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1

Managing erosion and water quality in agricultural watersheds by small detention ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrace-contouring systems with on-site water detention cannot be installed in areas of complex topography, small parceling and multi-blade moldboard plow use. However, field borders at the downslope end may be raised at the deepest part where runoff overtops to create detention ponds, which can be drained by subsurface tile outlets and act similar to terrace-contouring systems. Four of such detention

P. Fiener; K. Auerswald; S. Weigand

2005-01-01

2

Sound management of sediment yields at the catchment scale by small detention ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keywords: small detention pond, sediment deposits, reservoir silting, urban catchment Globally observed land use and climate changes have a clear impact on the sediment yields deriving from the catchment. Released sediments may originate from different point and non-point sources. Thereby it is difficult to manage and reduce sediment loads directly at the source without undertaking detailed and expensive monitoring programs. Small detention ponds are therefore frequently used water management systems in urban settlements to improve water quality at the catchment scale. Such ponds located at the outlet of small basins allow reducing sediment loads downstream. Additionally, they capture sediment-associated contaminants as heavy metals, nutrients and micropollutants. On the other hand, a sedimentation within the pond may be a severe problem because it decreases over the time its retention capacity. This is especially significant for small detention ponds, where the siltation rate is high. These ponds can loose their total capacity already after few years of their exploitation when no dredging operations are considered. Unfortunately, maintenance costs of small ponds are expensive and usually not taken into account when planning and constructing such ponds. Consequently, many small detention ponds become inefficient after an entire use of their capacity. Therefore careful planning of maintenance options is essential to keep an effectiveness of such ponds on the expected level. Within presented here study we addressed the problem of silting small detention ponds and we assessed an applicability of such ponds to manage sediment yields discharged from small urban catchments. To this end, a periodic measurement of deposited sediments within a small detention pond (1.35 ha, 5 years old, Warsaw, Poland) has been undertaken. This pond receives a polluted runoff from a small urbanized basin (30 km2), for which no routine sediment measurement exists. The spatial sediment thickness within the pond was measured twice (in 2009 and 2011) by the echo sounding technique. A resulting sediment deposit volume was computed by constructing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the pond. An alternating reservoir volume was estimated for both measurements and confronted with the initial characteristics (2007). Our first results demonstrate that the pond will loose its sufficient capacity after about ten years if no regular sediment dredging is undertaken. Moreover, the useful time of the pond will decrease by two years when the catchment area increases by 10% due to expected urbanization. Furthermore, different scenarios of maintenance options were analyzed and recommendations for sound sediment management of similar small ponds in urban catchments were given.

Sikorska, A. E.; Wasilewicz, M.; Banasik, K.

2012-04-01

3

Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented here increased the pond's TSS (and associated pollution) removal efficiency from 46% (current state) to between 70 and 90%, depending on the pond's capacity considered. The RTC strategies allow simultaneously maximizing the detention time of water, while minimizing the hydraulic shocks induced to the receiving water bodies and preventing overflow. A constraint relative to a maximum time of 4 days with water accumulated in the pond was thus respected to avoid mosquito breeding issues. The predictive control schemes (taking rainfall forecasts into consideration) can further reinforce the safety of the management strategies, even if meteorological forecasts are, of course, not error-free. With RTC, the studied pond capacity could thus have been limited to 1250 m3 instead of the 4000 m3 capacity currently used under static control. References Marsalek, J. 2005. Evolution of urban drainage: from cloaca maxima to environmental sustainability. Paper presented at Acqua e Citta, I Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica Urbana, Cent. Stud. Idraul. Urbana, Sant'Agnello di Sorrento, Italy, 28- 30 Sept. Middleton, J.R. and Barrett, M.E. 2008. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin. Water Environment Research, 80 (2): 172-178. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143007X220842 Muschalla, D., Pelletier, G., Berrouard, É., Carpenter, J.-F., Vallet, B., and Vanrolleghem, P.A. 2009. Ecohydraulic-driven real-time control of stormwater basins. In: Proceedings 8th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling (8UDM), Tokyo, Japan, September 7-11. National Research Council, 1993. Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shammaa, Y., Zhu, D.Z., Gyürék, L.L., and Labatiuk C.W. 2002. Effectiveness of dry ponds for stormwater total suspended solids removal. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29 (2): 316-324 (9). Doi: 10.1139/l02-008

Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

2013-04-01

4

Effects of detention on water quality of two stormwater detention ponds receiving highway surface runoff in Jacksonville, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water and sediment samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, nutrients, and heavy metals following ten storm events at two stormwater detention ponds that receive highway surface runoff in the Jacksonville, Florida, metropolitan area. The purpose of the sampling program was to detect changes in constituent concentration with time of detention within the pond system. Statistical inference of a relation with total rainfall was found in the initial concentrations of 11 constituents and with antecedent dry period for the initial concentrations of 3 constituents. Based on graphical examination and factor analysis , constituent behavior with time could be grouped into five relatively independent processes for one of the ponds. The processes were (1) interaction with shallow groundwater systems, (2) solubilization of bottom materials, (3) nutrient uptake, (4) seasonal changes in precipitation, and (5) sedimentation. Most of the observed water-quality changes in the ponds were virtually complete within 3 days following the storm event. (Author 's abstract)

Hampson, P.S.

1986-01-01

5

Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater wet detention ponds.  

PubMed

The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of sigmaPAH in the sediments varied between 6 +/- 5 and 2,222 +/- 603 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean +/- standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect different activities in the catchments. In general, the concentrations of PAHS in the sediments decreased from inlet to outlet, especially in the systems with good conditions for sedimentation such as systems with flow perpendicular sand dikes and extensive submerged vegetation. High molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the sediments indicating the pyrogenic origin of the PAHS. There was no correlation between PAH species concentrations in water or sediments and their hydrophobicity (log K(ow)). PAH concentrations in water fluctuated in response to intensity and frequency of rain events, whereas concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHS in the effluents below the detection level. PMID:22097066

Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Matamoros, Víctor; Vollertsen, Jess; Brix, Hans

2011-01-01

6

The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study  

SciTech Connect

The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

2002-02-01

7

Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

Fernandez, Mario, Jr.; Hutchinson, C.B.

1993-01-01

8

Development of baseline water quality stormwater detention pond model for Chesapeake Bay catchments  

SciTech Connect

An environmental impact assessment is required for every proposed development in the Commonwealth of Virginia to help identify areas of potential concerns. The purpose of the Chesapeake Bay Local Assistance Department (CBLAD), Guidance Calculation Procedures is to ensure that development of previously constructed areas do not further exacerbate current problems of stormwater-induced eutrophication and downstream flooding. The methodology is based on the post development conditions that will not generate greater peak flows and will result in a 10% overall reduction of total phosphorus. Currently, several well-known models can develop hydrographs and pollutographs that accurately model the real response of a given watershed to any given rainfall event. However, conventional method of achieving the desired peak flow reduction and pollutant removal is not a deterministic procedure, and is inherently a trail and error process. A method of quickly and accurately determining the required size of stormwater easements was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative stormwater collection and treatment systems. In this method, predevelopment conditions were modeled first to estimate the peak flows and subsequent pollutants generation that can be used as a baseline for post development plan. Resulting stormwater easement estimates facilitate decision-making processes during the planning and development phase of a project. The design can be optimized for the minimum cost or the smallest-possible pond size required for peak flow reduction and detention time given the most basic data such as: inflow hydrograph and maximum allowable pond depth.

Musico, W.J.; Yoon, J.

1999-07-01

9

Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multipurpose wet stormwater detention pond in Pinellas Park, Florida was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing the load of selected water-quality constituents commonly found in urban streamflow. Water-quality samples, and data on streamflow and precipitation were collected at the outflow and principal inflow of detention area 3 on Saint Joe Creek. To compare the constituent loads entering and leaving the detention pond, flows and water quality were monitored simultaneously at the inflow and outflow sites for six storms, and were monitored intermittently during periods of base flow. Lodas od 19 selected chemical and physical constituents were determined. Because all the stormwater entering the detention pond was not measured at the inflow site, computed stormwater inflow loads were adjusted to account for loads from the unmonitored areas. The ratio of storm- water volume measured at the outflow site to stormwater volume measured at the inflow site was used to adjust inflow loads for individual storms. Pond efficiencies for selected water- quality constituents for each of the storms were estimated by dividing the difference in outflow and adjusted inflow loads by the adjusted inflow load. Stormwater loads of the major ions (chloride, calcium and bicarbonate) and dissolved solids at the outflow site exceeded loads at the inflow site, partly as a result of mixing with base flow stored within the pond. However, the detention pond was effective in reducing the stormwater load of such urban-runoff contaminants as metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Estimated median pond efficiencies for reducing constituent loads ranged from 25 to more than 60 percent for metals, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 7 to 11 percent for two measurements of suspended solids, and 16 to 49 percent for the oxygen- consuming substances. The reductions of constituent loads in stormwater are probably a result of dilution with pond water (particularly for smaller storms), adsorption, chemical precipitation, settling, biologic uptake, and oxidation. The establishment of aquatic vegetation midway through the study appears to have increased the efficiency of the pond in reducing loads of urban-runoff contaminants in stormwater. The efficiency of the detention pond in reducing base-flow loads was estimated by comparing base-flow loads at the out- flow site prior to and after construction of the pond. Loads of major ions and dissolved solids in base flow were reduced at median efficiencies ranging from 17 to 35 percent. Urban-runoff con- taminants in base flow were generally reduced at higher efficiencies. Median efficiencies ranged from 38 to 82 percent for metals, 19 to 83 percent for nutrients, 34 to 45 percent for suspended solids, and 43 to 65 for the oxygen-consuming substances. The reductions in loads in base flow are probably a result of adsorption, chemical precipitation, biologic uptake, and settling within the pond. These processes were more effective in reducing base-flow loads after the establishment of aquatic vegetation in the pond.

Kantrowitz, I. H.; Woodham, W. M.

1995-01-01

10

Chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and heavy metal) levels in contaminated stormwater and sediments from a motorway dry detention pond drainage system.  

PubMed

Chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon - PAH and heavy metal) levels in stormwater and sediment samples collected from the London Orbital (M25) motorway drainage dry detention pond at Oxted, Surrey, UK were determined. Such chemicals are derived from vehicular combustion products and the wear and tear materials deposited onto the motorway surface. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in motorway drainage sediments. The GC-MS method, incorporating a solid phase extraction step, provides detection limits ranging from 0.17 to 0.41 mg kg(-1)(dry weight). Almost all of the 16 USEPA listed PAHs were detected. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (PAH numbers 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 16) were among the PAHs found at "higher" levels (ranging from 0.3-10.2 mg kg(-1), dry weight) in the sediment samples. PAH levels show little change along the motorway drainage silt trap (facility for reducing the levels of suspended particulate matter in the stormwater). PAH concentrations are considerably higher in the dry detention pond outflow interceptor. Statistical analysis showed that significant correlation coefficients (based on a t-test at the 95% confidence interval) were obtained between those PAHs found at high concentrations over all of the sampling sites. Several PAHs were dispersed beyond the treatment facility and accumulation in the sediment of the deer park resulted in levels ranging from 0.3-1.6 mg kg(-1), dry weight. These PAHs found beyond the treatment facility (in the local farm deer park) may contribute a serious health threat to farm animals or even fish in the aquatic environment. Heavy metal levels (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb and Pb) of the drainage stormwater and sediments were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with quality control evaluation using two certified reference materials. Typical detection limits were found to be below 0.1 [micro sign]g l(-1) for stormwater and 0.005 mg kg(-1) for acid digested sediments. Raised heavy metal levels were found throughout the dry detention pond facility and only decrease when the stormwater is diluted following discharge into the river Eden. Statistical analysis also confirms that some significant correlations exist between various heavy metals and PAHs. However, no overall conclusive trend is found indicating that a particular PAH is deposited in sediment relative to a specific heavy metal/s. These results raise some serious concerns about the dispersion and accumulation of chemicals in the sediments of motorway stormwater drainage systems and the need for maintenance and clean-up of contaminated material from such systems. PMID:14999315

Kamalakkannan, Ragunathan; Zettel, Vic; Goubatchev, Alex; Stead-Dexter, Karen; Ward, Neil I

2004-03-01

11

Uptake and effects of dichlobenil in a small pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Dichlobenil, when applied as a wettable powder at a concentration of one p. p. m., eliminated allP. pectinatus and about 80% of theChara from a small pond. As benthic plants died, blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton occurred, presumably because nutrients were released from dead and dying plants. No change was observed in water chemistry at any time during the

Gerald E. Walsh; Charles W. Miller; P. T. Heitmuller

1971-01-01

12

DISTRIBUTION OF THECAMOEBIANS (TESTATE AMOEBAE) IN SMALL LAKES AND PONDS, BARBADOS, WEST INDIES  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTION OF THECAMOEBIANS (TESTATE AMOEBAE) IN SMALL LAKES AND PONDS, BARBADOS, WEST INDIES and ephemeral lakes and ponds on Barbados, West Indies, are characterized by low numbers of individuals and low species diversities (Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index 5 0­1.4). Four lakes and ponds were found to contain

Patterson, Timothy

13

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a small pond in the maritime Antarctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small ponds and puddles are extremely common throughout the ice-free areas of the maritime Antarctic. The carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a typical pond on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands were investigated during summer 1991. The pond vegetation consisted of a benthic mat of cyanobacteria, diatoms and chlorophytes. The mat was not limited by nutrient availability, both phosphorus and nitrogen

Martin C. Davey

1993-01-01

14

Effects of Calcium Magnesium Acetate Deicer on Small Ponds in Interior Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-lake experiments were conducted on three ponds in interior Alaska to test the effects of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an experimental road deicer, on aquatic organisms. The CMA added to the test ponds equalled approximately one chemical application applied to 0.4 km of a typical section of road (one lane) draining entirely to a small pond. Calcium elevation did not

Jacqueline D. LaPerriere; Caryn L. Rea

1989-01-01

15

Operation of a small-scale salt-gradient solar pond: Experimental results  

SciTech Connect

A small-scale sodium chloride salt gradient solar pond was operated outdoors in Dhahran over a period of nine months. Vertical temperature profiles in the pond and in the ground underneath the pond, density profiles and temperatures at fixed locations in the pond were measured. Variation of the bottom zone temperature with time over the operating period is presented as well as representative vertical pond temperature profiles taken in the morning and afternoon. From these profiles and additional temperature data taken from fixed locations in the bottom zone, some insight was gained regarding onset of bottom convection and the midday total energy collection. Evidence is shown which suggests that weak convective cells in the gradient zone will ''self-heal'' even when on the order of 5 cm in thickness.

Elhadidy, M.A.; Nimmo, B.G.; Zubair, S.

1986-02-01

16

Modelling the long-term sediment trap efficiency of small ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model (sediment trap efficiency for small ponds - STEP) is developed to simulate sediment deposition in small ponds (i.e. <1 ha) and to calculate the sediment trap efficiency (STE). The algorithms are kept simple to allow the model to simulate larger time periods (i.e. several years). Eight runs with an experimental pond were executed to test the model. The STEP model produces reasonable predictions of STE as well as the shape and magnitude of the effluent sediment concentration graph. The model efficiency of STEP for the prediction of STE equals 0·38 and the root mean square error equals 4·7%. Similar models, such as DEPOSITS and CSTRS, were inefficient in predicting the experimental results. The STEP model was used to simulate the long-term (33 years) STE of small retention ponds in central Belgium using 10-min rainfall data. For a typical pond (1000 m2) with a catchment area of 25 ha, annual STE can vary from 58 to 100%, with a long-term STE of only 68%.

Verstraeten, Gert; Poesen, Jean

2001-10-01

17

Characterizing seasonal markers using high-resolution water temperature data from small mountain ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small mountain ponds in western Maine are near local topographic highs and are typically associated with distinctive ecological zones because of their elevation. Long-term historic records of seasonal markers such as ice-out for large, low elevation lakes in the region indicate that climate warming is affecting these large water bodies, but little data exist for the smaller, remote, higher elevation ponds. These ponds are typically 700 m elevation, have a surface area of about 4 hectares, and a maximum depth of 10 m. Because these ponds are associated with habitats restricted from migrating in response to climate change, characterizing and documenting the timing of seasonal markers such as ice-out and other events is important to assess whether these smaller ponds are following similar trends to the larger lakes, or if they might be more sensitive to climate forcing. High-resolution water temperature and light data collected at several depths by data loggers at study sites across the region since 2007 have been analyzed to characterize major seasonal markers that cannot be otherwise determined because of the remote character of the ponds. Ice-in and ice-out dates can be identified by characteristic signatures in the surface and bottom water temperatures; differences in the timing of the events among sites may be explained by elevation or basin aspect. Summer temperatures records also revealed multiple turnover events during some summer seasons, indicating that these ponds should be classified as discontinuous cold polymictic water bodies . These turnover events were nearly simultaneous at multiple study sites fifty kilometers apart, suggesting forcing by regional weather events. These high-resolution records permit long-term monitoring of sensitive, remote sites that will contribute to understanding the magnitude of the response to climate change in these small subalpine watersheds, as well as the spatial and temporal complexity of climate change in the northeastern United States.

Daly, J.; Engel, B.; Hansen, J.

2010-12-01

18

The effect of algal blooms on the disappearance of phenol in a small forest pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using experimental microecosystems the kinetics of phenol disappearance in small forest pond waters (Siberia, Russia) in the summer of 1995-96 were investigated. Despite of high variability of components of the ecosystem (plankton biomass and species composition) and two pronounced “blooms” of green algae Volvox aureus the same kinetics of the disappearance took place over the investigated period. Half-lives of the

Michail I. Gladyshev; Nadezhda N. Sushchik; Galina S. Kalachova; Ludmila A. Shchur

1998-01-01

19

Does biodiversity of macroinvertebrates and genome response of Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) reflect heavy metal pollution in a small pond?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation was carried out on a small pond situated on a recent mine spoil at Boles?aw in the Olkusz region with Zn–Pb\\u000a ore deposits. Water of the pond had pH 7.2–8.5 and low concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of Pb (487 ?g g???1) and Zn (1,991 ?g g???1) in the sediment were very high and potentially could lead to toxicological effects. In the pond,

Paraskeva Michailova; Elzbieta Warcha?owska-?liwa; Ewa Szarek-Gwiazda; Andrzej Kownacki

20

Fate and biological effects of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) in small artificial ponds.  

PubMed

The effects from a simulated accidental pollution event in a pond with polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) on different trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem were investigated in small artificial ponds. Three 4.5-m3 volume ponds, interconnected with closable locks, were provided with natural lake sediment and ground water. Caged fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) were added to each pond, and the interconnecting locks were kept open to establish nearly identical physicochemical and biological conditions. At this stage, the ponds were isolated from one another and MDI was added at a dosage of 1 g/liter on top of the sediment of treated part of the first pond, 10 g/liter to the second pond, and 0 g/liter to the third pond (untreated control). Neither the applied monomer MDI nor its potential reaction product MDA (4,4'-diphenylmethanediamine) was detected in water or accumulated by fish. The MDI polymerized to inert polyurea on the sediment of the test ponds. This polymerization formed carbon dioxide, released as bubbles which floated to the water surface. Some carbon dioxide was solubilized in water and reduced the water pH of about 9 by 2.0 units as an average in the high-dosed pond and 0.7 in the low-dosed pond. This reduction caused some other minor changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the pond water. Neither application rate caused any direct effect on the pelagic community (phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes) of the test ponds. Some minor indirect effects caused by the production of carbon dioxide were observed in phyto- and zooplankton community structures. Also, an increase of macrophyte growth was noted. Organisms living in the untreated part of the sediment (macrobenthos) were affected as a result of physical obstructions in this habitat. These populations, however, regained densities equivalent to the control after some weeks, except for Bivalvia which have too long of a generation time for the test period of this study. PMID:8723751

Heimbach, F; Jaeger, K; Sporenberg, W

1996-03-01

21

Technical and economic aspects of small-scale solar-pond-powered seawater desalination systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of potable water from sea- or brackish water can be achieved using a solar pond as a heat source coupled to a desalination unit. This paper describes the self-regulating ATLANTIS “Autoflash” multistage desalination system coupled to a solar pond. The operating principles of the desalination unit as well as of the solar pond are reviewed. Performance and layout

Tamás Szacsvay; Patrick Hofer-Noser; Mario Posnansky

1999-01-01

22

Courtside: Constitutionalizing "Detentions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis of a November 2001 case in Botetourt County, Virginia, looks at whether the Fourth Amendment right against an unreasonable "seizure" or the 14th Amendment "liberty" for parents to control the care and custody of their children requires a ban on, or at least immediate notification regarding, detentions of a certain length when public…

Zirkel, Perry A.

2005-01-01

23

Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

24

Abundance of Vertebrates and Macroinvertebrates One and Two Years after a Winterkill in a Small Ohio Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

We documented the abundance and distribution of amphibian larvae and macroinvertebrates one and two years following a winterkill in a small pond in the winter of 2000. The densities of bivalves, damselfly nymphs, snails, dragonfly nymphs, nematodes, and crayfish did not differ significantly between years. Five taxa (dipteran larvae, hemipterans, Rana sp. tadpoles, Blued [Lepomis macrochirus], and coleopteran larvae) were

Geoffrey R. Smith; David A. Vaala; Haley A. Dingfelder

2005-01-01

25

Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of

J. M. Dalu; J. Ndamba

2003-01-01

26

Using Digital Imagery from a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to Estimate Arctic Melt Pond Coverage on Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo mapping of melt pond coverage on sea ice was undertaken in the Arctic during the summer of 2004 using an Aerosonde. Aerosondes are small, long endurance UAV designed to undertake a wide range of operations in a highly flexible and inexpensive mode. The Aerosonde conducts a defined mission in a completely autonomous mode. All flights are under the command

B. L. Mulac; M. A. Tschudi; J. A. Maslanik; G. J. Holland

2004-01-01

27

(15)N tracer application to evaluate nitrogen dynamics of food webs in two subtropical small-scale aquaculture ponds under different managements.  

PubMed

Small, semi-intensively managed aquaculture ponds contribute significantly to the food security of small-scale farmers around the world. However, little is known about nutrient flows within natural food webs in such ponds in which fish production depends on the productivity of natural food resources. (15)N was applied as ammonium at 1.1 and 0.4 % of total nitrogen in a traditionally managed flow-through pond and a semi-intensively managed stagnant pond belonging to small-scale farmers in Northern Vietnam and traced through the natural food resources over 7 days. Small-sized plankton (1-60 ? m) was the dominant pelagic biomass in both ponds with higher biomass in the stagnant pond. This plankton assimilated major portions of the applied tracer and showed a high sedimentation and turnover rate. High re-activation of settled nutrients into the pelagic food web was observed. The tracer was removed more quickly from the flow-through pond than from the stagnant pond. A steady nutrient supply could increase fish production. PMID:24995524

Pucher, Johannes; Mayrhofer, Richard; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Focken, Ulfert

2014-12-01

28

Life cycle of Segmentina nitida (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Planorbidae) in a small, impermanent kettle hole pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of Segmentina nitida of an impermanent kettle hole in the agricultural landscape of the Wielkopolska Region (West Poland) was studied with respect to its reproduction biology in spring and summer of 2005. Over a period of 4 months (snow melting - pond desiccation) three reproductive events of the species were followed . As the size structure of the

R. Go?dyn; N. Kuczy?ska-Kippen; R. Piotrowicz

29

Interactions between Larval White Crappie and Gizzard Shad: Quantifying Mechanisms in Small Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test potential competitive interactions between larvae of white crappie Pomoxis annularis and of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, we added adult gizzard shad to eight of twelve 0.1-ha ponds that had been stocked with adult white crappies. Larval white crappies and larval gizzard shad appeared within 1 week of one another and larval white crappie density did not differ between

Kevin L. Pope; Dennis R. Devries

1994-01-01

30

Interactions between Larval White Crappie and Gizzard Shad: Quantifying Mechanisms in Small Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test potential competilive interactions between larvae of white crappie Pomoxis annularis and of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedilJnum. we added adult gizzard shad to eight of twelve O.I-ha ponds that had been stocked with adult white crappies. Larval white crappies and larval gizzard shad appeared within I week of one another and larval white crappie density did not differ between

KEVIN L. POPE; DENNIS R. DEVRIES

1994-01-01

31

Special Detention Cases: Strategies for Handling Difficult Populations. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses strategies for handling difficult juvenile detention populations (warrant cases, probation violators, and post-adjudication detention). It offers strategies used in the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites and in other jurisdictions to reduce unnecessary detention in these special cases. Chapter 1, "Why…

Steinhart, David

32

21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...working days, hold the hearing and render a decision affirming or revoking the detention...detention period extends to the date of the decision even if the 5-working-day period for making the decision extends beyond the otherwise...

2012-04-01

33

21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...working days, hold the hearing and render a decision affirming or revoking the detention...detention period extends to the date of the decision even if the 5-working-day period for making the decision extends beyond the otherwise...

2013-04-01

34

21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.  

...working days, hold the hearing and render a decision affirming or revoking the detention...detention period extends to the date of the decision even if the 5-working-day period for making the decision extends beyond the otherwise...

2014-04-01

35

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

1993-01-01

36

Detention home teens as tutors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerned professionals in the juvenile justice field frequently express concern for effective programs that help youth offenders successfully rejoin society. This mixed-method pilot study involved detention home teens functioning as tutors for special education students in a public school. Tutors were selected who, based on previous assessment as well as administration input, showed evidence of learning difficulties and antisocial behaviors.

David B. Lazerson

2005-01-01

37

Growth and reproduction of introduced goldfish Carassius auratus in small ponds of southeast England with and without native crucian carp Carassius carassius  

E-print Network

Growth and reproduction of introduced goldfish Carassius auratus in small ponds of southeast, Dorset, UK Summary The ornamental Asiatic species, goldfish Carassius auratus, was introduced to open) (Copp et al., 2007), with the introduction of the Asian cyprinid, goldfish Carassius auratus L., having

Cucherousset, Julien

38

Life-cycles of some invertebrate taxa in a small pond together with changes in their numbers over a period of three years  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. \\u000a \\u000a Monthly quantitative samples of the invertebrate fauna (except Protozoa) in a small pond were taken over a period of three\\u000a years. During one year, insect emergence traps were in operation. Water temperatures were recorded during the investigation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The most abundant organisms in the pond were Phaenocora typhlops, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Chaoborus crystallinus. Certain species of Micro-Crustacea and Chironomidae

Johnstone O. Young

1974-01-01

39

Pond Scum  

E-print Network

, insects, crustacean), larval amphibians, fish, and turtles. ?The ponds not only provide a new research area, but also encourage cooperation among faculty,? DeWitt said. ?These ponds have the potential to provide priceless training and learning..., insects, crustacean), larval amphibians, fish, and turtles. ?The ponds not only provide a new research area, but also encourage cooperation among faculty,? DeWitt said. ?These ponds have the potential to provide priceless training and learning...

Crawford, Amanda

2005-01-01

40

Stormwater Detention and Discharge from Aquaculture Ponds in Florida1  

E-print Network

plants and animals are grown in Florida. The semitropical climate, abundant supply of fresh water growth of Florida aquaculture can be expected. All aquaculture production systems require water. As the industry has grown, so has the demand for water. State regulations require treatment and controlled

Watson, Craig A.

41

Longitudinal disease studies in small-holder black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) farms in Andhra Pradesh, India. I. High prevalence of WSSV infection and low incidence of disease outbreaks in BMP ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study was conducted from January to August 2005 in small-holder black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) ponds in the West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh, India (16°25? N, 81°19? E). The study involved 457 ponds owned by low-income farmers participating in a better management practice (BMP) programme. Disease outbreaks occurred in 16.6% of ponds. There was significant spatial clustering

Peter J. Walker; Nicholas Gudkovs; P. A. Padiyar; V. Stalin Raj; Balakrishnan Pradeep; Evan Sergeant; A. B. Chandra Mohan; G. Ravibabu; K. K. Vijayan; Indrani Karunasagar; T. C. Santiago; C. V. Mohan

2011-01-01

42

Solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

Tabor, H.

43

Big Fish in Small Ponds: Massive Stars in the Low Mass Clusters of M83  

E-print Network

We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages $\\leq$ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the upper end of the stellar IMF in M83 is consistent with an universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the $\\lessapprox$ 10$^{3}$ Msun clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

Andrews, J E; Chandar, R; Elmegreen, B G; Kennicutt, R C; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R; Lee, J C; McElwee, Sean; O'Connell, R W; Whitmore, B

2014-01-01

44

Big Fish in Small Ponds: Massive Stars in the Low-mass Clusters of M83  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages <= 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the lap103 M ? clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R.; Lee, J. C.; McElwee, Sean; O'Connell, R. W.; Whitmore, B.

2014-09-01

45

Detent torque from the soft magnetic stator stack of a hybrid stepper motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The residual magnetism present in the stator stack of a hybrid stepper motor, which will be of the last excited polarity, will develop a detent torque, similar to the static torque of the last excited phase, but with reduced excitation. The predominant component is fundamental. Even though this torque is the result of the stator excitation, it can be considered as a detent torque as it is available when the stator excitation is withdrawn. This detent torque is in addition to the inherent one due to the rotor permanent magnet, and it will be present until the next phase is switched ON. Once the excitation is removed from the second phase, because of the hysteresis the detent torque will be available, similar to the static torque profile for phase 2, but with less excitation. This means because of the hysteresis the detent torque follows the static torque of the phases. The magnitude of this detent torque will depend upon the level to which the phase was excited. Experiments have been carried out on a 0.5° hybrid stepper motor to study the effects of the excitation on the detent torque profiles. Harmonic analyses of the measured detent torque curves had been carried out and it is seen that the fundamental detent torque increases with the excitation and also follows the respective phases. Therefore, the residual flux density and the coercive force of the soft magnetic material used for the stator stack have to be as small as possible to get rid of this effect. Controlling a hybrid stepper motor by a suitable switching scheme for a given application requires the measured static torque profiles of the motor for all the phases at the exact working voltage (or voltages in case of a variable voltage supply) and detent torque profiles both before and after excitation. Harmonic spectrum of the measured static and detent torque profiles have to be accounted for while simulating stepping behavior of the motor, from which an appropriate switching scheme can be arrived at.

Rajagopal, K. R.; Singh, Bhim; Singh, B. P.

2003-05-01

46

Algal bioflocculation and energy conservation in microalgal sewage ponds  

SciTech Connect

Controlled bioflocculation for harvesting of microalgae produced during municipal wastewater treatment in high-rate ponds was investigated. Nonflocculant algal cultures were produced in high-rate ponds operated at very high dilution rates or with poor mixing. Bioflocculation of such cultures was achieved by isolating them in secondary ponds, but isolation periods of up to 29 days were required. In-pond sedimentation of flocculant algal cultures produced by the isolation technique resulted in algal removals consistently exceeding 80%. When high-rate ponds were operated with improved mixing and at moderate-to-high dilution rates, flocculant algal cultures were developed. The settleability of flocculant algal cultures produced in this manner averaged 76 to 80% when measured in 24-h-detention Imhoff cones and 71% when measured in 48-h-detention settling ponds. It is estimated that, under suitable climate conditions, a high-rate pond system employing bioflocculation-sedimentation for algal removal would require less than one-half the direct energy input of an equivalently sized activated sludge or trickling filter plant. This requirement could be provided entirely through complete utilization of biogas produced from anaerobic digestion of primary (sewage) sludge.

Eisenberg, D.M. (Univ. of California, Richmond); Koopman, B.; Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

1981-01-01

47

9 CFR 118.1 - Administrative detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 118.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION §...

2013-01-01

48

19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.  

...AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.19 Detention; samples. (a) The port director shall...

2014-04-01

49

Solar Pond Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the solar pond research was to obtain an indepth understanding of solar pond fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The key product was the development of a validated one-dimensional computer model with the capability to accurately predict time-dependent solar pond temperature, salinities, and interface motions. Laboratory scale flow visualization experiments were conducted to better understand layer motion. Two laboratory small-scale ponds and a large-scale outdoor solar pond were designed and built to provide quantitative data. This data provided a basis for validating the model and enhancing the understanding of pond dynamic behavior.

Jones, G. F.

1984-01-01

50

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)\\/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients

T. Torgersen; B. Branco; B. John

2002-01-01

51

Measuring infiltrability in an Australian dryland soil: inconsistent results from ponded cylinder infiltrometry and simulated rainfall over small plots.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dryland soils present challenges to the field measurement of infiltrability, which may include stoniness, brittle surface seals and crusts, high mechanical strength, tendency to slake rapidly, and changes in properties arising during desiccation and re-wetting. In a contour-aligned mosaic shrubland, soil infiltrabilities were measured on initially dry soils using simulated rainfall of moderate intensity (10 mm/h), on plots 0.5 x 0.5 m. Experiments were run until runoff had stabilised and infiltrability was then calculated as the difference between the equilibrium rainfall and runoff rates. The plots were allowed to dry, following which ponded cylinder infiltrometer tests were carried out within the boundaries of each plot. These used cylinders of 100 mm diameter and ponding depths of 10 mm. Cylinder tests suggested infiltrabilities averaging 11.5 mm/h (range 2.2 - 37.1 mm/h). In contrast, the rainfall simulation plots yielded a mean of 4.2 mm/h (range 2.74 - 7.63 mm/h). Across 14 plots, test results from the two methods were moderately well correlated (r2 = 0.7). Apart from differences in the areal scale of the tests (plot area was ~ 32 times cylinder area) and probably greater evaporative loss from splash droplets (plots), the major reason for the differing results appeared to be the absence of droplet impacts and seal formation in ponded tests. Though the ranking of sites in terms of infiltrability did not differ greatly with the method of measurement, the differing absolute values are important. Ponded tests suggest that little overland flow would arise in the local climate, whilst the plot results suggest that moderately frequent rainfall events would exceed soil infiltrability. The next phase of this work is to examine the significance of imposed rainfall rate and the temporal variability of rainfall on the apparent soil infiltrabilty, using data derived from local pluviograph records.

Dunkerley, David

2010-05-01

52

The Little School Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

1973-01-01

53

Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

2007-01-01

54

Seeking Refuge, Losing Hope: Parents and Children in Immigration Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To record observations made by the authors on a series of visits between December 2001 and March 2002 to two of Australia's immigration detention centers and to consider the mental health consequences of Australia's policy of mandatory immigration detention of asylum seekers for families and children.Conclusions: Parents and children in immigration detention are often vulnerable to mental health problems

Sarah Mares; Louise Newman; Michael Dudley; Fran Gale

2002-01-01

55

Hydrologic considerations associated with dredging spring ponds in Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring ponds (small spring-fed bodies of water) are natural features of some glaciated areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrology of three spring ponds in northeastern Wisconsin and the effects that dredging has had on the ponds. Sediments were dredged from Sunshine and Krause Ponds. Maxwell Pond, which was not dredged, was used as a hydrologic control. Sediment accumulation since glaciation caused a 2-fold reduction in the surface area of Sunshine Pond and a 4-fold reduction in the area of Krause Pond. Volume reduction caused by sediment accumulation was 9-fold in Sunshine Pond and 28-fold in Krause Pond. Dredging 4.2 acre-feet of sediment from Sunshine Pond caused a 41-percent increase in ground-water inflow. Dredging 4.0 acre-feet of sediments from Krause Pond caused only a 2-percent increase in ground-water inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

Rose, William J.

1977-01-01

56

The salt-gradient solar pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salt gradient solar pond was modeled both experimentally and numerically. The experimental model used a small scale tank with artificial sunlight. Both temperature and concentration measurements were taken. The numerical model used a one dimensional heat conduction model to describe the heating phenomena in the pond. The two models predicted the same type of behavior as that expected in full scale ponds. There were small differences in the two models. These differences arose from simplifications in the numerical model.

Brown, S. T.

1983-02-01

57

28 CFR 541.22 - Administrative detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...serious threat to life, property, self...detention within the time frame specified...within the 90-day time frame specified...short periods of time except where an inmate needs long-term protection...placement cease to exist. (2) The...

2010-07-01

58

Solar pond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

1978-01-01

59

Toxicity of ammonia to algae in sewage oxidation ponds.  

PubMed Central

Ammonia, at concentrations over 2.0 mM and at pH values over 8.0, inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Scenedesmus obliquus, a dominant species in high-rate sewage oxidation ponds. Photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Anacystis nidulans, and Plectonema boryanum is also susceptible to ammonia inhibition. Dark respiration and cell morphology were unaffected by any combination of pH and ammonia concentrations tested, thus limiting the apparent effect to inhibition of the normal function of the chloroplasts. Methylamine had the same effect as ammonia, and its penetration into the cells was found to be pH dependent. Therefore, the dependence of toxicity of amines to algae on pH apparently results from the inability to penetrate the cell membrane in the ionized form. When operated at 120-h detention time of raw wastewater, the high-rate oxidation pond maintained a steady state with respect to algal growth and oxygen concentration, and the concentration of ammonia did not exceed 1.0 mM. Shifting the pond to 48-h detention time caused an increase in ammonia concentration in the pond water to 2.5 mM, and the pond gradually turned anaerobic. Photosynthesis, which usually elevates the pH of the pond water to 9.0 to 10.0, could not proceed beyond pH 7.9 because of the high concentration of ammonia, and the algal population was washed out and reduced to a concentration that could maintain a doubling time of 48 h without photosynthesis bringing the pH to inhibitory levels. Under these conditions, the pH of the bond becomes a factor that limits the operational efficiency of the oxidation pond. PMID:7192

Abeliovich, A; Azov, Y

1976-01-01

60

Saltless Solar Ponds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with heat storage in solar ponds eliminated by transparent insulating cover at surface of pond. Cover makes unnecessary salt gradient that suppresses natural convection within pond to promote thermal storage.

Lin, E. I.

1984-01-01

61

HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard\\u000a living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and\\u000a other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics\\u000a in the communities to which prisoners return upon their

Ralf Jürgens; Manfred Nowak; Marcus Day

2011-01-01

62

28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities...management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional...

2012-07-01

63

28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities...management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional...

2011-07-01

64

28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities...management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional...

2014-07-01

65

28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities...management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional...

2013-07-01

66

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Metals in Florida Stormwater Ponds and Assessment as Alternative Water Supplies for Irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclaimed water treated to achieve public access irrigation water quality is currently used and regulated as a water resource management technique to supplement potable water. It is believed that stormwater from detention ponds can also be used for irrigation at public access areas such as golf courses, parks, schools, and residences in the State of Florida. To date little work

Theresa R. Slifko; Marty Wanielista

67

Farm Ponds and Small Impoundments DaviD W. Willis, RobeRt D. lusk, anD JeffRey W. slipke  

E-print Network

, and ponds (USDI 2007). The last year that the National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife fish- eries (Hunt et al. 2008). Urban fisheries management is rooted in traditional fisheries and predator­prey relations. Ponds can easily and consistently be manipulated by a fishery manager to produce

68

SEMI-INTENSIVE CULTURE OF HETEROPENEUSTES FOSSILIS (BLOCK) FROM A SMALL POND AT ULUBARI FISH FARM, GAUHATI THROUGH MONOCULTURE EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to exploit small water bodies commercially, a culture expe- riment of ~etero~ne&tes fossilis with heavy stocking density of 3 lakh fingerlings per hectare was taken up to Ulubari Fish Farm, Gauhati (Assam). The fish were fed with a mixture of ricebran, mustard oil cake, and trash fish meal in the ratio of 1:l:l at 8-10 percent body weight.

S. C. Pathak; Y. S. Yadava; M. P. Singh Kohli

69

Detention Center in Hong Kong: A Young Offender's Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a clinical inquiry at how one young male ex-offender described his time in custody, how his time had been constructively spent during detention, and the effect of a detention center order on his offending behavior one year after his discharge. In so doing, it allowed him to talk about his institutionalized experience and to…

Chui, Wing Hong

2005-01-01

70

The Restorative Justice Center: An Alternative to School Detention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional "stay silent, sit still, do nothing" school detention approach is a punitive and ineffective way to change behavior. It does little to create positive school climates. For children who have been traumatized through fear, isolation, and emotional abuse, poorly managed detention can add to that trauma. A restorative justice approach…

Ashworth, Julie; Van Bockern, Steve; Ailts, Julie; Donnelly, Jason; Erickson, Kelsey; Woltermann, Jenna

2008-01-01

71

Detention, Punishment and Children's Rights: An Australian Snapshot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The principle that detention should be a measure of last resort is an important benchmark of children's rights. However, it is unclear what obligations this principle imposes upon states and little consistency in its application. The Australian experience illustrates the enduring tensions between formal commitments to the protection of children and detention practices at a state and federal level.

MICHAEL GREWCOCK

2009-01-01

72

HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed. PMID:21595957

2011-01-01

73

Spatial Analysis of Kansas Farm Ponds  

E-print Network

RYAN CALLIHAN, GEOGRAPHY A Spatial Analysis of Kansas Farm Ponds Regression Modeling and Outlier Detection Small Reservoirs (<10 acres) in Kansas Count: 216,000 Total Surface Area: 140,000 acres Two Main Objectives ? Create a simple geographic...

Callihan, Ryan Andrew

2011-11-16

74

Solar Pond Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term solar pond is used to refer specifically to a salt-gradient solar pond. A technology assessment was done consisting of thermal performance; maintenance; applications; and economics. Research needs and recommendations were also included.

French, R. L. (editor); Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.

1984-01-01

75

Purification of Solar Ponds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flocculatory agents added to solar saltponds remove turbidity to increase solar-energy collection efficiency. Flocculating agent or bacteriocide used to remove micro-organisms sprayed onto pond from airplane and allowed to settle to bottom of pond.

Carpenter, S.

1985-01-01

76

THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF PONDS AND WETLANDS AS "BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS)" FOR STREAMS IN DEVELOPING LANDSCAPES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ponds and constructed wetlands, also referred to as detention/retention basins, have a long history as best management practices (BMPs) used to mitigate the impacts of stormwater runoff from developed lands on receiving waters. Initially designed for flood control by peak flow at...

77

OYSTER POND RD. VINEYARDSOUND  

E-print Network

OYSTER POND RD. VINEYARDSOUND W O O DS H O LE RO AD Warehouse Shipping/ Receiving, Distribution, Mail Room Graphic Services Vehicle Maint. U.S. JGOFS & Property Office 85 Oyster Pond Road 264 Woods Quissett Campus (Woods Hole Road entrance) Quissett Campus (Oyster Pond Rd. entrance) F.R. LILLIE ROAD P P

Oppo, Delia W.

78

Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

2002-05-01

79

20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION...

2010-04-01

80

19 CFR 12.123 - Procedure after detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.123 Procedure after detention. ...shipment to CBP custody. If a shipment of chemical substance, mixture, or article is released to the importer under bond,...

2013-04-01

81

19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.122 Detention...expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which have...detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's...

2013-04-01

82

19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.122 Detention...expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which have...detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's...

2012-04-01

83

19 CFR 12.123 - Procedure after detention.  

...OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.123 Procedure after detention. ...shipment to CBP custody. If a shipment of chemical substance, mixture, or article is released to the importer under bond,...

2014-04-01

84

19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.122 Detention...expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which have...detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's...

2011-04-01

85

19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.  

...Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.122 Detention...expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which have...detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's...

2014-04-01

86

19 CFR 12.123 - Procedure after detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.123 Procedure after detention. ...shipment to CBP custody. If a shipment of chemical substance, mixture, or article is released to the importer under bond,...

2012-04-01

87

19 CFR 12.123 - Procedure after detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.123 Procedure after detention. ...14 of this chapter. If a shipment of chemical substance, mixture, or article is released to the importer under bond,...

2010-04-01

88

19 CFR 12.123 - Procedure after detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF MERCHANDISE Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.123 Procedure after detention. ...shipment to CBP custody. If a shipment of chemical substance, mixture, or article is released to the importer under bond,...

2011-04-01

89

19 CFR 12.122 - Detention of certain shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chemical Substances in Bulk and As Part of Mixtures and Articles § 12.122 Detention...expense, shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles: (1) Which have...detain shipments of chemical substances, mixtures, or articles at the importer's...

2010-04-01

90

Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.  

PubMed

Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics. PMID:24135095

Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jörg; Vesuviano, Gianni

2013-01-01

91

25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...operation and management of BIA uniformed police operations, detention facilities,...

2011-04-01

92

25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...  

...supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...operation and management of BIA uniformed police operations, detention facilities,...

2014-04-01

93

25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...operation and management of BIA uniformed police operations, detention facilities,...

2013-04-01

94

25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...operation and management of BIA uniformed police operations, detention facilities,...

2012-04-01

95

25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement...operation and management of BIA uniformed police operations, detention facilities,...

2010-04-01

96

20 CFR 61.305 - Responsibilities of dependents receiving detention benefits.  

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2014-04-01

97

20 CFR 61.306 - Transportation of persons released from detention and return of employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2013-04-01

98

20 CFR 61.305 - Responsibilities of dependents receiving detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2010-04-01

99

20 CFR 61.306 - Transportation of persons released from detention and return of employees.  

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2014-04-01

100

20 CFR 61.302 - Time limitations for filing a claim for detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2011-04-01

101

20 CFR 61.304 - Limitations on and deductions from detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2010-04-01

102

20 CFR 61.301 - Filing a claim for detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2010-04-01

103

20 CFR 61.301 - Filing a claim for detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2011-04-01

104

20 CFR 61.304 - Limitations on and deductions from detention benefits.  

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2014-04-01

105

20 CFR 61.301 - Filing a claim for detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2013-04-01

106

20 CFR 61.304 - Limitations on and deductions from detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2013-04-01

107

20 CFR 61.306 - Transportation of persons released from detention and return of employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2010-04-01

108

20 CFR 61.302 - Time limitations for filing a claim for detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2013-04-01

109

20 CFR 61.302 - Time limitations for filing a claim for detention benefits.  

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2014-04-01

110

20 CFR 61.304 - Limitations on and deductions from detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2012-04-01

111

20 CFR 61.301 - Filing a claim for detention benefits.  

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2014-04-01

112

20 CFR 61.306 - Transportation of persons released from detention and return of employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2011-04-01

113

20 CFR 61.301 - Filing a claim for detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2012-04-01

114

20 CFR 61.305 - Responsibilities of dependents receiving detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2012-04-01

115

20 CFR 61.305 - Responsibilities of dependents receiving detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2011-04-01

116

20 CFR 61.306 - Transportation of persons released from detention and return of employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2012-04-01

117

20 CFR 61.302 - Time limitations for filing a claim for detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2010-04-01

118

20 CFR 61.302 - Time limitations for filing a claim for detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2012-04-01

119

20 CFR 61.304 - Limitations on and deductions from detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2011-04-01

120

20 CFR 61.305 - Responsibilities of dependents receiving detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS WITH THE UNITED STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits §...

2013-04-01

121

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2012-04-01

122

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2013-04-01

123

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2011-04-01

124

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2010-04-01

125

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2014-04-01

126

42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and detention of persons with specific diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public...and detention of persons with specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this...transmission, and spread of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order...

2010-10-01

127

42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and detention of persons with specific diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public...and detention of persons with specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this...transmission, and spread of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order...

2011-10-01

128

Solar ponds: a selected bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-11-01

129

Koi in pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Koi fish are somewhat related to goldfish. You can think of them as very large goldfish. Koi fish are usually kept in large ponds. Goldfish are often kept as pets in fish bowls or ponds. They are domesticated animals from a carp species and are not often found in the wild.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-12-09

130

A Virtual Pond Dip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a jar of pond water containing microorganisms. As users click on various pond organisms, "factfiles" containing descriptive information (name, size, notes, classification, etc.) appears. Users may access actual images and additional information from the "further details" links in the factfiles.

131

Appropriate medical care for persons in detention.  

PubMed

The people who are in detention are screened by the Medical Officer of the Prison and if they are found to be unwell, these prisoners will be accommodated in the sickbay and medical treatment will be provided. If their sickness needs further investigations and management, they will be sent to the Government Hospital. If the prisoners are found to have infectious or contagious diseases, steps will be taken to prevent the spread of these diseases to other prisoners in the prison. Prisoners are given time to exercise to maintain good health and their clothing are regularly washed to make sure that they will not contract skin diseases, e.g. scabies, ringworm, etc. The Prison Department since 1989 has increasing numbers of HIV positive prisoners. The Department complies with this problem by sending staff for courses, lectures and seminars so that they will be able to handle these prisoners more efficiently in the prison. When these HIV/AIDS prisoners' condition turns bad, they are usually transferred to a Government Hospital. Another of the Prison Department's prominent medical problem among the prisoners is drug addiction. Staff trained with skill and techniques are counselors for the drug related prisoners. Realizing and in anticipation that the sickbays in the prisons are going to be full of HIV/AIDS prisoners and drug related prisoners, special attention will be given to more allocation to upgrade the sickbays in the prison. White attires will be provided to the sick prisoners in the sickbays so that they will look neat and clean. More doctors, medical assistants and nurses will be employed so that appropriate medical care or rather more appropriate medical care can be provided to the sick prisoners in the prisons. The Prison Department is in the process of privatizing medical care for prisoners in the prison and the Department is also trying to convert some prisons to be medical prisons so that adequate medical care can be given to the sick prisoners. PMID:14556359

Idris, I

2003-03-01

132

Technology and power in immigration detention: Communicating fear in and about detained asylum seekers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines how fear is communicated to refugees, asylum seekers, and the public through Australia's immigration policy and practice. Between 1992 and 1994, Australian law moved from permitting (but not enforcing) limited detention of asylum seekers, to a blanket policy of mandatory detention which, at one point, had up to 12,000 individuals in detention. The author argues that the

Linda Leung

133

The Woods and Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

134

Catfish Ponds for Recreation  

E-print Network

disappears in less than 12 inches, oxygen depletion could occur soon. Prepare to aerate. Catfish grow more slowly in ponds that are only fertilized than those given a manufactured catfish feed. In ponds that are fertilized only, a 6-inch fingerling usually.... Concentrations from 1 to 2 ppm will kill many if not all catfish in a pond, depending on how long the depletion lasts. Oxygen dissolves into water from two sources: from the atmosphere and from plants in the water. Its pri- mary source is phytoplankton, which...

Masser, Michael P.; Steinbach, Don W.; Higginbotham, Billy

1999-08-02

135

Salt-gradient solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of salt-gradient solar ponds is presented. Guidelines concerning the construction and maintenance of the pond are discussed. A computer model was used to study layer migration in laboratory tanks and in an outdoor pond. The status of solar ponds is briefly discussed. An equation relating heat flux and salt flux at a boundary is included.

Neeper, D. A.

136

The short-term effects of three molluscicides on the microflora and microfauna of small, biologically stable ponds in Southern Rhodesia*  

PubMed Central

Where large-scale molluscicide applications are anticipated, it is important to investigate the effects of the chemicals to be used on the freshwater microflora and fauna existing in the bodies of water to be treated. The food chains of which these organisms form basic parts are important in the general ecology leading up to fish and even to man. Some observations on the direct short-term effect of three molluscicides—copper sulfate, sodium pentachlorophenate and Bayer 73—on the populations of certain plankton organisms, carried out in biologically stable ponds in Southern Rhodesia, are reported on in this paper. It appears that copper sulfate has the most drastic and long-lasting effects on these organisms. The authors stress that snail control measures involving molluscicides should be so designed as to effect the minimum alteration to the ecological balance of the freshwater habitat. PMID:13911863

Shiff, C. J.; Garnett, Bridget

1961-01-01

137

Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season  

SciTech Connect

1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

1993-04-01

138

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or (3) A private family home approved by the tribe. (b) A minor who is 16 years of age or older may be detained in a jail facility used for the detention of adults only if: (1) A facility in paragraph (a) of this section is not available...

2013-04-01

139

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or (3) A private family home approved by the tribe. (b) A minor who is 16 years of age or older may be detained in a jail facility used for the detention of adults only if: (1) A facility in paragraph (a) of this section is not available...

2011-04-01

140

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or (3) A private family home approved by the tribe. (b) A minor who is 16 years of age or older may be detained in a jail facility used for the detention of adults only if: (1) A facility in paragraph (a) of this section is not available...

2010-04-01

141

25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or (3) A private family home approved by the tribe. (b) A minor who is 16 years of age or older may be detained in a jail facility used for the detention of adults only if: (1) A facility in paragraph (a) of this section is not available...

2012-04-01

142

COTTAGE FARM COMBINED SEWER DETENTION AND CHLORINATION STATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Cottage Farm Detention and Chlorination Station was placed in operation by the Metropolitan District Commission on April 29, 1971. The station, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, diverts and treats combined sewage flows from the Charles River Valley sewer system (15,600 acr...

143

20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES...CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS...absence or until the employee's death is in fact established or can...person detained is a prisoner of war detained or utilized by the...

2013-04-01

144

20 CFR 61.303 - Determination of detention status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS...STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED...during the period of the absence, or until death is in fact established or can be...

2011-04-01

145

20 CFR 61.303 - Determination of detention status.  

... COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS...STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED...during the period of the absence, or until death is in fact established or can be...

2014-04-01

146

20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.  

...COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES...CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS...absence or until the employee's death is in fact established or can...person detained is a prisoner of war detained or utilized by the...

2014-04-01

147

20 CFR 61.303 - Determination of detention status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS...STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED...during the period of the absence, or until death is in fact established or can be...

2013-04-01

148

20 CFR 61.303 - Determination of detention status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS...STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED...during the period of the absence, or until death is in fact established or can be...

2012-04-01

149

20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES...CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS...absence or until the employee's death is in fact established or can...person detained is a prisoner of war detained or utilized by the...

2012-04-01

150

20 CFR 61.303 - Determination of detention status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES OF CONTRACTORS...STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED...during the period of the absence, or until death is in fact established or can be...

2010-04-01

151

20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY, DEATH, OR ENEMY DETENTION OF EMPLOYEES...CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS...absence or until the employee's death is in fact established or can...person detained is a prisoner of war detained or utilized by the...

2011-04-01

152

A comparative analysis of three electronically monitored home detention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s correctional officials focused considerable energy on the development of intermediate sanctions as alternatives to incarceration. One such alternative is electronically monitored home detention. Although the electronic monitoring equipment was not commercially available until late in 1984, programs were operating in all 50 states by 1990. This study presents a comparative analysis of three electronic monitoring programs: a

Terry L. Baumer; Michael G. Maxfield; Robert I. Mendelsohn

1993-01-01

153

HIV\\/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Injection drug use (IDU) is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV\\/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in

Weidong Zhang; Xinya Wang; Xi Chen; Fan Lv

2010-01-01

154

Jail Pedagogy: Liberatory Education inside a California Juvenile Detention Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 2 million juveniles are arrested each year. Half are sentenced to serve terms of incarceration. Although many scholars have written about teaching in detention facilities, few directly address how prisoners are being taught. This research explores the experiences, teaching philosophy, and practices of correctional educators. To learn…

Flores, Jerry

2012-01-01

155

Exploring Pond Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)

Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

1975-01-01

156

Cleaning Palmer's Pond  

NSF Publications Database

... EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : February 25, 1991 File : opp93024 DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS OFFICE OF ... Meltwater Pond to Increase its Capacity) To: Files (S.7 - Environment Background Freshwater, at ...

157

Animals in a Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by faculty members of the University of Southampton, explains the importance of combining biology and statistics together to lead to understanding of both. It suggests bringing pond life in to the classroom to illustrate a wide range of concepts and methods. Some of the concepts that can be studied using the classroom pond include descriptive statistics, sample size, sums of random variables, central limit theorem, hypothesis testing, and the Poisson distribution.

Meacock, S. E.; Parsons, P. S.; Shahani, A. K.

2009-03-11

158

Tracing anthropogenic nutrient inputs to coastal plain ponds using stable Wayne Daniel1  

E-print Network

sediments. An evaluation of two coastal plain ponds, one affected by nutrient pollution (Duck Pond), and one and are habitats of many extremely rare plant species for such a small unit area. The water level of a coastal, 2008 #12;Abstract Coastal plain ponds harbor some of the worlds rarest plant species. Consequently

Vallino, Joseph J.

159

Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

160

433 Eros Ponded Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In certain regions of Eros flat deposits with surfaces perpendicular to the local gravity gradient infill bottoms of depressions. Such morphology is consistent with emplacement with no shear strength, allowing material to "pond" to an equipotential surface. However, ponded deposits currently support steep-walled grooves, impact craters, and superposed blocks, showing that subsequent to emplacement some compaction or cohesion has occurred to create non-zero shear strength. Many of the ponds are relatively blue (high 550/760 nm reflectance ratio ) and have a deeper infrared band (low 950/760 nm ratio), consistent with lesser alteration from the space environment. Such alteration by micrometeorite impacts produces relatively large aggregates of glass and crystalline material. Of 255 ponds greater than or equal to 30 m diameter mapped on the whole asteroid, 91 percent are located within 30 degrees of the equator. Zones asymmetrically around the long ends of the asteroid also have distinctively more and larger ponded deposits. Regions of pond occurrence coincide with areas having low gravity and spending a large fraction of Eros's orbital period near the terminator (due to Eros's 88 degrees obliquity). The long terminator exposure favors creation of photoelectric charge differentials between illuminated and shadowed terrain, capable of lifting and redistributing tens-of-microns size particles. We hypothesize that the ponds formed by electrostatic sedimentation processes that preferentially concentrated the finest, crystalline component of the regolith. This is consistent with the observed color properties: for mafic minerals, as grain size decreases, color becomes redder at visible wavelengths but at very fine grain sizes (less than 50 microns) this trend can be reversed and visible color becomes bluer. The extremely fine grain sizes required are consistent with the size range effectively mobilized by electrostatic levitation.

Robinson, M. S.; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.; Murchie, S. L.

2001-12-01

161

Demonstration of the solar gel pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscous polymeric gels that act as a thermal insulator and produce high energy collection and storage efficiencies were deveoped. These polymer gels were tested in a small-scale solar pond. The highest bottom temperature was achieved with the bottom layer filled with a salt solution and covered with a top layer of 16 cm polymer gel. By covering the gel layer with a thin layer of water, dirt and debris falling onto the pond can be skimmed, and evaporation can be retarded. The highest bottom temperature and satisfactory efficiency (72%) were obtained with the addition of a gel layer 16 cm thick as an insulation on the top of the saline.

Wilkins, E. S.

1981-07-01

162

Diverse small circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in a freshwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica).  

PubMed

Antarctica has some of the harshest environmental conditions for existence of life on Earth. In this pilot study we recovered eight diverse circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viral genome sequences (1904-3120 nts) from benthic mats dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria in a freshwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf sampled in 1988. All genomes contain two to three major open reading frames (ORFs) that are uni- or bi-directionally transcribed and all have an ORF encoding a replication-associated protein (Rep). In one genome, the second ORF has similarity to a capsid protein (CP) of Nepavirus which is most closely related to geminiviruses. Additionally, all genomes have two intergenic regions that contain putative stem loop structures, six genomes have NANTATTAC as the nonanucleotide motif, while one has CCTTATTAC, and another has a non-canonical stem loop. In the large intergenic region, we identified iterative sequences flanking the putative stem-loop elements which are a hallmark of most circular ssDNA viruses encoding rolling circle replication (RCR) initiators of the HUH endonuclease superfamily. The Reps encoded by ssDNA viral genomes recovered in this study shared <38% pairwise identity to all other Reps of known ssDNA viruses. A previous study on Lake Limnopolar (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), using next-generation sequencing identified circular ssDNA viruses and their putative Reps share <35% pairwise identity to those from the viral genomes removed in this study. It is evident from our pilot study that the global diversity of ssDNA viruses is grossly underestimated and there is limited knowledge on ssDNA viruses in Antarctica. PMID:24859088

Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; Kraberger, Simona; Julian, Laurel; Stainton, Daisy; Broady, Paul A; Varsani, Arvind

2014-08-01

163

Salt-gradient Solar Ponds: Summary of US Department of Energy Sponsored Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar pond research program conducted by the United States Department of Energy was discontinued after 1983. This document summarizes the results of the program, reviews the state of the art, and identifies the remaining outstanding issues. Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond. Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed. Theories and models were developed and verified. The major remaining unknowns or issues involve the physical behavior of large ponds; i.e., wind mixing of the surface, lateral range or reach of horizontally injected fluids, ground thermal losses, and gradient zone boundary erosion caused by pumping fluid for heat extraction. These issues cannot be scaled and must be studied in a large outdoor solar pond.

French, R. L.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.; Zangrando, F.

1984-01-01

164

Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

1995-01-01

165

Saltless solar pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

Lin, E. I. H.

1984-09-01

166

Saltless solar pond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

Lin, E. I. H. (inventor)

1984-01-01

167

OJJDP Journal of Juvenile Justice Preventive Detention and Out-of-Home Placement  

E-print Network

. KEY WORDS: preventive detention, race, racial disparity Abstract Researchers have started examining of these counselors are not certified mental health professionals. This is particularly important given the high

Van Stryland, Eric

168

21 CFR 1.384 - When does a detention order terminate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption General Provisions § 1.384...

2010-04-01

169

21 CFR 1.384 - When does a detention order terminate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption General Provisions § 1.384...

2011-04-01

170

Observational bias and the apparent distribution of ponds on Eros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 300 “ponds” have been identified on 433 Eros: smooth deposits that sharply embay the bounding depressions in which they lie. The known ponds are largely concentrated near the equator at the ends of the long axis of the asteroid. Here, we examine the pixel scale of images available at the pond locations, and compare the observed distribution of ponds on Eros to that of the image pixel scale. We find that the majority (60%) of ponds are found in the regions covered by images with pixel scales less than 2 m/px, a total of only 13% of the surface area. The correlation between pond density and image pixel scale suggests a significant observational bias in the identification of small ponds. These findings suggest that the distribution of ponds on Eros may not be as clear-cut as previously reported, and that it may be best not to use this distribution to assess existing models regarding their formation of these landforms.

Roberts, James H.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Kahn, Eliezer G.; Prockter, Louise M.

2014-10-01

171

Liming fish ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish production in ponds can often be improved by liming with agricultural limestone, calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, basic slag, or liquid lime. Properly applied, these materials react with acidity to form bicarbonate which is then available as a carbon source to plants. In sediments liming increases the rates of organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Other effects of liming on

2009-01-01

172

Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds): Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh. 2013, 5, 1510-1521  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated

Golam Rabbani

2013-01-01

173

76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Federal...to provide individuals in the human and animal food industries with an understanding...the administrative detention of human or animal food under section...

2011-10-25

174

Efficiency of a retention\\/detention basin to removecontaminants from urban stormwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention\\/detention basins are commonly used to remediate runoff from road surfaces in an attempt to remove contaminants before these materials enter adjacent waterways. However, the efficiency of such devices in removing contaminants is not well known, especially for Australian conditions. The efficiency of a retention\\/detention device adjacent to a major motorway in Sydney (Australia) was assessed for total suspended solids

G. F. Birch; C. Matthai; M. S. Fazeli

2006-01-01

175

45 CFR 506.4 - Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY...award of detention benefits. In case of death of a civilian American citizen who would...entitled to detention benefits under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended,...

2013-10-01

176

45 CFR 506.4 - Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY...award of detention benefits. In case of death of a civilian American citizen who would...entitled to detention benefits under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended,...

2012-10-01

177

45 CFR 506.4 - Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY...award of detention benefits. In case of death of a civilian American citizen who would...entitled to detention benefits under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended,...

2011-10-01

178

45 CFR 506.4 - Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY...award of detention benefits. In case of death of a civilian American citizen who would...entitled to detention benefits under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended,...

2010-10-01

179

Brutal Borders? Examining the Treatment of Deportees During Arrest and Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent legislation has produced a dramatic rise in the detention and removal of immigrants from the United States. Drawing on interviews with a random sample of Salvadoran deportees, we examine treatment during arrest and detention. Our fi ndings indicate: (1) deportees are often subject to verbal harassment, procedural failings and use of force; (2) force tends to be excessive; (3)

Scott Phillips; Jacqueline Maria Hagan; Nestor Rodriguez

2006-01-01

180

The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present research was to examine the experience of extended periods of immigration detention from the perspective of previously detained asylum seekers and to identify the consequences of these experiences for life after release. The study sample comprised seventeen adult refugees (sixteen male and one female; average age 42 years), who had been held in immigration detention

Guy J. Coffey; Ida Kaplan; Robyn C. Sampson; Maria Montagna Tucci

2010-01-01

181

A Family Oriented Alternative to Pre-Trial Detention of Juveniles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an outreach support system for children charged with offense who were at risk of detention between the time of arraignment and the time of hearing. Called the Detention Avoidance Program, it features a link betwen the court and the juvenile and his family, employing crisis intervention techniques to maintain the child in the…

Lipsitt, Paul D.; Lelos, David

182

Brutal Borders? Examining the Treatment of Deportees during Arrest and Detention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent legislation has produced a dramatic rise in the detention and removal of immigrants from the United States. Drawing on interviews with a random sample of Salvadoran deportees, we examine treatment during arrest and detention. Our findings indicate: (1) deportees are often subject to verbal harassment, procedural failings and use of force;…

Phillips, Scott; Hagan, Jacqueline Maria; Rodriguez, Nestor

2006-01-01

183

76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to believe that an article of food is adulterated or misbranded...reason to believe'' a food is adulterated or misbranded...is July 3, 2011. B. Brief History of Administrative Detention...detention of any article of food if during an inspection,...

2011-05-05

184

Developing and Implementing a Stress Management Program for Special Educators in a Juvenile Detention Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a practicum designed to increase the stress management skills of 10 special educators working in a juvenile detention center. Teachers at the juvenile detention center were taking an inordinate amount of sick leave and engaging in behaviors that were counter-productive to their delivery of educational services to detained…

Francis, Joan R.

185

Microalgal separation from high-rate ponds  

SciTech Connect

High rate ponding (HRP) processes are playing an increasing role in the treatment of organic wastewaters in sunbelt communities. Photosynthetic oxygenation by algae has proved to cost only one-seventh as much as mechanical aeration for activated sludge systems. During this study, an advanced HRP, which produces an effluent equivalent to tertiary treatment has been studied. It emphasizes not only waste oxidation but also algal separation and nutrient removal. This new system is herein called advanced tertiary high rate ponding (ATHRP). Phosphorus removal in HRP systems is normally low because algal uptake of phosphorus is about one percent of their 200-300 mg/L dry weights. Precipitation of calcium phosphates by autofluocculation also occurs in HRP at high pH levels, but it is generally not complete due to insufficient calcium concentration in the pond. In the case of Richmond where the studies were conducted, the sewage is very low in calcium. Therefore, enhancement of natural autoflocculation was studied by adding small amounts of lime to the pond. Through this simple procedure phosphorus and nitrogen removals were virtually complete justifying the terminology ATHRP.

Nurdogan, Y.

1988-01-01

186

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted?  

E-print Network

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted? Our InvestigationOur Investigation We discussed what kinds of pollutants we should look for. We narrowed down the aspects of pond chemistry that we would investigate

Hall, Sharon J.

187

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

188

Exploring Trees and Ponds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees and Ponds is a collection of activities to be implemented with middle school youth in out-of-school environments. The website provides a rationale and goal of the activities, curriculum activities and resources such as relevant digital photos. Available for free as downloadable PDFs, these activities provide a structure for youth in out-of-school programs to carry out long-term observations of natural objects. This project uses a qualitative approach, where changes over time are studied, recorded (by youth through writing, drawing, and digital photography), and discussed.

189

Effect of nutrient loading and retention time on performance of high rate algal ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small pilot ponds in a glasshouse at the Scottish Agricultural College (Auchincruive) were used to investigate the effects\\u000a of changing C:N:P loading rate and retention time on pond performance as measured by nutrient removal and dry matter biomass.\\u000a One experiment investigated ponds operated at two C:N:P ratios: low (9:7:1) and high (104:10:1) and two retention times (4\\u000a and 7 days

Nancy J. Cromar; Howard J. Fallowfield

1997-01-01

190

The Use of Fertilizer for Controlling Several Submerged Aquatic Plants in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various submerged weeds form tangled masses of vegetation in shallow, clear-water ponds in the Southeast. It is difficult or impossible to fish in such weed-infested ponds, and the weeds protect the small fish from carnivorous species so well that overcrowding develops and stunted populations result. Hence, the control of submerged weeds is an important problem in pond management.Commercial fertilizer has

E. V. Smith; H. S. Swingle

1942-01-01

191

Shallow groundwater surface water interactions in pond peatland complexes along a Boreal Plains topographic gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow pond-peatland complexes are important water resources and waterbird habitat on the Boreal Plains of Canada, and are potentially threatened by accelerated resource development. We examined two shallow pond-peatland complexes located in contrasting topographic positions within a clay-rich till region: one on a moraine and one on a lowland clay plain, to evaluate the influence of landscape position on wetland groundwater-surface water interactions, hydrologic function, and potential response to disturbance. Hydrometric and geochemical measurements indicated that precipitation and evaporation dominated the annual water balance of both ponds. Forested mineral uplands adjacent to the pond-peatland complexes contributed no runoff inputs. Small recharge rates (<5 mm year -1) from the ponds through low-permeable clay to the underlying aquifer were measured at both topographic locations. Shallow groundwater fluxes to/from the pond were controlled by water storage in and exchange with the adjacent riparian peatlands. Shallow groundwater fluxes may have contributed as much as 23% of inputs and outputs, and influenced pond chemistry and permanence. Shallow groundwater exchange between the pond and adjacent peatlands varied seasonally and differed between the moraine and lowland complex. Groundwater flow reversals occurred around the entire perimeter of the moraine pond; recharge from the moraine pond to the peatland during dry periods was off-set by discharge to the pond from the peatland during wet periods. In contrast, shallow groundwater 'flow-through' conditions were observed at the lowland pond for most of the study; however, during a high-rainfall event, a groundwater flow reversal within the outflow peatland initiated discharge back into the pond. These results suggest that the hydrologic regimes of some pond-peatland complexes in clay-rich till within the Boreal Plains will be more sensitive to local-scale disturbances that impact flow dynamics and storage of near-shore peatlands, rather than larger-scale disturbances of mineral upland regions.

Ferone, J. M.; Devito, K. J.

2004-06-01

192

New England Lakes & Ponds Project  

EPA Science Inventory

The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

193

Energy production from solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for obtaining solar energy in a useful form by utilizing solar ponds is described. The method comprises direct or indirect contact of hot liquid from the pond with a low boiling point immiscible working fluid for transfer of the heat energy from the liquid to the working fluid. The heated working fluid is separated from the liquid and

1977-01-01

194

Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

Danks, Sharon Gamson

2001-01-01

195

Hilton Pond Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History is a nonprofit education and research organization based in York, South Carolina whose mission is to "conserve plants, animals, birds, and other natural components of the Piedmont Region of the eastern United States through observation, scientific study, and education for students of all ages." This colorful site provides a range of information on all sorts of nature topics and consists of sections like plant inventory, animal inventory, and ecological investigations. It also contains a link to the Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project Web site, which is a cross-disciplinary project in which participants in the US, Canada, Mexico, and Central America collaborate to study behavior and distribution of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Both sites are excellent resources for science teachers, students, parents, bird lovers, and conservationists interested in Piedmont natural history.

2002-01-01

196

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

...other BIA manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures...

2014-04-01

197

9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 118.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION §...

2012-01-01

198

78 FR 21085 - Establishment of a Public Docket for Administrative Detention Under the Food and Drug...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Detention Under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...with respect to drugs under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act...

2013-04-09

199

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures for...

2010-04-01

200

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures for...

2012-04-01

201

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures for...

2011-04-01

202

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures for...

2013-04-01

203

78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...order on appeal. Given the history of administrative detention use with medical devices and foods, the likelihood is low of FDA...Cosmetics, Drugs, Exports, Food labeling, Imports, Labeling...Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

2013-07-15

204

Waterbird use of high saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management (mosquito control)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The excavation of small (1 ha) natural ponds or pannes or adjacent tidal creeks. Recent modifications in pond construction in Delaware and New Jersey allow for shallower, more sloping basins which should enhance use by waterfowl and shorebirds while still ensuring a water reservoir to support fish populations.

Erwin, R.M.; Howe, M.A.; Dawson, D.K.

1988-01-01

205

Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.  

PubMed

According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

2014-01-01

206

Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

Newton, T. J.; Monroe, E. M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K. I.; Thiel, P. A.

2001-01-01

207

Pond Ecology in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities with organisms from freshwater ponds and ditches. Several experiments involve predation, some involve habitat choices, and one addressees the role of sunlight in supporting plant-eating animals. (PR)

Kneidl, Sally Stenhouse

1993-01-01

208

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

209

Salton Sea solar pond project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

1980-01-01

210

TOWARD EFFECTIVE URBAN BMPS FOR STORMWATER TREATMENT: WET PONDS VS. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND-TYPE RETENTION/DETENTION STRUCTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

A goal of the Urban Watershed Management Branch of USEPA's NRMRL, Edison, NJ is to develop and demonstrate technologies and methods to manage the ecological risks posed by stormwate runoff from highly developed watersheds. This study, in particular, uses extant data and controlle...

211

High rates of methane emissions from south taiga wetland ponds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since wetland ponds are often assumed to be insignificant sources of methane, there is a limited data about its fluxes. In this study, we found surprisingly high rates of methane emission at several shallow ponds in the south taiga zone of West Siberia. Wetland ponds within the Great Vasyugan Mire ridge-hollow-pool patterned bog system were investigated. 22 and 24 flux measurements from ponds and surrounded mires, respectively, were simultaneously made by a static chamber method in July, 2011. In contrast to previous measurements, fluxes were measured using the small boat with floated chamber to avoid disturbance to the water volume. Since the ebullition is most important emission pathway, minimization of physical disturbance provoking gas bubbling significantly increases the data accuracy. Air temperature varied from 15 to 22° C during the measurements, and pH at different pond depths - from 4.4 to 5. As it was found, background emission from surrounding ridges and hollows was 1.7/2.6/3.3 mgC·m-2·h1 (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles). These rates are in a perfect correspondence with the typical methane emission fluxes from other south taiga bogs. Methane emission from wetland ponds turned out to be by order of magnitude higher (9.3/11.3/15.6 mgC·m-2·h1). Comparing to other measurements in West Siberia, many times higher emissions (70.9/111.6/152.3 mgC·m-2·h1) were found in forest-steppe and subtaiga fen ponds. On the contrary, West Siberian tundra lakes emit methane insignificantly, with the flux rate close to surrounding wetlands (about 0.2-0.3 mgC·m-2·h1). Apparently, there is a naturally determined distribution of ponds with different flux rates over different West Siberia climate-vegetation zones. Further investigations aiming at revelation of the zones with different fluxes would be helpful for total flux revision purposes. With respect to other studies, high emission rates were already detected, for instance, in Baltic ponds (Dzyuban, 2002) and U.K. lakes (Casper et al., 2000). Annual CH4 emission from West Siberia south taiga ponds with area of 0.6·106 Mha was estimated to be 0.26 MtCH4·yr-1.

Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Maksyutov, S.

2012-04-01

212

The origin and fate of arsenic in coalbed natural gas-produced water ponds.  

PubMed

Coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water contains small amounts of trace metals that can accumulate over time in produced water retention ponds. Within the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming, high concentrations of trace metals in pond water and their effect on shallow groundwater are potential concerns. A pond with a maximum As concentration of 146 microg L(-1) was studied in detail to determine the potential for groundwater pollution and to explain the cause for the high concentration of As. Infiltration characteristics, subsurface hydrology, our fall and pond water quality, isotope signatures, and trace metal balances were examined to assess the hydrology and geochemistry of the pond. The results indicated minimum or no infiltration of pond water and no measurable contamination of the shallow groundwater. The high As concentrations in the pond were determined to be the result of semi-continuous inputs of CBNG-produced water with low As concentrations (0.20-0.48 microg L(-1)), exasperated by low pond volumes during drought conditions. Because of reduced infiltration and high evaporation rates, As became concentrated over time. Reduced infiltration was most likely caused by the high sodium concentration and high sodium adsorption ratio of the CBNG-produced water, which disrupt soil structure. The findings for the pond and the techniques used may serve as a template for future impact assessments of other CBNG-produced water ponds and are relevant for the approximately 4000 ponds currently permitted in the PRB and for future ponds. Further studies are recommended in the use of playa landforms to store marginal-quality produced water. PMID:21043266

Sowder, J T; Kelleners, T J; Reddy, K J

2010-01-01

213

Solar pond\\/fuel assisted water desalination plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a thermodynamic analysis for a proposed hybrid system suitable for producing power or fresh water for small communities. The system includes a power generation loop and a desalination loop. These loops can work separately to produce power or combined to produce fresh water. The power loop comprises a solar pond, flashing chamber, vapour compressor VCI, steam superheater,

S. E. Aly; S. Arabia

1986-01-01

214

Biomanipulation: A Classic Example in a Shallow Eutrophic Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moe Pond, Otsego County, New York, is an artificial impoundment created by the damming of a natural wetland in 1939. It was dominated by blue-green algal blooms between at least 1970–1998. During that time a few scattered clones of sedges (Cyperaceae) along the shoreline were the only vascular plants present. The zooplankton community was dominated by small individuals, primarily rotifers,

Matthew F. Albright; Willard N. Harman; Wesley T. Tibbits; Michael S. Gray; David M. Warner; Rebecca J. Hamway

2004-01-01

215

POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND TRAUMA IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and 12-month rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, and age). Design Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the posttraumatic stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) to randomly selected detainees. Setting A large, temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 898 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (532 males, 366 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Results Most participants (92.5%) had experienced one or more traumas (mean = 14.6 incidents, median = 6 incidents). Significantly more males (93.2%) than females (84.0%) reported at least one traumatic experience; 11.2% of the sample met criteria for PTSD in the past year. Over half of the participants with PTSD reported witnessing violence as the precipitating trauma. Conclusion Trauma and PTSD appear to be more prevalent among juvenile detainees than in community samples. We recommend directions for research and discuss implications for mental health policy. PMID:15066899

Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; Charles, Devon R.; Longworth, Sandra L.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2010-01-01

216

Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1984-01-01

217

Spatial variability of sediment ecotoxicity in a large storm water detention basin.  

PubMed

Detention basins are valuable facilities for urban storm water management, from both the standpoint of flood control and the trapping of pollutants. Studies performed on storm water have shown that suspended solids often constitute the main vector of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), etc.). In order to characterise the ecotoxicity of urban sediments from storm water detention basins, the sediments accumulated over a 6-year period were sampled at five different points through the surface of a large detention basin localised in the east of Lyon, France. A specific ecotoxicological test battery was implemented on the solid phase (raw sediment) and the liquid phase (interstitial water of sediments). The results of the study validated the method formulated for the ecotoxicological characterization of urban sediments. They show that the ecotoxicological effect of the sediments over the basin is heterogeneous and greater in areas often flooded. They also show the relationship between, on one hand, the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments and, on the other hand, their ecotoxicity. Lastly, they contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of the pollution close to the bottom of detention basins, which can be useful for improving their design. The results of this research raise particularly the issue of using oil separators on the surface of detention basins. PMID:24243265

Merchan, Carolina Gonzalez; Perrodin, Yves; Barraud, Sylvie; Sébastian, Christel; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Bazin, Christine; Kouyi, Gislain Lipeme

2014-04-01

218

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2010-07-01

219

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2013-07-01

220

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2012-07-01

221

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2011-07-01

222

ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS  

E-print Network

ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS A Review of the Literature SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT., John L. Farley, Director ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS A Review of the Literature By John fertilization. ......... 2 Physical considerations ................... 2 Biological considerations

223

Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a meta-analysis of all existing surveys on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in order to assess the prevalence of mental disorders. Findings indicate adolescents in detention are 10 times more likely to suffer from psychosis than the general adolescent…

Fazel, Seena; Doll, Helen; Langstrom, Niklas

2008-01-01

224

Risk Factors for Chlamydia Among Young Women in a Northern California Juvenile Detention Facility: Implications for Community Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives\\/Goal: Chlamydia infections are increasing in California, with rates highest in young women aged 15 to 24. Juvenile detention facilities are important venues for screening high-risk youth who may not otherwise access care. We, therefore, sought to identify risk factors for urogenital chlamydia among young women in a county juvenile detention facility between 2002 and 2005. Study Design: With the

Diana D. Mcdonnell; Vivian Levy; Theresa J. M. Morton

2009-01-01

225

Preliminary design of sedimentation ponds  

SciTech Connect

Almost one-hundred sedimentation ponds were conceptually designed for a large surface mining study are in northeast Texas. An approximate procedure was developed to economically estimate construction quantities in order to predict surface water control costs. This procedure utilized site-specific empirical relationships developed from detailed analyses on a representative number of proposed sedimentation ponds. Use of these equations provided earthwork volumes, and spillway pipe lengths. The procedure developed for this study is presented along with the results of a verification analysis.

Wilson, L.C.; Wayland, L.D.

1982-12-01

226

Emergency detention of persons with certain mental disorders during public health disasters: legal and policy issues.  

PubMed

Public health emergencies (disasters) are associated with mental health conditions ranging from mild to severe. When persons pose a danger to themselves or others, a brief emergency detention allows a mental health assessment to determine if a lengthier involuntary civil commitment is needed. Involuntary commitment requires participation of the civil justice system to provide constitutionally mandated due process protections. However, disasters may incapacitate the judicial system, forcing emergency detainees to be prematurely released if courts are unavailable. The authors review state laws regarding emergency detention of persons deemed a potential mental health-related danger. Although some states are well prepared for the dual impact of disasters on mental health and the court system, important gaps exist. The authors recommend that state laws anticipate the need for brief extensions of emergency detention periods without court participation. States should also include mental health considerations in their disaster preparedness plans for the court system. PMID:23264277

Vernick, Jon S; Gakh, Maxim; Rutkow, Lainie

2012-01-01

227

Throwing Away the Key: The Ethics of Risk Assessment for Preventive Detention Schemes  

PubMed Central

Preventive detention schemes that aim to protect the community from certain ‘dangerous’ individuals have long existed. While risk assessment is now pervasive in the management and treatment of many individuals, it raises particular issues when a person's liberty is at stake on the basis of what that person might do. This R.G. Myers Memorial Lecture addresses the ethical issues raised by mental health practitioners providing risk assessments for legislative schemes that involve the deprivation of liberty. It will focus in particular on Australian post-sentence preventive detention schemes for sex offenders that have been held by the United Nations Human Rights Committee to breach fundamental human rights. However, the ethical issues discussed also have repercussions for civil commitment laws that enable the detention of those with severe mental or intellectual impairments.

McSherry, B.

2014-01-01

228

The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present research was to examine the experience of extended periods of immigration detention from the perspective of previously detained asylum seekers and to identify the consequences of these experiences for life after release. The study sample comprised seventeen adult refugees (sixteen male and one female; average age 42 years), who had been held in immigration detention funded by the Australian government for on average three years and two months. They were interviewed on average three years and eight months following their release and had been granted permanent visa status or such status was imminent. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to explore detention and post-detention experiences, and mental health some years after release. The qualitative component consisted of semi-structured interviews exploring psychological well-being, daily life, significant events, relationships, and ways of coping throughout these periods. This was supplemented with standardised quantitative measures of current mental health and quality of life. All participants were struggling to rebuild their lives in the years following release from immigration detention, and for the majority the difficulties experienced were pervasive. Participants suffered an ongoing sense of insecurity and injustice, difficulties with relationships, profound changes to view of self and poor mental health. Depression and demoralisation, concentration and memory disturbances, and persistent anxiety were very commonly reported. Standardised measures found high rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD and low quality of life scores. The results strongly suggest that the psychological and interpersonal difficulties participants were suffering at the time of interview were the legacy of their adverse experiences while detained. The current study assists in identifying the characteristics of prolonged immigration detention producing long-term psychological harm. PMID:20378223

Coffey, Guy J; Kaplan, Ida; Sampson, Robyn C; Tucci, Maria Montagna

2010-06-01

229

Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive…

Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

230

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

231

POND CULTURE fishery leaflet 311  

E-print Network

comparisons. General principles in both industrial branches are largely the same, also transitions in practice production costs, such as the care and treatment, of ponds, fish feeding, precautions for avoiding fish losses and fish diseases are more effectively and successfully applied by the care- ful consideration

232

How Healthy Is Our Pond?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With crosscutting concepts such as stability and change in the "Next Generation Science Standards," this article was written for those who have wondered how to teach these concepts in a way that is relevant to students. In this investigation, students ask the question, "Why is the pond dirty?" As students investigate the health…

Sterling, Donna R.; Hargrove, Dori L.

2014-01-01

233

From Salt Ponds to Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biologists are working to restore the San Francisco Bay Area salt ponds to healthy wetlands for wildlife in one of the largest restoration projects on the West Coast. In this video from QUEST produced by KQED, students learn why wetlands are important to wildlife.

Kqed

2012-08-08

234

Deep versus shallow cooling ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some months ago, the Engineering Department was requested to make an evaluation estimate of the cost of obtaining approximately 150,000 gpm of cooling water from shallow ponds or from cooling towers. Their conclusions (see DPWZ-5305) were (1) that both schemes were feasible and each produced cooling water of approximately the same annual average temperature; (2) the cooling towers could be

Babcock

1956-01-01

235

Pond Construction: Some Practical Considerations  

E-print Network

is normally held liable for downstream flooding and related damages caused by dam failure. www University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Mark A. McCann, Director, Virginia adequate water. Ponds used for flood and erosion control frequently are locat ed in dry valleys

Liskiewicz, Maciej

236

Electric Trees and Pond Creatures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two learning activities are presented to develop observation and classification skills at the elementary level. The first is an electric box that associates tree names with leaf and bark specimens, and the second is a pond water observation and slide preparation activity. (BB)

Weaver, Helen; Hounshell, Paul B.

1978-01-01

237

A preliminary evaluation of the occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds of the Maryland shores of the Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, a preliminary investigation of occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. These small ponds occur commonly along the Bay shore. A sand berm separates the freshwaters of the ponds from the saline waters of the Bay; this berm is occasionally breached permitting interchange between ponds and Bay. A survey of aerial maps and photographs has revealed approximately 1800 ponds bordering the mid and upper Bay.

Not Available

1980-10-01

238

Evaluation of shading of fish farming ponds as a larval control measure against Anopheles sundaicus Rodenwaldt (Diptera:Culicidae).  

PubMed

Larval density of Anopheles sundaicus in shaded and unshaded fish farming ponds was monitored at a coastal village in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The average density in the experimentally shaded ponds with Nipa leaves was reduced to < 1/10. Disappearance of algae and decline of water temperature also were observed, but the salinity did not change. The larval density was lower in ponds with Tilapia sp than without fish, but that in ponds with Ophiocephalus sp was not significantly lower. Dominant insects collected by dipping were Agrionidae and Libellulidae (Odonata), Corixidae, Notonectidae and Nepidae (Hemiptera), and Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Density of nymphs of both Odonata and Notonectidae was higher in unshaded ponds. Taking into account longevity of the materials, and easiness in construction and applicability, shading by Nipa leaves was an easy and effective larval control measure against A. sundaicus in non-operating small fish farming ponds if leaves were renewed once in every two months. PMID:9139389

Takagi, M; Pohan, W; Hasibuan, H; Panjaitan, W; Suzuki, T

1995-12-01

239

The Use of Lime in Fish Ponds1 Andy M. Lazur, Charles E. Cichra and Craig Watson2  

E-print Network

they are located. In acid soils, ponds typically have low total alkalinity, total hardness, and pH. Total hardness and to Increase and Buffer pH The application of limestone (calcite or dolomite) to fish ponds with acid soils small fish are being reared. Calcite and dolomite increase the total hardness, total alkalinity, and p

Watson, Craig A.

240

Pond 2: Life in a Drop of Pond Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second in a two-part series on microorganisms. It is designed to follow the first lesson, but it can also stand alone. In this lesson, students observe microscopic organisms found in pond water using a hand lens, 30x magnification, and 100x magnification. Then students participate in discussions about how single-celled living things might satisfy their needs for food, water, and air.

Science Netlinks;

2003-07-25

241

Preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 for determining numbers and distribution of prairie ponds and lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 and aircraft multispectral data collected over a North Dakota test site during July 1972, are compared to evaluate the capability of the satellite sensors to detect numbers and distribution of prairie ponds and lakes. Recognition maps using ERTS-1, MSS 7 data are generated using a level slicing technique. Surface water areas larger than two acres are recognized, but ponds in the one-to two-acre range are detected only at random. The proportion estimation technique will improve the accuracy of area determination and small pond detection.

Work, E. A., Jr.; Gilmer, D. S.; Klett, A. T.

1973-01-01

242

Juvenile Justice: Detention Using Staff Supervision Rather Than Architectural Barriers. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes information on juvenile detention facilities using staff supervision rather than architectural barriers, such as barred windows and locked doors. Results of a survey of staff secure facilities are detailed in the appendix and eight tables of data are provided. Topics covered in the appendix, which comprises most the…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

243

A Model Education Program for Juvenile Detention Homes in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This model, developed to establish standards for effective detention home education, is based on results of a questionnaire sent to staff members of 45 youth homes in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan and Wisconsin. The model covers seven aspects of youth home education: (1) purpose, (2) target persons, (3) personnel, (4) program, (5) procedures,…

Duran, Paul C.

244

The Comparative Risk of Mistreatment for Juveniles in Detention Facilities and State Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists on the prevalence of victimization among young people in juvenile correctional facilities and adult jails and prisons. The limited extant research suggests that youth incarcerated in adult prisons and jails are at greater risk for physical and sexual abuse (Redding, 1999) compared to both adult inmates in the same facilities and youths in juvenile detention centers. Yet

Lacey Levitt

2010-01-01

245

Deportation, detention and foreign-national prisoners in England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the detention and deportation of time-served foreign-national prisoners in England and Wales. Drawing on penal policy and interviews with staff and detainees in prisons and immigration removal centres, it critically assesses the growing interdependence of the UK Border Agency and HM Prison Service. While the removal of failed asylum seekers has generated widespread concern and activism, the

Mary Bosworth

2011-01-01

246

Correlates of Jail Overcrowding: A Case Study of a County Detention Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overcrowding in local jails has emerged as an important social problem in recent years. Many have assumed that this problem has resulted from rising crime rates and general population growth, but recent research has called into question such claims. This study examines jail overcrowding in the county detention center in Las Vegas, Nevada. The data show that the major causes

Randall G. Shelden; William B. Brown

1991-01-01

247

Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Youth in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This practice parameter presents recommendations for the mental health assessment and treatment of youths in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Mental and substance-related disorders are significant public health problems affecting youths in juvenile justice settings. Sufficient time is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnostic assessment, in- terview collateral historians, and review pertinent records to identify primary and comorbid conditions. Potential

Christopher Thomas; William Bernet; Oscar G. Bukstein; Valerie Arnold; Joseph Beitchman; R. Scott Benson; Joan Kinlan; Jon McClellan; Jon Shaw; Saundra Stock; Louis Kraus; David Fassler; William Arroyo; Andres J. Pumariega; Diane H. Schetky

2005-01-01

248

Trauma Affect Regulation Psychoeducation Group and Milieu Intervention Outcomes in Juvenile Detention Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports outcomes of Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET), a group and milieu intervention, in three juvenile detention facilities, controlling for site, length of stay, ethnicity, number of arrests, mental health and traumatic stress problems, and cohort effects. Linear multiple regression results showed that every session of TARGET received in the first seven days of

Julian D. Ford; Josephine Hawke

2012-01-01

249

The Arts As A Catalyst For Improved Learning Outcomes For Youth In Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that youth in detention are characteristically not highly motivated to participate in educational programs that demand concentrated effort or study. If they do choose to participate, they often do not display behaviours consistent with high levels of engagement and persistence while on task. Therefore a strong need exists for educational programs that not only stimulate interest

Carolyn Broadbent

250

Rap, Recidivism and the Creative Self: A Popular Music Programme for Young Offenders in Detention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular music is increasingly being viewed by local, state and national governments as a useful form of creative activity for at-risk youth both within and outside young offender institutions. This paper examines a music programme operating for a group of predominantly black youth within one North American detention centre, and considers the range…

Baker, Sarah; Homan, Shane

2007-01-01

251

The challenges of reintegrating Indigenous youth after their release from detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest challenges for the juvenile justice system is to successfully reintegrate young offenders back to their communities so that they do not re-offend and return to detention. This challenge is even greater for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth who are over-represented in the Queensland juvenile justice system in terms of interactions with the police, the

Glenn Desmond Dawes

2011-01-01

252

A COMPARISON OF WET DETENTION SYSTEM WATER QUALITY TO THEIR EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) conducted a survey of permitted wet detention systems to compare the water quality in front of the outfall weir to that of its effluent during flow conditions. In addition, this study compared the data with Class III Florida State Water Quality Standards. Analyses were performed to detect statistical differences between constituent data collected

David W. Carr

253

78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and 3,000 die from food borne diseases, according...ensure the safety and security of the food supply. It enables FDA...administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption...of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism...

2013-02-05

254

Detention Home Teens as Tutors: A Cooperative Cross-Age Tutoring Pilot Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned professionals in the juvenile justice field frequently express concern for effective programs that help youth offenders successfully rejoin society. This mixed-method pilot study involved detention home teens functioning as tutors for special education students in a public school. Tutors were selected who, based on previous assessment as…

Lazerson, David B.

2005-01-01

255

Litigation as an Instrument for Change in Juvenile Detention: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litigation is an expensive and contentious means to solve the twin problems of over-crowding and dangerous conditions in juvenile detention centers. However, it is possible to use lawsuits as effective agents for change. Willingness to mediate settlement and develop a common approach to problems causes greater change than through trial and court-imposed injunction or consent decree. This alternative approach obligates

Michael J. Dale; Carl Sanniti

1993-01-01

256

Mental Health Screenings in Juvenile Detention Centers: Predictors of Mental Health Service Utilization and Recidivism  

E-print Network

Mental Health Screenings in Juvenile Detention Centers: Predictors of Mental Health Service Utilization and Recidivism Laura M. White1 , Matthew C. Aalsma1 1 Department of Pediatrics, Section meet criteria for mental illness. Unfortunately, the juvenile justice system does not consistently

Zhou, Yaoqi

257

Mortality of the Iranian Ex-Prisoners of War in Iraqi Detention Camps (1980 - 1990)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study aimed to determine the rate and cause of the mortality of the Iranian ex-prisoners of war in Iraqi detention camps during a ten- year period (1980 - 1990) according to the documented reports. Methods: The information extracted from the documented death certifications that have been provided by the Iraqi authorities and the Red Cross delegation. Results:

Ali Khaji

258

Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of stormwater retention and detention basins has become a popular method for managing urban and suburban stormwater runoff. Infiltration of stormwater through these basins may increase the risk to ground-water quality, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the wate...

259

Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Youth in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practice parameter presents recommendations for the mental health assessment and treatment of youths in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Mental and substance-related disorders are significant public health problems affecting youths in juvenile justice settings. Sufficient time is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnostic…

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

2005-01-01

260

Detention Short of Arrest for Questioning: The United States, England, and Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of detention short of arrest for purposes of questioning by a comparison of the law in the United States, England, and Scotland. It finds the response of these three countries, who have relatively similar values, to be significantly different. On the level of applied law in the United States is the most restrictive; England is

FRANCIS EDWARD DEVINE

1986-01-01

261

The National Incidence of Juvenile Suicide In Adult Jails and Juvenile Detention Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a national probability sample to compare the suicide rate among adolescents in adult jails, juvenile detention facilities, and the general population. Results showed the rate for adolescents in adult jails was more than 3.5 times larger than in the general population, while suicides in juvenile facilities were lower. (JAC)

Flaherty, Michael G.

1983-01-01

262

Guilty Until Proven Innocent: An Examination of the Growing Use of Preventive Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detention of accused terrorist at Guantanamo Bay, internet sex stings, civil commitment, conspiracy charges, and a plethora of criminal charges focused on one’s “intent” have greatly expanded government’s power to punish people before they commit crimes. Whether it is a potential terrorist attack, sexual assault against a child, drug trafficking, murder or a white collar crime, government has decided to

Richard Wright

2008-01-01

263

Improving Communication Skills of Childcare Workers in a Maximum Security Juvenile Detention Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practicum addressed the need to reduce the number of verbal altercations and consequent disciplinary actions occurring between detained youth and the child care staff at a maximum security juvenile detention center. Observations of verbal interaction between detainees and staff, pre-practicum testing, and staff's self-reports revealed poor…

Branca, Ronald A.

264

Design, construction, and initial operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory salt-gradient solar pond  

SciTech Connect

A 232 m/sup 2/ solar pond was constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of studying pond hydrodynamics on a large scale and to complement the flow visualization and one-dimensional pond simulator experiments that are ongoing at the Laboratory. Design methods and construction techniques, some of which are unique to this pond, are described in detail. The pond was excavated from a soft volcanic rock known as tuff; such rock forms a large fraction of the Los Alamos area surface geology. Because tuff has a small thermal conductivity, little insulation was required to reduce perimeter energy losses. In addition, the strength of tuff permitted the pond to be built with vertical side walls; this design eliminated local side wall convection in the gradient zone that is possible with sloping side walls. Instrumentation in the pond consists of traversing and fixed rakes of thermometers and salinity probes, an underwater pyranometer, and a weather station. The traversing rake is a wheeled trolley driven vertically on a rectangular rail. Installed on the trolley are coplanar platinum RTDs, a point conductivity probe, and an induction salinometer. The stationary rake supports 28 thermocouples and 28 sample-fluid withdrawal taps located every 10 cm. About 127 T of sodium chloride has been introduced and is nearly dissolved. A 120-cm-thick salinity gradient was established and the pond is heating. Preliminary results indicate a lower-convective-zone heating rate of 1.2/sup 0/C/day during the pond's first month of operation. Recommendations on pond design, construction, and instrumentation are presented.

Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Dreicer, J.S.; Grimmer, D.P.

1983-01-01

265

Winter operation of an on-stream stormwater management pond.  

PubMed

The winter operation of an on-stream stormwater management pond in Kingston, Canada is characterised. The pond froze over in late November. Ice thickness varied from 0.2 to 0.5 m, and initially, was well described by Stefan's formula. The measured and modelled velocity field indicated a fast flow region, a small dead zone and a large recirculating zone. During a snowmelt event, near-bottom velocities reached 0.05 m x s(-1), but were not sufficient to scour the bottom sediment. Pond water temperature increased with depth, from 0.5 degrees C to 3.5 degrees C. The dissolved oxygen (DO) levels observed in the pond (6-13 mg x L(-1)) indicated stable aerobic conditions at the sediment-water interface. In one brief episode, DO fell to zero after a long cold spell. Reduction in DO readings from inlet to outlet indicated an oxygen consumption of about 1.7 kg x day(-1). pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.9. Conductivity readings indicated large quantities of total dissolved solids, representing mostly chloride from de-icing agents. During baseflow, conductivity increased with depth (total dissolved solids concentrations up to 1,200 mg x L(-1) near the bottom), indicating density stratification. Average trace metal concentrations were mostly below detection limits. PMID:14703147

Marsalek, P M; Watt, W E; Marsalek, J; Anderson, B C

2003-01-01

266

Orientation and migration distances of a pond-breeding salamander (Notophthalmus perstriatus, Salamandridae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat loss and modification have played a significant role in the decline of amphibian populations and species. Loss of wetlands, which are used as breeding sites for many amphibians, has contributed to the decline. The protection of small, isolated wetlands and core areas of associated uplands is one way in which population declines in certain species can be slowed or prevented. Nevertheless, migration distances of individuals of most amphibian species from their breeding sites are unknown. Using drift fences and pitfall traps, I studied migration distance and orientation of striped newts (Notophthalmus perstriatus) at a breeding pond in northern Florida, USA. Newts entered (immigration) and exited (emigration) the pond basin in a nonrandom fashion but no obvious effects of upland habitat were apparent. Patterns of emigration and immigration differed significantly between sexes, life-history stages, and migration events. Individuals tended to exit and enter the pond basin within the same quadrant, sometimes leaving and returning at the same point. Newts moved hundreds of meters into the sandhill uplands surrounding the pond. I found an inverse relationship between the proportion of newts migrating and distance from the pond. Nonetheless, I estimated that at least 16% of individuals breeding at the pond migrated in excess of 500 m from the pond. Thus, a core of protected upland with a radius of approximately 800 m from the pond would be needed to preserve the area used by the vast majority of individuals that breed at the pond. These data underscore the need to study upland habitat requirements for amphibians; findings for one taxon (e.g. ambystomatids) may not be applicable to others (e.g., salamandrids). Without such data, designating terrestrial core habitat to conserve aquatic-breeding amphibians will be difficult or impossible. However, without better protection of small, isolated wetlands, arguments to preserve surrounding uplands are irrelevant.

Johnson, S.A.

2003-01-01

267

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0m2 and a depth of 1.5m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16°27?N102°E). Heat was successfully extracted

Sura Tundee; Pradit Terdtoon; Phrut Sakulchangsatjatai; Randeep Singh; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

2010-01-01

268

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m² and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E).

Sura Tundee; Pradit Terdtoon; Phrut Sakulchangsatjatai; Randeep Singh; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

2010-01-01

269

The importance of allochthonous litter input on the biomass of an alien crayfish in farm ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of allochthonous litter input on the population density of invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in Japanese farm ponds, we analyzed gut contents, stable isotope ratios, and the correlation between crayfish biomass and\\u000a environmental factors in the ponds. For our correlation analysis, we used Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) corrected for\\u000a small sample size (AICC) to select

Raita Kobayashi; Yasunori Maezono; Tadashi Miyashita

2011-01-01

270

Environmental Services from Agricultural Stormwater Detention Systems in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural Stormwater Detention Areas (ADAs) commonly exist for the purpose of downstream flood protection in high water table regions of Florida. In addition to flood protection, they are also considered an important Best Management Practice due to their presumed effectiveness in reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades (KLE) ecosystem. The KLE ecosystem has been adversely impacted due to excessive P loads. Despite their presumed water quality effectiveness, limited data exist on actual N and P treatment efficiencies. A study was conducted at two ADAs (ADA 1 and ADA 2) located in two row crop farms to quantify the total N and P treatment efficiencies. Water, N, and P inflow and outflows at both ADAs were monitored for a year. Results from ADA 1 suggested that P treatment efficiency was below zero indicating that the ADA was a source of P rather than a sink. On the other hand, N treatment efficiency was found to be 20%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 1 were 1.6 and 1.4 mg/l respectively, indicating a 9% reduction. Mean inflow and outflow P concentrations were 0.04 and 0.06 mg/l respectively, showing an increase of 67%. Although ADA 1 was effective in retaining N it was not for P. In contrast to ADA 1, the P treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was positive (20%). Nitrogen treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was 22%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 2 were 4.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively, indicating 50% reduction. A reduction of 32% was observed for P concentrations with mean inflow and outflow P concentrations of 0.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively. No P retention at ADA 1 was mainly due to low P adsorption capacity of the soil. Analysis of surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) soil P retention characteristics suggested that ADA 1 had no remaining P storage capacity which resulted in it being a source of P. At ADA 2, a large fraction of the area still had P storage capacity which resulted in positive treatment efficiency. Several modifications were identified for the two ADAs to increase N and P treatment efficiencies. These modifications include increasing the travel time, available water storage, changing inflow locations, modifying outlet control structure and biomass harvesting. Biomass harvesting has the potential to make these systems play an important role in providing environmental services. The harvested biomass can not only remove N and P from the system but also acts as a source of bioenergy feedstock. Biomass N and P storage at ADA 2 suggested that harvesting of easily accessible biomass could account for removal of 157 kg from the ADA which accounts for 76% of the annual P retention. Biomass harvesting can become a potential source of additional income for producers for providing the environmental services of not only additional nutrient treatment but also bioenergy. The comparison between these two ADAs suggested that the P treatment by these systems can vary considerably depending on hydraulic, hydrologic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. Future research needs for making these systems provide additional environmental services such as increased P treatment, bioenergy, and carbon sequestration were identified.

Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Knowles, J. M.

2011-12-01

271

Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth values ranging from 15 to 30 cm. The values of other environmental variables were significantly correlated with high correlations among Ca, Mg and Sr (r = 0.89 to 0.92). Similar to Duff et al. (1999) significant but weak correlations were found between conductivity, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and DOC values. While arctic pond ecosystems are highly sensitive to the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation, such elevated DOC values in the study ponds might contribute to better resilience of the pond ecosystem.

Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

2010-05-01

272

The old trout Salmo trutta in the pond.  

PubMed

The last of 12 brown trout Salmo trutta stocked in a small pond in south-east Norway in 1979 were caught in July 2011. These fish represent a curiosity regarding longevity and growth pattern, and ageing from otoliths was consistent with the known life history of this specimen. Despite almost total stagnation in growth since the age of 16?years, the testes were fully developed. PMID:23639165

Kraabøl, M; Fjeld, G; Johnsen, S I; Dokk, J G; Dervo, B K; Skurdal, J

2013-05-01

273

Distribution and abundance of macroinvertebrates within two temporary ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distributions of macroinvertebrates within two temporary ponds (Spring Peeper Pond and Taylor-Ochs Pond) in central Ohio and examined what environmental factors may be driving those distributions. We sampled macroinvertebrates in Spring Peeper Pond three times from May to July 2001, and Taylor-Ochs Pond two times from May to June 2001. Macroinvertebrate distributions were significantly aggregated on all

Geoffrey R. Smith; David A. Vaala; Haley A. Dingfelder

2003-01-01

274

Rotenone Resistance of Golden Shiners from a Periodically Reclaimed Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) generally reinrested Ball Pond, New Fairfield, Connecticut in greater numbers after each of six successive rotenone reclamations carried out from 1957 to 1974. To determine if Ball Pond golden shiners had developed resistance to rotenone, paired bioassays were completed with golden shiners from Ball Pond and from seven comparison ponds. Based on tolerance ratios, Ball Pond

Robert D. Orciari

1979-01-01

275

Review of SERI solar pond work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides documentation of SERI's solar pond research effort, which began in 1979. The SERI staff analyzed solar pond topics from modeling and feasibility studies to laboratory experiments on physical properties and hydrodynamical stability. The SERI's perspective on the maturity of this solar technology is described, including the technical state-of-the-art of salt-gradient solar ponds, state of knowledge of pond design, estimated cost ranges for various locations and applications, and perceived barriers to commercial development. Recommendations for future work are also presented. The SERI research and development on solar ponds is described, emphasizing analytical and experimental tools developed at SERI. All AERI and subcontract reports dealing with solar ponds or related system components are summarized, and a bibliography is provided.

Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

1985-07-01

276

Nitrogen Fertilization of Golden Shiner Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate were used as nitrogen fertilizers in 0.1-ha ponds stocked with golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas at Auburn, Alabama. Biweekly from 30 March to 15 October 1999, 9 kg P2O5\\/ha from triple superphosphate and 9 kg N\\/ha were applied to treatment ponds. Control ponds were treated only with biweekly applications of triple superphosphate at 9 kg P2O5\\/ha.

Yalcin Tepe; Claude E. Boyd

2002-01-01

277

Assessment and Corrective Management for Fish Populations in Small Impoundments.  

E-print Network

typical pond, otherwise bass may be overharvested allowing overpopulation by forage species. If owners of small ponds insist on managing for bass despite this drawback, care must be taken to release almost all bass caught. Likewise, muddy ponds..., forage may again overpopulate, due to the inability of bass to limit their numbers. A fisheries biologist can outline the steps necessary to achieve adequate water clarity for bass management. Ponds larger than one surface acre provide more options...

Anonymous,

1985-01-01

278

Pond age and riparian zone proximity influence anuran occupancy of urban retention ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is widespread throughout the United States and negatively affects many wildlife populations. However, certain\\u000a urban features, such as retention ponds, may provide habitat for some species, such as amphibians. This study examines the\\u000a influence of riparian zone proximity and pond age on retention pond occupancy by anurans. We identified and estimated the\\u000a age of 25 retention ponds near Charlotte,

Devynn A. Birx-Raybuck; Steven J. Price; Michael E. Dorcas

2010-01-01

279

A solar-pond power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar pond power plants are discussed in light of the construction and operation of an experimental 150-kW installation in Ein Bokek, Israel. The principle of the collection and storage of solar energy in salt ponds where the salinity increases with depth is introduced, and the six polar ponds constructed by Israel since 1960 to test the theory of solar pond energy conversion are indicated. The facilities and operation of the Ein Bokek plant, which utilizes a 75,000 sq m, 2.5-m deep pond in which the bottom temperature reaches 93 C, are presented, and the design of a basic nonconvecting solar pond for a 20 MW electric power plant is examined, with attention given to the water layers, pumps, evaporator, organic vapor turbogenerator and condenser. The performance characteristics of solar pond power plants, which can be started up in a few minutes and deliver up to ten times or more of their rated output power, are pointed out as the basis for the suggestion that they can be used initially as peaking plants in the power grid. The future plans of the Israeli solar pond program, which expects to be supplying up to 2000 MW by the year 2000, are outlined, and potential sites for solar pond installations in other countries are indicated.

Bronicki, Y. L.

1981-02-01

280

Review of SERI Solar Pond Work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

1984-01-01

281

Modeling nitrogen removal in water hyacinth ponds receiving effluent from waste stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a dynamic model to predict nitrogen removal in water hyacinth ponds (WHPs) receiving effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). The model is based on the biofilm reaction on the root surface of plant and pond walls. The model consists of mass balances of six main substrates including: particulate organic nitrogen (PON), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), ammonium (NH4+), nitrite

Qitao Yi; Chinhyu Hur; Youngchul Kim

2009-01-01

282

Beyond best management practices: pelagic biogeochemical dynamics in urban stormwater ponds.  

PubMed

Urban stormwater ponds are considered to be a best management practice for flood control and the protection of downstream aquatic ecosystems from excess suspended solids and other contaminants. Following this, urban ponds are assumed to operate as unreactive settling basins, whereby their overall effectiveness in water treatment is strictly controlled by physical processes. However, pelagic microbial biogeochemical dynamics could be significant contributors to nutrient and carbon cycling in these small, constructed aquatic systems. In the present study, we examined pelagic biogeochemical dynamics in 26 stormwater ponds located in southern Ontario, Canada, during late summer. Initially, we tested to see if total suspended solids (TSS) concentration, which provides a measure of catchment disturbance, landscape stability, and pond performance, could be used as an indirect predictor of plankton stocks in stormwater ponds. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using TSS as a surrogate for external loading suggested that TSS was an imperfect predictor. TSS masked plankton-nutrient relationships and appeared to reflect autochthonous production moreso than external forces. When TSS was excluded, the SEM model explained a large amount of the variation in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics (55-75%) but a small amount of the variation in plankton stocks (3-38%). Plankton stocks were correlated positively with particulate nutrients and extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting rapid recycling of the fixed nutrient and carbon pool with consequential effects on DOM. DOM characteristics across the ponds were mainly of autochthonous origin. Humic matter from the watershed formed a larger part of the DOM pool only in ponds with low productivity and low dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Our results suggest that in these small, high nutrient systems internal processes might outweigh the impact of the landscape on carbon cycles. Hence, the overall benefit that constructed ponds serve to protect downstream environments must be weighed with the biogeochemical processes that take place within the water body, which could offset pond water quality gains by supporting intense microbial metabolism. Finally, TSS did not provide a useful indication of stormwater pond biogeochemistry and was biased by autochthonous production, which could lead to erroneous TSS-based management conclusions regarding pond performance. PMID:24147410

Williams, Clayton J; Frost, Paul C; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

2013-09-01

283

Assessing optical earth observation systems for mapping and monitoring temporary ponds in arid areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing methods for locating and monitoring temporary ponds over large areas in arid lands were tested on a study site in Northern Senegal. Three main results are presented, validated with field data and intended to highlight different spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the methods: (1) Among several water indices tested, two Middle Infrared-based indices (MNDWI—Modified Normalized Difference Water Index and NDWI 1—Normalized Difference Water Index) are found to be most efficient; (2) an objective method is given prescribing the necessary sensor spatial resolution in terms of minimal detected pond area; and (3) the potential of multi-temporal MODIS imagery for tracking the filling phases of small ponds is illustrated. These results should assist in epidemiological studies of vector-borne diseases that develop around these ponds, but also more generally for land and water management and preservation of threatened ecosystems in arid areas.

Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Puech, Christian; Seen, Danny Lo; Bégué, Agnes

2009-10-01

284

From Pond Scum to Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated slideshow introduces biodiesel as a fuel alternative. With concern about the use of petroleum-based fuels at an all-time high, biodiesel is experiencing a popularity surge. And algaeâotherwise known to some as pond scumâ are grabbing headlines as the next potential biodiesel superstar. But how and why do algae make oil? And why do they make so much of it? In this audio slide show, U.C. Berkeley's Kris Niyogi describes the process and its potential.

Salpietra, Melissa; Sciencenow, Nova

285

Academic potential among African American adolescents in juvenile detention centers: Implications for reentry to school  

PubMed Central

The study explores Black adolescent detainees academic potential and motivation to return to school to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from one male and one female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed post-detention educational plans, as well as social and emotional characteristics, and criminal history. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to compare factors across race and gender, and plot linear relationships between key indicators of academic potential with associate factors. Findings revealed that youth were more likely to evince academic potential when they had a healthy level of self-esteem, adequate future goal orientation, positive mood, family and community involvement, fewer traumatic events, and less delinquent activity. PMID:21654936

Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.

2010-01-01

286

Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonindigenous Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus is established in west-central Florida, where it invades tropical ornamental fish production ponds. The economically valuable ornamental fish industry (US$42 million in 2003) is dominated by the production of small-bodied fishes cultured at high densities in small, earthen ponds. Although introduced Asian swamp eels have been described as voracious predators of fish, to

Jeffrey E. Hill; Craig A. Watson

2007-01-01

287

Heat rejection and energy extraction within solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the heat transfer and fluid flow processes governing heat rejection to the surface layer and energy extraction from the storage zone has been carried out. The literature available on this and other related problems was studied in detail to determine the nature of the recirculating flows that arise and the effect they might have on the stability of the gradient layer. Simplified analytical models were considered to determine the governing parameters and their effect on the performance and efficiency of the solar pond. Estimates of the surface temperature rise and the increase in evaporation caused by heat rejection were made. Two flow configurations, end-to-end and top-to-bottom, were considered for every extraction and the spread of the flow in the storage zone was studied. It was found that the limited penetration of the top-to-bottom configuration restricts its satisfactory operation to small ponds.

Jaluria, Y.

1982-02-01

288

State-of-the-art review of solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides a brief but concise review of solar pond technologies and their potential for application within the military. The report covers salt gradient solar ponds (SGSP), shallow solar ponds (SSP), saltless convecting solar ponds, gel ponds, viscosity stabilized ponds, and membrane ponds. In addition, several criteria were evaluated with respect to solar ponds. These included reliability, maintainability, efficiency, survivability, environmental impact and economics. Research and development requirements and ongoing activities were also summarized. This report documents one of several ongoing state-of-the-art reviews of solar technologies performed by an Air Force liaison office with the Department of Energy.

Tolbert, W. A.

1981-04-01

289

Psychometric Status and Clinical Utility of the MAYSI-2 with Girls and Boys in Juvenile Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study replicates and extends studies of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in a sample of 479 urban, rural, and suburban 12–16 year old youths (68% boys; 41% African American, 23% Latino)\\u000a consecutively admitted to juvenile detention centers. Six principal components replicated the MAYSI-2 factor-analytically-derived\\u000a subscales except for Depression\\/Anxiety, and suggested modifications of specific items in each sub-scale.

Julian D. Ford; John F. Chapman; Geraldine Pearson; Randy Borum; Jennifer Meltzer Wolpaw

2008-01-01

290

COMMUNITY JUSTICE IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN QUEENSLAND: PROSPECTS FOR KEEPING YOUNG PEOPLE OUT OF DETENTION 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper ,examines ,the establishment ,and ,operation ,of the ,pioneering ,Aboriginal community,justice initiatives at Palm ,Island and Kowanyama ,in Queensland ,and their prospects for realising sustained reductions in youth detention and recidivism. To date, their have been encouraging,results suggesting that community,control and self-management ,can beof great benefit in crime prevention, conflict resolution and offender management in remote Aboriginal communities.

Paul Chantrill

291

Visual evoked potentials in relation to factors of imprisonment in detention camps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of the pattern shift reversal type were determined in a representative group of 57 prisoners of war (POWs) released in 1992 from detention camps in former Yugoslavia. The parameters were correlated with the conditions in four camps (1–4). All subjects were male, with a mean age of 34.75 years (SD ± 8.92), average length of imprisonment

A. Vrca; V. Bozikov; Z. Brzovi?; R. Fuchs; M. Malinar

1996-01-01

292

Reaffirming Rights: Human Rights Protections of Migrants, Asylum Seekers, and Refugees in Immigration Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR) addresses migrants’ rights in a variety of contexts, and this paper looks closely at some of the most crucial rights that apply to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers who are held in immigration detention.\\u000aMigrants, refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to a broad range of rights protections. These protections are spelled out

Eleanor Acer; Jake Goodman

2010-01-01

293

Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

2009-01-01

294

100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

Petersen, S.W.

1997-09-01

295

Get the Turtle to the Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online applet provides for creative problem solving while encouraging young students to estimate length. Using the Turtle Pond Applet, students will direct the turtle to the pond by choosing a sequence of commands. Then the student will select play and watch the turtle move along the path as directed by the commands.

Illuminations, Nctm

2012-07-10

296

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

297

Western Pond Turtle Recovery Columbia Gorge  

E-print Network

: Supplement Existing Populations When Needed. · Evaluate natural reproduction · Monitor survival · Continue Populations · Status of Introduced Populations · Age Distributions · Reproductive Success · Distribution pond turtle survival and productivity. Enhance, restore, maintain, and manage western pond turtle

298

Organic Materials as Fertilizers for Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fish in ponds can be increased by the use of organic fertilizers such as cottonseed meal and soybean meal, and productivity can be further increased by the addition of superphosphate to these meals. From the standpoint of fish production alone, such organic materials are worthy of consideration as fertilizers for fish ponds.There are certain limitations to the

E. V. Smith; H. S. Swingle

1943-01-01

299

USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS  

EPA Science Inventory

We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

300

Solar pond technology for Navy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the Navy and Marine Corps bases have potential for thermal solar pond systems that can cost-effectively displace existing thermal and electrical loads. The salt-gradient solar pond offers a simple method of collecting solar insulation while providing its own storage medium for the energy collected. The economic attractiveness of a solar pond is enhanced by this feature; however, the viability of a given application is dependent on site attributes and requirements. For the salt-gradient solar pond, site specific features such as solar radiation, siting area, type of load to be displaced, and availability of salt, clay, and water are important factors affecting the success of each application. An investigation of current salt-gradient solar pond technology was conducted and a preliminary technical and economic analysis was performed for a proposed application at the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Barstow, California.

Huang, L. C. P.; Major, W. R.

1985-04-01

301

The use of local indicators of spatial association to improve LiDAR-derived predictions of potential amphibian breeding ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined whether spatially explicit information improved models that use LiDAR return signal intensity to discriminate in-pond habitat from terrestrial habitat at 24 amphibian breeding ponds. The addition of Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) to LiDAR return intensity data significantly improved predictive models at all ponds, reduced residual error by as much as 74%, and appeared to improve models by reducing classification errors associated with types of in-pond vegetation. We conclude that LISA statistics can help maximize the information content that can be extracted from time resolved LiDAR return data in models that predict the occurrence of small, seasonal ponds. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

Julian, J.T.; Young, J.A.; Jones, J.W.; Snyder, C.D.; Wright, C.W.

2009-01-01

302

Ecology of tundra ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

The Arctic Coastal Plain is a flat or gently rolling area of tundra which covers the entire coastal region of northern Alaska. This profile synthesizes data on the ecology of the thousands of small shallow ponds that form an important wetland community on the tundra. These polygonal ponds are formed by the freezing, thawing, and cracking of the perma-frost. Nutrient concentrations and rates of supply to the water column are controlled by interactions with the iron-rich peat sediments. Iron concentrations control phosphorus concentrations and these in turn control the growth of algae. Two fringing emergent vascular plants, Carex and Arctophila, are often the most important primary producers in the ponds. Most algae and higher plant biomass is decomposed by microbes in a detrital food web concentrated in the pond sediments. Chironomid larvae, oligochaete worms and other insects are the dominant benthic animals. Because the ponds freeze to the bottom each winter they contain no fish; however, the community is important for many species of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds that use the ponds for feeding and breeding. Activities associated with oil production, including spills, roads, and off-road vehicles, are the major issues facing managers of this wetland community. 63 references.

Hobbie, J.E.

1984-06-01

303

Stable density stratification solar pond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

Lansing, F. L. (inventor)

1985-01-01

304

Antibiotic resistance from wastewater oxidation ponds.  

PubMed

In an extensive, multiyear study of antibiotic resistance from wastewater oxidation ponds, five mobile home park wastewater oxidation ponds in Clarke and Oconee counties were shown to be discharging high numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the waterways of North Georgia. This effluent contributed to higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliform levels in creeks downstream from the ponds. A survey of residents revealed that many people did not complete their antibiotic prescriptions, and the majority flushed leftover antibiotic medications down the toilet. In the pond discharges, resistance was found to eighteen antibiotics: amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, apramycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, kanamycin, naladixic acid, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and tetracycline. The discharged bacteria contained both integrons and plasmids, the latter being transferable to a laboratory strain of Escherichia coil (E. coli). A turtle was found living at a pond discharge site with multiply-antibiotic-resistant bacteria in its feces. Last year, RNA fingerprinting conclusively documented the survival of three multiply-resistant important pathogenic bacteria. Ceftriaxone-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aerogenosa and a ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli were traced through oxidation pond stages and into the discharge, thus documenting that the pathogens survived the treatment process. In addition, a potential pathogen, a serotype group D Salmonella spp., was found in the discharge. In this study, tetracycline-resistance genes C and G were detected in the first and second stages of the oxidation pond and the discharge went directly into the environment. These genes are generally found in intestinal bacteria, so it can be inferred that they are from a human source. Antimicrobial residue from the beta-lactam family of antibiotics was found in all oxidation pond stages and in the creek above the pond. Tetracycline residue was found in the first and second stages of the pond. In addition to the antibiotics, genes coding for antibiotic resistance and the antibiotics themselves were documented to survive oxidation pond treatment. Tetracycline-resistant genes were identified in the oxidation pond stages and in the discharge going into the environment. A model was also developed to study oxidation pond function in the laboratory. A biofilm was created using a highly antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium 3/97, and pond water was added. The biofilm was processed via a rotating disk bioreactor specifically designed to study biofilms in nature, but with conditions that were more favorable to bacterial inhibition than those in nature. Cultures revealed that, under these optimal conditions, S. typhimurium 3/97 was still present in this in vitro system. Thus, the competitive inhibition process that helps to remove bacteria in oxidation ponds did not effectively remove an important bacterium, S. typhimurium 3/97, in this mock oxidation pond. The bioreactor model developed in this study can be used to further investigate discharges from oxidation ponds. From this data, it is apparent that the problem is two-fold. A cost-effective technique must be developed that inactivates antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oxidation pond discharges and also removes the antibiotics. A public awareness campaign was initiated by the author to encourage proper use and disposal of antibiotics, as flushing them is a common practice in the United States. PMID:16381146

Mispagel, Heather; Gray, Jeffrey T

2005-01-01

305

Heat rejection and energy extraction within solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

A study of the heat transfer and fluid flow processes governing heat rejection to the surface layer and energy extraction from the storage zone has been carried out. The literature available on this and other related problems was studied in detail to determine the nature of the recirculating flows that arise and the effect they might have on the stability of the gradient layer. Simplified analytical models were considered to determine the governing parameters and their effect on the performance and efficiency of the solar pond. Estimates of the surface temperature rise and the increase in evaporation caused by heat rejection were made. Two flow configurations, end-to-end and top-to-bottom, were considered for every extraction and the spread of the flow in the storage zone was studied. It was found that the limited penetration of the top-to-bottom configuration restricts its satisfactory operation to small ponds. The experimental modeling of the flows under study was considered in terms of the governing parameters and it was found that the top-to-bottom configuration cannot be uniquely modeled. The choice of these parameters for a full-size pond is also discussed.

Jaluria, Y.

1982-02-01

306

Solar perspectives - Israel, solar pond innovator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing and planned solar pond electricity producing power plants in Israel and California are discussed. Salt ponds, with salinity increasing with depth, are coupled with low temperature, organic working fluid Rankine cycle engines to form self-storage, nonpolluting, electric plants. Average pond thermal gradients range from 25 C surface to 90 C at the bottom; 160 GW of potential power have been projected as currently available from existing natural solar ponds from a partial survey of 14 countries. The largest installation to date has a 220 kW output, and a 5 MW plant is scheduled for completion in 1983. Efficiencies of 10% and a cost of $2,000/kW for a 40 MW plant are projected, a cost which is comparable to that of conventional plants. The 40 MW plant is an optimized design, allowing for modular plant additions to increase capacity.

Winsberg, S.

1981-07-01

307

DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual provides a concise overview of wastewater stabilization pond systems through discussion of factors affecting treatment, process design principles and applications, aspects of physical design and construction, suspended solids removal alternatives, and cost and energy r...

308

Sealing Ponds and Lakes with Bentonite  

E-print Network

Some Texas subsoils allow rapid seepage of water from ponds, lakes or reservoirs. Bentonite can be applied to stop seepage. This leaflet explains the blanket, mixed blanket and sprinkle methods of bentonite application and includes methods...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2003-04-01

309

Interdisciplinary Field Investigations of a Campus Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The primary activity described here is measurement of sub-surface water properties in a local pond (e.g., temperature and dissolved oxygen). This activity combines concepts and skills from Geology, Biology and Chemistry.

Barber, Don

310

This Pond Is Not for Ducks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest development in solar energy is a four-acre pond planned for Clark College in Vancouver (Washington). Filled with brine, it will serve both as collector and heat storage tank for the entire campus. (Author)

American School and University, 1980

1980-01-01

311

Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond surfaces. These compounds are highly reactive and, because of their relatively high water solubility, tend to concentrate in produced water. The average methanol emission rate from unfrozen pond surfaces was more than 100 mg m-2 h-1. Methanol, used as an antifreeze and anti-scaler in the oil and gas industry, is abundant during winter inversions in the Uintah Basin and may also be a significant precursor to ozone production. Total VOC and methanol emissions from produced water ponds during winter were estimated to be 178 and 83 tons month-1, respectively, for the entire Uintah Basin.

Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

2013-12-01

312

An Examination and Replication of the Psychometric Properties of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Edition (MAYSI-2) Among Adolescents in Detention Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high prevalence of psychological disorders among adolescents in detention facilities. The need for a simple, effective screening tool led to the development of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI) and its successor, the MAYSI-2. This study evaluated the MAYSI-2 psychometric properties based on the records of 704 youths evaluated at intake to detention facilities. In addition to

Robert P. Archer; Rebecca Vauter Stredny; John A. Mason; Randolph C. Arnau

2004-01-01

313

Developing Learning Identities in and through Music: A Case Study of the Outcomes of a Music Programme in an Australian Juvenile Detention Centre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decades have witnessed significant growth in music programmes targeted at various populations in detention, including those in male and female prisons and juvenile detention centres. The aspirations of such programmes have included a concern to improve detainees' mental and physical health and well-being, develop pro-social behaviours…

Barrett, Margaret S.; Baker, Jane S.

2012-01-01

314

Questioning the Utility and Fairness of Immigration and Naturalization Service DetentionCriticisms of Poor Institutional Conditions and Protracted Periods of Confinement for Undocumented Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the immigration crisis escalates, Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) officials have responded with several measures designed to reduce illegal immigration. In particular, INS has increased the use of detention for purpose of deterrence, a policy that has stirred controversy among immigration experts. Critics of INS policy insist that for most undocumented immigrants, detention is unnecessary; moreover, critics charge that

MICHAEL WELCH

1997-01-01

315

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

SciTech Connect

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-05

316

Restoring ponds for amphibians: a success story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale restoration of quality habitats is often considered essential for the recovery of threatened pond-breeding amphibians\\u000a but only a few successful cases are documented, so far. We describe a landscape-scale restoration project targeted at two\\u000a declining species—the crested newt (Triturus cristatus Laur.) and the common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus Wagler)—in six protected areas in southern and southeastern Estonia. The ponds

R. Rannap; A. Lõhmus; L. Briggs

2009-01-01

317

Restoring ponds for amphibians: a success story  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Large-scale restoration of quality habitats is often considered essential for the recovery of threatened pond-breeding amphibians\\u000a but only a few successful cases are documented, so far. We describe a landscape-scale restoration project targeted at two\\u000a declining species—the crested newt (Triturus cristatus Laur.) and the common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus Wagler)—in six protected areas in southern and southeastern Estonia. The ponds

R. Rannap; A. Lõhmus; L. Briggs

318

Material Selection Considerations for Solar Ponds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among the various candidate materials tested, stainless steel shows the best potential for applications as heat exchanger components in solar ponds. Even stainless steel may lead to pitting type of corrosion. Weight loss measurements are probably unsatisfactory for corrosion evaluation in solar pond situations. Also included are the results from the potentiodynamic anodic polarization analysis, corrosion rate calculation via corrosion behavior diagrams, and immersion weight loss measurements.

Sastri, S.; Vaidyanathan, T. K.; Marsh, H. E.; French, R. L.

1984-01-01

319

Material selection consideration for solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the various candidate materials tested, stainless steel shows the best potential for applications as heat exchanger components in solar ponds. Even stainless steel may lead to pitting type of corrosion. Weight loss measurements are probably unsatisfactory for corrosion evaluation in solar pond situations. Also included are the results from the potentiodynamic anodic polarization analysis, corrosion rate calculation via corrosion behavior diagrams, and immersion weight loss measurements.

Sastri, S.; Vaidyanathan, T. K.; Marsh, H. E.; French, R. L.

1984-09-01

320

LilyPond 2.11  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you want to add a touch of elegance to your chaconne, gavotte, or just a plain old ditty, LilyPond 2.11 is an application worth taking an interest in. Visitors can use the application to typeset popular music, or also have the program convert existing music notation into a format that is both crisp and elegant. The LilyPond site contains an introduction, a FAQ section, and a few testimonials. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2008-09-25

321

Pond conservation: from science to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Europe, ponds are an exceptionally numerous and widely distributed landscape feature forming a major part of the continental\\u000a freshwater resource and contributing significantly to freshwater biodiversity conservation. This has been reflected by a growing\\u000a scientific concern over the first few years of the twenty-first century and is evidenced by an increasing number of academic\\u000a publications on pond related topics,

Beat Oertli; Régis Céréghino; Andrew Hull; Rosa Miracle

322

Pond conservation: from science to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, ponds are an exceptionally numerous and widely distributed landscape feature forming a major part of the continental\\u000a freshwater resource and contributing significantly to freshwater biodiversity conservation. This has been reflected by a growing\\u000a scientific concern over the first few years of the twenty-first century and is evidenced by an increasing number of academic\\u000a publications on pond related topics,

Beat Oertli; Régis Céréghino; Andrew Hull; Rosa Miracle

2009-01-01

323

Computational fluid dynamics modelling of flow and particulate contaminants sedimentation in an urban stormwater detention and settling basin.  

PubMed

Sedimentation is a common but complex phenomenon in the urban drainage system. The settling mechanisms involved in detention basins are still not well understood. The lack of knowledge on sediment transport and settling processes in actual detention basins is still an obstacle to the optimization of the design and the management of the stormwater detention basins. In order to well understand the sedimentation processes, in this paper, a new boundary condition as an attempt to represent the sedimentation processes based on particle tracking approach is presented. The proposed boundary condition is based on the assumption that the flow turbulent kinetic energy near the bottom plays an important role on the sedimentation processes. The simulated results show that the proposed boundary condition appears as a potential capability to identify the preferential sediment zones and to predict the trapping efficiency of the basin during storm events. PMID:24390197

Yan, Hexiang; Lipeme Kouyi, Gislain; Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Sebastian, Christel; Barraud, Sylvie; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

2014-04-01

324

Management of a detention-settling basin using radar data and risk notion.  

PubMed

This paper presents a practical application of sewage network management strategy using radar data to control a detention-settling basin. This practical application, used in operational mode since January 2000, is based on three main notions. Firstly, the use of radar data without rainfall estimation. Secondly, the definition of some gradual risk levels for the sewage network by a detailed modelling of the sewage system functioning. Thirdly the definition of relations between risk levels for the sewage network and types of rain events defined from radar data. The operational application produces gradual alarms for decision-making assistance: no risk, potential risk and confirmed risk. PMID:11888179

Faure, D; Auchet, P; Payrastre, O

2002-01-01

325

Human rights, dual loyalties, and clinical independence : challenges facing mental health professionals working in Australia's immigration detention network.  

PubMed

Although Australia has comparatively few individuals seeking asylum, it has had a mandatory detention policy in place since 1992. This policy has been maintained by successive governments despite the overwhelmingly negative impact mandatory detention has on mental health. For mental health professionals working in this environment, a number of moral, ethical, and human rights issues are raised. These issues are discussed here, with a focus on dual loyalty conflicts and drawing on personal experience, the bioethics and human rights literature, and recent parliamentary inquiries. For those who continue to work in this environment, future directions are also discussed. PMID:24363197

Essex, Ryan

2014-03-01

326

Rabies death attributed to exposure in Central America with symptom onset in a U.S. detention facility - Texas, 2013.  

PubMed

On June 7, 2013, a man was diagnosed in a Texas hospital with rabies. He had been detained in a U.S. detention facility during his infectious period. To identify persons exposed to rabies who might require rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), CDC and the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) conducted investigations at four detention facilities, one medical clinic, and two hospitals. In all, 25 of 742 persons assessed for rabies exposure were advised to receive PEP. Early diagnosis of rabies is essential for implementation of appropriate hospital infection control measures and for rapid assessment of potential contacts for PEP recommendations. PMID:24848216

Wallace, Ryan M; Bhavnani, Darlene; Russell, John; Zaki, Sherif; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Hayden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Aplícano, Ricardo Mena; Peruski, Leonard; Vora, Neil M; Balter, Sharon; Elson, Diana; Lederman, Edith; Leeson, Ben; McLaughlin, Thomas; Waterman, Steve; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Blanton, Jesse; Franka, Richard; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Niezgoda, Michael; Orciari, Lillian; Recuenco, Sergio; Damon, Inger; Hanlon, Cathleen; Jackson, Felix; Dyer, Jessie; Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Robinson, Laura

2014-05-23

327

Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

2010-12-01

328

A case study of enteric virus removal and insights into the associated risk of water reuse for two wastewater treatment pond systems in Bolivia.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment ponds (WTP) are one of the most widespread treatment technologies in the world; however, the mechanisms and extent of enteric virus removal in these systems are poorly understood. Two WTP systems in Bolivia, with similar overall hydraulic retention times but different first stages of treatment, were analyzed for enteric virus removal. One system consisted of a facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds (three-pond system) and the other consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by two maturation (polishing) ponds (UASB-pond system). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was used to measure concentrations of norovirus, rotavirus, and pepper mild mottle virus, while cell culture methods were used to measure concentrations of culturable enteroviruses (EV). Limited virus removal was observed with RT-qPCR in either system; however, the three-pond system removed culturable EV with greater efficiency than the UASB-pond system. The majority of viruses were not associated with particles and only a small proportion was associated with particles larger than 180 ?m; thus, it is unlikely that sedimentation is a major mechanism of virus removal. High concentrations of viruses were associated with particles between 0.45 and 180 ?m in the UASB reactor effluent, but not in the facultative pond effluent. The association of viruses with this size class of particles may explain why only minimal virus removal was observed in the UASB-pond system. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of the treated effluent for reuse for restricted irrigation indicated that the three-pond system effluent requires an additional 1- to 2-log10 reduction of viruses to achieve the WHO health target of <10(-4) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per person per year; however, the UASB-pond system effluent may require an additional 2.5- to 4.5-log10 reduction of viruses. PMID:25129566

Symonds, E M; Verbyla, M E; Lukasik, J O; Kafle, R C; Breitbart, M; Mihelcic, J R

2014-11-15

329

Adult fish and ichthyoplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to characterize the fish community of Par Pond and investigate the relative impacts of thermal effects, trophic effects and other factors on the ecology of Par Pond fishes. This report presents data collected from the first six months of the study. 18 figs., 16 tabs. (ACR)

Paller, M.; O'Hara, J.; Hughes, D.

1985-04-01

330

Sport fishery potential of power plant cooling ponds: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research was undertaken to determine if cooling ponds could serve as habitat for several coolwater fish species and also to evaluate the potential use of cooling ponds as nursery areas for receiving waters. The work was conducted on two cooling ponds in northern Illinois. Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), striped bass (Morone saxatilis) fingerlings, and adult threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) were stocked into both cooling ponds. The hybrids between the striped bass and white bass (M. chrysops) had been previously stocked into Collins Pond. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) fingerlings and larval striped bass and walleye were stocked in Dresden Pond. Several sampling techniques including seining, electrofishing, and rotenoning were used to monitor growth and survival of stocked species. In addition, escapement of stocked and indigenous species was monitored at the Dresden Pond spillway. Walleye, muskellunge, striped bass and hybrid striped bass exhibited excellent growth in Collins Pond as did smallmouth bass in Dresden Pond. One of the primary differences between an open system (such as Dresden Pond) and a closed system (such as Collins Pond) is the potential that the open system has to serve as a fish nursery area for receiving waters. The stocking of ''coolwater'' species in a closed type system such as Collins Pond is an effective way to control and maintain selected sport species. Dresden Pond was not open to public fishing during this study, but Collins Pond developed an excellent sport fishery as a result of these stockings.

Heidinger, R.C.; Lewis, W.M.

1986-10-01

331

Invasion by the tufted duck Aythya fuligula into a pond area: implications of diffuse competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 20th century the Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) showed an expansion of its distribution to the west in Europe. We present data for a small fish pond system in northern Bavaria indicating that the Tufted Duck is not fully integrated in the already established communities. The possible mechanism producing this effect seems to be “diffuse competition” by a set

Roland Brandl; Klaus Schmidtke

1983-01-01

332

Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

1977-01-01

333

Differences between blood cells of juvenile and adult specimens of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood cells (amoebocytes) of juvenile and adult specimens of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were compared. Juvenile snails contain fewer circulating amoebocytes per µl haemolymph. However, a higher percentage of these cells shows mitotic activity, as determined by incorporation of 3H-thymidine in vitro. Relatively more amoebocytes of juvenile snails have the characteristics of less differentiated cells: they are small and

Ronald Dikkeboom; Wil P. W. Knaap; Elisabeth A. Meuleman; Taede Sminia

1984-01-01

334

Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

2013-04-01

335

Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis Liquid Oxygen Prevalve Detent Roller Cracking Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During routine inspections of the Space Shuttle's Main Propulsion System (MPS) Liquid Oxygen (LO2) pre-valve, the mechanism provided to maintain the valve in the open position was found cracked. The mechanism is a Vespel roller held against the valve visor by a stack of Belleville springs. The roller has been found cracked 3 times. All three instances were in the same valve in the same location. There are 6 pre-valves on each orbiter, and only one has exhibited this problem. Every-flight inspections were instituted and the rollers were found to be cracked after only one flight. Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center worked together to determine a solution. There were several possible contributors to the failure: a mis-aligned visor, an out of specification edge with a sharp radius, an out of specification tolerance stack up of a Belleville spring stack that caused un-predicted loads on the Vespel SP-21 roller, and a dimple machined into the side of the roller to indicate LO2 compatibility that created a stress riser. The detent assembly was removed and replaced with parts that were on the low-side of the tolerance stack up to eliminate the potential for high loads on the detent roller. After one flight, the roller was inspected and showed fewer signs of wear and no cracks.

Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David; Richard, James; Jacobs, Rebecca

2008-01-01

336

Fitness for detention in police custody: a practical proposal for improving the format of medical opinion.  

PubMed

Health issues among arrestees are a worldwide concern for which only local policies have been established. Physicians attending detainees in police custody are expected to decide whether the detainee's health status is compatible with detention in a police station and make any useful observations. A high degree of heterogeneity in the information collected by the physician and transmitted to the police has been observed. We analyzed the content and limitations of available documents and developed a model that could serve as a guide for any attending physician. The document presented here has been used in France on over 50,000 occasions since June 2010. We developed a two-page template consisting of (1) a standard medical certificate to be sent to the authority who requested the doctor's attendance and (2) a confidential medical record, not sent to the requesting authority. We evaluated perceived health by the three global health indicators of the Minimum European Health Module and used DSM IV criteria for the evaluation of addictive disorders. In the case of recent traumatic injuries, the certificate has also included the collection of data on traumatic injuries and the contexts of their occurrence. The proposed certificate achieved several goals, by protecting the interests of the person examined, in case of poor conditions of arrest or detention, protecting doctors in cases of legal proceedings, and allowing epidemiological data to be collected. The certificate may also contribute to an international awareness of medical care for detainees in police custody. PMID:24237804

Chariot, Patrick; Briffa, Hugo; Lepresle, Aude; Lefèvre, Thomas; Boraud, Cyril

2013-11-01

337

Heat extraction from a large solar pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States, occupying 2000 squares meters, was constructed during 1978 in Miamisburg, Ohio. The heat from this solar pond, nearly 1055 GJ/y (1000 million Btu/y) is used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreation building during part of the winter. A new heat exchanger system was installed externally to the pond and operated successfully to deliver 391 GJ (271 million Btu) of heat during May to June. Hot brine water is drawn through a diffuser by a self-priming pump fabricated from fiberglass reinforced plastic. The brine water passes through copper 10% nickel tubes of a tube-and-shell heat exchanger and is then returned to the bottom of the pond. Cooling water from the swimming pool circulates through the shell side of the heat exchanger. Several designs and flow velocities of the brine inlet and outlet diffusers into the pond were tested in order to minimize the effect of turbulence upon the salt gradient zone.

Wittenberg, L. J.; Etter, D. E.

1982-08-01

338

Sunlight, season, snowmelt, storm, and source affect E. coli populations in an artificially ponded stream.  

PubMed

Reducing fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), in streams is important for many downstream areas. E. coli concentrations within streams may be reduced by intervening ponds or wetlands through a number of physical and biological means. A section of Dunes Creek, a small coastal stream of southern Lake Michigan, was impounded and studied for 30 months from pre-through post-construction of the experimental pond. E. coli reduction became more predictable and effective with pond age. E. coli followed the hydrograph and increased several-fold during both rainfall and snowmelt events. Seasonally, the pond was more effective at reducing E. coli during summer than winter. Late summer, non-solar reduction or inactivation of E. coli in the pond was estimated at 72% and solar inactivation at 26%. E. coli DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that the winter population was genetically more homogeneous than the summer population. Detection of FRNA coliphages suggests that there was fecal contamination during heavy rain events. An understanding of how environmental factors interact with E. coli populations is important for assessing anticipated contaminant loading and the reduction of indicator bacteria in downstream reaches. PMID:18031792

Whitman, Richard L; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Shively, Dawn A; Nevers, Meredith B; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N

2008-02-15

339

Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project - FY 1982 Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

French, R. L.; Marsh, H. E.; Roschke, E. J.; Wu, Y. C.

1984-01-01

340

Site-specific research conducted in support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project. FY 1982 report  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that have been built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. This document reports on the site-specific research conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of the plant design. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

French, R.L.; Marsh, H.E.; Roschke, E.J.; Wu, Y.C.

1984-09-01

341

Effects of urbanization on three ponds in Middleton, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital hydrologic model was used to simulate the effects of future residential development on pond inflow volumes and resulting water levels of three ponds in Middleton, Wisconsin. The model computed the daily water budget and the resulting water level for each pond. The results of the model calibration are presented in the report, along with the existing watershed hydrologic conditions and runoff volumes for the 1982 study period. Data was collected during 1982 to claibrate the model; the data included pond stage, ground-water levels, precipitation and other meteorological characteristics. In addition, water-quality samples were collected at each pond to characterize the water quality. Simulation of pond levels with the 1982 rainfall and fully developed watersheds did not result in stages greater than those observed in 1982. Simulation of pond levels with rainfall having a 20-year recurrence interval (1978) and hypothetical, fully developed watersheds resulted in maximum pond stages above those observed in 1982. Peak stage of Tiedeman 's Pond would increase by 2.77 feet, Stricker 's Pond by 3.91 feet, and Esser 's Pond by 1.44 feet. Simulation of pond levels with an estimated 100-year rainfall and hyopthetical, fully developed watersheds would result in peak stage increases of 5.30, 5.32, and 1.97 feet above the peak 1982 observed stages for Tiedeman's, Stricker's, and Esser 's Ponds, respectively. (USGS)

House, Leo B.

1984-01-01

342

The geopolitics of vulnerability: children's legal subjectivity, immigrant family detention and US immigration law and enforcement policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 2006, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) began detaining noncitizen families at the T. Don Hutto Family Residential Facility, a former medium-security prison operated by the Corrections Corporation of America. In April 2007, a group of lawyers sued DHS, arguing that Hutto's conditions violated children's rights. This article first situates family detention in relation to two relatively

Lauren Martin

2011-01-01

343

The Mental and Physical Health Difficulties of Children Held within a British Immigration Detention Center: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study aimed to assess the mental and physical health of children held within a British immigration detention center. Method: A total of 24 detained children (aged 3 months to 17 years) were assessed with their parents or carer after being referred by a registered legal charity. Thirteen were seen by a pediatrician alone, 4…

Lorek, Ann; Ehntholt, Kimberly; Nesbitt, Anne; Wey, Emmanuel; Githinji, Chipo; Rossor, Eve; Wickramasinghe, Rush

2009-01-01

344

Rewriting Detainees: Counter Narratives, Political Opportunities and Opposition to Immigration, Criminal Justice and War on Terror Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a dramatic increase in the use of detention in immigration and security policy in the last decade. Revelations of abuse have emerged along with political actors seeking to alter conditions of detainment and limit its use. These join the ongoing prisoners’ rights movements that have emerged since the punitive turn in our criminal justice policy in the

Robin Jacobson

345

A systematic review of ethnic variations in hospital admission and compulsory detention in first-episode psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background Marked ethnic variations in incidence, pathways to care and outcomes have been demonstrated in psychosis. Less research has focused specifically on first-episode psychosis (FEP), particularly adverse contacts such as compulsory detention and hospitalization. This is despite international initiatives to promote equity of care and active early intervention. Aim Systematically review current evidence for ethnic variations in rates of compulsory admission and hospitalization in FEP. Methods Relevant articles published before December 2012 were identified from PubMed, PSYCInfo, and CINAHL together with manual searching of reference lists. Studies providing quantitative data on compulsory detention rates and/or hospitalization, comparing ethnic groups in FEP, were included and quality rated by independent raters. Results All included studies (n?=?7) provided data on compulsory detention while fewer (n?=?3) focused on admission rates. Three studies reported increased detention in Black and minority ethnic groups, while one reported more hospitalization in White patients. Only two studies covered early intervention services (EIS). Conclusions There is a paucity of high quality, well powered studies addressing this important issue, especially in EIS settings. In order to best inform and evaluate fast-developing services, it will be essential to combine large methodologically robust studies with qualitative analysis of patient, carer, and staff experiences. PMID:25054369

Mann, Farhana; Fisher, Helen L.

2014-01-01

346

Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

2002-01-01

347

REUSE AND RENOVATION OF SEWAGE STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT THROUGH IRRIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The main objective of this project was to explore the recycling of stabilized pond effluent to grow crops for municipal beautification. The research encompassed pond effluent quality, irrigation site parameters, crop responses, renovation qualities of site and crops, insects and ...

348

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements...Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at Falmouth, Massachusetts. (a) The draw shall open at all times as...

2010-07-01

349

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements...Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at Falmouth, Massachusetts. (a) The draw shall open at all times as...

2013-07-01

350

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements...Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at Falmouth, Massachusetts. (a) The draw shall open at all times as...

2011-07-01

351

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements...Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at Falmouth, Massachusetts. (a) The draw shall open at all times as...

2012-07-01

352

ESTIMATING AMPHIBIAN OCCUPANCY RATES IN PONDS UNDER COMPLEX SURVEY DESIGNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitoring the occurrence of specific amphibian species in ponds is one component of the US Geological Survey's Amphibian Monitoring and Research Initiative. Two collaborative studies were conducted in Olympic National Park and southeastern region of Oregon. The number of ponds...

353

ASSOCIATION OF WASTE STABILISATION PONDS AND INTERMITTENT SAND FILTERS  

E-print Network

of the 1st pond will be spread each day on four Sludge Dewatering Reed Bed Filters(SDRBF). The beginning sandfilters,pilots, rain water, sludge dewatering reed bedsfilters,waste stabilisation ponds, wastewater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Fish Grubs in Freshwater Ponds and Lakes.  

E-print Network

rooc Z TA245.7 8873 N0.1380 r--- u ----!i -- B-1380 Fish Grubs in Freshwater Ponds and Lakes Sterling K. Johnson* Fish grubs are the immature forms of parasitic worms that invade the flesh of fishes. Grubs appear as round or bead...rooc Z TA245.7 8873 N0.1380 r--- u ----!i -- B-1380 Fish Grubs in Freshwater Ponds and Lakes Sterling K. Johnson* Fish grubs are the immature forms of parasitic worms that invade the flesh of fishes. Grubs appear as round or bead...

Johnson, Sterling K.

1981-01-01

355

Prevalence and Persistence of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Context Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Most juveniles eventually return to their communities, where they become the responsibility of the community mental health system. Yet, no large-scale study has examined psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. Objective To examine changes in prevalence and persistence of disorders during the 5 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design Prospective longitudinal study with up to 5 interviews (N = 1829). To ensure representation of key demographic subgroups, the randomly selected sample was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic), age, and legal status (juvenile or adult court). Setting The Northwestern Juvenile Project, sampling youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois. Participants Detained youth, 10 to 18 years at baseline interview. Main Outcome Measures At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (Child and Young Adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). Results Five years after baseline, more than 45% of males and nearly 30% of females had one or more psychiatric disorders with associated impairment. Substance use disorders were the most common disorders; males, however, had higher rates over time (5 years after baseline, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.61; 95% CI, 1.96–3.47). Non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics also had higher rates of substance use disorders compared with African Americans (respectively, AOR, 1.96, 95% CI, 1.54–2.49; AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.24–2.03). Females had higher rates of major depression over time (AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.22–2.08). Conclusions Although prevalence rates of most psychiatric disorders declined over time, a substantial proportion of delinquent youth continue to have disorders. There were notable sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and persistence of disorders. PMID:23026953

Teplin, Linda A.; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Dulcan, Mina K.

2013-01-01

356

Conservation Assessment of the Western Pond Turtle (Actinemys marmorata)  

E-print Network

Conservation Assessment of the Western Pond Turtle in Oregon (Actinemys marmorata) Version 1..................................................................................................................................... 10 Comparison with Sympatric Turtles

Rosenberg, Daniel K.

357

Preventive detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly fifty years, any discussion of “refugees” presupposed “exile” as a tautological given, the starting point either for providing temporary asylum or for solving the refugee problem. During that time, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) promoted three durable solutions for refugees: (1) voluntary repatriation, (2) local settlement, or (3) third?country resettlement. Each solution took exile as its

Bill Frelick

1993-01-01

358

WATERFOWL OF THE LARGE FISH POND SYSTEMS IN LITHUANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to provide an overview on status, abundance, distribution, habitat use of the dominant waterfowl species in large Lithuanian fish pond systems and to evaluate effects of managed temporary drainages of ponds on waterfowl. In Lithuania large fish ponds are supporting numerous species of rare breeding waterbirds, included into the national Red Data Book. Certain

Saulius ŠVAŽAS; Vitas STANEVI?IUS

1998-01-01

359

Solar ponds as a source of low temperature heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt-gradient solar ponds are potentially attractive for electric power generation. The progress of salt-gradient solar pond development, both in the United States and abroad is reviewed. Technical problem areas and their implications for commercialization are discussed. Potential market applications for solar ponds are examined.

Neeper, D. A.; Meyer, K. A.

1981-01-01

360

Limnological properties of permafrost thaw ponds in northeastern Canada  

E-print Network

Limnological properties of permafrost thaw ponds in northeastern Canada Julie Breton, Catherine and thermokarst ponds resulting from the thawing of permafrost are the most abundant types of aquatic ecosystems- kawa and Hinzman 2003). In continuous permafrost areas, thaw ponds develop on low-center polygons

Binford, Michael W.

361

Hydrogeologic maps of proposed flood detention area, Green Swamp area, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information about the hydrogeology of that part of the Green Swamp area which has been designated by Southwest Florida Water Management District as the Flood Detention Area is given on seven maps. The maps show (1) core-hole numbers, (2) sand thickness, (3) clay thickness, (4) clay vertical hydraulic conductivity, (5) clay leakance, (6) depth to Floridan aquifer, and (7) altitude of top of Floridan aquifer. The data were obtained from 85 core holes drilled in 1977 and from 24 core hole drilled previously. The 127 square-mile study area is part of the headwaters of the Withlacooche River and the Little Wthlacoochee River. The data will be useful in future water-resources planning and in a concurrent interpretive study of the Green Swamp area. (Woodard-USGS)

Rutledge, A. T.; Grubb, Hayes F.

1978-01-01

362

Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa  

SciTech Connect

A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

Atekwana, E.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. (Univ. of Yaounde (Cameroon). Dept. of Plant Biology)

1994-04-01

363

Building a Pond on the School Grounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the efforts of two teachers to construct a pond and woods on school grounds. The teachers used specialized student teams for working on a wetland study and the building project. An advisory committee including teachers, the principal, and the custodian worked through maintenance issues. Relates teaching surprises associated with the…

Pope, Jonathan

1998-01-01

364

EXPERIMENTAL PONDS FOR EVALUATING BIOASSAY PREDICTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental pond studies were used to demonstrate a means of assessing the accuracy of laboratory and in situ bioassays predicting the effects of chemical stress on phytoplankton. A short-term batch bioassay using changing carbon uptake in photosynthesis predicted an immediate (...

365

Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

366

Solar Pond Research at Argonne National Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Focus is on applications that utilize the seasonal heat-storage capability of the solar pond for low-temperature thermal processes, however the results of the research are directly applicable to electricity-generating and other applications. Important technical results are summarized.

Hull, J. R.

1984-01-01

367

INFILTRATION LAND TREATMENT OF STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot rapid infiltration wastewater treatment system consisting of three 0.07 hectare basins was operated for four seasons at Brookings, South Dakota. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate that rapid infiltration land treatment could upgrade stabilization pond effluen...

368

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial

1985-01-01

369

SURVEY OF FISHING IN 1000 PONDS  

E-print Network

AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU OF SPORT FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE Circular 86 #12;Cover. --Fishing in a pond, Secretary FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, Arnle J. Suomela, Coimnissioner BUREAU OF SPORT FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE Conducted by the Branches of Fish Hatcheries and Fishery Management Services Reported

370

TWO TYPES OF JOURNALING BEFORE POND STUDY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a two part journaling activity prior to an existing week long biology field lab. The journaling activities described here have been added to the beginning of the Pond Study Lab to enhance student learning of observation and quality journaling skills.

371

MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

372

Performance of stormwater detention tanks for urban drainage systems in northern Italy.  

PubMed

The performance of stormwater detention tanks with alternative design configurations (insertion in the storm sewer network; volume per impervious hectare) and operating conditions (continuous and intermittent emptying rules) have been evaluated according to an integrated approach. Various performance indices have been adopted to describe the mitigation of the pollution impact to the natural environment, the reduction of the management and maintenance charges for the urban drainage system, the preservation of the normal purification efficiency, and the limitation of the costs at the treatment plant. The US EPA Storm Water Management Model has been used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process and the pollutant dynamics on theoretical catchments and storm sewer networks for an individual event, as well as for a continuous run of events and inter event periods of one year recorded at the rain gauge of Cascina Scala (Pavia, northern Italy). Also the influence of the main characteristics of the urban catchment and the drainage system (area of the catchment and slope of the network) on the performance of alternative design and operating solutions has been examined. Stormwater detention tanks combined with flow regulators demonstrated good performance with respect to environmental pollution: satisfactory performance indicators can be obtained with fairly low flow rates of flow regulators (0.5-1 L/s per hectare of impervious area) and tank volumes of about 35-50 m(3) per impervious hectare. Continuous emptying guaranteed the lowest number and duration of overflows, while an intermittent operation minimised the volume sent for purification reducing the costs and the risks of impairment in the normal treatment efficiency of the plant. Overall, simulation outcomes revealed that the performance indexes are scarcely affected by the area of the catchment and the slope of the drainage network. The result of this study represents a key issue for the implementation of environmental policies in large urban areas. PMID:22387328

Todeschini, Sara; Papiri, Sergio; Ciaponi, Carlo

2012-06-30

373

Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.  

PubMed

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

2012-01-01

374

Dead fish in a pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These fish died because of excessive pollution in the lake. The pollution is the result of runoff and chemical pollution dumped directly into the water. Acid rain can also cause fish and other organisms to die is small bodies of water because it raises water temperatures and makes the water more acidic.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

375

9 CFR 381.212 - Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's agent, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2010-01-01

376

9 CFR 381.212 - Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's agent, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2011-01-01

377

Application of solar ponds to district heating and cooling  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary investigation is reported of the feasibility of incorporating solar ponds into new subdivisions to provide district heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and district cooling. Two locations were chosen for analysis: Fort Worth, Texas and Washington, DC. Solar ponds were sized to meet space heating, cooling, and DHW loads in each location for differing community sizes. Parameters such as storage layer temperature, pond geometry, and storage depth vs surface area were varied to determine the most effective approach to solar pond utilization. A distribution system for the district heating system was designed, including sizing of heat exchangers, piping, and pumps. Cost estimates for the pond and distribution system were formulated by using data generated in pond sizing, as well as associated system costs (e.g., salt costs and distribution system costs). Finally, solar ponds were found to be competitive with residential flat-plate collector systems, with delivered energy costs as low as $16.00/GJ.

Leboeuf, C.M.

1981-04-01

378

Solar ponds applied to district heating and cooling  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary investigation is presented of the feasibility of incorporating solar ponds into new subdivisions to provide district heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and district cooling. Two locations were chosen for analysis: Fort Worth, Texas, and Washington, DC. Solar ponds were sized to meet space heating, cooling, and DHW loads in each location for differing community sizes. Parameters such as storage layer temperature, pond geometry, and storage depth versus surface area were varied to determine the most effective approach to solar pond utilization. A distribution system for the district heating system was designed, including sizing of heat exchangers, piping, and pumps. Cost estimates for the pond and distribution system were formulated by using data generated in pond sizing, as well as associated system costs (e.g., salt costs, distribution system costs). Finally solar ponds were found to be competitive with residential flat-plate collector systems, with delivered energy costs as low as $16.00/GJ.

Leboeuf, C.M.

1981-01-01

379

Predicting waste stabilization pond performance using an ecological simulation model  

SciTech Connect

Waste stabilization ponds (lagoons) are often favored in small communities because of their low cost and ease of operation. Most models currently used to predict performance are empirical or fail to address the primary lagoon cell. Empirical methods for predicting lagoon performance have been found to be off as much as 248 percent when used on a system other than the one they were developed for. Also, the present models developed for the primary cell lack the ability to predict parameters other than biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrogen. Oxygen consumption is usually estimated from BOD utilization. LAGOON is a fortran program which models the biogeochemical processes characteristic of the primary cell of facultative lagoons. Model parameters can be measured from lagoons in the vicinity of a proposed lagoon or estimated from laboratory studies. The model was calibrated utilizing a subset of the Corinne Utah lagoon data then validated utilizing a subset of the Corinne Utah data.

New, G.R.

1987-01-01

380

Windpowered irrigation system for small farm applications  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of the project was to conserve water on a small-scale truck patch vegetable gardening operation. The main thrust centered on improving water usage in the already-existing windmill/storage tank/house/farm pond setup. Most of the funds were spent on a trickle (drip) irrigation system linked into the existing wetup. Other areas improved were the farm pond itself, backup pumping for windmill and farm pond, and greywater reclamation. In spite of problems which had to be restudied and corrected, the project was an overall success both in terms of results and budget.

England, B.

1982-01-01

381

Preliminary measurement-based estimates of PAH emissions from oil sands tailings ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailings ponds in the oil sands region (OSR) of western Canada are suspected sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the atmosphere. In the absence of detailed characterization or direct flux measurements, we present preliminary measurement-based estimates of the emissions of thirteen priority PAHs from the ponds. Using air concentrations measured under the Joint Canada-Alberta Oil Sands Monitoring Plan and water concentrations from a small sampling campaign in 2013, the total flux of 13 US EPA priority PAHs (fluorene to benzo[ghi]perylene) was estimated to be upward from water to air and to total 1069 kg y-1 for the region as a whole. By comparison, the most recent air emissions reported to Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) from oil sands facilities totalled 231 kg y-1. Exchange fluxes for the three remaining priority PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene) could not be quantified but evidence suggests that they are also upward from water to air. These results indicate that tailings ponds may be an important PAH source to the atmosphere that is missing from current inventories in the OSR. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses lend confidence to the estimated direction of air-water exchange being upward from water to air. However, more detailed characterization of ponds at other facilities and direct flux measurements are needed to confirm the quantitative results presented herein.

Galarneau, Elisabeth; Hollebone, Bruce P.; Yang, Zeyu; Schuster, Jasmin

2014-11-01

382

The mechanisms of sea ice melt pond formation and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of observations were made on melting first year, landfast Arctic sea ice near Barrow, Alaska to explore the seasonal evolution of melt pond coverage. Observations of pond coverage, albedo, and ice properties are combined with terrestrial lidar measurements of surface topography and meltwater balance to quantitatively identify the timing and role of mechanisms driving pond coverage. The formation of interposed fresh ice is found to eliminate meltwater percolation through early pond formation and allow widespread ponding well above sea level. Pond drainage to sea level occurs principally by horizontal meltwater transport over the ice surface to macroscopic flaws. Freeboard loss, caused by buoyancy decline as the ice thins, controls pond growth late in the melt season after percolation begins. The majority of the macroscopic flaws that drain melt ponds to sea level are observed to develop from brine drainage channels within the ice. A simple thermodynamic model of meltwater percolation illustrates that fresh meltwater inflow causes pores in the ice to either shrink and freeze shut or enlarge based on initial size and ice temperature. This threshold behavior of pore diameter controls both the blockage of smaller pores with interposed ice and the enlargement of larger brine drainage channels to allow meltwater drainage. The results identify links between the temporal evolution of pond coverage and ice temperature, salinity, and thickness, providing new opportunities to realistically parameterize ponds and summer ice albedo within sea ice models.

Polashenski, Chris; Perovich, Donald; Courville, Zoe

2012-01-01

383

Par Pond refill water quality sampling  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

1996-08-01

384

Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.  

PubMed

Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99? N, 167 22' 51.90? E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

2014-01-01

385

New approaches for Artemia pond culture.  

PubMed

A project for intensive culture of Artemia in Vinhchau solar saltwork was funded by Soctrang Authority. The aim of this project is to increase the average cyst yield of 50kg.ha-1.crop, and to build up a stable culture technique with a better yield for local farmers. Multiple laboratory experiments were set up with inert food including fermented rice bran, tiger shrimp feed (PL15), as well as their combination with live algae (Chaetoceros). Results showed that, under laboratory conditions, fermented rice bran and tiger shrimp feed can be used as supplemental food sources. The shrimp feed alone or in combination with algae always gave better cyst production compared to the others, but should not account for more than 50% of the diet. In the field trials, aeration of Artemia ponds also increased cyst yields (from 195.8+/-44.2 to 207+/-46.1kg.ha-1.crop with 6 and 12 aeration a day, respectively) compared to ponds with no aeration (88.2+/-27.5kg.ha-1.crop), however the returns on investment (ROI=2.73-2.71 with aera tion vs. 2.24 without) are not significantly different. Utilization of fermented rice bran (20kg.ha-1.day) and shrimp feed (6kg.ha-1.day) as a supplementary feed during pond production in combination with greenwater supplies (10% of pond volume daily) resulted in higher yields (96.0+/-15.9 and 157.2+/-15.0kg.ha-1.crop, respectively) than traditional culture; Shrimp feed as a supplemental feed supported the cyst yield but their negative effect was at a high cost vs. traditional culture and use of fermented rice bran. Based on the cyst yield and ROI, fermented rice bran should be a promising item for poor farmers. PMID:25141701

Van Hoa, Nguyen; Le Tran, Huu; Hong Van, Nguyen Thi; Sorgeloos, P; Van Stappen, G

2013-01-01

386

Engineered design of SSC cooling ponds  

SciTech Connect

The cooling requirements of the SSC are significant and adequate cooling water systems to meet these requirements are critical to the project`s successful operation. The use of adequately designed cooling ponds will provide reliable cooling for operation while also meeting environmental goals of the project to maintain streamflow and flood peaks to preconstruction levels as well as other streamflow and water quality requirements of the Texas Water Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency.

Bear, J.B.

1993-05-01

387

Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11.4 µGy/hr; birds - 6.3 µGy/hr; mammals - 15.1 µGy/hr; reptilians - 10.3 µGy/hr, with the recommended maximum allowable limit of 40 µGy/hr. The conservative risk coefficient ranged from 0.51 for birds to 1.82 for amphibians. In spite of a high contamination level of the shoreline areas, the current total doses received by the animals do not reach the recommended maximum allowable doses. However, drainage of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is likely to increase the dose rates as follows: amphibians - 94.5, birds - 95.2, mammals - 284.0, reptilians - 847.0 µGy/hr, which will significantly exceed the maximum allowable values. These predictions are conservative and prior to making the final decision on the fate of the ChNPP Cooling Pond, a detailed radio-ecological assessment of its drainage will have to be performed.

Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

2009-12-01

388

Life-cycle phenology of some aquatic insects: implications for pond conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-cycles and growth patterns were determined for 21 dominant aquatic insect species in small permanent ponds in an arid, karstic region (SW France, site fr7300909 of the Natura 2000 conservation network). The species studied are widely distributed throughout Europe, but some life-cycle patterns are reported here for the first time. 2. The life-history patterns of the 21 species can be

Jérôme Cayrou; Régis Céréghino

2005-01-01

389

Seasonal variations in the morphology of bloom-forming cyanobacteria in a eutrophic pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in the cell volume, number of cells in a colony and trichome length of nine bloom-forming cyanobacteria\\u000a species were investigated in a small eutrophic pond from May to November 2005. The main genera of cyanobacteria were Microcystis and Anabaena, which formed a dense bloom from July to August. M. aeruginosa, M. viridis and M. wesenbergii were present throughout

Yoshimasa Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Nakahara

2009-01-01

390

Locations and Areas of Ponds and Carolina Bays at the Savannah River Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Savannah River Plant has 28 ponds and 189 Carolina Bays on its 192,000-acre site. Excluding the Par Pond system, the mean pond ares is 17.6 acres, with a range of 0.4 to 202.8 acres. Par Pond is the largest pond, with an area of 2500 acres. The mean C...

J. D. Shields, N. D. Woody, A. S. Dicks, G. J. Hollod, J. Schalles

1980-01-01

391

SUDS Ponds in Scotland Performance Outcomes to Date Institute of Ecology & Resource Management  

E-print Network

1 SUDS Ponds in Scotland ­ Performance Outcomes to Date KATE HEAL Institute of Ecology & Resource attractive landscape features, e.g. company headquarters. Occasionally existing ponds have been adopted for SUDS systems, e.g. Claylands Pond was formerly an agricultural pond which was adopted as a SUDS pond

Heal, Kate

392

Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extraced from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

Leboeuf, C. M.; May, E. K.

1982-08-01

393

Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 ?g L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas. PMID:24845333

Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

2014-01-01

394

Does the morphology of beaver ponds alter downstream ecosystems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences among lake morphologies often explain variation in characteristics of lentic ecosystems. Although beaver ponds\\u000a also vary in morphology, previous studies have not examined the effects of such variation on downstream ecosystems. This study\\u000a evaluated downstream effects of multiple beaver ponds in the Colorado Rocky Mountains during one low and one high-flow year.\\u000a Beaver pond morphology was described as the

Matthew R. Fuller; Barbara L. Peckarsky

2011-01-01

395

Environmental influences on fish assemblages in irrigation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ponds are common features of the landscape and are considered important for freshwater biodiversity conservation. Although\\u000a fish have a significant impact on the lentic ecosystems, the environmental factors that regulate fish assemblages in human-created\\u000a water bodies, such as irrigation ponds, remain unclear. We evaluated the relationship between environmental factors and the\\u000a fish assemblage structure in 31 ponds located in northern

Yoshito Mitsuo; Hiroshi Tsunoda; Akira Takiguchi; Yutaro Senga

396

Relationship Between Woody Plant Colonization and Typha L. Encroachment in Stormwater Detention Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied stormwater detention basins where woody vegetation removal was suspended for 2 years in Virginia, USA to determine if woody vegetation can control Typha populations and how early woody plant succession interacts with Typha, other herbaceous vegetation, and site factors. Distribution and composition of woody vegetation, Typha and non- Typha herbaceous vegetation biomass, and site factors were assessed at 100 plots in four basins ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. A greenhouse study examined the interaction of shade and soil moisture on Typha biomass and persistence. Principal component analysis identified an environmental gradient associated with greater water table depths and decreased elevation that favored Typha but negatively influenced woody vegetation. Elevation was correlated with litter layer distribution, suggesting that initial topography influences subsequent environmental characteristics and thus plant communities. Soil organic matter at 0-10 cm ranged from 5.4 to 12.7 %. Woody plants present were native species with the exception of Ailanthus altissima and Pyrus calleryana. In the greenhouse, shade and reduced soil moisture decreased Typha biomass and rhizome length. The shade effect was strongest in flooded plants and the soil moisture effect was strongest for plants in full sun. Typha in dry soil and heavy shade had 95 % less total biomass and 83 % smaller rhizomes than Typha in flooded soil and full sun, but even moderate soil moisture reductions decreased above- and below-ground biomass by 63 and 56 %, respectively. Suspending maintenance allows restoration of woody vegetation dominated by native species and may suppress Typha invasion.

Plumb, Priscilla Bocskor; Day, Susan D.; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa M.; Seiler, John R.

2013-10-01

397

Impact of storm water on groundwater quality below retention/detention basins.  

PubMed

Groundwater from 33 monitoring of peripheral wells of Karachi, Pakistan were evaluated in terms of pre- and post-monsoon seasons to find out the impact of storm water infiltration, as storm water infiltration by retention basin receives urban runoff water from the nearby areas. This may increase the risk of groundwater contamination for heavy metals, where the soil is sandy and water table is shallow. Concentration of dissolved oxygen is significantly low in groundwater beneath detention basin during pre-monsoon season, which effected the concentration of zinc and iron. The models of trace metals shown in basin groundwater reflect the land use served by the basins, while it differed from background concentration as storm water releases high concentration of certain trace metals such as copper and cadmium. Recharge by storm water infiltration decreases the concentration and detection frequency of iron, lead, and zinc in background groundwater; however, the study does not point a considerable risk for groundwater contamination due to storm water infiltration. PMID:19241126

Zubair, Arif; Hussain, Asif; Farooq, Mohammed A; Abbasi, Haq Nawaz

2010-03-01

398

Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

Fischer, D.; Charles, E.G.; Baehr, A.L.

2003-01-01

399

Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT) (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years),the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST) (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years), and a control group (C) (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years) receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01) and group-training interaction (p < 0.05). CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease) of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people. PMID:24185842

Battaglia, Claudia; di Cagno, Alessandra; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco; Pigozzi, Fabio

2013-01-01

400

On solar ponds: salty fare for the world's energy appetite  

SciTech Connect

It is shown how a uniquely simple salt-gradient solar-energy trap is proving an economical source of electricity and low-temperature heat at various sites around the world. Problems with solar ponds include the thickening of the surface layer despite grids of wave-suppressors; the economics of using solar ponds to generate power and desalt water depend largely on the ability to operate without a synthetic liner; and some solar ponds lose much more heat to the ground than predicted. It is concluded that development of solar ponds is likely to depend on energy demand.

Edesess, M.

1982-11-01

401

Mercury Contamination of Macroinvertebrates in Ephemeral Grassland Ponds.  

E-print Network

??This study surveyed mercury concentrations of aquatic macroinvertebrates collected from ephemeral ponds on the Lyndon B. Johnson National Grassland, Texas. Macroinvertebrates representing eight taxonomic groups… (more)

Blackwell, Bradley Douglas

2008-01-01

402

Tree-regeneration and mortality patterns and hydrologic change in a forested karst wetland--Sinking Pond, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple lines of evidence point to climate change as the driving factor suppressing tree regeneration since 1970 in Sinking Pond, a 35-hectare seasonally flooded karst depression located on Arnold Air Force Base near Manchester, Tennessee. Annual censuses of 162-193 seedling plots from 1997 through 2001 demonstrate that the critical stage for tree survival is the transition from seedling to sapling and that this transition is limited to shallow (less than 0.5 meters) ponding depths. Recruitment of saplings to the small adult class also was restricted to shallow areas. Analysis of the spatial and elevation distribution of tree-size classes in a representative 2.3-hectare area of Sinking Pond showed a general absence of overcup oak saplings and young adults in deep (ponding depth greater than 1 meter) and intermediate (ponding depth 0.5-1 meter) areas, even though overcup oak seedlings and mature trees are concentrated in these areas. Analysis of tree rings from 45 trees sampled in a 2.3-hectare spatial-analysis plot showed an even distribution of tree ages across ponding-depth classes from the 1800s through 1970, followed by complete suppression of recruitment in deep and intermediate areas after 1970. Trees younger than 30 years were spatially and vertically concentrated in a small area with shallow ponding depth, about 0.5 meter below the spillway elevation. Results of hydrologic modeling, based on rainfall and temperature records covering the period January 1854 through September 2002, show ponding durations after 1970 considerably longer than historical norms, across ponding-depth classes. This increase in ponding duration corresponds closely with similar increases documented in published analyses of streamflow and precipitation in the eastern United States and with the suppression of tree regeneration at ponding depths greater than 0.5 meter indicated by tree-ring analysis. Comparison of the simulated stage record for Sinking Pond with the ages and elevations of sampled trees shows that prolonged (200 days or more per year) inundation in more than 2 of the first 5 years after germination is inversely related to successful tree recruitment and that such inundation was rare before 1970 and common afterwards.

Wolfe, William J.; Evans, Jonathan P.; McCarthy, Sarah; Gain, W. Scott; Bryan, Bradley A.

2004-01-01

403

Ponds and the importance of their history: an audit of pond numbers, turnover and the relationship between the origins of ponds and their contemporary plant communities in south-east Northumberland, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing focus of interest in ponds over the last two decades arose largely because of concerns at the loss of ponds\\u000a in intensively developed landscapes. In the UK, pond numbers declined from approximately 800,000 in the nineteenth century\\u000a to 200,000 by the 1980s. Since then pond numbers have started to increase. The focus on overall pond numbers overlooks the

M. J. Jeffries

404

Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France: comparison of  

E-print Network

13 Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France In France, vertical flow constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds are both extensive treatment Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands, Waste Stabilization Ponds, operation and maintenance, sludge management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Not All Ponds are Flat: A Stereophotoclinometric Analysis of Eros Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the topography of ponds on Eros, using a new shape model derived from sterophotoclinometric analysis. We find that a significant fraction (~75%) of ponds do not have flat floors, and evaluate hypotheses for pond formation.

Roberts, J. H.; Barnouin, O. S.; Prockter, L. M.; Kahn, E. G.; Gaskell, R. W.

2012-03-01

406

Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect 1 Running Head: BIG-FISH-LITTLE-POND EFFECT  

E-print Network

-Fish-Little-Pond Effects on Gymnastics Self-concept: Social Comparison Processes in a Physical Setting Julien P. Chanal of responses by 405 participants in 20 gymnastics classes supported these predictions. Gymnastics self-concept was positively predicted by individual gymnastics skills, but negatively predicted by class-average gymnastics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Smooth pond-like deposits on asteroid 4 Vesta: First results from the Dawn mission.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft arrived at Vesta on July 16, 2011 to study the asteroid with a Framing Camera (FC), a Visible & Infrared Spectrometer (VIR), and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1]. Dawn provides the first high-resolution data from its survey orbit, high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO), and low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO). FC data revealed smooth pond-like deposits of ambiguous origin, similar to deposits on other asteroids, including Eros and Itokawa [2,3]. Several scenarios for the origin of these deposits can be tested with Dawn data, including volcanism, impact sedimentation, impact melt deposition, dust levitation and transport, seismic shaking, or landslides. We measured 83 small (~7 km2 average size) smooth deposits distributed across the surface of Vesta. Most ponds on Vesta occur on the floors of impact craters and in irregular depressions. We did not observe inflow of material into the depressions. Most of these deposits have well-defined geological contacts, indicating that they are younger than the surrounding terrain. However, lunar impact melt pools that formed contemporaneously with surrounding ejecta blankets show similar stratigraphic relationships. Sometimes the albedo of these ponds is lower than the surrounding terrain, in other cases the ponds are indistinguishable from the adjacent terrain. The ponds preferentially occur in a band between -10 and 30 degrees latitude with fewer ponds north of ~30 degrees and even fewer ponds in the southern hemisphere, i.e., the Rheasilvia region. The largest cluster of ponds occurs in the vicinity of the Marcia impact crater, which is part of the so-called snowman craters. Similar, but smaller (<230 m diameter) smooth ponds were also reported from the surface of asteroid Eros [2]. Robinson et al. [2] found that most smooth ponds on Eros occur in equatorial regions and concluded that the most likely process for their formation is electrostatic levitation and redistribution of the finest regolith components (<100 µm). Sierks et al. [4] argued that along the terminator, particularly strong electric fields can develop between the sun-lit and shaded areas, e.g., within craters, resulting in particle motion from sun-lit to dark regions. Dust levitation and transport was also discussed for asteroid 25143 Itokawa [3]. [1] Russell et al., (2007), Earth Moon Planets, 101; [2] Robinson et al., (2002), Met. Planet. Sci., 37; [3] Yano et al., (2006), Science, 312; [4] Sierks et al., (2011), Space Sci. Rev., doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9745-4. This research has been supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) and NASA. We would like to thank the Dawn Operations Team for their success-ful planning and acquisition of high-quality Vesta data.

Hiesinger, H.; Ruesch, O.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

2012-04-01

408

Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians.  

PubMed

Vernal ponds are often treated as protected environments receiving special regulation and management. Within the landscapes where they are found, forest vegetation frequently dominates surrounding uplands and can grow to overtop and shade pond basins. Two bodies of research offer differing views of the role of forest canopy for vernal pond systems. Studies of landscape conversion suggest that removing forest overstory within uplands can cause local extinctions of amphibians by altering terrestrial habitat or hindering movement. Studies of canopy above pond basins imply an opposite relationship; encroachment of overstory vegetation can be associated with local extinctions potentially via changes in light, thermal, and food resource environments. Unresolved uncertainties about the role of forest canopy reveal significant gaps in our understanding of wetland species distributions and dynamics. Any misunderstanding of canopy influences is simultaneously important to managers because current practices emphasize promoting or conserving vegetation growth particularly within buffers immediately adjacent to ponds. We evaluated this apparent contradiction by conducting a landscape-scale, long-term experiment using 14 natural vernal ponds. Tree felling at six manipulated ponds was limited in spatial scope but was nevertheless effective in increasing water temperature. Compared with eight control ponds, manipulated ponds maintained more amphibian species during five years post-manipulation. There was little evidence that any species was negatively influenced, and the reproductive effort of species for which we estimated egg inputs maintained pretreatment population densities in manipulated compared with control ponds. Overall, our experiment shows that a carefully circumscribed reduction of overhead forest canopy can enhance the capacity of vernal ponds to support wildlife diversity and suggests a scale dependence of canopy influences on amphibians. These findings have implications for the connection between current wetland management practices and the goals of wetland stewardship and conservation of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24689145

Skelly, David K; Bolden, Susan R; Freidenburg, L Kealoha

2014-03-01

409

Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

2007-01-01

410

Correlation between snails and fish in fish ponds of World Fish Center (ICLARM) with special reference to snail vectors of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis.  

PubMed

The abundance of snail species in earthen fish ponds, irrigation and drainage canals at World Fish Center (ICLARM) in descending order was Bellamya unicolor (50.89%) > Physa acuta (18.94%) > Cleopatra bulimoides (7.6%) > Lanistes carinatus (6.73%) > Bulinus truncatus (5.19%) > Melanoides tuberculata (4.83%) > Lymnaea natalensis (3.14%) > Gabbiella senaariensis (0.9%) > Biomphalaria alexandrina (0.55%) > Lym naea truncatula (0.4%) > Planorbis planorbis and Succinea cleopatra (0.33%) > Ferrissia isseli (0.18%). Dead snails constituted about 5.19% of all the collected specimens. There were dramatic decrease in the total number of pulmonates in fish ponds which contained only Tilapia sp., and a very small number of cat fish, whereas the numbers of prosobranchia snails were much higher in these ponds. In fish ponds which accommodated a variety of fish species, the most dominant snail was B. unicolor followed by L. carinatus. However, pulmonate snails were absent in these ponds. B. truncatus was the only snail species found in concrete tank which contained only young tilapias with a very small size (5-8 cm in standard length). In irrigation canals, the number of snails and diversity was much higher than those in fish ponds. Out of 191 snails collected from inlet irrigation canal, 71 were dead, but in the outside irrigation canals, seven out of 564 snails were dead. P. acuta was absent in all examined fish ponds, but it was alive and in a high number (497 snails) in the outside irrigation canals. The number of snails collected from Bahnasawy drain was remarkably low (128 snails), however the diversity of snails was much higher compared to those in fish ponds and irrigation canals. Snail populations were stable with constant recruitment of young to adult snails for all the studied species. PMID:14964656

Ismail, Nahed M M; El Gamal, Abd El Rahman A

2003-08-01

411

Effects of acidification on algal assemblages in temporary ponds  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric deposition monitoring in Pennsylvania has characterized a steep gradient of acidic ion depositions across the north-central portion of the state. This study evaluated acidification effects on the composition of algal assemblages in temporary ponds in two forested areas exposed to atmospheric deposition that varied in degree of acidity. Artificial substrates were used to sample and compare the algal assemblages in the two areas. Colonized communities were also transplanted to lower pH ponds to observe changes in species composition. A laboratory microcosm experiment manipulating pH was conducted to reduce the variables that differed between the two areas. Fewer algal taxa were present in lower pH ponds, on colonized substrates after transplant to lower pH ponds, and in lower pH laboratory treatments. Species composition was altered in the lower pH conditions. Most taxa that were excluded from the lower pH ponds naturally also did not survive when experimentally introduced to those conditions. These results suggest that acidification of temporary ponds can alter the structure of algal communities. There is interest in a possible link between acid deposition and reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Algae are an important food source for larval amphibians, such as the wood frog, which require temporary ponds to breed. Changes in algal species composition could potentially impact the temporary pond and forest ecosystem.

Glackin, M.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Pratt, J.R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

412

Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds  

EPA Science Inventory

The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

413

Cultivation of Gracilaria in outdoor tanks and ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the major problems of unattached Gracilaria intensive cultivation in outdoor tanks and ponds. These problems are presented through the main variables affecting the Gracilaria annual yield and the updated solutions evolved. The physical variables include tank and pond structure, seawater characteristics\\u000a such as velocity, agitation practice, exchange rate, and salinity, light characteristics such as quantity and

M. Friedlander; I. Levy

1995-01-01

414

Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond

Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

2011-01-01

415

Origin and flatness of ponds on asteroid 433 Eros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEAR-Shoemaker Multi-Spectral Imager data reveal several hundred "ponds" on 433 Eros: smooth deposits that sharply embay the bounding depressions in which they lie, and whose spectra appear blue relative to that of the surrounding terrain. We investigate the topography of these ponds on Eros using a new shape model derived from stereophotoclinometric analysis, and validated against altimetry from the NEAR Laser Rangefinder, to constrain the mode of pond formation from three existing models. We update the locations of 55 pond candidates identified in images registered to the new shape model. We classify the flatness of these features according to the behavior of the first and second derivatives of the topography. We find that less than half of pond candidates have clearly flat floors. Based on the pond topography, we favor an external origin for the ponds' deposits. We suggest that fine dust may be transported into bounding depressions by electrostatic levitation, but may adhere to slopes, and that seismic shaking may not be sufficient to bring the deposits to an equipotential surface. Disaggregation of a central boulder should result in an obvious break in slope, such a variation is only observed in roughly half the pond candidates.

Roberts, James H.; Kahn, Eliezer G.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Prockter, Louise M.; Gaskell, Robert W.

2014-10-01

416

Biogeochemical model for the eutrophication of East Pond, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Pond, a mesotrophic lake in Smithfield, Maine has been experiencing increasing algal blooms since 1975. The Maine DEP, Colby College, and the University of Maine have attributed nutrient inputs from the surrounding lake properties, internal nutrient loading from the sediments, and overgrazing of zooplankton by planktivorous fish as potential causes of the East Pond algal blooms. This project explores

Bernadette Bibber

2007-01-01

417

Intensification of pond aquaculture and high rate photosynthetic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture production systems may range from tanks and raceways, in which water quality is controlled by water dilution and discharge to the environment to captive water systems, in which water quality is controlled by microbial reactions within the tank or pond. Attempts at intensification of pond aquaculture beyond the commonplace practice of supplemental aeration may be classified into categories of

D. E. Brune; G. Schwartz; A. G. Eversole; J. A. Collier; T. E. Schwedler

2003-01-01

418

Standing Crops of Fish in Oregon Farm Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standing crops of fish in representative Oregon farm ponds were estimated by marking and recapture or by draining and enumeration. Most of the ponds were in the Willamette Valley, but a few were in central and southern Oregon. The average standing crop of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) was about 130 pounds per acre, and was similar to standing crops reported by

Gary W. Isaac; Carl E. Bond

1963-01-01

419

Modeling of lake and pond dynamics in discontinuous permafrost  

E-print Network

Modeling of lake and pond dynamics in discontinuous permafrost Joel Rowland, Bryan Travis 50 years ·Drainage interpreted to be related to permafrost loss ·Increased surface drainage Peninsula ·Loss of ponds between early 1900s and 2000s ·Warm, thin, discontinuous permafrost ·Geophysics

420

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily

H. E. Jr. Mackey; R. S. Riley

1995-01-01

421

Old industrial mill ponds: a neglected ecological resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and status of the old industrial textile mill ponds within the area around Huddersfield, UK, is examined in relation to planning and development pressures and conservation value. The aquatic macroinvertebrate biodiversity is assessed and the sites classified on the basis of the community present. Many ponds have been redeveloped and lost as a result of the decline of

P. J. Wood; S. Barker

2000-01-01

422

Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles  

E-print Network

Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles www.oregonwildlife.org #12;2 Post: Rosenberg, D. K. and R. Swift. 2010. Post-emergence behavior of hatchling western pond turtles. Oregon indicated. Front cover, top left, © Dennis and Sue Banner/OWI #12;Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling

Rosenberg, Daniel K.

423

Fate of permethrin in model outdoor ponds  

SciTech Connect

In 1979 and 1980, outdoor artificial ponds were treated with /sup 14/C-permethrin (labelled at either the cyclopropyl or methylene position) at 0.028 kg/ha (15 ug/L). Uptake of permethrin by duckweed and hydrosoil was monitored by direct combustion, TLC-autoradiography, HPLC, and liquid scintillation counting. Rapid loss of permethrin from the water coincided with the detection of five degradation products in the water at concentrations below 2.0 ug/L. The products were cis- and trans-cyclopropyl acid, phenoxybenzoic acid, and phenoxybenzyl alcohol, and an unknown non-cleaved product of permethrin. Permethrin was readily sorbed by duckweed but was not persistent. Permethrin residues in the hydrosoil, which was the major sink for permethrin added to the ponds, were persistent and were detected at 420 days post-treatment. Cis-permethrin was more persistent in the hydrosoil than the trans-permethrin. The results indicated that permethrin in water was short-lived at an application rate of 15 ug/L because of the rapid degradation of permethrin in the water and sorption of permethrin by the hydrosoil and vegetation. However, at one year post-treatment, permethrin residues were still detected in the hydrosoil at 1.0 ug/kg.

Rawn, G.P.; Webster, G.R.; Muir, D.C.

1982-01-01

424

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

Grace, J.B.

1985-08-01

425

Relationship between woody plant colonization and Typha L. encroachment in stormwater detention basins.  

PubMed

We studied stormwater detention basins where woody vegetation removal was suspended for 2 years in Virginia, USA to determine if woody vegetation can control Typha populations and how early woody plant succession interacts with Typha, other herbaceous vegetation, and site factors. Distribution and composition of woody vegetation, Typha and non-Typha herbaceous vegetation biomass, and site factors were assessed at 100 plots in four basins ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. A greenhouse study examined the interaction of shade and soil moisture on Typha biomass and persistence. Principal component analysis identified an environmental gradient associated with greater water table depths and decreased elevation that favored Typha but negatively influenced woody vegetation. Elevation was correlated with litter layer distribution, suggesting that initial topography influences subsequent environmental characteristics and thus plant communities. Soil organic matter at 0-10 cm ranged from 5.4 to 12.7%. Woody plants present were native species with the exception of Ailanthus altissima and Pyrus calleryana. In the greenhouse, shade and reduced soil moisture decreased Typha biomass and rhizome length. The shade effect was strongest in flooded plants and the soil moisture effect was strongest for plants in full sun. Typha in dry soil and heavy shade had 95% less total biomass and 83% smaller rhizomes than Typha in flooded soil and full sun, but even moderate soil moisture reductions decreased above- and below-ground biomass by 63 and 56%, respectively. Suspending maintenance allows restoration of woody vegetation dominated by native species and may suppress Typha invasion. PMID:23925899

Plumb, Priscilla Bocskor; Day, Susan D; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa M; Seiler, John R

2013-10-01

426

Fine-scale spatial patterns in bacterial community composition and function within freshwater ponds.  

PubMed

The extent to which non-host-associated bacterial communities exhibit small-scale biogeographic patterns in their distribution remains unclear. Our investigation of biogeography in bacterial community composition and function compared samples collected across a smaller spatial scale than most previous studies conducted in freshwater. Using a grid-based sampling design, we abstracted 100+ samples located between 3.5 and 60?m apart within each of three alpine ponds. For every sample, variability in bacterial community composition was monitored using a DNA-fingerprinting methodology (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) whereas differences in bacterial community function (that is, carbon substrate utilisation patterns) were recorded from Biolog Ecoplates. The exact spatial position and dominant physicochemical conditions (for example, pH and temperature) were simultaneously recorded for each sample location. We assessed spatial differences in bacterial community composition and function within each pond and found that, on average, community composition or function differed significantly when comparing samples located >20?m apart within any pond. Variance partitioning revealed that purely spatial variation accounted for more of the observed variability in both bacterial community composition and function (range: 24-38% and 17-39%) than the combination of purely environmental variation and spatially structured environmental variation (range: 17-32% and 15-20%). Clear spatial patterns in bacterial community composition, but not function were observed within ponds. We therefore suggest that some of the observed variation in bacterial community composition is functionally 'redundant'. We confirm that distinct bacterial communities are present across unexpectedly small spatial scales suggesting that populations separated by distances of >20?m may be dispersal limited, even within the highly continuous environment of lentic water. PMID:24577354

Lear, Gavin; Bellamy, Julia; Case, Bradley S; Lee, Jack E; Buckley, Hannah L

2014-08-01

427

Ising model for melt ponds on Arctic sea ice  

E-print Network

The albedo of melting Arctic sea ice, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by pools of water on the ice surface. Recent observations show an onset of pond complexity at a critical area of about 100 square meters, attended by a transition in pond fractal dimension. To explain this behavior and provide a statistical physics approach to sea ice modeling, we introduce a two dimensional Ising model for pond evolution which incorporates ice-albedo feedback and the underlying thermodynamics. The binary magnetic spin variables in the Ising model correspond to the presence of melt water or ice on the sea ice surface. The model exhibits a second-order phase transition from isolated to clustered melt ponds, with the evolution of pond complexity in the clustered phase consistent with the observations.

Ma, Y -P; Golden, K M

2014-01-01

428

Crossing the final ecological threshold in high Arctic ponds  

PubMed Central

A characteristic feature of most Arctic regions is the many shallow ponds that dot the landscape. These surface waters are often hotspots of biodiversity and production for microorganisms, plants, and animals in this otherwise extreme terrestrial environment. However, shallow ponds are also especially susceptible to the effects of climatic changes because of their relatively low water volumes and high surface area to depth ratios. Here, we describe our findings that some high Arctic ponds, which paleolimnological data indicate have been permanent water bodies for millennia, are now completely drying during the polar summer. By comparing recent pond water specific conductance values to similar measurements made in the 1980s, we link the disappearance of the ponds to increased evaporation/precipitation ratios, probably associated with climatic warming. The final ecological threshold for these aquatic ecosystems has now been crossed: complete desiccation. PMID:17606917

Smol, John P.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.

2007-01-01

429

A computer simulation model of salt-gradient solar ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass and energy transfer processes of a salt gradient solar pond were developed into a finite element of computer model. The system represented by the model can be: (1) a nonconvective salt gradient solar pond for which the energy transfer takes place by conduction through the brine and the ground beneath the pond; (2) a stratified three zone solar pond consisting of upper and lower convective zones and a nonconvective gradient zone in between. The temperature of the upper and lower convective zones are predicted in terms of the net energy input to the zones. The energy fluxes at the pond surface include: reflected and absorbed solar radiation, evaporation energy loss, net long wave radiation loss to the atmosphere, advected energy of precipitation and inflow water, and convective heat loss at the surface.

Panahi, Z.

430

Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

Peelgren, M. L.

1982-01-01

431

Effects on water quality due to flood-water detention by Barker and Addicks Reservoirs, Houston, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Barker and Addicks Reservoirs, located about 16 mi west of Houston, Texas, provide flood detention storage for storm runoff. Of interest are the water quality characteristics in the study area and changes in water quality during detention. Study area sampling sites were selected upstream along Buffalo Bayou for Barker Reservoir and on Bear Creek and Langham Creek for Addicks Reservoir, within the reservoirs, near the reservoir outflows, and below the confluence of each reservoir outflow at the streamflow station Buffalo Bayou near Addicks. Flow data were available at all sites except in the reservoirs. Analyses of samples collected during both low flow and storm runoff show that in general, the water of the study areas was low in mineralization, but the aesthetics of the water was a problem. The inorganic constituents, trace metals, and pesticides rarely exceeded maximum contaminant levels recommended by the EPA for public supply using 1976 and 1977 criteria for primary and secondary standards. All species of nutrients, except ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus, almost always were below the recommended maximum contaminant levels. Large values of suspended solids, turbidity, and color were common. Possible bacterial problems are indicated because coliform bacteria densities exceeded recommended levels in about 25% of the samples. The effects of the reservoirs on the water quality characteristics of storm runoff were analyzed using three approaches: (1) a comparison of the discharge weighted average values of nine selected constituents at each streamflow-gaging station during four storms (biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, turbidity, color, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, dissolved solids and total phosphorus); (2) an analysis of the means of the discharge weighted average values computed for the four hydrologic events using the Student t-test, indicating that reservoir detention significantly reduced suspended solids; and (3) a comparison at each site of the mean, maximum, and minimum values computed for seven constituents that did not correlate with discharge. The only consistent water quality changes observed were with the three bacteria groups, which were decreased by flood water detention. (Lantz-PTT)

Liscum, Fred; Paul, E.M.; Goss, R.L.

1987-01-01

432

Impact of permafrost thaw on Arctic tundra pond geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing evidence indicates the arctic tundra is changing physically, biologically, and chemically due to climate warming. With a warmer climate, permafrost is expected to thaw and influence the chemistry of arctic aquatic ecosystems. However, knowledge is limited on how geochemistry of arctic tundra pond ecosystems will respond. By re-sampling historical IBP ponds in Barrow, AK first sampled in the 1970s, previous studies have shown an increase in water temperature, nutrients and algal biomass through time. Results from this study indicate an increase of Ca, Mg, and Na in the water column, and a decrease in pH relative to the 1970s, suggesting an increased rate and magnitude of carbonate and Mg release. Seasonal trends were also examined to understand what processes, such as mineral weathering, peat decomposition and evaporation, were currently most influential in determining pond geochemistry. An increase in Ca/Na molar ratios, and carbonate and magnesium concentrations indicates that these tundra ponds are experiencing greater carbonate weathering compared to the 1970s and the rate of carbonate weathering increases in ponds as the summer progresses. However, increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations originating from peat decomposition are likely neutralizing additional inputs of carbonate, causing pond pH to decrease and exacerbating mineral weathering. A strong positive relationship between element concentrations and active layer pond thaw depth suggests that the origin of these additional solutes is likely from permafrost thaw. Active layer thaw depth has increased substantially over the past 40 years in the IBP ponds. Chloride/Bromide molar ratios and Deuterium/ 18-Oxygen isotope ratios will be used to determine the degree of evaporation occurring in tundra ponds. Ultimately, this study provides evidence for how geochemistry can identify the sources of chemical inputs to Arctic ponds affected by climate change and permafrost thaw.

Reyes, F.; Lougheed, V.

2012-12-01

433

Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples.  

PubMed

Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a survey on cyanobacterial blooms and studied three ponds in detail. Among 3,500 urban ponds in the urbanized Dutch province of North Brabant, 125 showed cyanobacterial blooms in the period 2009-2012. This covered 79% of all locations registered for cyanobacterial blooms, despite the fact that urban ponds comprise only 11% of the area of surface water in North Brabant. Dominant bloom-forming genera in urban ponds were Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix. In the three ponds selected for further study, the microcystin concentration of the water peaked at 77 ?g l(-1) and in scums at 64,000 ?g l(-1), which is considered highly toxic. Microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR were the most prevalent variants in these waters and in scums. Cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a peaked in August with concentrations up to 962 ?g l(-1) outside of scums. The ponds were highly eutrophic with mean total phosphorus concentrations between 0.16 and 0.44 mg l(-1), and the sediments were rich in potential releasable phosphorus. High fish stocks dominated by carp lead to bioturbation, which also favours blooms. As urban ponds in North Brabant, and likely in other regions, regularly suffer from cyanobacterial blooms and citizens may easily have contact with the water and may ingest cyanobacterial material during recreational activities, particularly swimming, control of health risk is of importance. Monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in urban ponds is a first step to control health risks. Mitigation strategies should focus on external sources of eutrophication and consider the effect of sediment P release and bioturbation by fish. PMID:24798921

Waajen, Guido W A M; Faassen, Elisabeth J; Lürling, Miquel

2014-08-01

434

78 FR 15017 - Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...21 CFR part 1, subpart K, implementing section 304(h) of the FD&C Act, as added by the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. This document had also served as FDA's guidance for 21 CFR part 1, subpart K...

2013-03-08

435

Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995  

SciTech Connect

Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

1996-06-01

436

Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

1996-12-31

437

Data validation report for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit: 100-D ponds sampling  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that 100 percent of the Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit Sampling Investigation. Therefore the data from the chemical analysis of all 30 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site.

Stankovich, M.T.

1994-01-04

438

Solar pond research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A description of solar pond research at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. The main issues in the theory of solar ponds are discussed. Among these are the interfacial-boundary-layer model, models for interface motion and pond performance, heat extraction, and ground heat loss. The core of the research effort at Los Alamos was the development of a one-dimensional computer program to accurately predict dynamic performance of a solar pond. The computer model and the experiments that were designed and performed to validate it are described. The experiments include two laboratory tanks wherein temperature, salinity, and flow visualization data were obtained and a 232 m/sup 2/ outdoor solar pond. Results from preliminary validation show good agreement between the pond's predicted dynamic behavior and that which actually occurred in the experiments. More validation using data from full-sized solar ponds is needed. A new correlation for the ratio of interfacial salt-flux to heat-flux is proposed which agrees well with our data. Recommendations for future research are given.

Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Grimmer, D.P.

1984-01-01

439

Compartmental model for organic matter digestion in facultative ponds.  

PubMed

A model has been developed for the digestion of organic matter in facultative ponds in tropical regions. Complete mixing has been assumed for the aerobic and anaerobic compartments. Settling, aerobic layer oxidation, and anaerobic layer methanogenesis are the main processes for organic matter removal in the water column. Exchange processes between layers are dispersive or soluble exchange, solubilization and transport of organic matter from sediments to water column are also taken into account. Degradation of organic matter in the sediments produces gaseous emissions to the water column. The exchange between bubbles ascending and the water column was measured. The model was calibrated with data obtained from a pilot facultative pond built in Muña Reservoir in Bogotá. The pond was sampled during 4 months to compare data between its water hyacinth covered section and uncovered section. The results clearly show the relative importance of different BOD removal processes in facultative ponds and suggest modifications to further improve performance. The results from the model suggest that internal loadings to facultative ponds due to solubilization and return of organic matter from the sediments to the aerobic layer greatly influence the soluble BOD effluent concentration. Aerobic degradation activity in the facultative pond does not affect significantly the effluent concentration. Anaerobic degradation activity in the facultative pond can more easily achieve increases in the removal efficiencies of BOD. PMID:11833730

Giraldo, E; Garzón, A

2002-01-01

440

Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.  

PubMed

The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d < 1.5 m) corresponding to a high oxygen production of algae. For the layout of the individual components: photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy. PMID:14510232

Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

2003-01-01

441

Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

2007-12-01

442

Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

2009-11-09

443

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

Farfan, E.

2009-09-30

444

Interactions between snow and melt ponds in sea ice models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover on sea ice at the end of the winter persists into the early part of the sea ice melt season, and the spatial distribution of snow affects the surface topography, the distribution of initial melt pond formation and its subsequent evolution. After the initial formation of melt ponds, the low albedo of the ponds compared to snow or bare ice causes the ponds to preferentially absorb solar radiation and therefore further affects surface ice melt. A physically based melt pond model was coupled to the thermodynamic-dynamic Louvain-la-Neuve Sea-Ice Model (LIM, version 3), which recently includes a representation of snow properties and processes. In the new snow scheme, snow is represented in multiple layers with varying thermo-physical properties, and simple parameterizations for blowing snow and fresh water refreezing into the snow were implemented. Several simulations were performed using the combined snow and melt pond configuration to study the impacts of the processes described above on the Arctic sea ice melt pond fractions. Preliminary results lead to two expected but uncorroborated model behaviors. In the simulations, blowing snow tends to decrease the average snow depth on sea ice due to losses into leads, thus allowing wider but shallower ponds on multiyear ice, while no significant effect is noticeable on first-year ice. Similarly, the refreezing of water in the snow curtails the amount of meltwater available to feed melt ponds on thick ice categories, where some snow may persist through the melt season, but has a limited or no impact on thin ice where snow melts away rapidly.

Lecomte, Olivier; Fichefet, Thierry; Flocco, Daniela; Schroeder, David; Vancoppenolle, Martin

2014-05-01

445

Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits  

SciTech Connect

This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.

Kelty, G.G.

1993-08-11

446

Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980  

SciTech Connect

A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

Tilly, L.J.

1981-03-01

447

Evaluation of the Rulison drilling effluent pond as trout habitat  

SciTech Connect

The Rulison Site is located in Section 25, township 7 South, Range 95 West, Garfield County, Colorado. The site is approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. Project Ruhson was an experiment conducted jointly by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and Austral Oil Company to test the feasibility of using a nuclear device to increase natural gas production in low permeability geological formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 meters (m) (8,426 feet [ft]) below the ground surface (DOE, 1994). The Rulison Drilling Effluent Pond (called `the pond`) is an engineered structure covering approximately 0.2 hectare (0.5 acre), which was excavated and used to store drilling fluids during drilling of the device emplacement well. The drilling fluids consisted of bentonitic drilling mud with additives such as diesel fuel and chrome lignosulfonate. Most of the drilling muds were removed from the pond when the site was decommissioned in 1976, and the pond was subsequently stocked with rainbow trout by the land owner and used as a fishing pond. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted sampling of the pond to evaluate residual contamination from the drilling fluids. Based on the results of this sampling, the DOE conducted a voluntary cleanup action in order to reduce the levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons and chromium in pond sediments. The cleanup was conducted between August and mid-November of 1995. At the end of cleanup activities, the pond was lined with a clay geofabric and left dry. The geofabric was covered with sod to protect it. The pond has since been refilled by snowmelt and inflow from a spring. Prior to remediation, the pond apparently had sufficient water quality and food resources to support stocked rainbow trout. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the present ecological status of the pond and to determine if post-remediation water quality and food resources are adequate to support stocked rainbow trout. Sampling of the pond was conducted by IT Corporation (IT) on September 10, 1996.

NONE

1998-06-23

448

Arctic melt ponds and bifurcations in the climate system  

E-print Network

Understanding how sea ice melts is critical to climate projections. In the Arctic, melt ponds that develop on the surface of sea ice floes during the late spring and summer largely determine their albedo $-$ a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a simple sea ice climate model passing through a bifurcation point $-$ an irreversible critical threshold as the system warms, by incorporating geometric information about melt pond evolution. This study is based on a nonlinear phase transition model for melt ponds, and bifurcation analysis of a simple climate model with ice - albedo feedback as the key mechanism driving the system to a potential bifurcation point.

Sudakov, Ivan; Golden, Kenneth M

2014-01-01

449

Nitrogen pollution of stormwater ponds: Potential for toxic effects on amphibian embryos and larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff from impervious surfaces associated with areas of residential, commercial and industrial development is commonly managed through the construction of stormwater ponds that are designed to slow runoff and reduce pollutant inputs to streams. It has been suggested that stormwater ponds may also provide habitat for wildlife. However, wildlife attracted to ponds may be exposed to pollutants entering ponds in

Laura R. Massal; Joel W. Snodgrass; Ryan E. Casey

2007-01-01

450

Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).

Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.

2004-01-01

451

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m{sup 2} and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E). Heat was successfully extracted from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond by using a heat pipe heat exchanger made from 60 copper tubes with 21 mm inside diameter and 22 mm outside diameter. The length of the evaporator and condenser section was 800 mm and 200 mm respectively. R134a was used as the heat transfer fluid in the experiment. The theoretical model was formulated for the solar pond heat extraction on the basis of the energy conservation equations and by using the solar radiation data for the above location. Numerical methods were used to solve the modeling equations. In the analysis, the performance of heat exchanger is investigated by varying the velocity of inlet air used to extract heat from the condenser end of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). Air velocity was found to have a significant influence on the effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger. In the present investigation, there was an increase in effectiveness by 43% as the air velocity was decreased from 5 m/s to 1 m/s. The results obtained from the theoretical model showed good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

Tundee, Sura; Terdtoon, Pradit; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Singh, Randeep; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Bundoora East Campus, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

2010-09-15

452

Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds.  

PubMed

Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) consist of emergent macrophytes that are placed on a floating mat in a pond for water treatment and aesthetic purposes. FTWs may have unique advantages with respect to treating urban runoff within existing retention ponds for excess nutrients. However, research is lacking in providing guidance on performance of specific species for treating urban runoff, and on timing of harvest. Harvesting is needed to remove nutrients permanently from the retention pond. We investigated vegetation effects on FTWs on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal performance and storage in above-ground FTW macrophyte tissues. The study evaluated pickerelweed (PW, Pontederia cordata L.) and softstem bulrush (SB, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) over time in microcosms flushed with water obtained from a nearby urban retention pond in northern Virginia near Washington, DC. While the literature exhibits a wide range of experimental sizes, using the term mesocosm, we have chosen the term microcosm to reflect the small size of our vessel; and do not include effects of sediment. The experiment demonstrated PW outperformed SB for P and N removal. Based upon analysis of the accumulated nutrient removal over time, a harvest of the whole PW and SB plants in September or October is recommended. However, when harvesting only the aerial parts, we recommend harvesting above-ground PW tissues in July or August to maximize nutrient removal. This is because PW translocates most of its nutrients to below-ground storage organs in the fall, resulting in less nutrient mass in the above-ground tissue compared to the case in the summer (vegetative stage). Further research is suggested to investigate whether vegetation can be overly damaged from multiple harvests on an annual basis in temperate regions. PMID:25214393

Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J; Bell, Cameron

2014-11-15

453

A Report on Special Populations. Alternate Schools Area Learning Centers. Connections/Detention Centers. Residential Treatment Centers. Minnesota Student Survey, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings of a 1991 survey of 3,573 adolescents in Area Learning Centers and Alternative Schools, in Corrections and Detention Centers, and in Residential Treatment Centers in Minnesota. The study focused on six environmental stressors: family alcohol problems, family drug problems, experiencing or witnessing physical abuse,…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

454

What Do You Mean My Child Is in Custody? A Qualitative Study of Parental Response to the Detention of Their Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 11 parents whose children had been taken into custody. The initial reactions and responses of the parents to the detention of their children were examined, as well as these parents' thoughts and feelings about the process and their involvement in the juvenile justice system. The following…

Church, Wesley T., II; MacNeil, Gordon; Martin, Shadi S.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

2009-01-01

455

Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

2013-01-01

456

Detention of asylum seekers in the US, UK, France, Germany, and ItalyA critical view of the globalizing culture of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although criminologists in the US and Europe continue to explore issues of immigration, race, and ethnicity in the context of crime, they have yet to examine the detention of asylum seekers. Still, this is a social phenomenon that requires serious consideration since in many instances such policies and practices violate international standards for the protection of refugees. This work takes

Michael Welch; Liza Schuster

2005-01-01

457

Mourning dove use of man-made ponds in a cold-desert ecosystem in Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in a cold-desert ecosystem used man-made ponds for watering, feeding, gritting, loafing, and courting. Diurnal pond use by doves peaked in the morning and evening. Monthly dove use of ponds fluctuated slightly during the summers of 1984 and 1985. Pond size, pH, and shoreline characteristics had little association with the intensity of pond use by doves;

F. P. Howe; L. D. Flake

1989-01-01

458

VIEW WEST FROM BEHIND ISLAND AND INFIELD POND. EAST FACADE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW WEST FROM BEHIND ISLAND AND INFIELD POND. EAST FACADE OF CLUBHOUSE AND PORTION OF GRANDSTANDS IN BACKGROUND. FLAMINGOS IN FOREGROUND: CD-W. - Hialeah Park Race Track, East Fourth Avenue, Hialeah, Miami-Dade County, FL

459

10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. PHOTO TAKEN FROM WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25). - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

460

ALGAL METABOLITE INFLUENCE ON BLOOM SEQUENCE IN EUTROPHIED FRESHWATER PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The extracellular metabolites of planktonic bloom dominant algae play a most significant role in the determination of bloom sequence in a eutrophied freshwater pond. Certain extracellular metabolites of planktonic blue-green algae substantially inhibit the growth of planktonic di...

461

Gradient-zone erosion by extraction in solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

The erosion of the dynamically stable gradient zone of a salinity-gradient solar pond, due to the extraction of fluid from the storage zone, is numerically investigated. The effects of fluid withdrawal rate, density stratification level, pond and diffuser geometries, and diffuser placement are considered. It is found, for a typical salinity-gradient solar pond with uniform salinity in the storage zone and a continuous salinity gradient above that a finite amount of fluid entrainment from the gradient zone is inevitable. That is, a finite density difference across the interface is always required for a finite extraction rate under steady-state conditions. The magnitude of the density difference is predicted as a function of the geometric and flow parameters. From the results, it is possible to predict the total amount of fluid entrained from the gradient zone as the pond reaches steady-state for prescribed operating conditions.

Estevadeordal, J.; Kleis, S.J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-05-01

462

Treatment of remote impoundment ponds with gel flocculants  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and the Clean Water Act require drainage water to be collected and impounded before release to a natural stream if the water does not meet certain quality standards. Sedimentation ponds allow suspended solids to settle and meet these standards. However, a pond may not have enough volume to give adequate settling time during periods of high flow or high suspended solids levels. A new gel form of polymeric flocculant is being used successfully to treat drainage water at remote impoundment ponds. This form needs no equipment or utilities, responds to changes in stream flow rates, functions unattended for long periods of time, and shows visually when replacement is needed. The polymer has been used for impoundment ponds at coal mines, sandpits, quarries, industrial plants, and paper mills, and for drainage by haul roads. This paper reviews the results from several existing installations.

Moore, J.F.

1982-12-01

463

THE POTAMOGETONS IN RELATION TO POND CULTURE By Emmeline Moore  

E-print Network

THE POTAMOGETONS IN RELATION TO POND CULTURE By Emmeline Moore Contribution from the Department , '" . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ...· .. .....·....·....···..... 255 Historical , .. .......·......... 255 Species of Potamogeton investigated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 P. zosterifolius , .. .. . 264 P. obtusifolius

464

MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

465

INTRODUCTION Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

E-print Network

4092 INTRODUCTION Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis complete direct retention (Baldwin, 1935). Metamorphosis and shell formation have been observed for Lymnaea palustris (Morrill, 1982), L. stagnalis (Ebanks et al., 2010) and another freshwater pulmonate snail Biomphalaria

Grosell, Martin

466

4. NORTH END OF TANKS SHOWING CONCRETE RETENTION POND WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. NORTH END OF TANKS SHOWING CONCRETE RETENTION POND WITH BUTYL LINER; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28406, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

467

The prediction of macrophyte species occurrence in Swiss ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempted to model the abundance of aquatic plant species recorded in a range of ponds in Switzerland. A stratified\\u000a sample of 80 ponds, distributed all over the country, provided input data for model development. Of the 154 species recorded,\\u000a 45 were selected for modelling. A total of 14 environmental parameters were preselected as candidate explanatory variables.\\u000a Two types

D. Auderset Joye; B. Oertli; A. Lehmann; R. Juge; J.-B. Lachavanne

468

Comparative physical limnology of farm ponds in Southcentral Texas  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGY OF FARM PONDS IN SOUTHCENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by DEWEY GREGORY MEYERS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1973 Ma)or Subject: Biology COMPARATIVE PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGY OF FARM PONDS IN SOUTHCENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by DEWEY GREGORY MEYERS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairma of Committee) / i/y'/ /', . nf (Head 'of Depart'ment) (Member...

Meyers, Dewey Gregory

2012-06-07

469

Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results are reported from a study initiated on the Hanford ;\\u000a Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of ²³Pu, ²³Pu, $sup ;\\u000a 240$Pu, and ²¹Am in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste ;\\u000a pond which has been receiving Pu processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond ;\\u000a has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location

R. M. Emery; D. C. Klopfer

1975-01-01

470

Limnological studies on freshwater ponds of hyderabad-India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is based on a two-year study of the distribution of phytoplankton in three freshwater, polluted and unpolluted ponds of Hyderabad, India. The distribution of several groups of algae likeVolvocales, Chlorococcales, Desmids, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, blue-greens andEuglenineae exhibited interesting relationships to the physioo-chemical complexes of the ponds, and throws much light on the algal distribution in Indian waters. The discussion

Mohiuddin Munawar

1970-01-01

471

Status report - Salton Sea solar pond power plant  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar pond commercial power plants in the Salton Sea has been confirmed by a study completed in May 1981. The Salton Sea is an inland salt lake located in the Imperial Valley of Southern California. 600 MW/sub e/ of base load power can be generated if 15% of the sea's 932-km/sup 2/ (360-square mile) surface area is converted to solar ponds. 3 refs.

French, R.L.; Lin, E.I.H.

1981-01-01

472

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails.\\u000a In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish\\u000a but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an

Andrew M. Turner; Michael F. Chislock

2007-01-01

473

Stocking and Management Recommendations for Texas Farm Ponds.  

E-print Network

as a supplement to bass and forage populations in ponds larger than one acre. -5- Bluegill Many pondowners ~re reluctant to stock ponds with bluegill because of the fish's tendency to overpopulate. Bluegill are, however, the only fish species which... to overpopulate. Right? Wrong! Just the opposite may be true. Bluegill overpopulation usually occurs because too few are originally stocked resulting in an unusually large first spawn. The high production and survival rate is a result of 1 ittle competition...

Anonymous,

1983-01-01

474

An environmental simulation of a shrimp mariculture pond  

E-print Network

. Zooplankton 30 33 EVALUATION OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES . . 46 Evaluation of Stocking Densities and Feeding Rates 46 SUMMARY . REFERENCES 59 60 VITA 67 vss LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Pond Model Biomass Flows 2 Dissolved Oxygen and Population... Submodels 3 Pond Model Biomass Curves Under Baseline Conditions, 80, 000 Animals per Hectare, Commercial Feed Rate 19 4 Reported Chlorophyll Levels from Rubright et al. , 1981 . 5 Detail of Figure 3 Showing Days 0 Through 35. . . . . . . . 20 21 6...

Whitson, John Lee

2012-06-07

475

Acidification as environmental pollution: effects on fish-pond ecology  

SciTech Connect

To establish the impact of acidity on fish production in ponds, experiments were conducted in fertilized sunfish (Lepomis spp.) ponds and fed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds. The alkalinity and pH of pond water were lowered by additions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Total alkalinity levels were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 mg/liter in sunfish ponds and 0, 5, and 20 in catfish production ponds. Water quality and phytoplankton density were monitored. The decrease in alkalinity caused changes in fish production and phytoplankton communities. Production of sunfish decreased with decreasing alkalinity below 20 mg/liter. Channel catfish yields were not affected significantly at a total alkalinity of 5 mg/liter and above (P > 0.05). No sign of fish stress of aluminum accumulation in the tissue were detected in catfish. There was no relation between alkalinity level and off-flavor in catfish. Chlorophyll a concentration increased as alkalinity and pH decreased, although total number of phytoplankters, gross photosynthesis, and turbidity decreased with decreases in total alkalinity. Phosphorus was more available at low alkalinity levels. Total hardness increased as alkalinity decreased.

Murad, H.A.

1987-01-01

476

2101-M pond closure plan. Volume 1, Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment.

Not Available

1993-06-01

477

Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

Koch, J. II

1996-12-01

478

Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

Francis, M.; Gukert, D. [Novacor Research and Technology Corporation, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); [Novacor Chemicals, Red Deer, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

479

A telemetry study of swimming depth and oxygen level in a Pangasius pond in the Mekong Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were instrumented with depth and oxygen transmitters and released into a small-scale Pangasius pond in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. The fish only exploited the upper-most 25% of the water column and frequently experienced severe hypoxia (<20% air saturation) at night and at depths greater than 1m below the surface, and with increasing hypoxia and anoxia towards

Sjannie Lefevre; Do Thi Thanh Huong; Nguyen Thi Kim Ha; Tobias Wang; Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Mark Bayley

2011-01-01

480

Cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on ammonia-depleted effluents from sewage oxidation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented represent an initial, limited attempt on a small scale to cultivate nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on both chemically defined media and low nitrogen sewage pond effluents. The rates of blue-green algal biomass production were low compared to those of green algae. Nevertheless, it appears that cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae is possible on sewage effluents where these algae

J. C. Weissman; D. M. Eisenberg; J. R. Benemann

1978-01-01

481

A screening model to predict microalgae biomass growth in photobioreactors and raceway ponds.  

PubMed

A microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in photobioreactors or outdoor ponds. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to Beer-Lambert's Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model uses only two physical and two species-specific biological input parameters, all of which are relatively easy to determine: incident light intensity, culture depth, as well as the biomass light absorption coefficient and the specific growth rate as a function of light intensity. Roux bottle culture experiments were performed with Nannochloropsis salina at constant temperature (23°C) at six different incident light intensities (10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 850?µmol/m(2) ?s) to determine both the specific growth rate under non-shading conditions and the biomass light absorption coefficient as a function of light intensity. The model was successful in predicting the biomass growth rate in these Roux bottle batch cultures during the light-limited linear phase at different incident light intensities. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor variations in the values of input parameters. The model was also successful in predicting the growth performance of Chlorella sp. cultured in LED-lighted 800?L raceway ponds operated in batch mode at constant temperature (30°C) and constant light intensity (1,650?µmol/m(2) ?s). Measurements of oxygen concentrations as a function of time demonstrated that following exposure to darkness, it takes at least 5?s for cells to initiate dark respiration. As a result, biomass loss due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of a culture is unlikely to occur in highly mixed small-scale photobioreactors where cells move rapidly in and out of the light. By contrast, as supported also by the growth model, biomass loss due to dark respiration occurs in the dark zones of the relatively less well-mixed pond cultures. In addition to screening novel microalgae strains for high biomass productivities, the model can also be used for optimizing the pond design and operation. Additional research is needed to validate the biomass growth model for other microalgae species and for the more realistic case of fluctuating temperatures and light intensities observed in outdoor pond cultures. PMID:23280255

Huesemann, M H; Van Wagenen, J; Miller, T; Chavis, A; Hobbs, S; Crowe, B

2013-06-01

482

Direct Experimental Assessment of Microbial Activity in North Pond Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North Pond, an isolated sediment pond located at 22°45’N on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, offered the opportunity to study microbial activities in deeply-buried low-activity sediments. About 8 x 15 km in size with sediment maximum thickness of about 300 m, North Pond is completely surrounded by exposed 7 Ma old basement. North Pond lies above the carbonate compensation depth at a water depth about 4500 m; hydrostatic pressure at the seafloor is about 45 MPa and the temperature is near 2°C. During the a R/V MS Merian cruise (MSM-11/1) in February -March 2009, 14 gravity cores of up to 9 m length were successfully obtained, from which samples were taken with 1-m resolution for experimental activity measurements. The goal of the experimental work was 1) to examine potential metabolic pathways in North Pond sediments and carbon assimilation pathways in this low-energy environment, and 2) explore the effects of pressure on microbial metabolic activities. As dissolved oxygen penetrated through all depths, sediments were aerobically sampled, processed and incubated at 4°C. Selected samples were immediately stored at in situ pressure until further use. The microbial uptake of both organic and inorganic carbon in selected North Pond sediment samples was investigated by following the fate of 14C in radio-labeled organic and organic compounds in North Pond sediment slurry incubations. Shipboard and on-shore experiments using 14C-leucine, 14C-glucose and 14C-bicarbonate were performed on selected cores. Day- to month- incubations were performed at 4°C. Parallel incubations were conducted at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) and in situ pressure (~45 MPa). Either whole cell extraction (Kallmeyer et al., Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 6, 2008, 238-245) or protein-DNA extraction was carried on after various incubations to determine the fraction of 14C incorporated into cellular components. Formation of 14C-labeled CO2 was determined on samples incubated with 14C-glucose to evaluate the aerobic respiration of organic compounds. Both heterotrophic activity and autotrophic activity were potentially present in North Pond sediments. Microbial communities in North Pond sediments were able to oxidize organic compounds. Aerobic autotrophic activity based on fixation of inorganic carbon appeared to be a central feature of the extremely energy limited North Pond microbial community metabolism.

Ferdelman, T. G.; Picard, A.; Morando, M.; Ziebis, W.

2009-12-01

483

Controlling nitrogen release from farm ponds with a subsurface outflow device: Implications for improved water quality in receiving streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention of nutrients in farm ponds has many potential benefits, including reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus (promoters of eutrophication) in receiving streams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial subsurface pond outflow control device (Pond Management System™) on nutrient retention in farm ponds. Four ponds of similar size and water chemistry in the

W. Gregory Cope; Robert B. Bringolf; Shad Mosher; James A. Rice; Richard L. Noble; H. Clifton Edwards

2008-01-01

484

The influence of bottom and side wall heat loss on solar pond performance  

SciTech Connect

Salt gradient nonconvective solar ponds have become recognized as effective devices for collecting and storing solar energy. One of the parameters affecting the thermal performance of finite solar ponds is the heat lost through the bottom and side walls of the pond. This study relates these heat losses to the thermal behavior of the pond for the following pond characteristics: 1. Different thermal properties for the earth adjacent to the bottom and side walls of the pond. 2. Various pond storage-zone thicknesses. 3. Various ratios of pond depth to half-width and radii for rectangular and axisymmetric shapes, respectively. A finite-difference procedure is employed and the two-dimensional, unsteady conduction heat equation is solved numerically. The results reveal that the ratio of the temperature response of finite ponds to that of infinite ponds varies nonlinearly with the ratio of the pond depth to radius or pond depth to half-width for axisymmetric or rectangular ponds, respectively, contrary to previous suggestions. It is also demonstrated that this temperature ratio depends on the surrounding earth properties and on the pond storage-zone thickness.

Elhadidy, M.A.; Nimmo, B.G.

1983-01-01

485

Growth, Processing Measurements, Tail Meat Yield, and Tail Meat Proximate Composition of Male and Female Australian Red Claw Crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, Stocked into Earthen Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small (0.7 g) juvenile red claw, Cherax quadricarinatus, were stocked in earthen ponds (0.04 ha) in Kentucky and grown for 86 days so that measures of growth, survival, processing characteristics, and proximate composition of tail muscle in male and female Australian red claw crayfish could be obtained. A commercial marine shrimp was fed to all red in two separate feedings,

Kenneth R. Thompson; Laura A. Muzinic; Daniel H. Yancey; Carl D. Webster; David B. Rouse; Youling Xiong

2005-01-01

486

Ontogenetic Variation in the Diurnal Food and Habitat Associations of an Endemic and an Exotic Fish in Floodplain Ponds: Consequences for Niche Partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In floodplain ponds with low piscivore abundance, both endemic Midgley's gudgeons, Hypseleotris sp. 5, and exotic mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, showed significant ontogenetic variation in the use of food and space. Small gudgeons were generally associated with surface and benthic habitats, then restricted their distribution to benthic habitats at a size of approximately 24?mm (standard length). The ontogenetic variation in mosquitofish

Rick J. Stoffels; Paul Humphries

2003-01-01

487

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent ma