rainfall or road debris) and the phase of the constituent (suspended or dissolved) probably affected the timing of concentration changes. The quality of stormwater runoff from the Bayside Bridge varied with total runoff volume, with the length of the dry period before the storm, and with season. Average concentrations of suspended solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen

  9. The Little School Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

    1973-01-01

    A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

  10. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative detention. 800.55 Section 800.55... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 334(g)). (2) A statement that the devices shall not be... fine or imprisonment or both (section 303 of the act, 21 U.S.C. 333). (4) The detention order...

  11. Assessing the Performance of two Stormwater Management Ponds in Waterloo, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulroy, K.; Stone, M.

    2009-05-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban areas represents a major pathway for pollutant transfer to receiving waters. Stormwater management (SWM) ponds are used as a best management practice to help mitigate the negative effects of stormwater. This study examines the performance of two SWM pond designs (conventional and extended detention) in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. A mass balance approach is used to quantify the concentration of total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total suspended solids (TSS) at the inlet(s) and outlet of each pond. These parameters were sampled and characterized for 30 baseflow observations and 10 stormflow events in order to calculate the trap efficiency for each pond. The results show that, baseflow reduction for all constituents was low for both ponds. Pond 33 (extended detention design) was a source of TP and SRP during baseflow periods with trap efficiencies of -34% and -61% respectively. Pond 45 (conventional design) retained 65% of influent TP and 36% SRP. Both ponds were sinks for TSS during baseflow periods with 61% and 48% of SS retained for Pond 33 and Pond 45 respectively. Retention during storm events was higher compared to baseflow periods. Pond 33 retained 11%, 40% and 66% of TP, SRP and TSS, whereas Pond 45 had a higher trap efficiency of 90%, 93% and 97% for TP, SRP and TSS. Trap efficiency of these constituents are governed by pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen, as well as sediment geochemistry, P speciation and cycling at the sediment-water interface. Additional research focusing on P cycling in SWM ponds is required to improve trap efficiencies through improved pond design.

  12. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  13. Solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  14. 9 CFR 381.100 - Official detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official detention tag. 381.100 Section 381.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Certificates; Export Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.100 Official detention tag. The detention...

  15. 9 CFR 381.100 - Official detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official detention tag. 381.100 Section 381.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Certificates; Export Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.100 Official detention tag. The detention...

  16. 9 CFR 381.100 - Official detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official detention tag. 381.100 Section 381.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Certificates; Export Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.100 Official detention tag. The detention...

  17. 9 CFR 381.100 - Official detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official detention tag. 381.100 Section 381.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Certificates; Export Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.100 Official detention tag. The detention...

  18. 9 CFR 381.100 - Official detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official detention tag. 381.100 Section 381.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Certificates; Export Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.100 Official detention tag. The detention...

  19. 28 CFR 0.123 - Federal Detention Trustee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Detention Trustee. 0.123 Section 0.123 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 3-Office of the Federal Detention Trustee § 0.123 Federal Detention Trustee. (a) The Office of the...

  20. 28 CFR 0.123 - Federal Detention Trustee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Detention Trustee. 0.123 Section 0.123 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 3-Office of the Federal Detention Trustee § 0.123 Federal Detention Trustee. (a) The Office of the...

  1. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3 Section 1236.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of...

  2. A Community Response to a Crisis. The Effective Use of Detention and Alternatives to Detention in Jefferson County, Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    Jefferson County, Kentucky youth detention practices were studied after alleged incidents of physical and sexual abuse. For many years juvenile detention practices had been the subject of local controversy. Strict, objective, and specific criteria for detention were implemented on a trial basis. These criteria described specific crimes or…

  3. Toxicity of ammonia to algae in sewage oxidation ponds.

    PubMed Central

    Abeliovich, A; Azov, Y

    1976-01-01

    Ammonia, at concentrations over 2.0 mM and at pH values over 8.0, inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Scenedesmus obliquus, a dominant species in high-rate sewage oxidation ponds. Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Anacystis nidulans, and Plectonema boryanum is also susceptible to ammonia inhibition. Dark respiration and cell morphology were unaffected by any combination of pH and ammonia concentrations tested, thus limiting the apparent effect to inhibition of the normal function of the chloroplasts. Methylamine had the same effect as ammonia, and its penetration into the cells was found to be pH dependent. Therefore, the dependence of toxicity of amines to algae on pH apparently results from the inability to penetrate the cell membrane in the ionized form. When operated at 120-h detention time of raw wastewater, the high-rate oxidation pond maintained a steady state with respect to algal growth and oxygen concentration, and the concentration of ammonia did not exceed 1.0 mM. Shifting the pond to 48-h detention time caused an increase in ammonia concentration in the pond water to 2.5 mM, and the pond gradually turned anaerobic. Photosynthesis, which usually elevates the pH of the pond water to 9.0 to 10.0, could not proceed beyond pH 7.9 because of the high concentration of ammonia, and the algal population was washed out and reduced to a concentration that could maintain a doubling time of 48 h without photosynthesis bringing the pH to inhibitory levels. Under these conditions, the pH of the bond becomes a factor that limits the operational efficiency of the oxidation pond. PMID:7192

  4. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals §...

  5. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals §...

  6. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals §...

  7. 28 CFR 541.22 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unit in a cell either by self or with other inmates which serves to remove the inmate from the general... within three work days of the inmate's placement in administrative detention and shall hold a hearing and... status within two work days of this placement to determine if continued protective custody is...

  8. 19 CFR 12.14 - Detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Plants and Plant Products § 12.14 Detention. (a) Port directors shall refuse release of all plants or plant products with respect to which a notice of prohibition has been promulgated...

  9. 19 CFR 12.14 - Detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Plants and Plant Products § 12.14 Detention. (a) Port directors shall refuse release of all plants or plant products with respect to which a notice of prohibition has been promulgated...

  10. THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF PONDS AND WETLANDS AS "BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS)" FOR STREAMS IN DEVELOPING LANDSCAPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ponds and constructed wetlands, also referred to as detention/retention basins, have a long history as best management practices (BMPs) used to mitigate the impacts of stormwater runoff from developed lands on receiving waters. Initially designed for flood control by peak flow at...

  11. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Semlitsch, Raymond D; Peterman, William E; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Ousterhout, Brittany H

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes. PMID:25906355

  12. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Semlitsch, Raymond D.; Peterman, William E.; Anderson, Thomas L.; Drake, Dana L.; Ousterhout, Brittany H.

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes. PMID:25906355

  13. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention...

  14. Degradation and bioavailability of sulfamethazine in pond water microcosms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibiotic sulfamethazine can be transported from manured fields to farm ponds. We investigated the degradation and fate of sulfamethazine in small pond water microcosms. 14C-phenyl-sulfamethazine was added to the pond water column in a swine manure slurry or in water. Residual concentrations in...

  15. Wind effects on retention time in highway ponds.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, T R; Larsen, T; Rasmussen, M R

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of wind-induced flows and transportation patterns in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non-uniform wind field distributions are not significant to this study. PMID:18547921

  16. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  17. Immigration detention and faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susanna; Bell, Holly; Busch-Armendariz, Noël

    2015-04-01

    Immigration detention is a hot contemporary issue in the United States, with over 33,000 individuals held in detention facilities daily and reports of poor conditions and human rights abuses. Building on a growing body of theory exploring the role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in social services provision, and seeking to address a gap in the literature concerning services provided to immigrants in detention, this qualitative study explored the responses of FBOs to immigration detainees. Twenty in-depth interviews with volunteers and staff members of FBOs as well as field notes from participant observation were analyzed using thematic coding techniques. Findings suggest that FBOs are active leaders in this area of social work practice and provide significant resources to isolated and vulnerable detained immigrants in a variety of ways. Simultaneously, they face challenges surrounding access and constricted activity. The study indicates that considerable scope exists for expanding and enhancing faith-based and other social work engagement in this crucial field. PMID:25929014

  18. Purification of Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flocculatory agents added to solar saltponds remove turbidity to increase solar-energy collection efficiency. Flocculating agent or bacteriocide used to remove micro-organisms sprayed onto pond from airplane and allowed to settle to bottom of pond.

  19. Using Media Advocacy to Promote Detention Reform: A Practice Guide to Juvenile Detention Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Written specifically for juvenile justice advocates and officials, this handbook provides step-by-step media approaches to promote the system reforms achieved through the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Those interested in learning all the nuts and bolts of media advocacy may choose to read this guide from cover to cover. Others…

  20. The Restorative Justice Center: An Alternative to School Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Julie; Van Bockern, Steve; Ailts, Julie; Donnelly, Jason; Erickson, Kelsey; Woltermann, Jenna

    2008-01-01

    The traditional "stay silent, sit still, do nothing" school detention approach is a punitive and ineffective way to change behavior. It does little to create positive school climates. For children who have been traumatized through fear, isolation, and emotional abuse, poorly managed detention can add to that trauma. A restorative justice approach…

  1. 9 CFR 312.9 - Official detention marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official detention marks and devices... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OFFICIAL MARKS, DEVICES AND CERTIFICATES § 312.9 Official detention marks and devices. The official mark for articles and livestock detained under part 329 of this subchapter shall...

  2. 9 CFR 312.9 - Official detention marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official detention marks and devices... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OFFICIAL MARKS, DEVICES AND CERTIFICATES § 312.9 Official detention marks and devices. The official mark for articles and livestock detained under part 329 of this subchapter shall...

  3. 9 CFR 312.9 - Official detention marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official detention marks and devices... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OFFICIAL MARKS, DEVICES AND CERTIFICATES § 312.9 Official detention marks and devices. The official mark for articles and livestock detained under part 329 of this subchapter shall...

  4. 9 CFR 312.9 - Official detention marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official detention marks and devices... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OFFICIAL MARKS, DEVICES AND CERTIFICATES § 312.9 Official detention marks and devices. The official mark for articles and livestock detained under part 329 of this subchapter shall...

  5. 9 CFR 312.9 - Official detention marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official detention marks and devices... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OFFICIAL MARKS, DEVICES AND CERTIFICATES § 312.9 Official detention marks and devices. The official mark for articles and livestock detained under part 329 of this subchapter shall...

  6. 28 CFR 541.23 - Administrative detention status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative detention status. 541.23 Section 541.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.23 Administrative detention status. You may be placed in...

  7. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  8. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  9. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  10. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  11. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  12. 21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who approves a detention order? 1.391 Section 1.391 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption How...

  13. 49 CFR 453.3 - Detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention orders and other orders. 453.3 Section 453.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.3 Detention orders and other orders. (a) The terms of...

  14. A child in detention: dilemmas faced by health professionals.

    PubMed

    Zwi, Karen J; Herzberg, Brenda; Dossetor, David; Field, Jyotsna

    2003-09-15

    A 6-year-old child, held in detention with his parents pending the outcome of their application for refugee status, manifested psychological distress by repeated episodes of refusing to eat or drink. This case presented clinical and ethical dilemmas for health professionals who were constrained from acting in the child's best interests by government policy of mandatory detention. PMID:12964917

  15. 9 CFR 118.2 - Method of detention; Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of detention; Notifications. 118.2 Section 118.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.2 Method of detention; Notifications. An authorized representative of...

  16. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  17. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  18. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  19. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  20. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  1. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION... CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

  2. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION... CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

  3. 31 CFR 560.702 - Detention of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detention of shipments. 560.702... Penalties § 560.702 Detention of shipments. Import shipments into the United States of Iranian-origin goods in violation of § 560.201 and export shipments from the United States of goods destined for Iran...

  4. 49 CFR 453.3 - Detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Detention orders and other orders. 453.3 Section 453.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.3 Detention orders and other orders. (a) The terms of...

  5. 19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention of certain shipments. 12.122 Section 12.122 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.122 Detention of certain...

  6. 19 CFR 12.123 - Procedure after detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure after detention. 12.123 Section 12.123 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.123 Procedure after detention....

  7. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3 Section 236.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile...

  8. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Continued detention involvement and adolescent marijuana use trajectories.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Schmiege, Sarah J; Bryan, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    Justice-involved youth have high rates of marijuana use. Less is known about what may drive these rates, particularly when justice-involved youth return to the community. One factor that has been implicated is continued detention involvement. Yet, it is unknown how this factor may influence marijuana use trajectories. Using longitudinal growth curve modeling, the researchers evaluated the association between continued detention involvement and marijuana use trajectories in two large, ethnically diverse samples of community-based, justice-involved youth. Across both samples, marijuana use decreased over time for youth with continued detention involvement but did not change for youth without continued detention involvement. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the influence of detention involvement in community-based, justice-involved adolescents' marijuana use trajectories. This study also highlights the importance of coordinating prevention/intervention programming for justice-involved youth once they are in the community. PMID:24272742

  10. Medical care for people under detention.

    PubMed

    Ritom, M H

    2003-03-01

    Human Rights traditionally refer to rights and freedom that are inherent to every human being. They are based on Human Rights Law and concern the respect for dignity and worth of a person. These rights are universal, inalienable, indivisible, inter-related and interdependent. Members of Societies are detained for varied reasons and are made up of different age groups and gender. The United Nations through its numerous agencies, associated Conventions, Treaties and Resolutions have laid down guidelines that govern the rights of those under detention. Article 5 of General Assembly Resolution 45/111 clearly stipulates that except for those limitations that are demonstrably necessitated by the fact of incarceration, all prisoners shall retain the human rights and fundamental freedom set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. As such, the Medical and Health Care of People under Detention should not be any different from the other members of societies. The Right to Health and Medical Care is stipulated under various Articles contained in the UN Bill of Human Rights (UDHR, ICCPCR and ICESCR) as well as other Conventions, e.g. Convention against Torture (CAT), Convention on Rights of the Child (CRC) and Convention for the Extinction of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The United Nations have also developed specific guidelines and instruments for Treatment of People under Detention. These include the General Assembly Resolution 45/111 December 1990 elucidating the Basic Principles for Treatment of Prisoners, ECOSOG resolution 663C and 2076 regarding the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners which covers rules pertaining to accommodation and Medical Services, General Assembly Resolution 37/194 on Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the role of health personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. PMID:14556353

  11. Retention deficit: Evaluating retention pond effectiveness at controlling suburban stormwater runoff, James City County, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, G. S.; Popkin, M. B.

    2005-12-01

    Stormwater retention ponds (SRP) have become a significant component of suburban hydrology. SRPs are designed to protect streams by releasing storm runoff slowly, reducing peak flows generated from developed surfaces. Despite widespread use, little data has been collected to assess their success at controlling stormwater quantity. We present data from two SRPs in James City County, Virginia, to assess whether they manage stormwater as designed and achieve stream protection goals. Pond A collects runoff from a ~7 acre residential development (~23 homes on ~0.25 acre lots), and Pond B collects runoff from a ~22 acre development (~50 homes on ~0.3 acre lots). The SRPs are designed to retain the runoff produced by the one year, 24 hr storm (2.8 inches) for 24 hrs as well as to reduce peak discharge below uncontrolled conditions. At each pond, a pressure transducer connected to a datalogger records pond elevation every 15 min, from which pond outflow and inflow are obtained. A tipping bucket raingage at each site records rainfall totals. We analyzed data for 16 significant rainfall events from July through December 2004. All rainfall was less than the one yr, 24 hr design storm, and pond flows should therefore be less than the flow expected to occur in such an event. However, pond flows frequently exceeded this threshold. At Pond A, flows exceeded that predicted for the one year storm at least four times. Inflow exceeded the predicted 2 yr storm response four times, and outflow exceeded the 25 yr storm response three times. At Pond B, inflow exceeded the one yr storm response five times, while outflow exceeded the one yr storm response nine times, with one exceedence of the 10 yr outflow. In 16 events, Pond A met the 24 hr runoff detention goal only once, with detention ranging from 0.5 -10.5 hrs during other events. These results suggest that these SRPs receive and release higher peak discharges than intended, and often release captured stormwater over periods much

  12. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed. PMID:21595957

  13. Sediment management in sustainable urban drainage system ponds.

    PubMed

    Heal, K V; Hepburn, D A; Lunn, R J

    2006-01-01

    Since removal and disposal of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) sediment can incur high maintenance costs, assessments of sediment volumes, quality and frequency of removal are required. Sediment depth and quality were surveyed annually from 1999-2003 in three ponds and one wetland in Dunfermline, Scotland, UK. Highest sediment accumulation occurred in Halbeath Pond, in the most developed watershed and with no surface water management train. From comparison of measured potentially toxic metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) with standards, the average sediment quality should not impair aquatic ecosystems. 72-84% of the metal flux into the SUDS was estimated to be associated with coarse sediment (> 500 microm diameter) suggesting that management of coarse sediment is particularly important at this site. The timing of sediment removal for these SUDS is expected to be determined by loss of storage volume, rather than by accumulation of contaminants. If sediment removal occurs when 25% of the SUDS storage volume has infilled, it would be required after 17 years in Halbeath Pond, but only after 98 years in Linburn Pond (which has upstream detention basins). From the quality measurements, sediment disposal should be acceptable on adjacent land within the boundaries of the SUDS studied. PMID:16838706

  14. Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jörg; Vesuviano, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics. PMID:24135095

  15. 13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast from bed of Abram Creek. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 1. VIEW OF DETENTION WARD AREA, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM Y ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DETENTION WARD AREA, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM Y STREET - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1065, Northeast of Intersection of South Ninth Avenue & South "Y" Street, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  17. [The mission of caregivers in an administrative detention centre].

    PubMed

    Boeckel, Martine; Durand, Elisabeth; Hifi, Cherifa; Lahmar, Saliha

    2014-04-01

    Working as a nurse in a medical unit of an administrative detention centre is a choice. The work is made all the more complex by the context of confinement, the diversity of the languages and cultures and the undetermined duration of the detention. It is with a humanitarian approach that the nursing team of the Geispolsheim centre in Alsace deals every day with the health problems of vulnerable migrants confronted with insecurity and uncertainty. PMID:24881238

  18. Indoor Pond Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Erika R.

    1977-01-01

    This year-long science program involved fifth grade students in the investigation of a meadow pond. Two field trips to collect pond water and organisms were arranged for the beginning and conclusion of the program. Classroom activities were designed to study aquatic organisms, life cycles, populations, and ecosystems. (MA)

  19. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  20. Appeals against detention in excessive security (outcomes of appeals against detention in conditions of excessive security in Scotland).

    PubMed

    Slater, Alexander; Bennett, Daniel M; Vojt, Gabriele; Thomson, Lindsay

    2016-07-01

    The Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 introduced the right for patients in high-security psychiatric care to appeal against detention in conditions of excessive security. A previous study examined the first 100 patients to appeal under this provision. In this study we compare them with the next cohort of 110 patients to lodge an appeal, finding, contrary to expectations, no change in patient characteristics or the outcome of their appeals. The clinical, legal and demographic features of successful and unsuccessful appellants, who made up 38% and 27% of the 110 patients, respectively, were also compared. Those patients with the support of their responsible medical officer and those already included on a transfer list had a significantly better chance of success (p = 0.00). It was also found that a history of excessive alcohol consumption was associated with successful appeals (p = 0.002). A diagnosis of learning disability was associated with unsuccessful appeals (p = 0.018), though the sub-sample was very small. These findings are important given the forthcoming extension of this right of appeal to other levels of security. PMID:26113543

  1. Use of aquatic vegetation to improve sediment pond efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.F.; Janiak, H.

    1982-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting research in Poland aimed at improving the efficiency of surface mine sedimentation ponds. Mine water from large, open-pit lignite mines in Poland requires treatment for suspended solids removal prior to discharge. One technique being investigated for suspended solids removal involves the use of vegetation growing in the sediment ponds. This paper describes the results of research at two, small sedimentation ponds and the operating characteristics of three, full-scale sediment removal ponds at the newly developed Belchatow Mine. Topics investigated during the project include: selection of grasses; growth characteristics of grasses; sediment removal efficiency; and design criteria for full-scale installations.

  2. Seasonal Evolution of Surface Detention and Retention Properties with Rain Erosivity, at the Interill Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielders, C.; Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.

    2009-12-01

    combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates a stable, and almost impermeable artificial reproduction (to within 1 mm) of the in situ soil micro-topography, preserving the small scale overhangs. Ten molds (0.5 m2 each) were thus made, at 5 different stages during a 3 month period. Rainfall and runoff experiments with a dye tracer have been made on the artificial micro-topographies, under laboratory conditions. For each micro-topography, the volume of the depression storage and its relative surface connection function is computed, as well as the volume of the surface detention and its tortuosity as a function of the rain intensity. From this data set, we propose simple models for the evolution, at the early stage, of the surface detention and retention properties as a function of cumulative rainfall erosivivity.

  3. Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

  4. Exploring Pond Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

    1975-01-01

    An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)

  5. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... order? 1.393 Section 1.393 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal... the detention period, unless the detention order is first modified under § 1.381(c); (10) The text...

  6. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... order? 1.393 Section 1.393 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal... the detention period, unless the detention order is first modified under § 1.381(c); (10) The text...

  7. The School Principal and the Use of Detention, Suspension and Expulsion as Disciplinary Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.

    In discussing school discipline, the place to begin is by considering whether detention, suspension, and expulsion help students and resolve discipline problems. Detention seems to be most effective when the student is detained on the same day and as close as possible to the time the offense occurs, but too often detention is used merely as a…

  8. 28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional... management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional facilities, and...

  9. 20 CFR 61.306 - Transportation of persons released from detention and return of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... detention and return of employees. 61.306 Section 61.306 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION..., AS AMENDED Detention Benefits § 61.306 Transportation of persons released from detention and return... its contractor fails to return the employee to his or her home or to the place of employment....

  10. 20 CFR 61.306 - Transportation of persons released from detention and return of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... detention and return of employees. 61.306 Section 61.306 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION..., AS AMENDED Detention Benefits § 61.306 Transportation of persons released from detention and return... its contractor fails to return the employee to his or her home or to the place of employment....

  11. Controlling the Front Gates: Effective Admissions Policies and Practices. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Frank

    This report identifies policies and practices essential to overcoming problems with admissions to juvenile detention facilities, using information from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Objective Admissions Policies and Practices Are Critical to Detention Reform," describes factors contributing to uncontrolled…

  12. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  13. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  14. The Effectiveness of Cattlemans Detention Basin, South Lake Tahoe, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M., (Edited By)

    2006-01-01

    Lake Tahoe (Nevada-California) has been designated as an 'outstanding national water resource' by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in part, for its exceptional clarity. Water clarity in Lake Tahoe, however, has been declining at a rate of about one foot per year for more than 35 years. To decrease the amount of sediment and nutrients delivered to the lake by way of alpine streams, wetlands and stormwater detention basins have been installed at several locations around the lake. Although an improvement in stormwater and snowmelt runoff quality has been measured, the effectiveness of the detention basins for increasing the clarity of Lake Tahoe needs further study. It is possible that poor ground-water quality conditions exist beneath the detention basins and adjacent wetlands and that the presence of the basins has altered ground-water flow paths to nearby streams. A hydrogeochemical and ground-water flow modeling study was done at Cattlemans detention basin, situated adjacent to Cold Creek, a tributary to Lake Tahoe, to determine whether the focusing of storm and snowmelt runoff into a confined area has (1) modified the ground-water flow system beneath the detention basin and affected transport of sediment and nutrients to nearby streams and (2) provided an increased source of solutes which has changed the distribution of nutrients and affected nutrient transport rates beneath the basin. Results of slug tests and ground-water flow modeling suggest that ground water flows unrestricted northwest across the detention basin through the meadow. The modeling also indicates that seasonal flow patterns and flow direction remain similar from year to year under transient conditions. Model results imply that about 34 percent (0.004 ft3/s) of the total ground water within the model area originates from the detention basin. Of the 0.004 ft3/s, about 45 percent discharges to Cold Creek within the modeled area downstream of the detention basin. The remaining 55 percent

  15. Pumping performance of a modified commercial paddlewheel aerator for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The split-pond aquaculture system consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste-treatment lagoon by two conduits. Split ponds require large water volumes circulated between the two basins (10,000 to 20,000 gal/min for 5- to 10-ac ponds) to remove fish waste and provide oxygenated water...

  16. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system (PAS). The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon ...

  17. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system. The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon by two...

  18. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  19. Management of a large, operational solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.; Harris, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Routine and non-routine maintenance are discussed based upon experience during the past two years at the largest operational solar pond in the United States. Routine maintenance of a solar pond, such as algae control and water clarity control, is minimal and the upkeep expense associated with this maintenance is small. Non-routine maintenance, however, can be very involved, as well as expensive. Although non-routine maintenance can consist of various problems which may arise in a pond, this paper deals only with corrosion of the heat exchanger and a leak in the containment system. With proper planning and preventive measures, even those difficult problems can be controlled and satisfactory repairs made.

  20. Stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for West Nile virus vectors in Delaware during 2004.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Jack B; Anderson, Robert D; Williams, Gregory M; O'Connor, Linda; Harkins, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    We performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in Delaware from June to September 2004. We analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. The 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. In terms of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce Aedes vexans, culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex restuans. Retention ponds generally produced the same species as wetlands, except that Cx. p. pipiens was more abundant than Cx. restuans in retention ponds. Aedes vexans and Culex salinarius were the most abundant species to Conservation Restoration Enhancement Program ponds. Sand filters uniquely produced high numbers of Cx. restuans, Cx. p. pipiens, and Aedes japonicus japonicus, a newly invasive vector species. Site that alternately dried and flooded, mostly detention ponds, forebays of retention ponds, and some wetlands often produced Ae. vexans, an occasional WNV bridge vector species. Overall, seasonal distribution of vectors was bimodal, with peaks occurring during early and late summer. Ponds with shallow sides and heavy shade generally produced an abundance of mosquitoes, unless insect predators were abundant. Bright, sunny ponds with steep sides and little vegetation generally produced the fewest mosquitoes. The associations among mosquito species and selected vegetation types are discussed. PMID:17019774

  1. Saltless solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

  2. 28 CFR 0.123 - Federal Detention Trustee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.123 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 3... making required determinations and findings for the acquisition of services. (5) Manage the Justice... Detention Trustee solely for the purpose of internal Department of Justice guidance. It is not intended...

  3. 28 CFR 541.23 - Administrative detention status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.23 Administrative detention... other destination. (c) Removal from general population. Your presence in the general population poses a... disciplinary segregation status, and your return to the general population would threaten the safety,...

  4. 28 CFR 541.23 - Administrative detention status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.23 Administrative detention... other destination. (c) Removal from general population. Your presence in the general population poses a... disciplinary segregation status, and your return to the general population would threaten the safety,...

  5. Vocational Training in Juvenile Detention: A Call for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameen, Edward J.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

    2012-01-01

    Given high recidivism rates and the vulnerability of detained youth, the authors posit that juvenile detention centers may be most efficacious by serving as both place and process to create career opportunity through vocational training. The authors review the psychosocial factors contributing to delinquency and the primary theories of…

  6. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A... family home approved by the tribe. (b) A minor who is 16 years of age or older may be detained in a...

  7. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

  8. COTTAGE FARM COMBINED SEWER DETENTION AND CHLORINATION STATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cottage Farm Detention and Chlorination Station was placed in operation by the Metropolitan District Commission on April 29, 1971. The station, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, diverts and treats combined sewage flows from the Charles River Valley sewer system (15,600 acr...

  9. Jail Pedagogy: Liberatory Education inside a California Juvenile Detention Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 2 million juveniles are arrested each year. Half are sentenced to serve terms of incarceration. Although many scholars have written about teaching in detention facilities, few directly address how prisoners are being taught. This research explores the experiences, teaching philosophy, and practices of correctional educators. To learn…

  10. 48 CFR 242.1470 - Demurrage and detention charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Demurrage and detention charges. 242.1470 Section 242.1470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management...

  11. Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Zwecker, Naomi A.; Welty, Leah J.; Hershfield, Jennifer A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric disorders and comorbidity are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. To date, no large-scale study has examined the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. OBJECTIVE To determine the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders among youth 5 years after detention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective longitudinal study of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female; 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 524 Hispanic, and 4 other race/ethnicity) recruited from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois, between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and who received their time 2 follow-up interview between May 22, 2000, and April 3, 2004. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (child and young adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). RESULTS Five years after detention, when participants were 14 to 24 years old, almost 27% of males and 14% of females had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although females had significantly higher rates of comorbidity when in detention (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7), males had significantly higher rates than females at follow-up (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.3). Substance use plus behavioral disorders was the most common comorbid profile among males, affecting 1 in 6. Participants with more disorders at baseline were more likely to have a disorder approximately 5 years after detention, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. We found substantial continuity of disorder. However, some baseline disorders predicted alcohol and drug use disorders at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although prevalence rates of comorbidity decreased in youth after detention, rates

  12. Diverse small circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in a freshwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; Kraberger, Simona; Julian, Laurel; Stainton, Daisy; Broady, Paul A; Varsani, Arvind

    2014-08-01

    Antarctica has some of the harshest environmental conditions for existence of life on Earth. In this pilot study we recovered eight diverse circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viral genome sequences (1904-3120 nts) from benthic mats dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria in a freshwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf sampled in 1988. All genomes contain two to three major open reading frames (ORFs) that are uni- or bi-directionally transcribed and all have an ORF encoding a replication-associated protein (Rep). In one genome, the second ORF has similarity to a capsid protein (CP) of Nepavirus which is most closely related to geminiviruses. Additionally, all genomes have two intergenic regions that contain putative stem loop structures, six genomes have NANTATTAC as the nonanucleotide motif, while one has CCTTATTAC, and another has a non-canonical stem loop. In the large intergenic region, we identified iterative sequences flanking the putative stem-loop elements which are a hallmark of most circular ssDNA viruses encoding rolling circle replication (RCR) initiators of the HUH endonuclease superfamily. The Reps encoded by ssDNA viral genomes recovered in this study shared <38% pairwise identity to all other Reps of known ssDNA viruses. A previous study on Lake Limnopolar (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), using next-generation sequencing identified circular ssDNA viruses and their putative Reps share <35% pairwise identity to those from the viral genomes removed in this study. It is evident from our pilot study that the global diversity of ssDNA viruses is grossly underestimated and there is limited knowledge on ssDNA viruses in Antarctica. PMID:24859088

  13. Evaluation of solar pond performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The City of Miamisburg, Ohio, constructed during 1978 a large, salt-gradient solar pond as part of its community park development project. The thermal energy stored in the pond is being used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreational building during part of the winter. This solar pond, which occupies an area of 2020 m/sup 2/ (22,000 sq. ft.), was designed from experience obtained at smaller research ponds located at Ohio State University, the University of New Mexico and similar ponds operated in Israel. During the summer of 1979, the initial heat (40,000 kWh, 136 million Btu) was withdrawn from the solar pond to heat the outdoor swimming pool. All of the data collection systems were installed and functioned as designed so that operational data were obtained. The observed performance of the pond was compared with several of the predicted models for this type of pond. (MHR)

  14. Salt-gradient Solar Ponds: Summary of US Department of Energy Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.; Zangrando, F.

    1984-01-01

    The solar pond research program conducted by the United States Department of Energy was discontinued after 1983. This document summarizes the results of the program, reviews the state of the art, and identifies the remaining outstanding issues. Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond. Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed. Theories and models were developed and verified. The major remaining unknowns or issues involve the physical behavior of large ponds; i.e., wind mixing of the surface, lateral range or reach of horizontally injected fluids, ground thermal losses, and gradient zone boundary erosion caused by pumping fluid for heat extraction. These issues cannot be scaled and must be studied in a large outdoor solar pond.

  15. Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

  16. Let's Build a Pond!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a game for grades three-six designed to demonstrate the interdependence between living things and the physical factors of their environment. Although instructions (including preparing game cards) are provided related to a pond, the game adapts to other environments such as a field, woodland, or desert. (Author/JN)

  17. Partitioned pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World aquaculture is dominated by the use of simple earthen ponds in which suitable water quality is maintained by photosynthetic processes. Relying upon sunlight to maintain water quality offers the lowest cost and most sustainable approach to fish or shellfish production, which explains the popula...

  18. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions. PMID:25714630

  19. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  20. Evaluation of solar pond performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978 the City of Miamisburg constructed a large, salt-gradient solar pond as part of its community park development project. The thermal energy stored in the pond is being used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreational building during part of the winter. This solar pond, which occupies an area of 2020 m/sup 2/ (22,000 ft/sup 2/), was designed from experience obtained at smaller research ponds. This project is directed toward data collection and evaluation of the thermal performance and operational characteristics of the largest, operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States; to gain firsthand experience regarding the maintenance, adjustments and repairs required of a large, operational solar pond facility; and to provide technical consulation regarding the operation and the optimization of the pond performance.

  1. Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Zhang, A.

    2012-11-01

    Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to inaccurate water storage data. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using Landsat, a satellite-based dataset, an empirical storage classification method and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various sizes of flow detention and regulation facilities. The SWAT2005 is enhanced by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the surface area and volume of each type of water storages, ranging from small-sized flow detention ponds to medium- and large-sized reservoirs with the various flow regulation functions; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for both physical and human interference parameters. Through a real-world watershed case study, it is found that the improved SWAT2005 more accurately models small- and medium-sized storages than the original model in reproducing streamflows in the watershed. The improved SWAT2005 can be an effective tool to assess the impact of water storage on hydrologic processes, which has not been well addressed in the current modelling exercises.

  2. Homing and movement of yellow-phase American eels in freshwater ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamothe, P.J.; Gallagher, M.; Chivers, D.P.; Moring, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Ten yellow-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata, were captured from Hammond Pond, a small freshwater pond located in central Maine, U.S.A. The eels were implanted with radio transmitters and released into nearby Hermon Pond. At the same time, 10 eels were captured from Hermon Pond, implanted with radio transmitters and returned to Hermon Pond to serve as a control group. The two ponds are connected by a 1.6km section of Souadabscook Stream. We tracked the 20 eels over the 90-day duration of the experiment. Four of the ten displaced eels returned to their home pond. None of the control fish were located outside of their home pond during the study. Three of the four eels that successfully returned to their home pond did so under the darkness of the new moon and the fourth made the journey during the first quarter moon phase. Location data showed that translocated and native eels tended to occupy different areas of Hermon Pond. This study provides evidence of homing behavior in American eels living in small freshwater ponds and indications that homing activity may be linked to lunar cycle.

  3. Are healthcare professionals working in Australia's immigration detention centres condoning torture?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2016-07-01

    Australian immigration detention centres are in secluded locations, some on offshore islands, and are subject to extreme secrecy, comparable with 'black sites' elsewhere. There are parallels between healthcare professionals working in immigration detention centres and healthcare professionals involved with or complicit in torture. In both cases, healthcare professionals are conflicted between a duty of care to improve the health of patients and the interests of the government. While this duality of interests has been recognised previously, the full implications for healthcare professionals working in immigration detention have not been addressed. The Australian Government maintains that immigration detention is needed for security checks, but the average duration of immigration detention has increased from 10 weeks to 14 months, and detainees are not informed of the progress of their application for refugee status. Long-term immigration detention causes major mental health problems, is illegal in international law and arguably fulfils the recognised definition of torture. It is generally accepted that healthcare professionals should not participate in or condone torture. Australian healthcare professionals thus face a major ethical dilemma: patients in immigration detention have pressing mental and physical health needs, but providing healthcare might support or represent complicity in a practice that is unethical. Individual healthcare professionals need to decide whether or not to work in immigration detention centres. If they do so, they need to decide for how long and to what extent restrictive contracts and gagging laws will constrain them from advocating for closing detention centres. PMID:26699920

  4. Pond fractals in a tidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cael, B. B.; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  5. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces. PMID:26651668

  6. Microalgal separation from high-rate ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Nurdogan, Y.

    1988-01-01

    High rate ponding (HRP) processes are playing an increasing role in the treatment of organic wastewaters in sunbelt communities. Photosynthetic oxygenation by algae has proved to cost only one-seventh as much as mechanical aeration for activated sludge systems. During this study, an advanced HRP, which produces an effluent equivalent to tertiary treatment has been studied. It emphasizes not only waste oxidation but also algal separation and nutrient removal. This new system is herein called advanced tertiary high rate ponding (ATHRP). Phosphorus removal in HRP systems is normally low because algal uptake of phosphorus is about one percent of their 200-300 mg/L dry weights. Precipitation of calcium phosphates by autofluocculation also occurs in HRP at high pH levels, but it is generally not complete due to insufficient calcium concentration in the pond. In the case of Richmond where the studies were conducted, the sewage is very low in calcium. Therefore, enhancement of natural autoflocculation was studied by adding small amounts of lime to the pond. Through this simple procedure phosphorus and nitrogen removals were virtually complete justifying the terminology ATHRP.

  7. Functional Impairment in Youth Three Years after Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin G.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article examines functional impairment across global and specific dimensions among youth 3 years after their detention. Methods Functional impairment was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) in a large, stratified, random sample of formerly detained youth (N = 1653). Results More than one-fifth of the sample were scored as having marked impairment that required, at minimum, “multiple sources of care” (CAFAS Total Score of 100 or higher); 7.0% required “intensive intervention” (CAFAS Total Score ≥140). Most of the sample had impairment; only 7.5% of the sample had “no noteworthy impairment” (CAFAS Total Score ≤10). Significantly more males were impaired than females. Among males living in the community at follow-up, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be impaired than non-Hispanic whites. In comparison to males living in the community, males who were incarcerated at follow-up were significantly more likely to have impaired thinking and impaired functioning at their place of residence but less likely to have substance use problems. Conclusions Three years after detention, most youth struggle in one or more life domains; more than one in five have marked impairment in functioning. These findings underscore the ongoing costs, to both youth and society, of our failure to provide effective rehabilitation to youth after detention. PMID:19465316

  8. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  9. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  10. Observational bias and the apparent distribution of ponds on Eros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, James H.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Kahn, Eliezer G.; Prockter, Louise M.

    2014-10-01

    Over 300 “ponds” have been identified on 433 Eros: smooth deposits that sharply embay the bounding depressions in which they lie. The known ponds are largely concentrated near the equator at the ends of the long axis of the asteroid. Here, we examine the pixel scale of images available at the pond locations, and compare the observed distribution of ponds on Eros to that of the image pixel scale. We find that the majority (60%) of ponds are found in the regions covered by images with pixel scales less than 2 m/px, a total of only 13% of the surface area. The correlation between pond density and image pixel scale suggests a significant observational bias in the identification of small ponds. These findings suggest that the distribution of ponds on Eros may not be as clear-cut as previously reported, and that it may be best not to use this distribution to assess existing models regarding their formation of these landforms.

  11. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  12. 25 CFR 10.2 - Who is responsible for developing and maintaining the policies and standards for detention and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... policies and standards for detention and holding facilities in Indian country? 10.2 Section 10.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES... detention and holding facilities in Indian country? The Director, Office of Law Enforcement Services...

  13. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  14. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  15. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  16. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  17. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  18. Considering the Use and Usefulness of Juvenile Detention: Operationalizing Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Richard Pearson

    1980-01-01

    The author's principal concerns are (1) the impact of detention on youth, family, and community; (2) the elements of sound intake processes; and (3) the roles of detention personnel and counselors or probation officers following admission, and how these roles might be deployed to insure minimal social losses to detained juveniles. (Author/DB)

  19. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  20. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  1. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  2. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  3. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  4. 78 FR 21085 - Establishment of a Public Docket for Administrative Detention Under the Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Administrative Detention Under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). This document is intended to solicit input from all relevant..., and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 334(g)) to provide FDA administrative detention...

  5. 25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs? 10.1 Section 10.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.1 Why are policies and standards needed...

  6. 25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs? 10.1 Section 10.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.1 Why are policies and standards needed...

  7. Brutal Borders? Examining the Treatment of Deportees during Arrest and Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Scott; Hagan, Jacqueline Maria; Rodriguez, Nestor

    2006-01-01

    Recent legislation has produced a dramatic rise in the detention and removal of immigrants from the United States. Drawing on interviews with a random sample of Salvadoran deportees, we examine treatment during arrest and detention. Our findings indicate: (1) deportees are often subject to verbal harassment, procedural failings and use of force;…

  8. 28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities, and community correctional facilities. 35.152 Section 35.152 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional... management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional facilities, and...

  9. 21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? 1.378 Section 1.378 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal...

  10. 21 CFR 1.384 - When does a detention order terminate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does a detention order terminate? 1.384 Section 1.384 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption...

  11. 49 CFR 453.5 - Termination of detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of detention orders and other orders. 453.5 Section 453.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.5 Termination of detention orders and...

  12. 49 CFR 453.5 - Termination of detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination of detention orders and other orders. 453.5 Section 453.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.5 Termination of detention orders and...

  13. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250). The... rule) in the Federal Register of May 9, 2003 (68 FR 25242), proposing procedures for the administrative detention of an article of food. In the Federal Register of June 4, 2004 (69 FR 31660), the Agency...

  14. Multimetric Evaluation of Detention Basin Retrofit to Reduce Hydrologic Alteration of Urbanization and Restore Stream Stability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Conventional stormwater detention basins are ubiquitous in the developed portions of U.S., particularly those areas developed since the 1980s. Because most detention basins were designed exclusively for flood control, they are not being utilized to their fullest potent...

  15. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  16. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  17. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  18. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  19. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  20. 49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... detention or control. 453.1 Section 453.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ENFORCEMENT § 453.1 Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control. (a) Any container used... paragraph becomes effective on January 3, 1979 for new containers and on January 1, 1985 for...

  1. 49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... detention or control. 453.1 Section 453.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ENFORCEMENT § 453.1 Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control. (a) Any container used... paragraph becomes effective on January 3, 1979 for new containers and on January 1, 1985 for...

  2. 49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... detention or control. 453.1 Section 453.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ENFORCEMENT § 453.1 Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control. (a) Any container used... paragraph becomes effective on January 3, 1979 for new containers and on January 1, 1985 for...

  3. Developing and Implementing a Stress Management Program for Special Educators in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Joan R.

    This paper describes a practicum designed to increase the stress management skills of 10 special educators working in a juvenile detention center. Teachers at the juvenile detention center were taking an inordinate amount of sick leave and engaging in behaviors that were counter-productive to their delivery of educational services to detained…

  4. 19 CFR 12.104d - Detention of articles; time in which to comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention of articles; time in which to comply. 12.104d Section 12.104d Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104d Detention of...

  5. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  6. New England Lakes & Ponds Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  7. The Pond Is Our Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchewka, Barbara Turco

    1978-01-01

    This science teacher's laboratory is a pond within walking distance of his school that provides a stimulating environment for exploring the natural world. With simple materials students practice making careful observations, taking measurements and compiling and graphing information for their science studies. They also extend their pond experiences…

  8. Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

  9. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management

    PubMed Central

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  10. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    PubMed

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for