Sample records for small detention ponds

  1. Analysis of detention ponds for storm water quality control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiping Guo; Barry J. Adams

    1999-01-01

    Flow capture efficiency and average detention time are the performance measures commonly used in assessing the long-term pollutant removal effectiveness of storm water detention ponds. A statistical formulation is presented for estimating these two performance measures for typical detention ponds where outflow is controlled by an orifice or weir type structure. The flow capture efficiency is determined with the estimation

  2. The Design, Use, and Evaluation of Wet Detention Ponds for Stormwater Quality Management

    E-print Network

    Pitt, Robert E.

    The Design, Use, and Evaluation of Wet Detention Ponds for Stormwater Quality Management Using Win .........................................................................6 Required Stormwater Detention Pond Maintenance

  3. Using Stormwater Detention Ponds for Aquatic Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of recently constructed stormwater detention ponds to conduct a set of field and laboratory exercises in an undergraduate limnology course. Provides a number of logistical advantages that can benefit those teaching aquatic sciences. (JRH)

  4. Stormwater Detention and Discharge from Aquaculture Ponds in Florida1

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    BUL334 Stormwater Detention and Discharge from Aquaculture Ponds in Florida1 A. G. Smajstrla, M. E-flow control device for management of stormwater discharge and water conservation. It also provides information

  5. Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond - Wetlands system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Suspended-phase efficiencies for solids, lead, and zinc ranged between 42 and 66%. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72%. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. Total (dissolved + suspended) solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 41 and 73%. Efficiencies for total nitrogen and phosphorus were 21 and 17%, respectively. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond of wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents. Total solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 55 and 83%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies were 36 and 43%, respectively.The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72 percent. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond and wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents.

  6. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented here increased the pond's TSS (and associated pollution) removal efficiency from 46% (current state) to between 70 and 90%, depending on the pond's capacity considered. The RTC strategies allow simultaneously maximizing the detention time of water, while minimizing the hydraulic shocks induced to the receiving water bodies and preventing overflow. A constraint relative to a maximum time of 4 days with water accumulated in the pond was thus respected to avoid mosquito breeding issues. The predictive control schemes (taking rainfall forecasts into consideration) can further reinforce the safety of the management strategies, even if meteorological forecasts are, of course, not error-free. With RTC, the studied pond capacity could thus have been limited to 1250 m3 instead of the 4000 m3 capacity currently used under static control. References Marsalek, J. 2005. Evolution of urban drainage: from cloaca maxima to environmental sustainability. Paper presented at Acqua e Citta, I Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica Urbana, Cent. Stud. Idraul. Urbana, Sant'Agnello di Sorrento, Italy, 28- 30 Sept. Middleton, J.R. and Barrett, M.E. 2008. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin. Water Environment Research, 80 (2): 172-178. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143007X220842 Muschalla, D., Pelletier, G., Berrouard, É., Carpenter, J.-F., Vallet, B., and Vanrolleghem, P.A. 2009. Ecohydraulic-driven real-time control of stormwater basins. In: Proceedings 8th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling (8UDM), Tokyo, Japan, September 7-11. National Research Council, 1993. Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shammaa, Y., Zhu, D.Z., Gyürék, L.L., and Labatiuk C.W. 2002. Effectiveness of dry ponds for stormwater total suspended solids removal. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29 (2): 316-324 (9). Doi: 10.1139/l02-008

  7. Effects of detention on water quality of two stormwater detention ponds receiving highway surface runoff in Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, nutrients, and heavy metals following ten storm events at two stormwater detention ponds that receive highway surface runoff in the Jacksonville, Florida, metropolitan area. The purpose of the sampling program was to detect changes in constituent concentration with time of detention within the pond system. Statistical inference of a relation with total rainfall was found in the initial concentrations of 11 constituents and with antecedent dry period for the initial concentrations of 3 constituents. Based on graphical examination and factor analysis , constituent behavior with time could be grouped into five relatively independent processes for one of the ponds. The processes were (1) interaction with shallow groundwater systems, (2) solubilization of bottom materials, (3) nutrient uptake, (4) seasonal changes in precipitation, and (5) sedimentation. Most of the observed water-quality changes in the ponds were virtually complete within 3 days following the storm event. (Author 's abstract)

  8. An Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Hurricane Creek Detention Pond Number 4 in Central Angelina County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-12

    AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE PROPOSED HURRICANE CREEK DETENTION POND NUMBER 4 IN CENTRAL ANGELINA COUNTY, TEXAS Texas Antiquities Permit Number 2335 By William E. Moore Brazos... Valley Research Associates Contract Report Number 73 2000 AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE PROPOSED HURRICANE CREEK DETENTION POND NUMBER 4 IN CENTRAL ANGELINA COUNTY, TEXAS BVRA Project Number 99-18 Principal...

  9. Performance of a dry detention pond: case study of Kota Damansara, Selangor, Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Liew; Z. Selamat; A. Ab. Ghani; N. A. Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    The Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) was published in 2001 by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID), which promotes Best Management Practices (BMPs) aimed at stormwater management at the source. The construction of detention ponds has been strongly encouraged for water quantity control for new housing developments. This study focuses on the evaluation, using the InfoWorks Collection

  10. The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

    2002-02-01

    The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

  11. 3D modelling of transport, deposition and resuspension of highway deposited sediments in wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, T R

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of flows and transport of primarily particle bound pollutants in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to evaluate the quality of long term simulation based on historical rains series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and mud transport model is used for the investigation. The transport model has been calibrated and validated on e.g. experiments in a 30 m long concrete channel with width of 0.8 m and a water depth of approximately 0.8 m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account. PMID:20706022

  12. Trace metals in urban streams and detention ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Licsko, Z.J.; Struger, J. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Ecosystem Health Div.

    1995-12-31

    Trace metal levels were monitored over a nine month period in two urban creeks in the Hamilton Harbour watershed and in two urban stormwater retention ponds in Guelph, Ontario. Samples were collected both during dry or non-event periods and immediately after wet weather events. Both water and surficial sediment samples were collected and tested for cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. In almost all cases during wet weather conditions, Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the protection of freshwater aquatic life were exceeded in water for lead (>7 mg/L), copper (>4 mg/L), and zinc (>30 mg/L) . Both stormwater ponds accumulated trace metals in sediment to levels above the lowest effect level guideline for the protection and management of aquatic sediment in Ontario, and, in the case of zinc (> 820 ug/g), above the severe effect level guideline. These levels of contamination raise serious concerns about the use of these and similar facilities as habitat for biota.

  13. Comparison of the heavy metal content of motorway stormwater following discharge into wet biofiltration and dry detention ponds along the London Orbital (M25) motorway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Hares; N. I. Ward

    1999-01-01

    The Surrey section of the London Orbital M25 motorway uses mainly detention pond facilities for the treatment of stormwater runoff. A majority of these implement the use of dry detention basins. However, in a few locations biofiltration facilities operate through the use of reed bed systems. An assessment of the removal efficiencies for both wet biofiltration and dry pond treatment

  14. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  15. Development of baseline water quality stormwater detention pond model for Chesapeake Bay catchments

    SciTech Connect

    Musico, W.J.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    An environmental impact assessment is required for every proposed development in the Commonwealth of Virginia to help identify areas of potential concerns. The purpose of the Chesapeake Bay Local Assistance Department (CBLAD), Guidance Calculation Procedures is to ensure that development of previously constructed areas do not further exacerbate current problems of stormwater-induced eutrophication and downstream flooding. The methodology is based on the post development conditions that will not generate greater peak flows and will result in a 10% overall reduction of total phosphorus. Currently, several well-known models can develop hydrographs and pollutographs that accurately model the real response of a given watershed to any given rainfall event. However, conventional method of achieving the desired peak flow reduction and pollutant removal is not a deterministic procedure, and is inherently a trail and error process. A method of quickly and accurately determining the required size of stormwater easements was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative stormwater collection and treatment systems. In this method, predevelopment conditions were modeled first to estimate the peak flows and subsequent pollutants generation that can be used as a baseline for post development plan. Resulting stormwater easement estimates facilitate decision-making processes during the planning and development phase of a project. The design can be optimized for the minimum cost or the smallest-possible pond size required for peak flow reduction and detention time given the most basic data such as: inflow hydrograph and maximum allowable pond depth.

  16. Technical and Environmental Functioning of Detention Ponds for the Treatment of Highway and Road Runoff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Starzec; BO B. Lind; Anders Lanngren; Åsa Lindgren; Torbjörn Svenson

    2005-01-01

    Based on an inventory of more than 200 facilities for the treatment of road runoff water in Sweden, 26 representative stormwater ponds were studied with regard to technical function, maintenance and metal accumulation. Sediment accumulation and metal content in the pond sediment was studied in relation to concentration in the runoff water, spatial variation and pond geometry.

  17. Surface Water Quality Pollutant Removal Efficacy of Three Wet Detention Ponds

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    , Borden cant reductions in total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phospho- et al. (1997) found that two vegetation. The second urban pond algal bloom formation in-pond, and incoming sedimentachieved significant in nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, As part of a large-scale water quality analysis of fresh

  18. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in emission rates. Conventional wind-based models seem inappropriate to simulate GHG exchanges, as seen when comparing with floating chamber estimations. Surface renewal models that consider heat exchanges are used to estimate flux more accurately, and ebullition flux are measured with submerged funnels to compare with diffusive flux estimations.

  19. Small zebrafish in a big chemical pond

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, I. Taneli; Yeh, J.-R. Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The number of possible small organic molecules of different structure is virtually limitless. One of the main goals of chemical biologists is to identify, from this “chemical space”, entities that affect biological processes or systems in a specific manner. This can lead to a better understanding of the regulation and components of various biological machineries, as well as provide insights into efficacious therapeutic targets and drug candidates. However, the challenges confronting chemical biologists are multiple. How do we efficiently identify compounds that possess desirable activities without unwanted off-target effects? Once a candidate compound has been found, how do we determine its mode of action? In this Prospects piece, we call attention to recent studies using embryonic and larval zebrafish to illustrate the breadth and depth of questions in chemical biology that may be addressed using this model, and hope that they can serve as catalysts for future investigational ideas. PMID:22396148

  20. Waste Stabilization Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundakjian, Philip

    This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste stabilization ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…

  1. Hydrologic modeling of detention pond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban watersheds produce an instantaneous response to rainfall. That results in stormwater runoff in excess of the capacity of drainage systems. The excess stormwater must be managed to prevent flooding and erosion of streams. Management can be achieved with the help of structural stormwater Best...

  2. Investigation of pond velocities using dye and small drogues: a case study of the Nelson City waste stabilisation pond.

    PubMed

    Barter, P J

    2003-01-01

    The city of Nelson, New Zealand, has a 27 hectare oxidation pond as its primary wastewater treatment facility. Recent changes in the configuration of the pond and installation of a mixer/aerator raised concerns that pond treatment rates and effluent quality may be affected by high internal pond velocities and short retention times. This paper presents the findings of an investigation into wastewater velocity and movement within the pond using qualitative dye dispersion and tracking of small-scale "holey-sock" drogues. Simultaneous deployment of drogues and dye allowed methods to be compared, since small-scale drogues have not commonly been used in wastewater ponds. Dye dispersion was assessed using low-level aerial photography from a tethered helium blimp to track short term movement and mixing, while a datalogger and fluorometer were used to measure pond retention time. Drogue movement was tracked in conjunction with the dye study from a small boat using hand-held GPS. The dye study found that: (i) the first portion of pond influent discharged from the pond after 37.5 hours, substantially quicker than the theoretical pond retention time of 27 days. However, the measured retention time was with a mixer in place and the theoretical time was without a mixer; (ii) the position of the paddle wheel mixer/aerator was not optimally placed for mixing the influent and a quiescent region existed adjacent to the influent point; and (iii) the low-level aerial photography was an effective method of evaluating larger pond systems. The "holey-sock" drogue studies showed that: (i) the drogues accurately followed the movement and velocity of dyed influent within the pond; (ii) wastewater velocity and movement was dominated by the paddle wheel mixer/aerator; and (iii) wind direction had a minor influence on wastewater velocity and movement in areas not directly affected by the paddle wheel mixer/aerator. The study demonstrated that the combined use of dye and drogues was a relatively low-cost and effective means of determining internal pond velocities and movement. Future studies using similar methods will be useful in helping validate computer-modelled movement and velocity. PMID:14510205

  3. 78 FR 15017 - Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...FDA-2011-D-0643] Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About...availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``What You Need...to serve as guidance for industry on administrative detention...Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (21 U...the human and animal food industries with an understanding...

  4. Effects of a vegetated stormwater-detention basin on chemical quality and temperature of runoff from a small residential development in Monroe County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    The vegetated stormwater-detention basin at a small residential development in Monroe County, N.Y. has been shown to be effective in reducing loads of certain chemical constituents to receiving waters. Loads of suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus have been reduced by an average of 14 to 62 percent. The basin has little effect on the temperature of runoff between the inflow and the outflow; water temperatures at the outflow during summer storms averaged 0.5 degrees Celsius higher than those at the inflow.

  5. Modelling the long-term sediment trap efficiency of small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Poesen, Jean

    2001-10-01

    A numerical model (sediment trap efficiency for small ponds - STEP) is developed to simulate sediment deposition in small ponds (i.e. <1 ha) and to calculate the sediment trap efficiency (STE). The algorithms are kept simple to allow the model to simulate larger time periods (i.e. several years). Eight runs with an experimental pond were executed to test the model. The STEP model produces reasonable predictions of STE as well as the shape and magnitude of the effluent sediment concentration graph. The model efficiency of STEP for the prediction of STE equals 0·38 and the root mean square error equals 4·7%. Similar models, such as DEPOSITS and CSTRS, were inefficient in predicting the experimental results. The STEP model was used to simulate the long-term (33 years) STE of small retention ponds in central Belgium using 10-min rainfall data. For a typical pond (1000 m2) with a catchment area of 25 ha, annual STE can vary from 58 to 100%, with a long-term STE of only 68%.

  6. Characterizing seasonal markers using high-resolution water temperature data from small mountain ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, J.; Engel, B.; Hansen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Small mountain ponds in western Maine are near local topographic highs and are typically associated with distinctive ecological zones because of their elevation. Long-term historic records of seasonal markers such as ice-out for large, low elevation lakes in the region indicate that climate warming is affecting these large water bodies, but little data exist for the smaller, remote, higher elevation ponds. These ponds are typically 700 m elevation, have a surface area of about 4 hectares, and a maximum depth of 10 m. Because these ponds are associated with habitats restricted from migrating in response to climate change, characterizing and documenting the timing of seasonal markers such as ice-out and other events is important to assess whether these smaller ponds are following similar trends to the larger lakes, or if they might be more sensitive to climate forcing. High-resolution water temperature and light data collected at several depths by data loggers at study sites across the region since 2007 have been analyzed to characterize major seasonal markers that cannot be otherwise determined because of the remote character of the ponds. Ice-in and ice-out dates can be identified by characteristic signatures in the surface and bottom water temperatures; differences in the timing of the events among sites may be explained by elevation or basin aspect. Summer temperatures records also revealed multiple turnover events during some summer seasons, indicating that these ponds should be classified as discontinuous cold polymictic water bodies . These turnover events were nearly simultaneous at multiple study sites fifty kilometers apart, suggesting forcing by regional weather events. These high-resolution records permit long-term monitoring of sensitive, remote sites that will contribute to understanding the magnitude of the response to climate change in these small subalpine watersheds, as well as the spatial and temporal complexity of climate change in the northeastern United States.

  7. Characterizing seasonal markers using high-resolution water temperature data from small mountain ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Daly; B. Engel; J. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Small mountain ponds in western Maine are near local topographic highs and are typically associated with distinctive ecological zones because of their elevation. Long-term historic records of seasonal markers such as ice-out for large, low elevation lakes in the region indicate that climate warming is affecting these large water bodies, but little data exist for the smaller, remote, higher elevation

  8. Detention of insolvent patients in Burundian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kippenberg, Juliane; Sahokwasama, Jean Baptiste; Amon, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    Between February and June 2006, Human Rights Watch and the Association for the Promotion of Human Rights and Detained Persons conducted an investigation into the detention of insolvent hospital patients in Burundi. Of 11 hospitals visited, nine were found to be holding former patients in detention for being unable to pay their hospital bills. Thirty-seven detained patients, and key informants in government, hospital administration and health services, were interviewed. The detention of insolvent hospital patients was described as a routine practice, dating from the 1990s. Conditions of detention included overcrowding, insufficient food and water, and withholding of further medical treatment. Seventy-two per cent of patients interviewed had been detained for 1 month or longer at the time of interview. Mechanisms designed to exempt or reimburse the health fees of low-income and indigent people failed to protect patients from becoming detained. The detention of insolvent patients is a clear violation of rights established under international law, including the right not to be arbitrarily detained or detained as debtors and the right to accessible health care. The abolition of user fees for women giving birth and for small children in May 2006 has reduced the number of detained patients, but in June 2006 we visited two hospitals and found 77 detained men, older children and women with other health problems. Burundi, with the support of the international community, must immediately stop the detention of patients and address the urgent financing needs of health facilities. PMID:18057032

  9. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  10. A Day in Detention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Describes services offered by the Spokane County Library District at the Spokane County Juvenile Detention facility. Highlights include author visits; cooperation with the teaching staff; meeting the varying needs of different types of residents; and reading programs. (LRW)

  11. Sediment Quality Assessment of Road Runoff Detention Systems in Sweden and the Potential Contribution of Tire Wear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Wik; Jenny Lycken; Göran Dave

    2008-01-01

    Sediments from 18 different road runoff detention systems, located on the Swedish West Coast, were assessed for their ecological\\u000a hazard potential. Thirteen of the sites were detention ponds, three were manholes within the same sedimentation construction,\\u000a and two were detention basins handling wash water from road tunnels. Sediments from all sites were analysed for a range of\\u000a physico-chemical parameters and

  12. Fertilizer solar ponds as a clean source of energy: Some observations from small scale experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Pawar; A. N. Chapgaon

    1995-01-01

    Commercially available NH2CONH2 is used to establish a salinity gradient solar pond in a small 1 m2 outdoor tank. With a salinity difference of 35% between the upper and lower zone, a temperature difference of 23°C was obtained without any instabilities in the gradient zone. The difference in concentration of solution required to sustain a temperature difference of 40°C across

  13. Small habitat size and isolation can promote species richness: second-order effects on biodiversity in shallow lakes and ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Scheffer; G. J. Van Geest; K. Zimmer; E. Jeppesen; M. Søndergaard; M. G. Butler; M. A. Hanson; S. A. J. Declerck; L. De Meester

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary ecological landscape planning is often based on the assumption that small isolated habitat patches sustain relatively few species. Here, we suggest that for shallow lakes and ponds, the opposite can be true for some groups of organisms. Fish communities tend to be poor or even absent in small isolated lakes. However, submerged vegetation is often more abundant in such

  14. DETENTION CARE IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWNEY, JOHN J.

    DETENTION IS DEFINED AS THE TEMPORARY CARE OF CHILDREN WHO REQUIRE SECURE CUSTODY FOR THEIR OWN OR THE COMMUNITY'S PROTECTION, PENDING COURT DISPOSITION. THE DOCUMENT STATES THAT JAIL DETENTION OF CHILDREN, THE PREVALENT RECOURSE, IS DEMORALIZING, UNFIT, AND OFTEN UNNECESSARY. NEEDS ARE STATED TO INCLUDE (1) ADEQUATE PROBATION SERVICES, (2)…

  15. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  16. Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, A.E.; Carter, R.R.; Greenland, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

  17. Don Quixote Pond: A Small Scale Model of Weathering and Salt Accumulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S. N.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Don Quixote Pond in the North Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for unique terrestrial calcium, chlorine, and sulfate weathering, accumulation, and distribution processes. The formation of Don Quixote Pond by simple shallow and deep groundwater contrasts more complex models for Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley. Our study intends to understand the formation of Don Quixote Pond as unique terrestrial processes and as a model for Ca, C1, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  18. PONDS VS WETLANDS - PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS IN STORMWATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony H F Wong; Peter F Breen; Nicholas L G Somes

    Ponds and wetlands are commonly used in urban design to meet a number of urban planning objectives including the management of urban stormwater for water quality improvement. Ponds and wetlands are detention systems with their differences typically being reflected in their surface area to volume ratio and water level fluctuation. These differences influence a number of hydrologic, hydraulic and botanic

  19. Valley pond and ignimbrite veneer deposits in the small-volume phreatomagmatic ‘Peperino Albano’ basic ignimbrite, Lago Albano maar, Colli Albani volcano, Italy: influence of topography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Giordano; D De Rita; R. Cas; S. Rodani

    2002-01-01

    The ca. 23-ka, small-volume, basic phreatomagmatic Peperino Albano ignimbrite, from the polygenetic Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, central Italy) shows valley pond facies as well as veneer deposits along the maar rim and along topographic ridges. Valley pond facies is characterised mainly by massive structure and chaotic texture and can be up to 30 m thick. Veneer deposit facies is

  20. [Community Dynamics of Phytoplankton and Related Affecting Factors in a Eutrophicated Small Pond].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Zhu, Jin-yong; Zhang, Ke-xin; Wan, Li; Lu, Kai-hong

    2015-04-01

    The high-density sampling of eutrophic water can help to reveal the general rules of phytoplankton community succession and the relationship with environmental factors. The species and abundance of plankton and the physical-chemical factors were tracked for 30 weeks from March to October in a eutrophicated small pond. The relationships between the phytoplankton community dynamic change and the physical-chemical factors as well as the zooplankton in the water body community were studied by the multivariate statistical analysis with PRIMER. A total of 54 phytoplankton and 55 zooplankton species were identified, and the abundances of plankton varied from 0.28 x 10(8) - 6.11 x 10(8) cells x L(-1) for phytoplankton and 26-2.5 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) for zooplankton. The dominant species of phytoplankton were Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, and an obvious succession process was showed with the seasonal change, which could be roughly divided into three stages: Chlorophyta-Cryptophyta type, Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type and Cyanophyta type. BIO-ENV showed that pH, water temperature, transparency, total phosphorus and the abundances of Rotifera and Copepoda were the most critical influencing factors on the community dynamics of phytoplankton, and compared to zooplankton, the physical-chemical factors might have a greater influence. PMID:26164905

  1. Effects of acidification of metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Albers; Michael B. Camardese

    1993-01-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Pb,Mg,Mn,Hg,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentration of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations in water significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal

  2. Effects of a small seagull colony on trophic status and primary production in a Mediterranean coastal system (Marinello ponds, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2012-10-01

    Colonies of seabirds have been shown to influence nutrient cycling and primary production of coastal areas, but knowledge is still limited above all for smaller colonies. This study evaluates the influence of a small resident seagull colony (Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840) on a Mediterranean coastal system (Marinello ponds, Sicily, Italy). The presence of ornithogenic organic matter from seagull guano was first assessed at increasing distances from the colony using ?15N to indicate the effects of guano on the trophic status and primary production. The pond directly affected by guano deposition showed an anomalous water and sediment chemistry, especially regarding physico-chemical variables (pH), nitrogen isotopic signature, nutrient balance and phytoplankton biomass. These effects were not observed in the adjacent ponds, highlighting pronounced, small spatial-scale variability. Given the worldwide presence of seabird colonies and the scarcity of research on their effect on coastal marine areas, the study shows that seabird-mediated input may be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics of coastal areas, even where both the system in question and the colony are small.

  3. 9 CFR 118.1 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.1 Administrative detention. Whenever any biological product...

  4. 9 CFR 118.1 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.1 Administrative detention. Whenever any biological product...

  5. An environmental problem hidden in plain sight? Small Human-made ponds, emergent insects, and mercury contamination of biota in the Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of small human-made ponds and surrounding terrestrial communities may be 1 of the largest unstudied Hg-pollution problems in the United States. Humans have built millions of small ponds in the Great Plains of the United States, and these ponds have become contaminated with atmospherically deposited mercury. In aquatic ecosystems, less toxic forms of Hg deposited from the atmosphere are converted to highly toxic methylmercury (MeHg). Methylmercury is incorporated into the aquatic food web and then can be transferred to terrestrial food webs via emergent aquatic insects. The authors present a conceptual model that describes the movement of MeHg produced in aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial consumers via insects emerging from small human-made ponds. The authors hypothesize that pond permanence and the level of Hg contamination of the food web control this emergent insect-mediated flux of MeHg. The highest insect-mediated flux of MeHg is predicted to be from fishless semipermanent ponds with food webs that are highly contaminated with MeHg. Further development and testing of the conceptual model presented in the present column, particularly in the context of a changing climate, will require research at the regional, watershed, and pond scales. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1197-1205. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26013117

  6. Mental health emergency detentions and access to firearms.

    PubMed

    Vernick, Jon S; McGinty, Emma E; Rutkow, Lainie

    2015-03-01

    Most persons with mental illness are never violent. However, during certain high-risk periods, small subgroups of individuals with serious mental illness are at increased risk of violence. We review epidemiologic evidence, federal law, and a recent case addressing whether persons subject to emergency mental health detentions constitutionally can be denied firearm ownership. PMID:25846171

  7. Interactions between Larval White Crappie and Gizzard Shad: Quantifying Mechanisms in Small Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin L. Pope; Dennis R. Devries

    1994-01-01

    To test potential competitive interactions between larvae of white crappie Pomoxis annularis and of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, we added adult gizzard shad to eight of twelve 0.1-ha ponds that had been stocked with adult white crappies. Larval white crappies and larval gizzard shad appeared within 1 week of one another and larval white crappie density did not differ between

  8. Interactions between Larval White Crappie and Gizzard Shad: Quantifying Mechanisms in Small Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEVIN L. POPE; DENNIS R. DEVRIES

    1994-01-01

    To test potential competilive interactions between larvae of white crappie Pomoxis annularis and of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedilJnum. we added adult gizzard shad to eight of twelve O.I-ha ponds that had been stocked with adult white crappies. Larval white crappies and larval gizzard shad appeared within I week of one another and larval white crappie density did not differ between

  9. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

  10. Urban stormwater quality control analysis with detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieyun; Adams, Barry J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents methodologies for the development of stormwater quality control measures based on the derived probability distribution approach. These stormwater control measures, such as the fraction of pollutant removed from storage facilities, are closed-form analytical models and can be effectively used to evaluate pollutant loads to receiving waters. In this study, a simple form of rainfall-runoff transformation with lumped parameters is first extended to take into account the spatial variations in model parameters. Second, the infiltration process is further incorporated to the rainfall-runoff transformation. This study demonstrates that analytical models can be developed with various levels of complexity based on different hydrologic considerations. The performance of the analytical models is evaluated in a case study, and the results indicate that, with an appropriately formulated rainfall-runoff transformation, analytical stormwater runoff models are capable of providing comparable results to continuous simulation models in the evaluation of the long-term performance of storage facilities. PMID:16929646

  11. Small fish ( Leucaspius delineatus ) that are often released into garden ponds and amphibian breeding sites prey on eggs and tadpoles of the common frog ( Rana temporaria )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Leu; Beatrice Lüscher; Silvia Zumbach; Benedikt R. Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    Non-native fish often negatively affect amphibian populations. The sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus), a small cyprinid fish, is often released into ponds that support amphibian populations because it is thought not to consume amphibian larvae; the argument was based on diet analyses. Here, we present results from a laboratory experiment that demonstrates that sunbleak consume amphibian eggs and larvae. Mortality of eggs

  12. Growth and reproduction of introduced goldfish Carassius auratus in small ponds of southeast England with and without native crucian carp Carassius carassius

    E-print Network

    Cucherousset, Julien

    Growth and reproduction of introduced goldfish Carassius auratus in small ponds of southeast, Dorset, UK Summary The ornamental Asiatic species, goldfish Carassius auratus, was introduced to open) (Copp et al., 2007), with the introduction of the Asian cyprinid, goldfish Carassius auratus L., having

  13. Modelling the impact of retention-detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, Søren; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Taylor, Heidi; Bockhorn, Britta; Larsen, Hauge; Kjølby, Morten Just; Blicher, Anne Steensen; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater management using water sensitive urban design is expected to be part of future drainage systems. This paper aims to model the combination of local retention units, such as soakaways, with subsurface detention units. Soakaways are employed to reduce (by storage and infiltration) peak and volume stormwater runoff; however, large retention volumes are required for a significant peak reduction. Peak runoff can therefore be handled by combining detention units with soakaways. This paper models the impact of retrofitting retention-detention units for an existing urbanized catchment in Denmark. The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m(3)/100 m(2) (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous simulations covering 22 years showed that annual stormwater runoff was reduced by 68-87%, and that the retention volume was on average 53% full at the beginning of rain events. The effect of different retention-detention volume combinations was simulated, and results showed that allocating 20-40% of a soakaway volume to detention would significantly increase peak runoff reduction with a small reduction in the annual runoff. PMID:25812100

  14. Effectiveness of a stormwater collection and detention system for reducing constituent loads from bridge runoff in Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.

    1996-01-01

    The quantity and quality of stormwater runoff from the Bayside Bridge were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the stormwater collection and detention pond system of the bridge in reducing constituent loads to Old Tampa Bay. Water-quality samples of stormwater runoff from the bridge and outflow from the detention pond were collected during and after selected storms. These samples were used to compute loads for selected constituents. Stormwater on the Bayside Bridge drained rapidly during rain events. The volume of stormwater runoff from 24 storms measured during the study ranged from 4,086 to 103,705 cubic feet. Storms were most frequent during July through September and were least frequent from February through May. Concentrations of most constituents in stormwater runoff before the bridge opened to traffic were less than or equal to concentrations measured after the bridge was opened to traffic. However, concentrations of arsenic in the outflow from the detention pond generally were greater before the bridge opened than concentrations after, and concentrations of orthophosphorus in the stormwater runoff and outflow from the pond were greater before the bridge opened than during over half the sampled storms after the bridge opened. Concentrations of most constituents measured in stormwater runoff from the bridge were greatest at the beginning of the storm and decreased as the storm continued. Variations in suspended solids, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were not always concurrent with each other. The source of the measured constituent (rainfall or road debris) and the phase of the constituent (suspended or dissolved) probably affected the timing of concentration changes. The quality of stormwater runoff from the Bayside Bridge varied with total runoff volume, with the length of the dry period before the storm, and with season. Average concentrations of suspended solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, orthophosphorus, phosphorus, total organic carbon, aluminum, arsenic, copper, and zinc in stormwater runoff generally were inversely related to runoff volume. The quality of outflow from the detention pond also varied during a storm event and with season. Maximum concentrations generally occurred near the beginning of a storm, and decreased as the storm continued. Maximum concentrations of many constituents occurred in June and July 1995. During the summer months, pH exceeded 9.0 while inorganic nitrogen concentrations were very low. These high pH values and low inorganic nitrogen concentrations are most likely associated with photosynthesis by algae or aquatic plants in the pond. Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and nickel in stormwater runoff were correlated with total organic carbon concentrations. Concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, nickel, lead, and zinc in stormwater runoff were correlated with aluminum concentrations. The source of these metals is probably the bridge materials and metallic debris from vehicles. The northern detention pond system of the Bayside Bridge effectively reduced concentrations of suspended solids, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus, aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc in stormwater runoff before water discharged from the pond. However, concentrations of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, organic carbon, arsenic, and values for alkalinity, pH, and specific conductance generally were greater in outflow from the pond than in stormwater runoff from the bridge. Stormwater runoff and pond outflow for three storm events were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the detention pond system in removing selected constituents from the stormwater runoff. Most constituents and constituent loads were reduced in the outflow from the pond. Suspended solids loads were reduced about 30 to 45 percent, inorganic nitrogen loads were reduced by about 60 to 90 percent, and loads of most trace elements

  15. Big Fish in Small Ponds: Massive Stars in the Low Mass Clusters of M83

    E-print Network

    Andrews, J E; Chandar, R; Elmegreen, B G; Kennicutt, R C; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R; Lee, J C; McElwee, Sean; O'Connell, R W; Whitmore, B

    2014-01-01

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages $\\leq$ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the upper end of the stellar IMF in M83 is consistent with an universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the $\\lessapprox$ 10$^{3}$ Msun clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  16. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  17. 9. Photocopy of a 1942 architectural drawing titled: 'Detention Ward, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of a 1942 architectural drawing titled: 'Detention Ward, WARD-L-H. Elevation, Sections & Roof Framing.' 10-31-42 - Madigan Hospital, Detention Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  18. 10. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Detention Ward, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of a 1943 architectural drawing titled: 'Detention Ward, WARD-S-H. Plan & Schedules.' 6-22-43 - Madigan Hospital, Detention Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  19. Seeking Refuge, Losing Hope: Parents and Children in Immigration Detention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Mares; Louise Newman; Michael Dudley; Fran Gale

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To record observations made by the authors on a series of visits between December 2001 and March 2002 to two of Australia's immigration detention centers and to consider the mental health consequences of Australia's policy of mandatory immigration detention of asylum seekers for families and children.Conclusions: Parents and children in immigration detention are often vulnerable to mental health problems

  20. Turtle Pond

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    L.O. Cannon, et. al. (Utah State U.)

    1999-01-01

    This Java applet provides opportunities for creative problem solving while encouraging young students to estimate length and angle measure. Using the Turtle Pond Applet, students enter a sequence of commands to help the turtle get to the pond. Children can write their own solutions using LOGO commands and input them into the computer. The turtle will then move and leave a trail or path according to the instructions given. (N.B. the applet is an upgrade of one that supported the Lesson "Get the Turtle to the Pond," cataloged separately.)

  1. Bioflocculating high-rate algal ponds: Control and implementation of an innovative wastewater treatment technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hall

    1989-01-01

    High Rate Algal Ponds (HRPs) are multi-channel racetrack designs 0.2-0.5 meters deep, with pump or paddlewheel mixing, operated at 2-10 days detention time. HRPs produce higher algal concentrations (200-300 mg\\/L) than conventional oxidation ponds, requiring effluent algal removal to meet discharge limits. This study investigated the long-term performance of bioflocculation and sedimentation for HRP algal removal. Thirteen experiments were conducted

  2. Nutrient Reduction in Stormwater Pond Discharge Using a Chamber Upflow Filter and Skimmer (CUFS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Ryan; Marty Wanielista; Ni-Bin Chang

    2010-01-01

    Stormwater runoff is a known pollutant source capable of causing surface water degradation, especially in highly populated\\u000a areas such as Central Florida. Wet detention ponds manage this stormwater, but most of the ponds do not remove enough nutrients,\\u000a specifically nitrogen and phosphorus, to meet total maximum daily load regulations. This paper presents the use of a chamber\\u000a upflow filter and

  3. A Community Response to a Crisis. The Effective Use of Detention and Alternatives to Detention in Jefferson County, Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    Jefferson County, Kentucky youth detention practices were studied after alleged incidents of physical and sexual abuse. For many years juvenile detention practices had been the subject of local controversy. Strict, objective, and specific criteria for detention were implemented on a trial basis. These criteria described specific crimes or…

  4. 73 FR 39970 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Surveillance and Detention Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-07-11

    ...Food and Drug Administration Staff; Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination...availability of the guidance entitled ``Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination...the guidance document entitled ``Surveillance and Detention Without Physical...

  5. 73 FR 39969 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Surveillance and Detention Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-07-11

    ...Food and Drug Administration Staff; Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination...availability of the guidance entitled ``Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination...the guidance document entitled ``Surveillance and Detention Without Physical...

  6. 65 FR 49585 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination of Condoms...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-08-14

    ...00D-1383] Draft Guidance for Industry on Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination...entitled ``Guidance for Industry, Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination...entitled ``Guidance for Industry, Surveillance and Detention Without Physical...

  7. 65 FR 45991 - Medical Devices; Draft Guidance for Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-07-26

    ...Medical Devices; Draft Guidance for Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination...guidance entitled ``Guidance for Surveillance and Detention Without Physical Examination...guidance entitled ``Draft Guidance for Surveillance and Detention Without Physical...

  8. 76 FR 4369 - Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines AGENCY...the online publication of the Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines and the Interim...Affairs Web site. DATES: These Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines and...

  9. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Jürgens; Manfred Nowak; Marcus Day

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard\\u000a living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and\\u000a other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics\\u000a in the communities to which prisoners return upon their

  10. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  11. Using Media Advocacy to Promote Detention Reform: A Practice Guide to Juvenile Detention Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Written specifically for juvenile justice advocates and officials, this handbook provides step-by-step media approaches to promote the system reforms achieved through the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Those interested in learning all the nuts and bolts of media advocacy may choose to read this guide from cover to cover. Others…

  12. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

  13. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 true Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

  14. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

  15. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004...11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be...in the following places: (1) A foster care facility approved by the...

  16. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26.194 Section 26.194 Alcohol...THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...Puerto Rico § 26.194 Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a...

  17. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26.194 Section 26.194 Alcohol...THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...Puerto Rico § 26.194 Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a...

  18. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26.194 Section 26.194 Alcohol...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...Puerto Rico § 26.194 Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a...

  19. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26.194 Section 26.194 Alcohol...THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...Puerto Rico § 26.194 Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a...

  20. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26.194 Section 26.194 Alcohol...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...Puerto Rico § 26.194 Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a...

  1. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed. PMID:21595957

  2. Nitrogen cycling in Arctic lakes and ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Alexander; S. C. Whalen; K. M. Klingensmith

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle studies were carried out on two distinct systems in arctic Alaska. Research on the first, a series of small tundra thaw ponds near Barrow, was carried out as part of the International Biological Program Tundra Biome program. Research on the contrasting system, Toolik Lake, was done during the year following completion of the Barrow pond research. Toolik Lake

  3. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION...

  4. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION...

  5. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION...

  6. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION...

  7. 1. VIEW OF DETENTION WARD AREA, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM Y ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DETENTION WARD AREA, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM Y STREET - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1065, Northeast of Intersection of South Ninth Avenue & South "Y" Street, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  8. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the...

  9. Spatial Analysis of Kansas Farm Ponds

    E-print Network

    Callihan, Ryan Andrew

    2011-11-16

    RYAN CALLIHAN, GEOGRAPHY A Spatial Analysis of Kansas Farm Ponds Regression Modeling and Outlier Detection Small Reservoirs (<10 acres) in Kansas Count: 216,000 Total Surface Area: 140,000 acres Two Main Objectives ? Create a simple geographic...

  10. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Plankton Production and Bluegill Bream Carrying Capacity of Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Smith; H. S. Swingle

    1940-01-01

    Small, excavated ponds were stocked with one-year-old bluegill bream (Lepomis macrochirus) in May, 1936, and drained in November. The number and total weight of fish in each pond were determined. Different ponds were fertilized with an inorganic fertilizer, laying mash, cottonseed meal, and cottonseed meal and superphosphate. Water samples were taken from each pond at intervals of two weeks throughout

  11. Retention deficit: Evaluating retention pond effectiveness at controlling suburban stormwater runoff, James City County, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, G. S.; Popkin, M. B.

    2005-12-01

    Stormwater retention ponds (SRP) have become a significant component of suburban hydrology. SRPs are designed to protect streams by releasing storm runoff slowly, reducing peak flows generated from developed surfaces. Despite widespread use, little data has been collected to assess their success at controlling stormwater quantity. We present data from two SRPs in James City County, Virginia, to assess whether they manage stormwater as designed and achieve stream protection goals. Pond A collects runoff from a ~7 acre residential development (~23 homes on ~0.25 acre lots), and Pond B collects runoff from a ~22 acre development (~50 homes on ~0.3 acre lots). The SRPs are designed to retain the runoff produced by the one year, 24 hr storm (2.8 inches) for 24 hrs as well as to reduce peak discharge below uncontrolled conditions. At each pond, a pressure transducer connected to a datalogger records pond elevation every 15 min, from which pond outflow and inflow are obtained. A tipping bucket raingage at each site records rainfall totals. We analyzed data for 16 significant rainfall events from July through December 2004. All rainfall was less than the one yr, 24 hr design storm, and pond flows should therefore be less than the flow expected to occur in such an event. However, pond flows frequently exceeded this threshold. At Pond A, flows exceeded that predicted for the one year storm at least four times. Inflow exceeded the predicted 2 yr storm response four times, and outflow exceeded the 25 yr storm response three times. At Pond B, inflow exceeded the one yr storm response five times, while outflow exceeded the one yr storm response nine times, with one exceedence of the 10 yr outflow. In 16 events, Pond A met the 24 hr runoff detention goal only once, with detention ranging from 0.5 -10.5 hrs during other events. These results suggest that these SRPs receive and release higher peak discharges than intended, and often release captured stormwater over periods much shorter than the regulatory goal. The receiving streams are exposed to higher peak discharges and to larger sustained high flows. The failure to perform as designed may result from underprediction of developed runoff in pond design, leading to undersized ponds, and/or to a lack of pond maintenance following construction.

  12. Catfish Ponds for Recreation 

    E-print Network

    Masser, Michael P.; Steinbach, Don W.; Higginbotham, Billy

    1999-08-02

    require minimum effort by the owner if they are managed at low to moderate stocking and feeding lev- els. Recreational catfish ponds provide enjoyable outdoor recreation as well as excellent food fish. Anglers of all ages can catch catfish relatively... stocking rate is fishing or harvesting pressure. Most catfish pond owners say they harvested fewer fish than they intended when they stocked the pond. Consider these questions: n How much fishing pressure will the pond receive? n Will the anglers...

  13. Investigation of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria presence in a small full-scale wastewater treatment system comprised by UASB reactor and three polishing ponds.

    PubMed

    Araujo, J C; Correa, M M S; Silva, E C; Campos, A P; Godinho, V M; Von Sperling, M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2010-01-01

    This work applied PCR amplification method and Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with primers and probes specific for the anammox organisms and aerobic ammonia-oxidising beta-Proteobacteria in order to detect these groups in different samples from a wastewater treatment system comprised by UASB reactor and three polishing (maturation) ponds in series. Seven primer pairs were used in order to detect Anammox bacteria. Positive results were obtained with three of them, suggesting that Anammox could be present in polishing pond sediments. However, Anammox bacteria were not detected by FISH, indicating that they were not present in sediment samples, or they could be present but below FISH detection limit. Aerobic ammonia- and nitrite-oxidising bacteria were verified in water column samples through Most Probable Number (MPN) analysis, but they were not detected in sediment samples by FISH. Ammonia removal efficiencies occurred systematically along the ponds (24, 32, and 34% for polishing pond 1, 2, and 3, respectively) but the major reaction responsible for this removal is still unclear. Some nitrification might have occurred in water samples because some nitrifying bacteria were present. Also Anammox reaction might have occurred because Anammox genes were detected in the sediments, but probably this reaction was too low to be noticed. It is important also to consider that some of the ammonia removal observed might be related to NH(3) stripping, associated with the pH increase resulting from the intensive photosynthetic activity in the ponds (mechanism under investigation). Therefore, it can be concluded that more than one mechanism (or reaction) might be involved in the ammonia removal in the polishing ponds investigated in this study. PMID:20150711

  14. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal... 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA),...

  15. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 true Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal... 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA),...

  16. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal... 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA),...

  17. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal... 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA),...

  18. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal... 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA),...

  19. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...and detention of persons with specific diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public...and detention of persons with specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this...transmission, and spread of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order...

  20. Seasonal Evolution of Surface Detention and Retention Properties with Rain Erosivity, at the Interill Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielders, C.; Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.

    2009-12-01

    Micro-topography, in interaction with the global slope, triggers and directs surface runoff. By concentrating the overland flow, it can promote the development of eroded pathways, while, by delimiting depressions where water accumulates, it can favor sedimentation. These erosion-deposition processes will in turn modify the micro-topography. The erosion-deposition processes depend on the runoff velocity field. Locally, velocity is a function of the water depth, of the local slope, of the friction of the bed and of backwater effects due to constrictions by obstacles. All those factors will evolve with the history of a particular site, favoring the connectivity of the runoff. According to the spatial patterns of the micro-topography, the runoff may conceptually be distributed among two compartments, each influencing the runoff connectivity: the surface retention and the surface detention. The surface retention (also called depression storage or dead storage) is the amount of water stored in surface pits and depressions. This water will subsequently infiltrate or evaporate. On the contrary, the surface detention corresponds to the water storage in excess of depression storage. It is due to the presence of flowing water and is proportional to the discharge itself. This amount of water will deplete as discharge decreases, and flow away at the end of the rain event. The velocity of the runoff is highly variable in space and particularly between the surface retention zones and the surface detention zones. In order to understand the connectivity evolution of a soil surface subjected to rainfall and runoff, we studied the seasonal evolution of the surface detention and retention hydrologic properties, for a bare soil just after tillage. Since surface detention and retention are not easily measured in situ due to the perturbing effect of the infiltration that occurs simultaneously during a rain event, we developed a fast and cheap in situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that combines alginic acid, plaster and a lacquer. It creates a stable, and almost impermeable artificial reproduction (to within 1 mm) of the in situ soil micro-topography, preserving the small scale overhangs. Ten molds (0.5 m2 each) were thus made, at 5 different stages during a 3 month period. Rainfall and runoff experiments with a dye tracer have been made on the artificial micro-topographies, under laboratory conditions. For each micro-topography, the volume of the depression storage and its relative surface connection function is computed, as well as the volume of the surface detention and its tortuosity as a function of the rain intensity. From this data set, we propose simple models for the evolution, at the early stage, of the surface detention and retention properties as a function of cumulative rainfall erosivivity.

  1. Local-scale turnover of pond insects: intra-pond habitat quality and inter-pond geometry are both important

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Jeffries

    2005-01-01

    The distributions of larvae of seven species of pond insect were recorded from 30 small, adjacent temporary ponds over the course of three years. Incidences were modelled using logistic regression to compare the effectiveness of measures of intra-patch habitat or inter-patch geometry as predictors of distribution. Incidence, extinction and colonisation were modelled separately against systematic environmental variation (e.g. length of

  2. Mental Health Screenings in Juvenile Detention Centers: Predictors of Mental Health Service Utilization and Recidivism

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Mental Health Screenings in Juvenile Detention Centers: Predictors of Mental Health Service provide mental health services for juveniles in need. As a result, juvenile adolescents have low rates months post-detention. Methods: 2089 adolescents held in a detention center completed a mental health

  3. Secure preventive detention in Germany: incapacitation or treatment intervention?

    PubMed

    Drenkhahn, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Secure preventive detention of dangerous offenders has been a major source of debate in German law and practice. Unlike the other two custodial measures of correction and security in the Penal Code (confinement in a psychiatric hospital and in a detoxification clinic), it has served mainly as incapacitation. Judgments by the German Federal Constitutional Court and the European Court of Human Rights challenged this traditional concept of secure preventive detention, which led to a redefinition of the measure. It is now conceived as an offending behavior treatment measure in a secure environment. This article reports on the background of this development and analyzes its implications. PMID:23682027

  4. 19 CFR 12.123 - Procedure after detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...detention. (b) Release under Bond. The port director may...conditioned upon furnishing a bond on CBP Form 301, containing...CBP custody. If a shipment of chemical substance, mixture, or article...released to the importer under bond, the shipment shall be...

  5. COTTAGE FARM COMBINED SEWER DETENTION AND CHLORINATION STATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cottage Farm Detention and Chlorination Station was placed in operation by the Metropolitan District Commission on April 29, 1971. The station, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, diverts and treats combined sewage flows from the Charles River Valley sewer system (15,600 acr...

  6. Vocational Training in Juvenile Detention: A Call for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameen, Edward J.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

    2012-01-01

    Given high recidivism rates and the vulnerability of detained youth, the authors posit that juvenile detention centers may be most efficacious by serving as both place and process to create career opportunity through vocational training. The authors review the psychosocial factors contributing to delinquency and the primary theories of…

  7. Abbey Pond ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    E-print Network

    .............................................. 9 4 Stomach contents of adult yellow perch from Abbey Pond during 1970, expressed as percent number per stomach and percent volume per stomach (in parentheses) ...................20 5 Stomach contents of adult yellow perch from Abbey Pond during 1971, expressed as percent number per stomach and percent

  8. Newly Reconstructed Pond

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Beau Griffith, a biological technician at CERC, stands at the bottom of one of the newly reconstructed ponds designed to conduct long-term studies with sturgeon and other riverine species.  A divider and circulators can be installed in the sandy-bottomed ponds to create the continuous water cur...

  9. A Virtual Pond Dip

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation depicts a jar of pond water containing microorganisms. As users click on various pond organisms, "factfiles" containing descriptive information (name, size, notes, classification, etc.) appears. Users may access actual images and additional information from the "further details" links in the factfiles.

  10. Designing a constructed wetland for the detention of agricultural runoff for water quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Millhollon, Eddie P; Rodrigue, Paul B; Rabb, James L; Martin, Danny F; Anderson, Russell A; Dans, Darinda R

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to construct a wetland that would detain runoff from a 162-ha watershed for the purposes of improving water quality. The volume of runoff that needed to be detained was determined to be that amount coming off the 162-ha watershed consisting of 146 ha of cultivated crop land and 16 ha of pasture that exceeded the amount that would have come off of the watershed in its natural, forested state. The Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resource Conservation Service [NRCS]) runoff curve number method was used to estimate runoff from the watershed in its natural, forested state and in its current state of cultivated crop land and pasture. The design of the constructed wetland was accomplished using the natural topography of the wetland site and the design criteria for a sediment containment system developed by NRCS. The SPAW (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Water Field & Pond Hydrology) computer model was used to model depth and volume in the wetland to determine if the constructed wetland design would accommodate typical runoff events. Construction of the wetland occurred over a 4-mo period. The capabilities of the system were verified when Hurricane Rita deposited above-normal rainfall to the wetland site area. The wetland was able to accommodate this event, allowing flow through the system for 9 d, followed by continued detention of remaining runoff for water quality improvement. PMID:19875802

  11. Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

  12. Salt-gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Neeper, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A description of salt-gradient solar ponds is presented. Guidelines concerning the construction and maintenance of the pond are discussed. A computer model was used to study layer migration in laboratory tanks and in an outdoor pond. The status of solar ponds is briefly discussed. An equation relating heat flux and salt flux at a boundary is included. (BCS)

  13. Pumping performance of a modified commercial paddlewheel aerator for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The split-pond aquaculture system consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste-treatment lagoon by two conduits. Split ponds require large water volumes circulated between the two basins (10,000 to 20,000 gal/min for 5- to 10-ac ponds) to remove fish waste and provide oxygenated water...

  14. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system. The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon by two...

  15. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system (PAS). The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon ...

  16. Catfish Ponds for Recreation

    E-print Network

    Masser, Michael P.; Steinbach, Don W.; Higginbotham, Billy

    1999-08-02

    and bull- heads often invade catfish ponds and compete with the catfish for food and oxygen. They also increase the likelihood of disease. Because cat- fish eat mostly aquatic insects and Catfish Ponds FOR RECREATION Michael P. Masser, Don Steinbach... inches, no fertil- ization is needed. Fertilize if the Secchi disk can still be seen at 24 or more inches. If the disk disappears between 12 and 18 inches, the bloom is too dense; watch the pond closely for oxygen problems (see Water quality). If the disk...

  17. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  18. Animals in a Pond

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meacock, S.E.

    This article, created by faculty members of the University of Southampton, explains the importance of combining biology and statistics together to lead to understanding of both. It suggests bringing pond life in to the classroom to illustrate a wide range of concepts and methods. Some of the concepts that can be studied using the classroom pond include descriptive statistics, sample size, sums of random variables, central limit theorem, hypothesis testing, and the Poisson distribution.

  19. OJJDP Journal of Juvenile Justice Preventive Detention and Out-of-Home Placement

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    . KEY WORDS: preventive detention, race, racial disparity Abstract Researchers have started examining of these counselors are not certified mental health professionals. This is particularly important given the high

  20. Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

  1. Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-02-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.

  2. Multimetric Evaluation of Detention Basin Retrofit to Reduce Hydrologic Alteration of Urbanization and Restore Stream Stability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Conventional stormwater detention basins are ubiquitous in the developed portions of U.S., particularly those areas developed since the 1980s. Because most detention basins were designed exclusively for flood control, they are not being utilized to their fullest potent...

  3. Considering the Use and Usefulness of Juvenile Detention: Operationalizing Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Richard Pearson

    1980-01-01

    The author's principal concerns are (1) the impact of detention on youth, family, and community; (2) the elements of sound intake processes; and (3) the roles of detention personnel and counselors or probation officers following admission, and how these roles might be deployed to insure minimal social losses to detained juveniles. (Author/DB)

  4. Design comparison of experimental storm water detention systems treating concentrated road runoff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Nanbakhsh; Sara Kazemi-Yazdi; Miklas Scholz

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to assess the treatment efficiencies of experimental storm water detention (extended storage) systems based on the Atlantis Water Management Limited detention cells receiving concentrated runoff that has been primarily treated by filtration with different inert aggregates. Randomly collected gully pot liquor was used in stead of road runoff. To test for a ‘worst case scenario’, the experimental

  5. View of Managed Pond, Fields

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     A Tree plantation and Native Woods in Maryland. The trees between the pond and the field are trees along a running creek. The pond had mixed vegetation (native and nonnative) restored along its edge as a runoff buffer....

  6. POND CULTURE fishery leaflet 311

    E-print Network

    and trout culture. In spite of this the science of the entire pond industry, inclusive of artificial fish-cultureTEXTBOOK OF POND CULTURE fishery leaflet 311 Ifish and wildlife service UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR #12;#12;TEXTBOOK OF POND CULTURE REARING AND KEEPING OF CARP , TROUT AND ALLIED FISHES by Vr

  7. Fate of copper in ponds.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A W

    1975-03-01

    Treatments of 3 ppm copper sulfate (CuSO4-5H2O) were applied to two small aquatic systems in Michigan in 1971. To study the pathways of the added copper, samples of water, sediment, aquatic macrophytes, filamentous algae, and fish were collected and analyzed by atomic absorption. Sampling was initiated before treatment and continued up to 4 months in one of the ponds. Dissolved copper concentrations in water decreased rapidly immediately after treatment and then gradually to background levels. Reduction of dissolved copper may have involved initial precipitation of an insoluble compound, such as malachite, followed by sediment adsorption of soluble copper complexes and copper released from aquatic plants. Levels of copper in sediment increased rapidly at first and gradually later in the study. Aquatic plants and filamentous algae accumulated very high levels of copper. Uptake rates were apparently affected by water temperature and growth stages of the plants. Data indicate that aquatic macrophytes developing in one pond 10 weeks after treatment took up copper from the sediment. Although green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) accumulated copper soon after treatment, levels returned to background later in the study. PMID:1161446

  8. Homing and movement of yellow-phase American eels in freshwater ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamothe, P.J.; Gallagher, M.; Chivers, D.P.; Moring, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Ten yellow-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata, were captured from Hammond Pond, a small freshwater pond located in central Maine, U.S.A. The eels were implanted with radio transmitters and released into nearby Hermon Pond. At the same time, 10 eels were captured from Hermon Pond, implanted with radio transmitters and returned to Hermon Pond to serve as a control group. The two ponds are connected by a 1.6km section of Souadabscook Stream. We tracked the 20 eels over the 90-day duration of the experiment. Four of the ten displaced eels returned to their home pond. None of the control fish were located outside of their home pond during the study. Three of the four eels that successfully returned to their home pond did so under the darkness of the new moon and the fourth made the journey during the first quarter moon phase. Location data showed that translocated and native eels tended to occupy different areas of Hermon Pond. This study provides evidence of homing behavior in American eels living in small freshwater ponds and indications that homing activity may be linked to lunar cycle.

  9. Pond leaks are a very common pond management problem in Pennsylvania. Some leaks may be barely

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    1 Pond leaks are a very common pond management problem in Pennsylvania. Some leaks may be barely noticeable, while larger leaks can completely drain a pond. Unfortunately, fixing a leaking pond can be one steps for determining if your pond is leaking and some tips for repairing leaks. A leaking pond located

  10. Preventive detention in Germany: an overview and empirical data from two federal states.

    PubMed

    Basdekis-Jozsa, Raphaela; Mokros, Andreas; Vohs, Knut; Briken, Peer; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    Eighty years ago, preventive detention for dangerous offenders was implemented in the German Penal Code (Section 66). In 2011, about 500 individuals were incarcerated under a preventive detention order in Germany. Through semi-structured clinical interviews and/or collateral file review, the present investigators assessed the sociobiographic, criminological, and clinical characteristics of 58 men for whom preventive detention had been ordered in two German federal states. In addition, risk assessment instruments were administered. The majority of the inmates were sexual offenders. The main mental health problems were antisocial personality disorder (APD), substance abuse/disorder, and paraphilias. Most individuals had a history of poor socialization. Structured clinical judgment as well as actuarial risk assessment instruments identified all inmates as high-risk offenders. Future development of preventive detention in Germany must emphasize treatment interventions. Given the life histories and the mental health problems of the detainees assessed in the present study, the implementation of effective treatment will prove difficult. PMID:23670896

  11. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1 RIN 0910-AG67...Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  12. 78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...Food and Drug Administration...Parts 1 and 16 Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use; Draft...Delaying, Denying, Limiting, or Refusing a Drug Inspection; Availability; Proposed...

  13. 19 CFR 133.25 - Procedure on detention of articles subject to restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES, AND COPYRIGHTS Importations Bearing Registered and/or Recorded Trademarks...destroyed/lost) during examination or testing for trademark infringement.” (d) Form of notice. Notice of detention of...

  14. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of...

  15. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of...

  16. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of...

  17. Why Bivens Won't Die: The Legacy of Peoples V. CCA Detention Centers

    E-print Network

    Mulligan, Lumen N.

    2006-01-01

    Interpreting recent Supreme Court precedent, the Tenth Circuit, in Peoples v. CCA Detention Centers, held that a federal prisoner confined in a privately run prison may not bring a Bivens suit against the employees of the ...

  18. Texas Catfish Production in Ponds 

    E-print Network

    Masser, Michael P.; Woods, Peter; Clary, Gregory M.

    2005-03-31

    alike in their color, water quality, and growth rate of the fish, even though they are stocked and fed at the same rates. Even in a single pond, color and water qual- ity vary from day to day. These differences may be related to soil conditions, algae... areas is the warmer climate. Algae Algae have a powerful influence on a pond?s water quality. Algae produce most of the oxygen in the pond and remove most of the carbon diox- ide and many of the nutrients. Algae also con- sume oxygen, produce carbon...

  19. Effects of urban flood-detention reservoirs on peak discharges in Gwinnett County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, G.W.; Inman, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of flood-detention reservoirs on peak discharges along downstream reaches in six urban drainage basins in Gwinnett County, Georgia, were studied during 1986-93 using the U.S. Geological Survey's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M). Short-term rainfall-runoff data were collected at selected stations in six urban drainage basins in Gwinnett County. The basins range in size from 0.10 to 0.37 square miles and contain from 15- to 35- percent impervious areas. Each basin contains from two to six flood-detention reservoirs. The DR3M was calibrated using short-term rainfall-runoff data collected (1986-92) at each station. The model then was used to simulate long-term (1898-1980) peak discharges for these stations for conditions representing various amounts of detention ranging from the existing condition with all flood-detention reservoirs in place to the natural condition with no reservoirs. Flood-frequency relations were developed from the simulated annual peak discharges for each of these conditions by fitting the logarithms of the annual peak discharge data to a Pearson type III distribution curve. The effect of each flood-detention reservoir on peak discharges downstream was determined by comparison of peak discharges simulated with and without the flood-detention reservoirs. The cumulative effect of all flood-detention reservoirs in a basin on peak discharges downstream was determined by comparison of peak discharges for a flood with a given recurrence interval simulated with and without the reservoirs. Results of these comparisons indicate that removal of an individual flood-detention reservoir during simulations changes peak discharges from - 1 to 24 percent for the 2-year recurrence interval, from - 1 to 27 percent for the 10-year recurrence interval, and from -2 to 31 percent for the 100-year recurrence interval. The cumulative effect of removing all of the reservoirs from each of the six basins during simulation increases peak discharges from 1 to 38 percent for the 2-year recurrence interval, from 1 to 37 percent for the l O-year recurrence interval, and from 3 to 31 percent for the 100-year recurrence interval. In this study of six basins, several factors influenced the effect of flood-detention reservoirs on peak discharges downstream. The contributing drainage area, the maximum storage capacity, the outflow-structure capacity, and the elevation-to-storage relation of the flood-detention reservoir affected peak discharges in several basins. The location in the drainage basin and number of flood-detention reservoirs affected peak discharges in some basins.

  20. Low-cost modification of sediment control ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.S.; Jenkins, C.R.

    1982-12-01

    This study explores the use of low cost modifications to improve sediment pond performance. Modifications used include: 1) baffles, 2) siphon and 3) floating outlet. The baffles were constructed of brattice cloth suspended from floating pieces of pipe. The siphon outlets were made up of a small diameter siphon and a large diameter siphon drawing water from different levels and attached to the riser outlet. The floating outlet was designed to skim water from the pond surface. Data was collected on effluent water quality for a period of time before and after all modifications. Data collected prior to the modifications showed the ponds breaking effluent limitations frequently. Data collection, after the modifications, showed improved pond performance with the baffles helping the most.

  1. Treatment of Road Runoff by a Combined Storm Water Treatment, Detention and Infiltration System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miklas Scholz; Sara Kazemi Yazdi

    2009-01-01

    Storm water detention devices collect runoff from impermeable catchments. They provide flow attenuation as well as storage\\u000a capacity, and rely on natural self-purification processes such as sedimentation, filtration and microbial degradation. The\\u000a aim was to assess the performance of an experimental combined planted gravel filter, storm water detention and infiltration\\u000a tank system treating runoff from a car park and its

  2. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  3. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

  4. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on the interactions of viruses with particles and with other organisms, as well as the development of a model for virus removal in pond systems that can be used for design purposes, and to inform future editions of the WHO Guidelines for Wastewater Use in Agriculture. PMID:25613410

  5. Exploring Trees and Ponds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trees and Ponds is a collection of activities to be implemented with middle school youth in out-of-school environments. The website provides a rationale and goal of the activities, curriculum activities and resources such as relevant digital photos. Available for free as downloadable PDFs, these activities provide a structure for youth in out-of-school programs to carry out long-term observations of natural objects. This project uses a qualitative approach, where changes over time are studied, recorded (by youth through writing, drawing, and digital photography), and discussed.

  6. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  7. Energy production from solar ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A method for obtaining solar energy in a useful form by utilizing solar ponds is described. The method comprises direct or indirect contact of hot liquid from the pond with a low boiling point immiscible working fluid for transfer of the heat energy from the liquid to the working fluid. The heated working fluid is separated from the liquid and

  8. Experimental study of the salt gradient solar pond stability

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Choubani; Slim, Zitouni; Kais, Charfi; Jomaa, Safi Mohamed [Ecole National d'Ingenieurs de Tunis, Unite de Recherche Mecanique-Energetique, 1002 El Belvedere, BP 37 (Tunisia); Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy CARE Group, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, P.O. Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Many natural systems such as oceans, lakes, etc.., are influenced by the effect of double-diffusive convection. This phenomenon, which is a combination of heat and mass transfer, can destroy the stability of system-flows. In the case of solar ponds the middle layer, that is linearly stratified, acts as a thermal and mass insulator for the lower layer. This middle layer, called the Non-Convective Zone (NCZ), needs special care to avoid convection and to maintain its stability. In fact, due to an excess of heat stored, a thermal gradient occurs within the NCZ. A convective movement appears at the bottom of the stratified-layers and then grows to a double-diffusive convection movement. This movement transforms the stratified-layers into a well mixed layer, reducing the storage capacity of the pond. Laboratory small-scale pond and middle-scale outdoor solar ponds were designed and built to provide both quantitative data and to study the dynamic processes in solar ponds, including the behavior of the gradient zone. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualization-experiments carried out in the mechanical and energetic laboratory in the engineering school of Tunisia and experiments in the field showed that the instability of solar ponds could be limited by using porous media placed in the lower layer of the stratification. (author)

  9. Research ethics and the plight of refugees in detention.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Rousseau, Cecile; Crepeau, Francois

    2004-10-01

    Health researchers may have a strategic role to play in confronting the predicament of refugee detainees because they can lend their analytic skills and authority to document the personal cost and impact of this practice. The justification for such 'subversive' research comes from the discrepancy between the sources of legitimacy and legality for government action. The practice of detention may be legal but illegitimate, judged against the standards of international human rights. Hence, research to explore the consequences of this policy is both morally and politically legitimate. Morally, it reflects a commitment to uncover and oppose unjustified violence against others; politically, it represents an attempt to identify and challenge abuses of power by the state. However, doing research without official approval or with the use of deception raises concerns for the safety of detainees as vulnerable research subjects as well as the credibility of researchers and the research enterprise. Researchers also may face sanctions that will limit their future effectiveness. An international network of researchers working on issues of human rights and the health of asylum seekers can provide an institutional basis to support work that challenges local practices. PMID:15688516

  10. Evaluation of the Feasibility of Irrigation Storage in a Flood Detention Pond in an Agricultural Catchment in Northern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica Camnasio; Gianfranco Becciu

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, the international attention paid to rational use and saving of water has increased, partly because of\\u000a frequent water shortages occurring also in countries not usually involved in these problems, and partly as a consequence of\\u000a rising conflicts on water allocation. Hence it is important to find new surface-water volumes satisfying agricultural water\\u000a demand, as well as new

  11. Metal sorption to natural filter substrates for storm water treatment—column studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Färm

    2002-01-01

    Storm water generated from road runoff contains pollutants such as metals that are either dissolved in storm water or bound to particulates. Using detention ponds for the treatment of storm water from road runoff, where particles can settle, can reduce the level of particulate-bound metals in the water, while small particles and dissolved matter pass through the detention pond. Some

  12. Food Web of a Pond

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation depicts the food-based interconnections of selected organisms in a pond. Through the interactive interface, users can read about changes to organism populations as one species increases or decreases in number.

  13. Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazel, Seena; Doll, Helen; Langstrom, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a meta-analysis of all existing surveys on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in order to assess the prevalence of mental disorders. Findings indicate adolescents in detention are 10 times more likely to suffer from psychosis than the general adolescent…

  14. An Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Hurricane Creek Detention Facility Number 1 in Central Angelina County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-11

    AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE PROPOSED HURRICANE CREEK DETENTION FACILITY NUMBER 1 IN CENTRAL ANGELINA COUNTY, TEXAS Texas Antiquities Permit Number 2383 by William E. Moore... Brazos Valley Research Associates Contract Report Number 71 2000 AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE PROPOSED HURRICANE CREEK DETENTION FACILITY NUMBER 1 IN CENTRAL ANGELINA COUNTY, TEXAS BVRA Project Number 99-17 Principal...

  15. Contesting institutional discourse to create new possibilities for understanding lived experience: life?stories of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suniti Sharma

    2010-01-01

    This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter?stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15–19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the study comprises their autobiographies, official documents of their

  16. Stable Stratification for Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, G. D.

    1982-01-01

    Stable density gradient forms in pond saturated with disodium phosphate (DSP). Volume of DSP saturated water tends to develop temperature and density layers. Since tests indicate thermal and density gradients remain in equilibrium at heat removal rates of 60 percent or more of heat input rate, pond containing DSP would be suitable for collecting solar energy and transferring it to heat exchanger for practical use.

  17. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  18. Feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for brine unmixing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-30

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate in the laboratory the feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for unmixing a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams for salinity gradient energy conversion systems. This objective was accomplished by conducting experiments on laboratory saturated ponds using borax, potassium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, disodium phosphate and potassium alum. Results from ponds using borax, potassium nitrate and disodium phosphate conclusively demonstrated that saturated solar ponds can self-generate and self-maintain a stable density gradient. Moreover, these ponds reestablished stable density profiles after the ponds were externally mixed. Based on preliminary results, the residence time for unmixing of a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams varies from a few days for the borax pond to about two weeks for the disodium phosphate pond, depending upon the characteristics of the individual saturated solution. Because of only a very small increase in the density of saturated solutions from 25/sup 0/C to 90/sup 0/C, the potassium perchlorate pond could not establish a stable density stratification.

  19. Effects of urban flood-detention reservoirs on peak discharges and flood discharges and flood frequencies, and simulation of flood-detention reservoir outflow hydrographs in two watersheds in Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, G.W.; Inman, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the effects of flood-detention reservoirs on downstream peak discharges of two urban tributaries to Kinchafoonee Creek (tributaries 1 and 2) in Albany, Georgia and presents simulated flood-detention reservoir outflow hydrographs. Rainfall-runoff data were collected for six years at two stations in these two urban watersheds. Tributary number 1 basin has a drainage area of 0.12 square miles, contains 23.8 percent impervious area, and contains two detention reservoirs. Tributary number 2 basin has a drainage area of 0.09 square miles, contains 12.9 percent impervious area, and has one detention reservoir. The Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M) was calibrated using rainfall-runoff data collected during 1987- 92 at each station. DR3M was then used to simulate long-term (1906-33, 1941-73) peak discharges for these stations for conditions ranging from the existing condition with all detention reservoirs in place to the condition of no detention reservoirs. Flood-frequency relations based on the long-term peak discharges were developed for each simulation by fitting the logarithms of the annual peak discharge data to a Pearson type III distri- bution curve. The effect of detention reservoirs on peak discharge data to a Pearson type III distributio curve. The effect of detention reservoirs on peak discharges was determined by comparison of simulated flood-frequency peak discharges for conditions with and without the detention reservoirs. The comparisons indicated that the removal of flood-detention reservoirs from the tributary number 1 basin would increase the 10-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges by 164 to 204 percent. Removal of the reservoir from tributary number 2 basin would increase these discharges by about 145 percent.

  20. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John R; Barrett, Michael E

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this research was to modify an extended detention basin to provide batch treatment of stormwater runoff. An automated valve/controller was developed and placed on the outlet of a detention basin in Austin, Texas, which allowed the water quality volume to be retained in the basin for a preset length of time. The influent and effluent of the modified basin were monitored for total suspended solids (TSS), nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total and dissolved metals. Statistically significant removal of total metals, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS was observed, with a discharge event mean TSS concentration of 7 mg/L and a TSS removal efficiency of 91%. The modified basin has substantially better pollutant removal than conventional extended detention basins and is comparable with that of Austin sand filters, which are a common structural stormwater treatment system in the Austin area. The valve also can be used to isolate hazardous material spills. PMID:18330228

  1. Throwing Away the Key: The Ethics of Risk Assessment for Preventive Detention Schemes

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, B.

    2014-01-01

    Preventive detention schemes that aim to protect the community from certain ‘dangerous’ individuals have long existed. While risk assessment is now pervasive in the management and treatment of many individuals, it raises particular issues when a person's liberty is at stake on the basis of what that person might do. This R.G. Myers Memorial Lecture addresses the ethical issues raised by mental health practitioners providing risk assessments for legislative schemes that involve the deprivation of liberty. It will focus in particular on Australian post-sentence preventive detention schemes for sex offenders that have been held by the United Nations Human Rights Committee to breach fundamental human rights. However, the ethical issues discussed also have repercussions for civil commitment laws that enable the detention of those with severe mental or intellectual impairments. PMID:25431531

  2. Benthic and pelagic food resources for zooplankton in shallow high-latitude lakes and ponds

    E-print Network

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    of two contrasting high-latitude biomes: subarctic forest tundra (Kuujjuarapik, Quebec) and high arctic production and substantial increase in algal biomass in a small tundra pond only 16 days after the removal

  3. The limnology, primary production, and fish production in a tropical pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. SREENIVASAN

    1964-01-01

    The productivity of a small tropical temple pond was studied by the light-and-dark bottle method and by following the natural changes in carbon dioxicle and oxygen. Pro- duction varied from 6.0 g C\\/m\\

  4. Seasonal pond characteristics across a chronosequence of adjacent forest ages in northern Minnesota, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Palik; Darold P. Batzer; Richard Buech; Dale Nichols; Kory Cease; Leanne Egeland; Dwight E. Streblow

    2001-01-01

    Small seasonal ponds are abundant in many forest landscapes, yet they remain poorly understood in terms of their response\\u000a to disturbance of the surrounding upland forest. The potential for such a response is large because of the small size and,\\u000a hence, high perimeter-to-area ratios of most ponds. High perimeter-to-area ratio may increase the importance of functional\\u000a connections with the surrounding

  5. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  6. Transportation and Bioavailability of Copper and Zinc in a Storm Water Retention Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camponelli, K.; Casey, R. E.; Wright, M. E.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.

    2006-05-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a non-point source of metals to storm water retention ponds. Zinc and copper are major components of tires and brake pads, respectively. As these automobile parts degrade, they deposit particulates onto the roadway surface. During a storm event, these metal containing particulates are washed into a storm water retention pond where they can then accumulate over time. These metals may be available to organisms inhabiting the pond and surrounding areas. This study focuses on tracking the metals from their deposition on the roadway to their transport and accumulation into a retention pond. The retention pond is located in Owings Mills, MD and collects runoff from an adjacent four lane highway. Pond sediments, background soils, road dust samples, and storm events were collected and analyzed. Copper and zinc concentrations in the pond sediments are higher than local background soils indicating that the pond is storing anthropogenically derived metals. Storm event samples also reveal elevated levels of copper and zinc transported through runoff, along with a large concentration of total suspended solids. After looking at the particulate and dissolved fractions of both metals in the runoff, the majority of the Zn and Cu are in the particulate fraction. Changes in TSS are proportional with changes in particulate bound Zn, indicating that the solid particulates that are entering into the pond are a major contributor of the total metal loading. Sequential extractions carried out on the road dust show that the majority of zinc is extracted in the second and third fractions and could become available to organisms in the pond. There is a small amount of Cu that is being released in the more available stages of the procedure; however the bulk of the Cu is seen in the more recalcitrant steps. In the pond sediments however, both Cu and Zn are only being released from the sediments in the later steps and are most likely not highly available.

  7. Simulated pond-aquifer interactions under natural and stressed conditions near Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model was used to simulate pond-aquifer interactions under natural and stressed conditions near Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Simulation results show that pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, which represents the degree of hydraulic connection between the pond and the aquifer, is an important control on these interactions. As this parameter was incrementally increased from 10 to 350 feet per day, the rate of ground-water inflow into the pond under natural conditions increased by about 250 percent, the associated residence times of water in the pond decreased by about 50 percent, and ground-water inflow to the pond shifted closer to the pond shore. Most ground-water inflow (90 to 98 percent) was in the upper model layer, which corresponded to shallow, near-shore areas of the pond, over the entire range of pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity. Ground-water flow paths into the pond became more vertical, the contributing area to the pond became larger, and the pond captured water from greater depths in the aquifer as the hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom was increased. The pond level, however, remained nearly constant, and regional ground-water levels and gradients differed little over the range of pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, indicating that calibrated models with similar head solutions can have different pond-aquifer interaction characteristics. Hydrologic stresses caused by a simulated plume-containment system that specifies the extraction and injection of large volumes of ground water near the pond increased the pond level by about 0.4 foot and ground-water inflow rates into the pond by about 25 percent. Several factors related to the operation of the simulated containment system are affected by the hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom. With increasing pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, the amount of injected water that flows into Snake Pond increased and the amount of water recirculated between extraction and injection wells decreased. Comparison of simulations in which pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity was varied throughout the pond and simulations in which hydraulic conductivity was varied only in areas corresponding to shallow, near-shore areas of the pond indicate that the simulated hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom in deeper parts of the pond had little effect on pond-aquifer interactions under both natural and stressed conditions.

  8. A COMPARISON OF WET DETENTION SYSTEM WATER QUALITY TO THEIR EFFLUENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Carr

    The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) conducted a survey of permitted wet detention systems to compare the water quality in front of the outfall weir to that of its effluent during flow conditions. In addition, this study compared the data with Class III Florida State Water Quality Standards. Analyses were performed to detect statistical differences between constituent data collected

  9. Children in Detention and Shelter Care: Surveying the System in New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Linda J.; And Others

    The report examines the characteristics of children (primarily between the ages of 6 and 17 years) placed in 42 New Jersey detention facilities, juveniles in need of supervision (JINS) shelters, and children's shelters; and provides descriptive information and analysis on the programs, policies, and budgets of these "temporary" residences. An…

  10. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Youth in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This practice parameter presents recommendations for the mental health assessment and treatment of youths in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Mental and substance-related disorders are significant public health problems affecting youths in juvenile justice settings. Sufficient time is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnostic…

  11. Sexual risk behavior, knowledge, and condom use among adolescents in Juvenile detention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane M. Morrison; Sharon A. Baker; Mary R. Gillmore

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on sexual behavior, knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (including AIDS) and condoms, and condom use among African-American and white incarcerated adolescents in Seattle, Washington. One hundred nineteen adolescents in a juvenile detention facility completed questionnaires that assessed their lifetime and recent sexual behaviors, an objective test of disease and condom knowledge, attitudes and norms regarding condom use

  12. 19 CFR 12.108 - Detention of articles; time in which to comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.108 Detention...entry, the port director shall take the sculpture or mural into Customs custody and...within 90 days after the date on which the sculpture or mural is taken into Customs...

  13. 19 CFR 12.108 - Detention of articles; time in which to comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.108 Detention...entry, the port director shall take the sculpture or mural into Customs custody and...within 90 days after the date on which the sculpture or mural is taken into Customs...

  14. 19 CFR 12.108 - Detention of articles; time in which to comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.108 Detention...entry, the port director shall take the sculpture or mural into Customs custody and...within 90 days after the date on which the sculpture or mural is taken into Customs...

  15. 19 CFR 12.108 - Detention of articles; time in which to comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.108 Detention...entry, the port director shall take the sculpture or mural into Customs custody and...within 90 days after the date on which the sculpture or mural is taken into Customs...

  16. Opportunity: How Twenty Boys Serving Time in a Detention Facility Learned to Rebuild Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernero, Deanna E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a trial program involving 20 boys in a juvenile detention facility. Academic skills in math, English, and architecture, and vocational skills in carpentry and electrical contracting, were taught. Students also received art therapy. Test scores improved for these students, as did communication, social skills, self-confidence, and pride.…

  17. 19 CFR 12.108 - Detention of articles; time in which to comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.108 Detention...entry, the port director shall take the sculpture or mural into Customs custody and...within 90 days after the date on which the sculpture or mural is taken into Customs...

  18. 21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...order to the owner of the article of food if the owner's identity can be determined...a detention order for an article of food located in a vehicle or other carrier used to transport the detained article of food, FDA also must provide a copy of...

  19. ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS

    E-print Network

    ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS A Review of the Literature SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT., John L. Farley, Director ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS A Review of the Literature By John fertilization. ......... 2 Physical considerations ................... 2 Biological considerations

  20. Spatial variability of methane ebullition from permafrost thaw ponds in a subarctic mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Varner, R. K.; Osman, M.; Burke, S. A.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH4) has an important role in the energy budget of the atmosphere. Warming due to radiative forcing by this and other greenhouse gases is amplified at high latitudes. Rising soil and air temperatures in these regions lead to permafrost thaw and the potential release of large amounts of CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere. Where permafrost thaw is occurring, a changing landscape may lead to new CH4 sources. Small ponds are key features of these landscapes. Forming in depressions of previously frozen ground, thaw ponds may release large quantities of CH4 through ebullition (bubbling), yet little has been done to assess their potential contribution to carbon emissions from ecosystems with thawing permafrost. We have made summer measurements of CH4 ebullition from thaw ponds located within the Stordalen Mire, a subarctic permafrost complex in northern Sweden. Our findings suggest that small water bodies can be a substantial local CH4 source. Ebullition occurred episodically and varied spatially, both within and among the ponds. Over a three-week period in July 2013, average bubble CH4 concentration varied from 2 ppm to 1.6% and total bubble flux from 0 to 5456 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Fluxes were highest from deeper ponds while shallower, and presumably younger, ponds produced significantly less gas with a much lower CH4 concentration. Temperatures and physical characterization of the ponds suggest that substrate type may be as important as heat in influencing the rate of ebullitive flux. Although spatial and temporal variability make CH4 flux from thaw ponds difficult to quantify, these findings suggest that continued warming may drive a positive feedback for CH4 emission and permafrost degradation in the Arctic. Future data on thaw pond cover across Stordalen Mire will allow us to better understand the changing contribution of these ponds to the local total CH4 emission.

  1. Preliminary design of sedimentation ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.C.; Wayland, L.D.

    1982-12-01

    Almost one-hundred sedimentation ponds were conceptually designed for a large surface mining study are in northeast Texas. An approximate procedure was developed to economically estimate construction quantities in order to predict surface water control costs. This procedure utilized site-specific empirical relationships developed from detailed analyses on a representative number of proposed sedimentation ponds. Use of these equations provided earthwork volumes, and spillway pipe lengths. The procedure developed for this study is presented along with the results of a verification analysis.

  2. URBAN POND: A LANDSCAPE OF MULTIPLE MEANINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Gledhill; P. James; D. H. Davies

    Ponds have a range of ecological, social and aesthetic values. However, little work has been done to appraise the values assigned to ponds located in an urban setting. During 2004, 10 ponds were studied in urban areas of Merseyside. Standard ecological techniques were applied to assess diversity of invertebrates , plants and amphibians. A landscape character assessment technique was used

  3. Solar Ponds- A Perspective from Indian Agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. RAMAKRISHNA MURTHY; K. P. PANDEY

    Solar ponds are studied for its relevance in Indian agriculture from the view points of process applications and operational parameters. An attempt is made to review the work done in India and abroad with refrence to agriculture. Some of the fertiliser salts are identified as the potential answer to soalr pond salts. Solar ponds can have a significant role in

  4. Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

    This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive…

  5. Evaluation of shading of fish farming ponds as a larval control measure against Anopheles sundaicus Rodenwaldt (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Takagi, M; Pohan, W; Hasibuan, H; Panjaitan, W; Suzuki, T

    1995-12-01

    Larval density of Anopheles sundaicus in shaded and unshaded fish farming ponds was monitored at a coastal village in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The average density in the experimentally shaded ponds with Nipa leaves was reduced to < 1/10. Disappearance of algae and decline of water temperature also were observed, but the salinity did not change. The larval density was lower in ponds with Tilapia sp than without fish, but that in ponds with Ophiocephalus sp was not significantly lower. Dominant insects collected by dipping were Agrionidae and Libellulidae (Odonata), Corixidae, Notonectidae and Nepidae (Hemiptera), and Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Density of nymphs of both Odonata and Notonectidae was higher in unshaded ponds. Taking into account longevity of the materials, and easiness in construction and applicability, shading by Nipa leaves was an easy and effective larval control measure against A. sundaicus in non-operating small fish farming ponds if leaves were renewed once in every two months. PMID:9139389

  6. How Healthy Is Our Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Hargrove, Dori L.

    2014-01-01

    With crosscutting concepts such as stability and change in the "Next Generation Science Standards," this article was written for those who have wondered how to teach these concepts in a way that is relevant to students. In this investigation, students ask the question, "Why is the pond dirty?" As students investigate the health…

  7. From Salt Ponds to Wetlands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-22

    Biologists are working to restore the San Francisco Bay Area salt ponds to healthy wetlands for wildlife in one of the largest restoration projects on the West Coast. In this video from QUEST produced by KQED, students learn why wetlands are important to wildlife.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 for determining numbers and distribution of prairie ponds and lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Work, E. A., Jr.; Gilmer, D. S.; Klett, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 and aircraft multispectral data collected over a North Dakota test site during July 1972, are compared to evaluate the capability of the satellite sensors to detect numbers and distribution of prairie ponds and lakes. Recognition maps using ERTS-1, MSS 7 data are generated using a level slicing technique. Surface water areas larger than two acres are recognized, but ponds in the one-to two-acre range are detected only at random. The proportion estimation technique will improve the accuracy of area determination and small pond detection.

  9. Picnic at the Pond

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is competition for water among organisms along a river during the dry season in Kruger National Park in South Africa. Narrated video footage shows how a number of African animals share a small watering hole and acquire water necessary for survival while avoiding predation.

  10. Assessing Storm Water Detention Systems Treating Road Runoff with an Artificial Neural Network Predicting Fecal Indicator Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kazemi Yazdi; M. Scholz

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines whether multiple regression analysis and neural network models can be applied successfully for the indirect\\u000a prediction of the runoff treatment performance with water quality indicator variables in an experimental storm water detention\\u000a system rig. Five biologically mature experimental storm water detention systems with different designs treating concentrated\\u000a gully pot liquor (spiked with dog droppings) were assessed. The

  11. Pond 2: Life in a Drop of Pond Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students investigate the living creatures in a drop of pond water under magnification. This lesson is the second in a two-part series on microorganisms. It is designed to follow the first lesson, but can also stand alone. Students observe microscopic organisms found in pond water using a hand lens, 30x magnification, and 100x magnification. Observing these organisms should stimulate discussions about how single-celled living things might satisfy their needs for food, water, and air. They can do this by comparing the needs of macroscopic organisms to those of microscopic ones. It is important to remember that while watching microorganisms is informative, it is not always likely that students will be able to observe these tiny cells performing such functions as dividing or taking in food. Thus direct observation should be supplemented with films of living cells or by using prepared materials.

  12. POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

  13. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. PMID:23869702

  14. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  15. From Pond Scum to Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melissa Salpietra

    This animated slideshow introduces biodiesel as a fuel alternative. With concern about the use of petroleum-based fuels at an all-time high, biodiesel is experiencing a popularity surge. And algaeâotherwise known to some as pond scumâ are grabbing headlines as the next potential biodiesel superstar. But how and why do algae make oil? And why do they make so much of it? In this audio slide show, U.C. Berkeley's Kris Niyogi describes the process and its potential.

  16. Determination of Summertime VOC Emission Rates from Produced Water Ponds in the Uintah Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Woods, C.; Lyman, S.

    2013-12-01

    The observance of excess ozone concentrations in Utah's Uintah Basin over past several years has prompted several investigations into the extent and causes of the elevated ozone. Among these is the assessment of potential emissions of reactive VOCs. Evaporation ponds, used a remediation technique for treatment of contaminated production and other waters, are one potential source of significant VOC emissions and is estimated that there are around 160 such ponds within the Uintah Basin's oil and gas production areas. In June 2012 VOC emission rates for several reactive VOCs were derived for an evaporation facility consisting of a small inlet pond (?0.03 acres) and two larger, serial ponds (?4.3 acres each). The emission rates were determined over three sampling periods using an inverse modeling approach. Under this methodology, ambient VOC concentrations are determined at several downwind locations through whole-air collection into SUMMA canisters, followed by GC/MS quantification and compared with predicted concentrations using an EPA-approved dispersion model, AERMOD. The presumed emission rates used within the model were then adjusted until the modeled concentrations approach the observed concentrations. The derived emission rates for the individual VOCs were on the order of 10-3 g/s/m2 from the inlet pond and 10-6 g/s/m2 from the larger ponds. The emissions from the 1st pond in series after the inlet pond were about 3-4x the emissions from the 2nd pond. These combined emission rates are about an order of magnitude those reported for a single study in Colorado (Thoma, 2009). It should be noted, however, that the variability about each of the VOC emission rates was significant (often ×100% at the 95% confidence interval). Extrapolating these emission rates to the estimated total areas of all the evaporation ponds within Basin resulted in calculated Basin-wide VOC emissions 292,835 tons/yr. However, Bar-Ilan et al. (2009) estimated 2012 VOC oil and gas related emissions within the Uintah Basin to be 119,974 tons/yr. Given the large observed variabilities and the uncertainties with extrapolating the derived emission rates across varying pond types and differing climatic conditions, the comparisons are not unreasonable. If the lower, literature emission rates of Thoma (2009) are used the estimated Basin-wide evaporation emissions, the pond emissions would still be approximately 30% of the total emissions compiled by Bar-Ilan et al. (2009). Although the study described herein only represents a single facility and a single set of seasonal conditions, extrapolating these rates can give potential insight into the significance of VOC emissions into the Basin atmosphere from evaporation ponds.

  17. Parametric study of salt gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Beniwal, R.S.; Saxena, N.S.; Bhandari, R.C.

    1986-02-01

    A mathematical model for efficiency of a salt gradient solar pond is described. Heat losses from the bottom of the pond have been calculated, and the results for the effective thermal conductivity with the thicknesses of various insulating materials have been presented. The effect of the ground thermal resistance on the efficiency of the pond for different values of ..delta..T/S/sup 0/ are also shown.

  18. Pond age and riparian zone proximity influence anuran occupancy of urban retention ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devynn A. Birx-Raybuck; Steven J. Price; Michael E. Dorcas

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization is widespread throughout the United States and negatively affects many wildlife populations. However, certain\\u000a urban features, such as retention ponds, may provide habitat for some species, such as amphibians. This study examines the\\u000a influence of riparian zone proximity and pond age on retention pond occupancy by anurans. We identified and estimated the\\u000a age of 25 retention ponds near Charlotte,

  19. Review of SERI Solar Pond Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

  20. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

  1. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

  2. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

  3. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

  4. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

  5. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  6. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  7. Get the Turtle to the Pond

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NCTM Illuminations

    2012-07-10

    The online applet provides for creative problem solving while encouraging young students to estimate length. Using the Turtle Pond Applet, students will direct the turtle to the pond by choosing a sequence of commands. Then the student will select play and watch the turtle move along the path as directed by the commands.

  8. Chemical and biological processes of evaporation ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural evaporation ponds are designed to impound and dissipate saline agricultural drainage water in areas with no opportunities for offsite disposal in the San Joaquin Valley of California. This paper reviews and summarizes research findings on the pond chemistry. Drainage waters in these pon...

  9. The role of microorganisms in aquaculture ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. W. Moriarty

    1997-01-01

    Microorganisms have major roles in pond culture, particularly with respect to productivity, nutrient cycling, the nutrition of the cultured animals, water quality, disease control and environmental impact of the effluent. Management of the activities of microorganisms in food webs and nutrient cycling in ponds is necessary for optimising production, but the objectives will differ with the type of aquaculture, the

  10. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  11. Controlling Those Kids: Social Control and the Use of Pretrial Detention among Youth in the United States of America--National Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Patrick; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    This analysis will identify the theoretical basis associated with the use of pretrial detention among youth in the United Sates. This article is designed to offer a comprehensive description of the use of pre-trial detention of youth. In addition, a theoretical discussion of this "crime-control" measure is identified. Policy implications are…

  12. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father’s incarceration might impact their children’s psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father’s imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old), and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children’s psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself. Methods Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old) children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn’t experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children’s psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father’s capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found. Conclusion This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members – in particular children – of detainees. PMID:26186687

  13. [The patient faced with the inescapable ruling of the liberty and detention judge].

    PubMed

    Mercier, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Around a hundred of interviews have been carried out with patients hospitalised under restraint before and after their court case. The aim was to assess in particular the understanding of the law and the role of the liberties and detention judge, the experience of the hearing, the motives behind the refusals to appear and the impact of the notification of the ruling. To date, no patients have refused interviews during their hospital stay once they have emerged from the period of crisis. PMID:22896966

  14. Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

  15. CYANOBACTERIAL BIODIVERSITY FROM DIFFERENT FRESHWATER PONDS OF THANJAVUR, TAMILNADU (INDIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinnasamy MUTHUKUMAR; Gangatharan MURALITHARAN; Ramasamy VIJAYAKUMAR; Annamalai PANNEERSELVAM; Nooruddin THAJUDDIN

    Cyanobacterial biodiversity from different freshwater ponds of Thanjavur, Tamilnadu (India). Studies on the cyanobacterial biodiversity of 5 different freshwater ponds in and around Thanjavur, Tamilnadu during summer month (June, 2004) has been made and compared their variations among five different ponds. In addition, certain physico-chemical parameters of pond waters such as dissolved oxygen, net productivity, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite,

  16. Two dimensional computational fluid dynamic models for waste stabilisation ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G Wood; T Howes; J Keller; M. R Johns

    1998-01-01

    Traditional waste stabilisation pond (WSP) models encounter problems predicting pond performance because they cannot account for the influence of pond features, such as inlet structure or pond geometry, on fluid hydrodynamics. In this study, two dimensional (2-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were compared to experimental residence time distributions (RTD) from literature. In one of the three geometries simulated, the

  17. Acid pulses from snowmelt at acidic cone pond, New Hampshire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fay Baird; Donald C. Buso; James W. Hornbeck

    1987-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine whether ‘acid pulses’ from snowmelt created permanent changes in a pond's chemistry. Water samples were collected from clearwater acidic Cone Pond in the White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire. The pond, inlet, and outlet were intensively sampled throughout winter and early spring 1983–84. Thaws brought more H+ into upper waters of the pond, but

  18. Effects of aquatic insect predators on zooplankton in fishless ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Herwig; Daniel E. Schindler

    1996-01-01

    We removed the surface-orienting aquatic insects from a fishless pond to determine their predation effects on zooplankton behavior and size structure. A second fishless pond served as the unmanipulated reference system in this two year study. In the reference pond and the treatment pond prior to manipulation, daphnids exhibited pronounced diel vertical migrations. Following the removal of surface-orienting aquatic insects

  19. A Chronosequence of Aquatic Macrophyte Communities in Dune Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Wilcox; Howard A. Simonin

    1987-01-01

    Differences in macrophyte community composition in a chronosequence of spatially separated dune ponds near the south shore of Lake Michigan were examined and related to environmental variables. Five ponds from each of five pond rows were sampled. In each pond, the cover of each plant species and water and sediment depth were sampled using a stratified random design. Radiocarbon dates

  20. Stable density stratification solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

  1. 100-D Ponds groundwater quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-04-11

    The 100-D Ponds facility is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The pH of groundwater in a downgradient well is statistically different than local background, triggering an assessment of groundwater contamination under 40 CFR 265.93. Results of a similar assessment, conducted in 1993, show that the elevated pH is caused by the presence of alkaline ash sediments beneath the ponds, which are not part of the RCRA unit. The 100-D Ponds should remain in indicator evaluation monitoring.

  2. Distribution and Abundance of Amphibian Larvae within Two Temporary Ponds in Central Ohio, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey R. Smith; Haley A. Dingfelder; David A. Vaala

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the distributions of amphibian larvae within two temporary ponds in central Ohio. Spring Peeper Pond had higher densities of all taxa than did Taylor-Ochs Pond. All amphibian larval distributions were significantly aggregated on all sampling dates in both ponds. Larval abundances changed over time in Spring Peeper Pond, but not in Taylor-Ochs Pond. In Spring Peeper Pond, spring

  3. Acidification as environmental pollution: effects on fish-pond ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murad

    1987-01-01

    To establish the impact of acidity on fish production in ponds, experiments were conducted in fertilized sunfish (Lepomis spp.) ponds and fed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds. The alkalinity and pH of pond water were lowered by additions of HâSOâ. Total alkalinity levels were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 mg\\/liter in sunfish ponds and 0, 5, and 20 in

  4. DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual provides a concise overview of wastewater stabilization pond systems through discussion of factors affecting treatment, process design principles and applications, aspects of physical design and construction, suspended solids removal alternatives, and cost and energy r...

  5. Sealing Ponds and Lakes with Bentonite

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2003-04-01

    Some Texas subsoils allow rapid seepage of water from ponds, lakes or reservoirs. Bentonite can be applied to stop seepage. This leaflet explains the blanket, mixed blanket and sprinkle methods of bentonite application and includes methods...

  6. Ecologic simulation of warm water aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1983-06-01

    A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized warm-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of environmental parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of environmental conditions.

  7. The Mental and Physical Health Difficulties of Children Held within a British Immigration Detention Center: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorek, Ann; Ehntholt, Kimberly; Nesbitt, Anne; Wey, Emmanuel; Githinji, Chipo; Rossor, Eve; Wickramasinghe, Rush

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the mental and physical health of children held within a British immigration detention center. Method: A total of 24 detained children (aged 3 months to 17 years) were assessed with their parents or carer after being referred by a registered legal charity. Thirteen were seen by a pediatrician alone, 4…

  8. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-05

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

  9. A case study of enteric virus removal and insights into the associated risk of water reuse for two wastewater treatment pond systems in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Symonds, E M; Verbyla, M E; Lukasik, J O; Kafle, R C; Breitbart, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2014-11-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (WTP) are one of the most widespread treatment technologies in the world; however, the mechanisms and extent of enteric virus removal in these systems are poorly understood. Two WTP systems in Bolivia, with similar overall hydraulic retention times but different first stages of treatment, were analyzed for enteric virus removal. One system consisted of a facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds (three-pond system) and the other consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by two maturation (polishing) ponds (UASB-pond system). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was used to measure concentrations of norovirus, rotavirus, and pepper mild mottle virus, while cell culture methods were used to measure concentrations of culturable enteroviruses (EV). Limited virus removal was observed with RT-qPCR in either system; however, the three-pond system removed culturable EV with greater efficiency than the UASB-pond system. The majority of viruses were not associated with particles and only a small proportion was associated with particles larger than 180 ?m; thus, it is unlikely that sedimentation is a major mechanism of virus removal. High concentrations of viruses were associated with particles between 0.45 and 180 ?m in the UASB reactor effluent, but not in the facultative pond effluent. The association of viruses with this size class of particles may explain why only minimal virus removal was observed in the UASB-pond system. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of the treated effluent for reuse for restricted irrigation indicated that the three-pond system effluent requires an additional 1- to 2-log10 reduction of viruses to achieve the WHO health target of <10(-4) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per person per year; however, the UASB-pond system effluent may require an additional 2.5- to 4.5-log10 reduction of viruses. PMID:25129566

  10. Phytoplankton as bioindicator for waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Amengual-Morro, Caterina; Moyà Niell, Gabriel; Martínez-Taberner, Antoni

    2012-03-01

    Waste stabilization ponds are an appropriate technology for domestic onsite wastewater treatment. It is a low-cost technology, requires low maintenance, is highly efficient, mostly natural and remarkably sustainable. In facultative ponds, the existence of an algal population is very important for the stability of the symbiotic relation with aerobic bacteria. The aim of this work is to determine the pattern of microalgae in the facultative and maturation ponds to obtain information for the operation and maintenance work. The important parameters for phytoplankton measured in this study are the organic load, temperature, light penetration, dissolved oxygen and nutrients. Methodology consists in: analysis of main water quality parameters, plankton taxonomic determination and abundance calculation related with the maintenance operations. Results show that cyanobacteria are present in under-loaded conditions and chlorophyceae are present when the pond is overloaded. Using this methodology over time we can obtain a year round pattern to use the phytoplankton as a bioindicator of the pond's conditions. Our conclusion is that the phytoplankton determination and density can be used to know the pond's performance and help the operation and maintenance tasks. PMID:21820796

  11. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22014093

  12. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

  13. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  14. Electrostatic dust transport on Eros: 3-D simulations of pond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna L. H.; Colwell, Joshua E.; DeWolfe, Alexandria Ware

    2008-06-01

    NEAR-Shoemaker spacecraft images of the surface of the near-Earth Asteroid 433 Eros reveal that more than 200 craters on Eros are partially filled with smooth deposits, termed ponds [Veverka, J., and 32 colleagues, 2001a. Science 292, 484-488]. These ponds appear smooth even at a high resolution of 1.2 cm/pixel and spectral analysis suggests that they may be made up of particles ?50 ?m in size [Robinson, M.S., Thomas, P.C., Veverka, J., Murchie, S., Carcish, B., 2001. Nature 413, 396-400; Riner, M.A., Eckart, J.M., Gigilio, J.G., Robinson, M.S., 2006. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVII. Abstract 2291]. Coupled with the concentration of ponds at low latitudes, the possible small particle size suggests that these deposits might be related to electrostatic transport of dust near the local terminator [Robinson, M.S., Thomas, P.C., Veverka, J., Murchie, S., Carcish, B., 2001. Nature 413, 396-400]. The work presented here incorporates the precise lighting geometry within a crater at a specified latitude into two models for electrostatic transport of dust grains in order to explore dust deposition and pond formation via this mechanism, particularly as a function of latitude. We find that micrometer-sized dust particles are preferentially transported into craters at latitudes where solar illumination angles are often low. In addition we find that if particles are electrostatically lifted off the surface they are preferentially transported into topographic depressions independent of whether the particles undergo stable levitation. The primary limiting factor for our model is uncertainty concerning the dust launching mechanism. Despite that, and though it does not match the observed north-south asymmetry in pond distribution, our model demonstrates potential for good general agreement between future predictions of pond formation via electrostatic transport of dust and observations of pond locations on the surface of Eros.

  15. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  16. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL POND CIRCULATION ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES IN CHANNEL CATFISH PONDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplankton are the primary producers and consumers of dissolved oxygen in earthen channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production ponds. In a pond with a dense plankton bloom, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration can become supersaturated during daylight hours and fall to 10% of saturation or les...

  17. Evaluation of nitrogen reduction in water hyacinth ponds integrated with waste stabilization ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qitao Yi; Youngchul Kim; Masafumi Tateda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a combined aquatic treatment process coupling waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) with water hyacinth ponds (WHPs) was investigated as means to upgrade secondary effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Naturally-occurring nitrification and denitrification phenomena were monitored and evaluated on a quantitative basis. The WSP supplied oxygen to the post process WHP, while the inside of the

  18. Involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill: China's 2012 Mental Health Law.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law. PMID:24630738

  19. A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

  20. Water Chemistry and Plankton in Unfertilized Ponds in Pastures and in Woods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude E. Boyd

    1976-01-01

    Unfertilized ponds in pastures are more eutrophic than unfertilized ponds in woods. Fertilizer application rates currently used in bass-sunfish ponds in the southeastern United States may be greatly reduced in many pasture ponds.

  1. 9 CFR 381.212 - Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's agent, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  2. 9 CFR 381.212 - Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's agent, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  3. 9 CFR 381.212 - Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's agent, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  4. 9 CFR 381.212 - Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's agent, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  5. 9 CFR 381.212 - Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's agent, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  6. Reliability analysis of stabilisation pond systems.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S M A C; von Sperling, M

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 116 full-scale pond systems in Brazil, comprising 73 primary facultative ponds and 43 anaerobic -facultative pond systems. A methodology developed by Niku et al. (1979) is used for the determination of the coefficients of reliability, in terms of the compliance of effluent BOD, COD, TSS and FC to discharge standards or effluent quality targets. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the coefficients of reliability obtained. The results showed that few units, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances in terms of compliance with the analyzed standards. For the four constituents (BOD, COD, TSS and FC) and both systems (facultative ponds and anaerobic-facultative systems), the variability of the effluent quality was very large, leading to a high variability of the coefficient of variation (CV) and the coefficient of reliability (COR). The effluent quality from the facultative ponds showed a larger distance to both the desired values and the discharge standard values, compared with the anaerobic-facultative systems. PMID:17591205

  7. Response of shallow lakes and ponds to contemporary climate change in the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Macrae, M. L.; Parrott, J. A.; Brown, L.; Svacina, N.

    2009-12-01

    Ponds and shallow lakes are a ubiquitous feature of Arctic coastal plains. In Canada, they are particularly prevalent in the Hudson Bay Lowland and the Mackenzie River Delta region. Recent ground-based and remote sensing observations have shown a general decreasing trend in arctic lake/pond surface area over the past 50 years, suggesting that small water bodies at high latitudes are drying. However, the majority of the work that has been done on drying ponds and shallow lakes (with the exceptional cases of increases in areal extent in a few regions found in the continuous permafrost zone) has been conducted in Alaska and Siberia. The objectives of this work are twofold: (1) to examine trends and seasonal variability in pond and shallow lake water levels and surface area during the open water season; and (2) to examine trends and variability in the duration of ice cover in ponds and shallow lakes in this region, as open water season evaporation totals have been shown to be strongly influenced by ice cover duration. Preliminary results related to the first objective of this study reveal that annual precipitation (primarily summer rainfall) and evaporation have increased between 1955 and 2008; however, rainfall appears to be increasing at a faster rate than evaporation. There is still a moisture deficit over the summer months in this region because evaporation exceeds precipitation, although this deficit appears to be lessening. Thus, conditions in this region appear to be becoming more wet. A change detection study conducted on a subset of ponds for four years using air photographs and a SPOT image show that pond surface areas appear to have fluctuated over the study period but do not show a consistent trend. Different pond sizes appear to be showing different trends. Small ponds are showing opposing trends to medium and large sized ponds and lakes. The behaviour of the small ponds appears to strongly reflect seasonality in pond-atmosphere hydrologic exchange, and observed changes in pond surface area are synchronous with “wet” periods and “dry” periods. Regarding trends and variability in ice cover duration, results from simulations of pond ice thickness, break-up and freeze-up dates, and duration of open water season over the period 1955-2008 suggest that temperatures are warming in this region, and that these changes are seen across winter, spring and summer. Correspondingly, break-up appears to be occurring earlier and freeze-up appears to be occurring later, leading to a prolonged ice-free season; though none of these trends are statistically significant over the past 54 years. Radar images taken over the past 14 years are currently being processed to examine temporal changes and spatial patterns in pond/lake ice cover across the study area. Results from this analysis will also be presented. Finally, the approaches developed in this study could form the basis of a general methodology for investigating the contemporary status of ponds and shallow lakes in the Arctic.

  8. 8. Building No. 9944A. Interior door with small window is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Building No. 9944-A. Interior door with small window is in first room on left upon entering building from Ramp No. 4. - Madigan Hospital, Detention Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  9. Farm Pond Safety Dennis J. Murphy, Professor, Agricultural Engineering

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    E 27 Farm Pond Safety Dennis J. Murphy, Professor, Agricultural Engineering Sam Steel, Project Associate, Agricultural Engineering F arm ponds, lagoons and water wells are often found on Pennsylvania Sciences Agricultural and Biological Engineering Cooperative Extension An Equal Opportunity University

  10. ASSOCIATION OF WASTE STABILISATION PONDS AND INTERMITTENT SAND FILTERS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the 1st pond will be spread each day on four Sludge Dewatering Reed Bed Filters(SDRBF). The beginning sandfilters,pilots, rain water, sludge dewatering reed bedsfilters,waste stabilisation ponds, wastewater

  11. Experimental nursery pond cultivation of the seagrass Halodule beaudettei 

    E-print Network

    Rosen, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were conducted from April through July of hics. l 998 to assess the cultivation of Halodule beaudettei (den Hartog) den Hartog (shoal-grass) in experimental nursery ponds. The effects of pond flow-regime, water ...

  12. DVM Admissions Office (0442) 245 Duck Pond Drive

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    DVM Admissions Office (0442) 245 Duck Pond Drive Blacksburg, VA 24061 Phone: 540-231-4699 Fax: 540 Admissions Office (0442) 245 Duck Pond Drive Blacksburg, VA 24061 Phone: 540-231-4699 Fax: 540-231-9290 VA

  13. ESTIMATING AMPHIBIAN OCCUPANCY RATES IN PONDS UNDER COMPLEX SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring the occurrence of specific amphibian species in ponds is one component of the US Geological Survey's Amphibian Monitoring and Research Initiative. Two collaborative studies were conducted in Olympic National Park and southeastern region of Oregon. The number of ponds...

  14. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  15. Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Atekwana, E.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. (Univ. of Yaounde (Cameroon). Dept. of Plant Biology)

    1994-04-01

    A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

  16. Winter performance of an urban stormwater pond in southern Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Semadeni-Davies

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from cold regions in North America has shown that the performance of stormwater ponds differs between winter and summer. The pond hydraulics change seasonally, and winters have lowered removal efficiency due to a combination of an ice cover, cold water and de-icing salts. This study examines the function of the Bäckaslov stormwater pond under the more mild conditions of

  17. Optimization of solar pond electrical power generation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Haj Khalil; B. A. Jubran; N. M. Faqir

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of using a solar pond for the generation of electricity in Jordan. A solar pond power plant model is presented to simulate and optimize such a system under the Jordanian climatic conditions. A Rankine cycle analysis is carried out using an environmentally friendly working fluid, Refrigerant 134a.It was found that using a solar pond for

  18. The refreezing of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel L.; Bailey, Eleanor; Schroeder, David

    2015-02-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the surface of Arctic sea ice significantly reduces its albedo, inducing a positive feedback leading to sea ice thinning. While the role of melt ponds in enhancing the summer melt of sea ice is well known, their impact on suppressing winter freezing of sea ice has, hitherto, received less attention. Melt ponds freeze by forming an ice lid at the upper surface, which insulates them from the atmosphere and traps pond water between the underlying sea ice and the ice lid. The pond water is a store of latent heat, which is released during refreezing. Until a pond freezes completely, there can be minimal ice growth at the base of the underlying sea ice. In this work, we present a model of the refreezing of a melt pond that includes the heat and salt balances in the ice lid, trapped pond, and underlying sea ice. The model uses a two-stream radiation model to account for radiative scattering at phase boundaries. Simulations and related sensitivity studies suggest that trapped pond water may survive for over a month. We focus on the role that pond salinity has on delaying the refreezing process and retarding basal sea ice growth. We estimate that for a typical sea ice pond coverage in autumn, excluding the impact of trapped ponds in models overestimates ice growth by up to 265 million km3, an overestimate of 26%.

  19. Active thermal storage using the ground underlying a solar pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowrey

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for actively using the ground underlying a solar pond for storage of heat accumulated in the pond. Heated water will be injected down shallow wells and percolated through the soil. Recovery of heat will usually just reverse this injection. With this invention both major components will perform better than they would alone. Solar ponds will now

  20. Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Daniel K.

    Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles www.oregonwildlife.org #12;2 Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles Final Report August 2010 Daniel K. Rosenberg Oregon Wildlife: Rosenberg, D. K. and R. Swift. 2010. Post-emergence behavior of hatchling western pond turtles. Oregon

  1. One year's experience with an operating saturated solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Day, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    While the saturated non-convecting solar pond concept is not new, the borax pond at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) is the first application of the concept to an operating solar pond. As with any new application there have been experimentally identified problem areas. Four of these problems are discussed: 1) departure from saturation, 2) contamination, 3) bottom crystalization, and 4) covers.

  2. Chemical treatment costs reduced with in-pond raceway systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split ponds are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish in several southeastern states. One advantage noted by farmers utilizing these systems is the reduced cost associated with the chemical treatment of ...

  3. Aquaculture pond fertilization impacts of nutrient input on production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ponds are a primary production system to a wide variety of freshwater fish species. Each species have specific and unique nutrient needs and successful pond fertilization is critical to a successful aquaculture enterprise. Aquaculture Pond Fertilization: Impacts of Nutrient Input on Production pro...

  4. Diversity and spatiotemporal distribution of larval odonate assemblages in temperate neotropical farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mateus Marques; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Farm ponds help maintain diversity in altered landscapes. However, studies on the features that drive this type of property in the Neotropics are still lacking, especially for the insect fauna. We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of odonate larval assemblages in farm ponds. Odonates were sampled monthly at four farm ponds from March 2008 to February 2009 in a temperate montane region of southern Brazil. A small number of genera were frequent and accounted for most of the dominant fauna. The dominant genera composition differed among ponds. Local spatial drivers such as area, hydroperiod, and margin vegetation structure likely explain these results more than spatial predictors due to the small size of the study area. Circular analysis detected seasonal effect on assemblage abundance but not on richness. Seasonality in abundance was related to the life cycles of a few dominant genera. This result was explained by temperature and not rainfall due to the temperate climate of the region studied. The persistence of dominant genera and the sparse occurrence of many taxa over time probably led to a lack in a seasonal pattern in assemblage richness. PMID:25527585

  5. Fate and Transport of 17?-Estradiol beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lori A; Tyner, John S; Buchanan, John R; Hawkins, Shawn A; Lee, Jaehoon

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations typically store livestock waste in clay-lined ponds. Although these ponds are regulated to include a liner with a small hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching, previous studies have traced surface and groundwater contamination from such regulated animal waste ponds. This research examined the transport of 17?-estradiol (E2) and its primary metabolite, estrone (E1), through soil liners using field- and laboratory-based studies. Additionally, a potential engineering solution to limit hormone transport-applying biochar to new pond liners to act as a retardant-was studied. Soil cores 80 cm in length were collected beneath a mature dairy waste pond and analyzed for moisture content and hormone concentrations. Unsaturated conditions and E2 concentrations of 4 to 250 ng g were detected beneath the waste pond. In the laboratory portion of the study, hand-packed columns of sand or clay were subjected to infiltration by a 2.3-m head of dairy waste. A subset of the hand-packed sand columns was amended with powdered biochar to test its ability to retard E2 and E1. For 3 mo, column leachate was analyzed for hormone concentrations, and at the conclusion of the study E2 and E1 concentrations in the soil were measured. In the 44 d after sealing, the clay, sand, sand with a thin layer of biochar, and sand mixed with a biochar amendment leached a total of 0.54, 1.3, 0.09, and 0.45 ?g of E2, respectively. The biochar amendments to the hand-packed columns considerably minimized E2 in the leachate. PMID:26024278

  6. Plankton Management for Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a series of studies examining the fertilization practices used for channel catfish nursery ponds. The best fertilization protocol would be one that uses low-cost fertilizers, quickly establishes a desirable phytoplankton bloom, and produces the greatest number of large zooplankton. In...

  7. ZOOPLANKTON NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NURSERY POND FERTILIZATION EFFECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on the utilization of natural productivity (i.e. zooplankton) by catfish fry. Although fry and fingerlings survive on prepared diets, many nutrients acquired by fry in ponds are most likely derived from natural food consumption. Experiments were conducted to answer ...

  8. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

  9. Solar Pond Research at Argonne National Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Focus is on applications that utilize the seasonal heat-storage capability of the solar pond for low-temperature thermal processes, however the results of the research are directly applicable to electricity-generating and other applications. Important technical results are summarized.

  10. Excavations in Hanford ponds, cribs, or ditches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Unplanned Excavation/Drilling in Pond/Ditch/Crib. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  11. Excavations in Hanford ponds, cribs, or ditches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Unplanned Excavation/Drilling in Pond/Ditch/Crib. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  12. Building a Pond on the School Grounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Describes the efforts of two teachers to construct a pond and woods on school grounds. The teachers used specialized student teams for working on a wetland study and the building project. An advisory committee including teachers, the principal, and the custodian worked through maintenance issues. Relates teaching surprises associated with the…

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

  15. Application of solar ponds to district heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, C. M.

    1981-04-01

    A preliminary investigation is reported of the feasibility of incorporating solar ponds into subdivisions to provide district heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and district cooling. Two locations were chosen for analysis: Fort Worth, Texas and Washington, D.C. Solar ponds were sized to meet space heating, cooling, and DHW loads in each location for differing community sizes. Parameters such as storage layer temperature, pond geometry, and storage depth vs surface area were varied to determine the most effective approach to solar pond utilization. A distribution system for the district heating system was designed, including sizing of heat exchangers, piping, and pumps. Cost estimates for the pond and distribution system were formulated by using data generated in pond sizing, as well as associated system costs (e.g., salt costs and distribution system costs). Finally, solar ponds were found to be competitive with residential flat plate collector systems, with delivered energy costs as low as $16.00/GJ.

  16. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories. This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public. PMID:18726007

  17. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Claudia; di Cagno, Alessandra; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT) (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years),the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST) (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years), and a control group (C) (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years) receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01) and group-training interaction (p < 0.05). CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease) of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people. PMID:24185842

  18. Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, D.; Charles, E.G.; Baehr, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

  19. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameter data from Par Pond and Pond B during the first six months of a study initiated in December 1983 and scheduled to continue through June 1985. A total of 195 phytoplankton taxa from Par Pond and 105 taxa from pond B were recorded during this study. A total of 89 zooplankton taxa from Par Pond and 58 taxa from Pond B were identified during this study.

  20. Heavy metal contents in the sediments of astatic ponds: Influence of geomorphology, hydroperiod, water chemistry and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Go?dyn, Bart?omiej; Chudzi?ska, Maria; Bara?kiewicz, Danuta; Celewicz-Go?dyn, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were analysed in the bottom sediments of 30 small, astatic ponds located in the agricultural landscape of Western Poland. The samples were collected from 118 stations located in patches of four vegetation types. Relationships between the contents of particular elements and four groups of factors (geomorphology, hydroperiod, water quality and vegetation) were tested using Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The most important factors influencing the heavy metal contents were the maximum depth and area of the pond, its hydroperiod, water pH and conductivity values. In general, low quantities of heavy metals were recorded in the sediments of kettle-like ponds (small but located in deep depressions) and high in water bodies of the shore-bursting type (large but shallow). Moreover, quantities of particular elements were influenced by the structure of the vegetation covering the pond. Based on the results, we show which types of astatic ponds are most exposed to contamination and suggest some conservation practices that may reduce the influx of heavy metals. PMID:25919341

  1. Development of sub-daily erosion and sediment transport algorithms in SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) algorithms for simulation of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as detention basins, wet ponds, sedimentation filtration ponds, and retention irrigation systems are under development for modeling small/urban watersheds. Modeling stormwater BMPs...

  2. Preliminary measurement-based estimates of PAH emissions from oil sands tailings ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarneau, Elisabeth; Hollebone, Bruce P.; Yang, Zeyu; Schuster, Jasmin

    2014-11-01

    Tailings ponds in the oil sands region (OSR) of western Canada are suspected sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the atmosphere. In the absence of detailed characterization or direct flux measurements, we present preliminary measurement-based estimates of the emissions of thirteen priority PAHs from the ponds. Using air concentrations measured under the Joint Canada-Alberta Oil Sands Monitoring Plan and water concentrations from a small sampling campaign in 2013, the total flux of 13 US EPA priority PAHs (fluorene to benzo[ghi]perylene) was estimated to be upward from water to air and to total 1069 kg y-1 for the region as a whole. By comparison, the most recent air emissions reported to Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) from oil sands facilities totalled 231 kg y-1. Exchange fluxes for the three remaining priority PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene) could not be quantified but evidence suggests that they are also upward from water to air. These results indicate that tailings ponds may be an important PAH source to the atmosphere that is missing from current inventories in the OSR. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses lend confidence to the estimated direction of air-water exchange being upward from water to air. However, more detailed characterization of ponds at other facilities and direct flux measurements are needed to confirm the quantitative results presented herein.

  3. Comparing the performances of circular ponds with different impellers by CFD simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Huang, Jianke; Ye, Chunyu; Cheng, Wenchao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of circular ponds with three different impellers (hydrofoil, four-pitched-blade turbine, and grid plate). The reliability of the CFD model was validated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Hydrodynamic analyses were conducted to evaluate the average velocity magnitude along the light direction (U z), turbulence properties, average shear stress, pressure loss and the volume percentage of dead zone inside circular ponds. The simulation results showed that U z value of hydrofoil was 58.9, 40.3, and 28.8 % higher than those of grid plate with single arm, grid plate with double arms and four-pitched blade turbines in small-scale circular ponds, respectively. In addition, hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation had outstanding mixing characteristics. Lastly, the results of Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation experiments indicated that the biomass concentration of hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation was 65.2 and 88.8 % higher than those of grid plate with double arms and four-pitched-blade turbine, respectively. Therefore, the optimal circular pond mixing system for microalgae cultivation involved a hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation. PMID:25680396

  4. Closing the Energy Budget: Advances in assessing heat fluxes into shallow lakes and ponds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, S. W.; Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.; Selker, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    While soil heat flux is traditionally directly measured in any land surface energy study, measuring heat flux into and out of lakes and ponds is complicated by water column mixing processes, differing radiation adsorption coefficients, turbidity variation and heat flux through the sediment-water interface. High resolution thermal profile, to assess heat storage changes in aquatic systems is both time consuming and challenging using traditional thermister or thermocouple strings or casts. Recent advances in Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) offer the opportunity to measure, at high spatial and temporal resolution, the thermal storage changes occurring in lakes and ponds. Measurements of thermal storage using DTS are presented from two distinct environments; a strongly density stratified solar pond and a deep cavern system (Devils Hole in Death Valley National Park), demonstrating the effectiveness of high resolution temperature measurements. In the solar pond environment, closure of the energy budget using direct measurements of evaporation and net radiation was greatly improved by incorporating transient thermal measurements, and the development of a cooling boundary layer easily shown. At Devils Hole, variations in shading of the water surface produced small but measureable horizontal gradients in water column temperature for short periods of the day, which impact both pool evaporation and the metabolism and behavior of aquatic organisms

  5. Analysis of a detention basin impact on dike failure probabilities and flood risk for a channel-dike-floodplain system along the river Elbe, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich; Kreibich, Heidi; Apel, Heiko; Merz, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    SummaryHighly concentrated asset values are often protected by dikes stretching along the river course. During extreme floods, dikes may fail due to various breach mechanisms and cause considerable damage. Therefore detention basins are often additionally installed to reduce the flood risk for downstream communities. In such situations, however, the systemic performance of dikes and spatial redistribution of inundation patterns are often unknown. Intuitively expected effects such as more probable breaches downstream due to fewer breaches upstream and consequently higher conveyance of upstream reaches lack evidential proof. With a coupled probabilistic-deterministic 1D-channel - dike breach - 2D-inundation - flood damage model chain the impact of a detention basin on losses to residential buildings and agricultural crops is investigated. We demonstrate the changes in dike performance due to systemic load and relief along the river course on the Middle Elbe, Germany considering three breach mechanisms: overtopping, piping and slope micro-instability. The reduction of overtopping failures due to the detention basin resulted in the slightly increased breach probabilities due to piping and micro-instability farther downstream. Finally, the uncertainty in hazard and damage estimations are analysed using the Monte Carlo simulation and applying several damage models. Despite high uncertainties in flood hazard and damage estimations, we conclude that the risk reduction to residential buildings downstream of the detention basin exceeds the higher losses to agricultural crops within the filled detention area.

  6. Simulated ground-water flow for a pond-dominated aquifer system near Great Sandy Bottom Pond, Pembroke, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Carl S.; Lyford, Forest P.

    2005-01-01

    A ground-water flow simulation for a 66.4-square-mile area around Great Sandy Bottom (GSB) Pond (105 acres) near Pembroke, Massachusetts, was developed for use by local and State water managers to assess the yields for public water supply of local ponds and wells for average climatic and drought conditions and the effects of water withdrawals on nearby water levels and streamflows. Wetlands and ponds cover about 30 percent of the study area and the aquifer system is dominated by interactions between ground water and the ponds. The three largest surface-water bodies in the study area are Silver Lake (640 acres), Monponsett Pond (590 acres), and Oldham Pond (236 acres). The study area is drained by tributaries of the Taunton River to the southwest, the South and North Rivers to the northeast, and the Jones River to the southeast. In 2002, 10.8 million gallons per day of water was exported from ponds and 3.5 million gallons per day from wells was used locally for public supply. A transient ground-water-flow model with 69 monthly stress periods spanning the period from January 1998 through September 2003 was calibrated to stage at GSB Pond and nearby Silver Lake and streamflow and water levels collected from September 2002 through September 2003. The calibrated model was used to assess hydrologic responses to a variety of water-use and climatic conditions. Simulation of predevelopment (no pumping or export) average monthly (1949-2002) water-level conditions caused the GSB Pond level to increase by 6.3 feet from the results of a simulation using average 2002 pumping for all wells, withdrawals, and exports. Most of this decline can be attributed to pumping, withdrawals, and exports of water from sites away from GSB Pond. The effects of increasing the export rate from GSB Pond by 1.25 and 1.5 times the 2002 rate were a lowering of pond levels by a maximum of 1.6 and 2.8 feet, respectively. Simulated results for two different drought conditions, one mild drought similar to that of 1979-82 and a more severe drought similar to that of 1963-66, but with current (2002) pumping, were compared to results for average monthly recharge conditions (1949-2002). Simulated mild drought conditions showed a reduction of GSB Pond level of about 1.3 feet and a lower streamflow of about 1.7 percent in the nearby stream. Simulated severe drought conditions reduced the pond level at GSB Pond by almost 7 feet and lowered streamflow by about 37 percent. Varying cranberry-irrigation practices had little effect on simulated GSB Pond water levels, but may be important in other ponds. The model was most sensitive to changes in areal recharge. An increase and decrease of 22 percent in recharge produced changes in the GSB Pond water level of +1.4 feet and -2.4 feet, respectively. The accuracy of simulation results was best in the central portion of the study area in the immediate location of GSB Pond. The model was developed with the study-area boundary far enough away from the GSB Pond area that the boundary would have minimal effect on the water levels in GSB Pond, nearby ponds, and the underlying aquifer system. The model is best suited for use by local and State water managers to assess the effects of different withdrawal scenarios for wells and ponds near GSB Pond and for general delineation of areas contributing recharge to wells and ponds in the vicinity of GSB Pond. The model in its current form may not be well suited to detailed analyses of water budgets and flow patterns for parts of the study area farther from GSB Pond without further investigation, calibration, and data collection.

  7. Solar Ponds - What Are They? 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    ultra violet (UV)-stabi1ized po1yviny1 chloride (PVC) film sealed along the edges. The bot tom layer is 20 mil thick and is black in color to absorb the solar radiation, while the top layer is 12 mil thick and is clear. Small valved vents... susceptible to ultra violet rays and will have to be replaced every 4 to 5 years. Over the plastic bag is the glazing surface made of corrugated greenhouse fiberglass. The glazing serves as an air container to reduce convection and radiation heat losses...

  8. Improving nitrogen reduction in waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Archer, H E; O'Brien, B M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the performance of two waste stablisation ponds (WSP) systems in the South Island of New Zealand that have been upgraded to multiple ponds-in-series to improve effluent quality. Results of monitoring are provided which show that it is possible to achieve relatively low ammonia (approximately 1 g/m3) and total nitrogen (approximately 10 g/m3) effluent concentrations through the use of nitrification filter beds (rock trickling filters) and sand filters. Evidence suggests that the nitrification and denitrification processes in the extra biofilm surface area provided by the rock filters or rock bank protection is primarily responsible for the improved effluent quality. The paper also compares the WSP results with effluent quality predicted by published formulae. It is concluded that these formulae do not reliably predict the performance of WSP systems and the development of universally applicable design guidelines would be useful. PMID:16114675

  9. New approaches for Artemia pond culture.

    PubMed

    Van Hoa, Nguyen; Le Tran, Huu; Hong Van, Nguyen Thi; Sorgeloos, P; Van Stappen, G

    2013-01-01

    A project for intensive culture of Artemia in Vinhchau solar saltwork was funded by Soctrang Authority. The aim of this project is to increase the average cyst yield of 50kg.ha-1.crop, and to build up a stable culture technique with a better yield for local farmers. Multiple laboratory experiments were set up with inert food including fermented rice bran, tiger shrimp feed (PL15), as well as their combination with live algae (Chaetoceros). Results showed that, under laboratory conditions, fermented rice bran and tiger shrimp feed can be used as supplemental food sources. The shrimp feed alone or in combination with algae always gave better cyst production compared to the others, but should not account for more than 50% of the diet. In the field trials, aeration of Artemia ponds also increased cyst yields (from 195.8+/-44.2 to 207+/-46.1kg.ha-1.crop with 6 and 12 aeration a day, respectively) compared to ponds with no aeration (88.2+/-27.5kg.ha-1.crop), however the returns on investment (ROI=2.73-2.71 with aera tion vs. 2.24 without) are not significantly different. Utilization of fermented rice bran (20kg.ha-1.day) and shrimp feed (6kg.ha-1.day) as a supplementary feed during pond production in combination with greenwater supplies (10% of pond volume daily) resulted in higher yields (96.0+/-15.9 and 157.2+/-15.0kg.ha-1.crop, respectively) than traditional culture; Shrimp feed as a supplemental feed supported the cyst yield but their negative effect was at a high cost vs. traditional culture and use of fermented rice bran. Based on the cyst yield and ROI, fermented rice bran should be a promising item for poor farmers. PMID:25141701

  10. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99? N, 167 22' 51.90? E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

  11. Holocene Closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18? 48.99? N, 167 22? 51.90? E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

  12. Nutrient Limitation across a salinity gradient of Martha's Vineyard Coastal Ponds Emily S Rogers

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Nutrient Limitation across a salinity gradient of Martha's Vineyard Coastal Ponds Emily S Rogers Laboratory Advisor: Ken Foreman #12;Abstract Nutrient limitations in six coastal ponds on Martha's Vineyard, nutrient depletion, Martha's Vineyard, Long Cove Pond, Little Jobs Pond, Jobs Neck Pons, Chilmark Pond

  13. High prevalence of dual and triple viral infections in black tiger shrimp ponds in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Umesha; Bob Kennedy M. Dass; B. Manja Naik; M. N. Venugopal; Indrani Karunasagar; Iddya Karunasagar

    2006-01-01

    During a period of two crops, shrimp (Penaeus monodon) samples from 18 ponds (10 ponds in the first crop and 8 ponds in the second) were analyzed by PCR for the presence of HPV, WSSV and MBV. During the first crop, 2 ponds were positive for HPV by one step PCR and 5 additional ponds were positive by nested PCR.

  14. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  15. Classification of ponds from high-spatial resolution remote sensing: Application to Rift Valley Fever epidemics in Senegal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Lacaux; Y. M. Tourre; C. Vignolles; J. A. Ndione; M. Lafaye

    2007-01-01

    During the rainy season the abundance of mosquitoes over the Ferlo region (Senegal) is linked to dynamic, vegetation cover and turbidity of temporary and relatively small ponds. The latter create a variable environment where mosquitoes can thrive and thus contribute to diffusion and transmission of diseases such as the Rift Valley Fever (RVF, with Aedes vexans arabiensis and Culex poicilipes

  16. Tree-regeneration and mortality patterns and hydrologic change in a forested karst wetland--Sinking Pond, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, William J.; Evans, Jonathan P.; McCarthy, Sarah; Gain, W. Scott; Bryan, Bradley A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence point to climate change as the driving factor suppressing tree regeneration since 1970 in Sinking Pond, a 35-hectare seasonally flooded karst depression located on Arnold Air Force Base near Manchester, Tennessee. Annual censuses of 162-193 seedling plots from 1997 through 2001 demonstrate that the critical stage for tree survival is the transition from seedling to sapling and that this transition is limited to shallow (less than 0.5 meters) ponding depths. Recruitment of saplings to the small adult class also was restricted to shallow areas. Analysis of the spatial and elevation distribution of tree-size classes in a representative 2.3-hectare area of Sinking Pond showed a general absence of overcup oak saplings and young adults in deep (ponding depth greater than 1 meter) and intermediate (ponding depth 0.5-1 meter) areas, even though overcup oak seedlings and mature trees are concentrated in these areas. Analysis of tree rings from 45 trees sampled in a 2.3-hectare spatial-analysis plot showed an even distribution of tree ages across ponding-depth classes from the 1800s through 1970, followed by complete suppression of recruitment in deep and intermediate areas after 1970. Trees younger than 30 years were spatially and vertically concentrated in a small area with shallow ponding depth, about 0.5 meter below the spillway elevation. Results of hydrologic modeling, based on rainfall and temperature records covering the period January 1854 through September 2002, show ponding durations after 1970 considerably longer than historical norms, across ponding-depth classes. This increase in ponding duration corresponds closely with similar increases documented in published analyses of streamflow and precipitation in the eastern United States and with the suppression of tree regeneration at ponding depths greater than 0.5 meter indicated by tree-ring analysis. Comparison of the simulated stage record for Sinking Pond with the ages and elevations of sampled trees shows that prolonged (200 days or more per year) inundation in more than 2 of the first 5 years after germination is inversely related to successful tree recruitment and that such inundation was rare before 1970 and common afterwards.

  17. Health and Human Rights Concerns of Drug Users in Detention in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J. Elizabeth; Amon, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    Background Although confinement in drug detoxification (“detox”) and re-education through labor (RTL) centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. Methods and Findings Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs) and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8–23 y) and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times) and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times). IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. Conclusions Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights and imperil drug users' health. PMID:19071954

  18. Relationship between woody plant colonization and Typha L. encroachment in stormwater detention basins.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Priscilla Bocskor; Day, Susan D; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa M; Seiler, John R

    2013-10-01

    We studied stormwater detention basins where woody vegetation removal was suspended for 2 years in Virginia, USA to determine if woody vegetation can control Typha populations and how early woody plant succession interacts with Typha, other herbaceous vegetation, and site factors. Distribution and composition of woody vegetation, Typha and non-Typha herbaceous vegetation biomass, and site factors were assessed at 100 plots in four basins ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. A greenhouse study examined the interaction of shade and soil moisture on Typha biomass and persistence. Principal component analysis identified an environmental gradient associated with greater water table depths and decreased elevation that favored Typha but negatively influenced woody vegetation. Elevation was correlated with litter layer distribution, suggesting that initial topography influences subsequent environmental characteristics and thus plant communities. Soil organic matter at 0-10 cm ranged from 5.4 to 12.7%. Woody plants present were native species with the exception of Ailanthus altissima and Pyrus calleryana. In the greenhouse, shade and reduced soil moisture decreased Typha biomass and rhizome length. The shade effect was strongest in flooded plants and the soil moisture effect was strongest for plants in full sun. Typha in dry soil and heavy shade had 95% less total biomass and 83% smaller rhizomes than Typha in flooded soil and full sun, but even moderate soil moisture reductions decreased above- and below-ground biomass by 63 and 56%, respectively. Suspending maintenance allows restoration of woody vegetation dominated by native species and may suppress Typha invasion. PMID:23925899

  19. [Frequency of re-incarcerations in the same detention center: role of substitution therapy. A preliminary retrospective analysis].

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Ludovic; Marzo, Jean-Noël; Ross, Neil; Blatier, Catherine

    2002-05-01

    A retrospective study was carried out using 3 606 medical files of nine detention centers in France, over a three-month period (May to July 1997). The files were analyzed to determine, age, type of addiction and subsequent type of therapy proposed: methadone, high-dose buprenorphine or abstinence. A comparison was then made to determine whether or not there exists a statistical relationship between the type of therapy given in prison for drug abuse and subsequent recurrent use during the following three and a half years, until December 2000. PMID:12218878

  20. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-11-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  1. Classification and waterfowl use of ponds in south Texas

    E-print Network

    McAdams, Matthew Stephen

    1987-01-01

    /km2. Pond size averaged 2. 0 ha, and over 82/o were 2. 0 ha or smaller. Of 222 sample ponds, 79%%d were alkaline with con- ductivity lower than 8, 000 uMhos. 38/ of total pond area (35, 979 ha) was covered with emergent vegetation. Eleocharis spp... rostratus E' hh Eleocharis albida Eleocharis caribaea Eleocharis cellulosa El** h ' ~th Eleocharis montevidensis Eleocharis uadran ulata Eleocharis spp. purple ammannia Mosquito fern Coastal waterhyssop Maritime saltwort Jointed flatsedge Finger...

  2. Bottom Organisms in Fertilized and Unfertilized Fish Ponds in Alabama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry H. Howell

    1942-01-01

    A study was made of two experimental fish ponds located at the Agricultural Experiment Station at Auburn, Alabama. Bottom samples were taken from June to November, 1940, in a 1.5-acre fertilized pond and in a 1.8 acre unfertilized pond. Two methods of sampling were used, the Petersen dredge method and the stove-pipe method. The latter method consistently gave a better

  3. Competition between Bufo larvae in a eutrophic pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Bardsley; T. J. C. Beebee

    2000-01-01

    Competition between larvae of two anuran species (Bufo bufo and B. calamita) was investigated under field conditions likely to disfavour cell-mediated interference mechanisms. The experiment used triplicated\\u000a cage treatments in an unshaded farm pond, a poor habitat for the unicellular pathogen Anurofeca richardsi implicated in interference competition between these anurans in sand dune ponds. The farm pond experienced lower maximum

  4. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  5. Direct-contact condensers for solar pond power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, E. M.; Wright, J. D.

    1984-05-01

    The use of direct-contact condensers in a solar pond Rankine cycle is evaluated. The system of interest is a power plant in which the working fluid (pentane) is boiled by brine from the storage layer of the solar pond and condensed by brine from the evaporating pond that provides concentrated replacement brine to the solar pond. Three possible direct-contact condenser designs are considered: drop-type, bubble-type, and packed-bed. Size and cost are estimated for each direct-contact condenser and the accompanying deaerator and degasser.

  6. Retrofitting a stormwater retention pond using a deflector island.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Melville, B W; Shamseldin, A Y

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater retention ponds are one of the principal methods to treat stormwater runoff. Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) curves can be used to evaluate the capability of these ponds for sediment removal. Deflector islands have been suggested as a means of improving the performance of retention ponds, due to their diffusing the inlet jet. In this study, the effect of an island on retention pond performance was investigated using a physical model of an existing stormwater retention pond. The physical model is a trapezoidal pond having top dimensions 4.1 x 1.5 x 0.23 m and side slopes of 2:1 (h:v). Three different arrangements were studied. The results show that placing an island to deflect the influent to a stormwater retention pond does not improve pond performance, rather it stimulates short-circuiting. This unexpected behaviour, in relation to previous studies, is considered to be a consequence of the model pond incorporating sloping walls; which is a novel aspect of this paper. PMID:22049712

  7. Restoration of ponds in rural landscapes: modelling the effect on nitrate contamination of surface water (the Seine River Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Fesneau, Corinne; Tournebize, Julien

    2012-07-15

    Ponds were ubiquitous features of the traditional rural waterscape in the Seine watershed, as shown by the 18th century Cassini map. Using the result of a water quality survey at the entrance and the outlet of a small pond receiving agricultural drainage water, the Seneque/Riverstrahler biogeochemical model was shown to accurately simulate the observed 30% reduction in nitrogen fluxes crossing this pond. The model was then used to simulate the effect of various scenarios of pond restoration (inspired by their 18th century geographical distribution as revealed by the Cassini map) on surface water nitrate contamination at different spatial scales. In regions with an impermeable lithological substrate, the restoration of ponds at a density of 5% of the agricultural area would reduce the riverine nitrogen export by up to 25% on an annual basis. It is suggested that such waterscape management, used in conjunction with more preventive measures, can be a useful means to reduce nitrate contamination of water resources. PMID:22682989

  8. Biological productivity in small impoundments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most ponds and small impoundments are built or used with a principal use in mind. That use may be recreational fishing, commercial aquaculture, waterfowl hunting, potable water storage, irrigation water supply, livestock watering, stormwater retention, landscaping, swimming, or others. In practice, ...

  9. Examining Water Quality Variations of Tidal Pond System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Cui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Brackish tidal shrimp ponds, traditionally referred to as gei wais, have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world. The regular exchange of pond water with the surrounding coastal environment is important as it brings shrimp larvae and nutrients, etc. into and out of the pond. Such a water exchange can reduce the quality of the receiving waters; though there are opposing views recently because farming practices are becoming more sustainable while other sources of pollutions in the surroundings are increasing. This project monitors the water quality of a tidal shrimp pond and its receiving water at high temporal resolution. The pond is located within the wetland complex of Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong, China. Water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water depth and chlorophyll) were recorded at 15-minute interval from December 2013 to March 2014 within the pond and also at its receiving water which is a water channel within a mangrove forest. Data reveals both daily and fortnightly fluctuations. Daily variations in mangrove correspond to both tidal flushing and insolation, whereas those within the pond correspond mainly to insolation. For example, dissolved oxygen in mangrove shows two peaks daily which correlate with tidal elevation, and that within the pond shows only one peak which correlates with sunlight. Dissolved oxygen within the pond also shows a fortnightly pattern that corresponds to the schedule of water exchange. Such high temporal resolution of monitoring reveals the two-way water quality influences between the pond and the mangrove. It sheds insights that can possibly lead to refinement of water exchange practice and water sampling schedule given the temporal variations of the water quality both inside and outside the pond. It thus enables us to take a step closer in adopting more sustainable farming practices despite increasing pollution in the surrounding areas.

  10. Pond age and riparian zone proximity influence anuran occupancy of urban retention ponds

    E-print Network

    Dorcas, Michael E.

    Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 Abstract Urbanization is widespread throughout the United States provide habitat for some species, such as amphibians. This study examines the influence of riparian zone among species. Although the results of this study demonstrate the potential value of retention ponds

  11. Road Salt Accumulation and Wash-out in Stormwater Detention Basins: Patterns and Implications for Biogeochemical Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, L. E.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that salt application to roads and parking lots in winter is driving a rise in chloride concentrations in streams in the northeastern United States. Our research focuses specifically on salt dynamics in stormwater detention basins, which receive runoff directly from parking lots and detain it before it reaches the stream. The four study basins are located on the Cornell University campus in Ithaca, NY USA. Between summer 2012 and 2014, soil electrical conductivity was continuously monitored inside and outside the basins using Decagon 5TE sensors and dataloggers. In two basins which drain stormwater quickly, conductivity levels changed minimally over the year. However, in the other two basins which drain much slower and often are saturated, conductivity increased through the winter, peaking at 8-10 mS/cm, and then took several months to decrease to baseline levels; thus the basins served as a source of salt to outflowing water even into the summer. This annual variation in soil salinity has implications for plant and microbial communities living in these basins. Research by colleagues has indicated that changing salinity can alter microbial communities and impact biogeochemical processes that play a role in water quality remediation. Thus we are also investigating the impact of salinity on denitrification rates in these basins. All of this information will help us understand what role stormwater detention basins are playing in controlling fluxes of road salt in watersheds, as well as how changing salinity influences the ecosystem services provided by these basins.

  12. Effect of a behavioural health and specialty care telemedicine programme on goal attainment for youths in juvenile detention.

    PubMed

    Fox, Karen C; Connor, Pamela; McCullers, Elizabeth; Waters, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a pre-post study of the effect of a telepsychiatry counselling service on youths housed in three juvenile detention facilities. In the first year of the telemedicine programme, 321 psychiatry consultations were conducted via telemedicine; in the second year of the programme, 573 psychiatry consultations were conducted. Records for 190 students were then examined by two raters. The total number of behavioural goals for each adolescent increased from 8.2 in the pre-telemedicine year to 8.7 in the first year of telemedicine and then to 10.0 in the second year (P < 0.05). In Year 2 of the study, subjects also had a significantly higher number of goals in four of the five categories: education, family, health and social skills (P < 0.05). Although other changes at the youth detention facilities or in the juvenile justice system may have been partly responsible for the effects observed, the study suggests that telemedicine may be useful for improving the rate of attainment of goals associated with family relations and personality/behaviour. PMID:18632995

  13. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  14. BIOGEOCHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF AQUACULTURE PONDS A DISSERTATION SUBMITIED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    BIOGEOCHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF AQUACULTURE PONDS A DISSERTATION SUBMITIED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds which served as convenient model systems

  15. Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    2001-01-29

    Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

  16. Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History is a nonprofit research organization dedicated to the study of the plants, animals, and environments of the Piedmont physiographic province, in particular the banding of birds. Site materials include general information and photographs of the flora and fauna found in habitats of the Piedmont Region of the eastern United States. There are descriptions of the center's research projects, especially bird banding; educational opportunities such as field trips, workshops, and presentations; links to the center's publications; and featured weekly articles and announcements on birds, native cultures, and other topics related to the Piedmont province.

  17. How hydrological and hydraulic conditions affect performance of ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesper Persson; Hans B Wittgren

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990s there has been a growing interest in (re)constructed wetlands and ponds for treatment of agricultural runoff, sewage water, and stormwater. Some of these facilities, however, are poorly designed in terms of hydrological and hydraulic performance, which strongly affects their treatment capacity. This paper gives an overview of the present knowledge regarding pond hydraulics in terms of effective

  18. Habitat Matrix Effects on Pond Occupancy in Newts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Joly; Claude Miaud; Anthony Lehmann; Odile Grolet

    2001-01-01

    In farmlands, the population viability of many amphibians is suspected to depend on the resis- tance the matrix of crop fields presents to movements between ponds and terrestrial sites and movements among ponds. Over recent decades the increase in cereal growing at the expense of cattle breeding has caused a drastic change in habitat matrix in many European regions. We

  19. Effect of pond ash on pen surface properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining adequate feedlot pen surfaces is expensive. Pond ash (PA), a coal-fired electrical generation by-product, has good support qualities. A study was conducted comparing the performance of pond ash (PA) surfaced pens with soil surface (SS) pens. Four pens of an eight pen series with dimensio...

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION Nitrogen recovery from shrimp pond efuent

    E-print Network

    Lorenzen, Kai

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Nitrogen recovery from shrimp pond ef¯uent: dissolved nitrogen removal has nutrients is widely seen as a key environmental management problem in intensive shrimp farming and other, for example, is incorporated into shrimp tissue, while the remain- der is lost to the pond and, ultimately

  1. Some basic considerations and possible improvements on the solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, W.T.; Cha, Y.S.; Liu, K.V.; Soo, S.L.

    1980-06-01

    Experimental results were compared to theoretical stability criteria of a salt gradient solar pond. Cellular motion in the non-convective layer is expected. Innovative concepts on friction stabilization using stabilizing barriers and longitudinal stratification to improve pond heat extraction efficiency are presented.

  2. Solar-Pond Resources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Report describes survey of U.S. salt and brine deposits providing essential information for developers considering use of solar ponds for heat and electricity production. Sites classified as areas of ponds about 1 km2, or larger, accommodated in which salt, clay, and water are available.

  3. Summer algal communities and primary productivity in fish ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude E. Boyd

    1973-01-01

    The paper presents data on primary productivity and phytoplankton communities in new experimental ponds which received the following treatments; ammonium nitrate and triplesuperphosphate, triplesuperphosphate, cracked corn (10% crude protein) and Auburn No. 3 fish feed (36% crude protein). Comparative data on algal communities were also obtained from production ponds which received feeds or fertilizers. Basic ecological data on macro-algae are

  4. Retrieval of Melt Pond Coverage from MODIS using Optimal Estimation 

    E-print Network

    Dodd, Emma

    2011-11-24

    satellites have been developed in order to provide large scale information on melt ponds, but these techniques have limitations. In this study a new approach to estimating melt pond coverage from MODIS data was developed, based on Optimal Estimation, to try...

  5. ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN DIVERSITY OF SPONGE FAUNA IN MANGROVE PONDS,

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN NO. 476 DIVERSITY OF SPONGE FAUNA IN MANGROVE PONDS, PELICAN CAYS, BELIZE ... ..:, , ,.. . ., . . ::::;.......... ...... . \\ Fisherman's Cay ...:. Q$ ,. ...... E ; :.. '.\\Cat Cay ., ....- Figure 1. Map of Belize (a) with enlarged;DIVERSITY OF SPONGE FAUNA IN MANGROVE PONDS, PELICAN CAYS, BELIZE KLAUS RUTZLER,' MARIA CRISTINA DIAZ; ROB W

  6. MAJOR PATHWAYS FOR NITROGEN REMOVAL IN WASTE WATER STABILIZATION PONDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PATRICK C. C. LAI; PAUL K. S. LAM

    1997-01-01

    A study on the factors influencing nitrogen removal in waste water stabilization ponds was undertaken in an eight-pond series in Werribee, Australia. Nitrogen species including Kjeldahl nitrogen, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate were monitored monthly from March 1993 to January 1994. At the same time, pH, temperature, chlorophyll a content and dissolved oxygen were also recorded. Highest nitrogen removal

  7. Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

  8. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Jr. Mackey; R. S. Riley

    1995-01-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Humanwildlife conflicts at pond fisheries in eastern Poland

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Human­wildlife conflicts at pond fisheries in eastern Poland: perceptions- tions of inflicted damage, and use of preventive measures at pond fisheries was conducted in 2003. Considering the wide range of species interacting with fisheries, adoption of more flexible policies

  10. Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  11. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  12. A Report on Special Populations. Alternate Schools Area Learning Centers. Connections/Detention Centers. Residential Treatment Centers. Minnesota Student Survey, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    This report presents findings of a 1991 survey of 3,573 adolescents in Area Learning Centers and Alternative Schools, in Corrections and Detention Centers, and in Residential Treatment Centers in Minnesota. The study focused on six environmental stressors: family alcohol problems, family drug problems, experiencing or witnessing physical abuse,…

  13. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  14. Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

  15. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to allow the fuel to be reprocessed or conditioned for long term storage. - Sludge Retrieval: In excess of 300 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated in the pond over many years and is made up of debris arising from fuel and metallic corrosion, wind blown debris and bio-organic materials. The Sludge Retrieval Project has provided the equipment necessary to retrieve the sludge, including skip washer and tipper machines for clearing sludge from the pond skips, equipment for clearing sludge from the pond floor and bays, along with an 'in pond' corral for interim storage of retrieved sludge. Two further projects are providing new plant processing routes, which will initially store and eventually passivate the sludge. - Metal Fuel Retrieval: Metal Fuel from early Windscale Pile operations and various other sources is stored within the pond; the fuel varies considerably in both form and condition. A retrieval project is planned which will provide fuel handling, conditioning, sentencing and export equipment required to remove the metal fuel from the pond for export to on site facilities for interim storage and disposal. - Solid Waste Retrieval: A final retrieval project will provide methods for handling, retrieval, packaging and export of the remaining solid Intermediate Level Waste within the pond. This includes residual metal fuel pieces, fuel cladding (Magnox, aluminium and zircaloy), isotope cartridges, reactor furniture, and miscellaneous activated and contaminated items. Each of the waste streams requires conditioning to allow it to be and disposed of via one of the site treatment plants. - Pond Dewatering and Dismantling: Delivery of the above projects will allow operations to progressively remove the radiological inventory, thereby reducing the hazard/risk posed by the plant. This will then allow subsequent dewatering of the pond and dismantling of the structure. (authors)

  17. Nitrogen removal in a two-stage, re-circulating waste stabilisation pond system.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, K; Farago, L

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds are used widely in Australia and other parts of the world for treating wastewater from domestic and a wide range of industrial sources. It remains a popular form of treatment for wastewater for many small rural towns. The development of a two-stage, re-circulating waste stabilisation pond incorporating algal-bacterial biofilm represents a new approach to increasing the functioning biomass within the water column to improve treatment efficiency. This new approach will be a more viable and economical option for most of the existing waste stabilisation ponds to achieve significant nitrogen removal than converting them to another form of biological nutrient removal processes. A laboratory-scale, two-stage, re-circulating system incorporating "Bio-Tube" plastic modules as attached growth medium has been tested using synthetic wastewater. It has been proven that nitrification-denitrification was the primary mechanism for nitrogen removal in such a system operated under complete mix conditions. During the experimental period, average removal efficiencies of 90-95% of ammonia nitrogen and 65-85% of total nitrogen removal were achieved with influent COD of 600 mg/L and total nitrogen of 70 mg/L. PMID:17591196

  18. Nitrification potential in waste stabilisation ponds: comparison of a secondary and tertiary pond system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, A; Short, M D; van den Akker, B; van den Akker, B; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the nitrification potential of two separate Waste Stabilisation Ponds (WSPs) operating under differing physical and chemical conditions. In order to probe the nitrification potential of each system, the oxidation of ammonium and also the intermediate product nitrite was assessed using both in situ and laboratory micro-scale incubations. The role of sediment in determining the nitrification potential of the two WSPs was also investigated. Results from laboratory microcosm incubations revealed a competent and strikingly similar nitrification potential for both WSPs in spite of their differing nitrogen and organic loadings, and also suggested a significant role for sediment in WSP nitrogen cycling. Results from in situ field experiments identified biomass uptake to be the dominant nitrogen removal mechanism in natural pond environments. Other aspects of WSP nitrogen cycling are also discussed. PMID:20150715

  19. Life-history evolution when Lestes damselflies invaded vernal ponds.

    PubMed

    De Block, Marjan; McPeek, Mark A; Stoks, Robby

    2008-02-01

    We know little about the macroevolution of life-history traits along environmental gradients, especially with regard to the directionality compared to the ancestral states and the associated costs to other functions. Here we examine how age and size at maturity evolved when Lestes damselflies shifted from their ancestral temporary pond habitat (i.e., ponds that may dry once every decade or so) to extremely ephemeral vernal ponds (ponds that routinely dry completely each year). Larvae of three species were reared from eggs until emergence under different levels of photoperiod and transient starvation stress. Compared to the two temporary-pond Lestes, the phylogenetically derived vernal-pond Lestes dryas developed more rapidly across photoperiod treatments until the final instar, and only expressed plasticity in development time in the final instar under photoperiod levels that simulated a later hatching date. The documented change in development rate can be considered adaptive and underlies the success of the derived species in vernal ponds. Results suggest associated costs of faster development are lower mass at maturity and lower immune function after transient starvation stress. These costs may not only have impeded further evolution of the routine development rate to what is physiologically maximal, but also maintained some degree of plasticity to time constraints when the habitat shift occurred. PMID:18053074

  20. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  1. Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).

  2. Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J; Bell, Cameron

    2014-11-15

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) consist of emergent macrophytes that are placed on a floating mat in a pond for water treatment and aesthetic purposes. FTWs may have unique advantages with respect to treating urban runoff within existing retention ponds for excess nutrients. However, research is lacking in providing guidance on performance of specific species for treating urban runoff, and on timing of harvest. Harvesting is needed to remove nutrients permanently from the retention pond. We investigated vegetation effects on FTWs on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal performance and storage in above-ground FTW macrophyte tissues. The study evaluated pickerelweed (PW, Pontederia cordata L.) and softstem bulrush (SB, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) over time in microcosms flushed with water obtained from a nearby urban retention pond in northern Virginia near Washington, DC. While the literature exhibits a wide range of experimental sizes, using the term mesocosm, we have chosen the term microcosm to reflect the small size of our vessel; and do not include effects of sediment. The experiment demonstrated PW outperformed SB for P and N removal. Based upon analysis of the accumulated nutrient removal over time, a harvest of the whole PW and SB plants in September or October is recommended. However, when harvesting only the aerial parts, we recommend harvesting above-ground PW tissues in July or August to maximize nutrient removal. This is because PW translocates most of its nutrients to below-ground storage organs in the fall, resulting in less nutrient mass in the above-ground tissue compared to the case in the summer (vegetative stage). Further research is suggested to investigate whether vegetation can be overly damaged from multiple harvests on an annual basis in temperate regions. PMID:25214393

  3. Catfish disease cases in in-pond receway systems in Alabama: 2008-2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split-pond production systems are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish. Currently, there are over 1,300 water acres of production in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Alabama utilizing split-pond production sy...

  4. Using the Phenology of Pond-Breeding Amphibians to Develop Conservation Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. C. Paton; William B. Crouch

    2002-01-01

    Researchers suggest that regulatory agencies interested in protecting pond-breeding amphibians should consider wetland isolation, wetland size, and pond hydroperiod (total number of days pond is flooded annually) when modifying existing wetland regulations. Another criterion that has received less attention is the effect of the timing of inundation on the reproductive success of pond-breeding amphibians. Over 3 years, we monitored the

  5. Catfish disease cases in in-pond raceway systems in Alabama: 2008-2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split-pond aquaculture systems are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish. Currently, there are over 1,300 water acres of production in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Alabama utilizing split-pond production s...

  6. Pelagic processes in extensive shrimp ponds of the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M Alongi; Paul Dixon; Danielle J Johnston; Doan Van Tien; Tran Thanh Xuan

    1999-01-01

    Rates of pelagic primary production, respiration, and bacterioplankton dynamics were measured in relation to water quality parameters in three extensive shrimp ponds in the Mekong delta, Vietnam. There were few consistent differences in pelagic characteristics among different locations within these ponds, among the three ponds, or between the ponds and adjacent river water. Rates of primary production (14C uptake) ranged

  7. Effects of Fertilization and of Fry Stocking Density on Pond Production of Fingerling Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd M. Harding; Robert C. Summerfelt

    1994-01-01

    The influence of fertilization and of fry stocking density on production of fingering walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, was evaluated in earthen ponds at North Platte State Fish Hatchery, North Platte, Nebraska. In 1990, five 0.4-ha ponds were fertilized with alfalfa pellets, and five were fertilized with soybean meal; four unfertilized ponds served as controls. All ponds were stocked with D2 (Dl

  8. In-pond raceway systems and catfish disease related cases in west Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split-pond production systems are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish. Currently, there are over 1,300 water acres of production in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Alabama utilizing split-pond production sy...

  9. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  10. Diverting victims of commercial sexual exploitation from juvenile detention: development of the InterCSECt screening protocol.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Emily J; Dabney, Jonathan D; Russell, Kelli

    2015-04-01

    Identifying victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the juvenile justice system is a challenging complexity requiring concerted organizational commitment. Using a three-tiered, trauma-informed screening process, a 3½-month pilot intervention was implemented in Clark County Juvenile Court (Washington) to identify victims in an effort to connect them to community youth advocates and sexual assault resources. A total of 535 boys and girls ages 9 to 19 were screened during intake; 47 of these youth reported risk factors associated with commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and were subsequently referred to community advocates. Six youth (all girls) were confirmed CSEC victims and were successfully diverted from juvenile detention. Study results suggest that despite the lack of reliable data surrounding the prevalence of CSEC, juvenile justice agencies need to become educated on the risk factors to triage victims to services. PMID:25038222

  11. Treatment and Control: A Qualitative Study of Older Mentally Ill Offenders' Perceptions on Their Detention and Care Trajectory.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Stefaan; Van Hecke, Nele; Verté, Dominique; Broekaert, Eric; Ryan, Denis; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2015-08-01

    The life of older mentally ill offenders (OMIOs) is often characterized by successive periods of detention in correctional facilities, admissions to psychiatric services, and unsuccessful attempts to live independently. Through in-depth interviews, eight personal stories from OMIOs under supervision of the commission of social defence in Ghent (Belgium) were analyzed in the phenomenological research tradition. The results of the study reveal that OMIOs had more positive and less negative experiences in prison settings when compared with other institutional care settings. Independent living, unsurprisingly, is favored the most. This may be due to the fact that the latter option fosters personal competence, feelings of being useful, personal choices, and contact with the "outside" world. Even in later lifetime, a combined approach of risk assessment with improvement of well-being remains valuable to stimulate offender rehabilitation. Therefore, more research into concepts that could be used to support OMIOs needs further consideration. PMID:24510370

  12. New Pressure Results from the Expedition 336 CORKs at North Pond, Western Flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K.; Villinger, H. W.; Davis, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report results from a nearly two-year record of pressure data from three CORK hydrogeological observatories in the ~8x15 km "North Pond" sedimented basin in ~7 Ma crust west of the mid-Atlantic Ridge at 23°N. The new data were recovered during operations with the ROV Jason from the German R/V Maria S. Merian in April of 2014. Two of the CORKs (in Holes U1382A and U1383C) had been installed during IODP Expedition 336 in fall of 2011, with an initial installment of 6-7 months data recovered in spring 2012, also by Jason from R/V Merian. The third hole, U1383B, was instrumented during the 2012 cruise with a "CORK-Lite" deployed by the ROV. All three installations monitor formation pressures in basement beneath the sediment pond. The new data confirm results of the first half-year of data, which suggested a slight formation overpressure (~10 kPa) relative to hydrostatic in the two full CORK installations. This was somewhat surprising given (a) the long history of downhole flow in DSDP Hole 395A that also penetrated basement beneath the sediment pond, and (b) prior observations at more thickly-sedimented eastern Pacific ridge flanks of formation underpressures in sites drilled into basement lows. The new results show a small phase lag and attenuation of formation tidal signals relative to seafloor tides that is the same in all three holes, which confirms that the CORKs are properly sealed at the seafloor. The phase lag and attenuation are also the same among three separate basement intervals in Hole U1383C, which suggests either that the entire drilled section is hydrogeologically well connected or that downhole packers between the intervals do not seal completely. We explore potential models to explain the slight observed overpressures. One possibility is that the geometry of the isolated sediment pond results in higher formation temperatures and less dense formation fluids immediately below the relatively impermeable sediment pond, such that surrounding cooler, denser formation fluids in effect "squeeze" the formation fluids beneath the sediment pond from all sides. While this can produce a slight overpressure beneath the sediment pond, it is not clear if the temperature contrast at North Pond is sufficient to match the magnitude of the observed formation pressure.

  13. Crossing the Pond: A Probability Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Allyn Snider

    2000-01-01

    This primary probability game is designed to give students a basic understanding of probability while practicing their subtraction skills. The object of the game is to be the first team to move their playing pieces(eight frogs) across the pond on the numbered (from 1-11) lily pads. When the team spins the double spinner and the difference between the two numbers matches a number that has one of their frogs on it, then that frog safely crosses to the other side. Students keep track on a bar graph of the resulting differences so they can revise their strategy halfway through the game. All worksheets for the game are included in PDF format.

  14. Fate of endocrine disrupters in waste stabilization pond systems.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Wang, X; Dagnino, S; Leclercq, M; Escande, A; Casellas, C; Picot, B; Fenet, H

    2007-01-01

    The performance in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater was studied in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Different treatment processes were evaluated: stabilization ponds and trickling filter. Sampling was performed from the input to the output of the treatment systems. The total estrogenic activity was determined with MCF-7-derived cell lines which express the endogenous estrogen receptor alpha. The two wastewater stabilization ponds with long retention time had high removal of estrogenicity (90% to 95%). Trickling filters despite being effective at removing organic load were less effective in removing estrogenicity (42%), and post tertiary ponds enhanced estrogenicity removal. PMID:17591208

  15. Seasonal sea ice melt pond fraction and pond freezing estimation using dual-polarisation C-band synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharien, R. K.; Landy, J.; Howell, S.; Warner, K.; Barber, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice melt ponds play an important role in spring-summer radiation absorption and upper ocean warming, light transmittance and under-ice primary production, and biogeochemical exchanges. With a larger portion of Arctic first-year sea ice (FYI) compared to multiyear ice observed in recent years comes the expectation of greater melt pond fraction due to the absence of topographical controls on FYI. Despite progress in our understanding and modelling of pond fraction evolution and coupled processes at the local scale, a reliable means for monitoring variations at regional or greater scales, uninhibited by cloud cover, is lacking. In this study we demonstrate the ability of dual-polarisation C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for estimating pond fraction and freezing conditions on level FYI in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We use a combination of in situ C-band scatterometer and radar-scale surface roughness observations to study the dual-polarisation channel (VV+HH and HV+HH) and channel ratio characteristics of individual melt ponds and ice patches. Aerial surveys of pond fraction are used to evaluate retrieval approaches from Radarsat-2 SAR fine quad-polarisation mode imagery. Accurate retrievals of pond fraction are found using the VV/HH polarisation ratio during melting conditions. Results demonstrate the potential of dual-polarisation SAR for regional scale observations with temporal frequency suitable for contributing to process-scale studies and improvements to model parameterizations.

  16. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    The trophic ecology and ground-water contributing area of Walden Pond, in Concord and Lincoln, Mass., were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management from April 1997 to July 2000. Bathymetric investigation indicated that Walden Pond (24.88 hectares), a glacial kettle-hole lake with no surface inlet or outlet, has three deep areas. The maximum depth (30.5 meters) essentially was unchanged from measurements made by Henry David Thoreau in 1846. The groundwater contributing area (621,000 square meters) to Walden Pond was determined from water-table contours in areas of stratified glacial deposits and from land-surface contours in areas of bedrock highs. Walden Pond is a flow-through lake: Walden Pond gains water from the aquifer along its eastern perimeter and loses water to the aquifer along its western perimeter. Walden Pond contributing area also includes Goose Pond and its contributing area. A water budget calculated for Walden Pond, expressed as depth of water over the lake surface, indicated that 45 percent of the inflow to the lake was from precipitation (1.215 meters per year) and 55 percent from ground water (1.47 meters per year). The groundwater inflow estimate was based on the average of two different approaches including an isotope mass-balance approach. Evaporation accounted for 26 percent of the outflow from the lake (0.71 meters per year) whereas lake-water seepage to the groundwater system contributed 74 percent of the outflow (1.97 meters per year). The water-residence time of Walden Pond is approximately 5 years. Potential point sources of nutrients to ground water, the Concord municipal landfill and a trailer park, were determined to be outside the Walden Pond groundwater contributing area. A third source, the septic leach field for the Walden Pond State Reservation facilities, was within the groundwater contributing area. Nutrient budgets for the lake indicated that nitrogen inputs (858 kilograms per year) were dominated (30 percent) by plume water from the septic leach field and, possibly, by swimmers (34 percent). Phosphorus inputs (32 kilograms per year) were dominated by atmospheric dry deposition, background ground water, and estimated swimmer inputs. Swimmer inputs may represent more than 50 percent of the phosphorus load during the summer. The septic-system plume did not contribute phosphorus, but increased the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio for inputs from 41 to 59, on an atom-to-atom basis. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in input loads and within the lake indicated algal growth would be strongly phosphorus limited. Nitrogen supply in excess of plant requirements may mitigate against nitrogen fixing organisms including undesirable blooms of cyanobacteria. Based on areal nutrient loading, Walden Pond is a mesotrophic lake. Hypolimnetic oxygen demand of Walden Pond has increased since a profile was measured in 1939. Currently (1999), the entire hypolimnion of Walden Pond becomes devoid of dissolved oxygen before fall turnover in late November; whereas historical data indicated dissolved oxygen likely remained in the hypolimnion during 1939. The complete depletion of dissolved oxygen likely causes release of phosphorus from the sediments. Walden Pond contains a large population of the deep-growing benthic macro alga Nitella, which has been hypothesized to promote water clarity in other clear-water lakes by sequestering nutrients and keeping large areas of the sediment surface oxygenated. Loss of Nitella populations in other lakes has correlated with a decline in water quality. Although the Nitella standing crop is large in Walden Pond, Nitella still appears to be controlled by nutrient availability. Decreasing phosphorus inputs to Walden Pond, by amounts under anthropogenic control would likely contribute to the stability of the Nitella population in the metalimnion, may reverse oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion, and decreas

  17. Ponded Impact Melt Dynamics and its Effects on Pond Surface Morphology - Insights from King Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; DiCarlo, N.; Enns, A. C.; Hawke, B. R.; Hiesinger, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Sato, H.; Speyerer, E.; van der Bogert, C.; Wagner, R.; Young, K. E.; LROC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    King crater is a 77-km diameter impact feature located at 5.0°N and 120.5°E on the lunar farside. Previous work delimited King crater with an asymmetric distribution of ejecta that includes a large impact melt pond (~385 square kilometer surface area), located in nearby Al-Tusi crater. The pond provides an opportunity to study the behavior of a large impact melt deposit. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) [1] imaged King crater from a nominal 50 km altitude at pixel scales of 100 meters and up to 0.5 meters, respectively providing the means to create geologic maps for the region. Digital terrain/elevation models (DTMs) were derived [2] from both WAC and NAC images for the area, and supplemented the mapping effort. The high-resolution (50 cm/p) NAC images show fine details within the Al-Tusi melt pond that raise questions about melt pond dynamics and evolution. These include both positive- and negative-relief features, anomalous crater morphologies, and flow features that show variable degrees of melt viscosity. WAC DTM processing reveals a horizontal and relatively flat (at the 20 m contour interval) pond, demonstrating that an equipotential surface was achieved during initial melt accumulation. The NAC DTM shows kilometer-scale zones of topographic down-warping within the 20 m contour interval. The perimeters of these depressed areas show moderate to high spatial correlation with the occurrence of negative relief features (~10 to 100 m in length). Such sagging may have occurred as the result of contraction and/or compaction within the melt both during and following cooling, with the negative relief features resulting from consequent structural failure and separation of the thickening surface crust. The variability in the degree of contraction/compaction may be explained by the presence of underlying hummocky ejecta deposits (which probably also explains the positive relief features) emplaced by the King impact within Al-Tusi crater prior to melt accumulation. Crater counts on the extended ejecta blanket [e.g., 3] show that King crater is likely to be ~ 1 Ga in age.

  18. Management and conservation of San Francisco Bay salt ponds: Effects of pond salinity, area, tide, and season on pacific flyway waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Page, G.W.; Ruhlen, T.D.; Nur, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Hanson, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, coastal salt ponds provide habitat for large numbers and diversities of waterbirds. San Francisco Bay contains the most important coastal salt pond complexes for waterbirds in the United States, supporting more than a million waterbirds through the year. As an initial step in attempting to understand how the anticipated conversion of salt ponds to tidal marsh might affect the Bay's bird populations, the number of birds using salt ponds on high and low tides was counted during the winter months of 1999/00 and 2000/01. Behavior and habitat use of birds in these ponds were assessed, and the effects of tide cycle, pond salinity, and pond area on bird use were examined. We recorded 75 species of waterbirds in surveys of salt ponds in the South Bay from September 1999 to February 2001, totaling over a million bird use days on high tide. Shorebirds and dabbling ducks were the most abundant groups of birds using the salt ponds. Waterbird numbers and diversity were significantly affected by the salinity of ponds in a non-linear fashion with lower numbers and diversity on the highest salinity ponds. With the exception of ducks and Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), tide height at the Bay significantly affected bird numbers in the salt ponds with ponds at high tides having higher numbers of birds than the same ponds on low tides. Considerable numbers of birds fed in the salt ponds on high and low tides, although this varied greatly by species. Habitat use varied by tide. Management recommendations include maintaining ponds of varying salinities and depths. Restoring salt ponds to tidal marsh should proceed with caution to avoid loss of waterbird diversity and numbers in San Francisco Bay.

  19. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Embryonic and Larval Exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater Pond Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrianne B. Brand; Joel W. Snodgrass; Matthew T. Gallagher; Ryan E. Casey; Robin Van Meter

    2010-01-01

    Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water\\u000a for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However,\\u000a because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and\\u000a suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond

  20. Mourning dove use of man-made ponds in a cold-desert ecosystem in Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Howe; L. D. Flake

    1989-01-01

    Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in a cold-desert ecosystem used man-made ponds for watering, feeding, gritting, loafing, and courting. Diurnal pond use by doves peaked in the morning and evening. Monthly dove use of ponds fluctuated slightly during the summers of 1984 and 1985. Pond size, pH, and shoreline characteristics had little association with the intensity of pond use by doves;

  1. Solar-induced thermal activity and stratification in pond water

    E-print Network

    Brownridge, James D

    2015-01-01

    Ponds are universally used to store water for a large number of uses. With the increasing demand for more fresh water, ponds, lakes and reservoirs are likely to be constructed on a larger scale. We must understand the effects of environmental changes on fresh water if we are to most efficiently utilize this resource. This study undertakes to increase our understanding of the rate of thermal response of ponds and other bodies of water to every-day environmental changes. The central research agenda is to investigate how the temperature of pond water from top to bottom responds to the day/night cycle, changes in air temperature just above the surface, cloud conditions, and other sudden environmental changes. Data collection for this study spanned October 2007 to June 2011 and had a continuous time resolution of 50 seconds.

  2. X] THEPROPAGATIONOF BLACK BASS IN PONDS. BY WILLIAM F. PAGE,

    E-print Network

    place, it should be understood that reference is had to the large- mouthed black bass (Micropterus salmoides) which nature has the better adapted to raising in ponds; and, in tlie second place, the object

  3. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time. PMID:17591220

  4. 54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from the east (similar to HALS no. LA-1-24) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  5. 53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" looking from the southwest (similar to HALS no. LA-1-23) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  6. 52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in background looking from the northeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-22) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  7. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  8. Gradient-zone erosion by extraction in solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Estevadeordal, J.; Kleis, S.J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-05-01

    The erosion of the dynamically stable gradient zone of a salinity-gradient solar pond, due to the extraction of fluid from the storage zone, is numerically investigated. The effects of fluid withdrawal rate, density stratification level, pond and diffuser geometries, and diffuser placement are considered. It is found, for a typical salinity-gradient solar pond with uniform salinity in the storage zone and a continuous salinity gradient above that a finite amount of fluid entrainment from the gradient zone is inevitable. That is, a finite density difference across the interface is always required for a finite extraction rate under steady-state conditions. The magnitude of the density difference is predicted as a function of the geometric and flow parameters. From the results, it is possible to predict the total amount of fluid entrained from the gradient zone as the pond reaches steady-state for prescribed operating conditions.

  9. 2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE SOURIS RIVER VALLEY, DUE SOUTH OF THE LOOKOUT TOWER - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Ward County, ND

  10. Rift Valley Fever in Small Ruminants, Senegal, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Lancelot, Renaud; Thiongane, Yaya; Sall, Baba; Diaité, Amadou; Mondet, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    During the 2003 rainy season, the clinical and serologic incidence of Rift Valley fever was assessed in small ruminant herds living around temporary ponds located in the semi-arid region of the Ferlo, Senegal. No outbreak was detected by the surveillance system. Serologic incidence was estimated at 2.9% (95% confidence interval 1.0–8.7) and occurred in 5 of 7 ponds with large variations in the observed incidence rate (0%–20.3%). The location of ponds in the Ferlo Valley and small ponds were correlated with higher serologic incidence (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.005, respectively). Rift Valley fever surveillance should be improved to allow early detection of virus activity. Ruminant vaccination programs should be prepared to confront the foreseeable higher risks for future epidemics of this disease. PMID:16318720

  11. A Experimental Study of a Potassium Nitrate Salt - Solar Pond.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamah, Abdullatif Ibrahim

    The collection and storage of solar energy in a body of water is possible by preventing convection with a stabilizing salinity gradient. An outdoor salt gradient solar pond using KNO(,3) was designed, constructed, and studied at the University of New Mexico. This experimental pond was formed using a steel cylindrical shell eight feet in diameter and 13 feet long embedded in the earth with its axis of symmetry vertical. The interior of the shell was sprayed with a one foot layer of polyurethane foam (R50) on the walls and bottom. The lower six feet of the cavity was filled with dry sand. The active KNO(,3) solution occupied the upper 6 feet of the cavity, contained by a butyl rubber liner. A salt gradient was established in the fall of 1981 and the behavior of the pond was monitored for a period of nine months. The lower storage layer of this pond reached a high temperature of 82(DEGREES)C in late July 1982. There is a possibility to increase the temperature of the potassium nitrate solution over 100(DEGREES)C and to increase the concentration of the solution up to 77%. Apart from economic considerations, which were not included in this study, this prototype pond suggests that KNO(,3) ponds show considerable promise for the collection and storage of solar energy. The application of KNO(,3) solar pond for the supply of the industrial process heat may be economically and technically feasible. The solar pond which may have some potential, used a system for solar collection and seasonal storage, needs more research before prototypes are constructed.

  12. Comparative physical limnology of farm ponds in Southcentral Texas 

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Dewey Gregory

    1973-01-01

    . More recently Bennett (1971) also examined pond thermal dynamics. Most of his discussion, however, dealt with lakes in the northern latitudes. Much of the literature available tends to be biologically oriented. Schultz (1952) sampled one Ohio farm... than two inches in early June caused a sharp drop in temperature st all depths. However, the bottom temperatures of one pond intensively studied by Schultz (1952) in Ohio remained unchanged after a summer rainfall. Only the surface waters were...

  13. In situ measurement of sediment oxygen demand in catfish ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Berthelson; T. P. Cathcart; J. W. Pote

    1996-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was measured in catfish aquaculture ponds using a computer-controlled data acquisition system coupled with in situ respirometers. A total of 86 rate determinations were made in northwest Mississippi. Calculated SOD rates averaged 4·44 g\\/m2 per day at an average temperature of 29°C. These rates exceeded those recorded previously in catfish ponds and may have reflected differences

  14. Morphometry, Primary productivity and Energy flow in a Tropical Pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Haniffa; T. J. Pandian

    1978-01-01

    Monthly changes in the morphometric features of pond Idumban reveal that total and littoral areas progressively decreased from 62.4 and 15.4 ha in October-November-December to 6.8 and 2.6 ha in September. The dominant macrophytic producers in the littoral area of the pond were Chara fragilis, Hydrilla verticillata and Ceratophyllum demersum, which flourished from October for a period of 8 to

  15. Comparative physical limnology of farm ponds in Southcentral Texas

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Dewey Gregory

    1973-01-01

    COMPARATIVE PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGY OF FARM PONDS IN SOUTHCENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by DEWEY GREGORY MEYERS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1973 Ma)or Subject: Biology COMPARATIVE PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGY OF FARM PONDS IN SOUTHCENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by DEWEY GREGORY MEYERS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairma of Committee) / i/y'/ /', . nf (Head 'of Depart'ment) (Member...

  16. Fertilizers for Increasing the Natural Food for Fish in Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Swingle; E. V. Smith

    1939-01-01

    Experiments using commercial fertilizer in distilled water indicated that an N–P–K–CaCO3 ratio of 4:1:1:8 gave most economical plankton production. Pond waters in Central Alabama were found to require the addition of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and lime for maximum fish and plankton production. For use in pond waters, the above ratio was used with the amount of phosphorus doubled, giving a

  17. An environmental simulation of a shrimp mariculture pond 

    E-print Network

    Whitson, John Lee

    1989-01-01

    Model Trophic Structure Nutrient Pool Dissolved Oxygen . Discussion 16 16 17 BASELINE SIMULATIONS 18 Semi-Intensive Stocking Density Empty Pond (No shrimp) . Comparison Discussion 18 25 25 29 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 30 Primary Producers... . Zooplankton 30 33 EVALUATION OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES . . 46 Evaluation of Stocking Densities and Feeding Rates 46 SUMMARY . REFERENCES 59 60 VITA 67 vss LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Pond Model Biomass Flows 2 Dissolved Oxygen and Population...

  18. Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J. II

    1996-12-01

    This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

  19. Cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on ammonia-depleted effluents from sewage oxidation ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Weissman; D. M. Eisenberg; J. R. Benemann

    1978-01-01

    The data presented represent an initial, limited attempt on a small scale to cultivate nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on both chemically defined media and low nitrogen sewage pond effluents. The rates of blue-green algal biomass production were low compared to those of green algae. Nevertheless, it appears that cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae is possible on sewage effluents where these algae

  20. Acidification as environmental pollution: effects on fish-pond ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the impact of acidity on fish production in ponds, experiments were conducted in fertilized sunfish (Lepomis spp.) ponds and fed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds. The alkalinity and pH of pond water were lowered by additions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Total alkalinity levels were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 mg/liter in sunfish ponds and 0, 5, and 20 in catfish production ponds. Water quality and phytoplankton density were monitored. The decrease in alkalinity caused changes in fish production and phytoplankton communities. Production of sunfish decreased with decreasing alkalinity below 20 mg/liter. Channel catfish yields were not affected significantly at a total alkalinity of 5 mg/liter and above (P > 0.05). No sign of fish stress of aluminum accumulation in the tissue were detected in catfish. There was no relation between alkalinity level and off-flavor in catfish. Chlorophyll a concentration increased as alkalinity and pH decreased, although total number of phytoplankters, gross photosynthesis, and turbidity decreased with decreases in total alkalinity. Phosphorus was more available at low alkalinity levels. Total hardness increased as alkalinity decreased.

  1. 2101-M pond closure plan. Volume 1, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, R. D.; Lerch, R. E.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment.

  2. Excavated Pond Construction in Florida 1 Haman, D.Z.; Clark, G.A.; Pitts, D.J.2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    . Ponds can provide the necessary water storage for irrigation, livestock and fish production, fire Irrigation Systems). The two basic types of ponds are embankment ponds and excavated ponds. A classical the necessary storage. This publication will provide information on excavated ponds and will emphasize planning

  3. Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Scott, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

  4. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308 Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 657

    E-print Network

    pond b) to analyze the benefits of such structures at watershed or higher scales and c) as design tool] to optimize the size of detention ponds for Austin area. Monitoring of flow and water quality at detention algorithm for detention pond. The algorithm was tested using a previously flow-calibrated watershed

  5. Pond permanence and the effects of exotic vertebrates on anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In many permanent ponds throughout western North America, the introduction of a variety of exotic fish and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) correlates with declines in native amphibians. Direct effects of exotics are suspected to be responsible for the rarity of some native amphibians and are one hypothesis to explain the prevalence of amphibian declines in western North America. However, the prediction that the permanent ponds occupied by exotics would be suitable for native amphibians if exotics were absent has not been tested. I used a series of enclosure experiments to test whether survival of northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora aurora) and Pacific treefrog (Hyla regilla) larvae is equal in permanent and temporary ponds in the Puget Lowlands, Washington State, USA. I also examined the direct effects of bullfrog larvae and sunfish. Survival of both species of native anuran larvae was generally lower in permanent ponds. Only one permanent pond out of six was an exception to this pattern and exhibited increased larval survival rates in the absence of direct effects by exotics. The presence of fish in enclosures reduced survival to near zero for both native species. An effect of bullfrog larvae on Pacific treefrog larval survival was not detected, but effects on red-legged frog larvae were mixed. A hypothesis that food limitation is responsible for the low survival of native larvae in some permanent ponds was not supported. My results confirm that direct negative effects of exotic vertebrates on native anurans occur but suggest that they may not be important to broad distribution patterns. Instead, habitat gradients or indirect effects of exotics appear to play major roles. I found support for the role of permanence as a structuring agent for pond communities in the Puget Lowlands, but neither permanence nor exotic vertebrates fully explained the observed variability in larval anuran survival.

  6. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  7. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  8. Role of rainwater induced subsurface flow in water-level dynamics and thermoerosion of shallow thermokarst ponds on the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Yu, Q.; You, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding hydrological and thermal regimes of thermokarst lakes is of great importance for predicting their responses to climate change. However, mechanism of water-level dynamics and associated thermal effects on thermoerosion of thermokarst lakes are still not well understood on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). In this study, we investigate two typical shallow thermokarst ponds (namely small lakes) in a warm permafrost region with thick active layer on the northeastern QTP through quantifying water budget. Results demonstrate that, rainfall induced subsurface lateral flow dominates pond water-level regime. Annual variation of pond water-level relies on areal water budget of surrounding active layer, particularly the high variable of precipitation. Besides, it is worth noting the extraordinary warming during the late ice-cover period, because marked air gap between upper ice-cover and underlying water, led by the upward thawing of thick ice-cover, might result in greenhouse-like condition due to the unique weather that strong solar radiation and little snowpack. This hydrological mechanism also exerts evident impacts on thermal regime and thermoerosion of the shallow thermokarst ponds, and they are closely related to retreat of thermokarst pondshore and underlying permafrost degradation. These findings imply a localized model addressing the unique hydrological and thermal regimes of thermokarst lakes would be essential to study the evolution of these shallow rainwater dominated thermokarst ponds on the QTP.

  9. Construction of a Small Fresh Water Ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne C. Browning

    1983-01-01

    In the spring of 1982 I created a small fresh water ecosystem in my backyard. During the summer, I spent many quiet hours inhaling the fragrance of water lilies while watching the metamorphosis of tadpoles into frogs and studying in detail the delicate patterns on the wings of dragonflies attracted to the edge of the pond. During these times I

  10. Effects of Jefferson Road stormwater-detention basin on loads and concentrations of selected chemical constituents in East Branch of Allen Creek at Pittsford, Monroe County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    Discharge and water-quality data collection at East Branch Allen Creek from 1990 through 2000 provide a basis for estimating the effect of the Jefferson Road detention basin on loads and concentrations of chemical constituents downstream from the basin. Mean monthly flow for the 5 years prior to construction of the detention basin (8.71 ft3/s) was slightly lower than after (9.08 ft3/s). The slightly higher mean monthly flow after basin construction may have been influenced by the peak flow for the period of record that occurred in July 1998 or variations in flow diverted from the canal. No statistically significant difference in average monthly mean flow before and after basin installation was indicated. Total phosphorus was the only constituent to show no months with significant differences in load after basin construction. Several constituents showed months with significantly smaller loads after basin construction than before, whereas some constituents showed certain months with smaller and some months with greater loads, after basin construction. Statistical analysis of the 'mean monthly load' for all months before and all months after construction of the detention basin showed only one constituent (ammonia + organic nitrogen) with a significantly lower load after construction and none with higher loads. Median concentrations of ammonia + organic nitrogen showed a statistically significant decrease (from 0.78 mg/L to 0.60 mg/L) after basin installation, as did nitrite + nitrate (from 1.50 mg/L to 0.96 mg/L); in contrast, the median concentration of dissolved chloride increased from 95.5 mg/L before basin installation to 109 mg/L thereafter. A trend analysis of constituent concentrations before and after installation of the detention basin showed that total phosphorus had a downward trend after installation. Analysis of the data collected at East Branch Allen Creek indicates that the Jefferson Road detention basin, in some cases, provides an improvement (reduction) in loads of some constituents. These results are uncertain, however, because hydrologic conditions before basin installation differed from those in the 5 years that followed, and because inflow from the Erie-Barge canal may alter the water quality in the 1-mi reach between the basin outflow and the gaging station.

  11. Relative performance of duckweed ponds and rock filtration as advanced in-pond wastewater treatment processes for upgrading waste stabilisation pond effluent: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Short, M D; Cromar, N J; Nixon, J B; Fallowfield, H J

    2007-01-01

    An experimental pilot plant was operated over a five month period to assess the relative treatment performances of: a duckweed (DW) pond; a rock filter (RF); and an open pond (OP); for the upgrading of final WSP effluent prior to reuse applications. Each pilot treatment system consisted of three identical ponds arranged in three parallel series, each fed a continuous flow of wastewater from the local Bolivar treatment plant. Light penetration profiling for the DW and OP systems revealed some 55% greater light attenuation capacity for DW ponds compared to the OP system. Results showed a significantly elevated performance capacity for the RF treatment with respect to BOD5, SS, turbidity and NH4-N removal, but equal treatment performances for algal (chlorophyll) removal. No significant performance differences were evident between the DW and OP treatments for any of the monitored parameters. Soluble reactive phosphorus, faecal coliform and E. coli removals were similar for all pilot treatment systems. Rock filters not only demonstrated an enhanced performance capacity in terms of removal of loaded parameters, but also showed greater reliability of performance and produced a consistently higher quality final effluent. Rock filters demonstrated greater potential over both DW and OP systems for the upgrading of WSP effluent prior to reuse application. PMID:17591203

  12. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  13. Effect of tapering on the performance of waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Agunwamba, J C

    2001-04-01

    A model for wastewater degradation in a tapered waste stabilization pond was derived as a modified Bessel function by materials balance approach. Based on hypothetical data, the tapered model gave lower faecal bacteria removal than the conventional (rectangular) model for various values of dispersion number, die-off rate coefficient, average width and shape factors. The above results were corroborated by data collected from two laboratory ponds operated in parallel; one having a tapered and the other a rectangular surface area. The latter gave slightly higher hydraulic efficiency and BOD5 removal. Besides, faecal bacteria removal was significantly lower in the tapered pond than in the rectangular pond at 0.10 level of significance. Calculated faecal bacteria reduction using the tapered model was in good agreement with measured data with coefficient of correlation and standard error of 0.904 and 0.014, respectively. Effects of tapering on ponds with respect to construction cost, operational and maintenance ease and accuracy of estimated design parameters are also discussed. PMID:11268839

  14. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  15. Short pond hydroperiod decreases fitness of nonnative hybrid salamanders in California

    E-print Network

    Shaffer, H. Bradley

    Short pond hydroperiod decreases fitness of nonnative hybrid salamanders in California J. R California tiger salamanders and nonnative barred tiger salamanders. Variation in hydroperiod within, with modified permanent ponds harboring salamanders with a greater proportion of nonnative genes. Our study

  16. Comparative growth of six strains of largemouth bass in Texas ponds

    E-print Network

    Rudd, Alan Eugene

    1985-01-01

    ponds which previously had been treated with rotenone to eliminate existing fish populations. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were introduced into these holding ponds to serve as prey. ' The progeny groups were kept separate until they were about 1...

  17. EFFECT OF FISH AQUACULTURE ON WATER QUALITY IN RESTORED, HISTORICAL FISH PONDS ON MOLOKAI ISLAND, HAWAII

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Molokoi Fish Pond Project is designed to determine effects on water quality of commercial fish production within several different historical fish ponds and immediately offshore in order to establish appropriate water quality standards and discharge permit conditions for the ...

  18. Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

  19. Sticklebacks from streams are more bold than sticklebacks from ponds.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David; Bell, Alison M

    2007-11-01

    Risk-taking behaviour has important consequences for fitness. Here, we show that risk-taking behaviour in sticklebacks consistently varies according to the habitat of origin. We compared the risk-taking behaviour of individual sticklebacks from three pond and three stream populations. Specifically, we measured willingness to forage under predation risk following a simulated attack by a model heron predator. Sticklebacks from stream populations were more willing to forage under predation risk than fish from pond populations. Sticklebacks from streams resumed eating after the simulated attack faster and spent more time eating compared to sticklebacks from ponds. We discuss these findings in terms of differences in life history and predation pressure in the two habitat types. PMID:17583445

  20. Toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda)

    SciTech Connect

    Karouna-Renier, N.K. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States); [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sparling, D.W. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Stormwater runoff from highways and commercial, industrial, and residential areas contains a wide spectrum of pollutants including heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, sediment, and nutrients. Recent efforts to reduce the impacts of urbanization on natural wetlands and other receiving waters have included the construction of stormwater treatment ponds and wetlands. These systems provide flood control and improve water quality through settling, adsorption, and precipitation of pollutants removing up to 95% of metals, nutrients and sediment before discharged from the site. The design of stormwater ponds to provide habitat for aquatic wildlife has prompted concern over the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these contaminants. Aquatic sediments concentrate a wide array of organic and inorganic pollutants. Although water quality criteria may not be exceeded, organisms living in or near the sediments may be adversely affected. The availability of chemicals in sediments depends strongly on the prevailing chemistry. Physical conditions of the sediment and water quality characteristics including pH, redox potential and hardness, also influence contaminant availability. Studies have shown that heavy metals and nutrients carried by runoff concentrate in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Although several investigations have assessed the toxicity of sediments in streams receiving urban runoff, there have been few studies of the toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to aquatic organisms. This study was part of a large-scale assessment of the contaminant hazards of stormwater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments and water from stormwater ponds over a 10-d period to juvenile Hyalella azteca. Bioassay results were related to concentrations of acid volatile sulfides and metals of the tested sediments. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Water quality and holding capacity of intensive and semi-intensive milkfish (Chanos chanos) ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neila S. Sumagaysay-Chavosoa

    This study determined the holding capacity of semi-intensive and intensive milkfish ponds and water quality in relation to fish biomass and feed input. Six units of 1000 m2 brackishwater ponds were used, three ponds for intensive system (20,000 fish ha? 1) and three for semi-intensive system (8000 fish ha? 1). Average production was significantly higher in intensive pond (3652 kg

  2. Temporal Trends of Trace Metals in Sediment and Invertebrates from Stormwater Management Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan E. Casey; Judith A. Simon; Stephanie Atueyi; Joel W. Snodgrass; Natalie Karouna-Renier; Donald W. Sparling

    2007-01-01

    Stormwater ponds are an increasingly common feature in urban landscapes. Because these ponds retain runoff and particulate-bound\\u000a contaminants from impervious surfaces, organisms inhabiting stormwater ponds may be exposed to elevated metal levels in sediments.\\u000a This study evaluated temporal changes in sediment and macroinvertebrate Cu, Pb and Zn over an eleven-year period with specific\\u000a attention to land use in pond watersheds.

  3. Waste Stabilization Ponds: A Highly Appropriate Wastewater Treatment Technology for Mediterranean Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duncan Mara

    This chapter describes waste stabilization pond (WSP) systems for wastewater treatment. WSP systems comprise a series of anaerobic\\u000a and facultative ponds and sometimes maturation ponds. Rock filters can be used instead of maturation ponds and they can be\\u000a aerated to remove ammonia and to improve biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids removals. Effluent quality is high,\\u000a and properly designed and

  4. The temporal dynamics of temporary pond macroinvertebrate communities over a 10-year period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael James Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Ponds support a rich biodiversity. This arises in part because of the number and heterogeneity of ponds spatially throughout\\u000a the landscape. Studies of ponds suggest that distinct communities develop within individual ponds but most examples are based\\u000a on short-term 1- or 2-year surveys which cannot identify the effects of historic events upon contemporary communities. This\\u000a study reports the development and

  5. Variation in surrounding forest habitat influences the initial orientation of juvenile amphibians emigrating from breeding ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leroy J. Walston; Stephen J. Mullin

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile dispersal is important for the persistence of . amphibian populations. Previous studies have observed nonrandom orientation in juvenile amphibians emigrating from breeding ponds; however, the environmental cues associ- ated with these movements are not well understood. We examined the emigration behavior of recently metamorphosed ju- veniles of three pond-breeding amphibian species from three woodland ponds. We found that juvenile

  6. Modeling nitrogen dynamics in intensive shrimp ponds: the role of sediment remineralization

    E-print Network

    Lorenzen, Kai

    Modeling nitrogen dynamics in intensive shrimp ponds: the role of sediment remineralization M on nitrogen (N) dynamics in intensive shrimp culture ponds. The model describes the key processes involved, impact negatively on the shrimp or the adjacent aquatic environment when water is discharged from ponds

  7. Evolution of Melt Pond Cover in the Beaufort\\/Chukchi Sea Region During Summer 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Tschudi; J. A. Maslanik; D. K. Perovich

    2005-01-01

    Melt ponds appear during the onset of summer melt on Arctic sea ice, and their coverage evolves through the course of the melt season. Ponds play a critical role in the absorption of solar radiation by the ice pack, and hence the ice melt rate. The fractional coverage of melt ponds on sea ice is thus an important parameter when

  8. Evaluation of an Electric Fence System for excluding Wading Birds at Catfish Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Mott; Richard D. Flynt

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated a two-strand electric fence barrier to determine its utility in excluding great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and great egrets (Casmerodius albus) from ponds containing channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fencing at five ponds resulted in at least a 91% reduction in pond use by herons and egrets. Labor to install the fences ranged from 2 to 6 person-hours per

  9. An Internet survey of private pond owners and managers in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Schonrock, April Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    is attracted to ponds as water sources, and this provides opportunities for wildlife watching. A number of aquatic birds such as ducks and geese as well as aquatic predators such as herons use ponds year-round or seasonally. Ponds also provide aquatic...

  10. Chemical, physical and biological changes associated with chara succession in farm ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley A. Crawford

    1977-01-01

    Four farm ponds in various stages of Chara vulgaris succession -from the initial invasion of the alga to its nearly complete replacement-were followed each week from ice cover to ice cover. Chemical, physical, and biological parameters were analyzed in order to determine differences between ponds and to discover the biological and physicochemical factors associated with succession in Chara vulgaris ponds.

  11. Concentrations of heavy metals associated with urban runoff in fish living in stormwater treatment ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Campbell

    1994-01-01

    Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were collected from stormwater ponds and natural lakes and ponds (controls) in Orlando, Florida and analyzed for cadmium, nickel, copper, lead, and zinc in order to determine: (1) if fish that live in stormwater treatment ponds contained significant heavy metal concentrations and (2) if there were differences

  12. Oxygen transfer in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) constructed wetlands have been used to treat wastewater from swine anaerobic lagoons. To mitigate undesired ammonia emission from M-P-M, ponds were covered with floating wetlands (M-FB-M). The pond sections of the M-FB-M were covered with floating wetlands consisted of recyc...

  13. Identification and Characterization of Bacteria in a Selenium contaminated Hypersaline Evaporation Pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. de Souza; M. P. De; M. A. Dojka; I. J. Pickering; S. C. Dawson; N. R. Pace; N. Terry

    2001-01-01

    Solar evaporation ponds are commonly used to reduce the volume of seleniferous agricultural drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. These hypersaline ponds pose an environmental health hazard because they are heavily contaminated with selenium (Se), mainly in the form of selenate. Se in the ponds may be removed by microbial Se volatilization, a bioremediation process whereby toxic, bioavailable

  14. Evaluation of the preservation value and location of farm ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Lee, Soen-Han; Wu, Chen-Fa

    2014-01-01

    Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority) in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies. PMID:24384776

  15. Status of Fish Populations in Georgia Ponds 1-4 Years after Stocking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Geihsler; Daniel R. Holder

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five randomly selected Georgia ponds stocked with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from state hatcheries in 1975-1976 were surveyed 1 year after stocking largemouth bass to determine the state of balance of their populations and the key factors associated with unbalanced ponds. The same ponds were examined again 4 years

  16. A Study on the Algae in Fish Ponds and Their Seasonal Variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bulent SEN; Feray SONMEZ

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the algae occurring in fish ponds of a fish production center were investigated with their seasonal variations for a period of a year. The algal flora of the ponds consisted of Bacillariophyta (64 taxa), Chlorophyta (14 taxa), Cyanophyta (9 taxa), Euglenophyta (6 taxa). The algae constituted pelagic and epilithic communities in the ponds. The diatoms were the

  17. Design and fish culture considerations for catfish farming in split ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Split ponds are simple, pond-based aquaculture systems constructed by dividing an existing catfish pond into two unequal basins with an earthen levee. Fish are confined in the smaller basin (usually about 15-20% of total water area) while the larger basin serves as a waste-treatment lagoon. A high-v...

  18. An Instructional Design Using the Virtual Ecological Pond for Science Education in Elementary Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wernhuar Tarng; Kuo-Liang Ou; Wen-Shin Tsai; Yu-Si Lin; Chen-Kai Hsu

    2009-01-01

    Ecological ponds can be a good teaching tool for science teachers, but they must be built and maintained properly to provide students with a safe and suitable learning environment. Hence, many schools do not have the ability to build an ecological pond. This study used virtual reality technology to develop a web- based virtual ecological pond. Supported by situated learning

  19. Evaluation of the Preservation Value and Location of Farm Ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Lee, Soen-Han; Wu, Chen-Fa

    2013-01-01

    Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority) in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies. PMID:24384776

  20. Pseudosphaerita euglenae, a fungal parasite of Euglena spp. in the Mangere Oxidation Ponds, Auckland, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Anderson; A. Stewart; G. Tolich Allen

    1995-01-01

    We report the first observation of the fungal parasite of unicellular algae, Pseudosphaerita euglenae, in New Zealand. The parasite infection was observed in the Mangere oxidation pond algae Euglena acus and Euglena polymorpha and increased potential for pond odour problems, posing a threat to pond operations. E. acus was particularly susceptible to parasitism and was identified as the putative primary

  1. Bearing capacity of square footing on pond ash reinforced with jute-geotextile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amalendu Ghosh; Ambarish Ghosh; Ashis Kumar Bera

    2005-01-01

    At present an enormous amount of pond ash is being produced by thermal power plants throughout the world. Storage of pond ash requires vast land area and disposal of ash becomes problematic and also it creates environmental hazards. To mitigate these problems, pond ash has been used in the low-lying areas as structural fills for developing residential and industrial sites.

  2. Mitigating agricultural impacts on groundwater using distributed managed aquifer recharge ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Racz, A. J.; Wheat, C. G.; Los Huertos, M.; Lockwood, B. S.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater is likely to become increasingly important for irrigated agriculture due to anticipated changes to the hydrologic cycle associated with climate change. Protecting the quantity and quality of subsurface water supplies will require flexible management strategies that can enhance groundwater recharge. We present results from a study of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in central coastal California, and propose the use of distributed, small-scale (1-5 ha) MAR systems to improve the quantity and quality of recharge in agricultural basins. Our field site is located in a basin where the primary use of groundwater is irrigation for agriculture, and groundwater resources are increasingly threatened by seawater intrusion and nutrient contamination from fertilizer application. The MAR system we are monitoring is supplied by stormwater and irrigation runoff of variable quality, which is diverted from a wetland during periods of high flow. This MAR system delivers approximately 1x106 m3 of recharge annually to the underlying aquifer, a portion of which is recovered and distributed to growers during the dry season. Our sampling and measurements (at high spatial and temporal resolution) show that a significant percentage of the nitrogen load added during MAR operation is eliminated from recharge during shallow infiltration (~30% to 60%, ~40 kg NO3-N/d). Isotopic analyses of the residual nitrate indicate that a significant fraction of the nitrate load reduction is attributable to denitrification. When normalized to infiltration pond area, this system achieves a mean load reduction of 7 kg NO3-N/d/ha, which compares favorably with the nitrogen load reduction efficiency achieved by treatment wetlands receiving agricultural runoff. Much of the reduction in nitrogen load occurs during periods of rapid infiltration (0.2 to 2.0 m/day), as demonstrated with point measurements of infiltration rate collocated with fluid samples. These results suggest that developing a network of small-scale MAR ponds could be a useful strategy for improving groundwater conditions in this basin. Although the efficiency of small recharge ponds can be high, numerous projects would be needed to impact the overall water balance of a basin such as ours. We are applying a GIS-based approach to assess how small-scale MAR systems could be distributed to achieve significant benefit. This analysis involves determining where topography, soil type, land ownership, groundwater conditions, and cropping practices are the most favorable for locating recharge systems. Results of this work should be applicable to other basins facing similar challenges, ultimately helping to improve the sustainability of groundwater supplies.

  3. Identifying Opportunities to Increase HIV Testing among Mexican Migrants: A Call to Step Up Efforts in Health Care and Detention Settings

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Rhoads, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Hovell, Melbourne; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; González-Fagoaga, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current “treatment as prevention” strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161) conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities. PMID:25860261

  4. BIRD COMMUNITIES AT \\VASTEWATER PONDS IN SOUTHEASTERN IDAHO

    E-print Network

    Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University Box 2140B, Brookings, SO 57007. ABSTRACT Disposal with abundant macrophYtes and irregular shorelines designed for tertiary sewage treatment; these latter game watering cisterns, waste disposal ponds are the only permanent surface water at the !NEL. Birds

  5. Catfish production guidelines for in-pond raceway systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish have been cultured in raceways for over 150 years in the United States. Most of these raceways have been flow-through systems for production of cold water species such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), although many other species have been produced. The development of In-Pond Raceways Sys...

  6. 21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DREDGING POND USED TO TEST THE ADAPTABILITY OF JET PUMPS FOR PUMPING SAND, AND WEAR RATES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DREDGING PIPE. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  7. Biomass and productivity of trematode parasites in pond ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    . On average, each trematode taxon produced between 14 and 1660 free-swimming larvae (cercariae) infected snailÀ1 24 hÀ1 in mid-summer. Given that infected snails release cercariae for 3­4 months a year, the pond

  8. Pond Permanence and the Effects of Exotic Vertebrates on Anurans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Adams

    2000-01-01

    In many permanent ponds throughout western North America, the introduc- tion of a variety of exotic fish and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) correlates with declines in native amphibians. Direct effects of exotics are suspected to be responsible for the rarity of some native amphibians and are one hypothesis to explain the prevalence of amphibian declines in western North America. However, the

  9. Modelling of melt ponds on a sea ice floe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Scott; D. Feltham

    2009-01-01

    During winter the ocean surface at the poles freezes over to form sea ice. Sea ice floats on the ocean surface and has a matrix structure caused by the rejection of salts during freezing. In the summer sea ice melts at its surface creating melt ponds. An accurate estimate of the fraction of the upper sea-ice surface covered in melt

  10. Experimental Ecology of Food Webs: Complex Systems in Temporary Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry M. Wilbur

    1997-01-01

    A food web graphically represents the paths of nutrients and energy through the living components of an ecosystem and the context in which individuals exploit their prey and avoid their enemies. Temporary ponds are excellent arenas for the study of food webs because they are discrete communities that can be mimicked in containers that approach the realism of natural habitats.

  11. Bioclogging and Biocementation in Construction of Water Pond in Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J.; Ivanov, V.; Stabnikov, V.; Li, B.

    2012-12-01

    Conventionally, compacted bentonite, geosynthetic clay liner or plastic liners are used to seal ponds, channels, and reservoirs in sand. Recently, a new approach to form a low permeability layer of several centimetres thick through the microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process has been developed (Chu et al., 2012). This method has been adopted to build a laboratory scale water pond model in sand. Calcium solution for bioclogging and biocementation was supplied initially by spaying to form a layer of the clogged sand by precipitation in the pores and then by slow percolation from solution above sand surface, which formed a crust of calcite. This combination of bioclogging and biocementation formed a sand layer of 1 - 3 cm depth with low permeability. The permeability of sand after this treatment was reduced from the order of 10^-4 m/s to 10^-7 m/s when an average 2.1 kg of Ca per m^2 of sand surface was precipitated. The bending strengths of the walls and the base of the model pond were in the range of 90 to 256 kPa. The unconfined compressive strengths obtained from samples from the walls and the base were in the range of 215 to 932 kPa. The graded sand and uniform supply of calcium solution were used for the model pond construction but it was significant spatial three-dimensional heterogeneity of sand bioclogging and biocementation.

  12. How Circulation of Water Affects Freezing in Ponds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Theresa; Lamontagne, Robert; Letzring, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    One means of preventing the top of a pond from freezing involves running a circulating pump near the bottom to agitate the surface and expose it to air throughout the winter months. This phenomenon is similar to that of the flowing of streams in subzero temperatures and to the running of taps to prevent pipe bursts in winter. All of these cases…

  13. HOLDING PONDS FOR ADULT SALMON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    for artificial propagation. The characteristic reactions of the confined salmon are described. Design drawings Retention of adult salmon 2 Holding pond design 2 Prevention of self-inflicted injury 2 Factors influencing self-inflicted injuries during the holding period. An average current velocity of 0.2 fps is maintained

  14. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT FOREGROUND) HARDY POND, WEIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT FOREGROUND) HARDY POND, WEIR OF EMERGENCY SPILLWAY, AND ROADWAY OVER CREST OF EMBANKMENT (HAER No. MI-100-A), WITH INTAKE TOWER (HAER No. MI-100-D) IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Hardy Hydroelectric Plant, Emergency Spillway, 6928 East Thirty-sixth Street, Newaygo, Newaygo County, MI

  15. Pond culture of seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun; Sun, Hongyan; Li, Haipeng; Peng, Pengfei

    2013-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum is widely distributed throughout the coastal waters of Asia and has high commercial value. In recent years, its natural biomass has declined due to over-exploitation and environmental pollution. To seek for a feasible way to culture this seaweed efficiently, we designed a simple long-line system in a shrimp pond for the culture during winter, and the growth and nutritional composition of the seaweed were examined. Results show that the culture system was durable and flexible allowing S. hemiphyllum to grow vertically off the muddy bottom of the pond. Although the length of pondcultured S. hemiphyllum was inhibited by water depth, the weight-specific growth rate ((1.65±0.17)%/d) was nearly three times higher than that of wild plants ((0.62±0.19)%/d). The crude protein (6.92%±0.88%) and ash content (21.52%±0.07%) of the pond-cultured seaweed were significantly lower than those of the wild plants (9.38%±0.43% and 26.93%±0.07%, respectively); however, crude fat (1.01%±0.04%) was significantly higher than that of the wild plants (0.87%±0.02%). In addition, the nutritional composition of both pond-cultured and wild S. hemiphyllum was comparable to or even higher than those of other common seaweeds being used as food and/or aquaculture fodder. Future studies shall be focused on the impact of environmental parameters on its growth and nutritional composition.

  16. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF COOLING TOWER AND COOLING POND PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements were made relating to the behavior of water-vapor plumes from forced-draft cooling towers and from cooling ponds. There were three categories of measurements. (1) Ambient weather data including temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. These measurements ...

  17. Food sources and lipid retention of zooplankton in subarctic ponds

    E-print Network

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    Food sources and lipid retention of zooplankton in subarctic ponds HEATHER L. MARIASH*, MATTEO, University of Jyva¨skyla¨, Jyva¨skyla¨, Finland Freshwater Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen source for the zooplankton. To test this, we used a combination of fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

  18. MONITORING OF A RETENTION POND FOR EFFECTS OF MAINTENANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA?s Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP monitored was a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed. This BMP, designated RC-5, is o...

  19. MONITORING OF A RETENTION POND BEFORE AND AFTER MAINTENANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA?s Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored is a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed. This BMP, designated RC-...

  20. Ponds Freeze in Winter -- Why Doesn't the Ocean?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New England Aquarium

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore how salt water freezes in comparison to fresh water. Use this experiment to consider how pond animals survive cold winters in comparison to animals that live in the ocean. This resource includes information about freezing points as well as examples of how different animals respond to the winter cold.

  1. 25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ON LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. THE SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 IS OFF VIEW TO THE RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.

  3. Pathogen removal mechanisms in macrophyte and algal waste stabilization ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Awuah

    2006-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds are recognized as the solution to domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries. The use of such natural systems is considered to be very important. This is because it is cheap, easy to construct and they do not require high skilled labour. In the developing countries the objectives for wastewater treatment should put emphasis on pathogen removal since

  4. LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 1. PETROLEUM WASTEWATER POND BOTTOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations on a land treatment site for management of waste bottoms from a petroleum wastewater treatment pond. The waste is typically 13% solids, 25% oil, and 62% water as spread. The site was sampled twice, and observ...

  5. Science from the Pond up: Using Measurement to Introduce Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Frank; Abell, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors engaged nonscience majors enrolled in an integrated science course with a prototype activity designed to change their mindset from cookbook to inquiry science. This article describes the activity, the Warm Little Pond, which helped students develop essential understanding of basic statistics, significant figures, and the idea that…

  6. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 ?m, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. PMID:25721977

  7. Toxicity of Stormwater Treatment Pond Sediments to Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Karouna-Renier; D. W. Sparling

    1997-01-01

    Stormwater runoff from highways and commercial, industrial, and residential areas contains a wide spectrum of pollutants including heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, sediment, and nutrients. Recent efforts to reduce the impacts of urbanization on natural wetlands and other receiving waters have included the construction of stormwater treatment ponds and wetlands. These systems provide flood control and improve water quality

  8. Risks associated with the use of chemicals in pond aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude E. Boyd; Laurence Massaut

    1999-01-01

    The most common substances used in pond aquaculture are fertilizers and liming materials. Fertilizers are highly soluble and release nutrients that can cause eutrophication of natural waters. Fertilizers are also corrosive and some are highly explosive, so proper handling is necessary to prevent accidents. Some liming materials are caustic and can be hazardous to workers if proper precautions are not

  9. Harmful cyanobacterial toxic blooms in waste stabilization ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Oudra; M. El Andaloussi; S. Franca; P. Barros; R. Martins; K. Oufdou; B. Sbiyyaa; M. Loudiki; N. Mezrioui; V. Vasconcelos

    2000-01-01

    A coccoid picocyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (0.6-2 µm of cell diameter) was found to be dominant during summer period in the experimental wastewater stabilisation pond of Marrakesh. The taxono- my of this isolated strain was confirmed by electron microscope study. The general patterns of ultrastructure and the mode of cell division resemble Chroococcales. The cyanobacterium strain was axenic and cultured on

  10. 9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and Clenny Run, with intersection of State Routes 92 and 100 beyond, Brandywine Creek State Park in background, mixed deciduous trees along top of hill - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  11. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...FXRS282108E8PD0-134-F2013227943] South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds...proposed project is Phase 2 of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of...Ecological Reserve. The overall south bay salt pond restoration area includes...

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V leach pond. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the BORAX-V leach pond located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The leach pond became radioactively contaminated from the periodic discharge of low-level liquid waste during operation of the Boiling Water Reactor Experiments (BORAX) from 1954 to 1964. This report describes work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of stabilizing the leach pond and preventing the spread of contamination. D and D of the BORAX-V leach pond consisted to backfilling the pond with clean soil, grading and seeding the area, and erecting a permanent marker to identify very low-level subsurface contamination.

  13. One-dimensional transient finite difference model of an operational salinity gradient solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Golding, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling approach used to simulate the transient behavior of a salinity gradient solar pond. A system of finite difference equations are used to generate the time dependent temperature and salinity profiles within the pond. The stability of the pond, as determined by the capacity of the resulting salinity profile to suppress thermal convection within the primary gradient region of the pond, is continually monitored and when necessary adjustments are made to the thickness of the gradient zone. Results of the model are then compared to measurements taken during two representative seasonal periods at the University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP's) research solar pond.

  14. Don Quixote Pond Sediments: Surface and Subsurface Chemistry and Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, P. A. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2014-12-01

    Don Quixote Pond, like Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for calcium and chlorine weathering and distribution on Mars. It is located in the western part of the North Fork about 100 m above Mean Seawater Level; its brine is seasonally frozen [1]. Field observations show zones of discoloration which grow lighter with distance from the pond edges. Four sediment cores, a set of radial surface samples, special surface samples, and samples of local rocks were obtained [2]. We report on chemical and mineral analyses of traverse samples and on two cores. Core DQ20 is a northeastern shoreline core. Its soluble salt concentration exceeds 200 micromoles/g in the top 5 cm, and then falls to less than 70 micromoles/g at the permafrost depth of 15 cm. These concentrations are low when compared to similarly positioned locations at Don Juan Pond and to cores from Prospect Mesa close to Lake Vanda, Wright Valley. Halite, soda niter, tachyhydrite and/bischovite are suggested from the ionic molar relationships Measured halite concentrations of surface samples, collected along a traverse of 35 m from the pond outwards, range from over 5% to trace amounts, decreasing with distance. Gypsum is also present in almost all of these samples ranging from 0.2% to 2.6%, but does not exhibit a trend. However, in core DQ35, located at a distance of 15 m along the traverse, gypsum decreases from 2.5% to 0.6% from the surface to the permafrost depth of 12 cm. While DQ35 and radial samples show high quartz and albite abundance, samples that contained visible encrustations and evaporites are low in these minerals and rich in highly diverse alteration products. Don Juan Basin ponds may have formed by a complex surface water mobilization of weathering products [3] and local groundwater action [4,5]. In contrast, Don Quixote pond mineralogy and chemistry may be consistent with a less complex shallow and deep groundwater system origin [1]. [1] Harris H.J.H. & Cartwright K., 1981, in: Dry Valley Drilling Project, L.D. McGinnis, ed., Antarctic Research Series, 33, 193-214. [2] Gibson E. K. et al., 1983, Journal of Geophysical Research, 88, A912-A928. [3] Dickson J. L. et al., 2013, Sci. Rep. 3: 1166. [4] Englert P. et al., GSA Annual Meeting 2013, abs. T65, 11-4. [5] Harris H.J.H., 1981, Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Illinois.

  15. IMPROVING HYDROLOGIC SUSTAINABILITY OF TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY CAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For small to mid-sized rain events, LID scenarios, including permeable pavements, rainwater harvesting, green roofs, and riparian buffer strips perform similarly to a conventional Best Management Practice, a detention pond, with respect to peak flows and HFR. For large rain ev...

  16. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata ?-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata ?-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the ?-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata ?-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  17. Mourning dove use of man-made ponds in a cold-desert ecosystem in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, F.P.; Flake, L.D. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (USA))

    1989-10-31

    Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in a cold-desert ecosystem used man-made ponds for watering, feeding, gritting, loafing, and courting. Diurnal pond use by doves peaked in the morning and evening. Monthly dove use of ponds fluctuated slightly during the summers of 1984 and 1985. Pond size, pH, and shoreline characteristics had little association with the intensity of pond use by doves; but geographic isolation of ponds was weakly associated had pond-use intensity. The number of doves present at the beginning of the one-hour period was a poor indicator of the number of arrivals during that period. We conclude that man-made water sources are important in areas where water availability may limit mourning dove productivity and abundance. It is suggested that mourning dove arrival rates could be used as a population index in cold-desert areas.

  18. Surface and subsurface soils at the Pond B dam: July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N.V.

    1999-12-03

    Pond B, 685-13G, is an inactive reactor cooling impoundment built in 1961 on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Between 1961 and 1964, Pond B received R-Reactor cooling water discharges that were contaminated with {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium. Though the pond has not been used since 1964, radionuclides from the contaminated cooling water remain in the water and in the surface sediments of the pond. The current proposal to fix and repair the Pond B dam structure includes installing a new drain system and monitoring equipment. The dam will be reinforced with additional previous material on the downstream face of the dam. The objectives of this report are to describe the sampling methodology used during the July 1998 sampling event at the downstream face of the Pond B dam and in Pond B, present the results of the sampling event, and compare, where possible, these results to related risk-based standards.

  19. Amphibian Community Similarity Between Natural Ponds And Constructed Ponds Of Multiple Types In Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Daniel Denton

    2011-01-01

    Amphibians are in a worldwide decline. Among the many causes for amphibian declines, habitat loss and alteration remains one of the most significant. A lack of federal protection for isolated wetlands that provide habitat for unique species has resulted in the loss of breeding habitat and unregulated mitigation practices. Ponds built for mitigation purposes often do not replicate the lost

  20. Zoo-heleoplankton structure in three artificial ponds of North-eastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, S M; Carnevali, R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the abundance and species richness of zoo-heleoplankton bigger than 53 microm in an annual cycle under similar climate conditions in three artificial ponds, in order to observe the changes during an annual cycle. Samples were taken monthly from June 1993 to July 1994 in Corrientes, Argentina. The first pond (A) was covered an 80% by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), the second one (B) with bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kurtzing) and the last one (C) with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The water was more acidic at pond A, and the water at pond B contained more dissolved oxygen concentration than the water at the other two ponds. The zoo-heleoplankton densities varied between 20-1728 ind.l(-1) at pond A, 42-4082 ind.l(-1) at pond B and 148-2447 ind.l(-1) at pond C. The maximum zoo-heleoplankton abundance was found in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom during Autumn 1994 and the minimum abundance was found in the one with a predominance of E. crassipes. The rank of species richness was pond A > pond B > pond C. Rotifera was the most abundant group in pond A whereas the larval stages of Copepoda were abundant in the other two ponds. Anuraeopsis navicula Rousselt 1910 was the dominant population in the pond with macrophytes prevalence. Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1776 and larval stage of Copepoda had variable proportions in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom. Thermocyclops decipiens (Kiefer 1929) was present during the annual cycle only in the pond with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The succession of taxa was observed in the pond with coverage of aquatic macrophytes and with cyanobacteria bloom. Differences in species richness and low similarity in zoo-heleoplankton between ponds were determined by differences in the quality of the water in relation to the presence of macrophytes, cyanobacteria, organic matter deposited in the bottom and fish predation. Multiple regression analysis (stepwise) revealed that water transparency, dissolved oxygen and conductivity were the environmental variables that explained more than 42% of variability in the abundance of the dominant species. PMID:19419034

  1. Performance Assessment of Three Types of Rainwater Detention Structures for an Urban Development in Wilsonville, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeakley, J. A.; Norton, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The performance of three types of low-impact development (LID) rainwater detention structures were tested using simulated storms and ambient rainfall for water quantity and quality parameters in various seasons. The structures included stormwater planter boxes (n=12), extensive ecoroofs (n=2) and a 93 m2 section of porous pavement. The planter box types varied with respect to soil depths (22-26 cm and 38-42 cm), soil mixes (n=2) and with respect to the use of a fabric filter, resulting in 6 unique planter box types measured, each of which had 2 replicates. For the planter boxes and porous pavement, measurement of water retention and time lag between input and output flow was conducted for 6 artificial storms, with inputs approximating a storm intensity of 1.3 cm/24 hr. For the ecoroof panels, ambient rainfall and resulting ecoroof runoff were collected over a 6 month period. Results showed that water retention varied from 0% to 59% for the stormwater planter boxes over 72 separate storm simulations, with a median stormwater retention of 20%. Lag time between the centroids of input and output flow varied from 1.7 min to 29.9 min, with a mean stormwater lag time of 12.8 min for all planter boxes. Using repeated measures ANOVA, with a significance level of p<0.05, differences were found among the planter box types for water retention during dry antecendent storms and for time lag for all storms. In general, as shown by multiple comparison tests, planter box configurations that used a finer, less porous soil mix and had no fabric filter produced the largest stormwater retention and the longest delay in transmission of stormwater through the planter box. For water quality for 5 simulated storms for all boxes, mean specific conductivity increased by 27 µS/cm from input to output flow, and mean water temperature decreased by 1.9°C. Ecoroof water retention varied from 0% to 100% depending on storm duration, with a negative exponential relationship found between water retention % and storm duration (adj R2 = 0.41, p<.005). Porous pavement storm simulations showed >99% retention for 3 storms, while not performing as well during 3 other storm simulations due to clogging that occurred on site. Overall this study found that all three structures, stormwater boxes, ecoroofs and porous pavement, hold promise for a significant reduction in stormwater in urban and suburban neighborhoods.

  2. Effects of marsh pond terracing on coastal wintering waterbirds before and after Hurricane Rita.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Nyman, John A

    2011-11-01

    From February to March 2005-2006, we surveyed wintering waterbirds to test effects of terracing on coastal pond use before and after Hurricane Rita. Marsh terracing is intended to slow coastal marsh loss in the Chenier Plain by slowing marsh erosion and encouraging vegetation expansion. Terraces also increase marsh edge in ponds, possibly benefiting waterbirds. We monitored paired terraced and unterraced ponds in three sites within southwestern Louisiana's Chenier Plain. Waterbirds were 75% more numerous in terraced than unterraced ponds. Waterbird richness was similar among ponds when corrected for number of individuals, suggesting terracing increased bird density but did not provide habitat unique from unterraced ponds. Birds were 93% more numerous following Hurricane Rita, mostly due to an influx of migrating waterfowl. Year round residents were similar in number before and after Hurricane Rita. Resident richness did not differ among years after correcting for number of observed individuals. Wading and dabbling foragers were more abundant in terraced ponds and these two guilds represented 74% of birds observed. We detected no difference among ponds for other guilds, i.e., probing, aerial, and diving foragers. Increasing proportion of mash edge increased bird density disproportionately: On average ponds with 10% edge had 6 birds observed and ponds with 30% edge had 16 birds observed. Terraces increased habitat interspersion and were an effective tool for increasing numbers of wintering waterfowl and wading birds. The extent to which terraces were sustainable following hurricane forces is unknown. PMID:21874599

  3. Effects of Marsh Pond Terracing on Coastal Wintering Waterbirds Before and After Hurricane Rita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Jessica L.; Nyman, John A.

    2011-11-01

    From February to March 2005-2006, we surveyed wintering waterbirds to test effects of terracing on coastal pond use before and after Hurricane Rita. Marsh terracing is intended to slow coastal marsh loss in the Chenier Plain by slowing marsh erosion and encouraging vegetation expansion. Terraces also increase marsh edge in ponds, possibly benefiting waterbirds. We monitored paired terraced and unterraced ponds in three sites within southwestern Louisiana's Chenier Plain. Waterbirds were 75% more numerous in terraced than unterraced ponds. Waterbird richness was similar among ponds when corrected for number of individuals, suggesting terracing increased bird density but did not provide habitat unique from unterraced ponds. Birds were 93% more numerous following Hurricane Rita, mostly due to an influx of migrating waterfowl. Year round residents were similar in number before and after Hurricane Rita. Resident richness did not differ among years after correcting for number of observed individuals. Wading and dabbling foragers were more abundant in terraced ponds and these two guilds represented 74% of birds observed. We detected no difference among ponds for other guilds, i.e., probing, aerial, and diving foragers. Increasing proportion of mash edge increased bird density disproportionately: On average ponds with 10% edge had 6 birds observed and ponds with 30% edge had 16 birds observed. Terraces increased habitat interspersion and were an effective tool for increasing numbers of wintering waterfowl and wading birds. The extent to which terraces were sustainable following hurricane forces is unknown.

  4. Aquatic vegetation and trophic condition of Cape Cod (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) kettle ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, C.T.; Barrett, N.E.; Portnoy, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The species composition and relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was evaluated in five Cape Cod, Massachusetts, freshwater kettle ponds, representing a range of trophic conditions from oligotrophic to eutrophic. At each pond, aquatic vegetation and environmental variables (slope, water depth, sediment bulk density, sediment grain size, sediment organic content and porewater inorganic nutrients) were measured along five transects extending perpendicular to the shoreline from the upland border into the pond. Based on a variety of multivariate methods, including Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), an indirect gradient analysis technique, and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), a direct gradient approach, it was determined that the eutrophic Herring Pond was dominated by floating aquatic vegetation (Brasenia schreberi, Nymphoides cordata, Nymphaea odorata), and the algal stonewort, Nitella. Partial CCA suggested that high porewater PO4-P concentrations and fine-grained sediments strongly influenced the vegetation of this eutrophic pond. In contrast, vegetation of the oligotrophic Duck Pond was sparse, contained no floating aquatics, and was dominated by emergent plants. Low porewater nutrients, low sediment organic content, high water clarity and low pH (4.8) best defined the environmental characteristics of this oligotrophic pond. Gull Pond, with inorganic nitrogen-enriched sediments, also exhibited a flora quite different from the oligotrophic Duck Pond. The species composition and relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes provide good indicators of the trophic status of freshwater ponds and should be incorporated into long-term monitoring programs aimed at detecting responses to anthropogenically-derived nutrient loading.

  5. Aquatic vegetation and trophic condition of Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) kettle ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, C.T.; Barrett, N.E.; Portnoy, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The species composition and relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was evaluated in five Cape Cod, Massachusetts, freshwater kettle ponds, representing a range of trophic conditions from oligotrophic to eutrophic. At each pond, aquatic vegetation and environmental variables (slope, water depth, sediment bulk density, sediment grain size, sediment organic content and porewater inorganic nutrients) were measured along five transects extending perpendicular to the shoreline from the upland border into the pond. Based on a variety of multivariate methods, including Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), an indirect gradient analysis technique, and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), a direct gradient approach, it was determined that the eutrophic Herring Pond was dominated by floating aquatic vegetation (Brasenia schreberi, Nymphoides cordata, Nymphaea odorata), and the algal stonewort, Nitella. Partial CCA suggested that high porewater PO4-P concentrations and fine-grained sediments strongly influenced the vegetation of this eutrophic pond. In contrast, vegetation of the oligotrophic Duck Pond was sparse, contained no floating aquatics, and was dominated by emergent plants. Low porewater nutrients, low sediment organic content, high water clarity and low pH (4.8) best defined the environmental characteristics of this oligotrophic pond. Gull Pond, with inorganic nitrogen-enriched sediments, also exhibited a flora quite different from the oligotrophic Duck Pond. The species composition and relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes provide good indicators of the trophic status of freshwater ponds and should be incorporated into long-term monitoring programs aimed at detecting responses to anthropogenically-derived nutrient loading.

  6. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  7. Distribution pattern and role of phosphate solubilizing bacteria in the enhancement of fertilizer value of rock phosphate in aquaculture ponds: state-of-the-art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Jana

    Phosphorus, though required in small quantities, has often been implicated as the most limiting element controlling biological\\u000a productivity in natural waters. As a result, aquaculture ponds demand for frequent application of phosphate fertilizer for\\u000a enhanced fish production. It is estimated that about 10% of the fertilizer applied caused increase in soluble phosphate in\\u000a the water phase, which is absorbed by

  8. Turbidity study of solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Li; Fang Yin; Wence Sun; Caihong Zhang; Yufeng Shi

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the turbidity reduction in solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source. The experiment on the turbidity reduction efficiency with chemicals indicates that alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) has a better turbidity control property because of its strongly flocculating and also well depressing the growing of algae and bacteria in the seawater. In comparison with bittern

  9. Cyanobacterial blooms and water quality in two urban fish ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharmeen Rahman; Abu Sayed Jewel

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence and abundance of cyanobacterial population was monitored monthly in two urban fish ponds in Rajshahi City Corporation area from January to December, 2006. The bloom was observed in March, August and September. Some environmental parameters such as water temperature, transparency, pH, Dissolved Oxygen(DO), free Carbon dioxide(CO2), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), NO2-N, NH3-N, NH4 + , toxic ammonia, Oxidation

  10. Road salts as environmental constraints in urban pond food webs.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Swan, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is an emerging environmental filter in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive chloride road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs through changes in zooplankton community composition as well as density and biomass of primary producers and consumers. From May - July 2009, we employed a 2×2×2 full-factorial design to manipulate chloride concentration (low?=?177 mg L(-1) Cl(-/)high?=?1067 mg L(-1) Cl(-)), gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles (presence/absence) and source of stormwater pond algae and zooplankton inoculum (low conductance/high conductance urban ponds) in 40, 600-L mesocosms. Road salt did serve as a constraint on zooplankton community structure, driving community divergence between the low and high chloride treatments. Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll [a] µg L(-1)) in the mesocosms was significantly greater for the high conductance inoculum (P<0.001) and in the high chloride treatment (P?=?0.046), whereas periphyton biomass was significantly lower in the high chloride treatment (P?=?0.049). Gray treefrog tadpole time to metamorphosis did not vary significantly between treatments. However, mass at metamorphosis was greater among tadpoles that experienced a faster than average time to metamorphosis and exposure to high chloride concentrations (P?=?0.039). Our results indicate differential susceptibility to chloride salts among algal resources and zooplankton taxa, and further suggest that road salts can act as a significant environmental constraint on urban stormwater pond communities. PMID:24587259

  11. Application of constructed wetlands on wastewater treatment for aquaculture ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gu Li; Zhenbin Wu; Shuiping Cheng; Wei Liang; Feng He; Guiping Fu; Fei Zhong

    2007-01-01

    A group of constructed wetlands (CWs) were applied to the recirculating aquaculture system. This study assessed the performance\\u000a of CWs in treating the aquaculture wastewater, examined the water quality condition of aquaculture ponds and the growth and\\u000a the survival rate of “target” species (Ictalurus punctatus and Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that CWs were effective on reducing the concentrations of

  12. Habitat background selection by colonizing intermittent pond invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Dudley Williams; Nynke Heeg; A. Katarina Magnusson

    2007-01-01

    Habitat selection processes by organisms colonizing freshwater bodies have not been commonly studied, despite their obvious\\u000a relevance to wetland ecology and management. We monitored, weekly, all organisms that appeared in tanks with different backgrounds\\u000a (brown; white) and substrate\\/food availability treatments (control; added leaf litter; added algae) floating on the water\\u000a surface of a natural intermittent pond. The experiment lasted for

  13. New Anabaena and Nostoc cyanophages from sewage settling ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hu; T. Thiel; Giddings T. H. Jr; C. P. Wolk

    1981-01-01

    We have isolated, from sewage settling ponds, 16 cyanophages for heterocyst forming, filamentous cyanobacteria of the genera Anabaena and Nostoc. These phages fall into three groups based on morphology, host range, one-step growth curves, and restriction digests. On the basis of these criteria they can be distinguished from cyanophages A-1(L), A-4(L), N-1, and AN-10 which we received from other laboratories.

  14. Method for Harvesting Large Quantities of Zooplankton from Hatchery Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry G. Graves; J. C. Morrow

    1988-01-01

    A method for harvesting live zooplankton with a modified propellor-lift pump was tested in nine 0.1-acre unfertilized hatchery ponds. As judged by live-weight estimates of zooplankton harvested, collecting zooplankton at night with a light suspended over the pump intake was more effective than collecting them at night without the light or during the day. This method should be convenient and

  15. Comparison of Five Fertilization Programs for Fish Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude E. Boyd

    1981-01-01

    Five fertilization programs were compared in sunfish ponds at Auburn, Alabama, during the 1980 growing season. Each fertilization program was replicated four times and fertilizers were applied on 12 dates. Amounts of fertilizer per application, types of fertilizer (percentages by weight), and net production of sunfish were: 45 kg\\/hectare of fishpond fertilizer (N-P2O5-K2O:20–20-5), 228 kg\\/hectare of sunfish; 20 kg\\/hectare of

  16. 24. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ON LEFT WITH ELEVATOR/CRUSHED ORE BIN TOWER TO RIGHT. MAIN MILL BUILDING IN CENTER WITH THICKENER ADDITION TO RIGHT. MACHINE SHOP ON CRUDE ORE BIN TERRACE ABOVE ROASTER. THE LOCATION OF THE 100,000 GALLON MILL WATER TANK CAN BE SEEN AT THE CENTER RIGHT NEAR THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. 165. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    165. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ON LEFT WITH ELEVATOR/CRUSHED ORE BIN TOWER TO RIGHT. MAIN MILL BUILDING IN CENTER WITH THICKENER ADDITION TO RIGHT. MACHINE SHOP ON CRUDE ORE BIN TERRACE ABOVE ROASTER. THE LOCATION OF THE 100,000 GALLON MILL WATER TANK CAN BE SEEN AT THE CENTER RIGHT NEAR THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. Food Selection by Grass Carp Fingerlings in a Vegetated Pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas E. Colle; Jerome V. Shireman; Roger W. Rottmann

    1978-01-01

    Five thousand grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fry were stocked into a 0.81-hectare pond in Marion County, Florida. The fry grew from 48.2 mm to 186 mm total length in 6 months with a survival rate of less than 7%. Food consumption decreased to near maintenance ration when water temperature fell below 14 C and growth was reduced. The 76 grass

  19. Sydney Tar Ponds: Some Problems in Quantifying Toxic Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDWARD FURIMSKY

    2002-01-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate\\u000a a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia,\\u000a Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials

  20. Inquiry-based Investigations into Pond Water Microorganisms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marie Doucet (Lake Charles Boston High School REV)

    1994-07-30

    These lessons are part of a unit investigating the abundant life found in pond water and is used to develop scientific, technological, and critical thinking skills in biology students. The nature of the activities focuses on exploration, invention, and application and provides students with attitudes of discovery and curiosity into their natural, physical world. Much attention is given to scientific process skills and higher-order thinking as students learn problem-solving, graph construction, graphical analysis, and application.

  1. Variations in fecundity of white crappie in Conowingo Pond, Pennsylvania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DILIP MATHUR; PAULINE L. MCCREIGHT; GEORGE A. NARDACCI

    1979-01-01

    Annual variations in fecundity of the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) occurred in Conowingo Pond, a 35.8-km² impoundment on the lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania. The relative fecundity of 119 white crappies in 1971 to 1973 ranged from 177 to 295 eggs per gram of fish. In 1974 to 1976 the relative fecundity of 154 white crappies ranged from 259 to 304.

  2. Variations in Fecundity of White Crappie in Conowingo Pond, Pennsylvania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilip Mathur; Pauline L. McCreight; George A. Nardacci

    1979-01-01

    Annual variations in fecundity of the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) occurred in Conowingo Pond, a 35.8-km impoundment on the lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania. The relative fecundity of 119 white crappies in 1971 to 1973 ranged from 177 to 295 eggs per gram of fish. In 1974–1976 the relative fecundity of 154 white crappies ranged from 259 to 304. Although length,

  3. Groundwater fluxes in a shallow seasonal wetland pond: The effect of bathymetric uncertainty on predicted water and solute balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Cook, Peter G.; Brunner, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The successful management of groundwater dependent shallow seasonal wetlands requires a sound understanding of groundwater fluxes. However, such fluxes are hard to quantify. Water volume and solute mass balance models can be used in order to derive an estimate of groundwater fluxes within such systems. This approach is particularly attractive, as it can be undertaken using measurable environmental variables, such as; rainfall, evaporation, pond level and salinity. Groundwater fluxes estimated from such an approach are subject to uncertainty in the measured variables as well as in the process representation and in parameters within the model. However, the shallow nature of seasonal wetland ponds means water volume and surface area can change rapidly and non-linearly with depth, requiring an accurate representation of the wetland pond bathymetry. Unfortunately, detailed bathymetry is rarely available and simplifying assumptions regarding the bathymetry have to be made. However, the implications of these assumptions are typically not quantified. We systematically quantify the uncertainty implications for eight different representations of wetland bathymetry for a shallow seasonal wetland pond in South Australia. The predictive uncertainty estimation methods provided in the Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis software (PEST) are used to quantify the effect of bathymetric uncertainty on the modelled fluxes. We demonstrate that bathymetry can be successfully represented within the model in a simple parametric form using a cubic Bézier curve, allowing an assessment of bathymetric uncertainty due to measurement error and survey detail on the derived groundwater fluxes compared with the fixed bathymetry models. Findings show that different bathymetry conceptualisations can result in very different mass balance components and hence process conceptualisations, despite equally good fits to observed data, potentially leading to poor management decisions for the wetlands. Model predictive uncertainty increases with the crudity of the bathymetry representation, however, approximations that capture the general shape of the wetland pond such as a power law or Bézier curve show only a small increase in prediction uncertainty compared to the full dGPS surveyed bathymetry, implying these may be sufficient for most modelling purposes.

  4. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  5. A solar pond driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. H.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    In this paper a solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This has been used to size the system for the application of desalting saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  6. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (?10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (?30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ?60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest. PMID:21330711

  7. Avian botulism epizootiology from sewage oxidation ponds in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, D.W.; Jensen, W.I.; Low, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    n the microenvironment concept of avian botulism epizootiology, it is hypothesized that invertebrate carcasses may serve both as a substrate for toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type C and as a vehicle for toxin transmission to water birds. We field-tested that hypothesis by attempting to induce botulism in wing-clipped mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) on sewage oxidation ponds in Utah. The experimental ponds were inoculated with C. botulinum spores in June 1974. Aquatic insect populations were monitored throughout the summer. Rotenone was used in August to kill insects in two ponds (one served as control), thereby providing potential substrate for clostridial growth and toxin production. Botulism was not detected among the birds even though they routinely ingested invertebrate carcasses. Samples of dead invertebrates contained no botulinum toxin. We concluded that the microenvironment concept, as it now stands, cannot always be a sufficient explanation of how type C botulism epizootics are initiated in nature. Other microbes may inhibit the growth of clostridial cells or destroy botulinum toxin.

  8. Turbidity study of solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nan; Sun, Wence; Shi, Yufeng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Yin, Fang [YLab, 358 South 700 East, Suit B-139, Salt Lake City, UT 84102 (United States); Zhang, Caihong [Dalian Thermoelectric Group Co. Ltd., Dalian 116001 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the turbidity reduction in solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source. The experiment on the turbidity reduction efficiency with chemicals indicates that alum (KAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O) has a better turbidity control property because of its strongly flocculating and also well depressing the growing of algae and bacteria in the seawater. In comparison with bittern and seawater, our experiment shows that the residual brine after desalination can keep limpidity for a long time even without any chemical in it. Experiments were also conducted on the diffusion of turbidity and salinity, which show that the turbidity did not diffuse upwards in the solution. In the experiment on subsidence of soil in the bittern and saline with the same salinity, it was found that soil subsided quite quickly in the pure saline water, but very slowly in the bittern. In this paper we also proposed an economical method to protect the solar pond from the damage of rain. Finally, thermal performance of a solar pond was simulated in the conditions of different turbidities using a thermal diffusion model. (author)

  9. Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature. PMID:21878760

  10. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  11. Studies of community structure and seasonal dynamics of planktonic copepods in saline-alkaline ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wen; Dong, Shuanglin

    2005-06-01

    Species abundance and seasonal succession of copepods in saline-alkaline ponds were studied in Zhaodian Fish Farm, Gaoqing County, Shandong Province, from 5 April 1997 to 1 September 1998. The results indicated that in the conditions of salinity ranging from 1.36 to 20 g/L, total alkalinity changing from 2.4 to 7.2 mmol/L and pH 8 9, zooplankton in saline-alkaline ponds was composed of freshwater salt-tolerated species or halophile species, some of which are halobiont species and usually occurs in freshwater. In our study, copepods were predominant in many fish-culture ponds and all control ponds without fishes in spring, late autumn and early winter. Dominant species of copepods were Sinocalanus tenellus, Cyclops vicinus, Thermocyclops taihokuensis. The biomass of copepods in the control ponds without fishes was higher than that of the fish-culture ponds.

  12. Locations and areas of ponds and Carolina Bays at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, J.D.; Woody, N.D.; Dicks, A.S.; Hollod, G.J.; Schalles, J.; Leversee, G.J.

    1982-05-01

    The Savannah River Plant has 28 ponds and 190 Carolina Bays on its 192,000-acreite. Excluding the Par Pond system, the mean pond area is 17.6 acre, with a range of 0.4 to 202.8 acres. Par Pond is the largest pond, with an area of 2500 acres. The mean Carolina Bay area is 6.6 acres, with a range of less than 0.3 to 124.0 acres. The geographical location of each pond and bay has been digitized and can be graphically displayed by computer. This capability will facilitate identification of wetland areas as required by Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands, May 24, 1977).

  13. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    This study used particle size analysis to investigate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of radiocesium (137Cs) in four irrigation ponds, ~4–5 months after the Fukushima Dai–ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Trap efficiency, represented by the inventory of 137Cs in pond sediment to the inventory of radiocesium in soil surrounding the pond (i.e., total 137Cs inventory), was less than 100% for all but one pond. Trap efficiency decreased as sediment particle size increased, indicating that sediments with a smaller particle size accumulate more 137Cs. In ponds showing low trap efficiency, fine sediment containing high concentrations of 137Cs appeared to be removed from the system by hydraulic flushing, leaving behind mostly coarse sediment. The results of this study suggest that sediment particle size can be used to estimate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of 137Cs in pond sediment, as well as the amount lost through hydraulic flushing. PMID:24682011

  14. Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

  15. Production Responses of Channel Catfish to Minimum Daily Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Earthen Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene L. Torrans

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the effects of the minimum daily dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the production parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in earthen ponds. Fifteen 1-acre ponds (five ponds per treatment) were managed as high-oxygen (minimum DO concentrations averaging 4.37 ppm or 54% air saturation from June through September), medium-oxygen (minimum DO concentrations averaging 2.68 ppm or 33.2% air

  16. Biomass-dependent effects of common carp on water quality in shallow ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew M. Chumchal; Weston H. Nowlin; Ray W. Drenner

    2005-01-01

    We examined the biomass-dependent effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on water quality in 10 ponds at the Eagle Mountain Fish Hatchery, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. Ponds contained 0–465 kg ha-1 of common carp. We measured limnological variables at weekly intervals for four weeks in early summer, after which ponds were drained and the biomass of fish and macrophytes was determined. Common

  17. The growth of Tilapia aurea in ponds receiving laying hen wastes

    E-print Network

    Burns, Robert Paul

    1978-01-01

    (Pagan, 1969) . Pagan (1969) noted that spawned eggs fall through floating cages, unfertilized; he reported that cage culture was efficient in producing more fish per unit volume than ponds, though little use has been made of cage culture by tilapia... of unfertilized pond waters. The remaining three ponds depicted in Figure 9 (p. 49) (fertilized by 50, 100, and 200 laying hens, respectively), presented a step-wise increase in phosphate level with increased laying hen wastes. Alkalinity and Hardness...

  18. Influence of hydrological parameters on growth of Penaeus vannamei Boone in earthen ponds 

    E-print Network

    Wendorf, Shad Byron

    1979-01-01

    suggested that dissolved oxygen, salinity, and dissolved carbon dioxide influ- enced growth. Several oxygen depletions and a dramatic reduction in salinity in mid-summer following heavy rainfall were observed during the growth seasonq substantiating... of dissolved oxygen (DO)~ by pond. 50 Number Page 10 Unmodified Bertalanffy equation fitted to the 1978 growth data (by pond), and results of the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test. (The degrees of freedom (df) listed below for each pond are the same...

  19. Measurements of radionuclide in Par Pond sediments with an underwater HPGe detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winn

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) effluent gamma emitting radionuclides in Par Pond sediment were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector prior to and following a 19 ft drawdown of the pond in 1991 to address dam repairs. These measurements provide a map of the ¹³⁷Cs concentrations of the pond sediment, indicating that 9.4 ± 1.5 Ci is exposed by

  20. Bathymetry mapping using a GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat: Application in waste stabilisation ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggins, Liah; Ghadouani, Anas; Ghisalberti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, bathymetry mapping of ponds, lakes and rivers have used techniques which are low in spatial resolution, sometimes subjective in terms of precision and accuracy, labour intensive, and that require a high level of safety precautions. In waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) in particular, sludge heights, and thus sludge volume, are commonly measured using a sludge judge (a clear plastic pipe with length markings). A remote control boat fitted with a GPS-equipped sonar unit can improve the resolution of depth measurements, and reduce safety and labour requirements. Sonar devices equipped with GPS technology, also known as fish finders, are readily available and widely used by people in boating. Through the use of GPS technology in conjunction with sonar, the location and depth can be recorded electronically onto a memory card. However, despite its high applicability to the field, this technology has so far been underutilised. In the case of WSP, the sonar can measure the water depth to the top of the sludge layer, which can then be used to develop contour maps of sludge distribution and to determine sludge volume. The coupling of sonar technology with a remotely operative vehicle has several advantages of traditional measurement techniques, particularly in removing human subjectivity of readings, and the sonar being able to collect more data points in a shorter period of time, and continuously, with a much higher spatial resolution. The GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat has been tested on in excess of 50 WSP within Western Australia, and has shown a very strong correlation (R2 = 0.98) between spot readings taken with the sonar compared to a sludge judge. This has shown that the remote control boat with GPS-sonar device is capable of providing sludge bathymetry with greatly increased spatial resolution, while greatly reducing profiling time. Remotely operated vehicles, such as the one built in this study, are useful for not only determining sludge distribution, but also in calculating sludge accumulation rates, and in evaluating pond hydraulic efficiency (e.g., as input bathymetry for computational fluid dynamics models). This technology is not limited to application for wastewater management, and could potentially have a wider application in the monitoring of other small to medium water bodies, including reservoirs, channels, recreational water bodies, river beds, mine tailings dams and commercial ports.