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Sample records for small detention ponds

  1. Sound management of sediment yields at the catchment scale by small detention ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, A. E.; Wasilewicz, M.; Banasik, K.

    2012-04-01

    Keywords: small detention pond, sediment deposits, reservoir silting, urban catchment Globally observed land use and climate changes have a clear impact on the sediment yields deriving from the catchment. Released sediments may originate from different point and non-point sources. Thereby it is difficult to manage and reduce sediment loads directly at the source without undertaking detailed and expensive monitoring programs. Small detention ponds are therefore frequently used water management systems in urban settlements to improve water quality at the catchment scale. Such ponds located at the outlet of small basins allow reducing sediment loads downstream. Additionally, they capture sediment-associated contaminants as heavy metals, nutrients and micropollutants. On the other hand, a sedimentation within the pond may be a severe problem because it decreases over the time its retention capacity. This is especially significant for small detention ponds, where the siltation rate is high. These ponds can loose their total capacity already after few years of their exploitation when no dredging operations are considered. Unfortunately, maintenance costs of small ponds are expensive and usually not taken into account when planning and constructing such ponds. Consequently, many small detention ponds become inefficient after an entire use of their capacity. Therefore careful planning of maintenance options is essential to keep an effectiveness of such ponds on the expected level. Within presented here study we addressed the problem of silting small detention ponds and we assessed an applicability of such ponds to manage sediment yields discharged from small urban catchments. To this end, a periodic measurement of deposited sediments within a small detention pond (1.35 ha, 5 years old, Warsaw, Poland) has been undertaken. This pond receives a polluted runoff from a small urbanized basin (30 km2), for which no routine sediment measurement exists. The spatial sediment thickness within the pond was measured twice (in 2009 and 2011) by the echo sounding technique. A resulting sediment deposit volume was computed by constructing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the pond. An alternating reservoir volume was estimated for both measurements and confronted with the initial characteristics (2007). Our first results demonstrate that the pond will loose its sufficient capacity after about ten years if no regular sediment dredging is undertaken. Moreover, the useful time of the pond will decrease by two years when the catchment area increases by 10% due to expected urbanization. Furthermore, different scenarios of maintenance options were analyzed and recommendations for sound sediment management of similar small ponds in urban catchments were given.

  2. Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond - Wetlands system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Suspended-phase efficiencies for solids, lead, and zinc ranged between 42 and 66%. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72%. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. Total (dissolved + suspended) solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 41 and 73%. Efficiencies for total nitrogen and phosphorus were 21 and 17%, respectively. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond of wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents. Total solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 55 and 83%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies were 36 and 43%, respectively.The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72 percent. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond and wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents.

  3. Load-detention efficiencies in a dry-pond basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Hess, Larry G.

    1989-01-01

    Inflow and outflow to a dry-pond detention basin in Topeka, Kansas, were monitored for 19 storms during a 14-month period. Samples of runoff were collected automatically at two inflow and one outflow locations. Inflow and outflow constituent loads were computed with subsequent computation of load-detention efficiencies. Three constituents (dissolved solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, and total organic carbon) had negative (larger loads out than in) median detention efficiencies (-78.5 percent, -9.0 percent, and -3.0 percent, respectively). Median detention efficiencies for the other constituents were: suspended solids (2.5 percent), chemical oxygen demand (15.5 percent), nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen (20.0 percent), ammonia nitrogen (69.0 percent), total phosphorus (18.5 percent), dissolved phosphorus (0.0 percent), total lead (66.0 percent), and total zinc (65.0 percent).

  4. Pollutant removal efficacy of three wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; Ensign, Scott H; Wheeler, Tracey L; Mayes, David B

    2002-01-01

    Monthly inflow and outflow data were collected from three wet detention ponds in Wilmington, North Carolina, for a 29-mo period. Two ponds drained urban areas consisting primarily of residential, mixed services, and retail usage, while the third mainly drained residential and golf course areas. One of the urban ponds achieved significant reductions in total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and fecal coliform bacterial counts. This pond was characterized by a high length to width ratio, with most inputs directed into the upper area, and extensive coverage by a diverse community of aquatic macrophyte vegetation. The second urban pond achieved significant reductions in turbidity and fecal coliform bacterial counts, but there were no significant differences between inflowing and outflowing water nutrient concentrations. There were substantial suburban runoff inputs entering the mid- and lower-pond areas that short-circuited pollutant removal contact time. The golf course pond showed significant increases in nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate in the outflow relative to the inflow, probably as a result of course fertilization. However, nutrient concentrations in the outflow water were low compared with discharges from a selection of other area golf courses, possibly a result of the outflow passing through a wooded wetland following pond discharge. To achieve good reduction in a variety of pollutants, wet pond design should include maximizing the contact time of inflowing water with rooted vegetation and organic sediments. This can be achieved through a physical pond design that provides a high length to width ratio, and planting of native macrophyte species. PMID:11931459

  5. Systematic evaluation of pollutant removal by urban wet detention ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.S.; Holman, R.E.; Dorney, J.R.

    1996-11-01

    Three urban wet detention ponds in the Piedmont of North Carolina were monitored to investigate long-term pollutant removal as a function of surface to area ratios. Eleven storm events were monitored over a sampling period of 13 months. Urban runoff originating from the study area was characterized by event-mean concentrations for total suspended solids (135 mg/L), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (0.88 mg/L), total iron (6.11 mg/L), and total zinc (66 ug/L). Concentrations of copper and lead were consistently below the detection limits of 30 ug/L and 100 ug/L, respectively. The observed event-mean concentrations were generally lower than the national values reported by the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. Particle sizes of sediment discharged in runoff were much finer than the national averages due to the predominant clayey soils in the region. This study demonstrates that surface to area ratio can be a useful predictor of wet pond performance. Utilizing 1--2% of the watershed area for the development of wet detention ponds at strategic locations could reduce pollutant loadings to meet targeted requirements of water quality improvement.

  6. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented here increased the pond's TSS (and associated pollution) removal efficiency from 46% (current state) to between 70 and 90%, depending on the pond's capacity considered. The RTC strategies allow simultaneously maximizing the detention time of water, while minimizing the hydraulic shocks induced to the receiving water bodies and preventing overflow. A constraint relative to a maximum time of 4 days with water accumulated in the pond was thus respected to avoid mosquito breeding issues. The predictive control schemes (taking rainfall forecasts into consideration) can further reinforce the safety of the management strategies, even if meteorological forecasts are, of course, not error-free. With RTC, the studied pond capacity could thus have been limited to 1250 m3 instead of the 4000 m3 capacity currently used under static control. References Marsalek, J. 2005. Evolution of urban drainage: from cloaca maxima to environmental sustainability. Paper presented at Acqua e Citta, I Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica Urbana, Cent. Stud. Idraul. Urbana, Sant'Agnello di Sorrento, Italy, 28- 30 Sept. Middleton, J.R. and Barrett, M.E. 2008. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin. Water Environment Research, 80 (2): 172-178. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143007X220842 Muschalla, D., Pelletier, G., Berrouard, É., Carpenter, J.-F., Vallet, B., and Vanrolleghem, P.A. 2009. Ecohydraulic-driven real-time control of stormwater basins. In: Proceedings 8th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling (8UDM), Tokyo, Japan, September 7-11. National Research Council, 1993. Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shammaa, Y., Zhu, D.Z., Gyürék, L.L., and Labatiuk C.W. 2002. Effectiveness of dry ponds for stormwater total suspended solids removal. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29 (2): 316-324 (9). Doi: 10.1139/l02-008

  7. Effects of detention on water quality of two stormwater detention ponds receiving highway surface runoff in Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, nutrients, and heavy metals following ten storm events at two stormwater detention ponds that receive highway surface runoff in the Jacksonville, Florida, metropolitan area. The purpose of the sampling program was to detect changes in constituent concentration with time of detention within the pond system. Statistical inference of a relation with total rainfall was found in the initial concentrations of 11 constituents and with antecedent dry period for the initial concentrations of 3 constituents. Based on graphical examination and factor analysis , constituent behavior with time could be grouped into five relatively independent processes for one of the ponds. The processes were (1) interaction with shallow groundwater systems, (2) solubilization of bottom materials, (3) nutrient uptake, (4) seasonal changes in precipitation, and (5) sedimentation. Most of the observed water-quality changes in the ponds were virtually complete within 3 days following the storm event. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Fast eutrophication assessment for stormwater wet detention ponds via fuzzy probit regression analysis under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Tahsin, Subrina; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds have been a commonly employed best management practice for stormwater management throughout the world for many years. In the past, the trophic state index values have been used to evaluate seasonal changes in water quality and rank lakes within a region or between several regions; yet, to date, there is no similar index for stormwater wet detention ponds. This study aimed to develop a new multivariate trophic state index (MTSI) suitable for conducting a rapid eutrophication assessment of stormwater wet detention ponds under uncertainty with respect to three typical physical and chemical properties. Six stormwater wet detention ponds in Florida were selected for demonstration of the new MTSI with respect to total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and Secchi disk depth (SDD) as cognitive assessment metrics to sense eutrophication potential collectively and inform the environmental impact holistically. Due to the involvement of multiple endogenous variables (i.e., TN, TP, and SDD) for the eutrophication assessment simultaneously under uncertainty, fuzzy synthetic evaluation was applied to first standardize and synchronize the sources of uncertainty in the decision analysis. The ordered probit regression model was then formulated for assessment based on the concept of MTSI with the inputs from the fuzzy synthetic evaluation. It is indicative that the severe eutrophication condition is present during fall, which might be due to frequent heavy summer storm events contributing to high-nutrient inputs in these six ponds. PMID:26733470

  9. 3D modelling of transport, deposition and resuspension of highway deposited sediments in wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, T R

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of flows and transport of primarily particle bound pollutants in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to evaluate the quality of long term simulation based on historical rains series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and mud transport model is used for the investigation. The transport model has been calibrated and validated on e.g. experiments in a 30 m long concrete channel with width of 0.8 m and a water depth of approximately 0.8 m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account. PMID:20706022

  10. Improved urban stormwater treatment and pollutant removal pathways in amended wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Isteni?, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjrn H; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved and colloidal bound pollutants are generally poorly removed from stormwater in wet detention ponds. These fractions are, however, the most bio-available, and therefore three wet detention ponds were amended with planted sand filters, sorption filters and addition of precipitation chemicals to enhance the removal of dissolved pollutants and pollutants associated with fine particles and colloids. The three systems treated runoff from industrial, residential and combined (residential and highway) catchments and had permanent volumes of 1,990, 6,900 and 2,680 m(3), respectively. The treatment performance of the ponds for elimination of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (Tot-N), total phosphorous (Tot-P), PO(4)-P, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, Hg were within the range typically reported for wet detention ponds, but the concentrations of most of the pollutants were efficiently reduced by the planted sand filters at the outlets. The sorption filters contributed to further decrease the concentration of PO(4)-P from 0.04 0.05 to 0.01 0.01 mg L(-1) and were also efficient in removing heavy metals. Dosing of iron sulphate to enrich the bottom sediment with iron and dosing of aluminium salts to the inlet water resulted in less growth of phytoplankton, but treatment performance was not significantly affected. Heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr and Cu) accumulated in the sediment of the ponds. The concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb in the roots of the wetland plants were generally correlated to the concentrations in the sediments. Among 13 plant species investigated, Rumex hydrolapathum accumulated the highest concentrations of heavy metals in the roots (Concentration Factor (CF) of 4.5 and 5.9 for Zn and Ni, respectively) and Iris pseudacorus the lowest (CF < 1). The translocation of heavy metals from roots to the aboveground tissues of plants was low. Therefore the potential transfer of heavy metals from the metal-enriched sediment to the surrounding ecosystem via plant uptake and translocation is negligible. PMID:22571535

  11. Tropical stormwater nutrient degradation using nano-TiO2 in photocatalytic reactor detention pond.

    PubMed

    Rad, Saeed; Shamsudin, Supiah; Taha, Mohd Raihan; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2016-01-01

    The photo-degradation of nutrients in stormwater in photocatalytic reactor wet detention pond using nano titanium dioxide (TiO2) in concrete was investigated in a scale model as a new stormwater treatment method. Degradation of phosphate and nitrate in the presence of nano-TiO2 under natural ultra violet (UV) from tropical sunlight was monitored for 3 weeks compared with normal ponds. Two types of cement, including ordinary Portland and white cement mixed with TiO2 nano powder, were used as a thin cover to surround the body of the pond. Experiments with and without the catalyst were carried out for comparison and control. Average Anatase diameter of 25 nm and Rutile 100 nm nano particles were applied at three different mixtures of 3, 10 and 30% weight. The amounts of algae available orthophosphate and nitrate, which cause eutrophication in the ponds, were measured during the tests. Results revealed that the utilization of 3% up to 30% weight nano-TiO2 can improve stormwater outflow quality by up to 25% after 48 h and 57% after 3 weeks compared with the control sample in normal conditions with average nutrient (phosphate and nitrate) removal of 4% after 48 h and 10% after 3 weeks. PMID:26819397

  12. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  13. Development of baseline water quality stormwater detention pond model for Chesapeake Bay catchments

    SciTech Connect

    Musico, W.J.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    An environmental impact assessment is required for every proposed development in the Commonwealth of Virginia to help identify areas of potential concerns. The purpose of the Chesapeake Bay Local Assistance Department (CBLAD), Guidance Calculation Procedures is to ensure that development of previously constructed areas do not further exacerbate current problems of stormwater-induced eutrophication and downstream flooding. The methodology is based on the post development conditions that will not generate greater peak flows and will result in a 10% overall reduction of total phosphorus. Currently, several well-known models can develop hydrographs and pollutographs that accurately model the real response of a given watershed to any given rainfall event. However, conventional method of achieving the desired peak flow reduction and pollutant removal is not a deterministic procedure, and is inherently a trail and error process. A method of quickly and accurately determining the required size of stormwater easements was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative stormwater collection and treatment systems. In this method, predevelopment conditions were modeled first to estimate the peak flows and subsequent pollutants generation that can be used as a baseline for post development plan. Resulting stormwater easement estimates facilitate decision-making processes during the planning and development phase of a project. The design can be optimized for the minimum cost or the smallest-possible pond size required for peak flow reduction and detention time given the most basic data such as: inflow hydrograph and maximum allowable pond depth.

  14. Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrowitz, I.H.; Woodham, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A multipurpose wet stormwater detention pond in Pinellas Park, Florida was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing the load of selected water-quality constituents commonly found in urban streamflow. Water-quality samples, and data on streamflow and precipitation were collected at the outflow and principal inflow of detention area 3 on Saint Joe Creek. To compare the constituent loads entering and leaving the detention pond, flows and water quality were monitored simultaneously at the inflow and outflow sites for six storms, and were monitored intermittently during periods of base flow. Lodas od 19 selected chemical and physical constituents were determined. Because all the stormwater entering the detention pond was not measured at the inflow site, computed stormwater inflow loads were adjusted to account for loads from the unmonitored areas. The ratio of storm- water volume measured at the outflow site to stormwater volume measured at the inflow site was used to adjust inflow loads for individual storms. Pond efficiencies for selected water- quality constituents for each of the storms were estimated by dividing the difference in outflow and adjusted inflow loads by the adjusted inflow load. Stormwater loads of the major ions (chloride, calcium and bicarbonate) and dissolved solids at the outflow site exceeded loads at the inflow site, partly as a result of mixing with base flow stored within the pond. However, the detention pond was effective in reducing the stormwater load of such urban-runoff contaminants as metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Estimated median pond efficiencies for reducing constituent loads ranged from 25 to more than 60 percent for metals, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 7 to 11 percent for two measurements of suspended solids, and 16 to 49 percent for the oxygen- consuming substances. The reductions of constituent loads in stormwater are probably a result of dilution with pond water (particularly for smaller storms), adsorption, chemical precipitation, settling, biologic uptake, and oxidation. The establishment of aquatic vegetation midway through the study appears to have increased the efficiency of the pond in reducing loads of urban-runoff contaminants in stormwater. The efficiency of the detention pond in reducing base-flow loads was estimated by comparing base-flow loads at the out- flow site prior to and after construction of the pond. Loads of major ions and dissolved solids in base flow were reduced at median efficiencies ranging from 17 to 35 percent. Urban-runoff con- taminants in base flow were generally reduced at higher efficiencies. Median efficiencies ranged from 38 to 82 percent for metals, 19 to 83 percent for nutrients, 34 to 45 percent for suspended solids, and 43 to 65 for the oxygen-consuming substances. The reductions in loads in base flow are probably a result of adsorption, chemical precipitation, biologic uptake, and settling within the pond. These processes were more effective in reducing base-flow loads after the establishment of aquatic vegetation in the pond.

  15. Evaluation of the storm-water treatment facilities at the Lake Angel detention pond, Orange County, Florida. Final report, 2 Jan 90-1 Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    Wanielista, M.; Charba, J.; Dietz, J.; Russell, B.

    1991-06-01

    This is the final report on the use of Granulated Active Carbon (GAC) beds of Filtrasorb 400 in series to reduce the Trihalomethane Formation Potential (THMFP) concentrations at the Lake Angel detention pond, Orange County, Florida. The detention pond accepts runoff from an interstate highway and a commercial area. Breakthrough time was estimated from laboratory analyses and used to design two beds in series at the detention pond. Breakthrough occurred in the first bed after treating 138,000 liters of water. Exhaustion of the first bed was reached after treating 1270 bed volumes with a sorption zone length of 1.70 feet. The TOC adsorbed per gram of GAC was 6.3 mg. The liquid flow rate averaged 0.0011 cfs. Similar breakthrough curves for Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and color were also reported. The used GAC can be disposed of by substituting it for sand in concrete mixes. An economic evaluation of the GAC system at Lake Angel demonstrated an annual cost of $4.39/1000 gallons to treat the stormwater runoff after detention and before discharge into a drainage well. The cost could be further reduced by using the stormwater to irrigate right-of-way sections of the watershed. An alternative method of pumping to another drainage basin was estimated to be more expensive. The underdrain network for the GAC system initially became clogged with the iron- and sulfur-precipitation bacteria Leptothrix, Gallionella and Thiothrix. These bacteria were substantially reduced by altering the influent GAC system pipeline to take water directly from the lake. An alternate pipe system used a clay layer to reduce ground water inputs and did not exhibit substantial bacterial growth.

  16. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R; Flemming, Alan J

    2010-06-15

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (SigmaESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the SigmaESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure. PMID:20211519

  17. Treatment efficiency of a wet detention pond combined with filters of crushed concrete and sand: a Danish full-scale study of stormwater.

    PubMed

    Snderup, Melanie J; Egemose, Sara; Bochdam, Timm; Flindt, Mogens R

    2015-12-01

    Traditional wet detention ponds and sand filters remove particles efficiently, whereas only a minor part of the dissolved and bioavailable load is removed. To improve the retention of dissolved substances, we tested crushed concrete as a filter material simultaneously with a traditional sand filter placed after an existing wet pond. The particulate fractions (particles, organic matter, phosphorus, and heavy metals) were removed efficiently in the pond and both filter materials, with the concrete filter often being best seen over a year. Dissolved heavy metals (lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd)) were largely retained, though a washout was observed from the pond (Ni and Cu), concrete filter (Cr), and sand filter (Ni) during the first month. The pond only retained total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) during summer. Crushed concrete and sand had a high (>70%) retention of TDP within the first months of operation, but the retention dropped in both filters due to a large oil load into the system (4kgimpermeable ha(-1) in 1month). The poor retention might to some degree be due to mineralization processes turning particulate phosphorus (PP) into TDP. The massive oil load was retained efficiently (99.3%) in the pond and both filters, clearly illustrating that both filter materials were able to retain either oil or TDP. An additional pilot study showed that at residence times of 1h, crushed concrete bound 90% TDP whereas sand only bound 22% TDP. Retention of TDP and PP decreased with shorter residence time in both materials, but fastest in sand. PMID:26577218

  18. Economics in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elonge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Economics in Detention is a University of Maryland Extension program that teaches inmates essential principles of economics as a foundation to a spectrum of decision making. Also, the program includes an emphasis on starting a small business after incarceration. The idea of this program emanates from an invitation by the Baltimore City Detention

  19. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bgin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in emission rates. Conventional wind-based models seem inappropriate to simulate GHG exchanges, as seen when comparing with floating chamber estimations. Surface renewal models that consider heat exchanges are used to estimate flux more accurately, and ebullition flux are measured with submerged funnels to compare with diffusive flux estimations.

  20. Ammonium sulfate solar pond: Observations from small-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R. ); Bushnell, D.L.; Sempsrote, D.G. ); Pena, A. )

    1989-01-01

    Using the fertilizer salt (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the authors established a salinity gradient solar pond in a small outdoor tank. The hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of the pond was similar to that observed in the past for solar ponds containing NaCl. For temperature gradients between 50 and 300 K/m and salinity gradients between 200 and 1400 kg/m{sup 4}, data relating the gradients to erosion and growth of the gradient zone were generally consistent with the Nielsen boundary criterion for NaCl. With a salinity difference of 20% between the upper and lower zones and a maximum lower-zone temperature of 83{degree}C, no instabilities were observed in the interior of the gradient zone. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in controlling algal populations and maintaining good brine transparency.

  1. A holistic water depth simulation model for small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir; Ghosh, Narayan C.; Mishra, P. K.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    Estimation of time varying water depth and time to empty of a pond is prerequisite for comprehensive and coordinated planning of water resource for its effective utilization. A holistic water depth simulation (HWDS) and time to empty (TE) model for small, shallow ephemeral ponds have been derived by employing the generalized model based on the Green-Ampt equation in the basic water balance equation. The HWDS model includes time varying rainfall, runoff, surface water evaporation, outflow and advancement of wetting front length as external inputs. The TE model includes two external inputs; surface water evaporation and advancement of wetting front length. Both the models also consider saturated hydraulic conductivity and fillable porosity of the pond's bed material as their parameters. The solution of the HWDS model involved numerical iteration in successive time intervals. The HWDS model has successfully evaluated with 3 years of field data from two small ponds located within a watershed in a semi-arid region in western India. The HWDS model simulated time varying water depth in the ponds with high accuracy as shown by correlation coefficient (R2 ? 0.9765), index of agreement (d ? 0.9878), root mean square errors (RMSE ? 0.20 m) and percent bias (PB ? 6.23%) for the pooled data sets of the measured and simulated water depth. The statistical F and t-tests also confirmed the reliability of the HWDS model at probability level, p ? 0.0001. The response of the TE model showed its ability to estimate the time to empty the ponds. An additional field calibration and validation of the HWDS and TE models with observed field data in varied hydro-climatic conditions could be conducted to increase the applicability and credibility of the models.

  2. Small zebrafish in a big chemical pond

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, I. Taneli; Yeh, J.-R. Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The number of possible small organic molecules of different structure is virtually limitless. One of the main goals of chemical biologists is to identify, from this chemical space, entities that affect biological processes or systems in a specific manner. This can lead to a better understanding of the regulation and components of various biological machineries, as well as provide insights into efficacious therapeutic targets and drug candidates. However, the challenges confronting chemical biologists are multiple. How do we efficiently identify compounds that possess desirable activities without unwanted off-target effects? Once a candidate compound has been found, how do we determine its mode of action? In this Prospects piece, we call attention to recent studies using embryonic and larval zebrafish to illustrate the breadth and depth of questions in chemical biology that may be addressed using this model, and hope that they can serve as catalysts for future investigational ideas. PMID:22396148

  3. Investigation of pond velocities using dye and small drogues: a case study of the Nelson City waste stabilisation pond.

    PubMed

    Barter, P J

    2003-01-01

    The city of Nelson, New Zealand, has a 27 hectare oxidation pond as its primary wastewater treatment facility. Recent changes in the configuration of the pond and installation of a mixer/aerator raised concerns that pond treatment rates and effluent quality may be affected by high internal pond velocities and short retention times. This paper presents the findings of an investigation into wastewater velocity and movement within the pond using qualitative dye dispersion and tracking of small-scale "holey-sock" drogues. Simultaneous deployment of drogues and dye allowed methods to be compared, since small-scale drogues have not commonly been used in wastewater ponds. Dye dispersion was assessed using low-level aerial photography from a tethered helium blimp to track short term movement and mixing, while a datalogger and fluorometer were used to measure pond retention time. Drogue movement was tracked in conjunction with the dye study from a small boat using hand-held GPS. The dye study found that: (i) the first portion of pond influent discharged from the pond after 37.5 hours, substantially quicker than the theoretical pond retention time of 27 days. However, the measured retention time was with a mixer in place and the theoretical time was without a mixer; (ii) the position of the paddle wheel mixer/aerator was not optimally placed for mixing the influent and a quiescent region existed adjacent to the influent point; and (iii) the low-level aerial photography was an effective method of evaluating larger pond systems. The "holey-sock" drogue studies showed that: (i) the drogues accurately followed the movement and velocity of dyed influent within the pond; (ii) wastewater velocity and movement was dominated by the paddle wheel mixer/aerator; and (iii) wind direction had a minor influence on wastewater velocity and movement in areas not directly affected by the paddle wheel mixer/aerator. The study demonstrated that the combined use of dye and drogues was a relatively low-cost and effective means of determining internal pond velocities and movement. Future studies using similar methods will be useful in helping validate computer-modelled movement and velocity. PMID:14510205

  4. Waste Stabilization Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundakjian, Philip

    This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste stabilization ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…

  5. Hydrologic modeling of detention pond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban watersheds produce an instantaneous response to rainfall. That results in stormwater runoff in excess of the capacity of drainage systems. The excess stormwater must be managed to prevent flooding and erosion of streams. Management can be achieved with the help of structural stormwater Best...

  6. Production ecology of invertebrates in small experimental ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Franco, P.J.; Goyert, J.C.; Lesslie, P.A.

    1986-07-01

    Production of invertebrates is estimated for a series of small experimental ponds in Tennessee. Annual dry weight production of predator insects is about 4.5 g/m/sup 2/ and of herbivore-detritivore insects about 3.8 g/m/sup 2/; insects whose trophic position could not be classified account for an annual dry weight production of about 0.3 g/m/sup 2/. Annual dry weight production of zooplankton is about 14.5 t/m/sup 2/, of annelids 25.4 g/m/sup 2/ and of snails 3.1 g/m/sup 2/. The data are consistent with published information that the predator insects probably depend on a variety of energy sources to support their estimated production rate.

  7. Economics in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elonge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Economics in Detention is a University of Maryland Extension program that teaches inmates essential principles of economics as a foundation to a spectrum of decision making. Also, the program includes an emphasis on starting a small business after incarceration. The idea of this program emanates from an invitation by the Baltimore City Detention…

  8. Large contribution to inland water CO2 and CH4 emissions from very small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Although they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of carbon processing in these waters are uncertain. The global extent of very small ponds, with surface areas of less than 0.001 km2, is particularly difficult to map, resulting in their exclusion from greenhouse gas budget estimates. Here we combine estimates of the lake and pond global size distribution, gas exchange rates, and measurements of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations from 427 lakes and ponds ranging in surface area from 2.5 m2 to 674 km2. We estimate that non-running inland waters release 0.583 Pg C yr-1. Very small ponds comprise 8.6% of lakes and ponds by area globally, but account for 15.1% of CO2 emissions and 40.6% of diffusive CH4 emissions. In terms of CO2 equivalence, the ratio of CO2 to CH4 flux increases with surface area, from about 1.5 in very small ponds to about 19 in large lakes. The high fluxes from very small ponds probably result from shallow waters, high sediment and edge to water volume ratios, and frequent mixing. These attributes increase CO2 and CH4 supersaturation in the water and limit efficient methane oxidation. We conclude that very small ponds represent an important inland water carbon flux.

  9. LONG TERM DETENTION FOR THE STABILIZATION OF WASTEWATER BIOSOLIDS FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated biosolids from small wastewater treatment plants in mid-western US are usually disposed off by land application. This practice allows for the recycling of the nutrients present in the biosolids for food and fiber production and can help re-vegetate sites destroyed by mini...

  10. 78 FR 15017 - Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... regulations in 21 CFR part 1, subpart K (76 FR 25538), that pertain to the criteria for ordering... Administrative Detention of Foods,'' (76 FR 66073, October 25, 2011). The guidance was intended to provide... February 5, 2013 (78 FR 7994), FDA issued a final rule adopting the IFR as final without changes. The...

  11. Effects of a vegetated stormwater-detention basin on chemical quality and temperature of runoff from a small residential development in Monroe County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    The vegetated stormwater-detention basin at a small residential development in Monroe County, N.Y. has been shown to be effective in reducing loads of certain chemical constituents to receiving waters. Loads of suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus have been reduced by an average of 14 to 62 percent. The basin has little effect on the temperature of runoff between the inflow and the outflow; water temperatures at the outflow during summer storms averaged 0.5 degrees Celsius higher than those at the inflow.

  12. Characterizing seasonal markers using high-resolution water temperature data from small mountain ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, J.; Engel, B.; Hansen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Small mountain ponds in western Maine are near local topographic highs and are typically associated with distinctive ecological zones because of their elevation. Long-term historic records of seasonal markers such as ice-out for large, low elevation lakes in the region indicate that climate warming is affecting these large water bodies, but little data exist for the smaller, remote, higher elevation ponds. These ponds are typically 700 m elevation, have a surface area of about 4 hectares, and a maximum depth of 10 m. Because these ponds are associated with habitats restricted from migrating in response to climate change, characterizing and documenting the timing of seasonal markers such as ice-out and other events is important to assess whether these smaller ponds are following similar trends to the larger lakes, or if they might be more sensitive to climate forcing. High-resolution water temperature and light data collected at several depths by data loggers at study sites across the region since 2007 have been analyzed to characterize major seasonal markers that cannot be otherwise determined because of the remote character of the ponds. Ice-in and ice-out dates can be identified by characteristic signatures in the surface and bottom water temperatures; differences in the timing of the events among sites may be explained by elevation or basin aspect. Summer temperatures records also revealed multiple turnover events during some summer seasons, indicating that these ponds should be classified as discontinuous cold polymictic water bodies . These turnover events were nearly simultaneous at multiple study sites fifty kilometers apart, suggesting forcing by regional weather events. These high-resolution records permit long-term monitoring of sensitive, remote sites that will contribute to understanding the magnitude of the response to climate change in these small subalpine watersheds, as well as the spatial and temporal complexity of climate change in the northeastern United States.

  13. Could high salinity be used to control bullfrogs in small ponds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Finch, Colton; Blasius, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    We examined survival of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) eggs and tadpoles at 3 ppt and 6 ppt salinity in the laboratory to determine if low-level salinity could be used to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds that contain native fishes. Bullfrog eggs and tadpoles <10 days old experienced 100% mortality when held at 6 ppt salinity for 10 days. Bullfrog tadpoles 10–15 days old experienced significantly reduced survival when exposed to salinity of 6 ppt for 10 days. Older bullfrog tadpoles (>9 months old) appeared unaffected by 14 days of 6 ppt salinity. Salinity of 3 ppt did not impact survival of bullfrog tadpole eggs or tadpoles at any of the life stages we tested. Adding salt to ponds in the early spring to increase salinity to 6 ppt may be a cost effective way to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds without harming native fishes.

  14. Evaluation of detention-basin performance in the Piedmont region of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.S.

    1989-07-01

    Results are summarized of a stormwater sampling program conducted on three existing urban wet detention ponds in the Piedmont region of North Carolina in the city of Charlotte. These ponds were not originally designed for water-quality control. A total of eleven storm events was monitored. Runoff samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total and ortho phosphorus, total Kjeldahl and ammonia nitrogen, and metals of iron, zinc, copper, and lead. The removal efficiency of pollutants for each detention pond was computed as the percent difference of the total pollutant mass entering and leaving the detention pond. A U.S. EPA model was employed to derive a relationship for estimating the size of detention ponds to achieve targeted levels of water-quality improvement.

  15. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of water for fish production using small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, Felix W.; Edema, Mojisola O.

    The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of water in fish ponds were investigated with a view to optimise the conditions for fish productivity using small ponds. Five fish ponds were used in the study. The water samples were collected in each pond at a depth of 10-15 cm from the surface over a period of six months and analysed for pH, temperature, DO, alkalinity. The fish activity and growth rates were also assessed. The results showed that the ponds were slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.69-7.66). The mean lowest and highest values of DO were 9.05 and 9.93 mg/L while the values for alkalinity were 67.86 and 90.57 mg/L respectively. The bacterial counts were in the order of 10 6 and the populations comprised Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Azotobacter, Arthrobacter species and Escherichia coli. It was also observed that the fish activity increased as the temperature of the water varied from April to September as given by the activity ranges of 55-95, 40-80, 55-80, 70-95 and 55-95/m 2 for ponds P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, respectively. The lowest values were in the months of April, May and June and highest values were in the months of July, August and September. The optimum conditions for increased fish productivity were found to be the warm temperatures (20 < t < 30 C), adequate DO level (>4 mg/L) and appropriate pH (6 < pH < 9) and alkalinity (Alk) (80 < Alk < 200 mg/L). The correlations between characteristics were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels (2 tailed). Therefore, the fish productivity can be enhanced if the conditions in the ponds were maintained at optimum levels.

  16. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  17. Small Thaw Ponds: An Unaccounted Source of Methane in the Canadian High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J.; Galand, Pierre E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, 14C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate. PMID:24236014

  18. Small thaw ponds: an unaccounted source of methane in the Canadian high Arctic.

    PubMed

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J; Galand, Pierre E; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, ?C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate. PMID:24236014

  19. Replicating Detention Reform: Lessons from the Florida Detention Initiative. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Donna M.; Griset, Pamala L.

    This report describes lessons learned from the Broward Detention Initiative (BDI) in Broward County, Florida, a successful detention reform effort that led to attempts at replication. Chapter 1, "The Predecessor Program: The Broward Detention Initiative," explains key factors in BDI's success (e.g., the site was ready, problems were effectively

  20. Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, A.E.; Carter, R.R.; Greenland, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

  1. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwes small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  2. Don Quixote Pond: A Small Scale Model of Weathering and Salt Accumulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S. N.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Don Quixote Pond in the North Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for unique terrestrial calcium, chlorine, and sulfate weathering, accumulation, and distribution processes. The formation of Don Quixote Pond by simple shallow and deep groundwater contrasts more complex models for Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley. Our study intends to understand the formation of Don Quixote Pond as unique terrestrial processes and as a model for Ca, C1, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  3. Juvenile Secure Detention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Lydia S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines issues surrounding detention of young people in Westchester County, New York, as the county attempts to deal with the increasing number of juveniles. Discusses length of stay, violation of the "least restrictive principle" and negative effects. Concludes that new statutory criteria must be developed for the admission of youths to secure

  4. Using Digital Imagery from a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to Estimate Arctic Melt Pond Coverage on Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulac, B. L.; Tschudi, M. A.; Maslanik, J. A.; Holland, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    Photo mapping of melt pond coverage on sea ice was undertaken in the Arctic during the summer of 2004 using an Aerosonde. Aerosondes are small, long endurance UAV designed to undertake a wide range of operations in a highly flexible and inexpensive mode. The Aerosonde conducts a defined mission in a completely autonomous mode. All flights are under the command of a ground controller who can change missions and respond to air traffic control requests, etc. An NSF-funded effort (Office of Polar Programs' Long Term Observations [LTO]) is now underway to deploy Aerosondes for routine mapping and atmospheric sounding missions in the Arctic. Aerosondes were deployed at Barrow, AK, during June, 2004 as part of the LTO effort. During this deployment, several flights were dedicated to examining the fractional coverage of melt ponds over sea ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, as part of a study funded by NASA. Melt ponds have been identified as a key feature in determining the amount of solar insulation absorbed by sea ice, and hence is a primary controller of the melt rate of the ice through the summer. Sea ice models have, to date, crudely parameterized ponds, due in part to a lack of large-scale observations of their temporal and spatial evolution. The NASA-funded study uses observations from the EOS sensor MODIS to estimate pond fraction over a large portion of the Beaufort and Chukchi, by examining several spectral (visible and near-infrared) MODIS bands and deducing melt pond coverage from the known spectral properties of ponds. The Aerosonde flights dedicated to the melt pond study were necessary to test the validity of the pond coverage estimated using the MODIS data. A downward-looking Olympus C-3030 digital camera was mounted within the Aerosonde to photograph the sea ice. The digital photos are analyzed to classify each photo according to the percentage cover of melt ponds, unponded ice, and open water. These estimates are compared to the values retrieved using MODIS for the same area of coverage. To enhance these comparisons, missions were flown with 10 km x 10 km grid patterns, with overlapping (along-track and cross-track) digital photos, which allow for comparison with 400 MODIS pixels (500 m resolution). Additional missions were designed to examine the evolution of pond coverage over sea ice off the coast of Point Barrow, Alaska. The sea ice in this area of interest was fast ice (i.e. not drifting ice) and served as an area where melt ponds can be observed during formation and their evolution through the summer. The Aerosonde team flew several flights paralleling Point Barrow and overlapping in a pattern that provided contiguous digital camera images of the fast ice from shore to a few km off the coast. These flights were repeated several times during June, providing imagery that will assist investigators in determining how pond fraction changes over this period. The technique and results of pond coverage estimation from airborne digital photography will be presented, as will comparisons to estimates retrieved using MODIS.

  5. [Community Dynamics of Phytoplankton and Related Affecting Factors in a Eutrophicated Small Pond].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Zhu, Jin-yong; Zhang, Ke-xin; Wan, Li; Lu, Kai-hong

    2015-04-01

    The high-density sampling of eutrophic water can help to reveal the general rules of phytoplankton community succession and the relationship with environmental factors. The species and abundance of plankton and the physical-chemical factors were tracked for 30 weeks from March to October in a eutrophicated small pond. The relationships between the phytoplankton community dynamic change and the physical-chemical factors as well as the zooplankton in the water body community were studied by the multivariate statistical analysis with PRIMER. A total of 54 phytoplankton and 55 zooplankton species were identified, and the abundances of plankton varied from 0.28 x 10(8) - 6.11 x 10(8) cells x L(-1) for phytoplankton and 26-2.5 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) for zooplankton. The dominant species of phytoplankton were Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, and an obvious succession process was showed with the seasonal change, which could be roughly divided into three stages: Chlorophyta-Cryptophyta type, Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type and Cyanophyta type. BIO-ENV showed that pH, water temperature, transparency, total phosphorus and the abundances of Rotifera and Copepoda were the most critical influencing factors on the community dynamics of phytoplankton, and compared to zooplankton, the physical-chemical factors might have a greater influence. PMID:26164905

  6. Effects of a small seagull colony on trophic status and primary production in a Mediterranean coastal system (Marinello ponds, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2012-10-01

    Colonies of seabirds have been shown to influence nutrient cycling and primary production of coastal areas, but knowledge is still limited above all for smaller colonies. This study evaluates the influence of a small resident seagull colony (Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840) on a Mediterranean coastal system (Marinello ponds, Sicily, Italy). The presence of ornithogenic organic matter from seagull guano was first assessed at increasing distances from the colony using ?15N to indicate the effects of guano on the trophic status and primary production. The pond directly affected by guano deposition showed an anomalous water and sediment chemistry, especially regarding physico-chemical variables (pH), nitrogen isotopic signature, nutrient balance and phytoplankton biomass. These effects were not observed in the adjacent ponds, highlighting pronounced, small spatial-scale variability. Given the worldwide presence of seabird colonies and the scarcity of research on their effect on coastal marine areas, the study shows that seabird-mediated input may be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics of coastal areas, even where both the system in question and the colony are small.

  7. Estimation of Time Variant Water Availability and Irrigation Potential of Small Ponds in a Semi-arid Region of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess water availability and irrigation potential of two small, shallow and Ephemeral ponds located in a small watershed of the semi-arid region of Rajasthan, India. The Holistic Water Depth Simulation (HWDS) model was employed for estimating the pond water availability with 3 years field data (2006-2008). The analysis revealed that the value of depth of water in the selected ponds predicted by the HWDS model had closed match to the field data. The index of agreement between measured and predicted values of depth of water in the selected ponds was found to be ranged from 0.93 to 0.94 for the pool data sets. The F and Student's T test between measured and predicted values revealed that model estimates were not statistically different from measured values at 0.01 % level of significance. Analysis revealed that mean pond volumetric water availability for the selected ponds ranged from 1448 to 5001 m3 during the study period. During the off monsoon seasons, water availability period was varied between 35 and 78 days with a mean of 61 days. Analyses revealed that water availability in the selected ponds lasted at least 48-61 days. The off monsoon season irrigation potential of ponds with one and two irrigations for the rainfed crops at critical growth stage in the region was estimated to be 12.6 and 6.3 ha, respectively.

  8. From Ponds to Predictions: What Do We Need to Know About Small-Scale Sea Ice Processes in a Rapidly Changing Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Petrich, C.

    2014-12-01

    Areal coverage and spatial distribution of sea-ice melt ponds are key factors in determining the response of the Arctic Ocean's ice cover to changes in atmospheric forcing, its importance in enhancing high-latitude warming and its function in polar marine ecosystems. A review of remote-sensing and field observations, in conjunction with process studies in coastal Alaska, highlights the importance of sub-floe scale ice properties and processes in controlling ponding, thereby constraining seasonal evolution and decay of the ice cover. Field observations and model simulations have shown how pond areal extent and hence ice albedo depend on the combination of snow or ice ablation rates, ice permeability and surface topography. Seasonal and short-term variations of these three factors explain much of the observed spatial and temporal variability in the large-scale pond areal fraction. Recent work on Alaska shorefast ice suggests that the snow-cover depth distribution may predetermine ponding patterns months ahead of spring melt. Specifically, through the formation of wind crusts, snow depth variations are locked in place. After onset of melt, formation and deepening of ponds is enhanced in thin-snow areas, with pond spatial patterns replicating snow dune topography. Both deepening of ponds and preferential pond drainage through small-scale flaws and cracks then constrain the eventual break-up of the ice cover. Field observations and aerial photography indicate that with increasing wave action in an ice-diminished Arctic Ocean, ponds and drainage features precondition ice for break-up and fragmentation. Model simulations by Schrder et al. (doi:10.1038/nclimate2203) hint at other, as of yet poorly understood mechanisms that link pond coverage to the degree of seasonal ice retreat. Key measurements and potential datasets that can help improve understanding and prediction of a changing ice cover on seasonal scales will be discussed.

  9. An environmental problem hidden in plain sight? Small human-made ponds, emergent insects, and mercury contamination of biota in the Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of small human-made ponds and surrounding terrestrial communities may be 1 of the largest unstudied Hg-pollution problems in the United States. Humans have built millions of small ponds in the Great Plains of the United States, and these ponds have become contaminated with atmospherically deposited mercury. In aquatic ecosystems, less toxic forms of Hg deposited from the atmosphere are converted to highly toxic methylmercury (MeHg). Methylmercury is incorporated into the aquatic food web and then can be transferred to terrestrial food webs via emergent aquatic insects. The authors present a conceptual model that describes the movement of MeHg produced in aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial consumers via insects emerging from small human-made ponds. The authors hypothesize that pond permanence and the level of Hg contamination of the food web control this emergent insect-mediated flux of MeHg. The highest insect-mediated flux of MeHg is predicted to be from fishless semipermanent ponds with food webs that are highly contaminated with MeHg. Further development and testing of the conceptual model presented in the present column, particularly in the context of a changing climate, will require research at the regional, watershed, and pond scales. PMID:26013117

  10. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

  11. Effects of acidification of metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Pb,Mg,Mn,Hg,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentration of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations in water significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seems to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes..

  12. Planning for Juvenile Detention Reforms: A Structured Approach. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, David

    This report is a guide to juvenile detention planning, based largely on the experiences of Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites. Its eight chapters include: (1) "Why Is Comprehensive Juvenile Detention Planning Needed?"; (2) "Guiding Principles" (e.g., detention planning must be based on adequate data, must be collaborative,…

  13. Special Detention Cases: Strategies for Handling Difficult Populations. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, David

    This report discusses strategies for handling difficult juvenile detention populations (warrant cases, probation violators, and post-adjudication detention). It offers strategies used in the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites and in other jurisdictions to reduce unnecessary detention in these special cases. Chapter 1, "Why…

  14. Complex interactions among nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and microcystins in three stormwater wet detention basins with floating treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Nicholas; Marimon, Zachary; Xuan, Zhemin; Cormier, Jessica; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds hold a permanent pool of water and offer many beneficial uses including flood mitigation, pollution prevention, downstream erosion control, increased aesthetics, and recreational uses. Although the removal of nutrients is generally low for stormwater wet detention ponds in urban areas, floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) can be installed to offer an innovative solution toward naturally removing excess nutrients and aiding in stormwater management. To improve the stormwater reuse potential, this study assessed nutrient, microcystin, and chlorophyll-a interactions in three Florida stormwater wet detention ponds with recently implemented FTWs. Both episodic (storm events) and routine (non-storm events) sampling campaigns were carried out at the three ponds located in Ruskin, Gainesville, and Orlando. The results showed a salient negative correlation between total phosphorus and microcystin concentrations for both storm and non-storm events across all three ponds. The dominant nutrient species in correlation seemed to be total phosphorus, which correlated positively with chlorophyll-a concentrations at all ponds and sampling conditions, with the exception of Orlando non-storm events. These results showed a correlation conditional to the candidate pond and sampling conditions for microcystin and chlorophyll-a concentrations. PMID:26386430

  15. The nucleolar detention pathway

    PubMed Central

    Audas, Timothy E.; Jacob, Mathieu D.; Lee, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics ensures that proteins and other factors reach their site of action in a timely and efficient manner. This is essential to the formation of molecular complexes, as they require an ever-changing framework of specific interactions to facilitate a model of self-assembly. Therefore, the absence or reduced availability of any key component would significantly impair complex formation and disrupt all downstream molecular networks. Recently, we identified a regulatory mechanism that modulates protein mobility through the inducible expression of a novel family of long noncoding RNA. In response to diverse environmental stimuli, the nucleolar detention pathway (NoDP) captures and immobilizes essential cellular factors within the nucleolus away from their effector molecules. The vast array of putative NoDP targets, including DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and the delta catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase (POLD1), suggests that this may be a common and significant regulatory mechanism. Here, we discuss the implications of this new posttranslational strategy for regulating molecular networks. PMID:22580471

  16. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and avoiding the introduction of fish.

  17. Freshwater ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes aquaculture pond ecology. The underlying theme is how ponds supply essential life-support functions (food, oxygen, and waste treatment) and how those functions are subsidized by external resources as culture intensity increases. Ponds are confined bodies of standing wate...

  18. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  19. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The different types of solar ponds are described, including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. Then the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds are discussed and costs are compared. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirement is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  20. Urban stormwater quality control analysis with detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieyun; Adams, Barry J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents methodologies for the development of stormwater quality control measures based on the derived probability distribution approach. These stormwater control measures, such as the fraction of pollutant removed from storage facilities, are closed-form analytical models and can be effectively used to evaluate pollutant loads to receiving waters. In this study, a simple form of rainfall-runoff transformation with lumped parameters is first extended to take into account the spatial variations in model parameters. Second, the infiltration process is further incorporated to the rainfall-runoff transformation. This study demonstrates that analytical models can be developed with various levels of complexity based on different hydrologic considerations. The performance of the analytical models is evaluated in a case study, and the results indicate that, with an appropriately formulated rainfall-runoff transformation, analytical stormwater runoff models are capable of providing comparable results to continuous simulation models in the evaluation of the long-term performance of storage facilities. PMID:16929646

  1. The JDAI Story: Building a Better Juvenile Detention System. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Rochelle

    This monograph describes the work of five Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites designed to streamline and rationalize local juvenile detention systems and to reduce overcrowding in juvenile detention centers, thus improving conditions and saving jurisdictions money in overtime and additional staff and millions of dollars to

  2. Solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, H.

    1981-01-01

    The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

  3. Big Fish in Small Ponds: massive stars in the low-mass clusters of M83

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; McElwee, Sean; Chandar, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B.; O'Connell, R. W. E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu

    2014-09-20

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages ≤ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the ∼<10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  4. Algal bioflocculation and energy conservation in microalgal sewage ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, D.M.; Koopman, B.; Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Controlled bioflocculation for harvesting of microalgae produced during municipal wastewater treatment in high-rate ponds was investigated. Nonflocculant algal cultures were produced in high-rate ponds operated at very high dilution rates or with poor mixing. Bioflocculation of such cultures was achieved by isolating them in secondary ponds, but isolation periods of up to 29 days were required. In-pond sedimentation of flocculant algal cultures produced by the isolation technique resulted in algal removals consistently exceeding 80%. When high-rate ponds were operated with improved mixing and at moderate-to-high dilution rates, flocculant algal cultures were developed. The settleability of flocculant algal cultures produced in this manner averaged 76 to 80% when measured in 24-h-detention Imhoff cones and 71% when measured in 48-h-detention settling ponds. It is estimated that, under suitable climate conditions, a high-rate pond system employing bioflocculation-sedimentation for algal removal would require less than one-half the direct energy input of an equivalently sized activated sludge or trickling filter plant. This requirement could be provided entirely through complete utilization of biogas produced from anaerobic digestion of primary (sewage) sludge.

  5. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., provides notice of opportunity for a hearing under this section and is part of the administrative record of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative detention. 800.55 Section 800.55...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Administrative Practices and Procedures 800.55 Administrative detention....

  6. Special Education in Wisconsin's Juvenile Detention System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenz, Tamara; Langelett, George

    2004-01-01

    This study looks at incarcerated youth in the public juvenile detention facilities of Wisconsin. State percentages of youth in Wisconsin public schools with Emotional, Learning, Cognitive, and/or Low Incidence Disabilities are compared to percentages reported from the state and county operated juvenile detention facilities. The study investigates

  7. Modelling the impact of retention-detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, Sren; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Taylor, Heidi; Bockhorn, Britta; Larsen, Hauge; Kjlby, Morten Just; Blicher, Anne Steensen; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater management using water sensitive urban design is expected to be part of future drainage systems. This paper aims to model the combination of local retention units, such as soakaways, with subsurface detention units. Soakaways are employed to reduce (by storage and infiltration) peak and volume stormwater runoff; however, large retention volumes are required for a significant peak reduction. Peak runoff can therefore be handled by combining detention units with soakaways. This paper models the impact of retrofitting retention-detention units for an existing urbanized catchment in Denmark. The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m/100 m (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous simulations covering 22 years showed that annual stormwater runoff was reduced by 68-87%, and that the retention volume was on average 53% full at the beginning of rain events. The effect of different retention-detention volume combinations was simulated, and results showed that allocating 20-40% of a soakaway volume to detention would significantly increase peak runoff reduction with a small reduction in the annual runoff. PMID:25812100

  8. The Little School Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

    1973-01-01

    A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

  9. Counteraggression, Detention, and Communities: The Community Role of Juvenile Detention Centers and the Response to Counteraggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feaster, Cynthia B.

    1995-01-01

    Juvenile detention centers offer an important opportunity to address aggression and counteraggression with nonviolent adolescents and with those who are at high risk of committing violent crimes. The growing interest in community-based problem solving creates the potential for juvenile detention centers to become part of community intervention

  10. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  11. 21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.391 Who approves a detention order? An authorized FDA representative, i.e., the FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located or an FDA...

  12. 21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.391 Who approves a detention order? An authorized FDA representative, i.e., the FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located or an FDA...

  13. 21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.391 Who approves a detention order? An authorized FDA representative, i.e., the FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located or an FDA...

  14. 21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.391 Who approves a detention order? An authorized FDA representative, i.e., the FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located or an FDA...

  15. 21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.391 Who approves a detention order? An authorized FDA representative, i.e., the FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located or an FDA...

  16. Solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  17. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53....53 Detention and refusal of clearance. (a) Detention. Any Service officer, or Customs officer acting... will deem the wildlife to be seized and will issue no further notification of seizure. (b) Refusal...

  18. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53....53 Detention and refusal of clearance. (a) Detention. Any Service officer, or Customs officer acting... will deem the wildlife to be seized and will issue no further notification of seizure. (b) Refusal...

  19. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53....53 Detention and refusal of clearance. (a) Detention. Any Service officer, or Customs officer acting... will deem the wildlife to be seized and will issue no further notification of seizure. (b) Refusal...

  20. 9 CFR 381.100 - Official detention tag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official detention tag. 381.100 Section 381.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Certificates; Export Certificates; Certification Procedures 381.100 Official detention tag. The detention...

  1. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals ...

  2. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals ...

  3. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals §...

  4. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... telephone number of the FDA district office and the name of the FDA District Director. (e) Approval of... further without FDA approval. (3) The FDA representative who issued the detention order, or another... district the devices are located. If prior written approval is not feasible, prior oral approval shall...

  5. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... telephone number of the FDA district office and the name of the FDA District Director. (e) Approval of... further without FDA approval. (3) The FDA representative who issued the detention order, or another... district the devices are located. If prior written approval is not feasible, prior oral approval shall...

  6. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... telephone number of the FDA district office and the name of the FDA District Director. (e) Approval of... further without FDA approval. (3) The FDA representative who issued the detention order, or another... district the devices are located. If prior written approval is not feasible, prior oral approval shall...

  7. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention... Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the detention order in writing, in the form of a detention notice, signed...

  8. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention... Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the detention order in writing, in the form of a detention notice, signed...

  9. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention... Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the detention order in writing, in the form of a detention notice, signed...

  10. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention... Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the detention order in writing, in the form of a detention notice, signed...

  11. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention... Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the detention order in writing, in the form of a detention notice, signed...

  12. THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF PONDS AND WETLANDS AS "BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS)" FOR STREAMS IN DEVELOPING LANDSCAPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ponds and constructed wetlands, also referred to as detention/retention basins, have a long history as best management practices (BMPs) used to mitigate the impacts of stormwater runoff from developed lands on receiving waters. Initially designed for flood control by peak flow at...

  13. Water-quality effectiveness of a detention/wetland treatment system and its effect on an urban lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberts, Gary L.; Osgood, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A newly installed combined detention/wetland stormwater treatment facility upstream from Lake McCarrons, Roseville, Minnesota, was monitored for 21 months to evaluate its effectiveness and the response of the lake to decreased phosphorus loads. The treatment facility consists of a 1.0-ha detention pond that discharges into a series of six constructed wetland chambers. Data from snowmelt and rainfall events are presented for several pollutants. Results show good reductions for most pollutants. Discussion on the facets of the system's operation are presented. Data from the lake show very little change in its water quality from three years prior to restoration (1984 1986) to three years following restoration (1987 1989): the lake's phosphorus and chlorophyll has actually increased.

  14. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Semlitsch, Raymond D; Peterman, William E; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Ousterhout, Brittany H

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes. PMID:25906355

  15. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Semlitsch, Raymond D.; Peterman, William E.; Anderson, Thomas L.; Drake, Dana L.; Ousterhout, Brittany H.

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes. PMID:25906355

  16. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  17. Immigration detention and faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susanna; Bell, Holly; Busch-Armendariz, Nol

    2015-04-01

    Immigration detention is a hot contemporary issue in the United States, with over 33,000 individuals held in detention facilities daily and reports of poor conditions and human rights abuses. Building on a growing body of theory exploring the role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in social services provision, and seeking to address a gap in the literature concerning services provided to immigrants in detention, this qualitative study explored the responses of FBOs to immigration detainees. Twenty in-depth interviews with volunteers and staff members of FBOs as well as field notes from participant observation were analyzed using thematic coding techniques. Findings suggest that FBOs are active leaders in this area of social work practice and provide significant resources to isolated and vulnerable detained immigrants in a variety of ways. Simultaneously, they face challenges surrounding access and constricted activity. The study indicates that considerable scope exists for expanding and enhancing faith-based and other social work engagement in this crucial field. PMID:25929014

  18. Sede Boqer shallow pond project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudish, A.

    1981-03-01

    The use of shallow solar ponds for the conversion of solar energy into low grade thermal energy is examined at Sede Boqer, Israel with an emphasis placed upon the utilization of locally manufactured components. The daily performance of four small-module shallow solar ponds was monitored almost continuously between Aug 1978 and May 1979. The ponds all used PVC lower film but differed in the type of transparent upper film, glazing material or glazing angle. The daily performance is characterized by the maximum daily water temperature achieved, the total daily thermal energy collected, and the daily efficiency. The results indicate that the SSP system can supply approximately 3 GJ per square meter of thermal energy a year under semi-arid climatic conditions. The economic feasibility of the system is analyzed in comparison with oil (heavy fraction), natural gas, and electrical sources of energy.

  19. Use of Secure Detention for Juveniles and Alternatives to Its Use: National Study of Juvenile Detention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappenfort, Donnell M.; Young, Thomas M.

    This monograph is an analysis of the use of residential and non-residential programs as alternatives to secure detention for juveniles awaiting adjudicatory hearings in juvenile courts. The analysis is based on literature from the last decade supplemented by interviews and statistics from site visits to 14 juvenile court jurisdictions with

  20. Improving Conditions of Confinement in Secure Juvenile Detention Centers. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Sue

    This report discusses lessons learned by the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) about improving and maintaining safe, humane institutions. Chapter 1, "Why Focus on Conditions of Confinement?" explains that many facilities do not meet minimum standards of care, and discusses the role of institutional conditions and links between

  1. Using Media Advocacy to Promote Detention Reform: A Practice Guide to Juvenile Detention Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Written specifically for juvenile justice advocates and officials, this handbook provides step-by-step media approaches to promote the system reforms achieved through the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Those interested in learning all the nuts and bolts of media advocacy may choose to read this guide from cover to cover. Others

  2. The Restorative Justice Center: An Alternative to School Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Julie; Van Bockern, Steve; Ailts, Julie; Donnelly, Jason; Erickson, Kelsey; Woltermann, Jenna

    2008-01-01

    The traditional "stay silent, sit still, do nothing" school detention approach is a punitive and ineffective way to change behavior. It does little to create positive school climates. For children who have been traumatized through fear, isolation, and emotional abuse, poorly managed detention can add to that trauma. A restorative justice approach

  3. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For...

  4. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For...

  5. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For...

  6. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For...

  7. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For...

  8. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  9. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  10. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  11. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  12. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  13. 9 CFR 118.2 - Method of detention; Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of detention; Notifications. 118.2 Section 118.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION 118.2 Method of detention; Notifications. An authorized representative of...

  14. Developing an AIDS Program in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Seymour

    1988-01-01

    Examines what is being done and what more must be done in terms of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) testing, screening, counseling. Discusses education about AIDS for young people in juvenile detention centers, penal institutions, and residential rehabilitation programs. Dade County Juvenile Detention Center (Florida) exemplifies…

  15. 31 CFR 560.702 - Detention of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detention of shipments. 560.702 Section 560.702 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 560.702 Detention of shipments. Import...

  16. Detention as a Deterrent for Late Assignments: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conover, Pamela J.

    To gauge the impact of after-school student detention on punctual completion of homework, on detained student grades, and on student self-esteem, fourth- through sixth-grade students from a school with an after-school detention policy for late or incomplete assignments were studied. Interviews were conducted with the four fourth-, fifth-, and

  17. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION... CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits ...

  18. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION... CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits ...

  19. 20 CFR 61.300 - Payment of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payment of detention benefits. 61.300 Section 61.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPENSATION... CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Detention Benefits ...

  20. Detention Center in Hong Kong: A Young Offender's Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chui, Wing Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a clinical inquiry at how one young male ex-offender described his time in custody, how his time had been constructively spent during detention, and the effect of a detention center order on his offending behavior one year after his discharge. In so doing, it allowed him to talk about his institutionalized experience and to

  1. Developing an AIDS Program in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Seymour

    1988-01-01

    Examines what is being done and what more must be done in terms of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) testing, screening, counseling. Discusses education about AIDS for young people in juvenile detention centers, penal institutions, and residential rehabilitation programs. Dade County Juvenile Detention Center (Florida) exemplifies

  2. Brackish Pond Community

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Looking from an observation deck, at Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, onto a flock of birds resting in a brackish (somewhat salty) pond community. Mangrove islands grow inside and along the edges of the pond....

  3. Overflow risk analysis for designing a nonpoint sources control detention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chi Hyun; Cho, Seonju; Park, Moo Jong; Kim, Sangdan

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a design method by which the overflow risk related to a detention for managing nonpoint pollutant sources in urban areas can be evaluated. The overall overflow risk of a nonpoint pollutant sources control detention can be estimated by inherent overflow risk and operational overflow risk. For the purpose of calculating overflow risk, the 3-parameter mixed exponential distribution is applied to describe the probability distribution of rainfall event depth. As a rainfall-runoff calculation procedure required for deriving a rainfall capture curve, the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service runoff curve number method is applied to consider the nonlinearity of the rainfall-runoff relation. Finally, the detention overflow risk is assessed with respect to the detention design capacity and drainage time. The proposed overflow risk assessment is expected to provide a baseline to determine quantitative parameters in designing a nonpoint sources control detention. PMID:22852429

  4. Medical care for people under detention.

    PubMed

    Ritom, M H

    2003-03-01

    Human Rights traditionally refer to rights and freedom that are inherent to every human being. They are based on Human Rights Law and concern the respect for dignity and worth of a person. These rights are universal, inalienable, indivisible, inter-related and interdependent. Members of Societies are detained for varied reasons and are made up of different age groups and gender. The United Nations through its numerous agencies, associated Conventions, Treaties and Resolutions have laid down guidelines that govern the rights of those under detention. Article 5 of General Assembly Resolution 45/111 clearly stipulates that except for those limitations that are demonstrably necessitated by the fact of incarceration, all prisoners shall retain the human rights and fundamental freedom set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. As such, the Medical and Health Care of People under Detention should not be any different from the other members of societies. The Right to Health and Medical Care is stipulated under various Articles contained in the UN Bill of Human Rights (UDHR, ICCPCR and ICESCR) as well as other Conventions, e.g. Convention against Torture (CAT), Convention on Rights of the Child (CRC) and Convention for the Extinction of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The United Nations have also developed specific guidelines and instruments for Treatment of People under Detention. These include the General Assembly Resolution 45/111 December 1990 elucidating the Basic Principles for Treatment of Prisoners, ECOSOG resolution 663C and 2076 regarding the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners which covers rules pertaining to accommodation and Medical Services, General Assembly Resolution 37/194 on Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the role of health personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. PMID:14556353

  5. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Pond Liner Replacement

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This pond liner replacement process will be used to replace 9 deteriorated clay pond liners with polyethylene liners that help hatchery employees at Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery produce more fish at a larger size with less effort. Related to the R6PC — Replace 9 Clay Pond Liners —...

  7. Autopilot Servoactuator With Pressurized Detented Centering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aring, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Centering valve allows use of mechanical override in autopilot mode. Alternate system designed incorporates centering valves into four FBW servos, providing detents for reacting mechanical system forces following FBW shutdown. Required linkage hard point incorporated directly into autopilot servoactuator by centering valve assembly shown. All components in this functional hydraulic schematic usually present in contemporary aircraft flight-control-system autopilot servoactuators, with exception of centering valve. Centering valve, which serves as hard-point linkage for mechanical system forces, incorporated directly into flight control system.

  8. 21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.392 Who receives a copy of the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the... place where the article is detained, FDA must provide a copy of the detention order to the owner of the article of food if the owner's identity can be determined readily. (b) If FDA issues a detention order...

  9. 21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.392 Who receives a copy of the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the... place where the article is detained, FDA must provide a copy of the detention order to the owner of the article of food if the owner's identity can be determined readily. (b) If FDA issues a detention order...

  10. 21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.392 Who receives a copy of the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the... place where the article is detained, FDA must provide a copy of the detention order to the owner of the article of food if the owner's identity can be determined readily. (b) If FDA issues a detention order...

  11. 21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.392 Who receives a copy of the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the... place where the article is detained, FDA must provide a copy of the detention order to the owner of the article of food if the owner's identity can be determined readily. (b) If FDA issues a detention order...

  12. 21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.392 Who receives a copy of the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the... place where the article is detained, FDA must provide a copy of the detention order to the owner of the article of food if the owner's identity can be determined readily. (b) If FDA issues a detention order...

  13. Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

    2002-05-01

    Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal rate constant for water indicating significant sediment resuspension episodes. It appears that these sediment resuspension events are aperiodic and control the loading and the chemical retention capability of Piedmont Pond for N,P,TOC. These calculated rate constants reflect the differing internal loading processes for each component and suggest means and mechanisms for the use of ponds in water quality management.

  14. Investigation of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria presence in a small full-scale wastewater treatment system comprised by UASB reactor and three polishing ponds.

    PubMed

    Araujo, J C; Correa, M M S; Silva, E C; Campos, A P; Godinho, V M; Von Sperling, M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2010-01-01

    This work applied PCR amplification method and Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with primers and probes specific for the anammox organisms and aerobic ammonia-oxidising beta-Proteobacteria in order to detect these groups in different samples from a wastewater treatment system comprised by UASB reactor and three polishing (maturation) ponds in series. Seven primer pairs were used in order to detect Anammox bacteria. Positive results were obtained with three of them, suggesting that Anammox could be present in polishing pond sediments. However, Anammox bacteria were not detected by FISH, indicating that they were not present in sediment samples, or they could be present but below FISH detection limit. Aerobic ammonia- and nitrite-oxidising bacteria were verified in water column samples through Most Probable Number (MPN) analysis, but they were not detected in sediment samples by FISH. Ammonia removal efficiencies occurred systematically along the ponds (24, 32, and 34% for polishing pond 1, 2, and 3, respectively) but the major reaction responsible for this removal is still unclear. Some nitrification might have occurred in water samples because some nitrifying bacteria were present. Also Anammox reaction might have occurred because Anammox genes were detected in the sediments, but probably this reaction was too low to be noticed. It is important also to consider that some of the ammonia removal observed might be related to NH(3) stripping, associated with the pH increase resulting from the intensive photosynthetic activity in the ponds (mechanism under investigation). Therefore, it can be concluded that more than one mechanism (or reaction) might be involved in the ammonia removal in the polishing ponds investigated in this study. PMID:20150711

  15. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed. PMID:21595957

  16. Sexuality education groups in juvenile detention.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Schroeder, E

    1984-01-01

    Several major studies have described the magnitude and character of adolescent sexual activity and sexual knowledge related to contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (Diepold & Young, 1979; Hass, 1979; Sorenson, 1973; Zelnick & Kantner, 1980). Few systematic studies have been conducted, however, which analyze the attitudes toward sexuality and contraception of delinquent adolescents who are generally school dropouts and who may engage in socially unacceptable behaviors such as running away, drug abuse, and prostitution. Delinquent youths, especially delinquent girls, have been characterized as being more sexually active and less sexually knowledgeable than their nondelinquent peers (Gibbon, 1981; Mannarino & Marsh, 1978). Despite the assumed high-risk nature of this delinquent population, few juvenile detention facilities have offered systematically evaluated coeducational sex education programs. One barrier to implementation of such programs in juvenile detention centers is the lack of a treatment or program orientation of most staff, and/or staff denial of adolescent sexuality in general, an attitude which suppresses the development of healthier sexual values and often promotes pathologic sexual interaction within institutions (Shore & Gochros, 1981). A recent survey of adolescent sexuality (Diepold, 1979) points out that teenagers' feelings about their "sexual selves" impacts greatly upon their general self-image. Low self-esteem is more frequently found among delinquents than nondelinquents (Jones & Swain, 1977; Lund & Salury, 1980), and treatment for delinquent girls often focuses on increasing self-esteem and developing assertiveness skills based on feelings of self-worth (DeLange, Lanahan, & Barton, 1981; NiCarthy, 1981). Two studies carried out with juvenile detainees from a large urban center confirmed that sexual activity among delinquent adolescents is significantly greater than that of the general adolescent population, and that the delinquents have little or no knowledge of birth control methods or venereal disease (Deisher, 1980; Schroeder, 1981). Further, these adolescents appear to endorse constricted and conventional values related to sexual activity, abortion, and relationship issues and frequently have a background of sexual abuse and prostitution. These findings form the basis of the current study which attempts to develop an effective coeducational sex education program for this population within a detention facility. This program is specifically designed for a sexually active adolescent group aged 14 to 17. PMID:6516931

  17. Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jrg; Vesuviano, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics. PMID:24135095

  18. Hydrologic Modeling for Flood Control Detention Basin Design and Operation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiley, Mark Andrew

    This dissertation presents a methodology for hydrologic modeling related to the design and operation of flood control detention basins. Prior to this document, a comprehensive, tractable methodology for detention basin hydrologic modeling did not exist. Furthermore, techniques used in the past have not always taken advantage of computer technology or recent advances in the field of hydrology. New and original methods are presented and are developed from personal experience, recent literature, and relevant courses at The University of Arizona. Chapters in this document include precipitation data analysis, detention basin stormwater inflow, detention basin sediment inflow, stored water losses through evaporation and infiltration, design issues, and operation under competing water use objectives. Engineering constraints and data availability are explicitly addressed throughout the methodology. The goal is to determine hydrologic variables for detention basin design such as active storage volume, spillway capacity, drain outlet capacity, and, additionally for some systems, the bypass channel capacity and side-weir threshold spill flow rate. In addition to providing an increased level of protection from flood damage, detention basins may also accommodate land use and water conservation objectives of urban society.

  19. Waterfowl production on stock-watering ponds in the northern plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1973-01-01

    In a 5-year study of stock-watering ponds in western North Dakota, pond size was found to be the major factor influencing duck use. As pond size increased, total pair and brood use per pond increased. Pairs used ponds as small as 0.1 acre in size, but broods were seldom seen on ponds of less than 1.0 surface acre. Dam-type ponds larger than 1.0 surface acre comprised only 29% of all man-made ponds on the study area but received 65% of the pair use and 87% of the brood use. Utilization of fenced ponds by pairs and broods was not significantly different from utilization of unfenced ponds. Grazing rates of 2 to 3 acres per AUM and lower rates permitted the development of grassy shoreline cover preferred by pairs and brushy and emergent shorelines preferred by broods. Duck pairs were significantly more numerous on older ponds and ponds with grassy shorelines but less numerous on ponds that had heavy deposits of sediment or were isolated from other wetlands. Broods were significantly more numerous on ponds with brushy shorelines and emergent vegetation than on those without. Broods were less numerous on turbid and newly constructed ponds. The most suitable stock-watering units for maximum waterfowl production were dam-type ponds of 1.5 surface acres, or larger, built in gentle to rolling terrain away from major sources of siltation.

  20. Newly Reconstructed Pond

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Beau Griffith, a biological technician at CERC, stands at the bottom of one of the newly reconstructed ponds designed to conduct long-term studies with sturgeon and other riverine species.  A divider and circulators can be installed in the sandy-bottomed ponds to create the continuous water cur...

  1. Indoor Pond Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Erika R.

    1977-01-01

    This year-long science program involved fifth grade students in the investigation of a meadow pond. Two field trips to collect pond water and organisms were arranged for the beginning and conclusion of the program. Classroom activities were designed to study aquatic organisms, life cycles, populations, and ecosystems. (MA)

  2. Drained Research Pond

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This view is from the entry door of a drained research pond at the USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center. Speakers are at the near (only one visible) and the far (pair) end of the pond. The pool and speakers are used to study silver carp responses to sound....

  3. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  4. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  5. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  6. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  7. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  8. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  9. 76 FR 4369 - Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines... publication of the Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines and the Interim Model Deputation Agreements... Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines and Interim Model Deputation Agreements are effective...

  10. 21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? 1... General Provisions § 1.378 What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? An officer or qualified employee of FDA may order the detention of any article of food that is found during an...

  11. 21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? 1... General Provisions § 1.378 What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? An officer or qualified employee of FDA may order the detention of any article of food that is found during an...

  12. 21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? 1... General Provisions § 1.378 What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? An officer or qualified employee of FDA may order the detention of any article of food that is found during an...

  13. 21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? 1... General Provisions § 1.378 What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? An officer or qualified employee of FDA may order the detention of any article of food that is found during an...

  14. 21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? 1... General Provisions § 1.378 What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? An officer or qualified employee of FDA may order the detention of any article of food that is found during an...

  15. Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

  16. Exploring Pond Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

    1975-01-01

    An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)

  17. The Effectiveness of Cattlemans Detention Basin, South Lake Tahoe, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M., (Edited By)

    2006-01-01

    Lake Tahoe (Nevada-California) has been designated as an 'outstanding national water resource' by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in part, for its exceptional clarity. Water clarity in Lake Tahoe, however, has been declining at a rate of about one foot per year for more than 35 years. To decrease the amount of sediment and nutrients delivered to the lake by way of alpine streams, wetlands and stormwater detention basins have been installed at several locations around the lake. Although an improvement in stormwater and snowmelt runoff quality has been measured, the effectiveness of the detention basins for increasing the clarity of Lake Tahoe needs further study. It is possible that poor ground-water quality conditions exist beneath the detention basins and adjacent wetlands and that the presence of the basins has altered ground-water flow paths to nearby streams. A hydrogeochemical and ground-water flow modeling study was done at Cattlemans detention basin, situated adjacent to Cold Creek, a tributary to Lake Tahoe, to determine whether the focusing of storm and snowmelt runoff into a confined area has (1) modified the ground-water flow system beneath the detention basin and affected transport of sediment and nutrients to nearby streams and (2) provided an increased source of solutes which has changed the distribution of nutrients and affected nutrient transport rates beneath the basin. Results of slug tests and ground-water flow modeling suggest that ground water flows unrestricted northwest across the detention basin through the meadow. The modeling also indicates that seasonal flow patterns and flow direction remain similar from year to year under transient conditions. Model results imply that about 34 percent (0.004 ft3/s) of the total ground water within the model area originates from the detention basin. Of the 0.004 ft3/s, about 45 percent discharges to Cold Creek within the modeled area downstream of the detention basin. The remaining 55 percent of ground water is either consumed by evapotranspiration, is discharged to Cold Creek outside the modeled area downstream of the detention basin, or is discharged directly to Lake Tahoe. Of the 45 percent discharging to Cold Creek, about 9 percent enters directly downstream of the detention basin and 36 percent enters further downstream. Geochemical and microbial data suggest that a seasonal variation of chemical constituents and microbe population size is present at most wells. The geochemical data also indicate that construction of Cattlemans detention basin has not substantially changed the composition of the ground water in the area. High concentrations of ammonia, iron, and dissolved organic carbon, low concentrations of sulfate and nitrate, and large populations of sulfate-reducing microbes imply that the major geochemical process controlling nutrient concentrations beneath the detention basin is sulfate reduction. High concentrations of total nitrogen indicate that oxidation of organic carbon is a second important geochemical process occurring beneath the basin. The influx of surface runoff during spring 2002 apparently provided sufficient oxidized organic carbon to produce iron-reducing conditions and an increase in reduced iron, sulfate, and iron-reducing microorganisms. The increase in recharge of oxygenated water to the ground water system beneath the basin in future intervals of increased recharge may eventually redistribute nutrients and speed up transport of dissolved nutrients from the ground water system to Cold Creek.

  18. Secure preventive detention in Germany: incapacitation or treatment intervention?

    PubMed

    Drenkhahn, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Secure preventive detention of dangerous offenders has been a major source of debate in German law and practice. Unlike the other two custodial measures of correction and security in the Penal Code (confinement in a psychiatric hospital and in a detoxification clinic), it has served mainly as incapacitation. Judgments by the German Federal Constitutional Court and the European Court of Human Rights challenged this traditional concept of secure preventive detention, which led to a redefinition of the measure. It is now conceived as an offending behavior treatment measure in a secure environment. This article reports on the background of this development and analyzes its implications. PMID:23682027

  19. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system. The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon by two...

  20. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system (PAS). The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon ...

  1. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  2. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.

  3. COTTAGE FARM COMBINED SEWER DETENTION AND CHLORINATION STATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cottage Farm Detention and Chlorination Station was placed in operation by the Metropolitan District Commission on April 29, 1971. The station, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, diverts and treats combined sewage flows from the Charles River Valley sewer system (15,600 acr...

  4. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 14.93 or § 14.94, or penalties assessed against the importer or exporter under 50 CFR part 11. This... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53 Section 14.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. Vocational Training in Juvenile Detention: A Call for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameen, Edward J.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

    2012-01-01

    Given high recidivism rates and the vulnerability of detained youth, the authors posit that juvenile detention centers may be most efficacious by serving as both place and process to create career opportunity through vocational training. The authors review the psychosocial factors contributing to delinquency and the primary theories of

  6. Jail Pedagogy: Liberatory Education inside a California Juvenile Detention Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 2 million juveniles are arrested each year. Half are sentenced to serve terms of incarceration. Although many scholars have written about teaching in detention facilities, few directly address how prisoners are being taught. This research explores the experiences, teaching philosophy, and practices of correctional educators. To learn

  7. 31 CFR 560.702 - Detention of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 560.702 Detention of shipments. Import shipments into the United States of Iranian-origin goods in violation of § 560.201 and export shipments from the United States of goods destined for Iran in violation of § 560.202 or 560.204 shall be detained. No such import, export, or reexport will be permitted...

  8. Conditions of Confinement: Juvenile Detention and Corrections Facilities. Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Dale G.; And Others

    The most comprehensive nationwide research ever conducted on the juvenile detention and corrections field was a study by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) assessing conditions of confinement for juveniles and determining the extent to which those conditions conform to recognized national professional standards. The

  9. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... before the Service or the Immigration Court or to ensure the juvenile's safety or that of others. In... guardian, or adult relative in Service detention, simultaneous release of the juvenile and the parent..., a juvenile may be released to an adult, other than those identified in paragraphs (b)(1)(i)...

  10. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

  11. Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Zwecker, Naomi A.; Welty, Leah J.; Hershfield, Jennifer A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric disorders and comorbidity are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. To date, no large-scale study has examined the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. OBJECTIVE To determine the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders among youth 5 years after detention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective longitudinal study of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female; 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 524 Hispanic, and 4 other race/ethnicity) recruited from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois, between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and who received their time 2 follow-up interview between May 22, 2000, and April 3, 2004. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (child and young adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). RESULTS Five years after detention, when participants were 14 to 24 years old, almost 27% of males and 14% of females had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although females had significantly higher rates of comorbidity when in detention (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7), males had significantly higher rates than females at follow-up (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.3). Substance use plus behavioral disorders was the most common comorbid profile among males, affecting 1 in 6. Participants with more disorders at baseline were more likely to have a disorder approximately 5 years after detention, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. We found substantial continuity of disorder. However, some baseline disorders predicted alcohol and drug use disorders at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although prevalence rates of comorbidity decreased in youth after detention, rates remained substantial and were higher than rates in the most comparable studies of the general population. Youth with multiple disorders at baseline are at highest risk for disorder 5 years later. Because many psychiatric disorders first appear in childhood and adolescence, primary and secondary prevention of psychiatric disorders offers the greatest opportunity to reduce costs to individuals, families, and society. Only a concerted effort to address the many needs of delinquent youth will help them thrive in adulthood. PMID:25426584

  12. Saltless solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

  13. Designing a constructed wetland for the detention of agricultural runoff for water quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Millhollon, Eddie P; Rodrigue, Paul B; Rabb, James L; Martin, Danny F; Anderson, Russell A; Dans, Darinda R

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to construct a wetland that would detain runoff from a 162-ha watershed for the purposes of improving water quality. The volume of runoff that needed to be detained was determined to be that amount coming off the 162-ha watershed consisting of 146 ha of cultivated crop land and 16 ha of pasture that exceeded the amount that would have come off of the watershed in its natural, forested state. The Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resource Conservation Service [NRCS]) runoff curve number method was used to estimate runoff from the watershed in its natural, forested state and in its current state of cultivated crop land and pasture. The design of the constructed wetland was accomplished using the natural topography of the wetland site and the design criteria for a sediment containment system developed by NRCS. The SPAW (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Water Field & Pond Hydrology) computer model was used to model depth and volume in the wetland to determine if the constructed wetland design would accommodate typical runoff events. Construction of the wetland occurred over a 4-mo period. The capabilities of the system were verified when Hurricane Rita deposited above-normal rainfall to the wetland site area. The wetland was able to accommodate this event, allowing flow through the system for 9 d, followed by continued detention of remaining runoff for water quality improvement. PMID:19875802

  14. Electricity from solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Bronicki, Y.L.

    1981-08-01

    The design and operation of solar-pond power plants begun 20 years ago in Israel are described. Such systems offer the advantages of high reliability, low maintenance requirements, the self-cleaning capability of the ponds, and environmental compatability. The working fluids employed for the turbogenerators are generally fluorinated or chlorinated hydrocarbons and aeromatics. Practical efficiencies achieved are between 50-70 % of the Carnot efficiency. The unit step size is on the order of 20-50 mw and the total installed capacity can be increased exactly as demand grows. 9 refs.

  15. Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

  16. Salt-gradient Solar Ponds: Summary of US Department of Energy Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.; Zangrando, F.

    1984-01-01

    The solar pond research program conducted by the United States Department of Energy was discontinued after 1983. This document summarizes the results of the program, reviews the state of the art, and identifies the remaining outstanding issues. Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond. Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed. Theories and models were developed and verified. The major remaining unknowns or issues involve the physical behavior of large ponds; i.e., wind mixing of the surface, lateral range or reach of horizontally injected fluids, ground thermal losses, and gradient zone boundary erosion caused by pumping fluid for heat extraction. These issues cannot be scaled and must be studied in a large outdoor solar pond.

  17. Energy Budgets and Pond Stratification Controls: an undergraduate study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J.; Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.

    2002-05-01

    The thermal stratification of shallow freshwater bodies is known to significantly affect both internal water quality and pollutant retention efficiency. Mirror Pond is a small (1.98 Ha), shallow (max depth 1.25 m) reservoir presently utilized as an urban run-off retention pond. High frequency temperature profiles and meteorological data collected for a period of 1 week reveal that Mirror Pond stratifies on a daily cycle. Analysis of the pond energy budget suggests the daily cycle is primarily dependent on the vertical attenuation of the short-wave radiation flux and a constant (over one week) heat loss term. The daily temperature stratification provides for daily density stratification that significantly limits vertical diffusive transport. This daily stratification of ponds will exert considerable influence on its internal biogeochemical cycles and its chemical retention capabilities A low energy rain event (mean wind speeds less than before and after event) during the time period under study displaced 10-25 per cent of the pond volume. During this rain event, the pond did not exhibit daily thermal stratification: pond temperatures remained vertically homogeneous for most of one 24-hour period. Analysis of vertical thermal structure and mean meteorological conditions during the rain event, indicates that the decreased short-wave radiation flux during the rain event should have been adequate to stratify the system given the low wind speeds (Condie and Webster, 2001). Simple adjustments of the heat input as 'cold rain' were also inadequate to create a vertically homogeneous and mixed pond thermal structure. The kinetic energy of the rain and/or the kinetic energy of runoff may be contributing factors to the mixing of this pond. Formulations to characterize the stratification in shallow water bodies may not accurately account for mixing in low winds and rain event. This will result in an underestimation of mixing events and impact interpretations of pond export and chemical retention.

  18. Let's Build a Pond!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a game for grades three-six designed to demonstrate the interdependence between living things and the physical factors of their environment. Although instructions (including preparing game cards) are provided related to a pond, the game adapts to other environments such as a field, woodland, or desert. (Author/JN)

  19. Partitioned pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World aquaculture is dominated by the use of simple earthen ponds in which suitable water quality is maintained by photosynthetic processes. Relying upon sunlight to maintain water quality offers the lowest cost and most sustainable approach to fish or shellfish production, which explains the popula...

  20. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions. PMID:25714630

  1. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  2. Optimisation of operational management practices for the detention basins.

    PubMed

    Jacopin, C; Lucas, E; Desbordes, M; Bourgogne, P

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop new operational management practices for detention basins during rainfall events in order to limit flooding risk and, at the same time, to reduce pollutant discharges by optimising the settling process. For this work, a methodology was developed to study the integration of the stormwater treatment into existing detention structures. In this article, it was applied on two experimental sites. The current operation of the basins and "on/off" regulation studies were first carried out to quantify the freedom to act to change the control schemes. Relying on the support of these studies, new operational rules based on the current or "on/off" principle were then elaborated and tested on the experimental basins using a hydraulic model. Finally, their efficiency to protect against flooding and to reduce pollutant discharges was assessed. PMID:11547995

  3. COMORBID PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate six-month prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (gender, race/ethnicity, and age). Design Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Masters level clinical research interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3) to randomly selected detainees. Setting A large temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (1172 males, 657 females, ages 1018) arrested and newly detained. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3). Results Significantly more females (56.5%) than males (45.9%) met criteria for 2 or more of the following disorders: major depressive, dysthymic, manic, psychotic, panic, separation-anxiety, overanxious, generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive, attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional-defiant, alcohol, marijuana, and other substance; 17.3% of females and 20.4% of males had only one disorder. We also examined types of disorder: affective, anxiety, substance use and ADHD/behavioral. The odds of having comorbid disorders were higher than expected by chance for most demographic subgroups, except when base rates of disorders were already high, or when cell sizes were small. Nearly 14% of females and 11% of males had both a major mental disorder (psychosis, manic episode, or major depressive episode) and a substance use disorder. Compared to participants with no major mental disorder (the residual category), those with a major mental disorder had significantly greater odds (1.84.1) of having substance use disorders. Nearly 30% of females and over 20% of males with substance use disorders had major mental disorders. Rates of some types of comorbidity were higher among non-Hispanic whites and older adolescents. Conclusion Comorbid psychiatric disorders are a major health problem among detained youth. We recommend directions for research and discuss how to improve treatment and reduce health disparities in the juvenile justice and mental health systems. PMID:14609885

  4. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  5. Homing and movement of yellow-phase American eels in freshwater ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamothe, P.J.; Gallagher, M.; Chivers, D.P.; Moring, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Ten yellow-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata, were captured from Hammond Pond, a small freshwater pond located in central Maine, U.S.A. The eels were implanted with radio transmitters and released into nearby Hermon Pond. At the same time, 10 eels were captured from Hermon Pond, implanted with radio transmitters and returned to Hermon Pond to serve as a control group. The two ponds are connected by a 1.6km section of Souadabscook Stream. We tracked the 20 eels over the 90-day duration of the experiment. Four of the ten displaced eels returned to their home pond. None of the control fish were located outside of their home pond during the study. Three of the four eels that successfully returned to their home pond did so under the darkness of the new moon and the fourth made the journey during the first quarter moon phase. Location data showed that translocated and native eels tended to occupy different areas of Hermon Pond. This study provides evidence of homing behavior in American eels living in small freshwater ponds and indications that homing activity may be linked to lunar cycle.

  6. Pond fractals in a tidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cael, B. B.; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  7. Flood-frequency and detention-storage characteristics of Bear Branch watershed, Murfreesboro, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outlaw, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model [DR3M] was applied to a 2.27-square-mile portion of Bear Branch watershed at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, to demonstrate the application of this model to small urban watersheds in central Tennessee. Kinematic wave theory was used to route excess rainfall overland and through a branched system of stream channels. The model was calibrated with hyetographs from two raingages, hydrographs from two streamflow gages, and peak-stage elevations from two crest-stage gages that were operated in the watershed from March 1989 through July 1992. Standard errors of estimate for peak discharge at Northfield Boulevard and Compton Road are 41.1 and 92.2 percent, respectively. Standard errors of estimate for runoff volumes at Northfield Boulevard and Compton Road are 53.5 and 97.6 percent, respectively. The calibrated model was used to simulate flood hydrographs for 73 large storms occurring during the period 1901-1990 and the simulated flood peaks were used to develop flood-frequency relations for present (1992) conditions in the watershed. Flood discharges for the 100-year recurrence-interval storm were estimated as 350 cubic feet per second at Northfield Boulevard, 1,000 cubic feet per second upstream of DeJarnett Lane, 610 cubic feet per second downstream of DeJarnett Lane, 800 cubic feet per second upstream of Osborne Lane, 790 cubic feet per second downstream of Osborne Lane, and 1,000 cubic feet per second at Compton Road. The effect of detention storage on flood hydrographs was simulated at several locations in the watershed. Detention storage upstream of DeJarnett Lane significantly reduces downstream flood peaks, whereas detention storage upstream of Osborne Lane has almost no effect. The results of this study indicate that the Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model could be an important tool for testing the effects of future development and flood storage alternatives on flooding in small urban watersheds throughout the area.

  8. Best Management Practices for Freshwater Pond Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter in the book Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture describes freshwater pond aquaculture systems and management practices to reduce environmental impacts of pond aquaculture. Pond aquaculture systems for channel catfish, crawfish, baitfish, hybrid striped bass, and o...

  9. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  10. 8 CFR 241.4 - Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continued detention of inadmissible, criminal, and other aliens beyond the removal period. 241.4 Section 241.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  11. 25 CFR 10.2 - Who is responsible for developing and maintaining the policies and standards for detention and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... policies and standards for detention and holding facilities in Indian country? 10.2 Section 10.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES... detention and holding facilities in Indian country? The Director, Office of Law Enforcement Services...

  12. Developing and Implementing a Stress Management Program for Special Educators in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Joan R.

    This paper describes a practicum designed to increase the stress management skills of 10 special educators working in a juvenile detention center. Teachers at the juvenile detention center were taking an inordinate amount of sick leave and engaging in behaviors that were counter-productive to their delivery of educational services to detained

  13. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  14. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  15. Brutal Borders? Examining the Treatment of Deportees during Arrest and Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Scott; Hagan, Jacqueline Maria; Rodriguez, Nestor

    2006-01-01

    Recent legislation has produced a dramatic rise in the detention and removal of immigrants from the United States. Drawing on interviews with a random sample of Salvadoran deportees, we examine treatment during arrest and detention. Our findings indicate: (1) deportees are often subject to verbal harassment, procedural failings and use of force;

  16. 19 CFR 12.104d - Detention of articles; time in which to comply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention of articles; time in which to comply. 12.104d Section 12.104d Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property 12.104d Detention of...

  17. Considering the Use and Usefulness of Juvenile Detention: Operationalizing Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Richard Pearson

    1980-01-01

    The author's principal concerns are (1) the impact of detention on youth, family, and community; (2) the elements of sound intake processes; and (3) the roles of detention personnel and counselors or probation officers following admission, and how these roles might be deployed to insure minimal social losses to detained juveniles. (Author/DB)

  18. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... rule) in the Federal Register of May 9, 2003 (68 FR 25242), proposing procedures for the administrative detention of an article of food. In the Federal Register of June 4, 2004 (69 FR 31660), the Agency issued... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250)....

  19. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  20. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  1. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  2. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  3. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). 3017.204-90 Section 3017.204-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head...

  4. Multimetric Evaluation of Detention Basin Retrofit to Reduce Hydrologic Alteration of Urbanization and Restore Stream Stability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Conventional stormwater detention basins are ubiquitous in the developed portions of U.S., particularly those areas developed since the 1980s. Because most detention basins were designed exclusively for flood control, they are not being utilized to their fullest potent...

  5. A simple pond parametrization for malaria transmission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, A. M.; Asare, E.; Amekudzi, L. K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to model malaria effectively using a dynamical modelling approach, a realistic representation of the surface hydrology is required. Achieving this goal is hindered by the fact that key vector breeding sites are small in spatial scale, ranging from small permanent ponds to temporary puddles. This small spatial scale confounds modelling efforts as the topography on such small scales is unknown, and also renders detection by remote sensing techniques difficult implying a requirement of in-situ measurements. Results from ongoing measurements of breeding sites in Kumasi (Ghana) are shown, along with attempts to reproduce these using a simple pond 'parametrization'. The significant impact of the pond model implementation and settings on malaria simulations using the new VECTRI dynamical disease model is demonstrated.

  6. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  7. New England Lakes & Ponds Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  8. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and

  9. View of Managed Pond, Fields

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     A Tree plantation and Native Woods in Maryland. The trees between the pond and the field are trees along a running creek. The pond had mixed vegetation (native and nonnative) restored along its edge as a runoff buffer....

  10. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on the interactions of viruses with particles and with other organisms, as well as the development of a model for virus removal in pond systems that can be used for design purposes, and to inform future editions of the WHO Guidelines for Wastewater Use in Agriculture. PMID:25613410

  11. Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

  12. Performance comparison between two equal stabilization ponds operating with and without sludge layer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V A J; Possmoser-Nascimento, T E; Dias, D F C; Passos, R G; von Sperling, M; Vasel, J L

    2015-01-01

    Stabilization ponds are a highly appropriate system for treating sewage in small to medium size communities. However, sludge accumulation at the pond bottom occurs with the passage of time, reducing the net pond volume, which, in principle, could affect its performance. The objective of this paper is to compare the behaviour of two equal ponds in parallel treating the same flow of municipal wastewater from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor in Brazil. Each pond treated a population equivalent of around 125 inhabitants. One pond had approximately 40% of its net volume occupied by sludge after 11 years of operation, while the other pond had previously undergone complete desludging. The study covers the removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), nitrogen fractions and coliforms. Owing to the presence of a sludge layer, the theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) was lower in the pond without sludge. For BOD, COD, SS and Escherichia coli there were no significant differences (Wilcoxon matched-pairs test) between both ponds. The pond without sludge had significantly better removal efficiencies in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonia-N. The sludge layer probably allowed the occurrence of removal mechanisms that compensated for the reduction caused in the HRT. PMID:25812104

  13. Experimental study of the salt gradient solar pond stability

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Choubani; Slim, Zitouni; Kais, Charfi; Jomaa, Safi Mohamed; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2010-01-15

    Many natural systems such as oceans, lakes, etc.., are influenced by the effect of double-diffusive convection. This phenomenon, which is a combination of heat and mass transfer, can destroy the stability of system-flows. In the case of solar ponds the middle layer, that is linearly stratified, acts as a thermal and mass insulator for the lower layer. This middle layer, called the Non-Convective Zone (NCZ), needs special care to avoid convection and to maintain its stability. In fact, due to an excess of heat stored, a thermal gradient occurs within the NCZ. A convective movement appears at the bottom of the stratified-layers and then grows to a double-diffusive convection movement. This movement transforms the stratified-layers into a well mixed layer, reducing the storage capacity of the pond. Laboratory small-scale pond and middle-scale outdoor solar ponds were designed and built to provide both quantitative data and to study the dynamic processes in solar ponds, including the behavior of the gradient zone. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualization-experiments carried out in the mechanical and energetic laboratory in the engineering school of Tunisia and experiments in the field showed that the instability of solar ponds could be limited by using porous media placed in the lower layer of the stratification. (author)

  14. Quality of life among immigrants in Swedish immigration detention centres: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena; Källestål, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Background Detention of immigrants negatively affects their health and well-being. Quality of life (QOL) is a broad concept incorporating the self-evaluation of one's own health and well-being that can provide an understanding of the health and well-being of immigrant detainees. The aim of this study was to estimate QOL among immigrant detainees in Sweden and to assess its relationship with the services provided in detention centres and with the duration of detention. Design All immigrants in all five existing Swedish detention centres (N=193) were invited to participate in the study (n=127). In this cross-sectional study, QOL was measured using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, which was administered by the first author. The questionnaire contained four additional questions measuring participants’ satisfaction with the services provided in detention. Associations between QOL domain scores and service satisfaction scores were assessed using regression analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to measure the degree of association between the duration of detention and QOL scores. Results The mean QOL domain scores (out of 100) were 47.0, 57.5, 41.9, and 60.5 for the environmental, physical, psychological, and social domains, respectively. The level of support detainees received from detention staff was significantly positively associated with detainees’ physical (βadjusted 3.93, confidence interval [CI] 0.06–7.80) and psychological (βadjusted 5.72, CI 1.77–9.66) domain scores. There was also significant positive association between detainees’ satisfaction with the care they received from detention staff and the domain scores. The general health score in the WHOQOL-BREF was significantly associated with the detainees’ ability to understand the Swedish or English languages. Although not statistically significant, a longer duration of detention was negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion Immigrant detainees report low QOL. Services provided at the centres, especially the support received from detention staff, is positively associated with their QOL. A review of detention guidelines addressing language barriers, staff training, and duration of detention is highly recommended. PMID:26193898

  15. Migratory Waterfowl at Coulson Pond

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Migratory waterfowl congregate at Coulson Pond in Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. Blackwater serves as an important habitat for these waterfowl, and was established in 1933 as a waterfowl sanctuary for birds migrating along the Atlantic Flyway....

  16. Pond Ecology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidl, Sally Stenhouse

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities with organisms from freshwater ponds and ditches. Several experiments involve predation, some involve habitat choices, and one addressees the role of sunlight in supporting plant-eating animals. (PR)

  17. Waterbird use of high saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management (mosquito control)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Howe, M.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The excavation of small (1 ha) natural ponds or pannes or adjacent tidal creeks. Recent modifications in pond construction in Delaware and New Jersey allow for shallower, more sloping basins which should enhance use by waterfowl and shorebirds while still ensuring a water reservoir to support fish populations.

  18. US EPA WINTER FLOUNDER PROJECTS AND OTHER WORK IN RHODE ISLAND SALT PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will briefly summarize selected EPA research in Rhode Island's salt ponds from 2000 through 2003. In one project, during the summer of 2000, we used a 1.75 m2 drop sampler to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond. Mean abundance ...

  19. Modeling of shallow stabilization ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Babarutsi, S.; Marchand, P.; Safieddine, T.

    1999-07-01

    A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is used to simulate shallow stabilization ponds. The model computes the flow field and the concentration distribution of a conservative tracer in the entire area of a pond. The location and the size of the dead zones, the bypassing, and the recirculating areas are also determined by the model. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained in the laboratory.

  20. Salton Sea solar pond project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

  1. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic How do rates of organic production vary temporally Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of {sup 14}C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two.

  2. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  3. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  4. Heat transfer through a solar pond nonconvective zone of recycled glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The heat transfer through a recycled glass/water porous medium is examined experimentally to determine the medium's effectiveness as a nonconvective zone in a solar pond. Temperature distributions within clear bottle or broken glass/water mediums are studied with heated from above, and heated from below orientations. A small solar pond of glass bottles as well as a numerical simulation of a glass sphere solar pond are also investigated. Results of the experimental study show that convection was not suppressed by using bottles during bottom heating and indicate that stagnation will only occur with very small glass fragments. The computer simulation further indicated that even with perfect transmittance through the medium, pond efficiency will be far less than for a salt gradient pond. The small pond tests show no temperature gradient (indicating little stagnation), show little radiation transmittance through the medium (less than 10% for a .4 meter pond), and confirm the conclusion that a glass bottle or broken glass/water medium is unsuitable as a solar pond nonconvective zone.

  5. Treatment of swine wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G B; Hunt, P G; Phillips, R; Stone, K; Grubbs, A

    2001-01-01

    Swine waste is commonly treated in the USA by flushing into an anaerobic lagoon and subsequently applying to land. This natural system type of application has been part of agricultural practice for many years. However, it is currently under scrutiny by regulators. An alternate natural system technology to treat swine wastewater may be constructed wetland. For this study we used four wetland cells (11 m width x 40 m length) with a marsh-pond-marsh design. The marsh sections were planted to cattail (Typha latifolia, L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). Two cells were loaded with 16 kg N ha(-1) day(-1) with a detention of 21 days. They removed 51% of the added N. Two additional cells were loaded with 32 kg ha(-1) day(-1) with 10.5 days detention. These cells removed only 37% of the added N. However, treatment operations included cold months in which treatment was much less efficient. Removal of N was moderately correlated with the temperature. During the warmer periods removal efficiencies were more consistent with the high removal rates reported for continuous marsh systems--often > than 70%. Phosphorus removal ranged from 30 to 45%. Aquatic macrophytes (plants and floating) assimilated about 320 and 35 kg ha(-1), respectively of N and P. PMID:11804147

  6. High rates of methane emissions from south taiga wetland ponds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Maksyutov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since wetland ponds are often assumed to be insignificant sources of methane, there is a limited data about its fluxes. In this study, we found surprisingly high rates of methane emission at several shallow ponds in the south taiga zone of West Siberia. Wetland ponds within the Great Vasyugan Mire ridge-hollow-pool patterned bog system were investigated. 22 and 24 flux measurements from ponds and surrounded mires, respectively, were simultaneously made by a static chamber method in July, 2011. In contrast to previous measurements, fluxes were measured using the small boat with floated chamber to avoid disturbance to the water volume. Since the ebullition is most important emission pathway, minimization of physical disturbance provoking gas bubbling significantly increases the data accuracy. Air temperature varied from 15 to 22 C during the measurements, and pH at different pond depths - from 4.4 to 5. As it was found, background emission from surrounding ridges and hollows was 1.7/2.6/3.3 mgCm-2h1 (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles). These rates are in a perfect correspondence with the typical methane emission fluxes from other south taiga bogs. Methane emission from wetland ponds turned out to be by order of magnitude higher (9.3/11.3/15.6 mgCm-2h1). Comparing to other measurements in West Siberia, many times higher emissions (70.9/111.6/152.3 mgCm-2h1) were found in forest-steppe and subtaiga fen ponds. On the contrary, West Siberian tundra lakes emit methane insignificantly, with the flux rate close to surrounding wetlands (about 0.2-0.3 mgCm-2h1). Apparently, there is a naturally determined distribution of ponds with different flux rates over different West Siberia climate-vegetation zones. Further investigations aiming at revelation of the zones with different fluxes would be helpful for total flux revision purposes. With respect to other studies, high emission rates were already detected, for instance, in Baltic ponds (Dzyuban, 2002) and U.K. lakes (Casper et al., 2000). Annual CH4 emission from West Siberia south taiga ponds with area of 0.6106 Mha was estimated to be 0.26 MtCH4yr-1.

  7. Blogging from North Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  8. Feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for brine unmixing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-30

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate in the laboratory the feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for unmixing a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams for salinity gradient energy conversion systems. This objective was accomplished by conducting experiments on laboratory saturated ponds using borax, potassium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, disodium phosphate and potassium alum. Results from ponds using borax, potassium nitrate and disodium phosphate conclusively demonstrated that saturated solar ponds can self-generate and self-maintain a stable density gradient. Moreover, these ponds reestablished stable density profiles after the ponds were externally mixed. Based on preliminary results, the residence time for unmixing of a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams varies from a few days for the borax pond to about two weeks for the disodium phosphate pond, depending upon the characteristics of the individual saturated solution. Because of only a very small increase in the density of saturated solutions from 25/sup 0/C to 90/sup 0/C, the potassium perchlorate pond could not establish a stable density stratification.

  9. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

  10. Waterbird use of saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Howe, M.A.; Klugman, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Open Marsh Water Management (OMWM) as an alternative to pesticides for mosquito control in saltmarshes along the Atlantic Coast has created debate among biologists. We designed an experiment to determine waterbird (American black duck (Anas rubripes) and other waterfowl, wading birds, shorebirds, gulls, and terns) use (during daylight) of ponds created for mosquito control compared with use of pre-existing water bodies (i.e., natural tidal ponds, creeks, old ditches) and refuge impoundments. We also evaluated the influence of pond size and depth on waterbird use of wetlands. We documented bird use of different habitats for 1 year. The highest densities of waterfowl, in autumn, occurred in 0.030.06ha ponds (P lt 0.05) versus ponds either lt 0.02 ha or gt 0.08 ha; highest shorebird densities occurred in summer in ponds gt 0.10 ha (P lt 0.05). Pond depth affected shorebird and other waterfowl use in some seasons. Comparisons of mean number of birds using created (OMWM) ponds with mean number of birds using other water bodies revealed that most species showed no pattern (P gt 0.05) of disproportionate use versus availability. At high tidal levels, most species groups used OMWM ponds in the marsh more often (P lt 0.05) than other water bodies. Black ducks and other waterfowl used nearby refuge impoundments in higher densities than they did OMWM ponds, for nesting and during autumn-winter (all Ps lt 0.05). Creating small ( lt 0.1 ha) ponds for mosquito control does not enhance waterbird habitat, at least not where large impoundments are in close proximity. We recommend that in areas where OMWM practices seem appropriate, fewer large ( gt 0.10 ha) ponds be constructed with shallow ( lt 15 cm) basins and sloping sides.

  11. The origin and fate of arsenic in coalbed natural gas-produced water ponds.

    PubMed

    Sowder, J T; Kelleners, T J; Reddy, K J

    2010-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water contains small amounts of trace metals that can accumulate over time in produced water retention ponds. Within the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming, high concentrations of trace metals in pond water and their effect on shallow groundwater are potential concerns. A pond with a maximum As concentration of 146 microg L(-1) was studied in detail to determine the potential for groundwater pollution and to explain the cause for the high concentration of As. Infiltration characteristics, subsurface hydrology, our fall and pond water quality, isotope signatures, and trace metal balances were examined to assess the hydrology and geochemistry of the pond. The results indicated minimum or no infiltration of pond water and no measurable contamination of the shallow groundwater. The high As concentrations in the pond were determined to be the result of semi-continuous inputs of CBNG-produced water with low As concentrations (0.20-0.48 microg L(-1)), exasperated by low pond volumes during drought conditions. Because of reduced infiltration and high evaporation rates, As became concentrated over time. Reduced infiltration was most likely caused by the high sodium concentration and high sodium adsorption ratio of the CBNG-produced water, which disrupt soil structure. The findings for the pond and the techniques used may serve as a template for future impact assessments of other CBNG-produced water ponds and are relevant for the approximately 4000 ponds currently permitted in the PRB and for future ponds. Further studies are recommended in the use of playa landforms to store marginal-quality produced water. PMID:21043266

  12. TOWARD EFFECTIVE URBAN BMPS FOR STORMWATER TREATMENT: WET PONDS VS. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND-TYPE RETENTION/DETENTION STRUCTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A goal of the Urban Watershed Management Branch of USEPA's NRMRL, Edison, NJ is to develop and demonstrate technologies and methods to manage the ecological risks posed by stormwate runoff from highly developed watersheds. This study, in particular, uses extant data and controlle...

  13. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  14. Solar pond power plant feasibility study for Davis, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Singer, M. J.; Marsh, H. E.; Harris, J.; Walton, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layout, and a preliminary cost estimate were studied. It was concluded that a solar pond power plant is technically feasible, but economically unattractive. The relatively small scale of the proposed plant and the high cost of importing salt resulted in a disproportionately high capital investment with respect to the annual energy production capacity of the plant. Cycle optimization and increased plant size would increase the economical attractiveness of the proposed concept.

  15. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  16. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  17. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  18. Tidal day organic and inorganic material flux of ponds in the Liberty Island freshwater tidal wetland.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Peggy W; Mayr, Shawn; Liu, Leji; Tang, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The loss of inorganic and organic material export and habitat produced by freshwater tidal wetlands is hypothesized to be an important contributing factor to the long-term decline in fishery production in San Francisco Estuary. However, due to the absence of freshwater tidal wetlands in the estuary, there is little information on the export of inorganic and organic carbon, nutrient or phytoplankton community biomass and the associated mechanisms. A single-day study was conducted to assess the potential contribution of two small vegetated ponds and one large open-water pond to the inorganic and organic material flux within the freshwater tidal wetland Liberty Island in San Francisco Estuary. The study consisted of an intensive tidal day (25.5h) sampling program that measured the flux of inorganic and organic material at three ponds using continuous monitoring of flow, chlorophyll a, turbidity and salt combined with discrete measurements of phytoplankton community carbon, total and dissolved organic carbon and nutrient concentration at 1.5h intervals. Vegetated ponds had greater material concentrations than the open water pond and, despite their small area, contributed up to 81% of the organic and 61% of the inorganic material flux of the wetland. Exchange between ponds was important to wetland flux. The small vegetated pond in the interior of the wetland contributed as much as 72-87% of the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a and 10% of the diatom flux of the wetland. Export of inorganic and organic material from the small vegetated ponds was facilitated by small-scale topography and tidal asymmetry that produced a 40% greater material export on ebb tide. The small vegetated ponds contrasted with the large open water pond, which imported 29-96% of the inorganic and 4-81% of the organic material into the wetland from the adjacent river. This study identified small vegetated ponds as an important source of inorganic and organic material to the wetland and the importance of small scale physical processes within ponds to material flux of the wetland. PMID:26090320

  19. Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

    This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive…

  20. Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

    This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive

  1. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  2. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and

  3. The Pond Community. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

    This study guide is intended as preparation for a visit to a pond. Each lesson includes pre-study questions and post-study questions involving the content of the lesson. Numerous drawings and diagrams are included in each lesson. Also included in the guide are a glossary, bibliography, and a detailed teacher's guide. (RE)

  4. How Healthy Is Our Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Hargrove, Dori L.

    2014-01-01

    With crosscutting concepts such as stability and change in the "Next Generation Science Standards," this article was written for those who have wondered how to teach these concepts in a way that is relevant to students. In this investigation, students ask the question, "Why is the pond dirty?" As students investigate the health

  5. Electric Trees and Pond Creatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Helen; Hounshell, Paul B.

    1978-01-01

    Two learning activities are presented to develop observation and classification skills at the elementary level. The first is an electric box that associates tree names with leaf and bark specimens, and the second is a pond water observation and slide preparation activity. (BB)

  6. The Absent Interpreter in Administrative Detention Center Medical Units.

    PubMed

    Rondeau-Lutz, Murielle; Weber, Jean-Christophe

    2014-09-01

    The particular situation of the French administrative detention center (ADC) medical units appears to be an exemplary case to study the difficulties facing medical practice. Indeed, the starting point of our inquiry was an amazing observation that needed to be addressed and understood: why are professional interpreters so seldom requested in ADC medical units, where one would expect that they would be "naturally" present? Aiming to fully explore the meanings of the "absent interpreter", this article takes into account the possible meanings of this situation: the recourse to professional interpreters in France is far from expected given cumulative evidence of its benefits; perceptions of illegal immigrants and medical habitus itself may both hamper the use of a third party; the ADCs are a very stressful place for healthcare professionals, with conflicting missions, political issues enmeshed with medical goals, and heavy affective burden that may lead to self-protection. Silencing voices of suffering others might be seen as the hidden indecent truth of the "absent interpreter". These reflections open a window to a larger issue with regard to the full range of medicine: what are the place, the role and the function of patient's words and narratives in contemporary medicine? The highly invested somatic perspective and its political corollary giving primacy to bare life harbor potential risks of obscuring speeches and undervaluing narratives. PMID:25189317

  7. Spatial variability of sediment ecotoxicity in a large storm water detention basin.

    PubMed

    Merchan, Carolina Gonzalez; Perrodin, Yves; Barraud, Sylvie; Sbastian, Christel; Becouze-Lareure, Cline; Bazin, Christine; Kouyi, Gislain Lipeme

    2014-04-01

    Detention basins are valuable facilities for urban storm water management, from both the standpoint of flood control and the trapping of pollutants. Studies performed on storm water have shown that suspended solids often constitute the main vector of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), etc.). In order to characterise the ecotoxicity of urban sediments from storm water detention basins, the sediments accumulated over a 6-year period were sampled at five different points through the surface of a large detention basin localised in the east of Lyon, France. A specific ecotoxicological test battery was implemented on the solid phase (raw sediment) and the liquid phase (interstitial water of sediments). The results of the study validated the method formulated for the ecotoxicological characterization of urban sediments. They show that the ecotoxicological effect of the sediments over the basin is heterogeneous and greater in areas often flooded. They also show the relationship between, on one hand, the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments and, on the other hand, their ecotoxicity. Lastly, they contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of the pollution close to the bottom of detention basins, which can be useful for improving their design. The results of this research raise particularly the issue of using oil separators on the surface of detention basins. PMID:24243265

  8. Oxidation pond for municipal wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Erick; Hung, Yung-Tse; Suleiman Al Ahmad, Mohammed; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Robert Lian-Huey; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2015-04-01

    This literature review examines process, design, and cost issues related to using oxidation ponds for wastewater treatment. Many of the topics have applications at either full scale or in isolation for laboratory analysis. Oxidation ponds have many advantages. The oxidation pond treatment process is natural, because it uses microorganisms such as bacteria and algae. This makes the method of treatment cost-effective in terms of its construction, maintenance, and energy requirements. Oxidation ponds are also productive, because it generates effluent that can be used for other applications. Finally, oxidation ponds can be considered a sustainable method for treatment of wastewater.

  9. Effect of upstream ponds on stream temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J.; Toran, L.; Cruz, J.

    2006-05-01

    Many tributaries feeding streams are connected to ponds that heat up during summer months; however, the influence of these ponds on receiving stream temperature was not known. Stream temperature affects microfauna and fish habitats in aquatic ecosystems. Three tributaries with headwater ponds exposed to sunlight and one tributary unassociated with a large, upstream pond were selected for study within the Pennypack Creek watershed in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. Temperature loggers were installed in the pond (when applicable), associated tributary, and in the Pennypack Creek up and downstream of its confluence with the tributary. Although diurnal temperature fluctuations were apparent, the study showed no significant differences in temperature up and downstream of tributary discharge to Pennypack Creek. Pond water temperatures were up to 4C warmer than the Pennypack Creek; however, temperatures downstream and upstream of the tributaries leading out of the ponds were within 1C of each other.

  10. Contesting Institutional Discourse to Create New Possibilities for Understanding Lived Experience: Life-Stories of Young Women in Detention, Rehabilitation, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Suniti

    2010-01-01

    This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter-stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15-19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the study

  11. Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazel, Seena; Doll, Helen; Langstrom, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a meta-analysis of all existing surveys on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in order to assess the prevalence of mental disorders. Findings indicate adolescents in detention are 10 times more likely to suffer from psychosis than the general adolescent

  12. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities 12.4 Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

  13. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities 12.4 Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

  14. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities 12.4 Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

  15. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities 12.4 Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

  16. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities 12.4 Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

  17. 25 CFR 10.8 - What minimum records must be kept and reports made at each detention, community residential, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... each detention, community residential, or holding facility in Indian country? 10.8 Section 10.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES... residential, or holding facility in Indian country? The Director, Office of Law Enforcement Services,...

  18. A preliminary evaluation of the occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds of the Maryland shores of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under the auspices of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, a preliminary investigation of occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. These small ponds occur commonly along the Bay shore. A sand berm separates the freshwaters of the ponds from the saline waters of the Bay; this berm is occasionally breached permitting interchange between ponds and Bay. A survey of aerial maps and photographs has revealed approximately 1800 ponds bordering the mid and upper Bay.

  19. Effects of urban flood-detention reservoirs on peak discharges and flood discharges and flood frequencies, and simulation of flood-detention reservoir outflow hydrographs in two watersheds in Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, G.W.; Inman, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the effects of flood-detention reservoirs on downstream peak discharges of two urban tributaries to Kinchafoonee Creek (tributaries 1 and 2) in Albany, Georgia and presents simulated flood-detention reservoir outflow hydrographs. Rainfall-runoff data were collected for six years at two stations in these two urban watersheds. Tributary number 1 basin has a drainage area of 0.12 square miles, contains 23.8 percent impervious area, and contains two detention reservoirs. Tributary number 2 basin has a drainage area of 0.09 square miles, contains 12.9 percent impervious area, and has one detention reservoir. The Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M) was calibrated using rainfall-runoff data collected during 1987- 92 at each station. DR3M was then used to simulate long-term (1906-33, 1941-73) peak discharges for these stations for conditions ranging from the existing condition with all detention reservoirs in place to the condition of no detention reservoirs. Flood-frequency relations based on the long-term peak discharges were developed for each simulation by fitting the logarithms of the annual peak discharge data to a Pearson type III distri- bution curve. The effect of detention reservoirs on peak discharge data to a Pearson type III distributio curve. The effect of detention reservoirs on peak discharges was determined by comparison of simulated flood-frequency peak discharges for conditions with and without the detention reservoirs. The comparisons indicated that the removal of flood-detention reservoirs from the tributary number 1 basin would increase the 10-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges by 164 to 204 percent. Removal of the reservoir from tributary number 2 basin would increase these discharges by about 145 percent.

  20. The psychosocial impact of detention and deportation on U.S. migrant children and families.

    PubMed

    Brabeck, Kalina M; Lykes, M Brinton; Hunter, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 4.5 million U.S. citizen children live in mixed-status families, in which at least 1 family member is an unauthorized migrant and therefore vulnerable to detention and deportation from the United States (Passel & Cohn, 2011). This article critically examines the current state of the literature on the psychosocial consequences of detention and deportation for unauthorized migrants, mixed-status families, and their U.S.-born children. In particular, drawing on social and psychological theory and research, we (a) review the impact of parents' unauthorized status on children; (b) summarize the literature on the impact of detention processes on psychosocial well-being; (c) describe the dilemma faced by a mixed-status family when a parent faces deportation; (d) examine the current social scientific literature on how parental deportation impacts children and their families; and (e) summarize several policy recommendations for protecting children and families. PMID:25110972

  1. Detention Times of Microswimmers Close to Surfaces: Influence of Hydrodynamic Interactions and Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaar, Konstantin; Zttl, Andreas; Stark, Holger

    2015-07-01

    After colliding with a surface, microswimmers reside there during the detention time. They accumulate and may form complex structures such as biofilms. We introduce a general framework to calculate the distribution of detention times using the method of first-passage times and study how rotational noise and hydrodynamic interactions influence the escape from a surface. We compare generic swimmer models to the simple active Brownian particle. While the respective detention times of source dipoles are smaller, the ones of pullers are larger by up to several orders of magnitude, and pushers show both trends. We apply our results to the more realistic squirmer model, for which we use lubrication theory, and validate them by simulations with multiparticle collision dynamics.

  2. Detention Times of Microswimmers Close to Surfaces: Influence of Hydrodynamic Interactions and Noise.

    PubMed

    Schaar, Konstantin; Zttl, Andreas; Stark, Holger

    2015-07-17

    After colliding with a surface, microswimmers reside there during the detention time. They accumulate and may form complex structures such as biofilms. We introduce a general framework to calculate the distribution of detention times using the method of first-passage times and study how rotational noise and hydrodynamic interactions influence the escape from a surface. We compare generic swimmer models to the simple active Brownian particle. While the respective detention times of source dipoles are smaller, the ones of pullers are larger by up to several orders of magnitude, and pushers show both trends. We apply our results to the more realistic squirmer model, for which we use lubrication theory, and validate them by simulations with multiparticle collision dynamics. PMID:26230827

  3. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John R; Barrett, Michael E

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this research was to modify an extended detention basin to provide batch treatment of stormwater runoff. An automated valve/controller was developed and placed on the outlet of a detention basin in Austin, Texas, which allowed the water quality volume to be retained in the basin for a preset length of time. The influent and effluent of the modified basin were monitored for total suspended solids (TSS), nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total and dissolved metals. Statistically significant removal of total metals, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS was observed, with a discharge event mean TSS concentration of 7 mg/L and a TSS removal efficiency of 91%. The modified basin has substantially better pollutant removal than conventional extended detention basins and is comparable with that of Austin sand filters, which are a common structural stormwater treatment system in the Austin area. The valve also can be used to isolate hazardous material spills. PMID:18330228

  4. Throwing Away the Key: The Ethics of Risk Assessment for Preventive Detention Schemes

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, B.

    2014-01-01

    Preventive detention schemes that aim to protect the community from certain ‘dangerous’ individuals have long existed. While risk assessment is now pervasive in the management and treatment of many individuals, it raises particular issues when a person's liberty is at stake on the basis of what that person might do. This R.G. Myers Memorial Lecture addresses the ethical issues raised by mental health practitioners providing risk assessments for legislative schemes that involve the deprivation of liberty. It will focus in particular on Australian post-sentence preventive detention schemes for sex offenders that have been held by the United Nations Human Rights Committee to breach fundamental human rights. However, the ethical issues discussed also have repercussions for civil commitment laws that enable the detention of those with severe mental or intellectual impairments. PMID:25431531

  5. Atmospheric Dispersion about a Heavy Gas Vapor Detention System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seong-Hee

    Dispersion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the event of an accidental spill is a major concern in LNG storage and transport safety planning, hazard response, and facility siting. Falcon Series large scale LNG spill experiments were planned by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) as part of a joint government/industry study in 1987 to evaluate the effectiveness of vapor fences as a mitigating technique for accidental release of LNG and to assist in validating wind tunnel and numerical methods for vapor dispersion simulation. Post-field-spill wind-tunnel experiments were performed in Environmental Wind Tunnel (EWT) (1988, 1989) to augment the LNG Vapor Fence Program data obtained during the Falcon Test Series. The program included four different model length scales and two different simulant gases. The purpose of this program is to provide a basis for the analysis of the simulation of physical modeling tests using proper physical modeling techniques and to assist in the development and verification of analytical models. Field data and model data were compared and analyzed by surface pattern comparisons and statistical methods. A layer-averaged slab model developed by Meroney et al. (1988) (FENC23) was expanded to evaluate an enhanced entrainment model proposed for dense gas dispersion including the effect of vapor barriers, and the numerical model was simulated for Falcon tests without the fence and with the vapor fence to examine the effectiveness of vapor detention system on heavy gas dispersion. Model data and the field data were compared with the numerical model data, and degree of similarity between data were assessed.

  6. [Environmental effects of combined sewage detention tank in central Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiang; Lü, Yong-peng; Huang, Xiao-fang; Guo, Sheng

    2009-08-15

    Through measuring the processes of precipitation, discharge and pollutant concentration over 20 times from 2006 to 2008 in Chendulu combined sewerage system (CSS) along Suzhou Creek in central Shanghai, the environmental effects of Chendulu combined sewage detention tank (CSDT), the first running CSDT in China, were studied. The results show that CSDT could improve CSS discharge capacity effectively with promoted interception ratio from 3.87 to 6.90-9.92. The mean annual combined sewer overflow (CSO) reduction and reduction rate are 9.10 x 10(4) m3 and 9.00%, respectively, and those of sanitary waste discharged directly to Suzhou Creek in non-rain-weather are 8.37 x 10(4) m(3) and 100% , respectively. The mean annual pollutants decrease rate of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N and TP of CSO are 13.76%, 19.69%, 15.29%, 18.24% and 15.10%, respectively, and those CSO pollutants decrease 41.21 t, 12.37 t, 50.10 t, 2.12 t and 0.29 t annually, respectively. The CSDT also could decrease sanitary waste discharged to Suzhou Creek totally, and those decreased pollutants are 20.75 t, 4.87 t, 14.90 t, 4.49 t and 0.30 t annually, respectively. The analysis shows that the CSDT design standard, running models and rainfall characteristics are the important influencing factors to realize the environmental effects of CSDT. PMID:19799280

  7. Education in Juvenile Detention Facilities in the State of Connecticut: A Glance at the System

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Donna; Skiba, Thomas; Blackmon, Jaime; Esposito, Elisa; Hart, Lesley; Mambrino, Elisa; Richie, Thompson; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    The state of Connecticut detained 7,444 children and youth and committed approximately 270 to the Department of Children and Families for out of home placement in the 2007-2008 calendar year. A significant number of children and youth have special education needs that are often unidentified by home school districts. State and federal law mandate the provision of special education and related services to this population. In addition, education of these individuals is imperative as research indicates educational success is a key component for decreasing recidivism (relapse into unlawful activity) rates and providing opportunities toward productive adulthood. The cost of recidivism to detention is not only monetary; criminal misconduct also threatens the safety of society members as well. The Yale University Child Study Center under the auspices of the Connecticut Judicial Branch, Court Support Services Division (CSSD) conducted a situational analysis of the juvenile detention centers and community residential centers. The focus of this analysis was to: (1) describe the educational characteristics of detained children and youth; (2) describe the educational programs currently used in detention and assess whether the educational programming provided is consistent with the framework of the State of Connecticut Department of Education; (3) typify the community of teachers working with students in detention, identify systemic obstacles and/or challenges to educating this population, ascertain the pathways of educational records of detained children and youth; and (4) identify system barriers or challenges to delivering education to this population and teaching in detention or alternative to detention settings. This report is a summary of findings. PMID:26379367

  8. The development of fire evaluation system for detention and correctional occupancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, H. E.; Shibe, A. J.

    1984-12-01

    A fire safety evaluation system for detention and correctional occupancies was developed. It can be used for determining if a facility has fire safety equivalent to that obtained by meeting the requirement of a given code. The system was calibrated for use with proposed chapters for detention and correctional occupancies of the Life Safety Code (1985). There are separate sets of requirements for each of four use conditions: one for zoned egress, one for zoned impeded egress, one for impeded egress, and one for contained. Within each set, there are two levels of evaluation: one for partially sprinklered and nonsprinklered buildings, and one for totally sprinklered buildings.

  9. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. PMID:23869702

  10. Orientation and migration distances of a pond-breeding salamander (Notophthalmus perstriatus, Salamandridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat loss and modification have played a significant role in the decline of amphibian populations and species. Loss of wetlands, which are used as breeding sites for many amphibians, has contributed to the decline. The protection of small, isolated wetlands and core areas of associated uplands is one way in which population declines in certain species can be slowed or prevented. Nevertheless, migration distances of individuals of most amphibian species from their breeding sites are unknown. Using drift fences and pitfall traps, I studied migration distance and orientation of striped newts (Notophthalmus perstriatus) at a breeding pond in northern Florida, USA. Newts entered (immigration) and exited (emigration) the pond basin in a nonrandom fashion but no obvious effects of upland habitat were apparent. Patterns of emigration and immigration differed significantly between sexes, life-history stages, and migration events. Individuals tended to exit and enter the pond basin within the same quadrant, sometimes leaving and returning at the same point. Newts moved hundreds of meters into the sandhill uplands surrounding the pond. I found an inverse relationship between the proportion of newts migrating and distance from the pond. Nonetheless, I estimated that at least 16% of individuals breeding at the pond migrated in excess of 500 m from the pond. Thus, a core of protected upland with a radius of approximately 800 m from the pond would be needed to preserve the area used by the vast majority of individuals that breed at the pond. These data underscore the need to study upland habitat requirements for amphibians; findings for one taxon (e.g. ambystomatids) may not be applicable to others (e.g., salamandrids). Without such data, designating terrestrial core habitat to conserve aquatic-breeding amphibians will be difficult or impossible. However, without better protection of small, isolated wetlands, arguments to preserve surrounding uplands are irrelevant.

  11. Hydrology and chemistry of groundwater and seasonal ponds in the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Delaware, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of small seasonal ponds was investigated by studying relations between ground-water and surface water in a forested Coastal Plain drainage basin. Observation of changes in the water table in a series of wells equipped with automatic water-level recorders showed that the relation between water-table configuration and basin topography changes seasonally, and particularly in response to spring recharge. Furthermore, in this study area the water table is not a subdued expression of the land surface topography, as is commonly assumed. During the summer and fall months, a water-table trough underlies sandy ridges separating the seasonal ponds, and maximum water-table altitudes prevail in the sediments beneath the dry pond bottoms. As the ponds fill with water during the winter, maximum water-table altitudes shift to the upland-margin zone adjacent to the seasonal ponds. Increases in pond stage are associated with the development of transient water-table mounds at the upland-margin wells during the spring. The importance of small local-flow systems adjacent to the seasonal ponds also is shown by the similarities in the chemistry of the shallow groundwater in the upland margin and water in the seasonal ponds. The upland margin and surface water samples have low pH (generally less than 5.0), and contain large concentrations of dissolved aluminum (generally more than 100 ??g 1-1), and low bicarbonate concentrations (2 mg l4 or less). In contrast, the parts of the surficial aquifer that do not experience transient mounding have higher pH and larger concentrations of bicarbonate. These results suggest that an understanding of the hydrochemistry of seasonally ponded wetlands requires intensive study of the adjacent shallow groundwater-flow system. ?? 1993.

  12. Estimating Effective Vertical Diffusivity in Shallow Ponds by a Constrained Flux-Gradient Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; Torgersen, T.

    2004-12-01

    Shallow ponds have been used to mitigate the deleterious effects of storm water run-off by acting as detention/retention basins that sequester run-off associated pollutants in sediments. Studies show that the retention efficiency of these systems can decrease over time as a result of the internal loading of nutrients/contaminants from the sediments back to the water column where they are available for export downstream. Quantifying the vertical transport of gases (down) and sediment derived materials (up) is vital to the modeling and understanding of the processes that contribute to the magnitude of internal loading. A critical parameter is the effective vertical diffusion coefficient: Kz=Dmolecular +Deddy (cm2 sec-1). The flux gradient method for estimating effective vertical thermal diffusivity has been applied with success in large lakes which undergo stratification cycles on seasonal or longer time scales. We offer a constrained version of the flux-gradient method that has been adapted for use in a shallow pond with a daily stratification cycle. The method employs heat as a tracer and assumes that transport in the face of a stable gradient is diffusive. By shrinking the spatial and temporal resolution of measurement to scales appropriate to the system of interest and carefully accounting for internal source and sink terms of heat (e.g solar radiation and sediment heat fluxes) we are able to calculate Kz as a function of time and depth during periods of stable stratification, i.e when the pond is not vertically well-mixed. Results show the magnitude of Kz varies from ca. 10-3 to 10-1 (cm2 sec-1) under stratified conditions depending primarily on the strength of stratification.

  13. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  14. Review of SERI Solar Pond Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

  15. "It is a thin line to walk on": challenges of staff working at Swedish immigration detention centres.

    PubMed

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J; Ahlberg, Beth M; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Detention of irregular migrants awaiting deportation is widely practiced in many countries and has been shown to have profound negative impact on health and well-being of detainees. Detention staff, an integral part of the detention environment, affect and are affected by detainees' health and well-being. The objective of the study was to explore experiences of staff working at Swedish immigration detention centres. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff in three Swedish detention centres and were analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicate that the main challenge for the staff was to manage the emotional dilemma entailed in working as migration officers and simultaneously fellow human beings whose task was to implement deportation decisions while being expected to provide humane service to detainees. They tried to manage their dilemma by balancing the two roles, but still found it challenging. Among the staff, there was a high perception of fear of physical threat from detainees that made detention a stressful environment. Limited interaction between the staff and detainees was a reason for this. There is thus a need to support detention staff to improve their interaction with detainees in order to decrease their fear, manage their emotional dilemma, and provide better service to detainees. It is important to address staff challenges in order to ensure better health and well-being for both staff and detainees. PMID:25833827

  16. It is a thin line to walk on: Challenges of staff working at Swedish immigration detention centres

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Ahlberg, Beth M.; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Detention of irregular migrants awaiting deportation is widely practiced in many countries and has been shown to have profound negative impact on health and well-being of detainees. Detention staff, an integral part of the detention environment, affect and are affected by detainees health and well-being. The objective of the study was to explore experiences of staff working at Swedish immigration detention centres. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff in three Swedish detention centres and were analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicate that the main challenge for the staff was to manage the emotional dilemma entailed in working as migration officers and simultaneously fellow human beings whose task was to implement deportation decisions while being expected to provide humane service to detainees. They tried to manage their dilemma by balancing the two roles, but still found it challenging. Among the staff, there was a high perception of fear of physical threat from detainees that made detention a stressful environment. Limited interaction between the staff and detainees was a reason for this. There is thus a need to support detention staff to improve their interaction with detainees in order to decrease their fear, manage their emotional dilemma, and provide better service to detainees. It is important to address staff challenges in order to ensure better health and well-being for both staff and detainees. PMID:25833827

  17. Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of stormwater retention and detention basins has become a popular method for managing urban and suburban stormwater runoff. Infiltration of stormwater through these basins may increase the risk to ground-water quality, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the wate...

  18. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  19. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  20. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  1. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  2. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  3. 25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities are supporting constitutional rights and are complying with the Indian Law Enforcement Reform Act... detention programs? 10.1 Section 10.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND... programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570,...

  4. Results and Analysis of a Computer Assisted Instructional Program in Basic Skills in a Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Richard A.

    An evaluation of a computer assisted educational (CAE) program using the PLATO system at a Texas detention center included an examination of attitudes and perceptions from (1) inmates participating and not participating in jail education programs, (2) trustees, (3) educational program staff, (4) chaplaincy staff, (5) guards assigned to the…

  5. Rap, Recidivism and the Creative Self: A Popular Music Programme for Young Offenders in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sarah; Homan, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Popular music is increasingly being viewed by local, state and national governments as a useful form of creative activity for at-risk youth both within and outside young offender institutions. This paper examines a music programme operating for a group of predominantly black youth within one North American detention centre, and considers the range

  6. The Challenges of Reintegrating Indigenous Youth after Their Release from Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Glenn Desmond

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for the juvenile justice system is to successfully reintegrate young offenders back to their communities so that they do not re-offend and return to detention. This challenge is even greater for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth who are over-represented in the Queensland juvenile justice system in

  7. Bridging Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Preventing Unnecessary Detention of Foster Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Timothy; Conger, Dylan; Armstrong, Molly

    2002-01-01

    Project Confirm aims to address the problem of foster children ending up in detention because of police and probation officers' difficulty in locating guardians to appear on behalf of arrested children. Project Confirm locates juveniles' caseworkers and informs them of their legal responsibilities. The program reached most of its implementation…

  8. Artistry in Lockdown: Transformative Music Experiences for Students in Juvenile Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, Travis

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, there were approximately 137,000 court-involved minor children in residential detention and rehabilitation facilities in the United States as a result of committing a crime. Most of these children have no opportunity to participate in music education while serving long-term sentences in residential lockdown. A program in Austin, Texas,

  9. Race and the Impact of Detention on Juvenile Justice Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiber, Michael J.; Fox, Kristan C.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the growing number of minority youth disproportionately confined in secure detention facilities has led to a search for a better understanding of this occurrence. Explanations vary but tend to center on either differential offending or selection bias. The present study examines the extent both may explain decision making by

  10. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  11. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  12. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  13. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  14. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  15. Bridging Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Preventing Unnecessary Detention of Foster Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Timothy; Conger, Dylan; Armstrong, Molly

    2002-01-01

    Project Confirm aims to address the problem of foster children ending up in detention because of police and probation officers' difficulty in locating guardians to appear on behalf of arrested children. Project Confirm locates juveniles' caseworkers and informs them of their legal responsibilities. The program reached most of its implementation

  16. Reducing Unnecessary Delay: Innovations in Case Processing. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, D. Alan

    This report discusses how to reduce unnecessary delay in the juvenile justice system, presenting data from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Focus on Unnecessary Delay?" explains the negative effects of unnecessary delays. Chapter 2, "Guiding Principles," examines principles inherent in all case processing

  17. Prerelease Planning and Practices for Youth with Disabilities in Juvenile Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Clark, Heather Griller

    2013-01-01

    Many youth in detention facilities come from vulnerable home environments where factors such as economic pressures, abuse, neglect, and parental incarceration are constantly operating within the family system. A vast majority of these youth have not had positive school experiences and many of them experience special needs and mental health issues.…

  18. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... governed by the provisions of 8 CFR 236.3. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  19. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... governed by the provisions of 8 CFR 236.3. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  20. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... governed by the provisions of 8 CFR 236.3. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  1. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... governed by the provisions of 8 CFR 236.3. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  2. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... governed by the provisions of 8 CFR 236.3. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  3. 9 CFR 329.1 - Article or livestock subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Article or livestock subject to... 329.1 Article or livestock subject to administrative detention. Any carcass, part of a carcass, meat or meat food product of livestock, or article exempted from the definition of meat food product,...

  4. 9 CFR 329.1 - Article or livestock subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Article or livestock subject to... 329.1 Article or livestock subject to administrative detention. Any carcass, part of a carcass, meat or meat food product of livestock, or article exempted from the definition of meat food product,...

  5. 9 CFR 329.1 - Article or livestock subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Article or livestock subject to... 329.1 Article or livestock subject to administrative detention. Any carcass, part of a carcass, meat or meat food product of livestock, or article exempted from the definition of meat food product,...

  6. 9 CFR 329.1 - Article or livestock subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Article or livestock subject to... 329.1 Article or livestock subject to administrative detention. Any carcass, part of a carcass, meat or meat food product of livestock, or article exempted from the definition of meat food product,...

  7. 9 CFR 329.1 - Article or livestock subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Article or livestock subject to... 329.1 Article or livestock subject to administrative detention. Any carcass, part of a carcass, meat or meat food product of livestock, or article exempted from the definition of meat food product,...

  8. Juvenile Justice: Detention Using Staff Supervision Rather Than Architectural Barriers. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes information on juvenile detention facilities using staff supervision rather than architectural barriers, such as barred windows and locked doors. Results of a survey of staff secure facilities are detailed in the appendix and eight tables of data are provided. Topics covered in the appendix, which comprises most the

  9. The Role of Open and Distance Higher Education in Detainees in Greek Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linardatou, Charitini; Manousou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the results of the qualitative research conducted in Detention Facilities in Greece in connection with the preparation of the thesis (Linardatou, 2012). This is a case study of two prisoners attending Open Universities. The study concerned the characteristics and peculiarities of Open and Distance

  10. 78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... July 3, 2011. On May 5, 2011, FDA issued an IFR (76 FR 25538) that implemented section 207 of FSMA and... adulterated or misbranded. '' (Response) As stated in the IFR (76 FR 25538 at 25539), decisions regarding...). (Response) As stated in its response to a comment to the 2004 administrative detention final rule (69...

  11. Artistry in Lockdown: Transformative Music Experiences for Students in Juvenile Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, Travis

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, there were approximately 137,000 court-involved minor children in residential detention and rehabilitation facilities in the United States as a result of committing a crime. Most of these children have no opportunity to participate in music education while serving long-term sentences in residential lockdown. A program in Austin, Texas,…

  12. Rap, Recidivism and the Creative Self: A Popular Music Programme for Young Offenders in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sarah; Homan, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Popular music is increasingly being viewed by local, state and national governments as a useful form of creative activity for at-risk youth both within and outside young offender institutions. This paper examines a music programme operating for a group of predominantly black youth within one North American detention centre, and considers the range…

  13. Academic Potential among African American Adolescents in Juvenile Detention Centers: Implications for Reentry to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The study explores Black adolescent detainees' academic potential and motivation to return to school, to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from 1 male and 1 female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed postdetention educational…

  14. 45 CFR 506.5 - Persons not eligible to award of civilian detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Persons not eligible to award of civilian detention benefits. 506.5 Section 506.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE...

  15. 45 CFR 506.4 - Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits. 506.4 Section 506.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS...

  16. Academic Potential among African American Adolescents in Juvenile Detention Centers: Implications for Reentry to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The study explores Black adolescent detainees' academic potential and motivation to return to school, to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from 1 male and 1 female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed postdetention educational

  17. 78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... regulations for the administrative detention of drugs (78 FR 21085). The docket was intended to ensure that... July 15, 2013 Part IV Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts... / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts...

  18. Beyond best management practices: pelagic biogeochemical dynamics in urban stormwater ponds.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clayton J; Frost, Paul C; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2013-09-01

    Urban stormwater ponds are considered to be a best management practice for flood control and the protection of downstream aquatic ecosystems from excess suspended solids and other contaminants. Following this, urban ponds are assumed to operate as unreactive settling basins, whereby their overall effectiveness in water treatment is strictly controlled by physical processes. However, pelagic microbial biogeochemical dynamics could be significant contributors to nutrient and carbon cycling in these small, constructed aquatic systems. In the present study, we examined pelagic biogeochemical dynamics in 26 stormwater ponds located in southern Ontario, Canada, during late summer. Initially, we tested to see if total suspended solids (TSS) concentration, which provides a measure of catchment disturbance, landscape stability, and pond performance, could be used as an indirect predictor of plankton stocks in stormwater ponds. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using TSS as a surrogate for external loading suggested that TSS was an imperfect predictor. TSS masked plankton-nutrient relationships and appeared to reflect autochthonous production moreso than external forces. When TSS was excluded, the SEM model explained a large amount of the variation in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics (55-75%) but a small amount of the variation in plankton stocks (3-38%). Plankton stocks were correlated positively with particulate nutrients and extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting rapid recycling of the fixed nutrient and carbon pool with consequential effects on DOM. DOM characteristics across the ponds were mainly of autochthonous origin. Humic matter from the watershed formed a larger part of the DOM pool only in ponds with low productivity and low dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Our results suggest that in these small, high nutrient systems internal processes might outweigh the impact of the landscape on carbon cycles. Hence, the overall benefit that constructed ponds serve to protect downstream environments must be weighed with the biogeochemical processes that take place within the water body, which could offset pond water quality gains by supporting intense microbial metabolism. Finally, TSS did not provide a useful indication of stormwater pond biogeochemistry and was biased by autochthonous production, which could lead to erroneous TSS-based management conclusions regarding pond performance. PMID:24147410

  19. Assessing optical earth observation systems for mapping and monitoring temporary ponds in arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Puech, Christian; Seen, Danny Lo; Bégué, Agnes

    2009-10-01

    Remote sensing methods for locating and monitoring temporary ponds over large areas in arid lands were tested on a study site in Northern Senegal. Three main results are presented, validated with field data and intended to highlight different spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the methods: (1) Among several water indices tested, two Middle Infrared-based indices (MNDWI—Modified Normalized Difference Water Index and NDWI 1—Normalized Difference Water Index) are found to be most efficient; (2) an objective method is given prescribing the necessary sensor spatial resolution in terms of minimal detected pond area; and (3) the potential of multi-temporal MODIS imagery for tracking the filling phases of small ponds is illustrated. These results should assist in epidemiological studies of vector-borne diseases that develop around these ponds, but also more generally for land and water management and preservation of threatened ecosystems in arid areas.

  20. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  1. The Pond Community. Primary Level. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Shirley

    This teacher's guide includes four lessons dealing with animals and plants associated with ponds. Species discussed are selected because of their unusual means of adaptation to the pond environment. Each lesson includes suggestions on introducing the unit, discussion suggestions, blackboard activities, and activities with pictures and a magnetic

  2. Zooplankton succession in fingerling production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many pond cultured species require a range of zooplankton species for consumption before they can be weaned onto manufactured feed. The widest variety of plankton species develops when empty ponds are filled and fertilized. Use of organic and inorganic fertilizers facilitates the development of ba...

  3. Bacterial Bioaugmentation of Channel Catfish Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve, 0.1-ha earthen ponds at Stoneville, Mississippi were used in a 2-year, double-blind study of the effects of a Bacillus-based bacterial bioaugmentation product on water quality and production of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Each year, six ponds were treated weekly with the microbial ...

  4. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  5. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  6. Chemical and biological processes of evaporation ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural evaporation ponds are designed to impound and dissipate saline agricultural drainage water in areas with no opportunities for offsite disposal in the San Joaquin Valley of California. This paper reviews and summarizes research findings on the pond chemistry. Drainage waters in these pon...

  7. Assessment of Ash Pond Project effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    In April 1989 the US Department of Energy (DOE) completed the Ash Pond Isolation Project at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). This Interim Response Action (IRA) was designed to reduce uranium concentrations in surface water released from the Ash Pond Outfall at the Weldon Spring Site (WSS). Uranium concentrations at this outfall have been measured as high as 5,500 pCi/l with an average concentration of 1,498 pCi/l. This project was one of several IRAs aimed at improving health and safety conditions at the WSS prior to the Record of Decision. The Ash Pond Isolation Project was constructed to intercept surface water runoff to the Ash Pond drainage and redirect flows around the Ash Pond and South Dump areas, thereby eliminating leaching and transport of uranium-contaminated materials from these source areas. The DOE has monitored the releases from the Ash Pond Outfall in fulfillment of the site's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit and initiated additional monitoring to further assess the effectiveness of the Ash Pond Isolation Project. Results of this monitoring effort indicate a reduction in uranium concentrations measured at the Ash Pond Outfall from a pre-completion average of 1,498 pCi/l to an average of 145 pCi/l following completion of the IRA. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and

  9. Bacterial Bioaugmentation of Channel Catfish Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve, 0.1-ha earthen ponds at Stoneville, Mississippi were used in a 2-year, double-blind study of the effects of a Bacillus-based bacterial bioaugmentation product on water quality and production of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Each year, six ponds were treated weekly with the microbial p...

  10. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  11. Thermal stratification patterns in urban ponds and their relationships with vertical nutrient gradients.

    PubMed

    Song, Keunyea; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Buttle, James M; Marsalek, Jiri; Wagner, Nicole D; Pick, Frances R; Frost, Paul C

    2013-09-30

    Ponds that collect and process stormwater have become a prominent feature of urban landscapes, especially in areas recently converted to residential land use in North America. Given their increasing number and their tight hydrological connection to residential catchments, these small aquatic ecosystems could play an important role in urban biogeochemistry. However, some physicochemical aspects of urban ponds remain poorly studied. Here we assessed the frequency and strength of water column stratification, using measurements of vertical water temperature profiles at high spatial and temporal frequency, in 10 shallow urban stormwater management ponds in southern Ontario, Canada. Many of the ponds were well stratified during much of the summer of 2010 as indicated by relatively high estimates of thermal resistance to mixing (RTRM) indices. Patterns of stratification reflected local weather conditions but also varied among ponds depending on their morphometric characteristics such as maximum water depth and surface area to perimeter ratio. We found greater vertical nutrient gradients and more phosphorus accumulation in bottom waters in ponds with strong and persistent stratification, which likely results from limited particle resuspension and more dissolved phosphorus (P) release from sediments. However, subsequent mixing events in the fall diminished vertical P gradients and possibly accelerated internal loading from the sediment-water interface. Our results demonstrate that stormwater ponds can experience unexpectedly long and strong thermal stratification despite their small size and shallow water depth. Strong thermal stratification and episodic mixing in ponds likely alter the quantity and timing of internal nutrient loading, and hence affect water quality and aquatic communities in downstream receiving waters. PMID:23810965

  12. 25 CFR 10.9 - If a person is detained or incarcerated in an Indian country detention, community residential, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... facility location. ... country detention, community residential, or holding facility, how would they know what their rights... holding facility, how would they know what their rights, privileges, safety, protection and...

  13. 25 CFR 10.9 - If a person is detained or incarcerated in an Indian country detention, community residential, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facility location. ... country detention, community residential, or holding facility, how would they know what their rights... holding facility, how would they know what their rights, privileges, safety, protection and...

  14. 25 CFR 10.9 - If a person is detained or incarcerated in an Indian country detention, community residential, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facility location. ... country detention, community residential, or holding facility, how would they know what their rights... holding facility, how would they know what their rights, privileges, safety, protection and...

  15. 25 CFR 10.9 - If a person is detained or incarcerated in an Indian country detention, community residential, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... facility location. ... country detention, community residential, or holding facility, how would they know what their rights... holding facility, how would they know what their rights, privileges, safety, protection and...

  16. 25 CFR 10.9 - If a person is detained or incarcerated in an Indian country detention, community residential, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... facility location. ... country detention, community residential, or holding facility, how would they know what their rights... holding facility, how would they know what their rights, privileges, safety, protection and...

  17. USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

  18. Science and the common good: indefinite, non-reviewable mandatory detention of asylum seekers and the research imperative.

    PubMed

    Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick

    2004-10-01

    Despite a strong historical record of resettling and providing care for refugee populations, the Australian Federal Government has increasingly implemented harsh and restrictive policies regarding the treatment and management of asylum seekers. Most controversial of these has been the mandatory detention of asylum seekers, a policy applied indiscriminately and without discretion where individual cases have not been subject to judicial review or time constraints. From the outset health professionals have raised concerns about the possible adverse mental health impacts of prolonged detention. In contrast, government representatives have characterized conditions in detention as benign and comfortable, and have consistently contested criticism of detention, often citing a lack of scientific evidence as tacit support for the continuation of the policy. Nevertheless, requests for access to the detention centres to undertake rigorous scientific investigations have gone unheeded. In this context we argue that the Australian Government has failed to uphold its commitment to good governance by allowing transparency, openness and a willingness to have the impact of its policies scrutinized by scientists. The manifest conflict of interest in the government position leads to a breach in the normal social contract between mental health researchers and those responsible for the policy of detention. There is, we argue, a legitimate moral imperative in such situations for clinical researchers to breach the walls of enforced silence and give a voice to those who are afflicted. This imperative, however, must be carefully balanced against the risks that may face detainees agreeing to participate in such research. PMID:15688517

  19. Stable density stratification solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

  20. Photosynthesis and fish production in culture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Szyper, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The widely-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, has been the major species used in standardized experiments by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/ACRSP). Yields of Nile Tilapia from fertilized, unfed ponds have served as a bioassay for effectiveness of pond management protocols developed during worldwide tropical experiments. Yield rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates of primary production. Fish production is related to daytime net photosynthetic production, but it is not clear whether production of food materials or oxygen is the more direct influence. Excessively high standing stocks of phytoplankton are not the best net producers, and increase and risk of nighttime oxygen depletion. Fish readily grow to individual sizes of 200-300 g/fish in fertilized ponds, which is sufficient market size in many locations. Supplemental feeding of caged or free-ranging fish greatly accelerates growth beyond 300 g and potentiates high areal yields; the PD/A CRSP has also developed efficient feeding regimes and shown that supplemental feeding need not begin before fish reach 200 g weight. High standing stocks of phytoplankton and high photosynthetic rates in eutrophic ponds make study of photosynthesis possible without radioisotopes. Such ponds also exhibit complete extinction of incident solar radiation within shallow depths, and vertical temperature structure resembling that of deeper bodies of water. These characteristics make ponds useful as microcosms for study of some aspects of photosynthesis in natural waters.

  1. Ecology of tundra ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, J.E.

    1984-06-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain is a flat or gently rolling area of tundra which covers the entire coastal region of northern Alaska. This profile synthesizes data on the ecology of the thousands of small shallow ponds that form an important wetland community on the tundra. These polygonal ponds are formed by the freezing, thawing, and cracking of the perma-frost. Nutrient concentrations and rates of supply to the water column are controlled by interactions with the iron-rich peat sediments. Iron concentrations control phosphorus concentrations and these in turn control the growth of algae. Two fringing emergent vascular plants, Carex and Arctophila, are often the most important primary producers in the ponds. Most algae and higher plant biomass is decomposed by microbes in a detrital food web concentrated in the pond sediments. Chironomid larvae, oligochaete worms and other insects are the dominant benthic animals. Because the ponds freeze to the bottom each winter they contain no fish; however, the community is important for many species of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds that use the ponds for feeding and breeding. Activities associated with oil production, including spills, roads, and off-road vehicles, are the major issues facing managers of this wetland community. 63 references.

  2. Evapotranspiration from Wetland Pond Complexes in the Western Boreal Forest, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, R. M.; Silins, U.; Devito, K. J.

    2004-05-01

    Wetlands on the Canadian Western Boreal Plain account for as much as 50 % of the landscape and provide one of the most important waterfowl habitats in North America as well as representing a significant regional water resource and carbon pool. In this sub-humid region potential evapotranspiration (PET) exceeds precipitation in most years and consequently these wetland complexes are very vulnerable to any climate change that may alter patterns of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The permanence of these wetland and pond systems depends on the underlying glacial deposits, topography and evapotranspiration. Flow within these wetland pond catchments is from the pond to the hillslope for most of the time and small changes in precipitation can result in a dramatic change in runoff. Increased climatic variability (natural or anthropogenic) will likely influence the duration of drought cycles. However, whether or not, or for how long these ponds may dry completely remains unknown. Thus, it is essential to understand the ecological and physiographic factors within these complexes that control evapotranspiration, and how these are influenced by large scale climate and climate cycles. This paper investigates not only open water evaporation from the ponds, but also the role of ET from the surrounding riparian peatlands, and illustrates how the evaporative regimes from these units and their linkages with the ponds are significant to the permanence of these water bodies.

  3. Sexual offenders in preventive detention: data concerning the inmates and expert witness practice.

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, Elmar; Passow, Daniel; Puhlmann, Peter; Vohs, Knut; Herpertz, Sabine

    2009-08-01

    In the last decade, preventive detention-especially that relating to sexual offenders- has gained relevance for the German legal system. However, data are lacking concerning the inmates and the modus operandi of the psychiatric experts. Court orders and psychiatric statements of 114 offenders with orders of preventive detention were examined, 57 of whom were incarcerated because of sexual offences. Sexual offenders mostly show antisocial personality traits or even disorders, with a history of poly-trophic delinquency. In only four cases, the diagnosis of a sexual disorder was given. The analysis showed a high rate of psychiatric expert testimonies' lacking basic information, with incomplete assessment of sexual history. None of the experts used standardized prognostic instruments, meaning that most of the risk factors included in the Sexual Violence Risk-20 and the Static-99 were not considered. Further work needs to be done to improve the quality of psychiatric statements concerning sexual offenders. PMID:18378629

  4. Administrative detention of drugs intended for human or animal use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-05-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is implementing administrative detention authority with respect to drugs intended for human or animal use as authorized by amendments made to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). FDA's administrative detention authority with respect to drugs allows FDA to better protect the integrity of the drug supply chain. Specifically, FDA is able to administratively detain drugs encountered during an inspection that an authorized FDA representative conducting an inspection has reason to believe are adulterated or misbranded. This authority is intended to protect the public by preventing distribution or subsequent use of drugs encountered during inspections that are believed to be adulterated or misbranded, until FDA has had time to consider what action it should take concerning the drugs, and to initiate legal action, if appropriate. PMID:24873018

  5. Academic potential among African American adolescents in juvenile detention centers: Implications for reentry to school.

    PubMed

    Toldson, Ivory A; Woodson, Kamilah M; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C

    2010-01-01

    The study explores Black adolescent detainees academic potential and motivation to return to school to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from one male and one female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed post-detention educational plans, as well as social and emotional characteristics, and criminal history. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to compare factors across race and gender, and plot linear relationships between key indicators of academic potential with associate factors. Findings revealed that youth were more likely to evince academic potential when they had a healthy level of self-esteem, adequate future goal orientation, positive mood, family and community involvement, fewer traumatic events, and less delinquent activity. PMID:21654936

  6. Flood detention area modelling based on nationwide topographic data: ALS-DTMs vs. conventional DTMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesakoski, Jenni-Mari; Alho, Petteri; Hyyppä, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Flener, Claude; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-05-01

    Topographic depressions have an important role in hydrology. These effects on hydrological processes are caused by changes in the water balance and runoff response of a watershed. Nevertheless, research has focused in detail neither on the effects of acquisition and processing methods nor on the effects of resolution of nationwide grid digital terrain models (DTMs) on topographic depressions. Recently, many countries have conducted nationwide ALS (Airborne laser scanning) surveys for DTM purposes. Thus, detailed comparison between nationwide ALS-DTMs with different grid sizes and DTMs that represent more conventional acquisition methods, such as photogrammetric methods, is needed for different study fields. In here, the objective is to delineate the difference of depression variables between nationwide DTMs with different acquisition methods, processing methods and grid sizes. Our depression detection is based on nationwide 25x25 m and 10x10 m DTMs and 2x2 m ALS-DTM produced by NLS of Finland. ALS-DTM2 was resampled to 10x10 and 25x25 m DTMs. Thus, it was possible to compare DTMs that represent the same grid size but different acquisition and processing methods. The variables considered are the mean depth of the depression, the number of its pixels, and its area and volume. Shallow and single-pixel depressions and the impact of mean filtering on ALS-DTM were also examined. Quantitative methods and error models were applied. According to our study, the depression variables were dependent on the scale, area and acquisition method. When the depths of depression pixels were compared with the most accurate DTM based on accurate VRNS-GNSS (Virtual Reference Stations, Global Navigation Satellite Systems) field survey data, the maximum errors created the largest differences between DTMs and hence represented the amount of the depth error. The mean filtering of ALS-DTM2 focuses on the small and shallow depressions, and is thus suitable for using in flood risk management. According to our results, the decision about the suitability of the available DTMs for a specific purpose is good to make on the demands of the problem settings. In studies with a relatively low demand for accuracy, awareness of the error, its level and effects on analyses in general is sufficient. In more accurate studies, the awareness of the varying spatial accuracy and the knowledge about certain typical characteristics of available DTMs to represent a studied terrain variables is essential. On the whole, the ability of a DTM to accurately represent depressions varied uniquely according to each depression, although DTMs also displayed certain typical characteristics. Thus, a DTM's higher resolution is no guarantee of a more accurate representation of topography in flood detention studies.

  7. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF DIURON ON CATFISH POND ECOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of diuron treatment on catfish pond ecology under commercial culture conditions. Nine weekly treatments of diuron (0.01 mg/L) were applied to nine 0.4-ha experimental ponds; six ponds served as controls. Water and fish samples were collected from all ponds each week for che...

  8. Determining the Population Size of Pond Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Paul J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods for determining the population size of pond phytoplankton, including water sampling techniques, laboratory analysis of samples, and additional studies worthy of investigation in class or as individual projects. (CS)

  9. This Pond Is Not for Ducks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The latest development in solar energy is a four-acre pond planned for Clark College in Vancouver (Washington). Filled with brine, it will serve both as collector and heat storage tank for the entire campus. (Author)

  10. Ecologic simulation of warm water aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1983-06-01

    A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized warm-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of environmental parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of environmental conditions.

  11. Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond surfaces. These compounds are highly reactive and, because of their relatively high water solubility, tend to concentrate in produced water. The average methanol emission rate from unfrozen pond surfaces was more than 100 mg m-2 h-1. Methanol, used as an antifreeze and anti-scaler in the oil and gas industry, is abundant during winter inversions in the Uintah Basin and may also be a significant precursor to ozone production. Total VOC and methanol emissions from produced water ponds during winter were estimated to be 178 and 83 tons month-1, respectively, for the entire Uintah Basin.

  12. Rapid thaw pond formation in Northeast Siberia transfers permafrost carbon to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huissteden, K. J.; Gallagher, A.; Budishchev, A.; van Kester, B.; Belelli-Marchesini, L.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of small ponds by shallow thawing of ice-rich permafrost may represent an immediate reaction of permafrost soils to climate change, contrasting with thaw lakes which take a longer development and may be inherited from the past. We studied thaw ponds in arctic tundra on ice-rich continuous permafrost in the Indigirka lowlands of Northeast Siberia, an area that has experienced modest warming. Dominating landforms are thaw lakes, drained lake basins, thaw lakes and remnants of Pleistocene ice complex deposits ('yedoma'). With increasing age, the soils in drained lake basin accumulate more ice in ice wedges and mineral palsas. Thaw ponds in the area result from melting of ice wedges (ice wedge ponds, IWP) or from degradation of mineral palsas (palsa thaw ponds, PP). The PP's have a diameter of a few meters, a depth up to 0.5 m and may be intermittently dry. The IWP's are deeper, and have an elongate ditch-like shape. IWP and PP can be discriminated from ice wedge polygon centre ponds (PCP) which show a regular polygonal pattern and do not show die-back of dry tundra vegetation by paludification as in IWP and PP. PP's show more rapid vegetation succession than the IP's, leading to the (partial) recovery of vegetation. Most of the PP's appear to have formed spontaneously. However, pond formation was also induced by accidental or experimental disturbance of the tundra vegetation cover. Comparison of a Keyhole satellite image from 1977 with a GeoEye image from 2010 shows that the number of PP's increased significantly. This indicates a 2.9 × 0.9 times increase in the number of ponds in 33 years. The ponds are significant sources of CH4 and CO2, derived from decomposition of dead vegetation and soil organic matter. Averaged CO2 fluxes measured with static chambers amount for PP's +106×29 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1, for PCP ponds -77×30 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1, for dry palsa surface with Betula nana -180×22 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1. When PP's re-vegetate, a sedge vegetation develops, with an uptake flux of -224×42 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1. CH4 fluxes for the same areas are 3.60×1.2 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1 (PP), 3.69×0.56 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1 (PCP), -0.38×0.15 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1 (dry palsa), 3.97×0.25 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1 (re-vegetated pond). IWP's show the highest CH4 fluxes, 4.42×3.60 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1. The thaw ponds therefore transfer areas of dry tundra vegetation with CO2 and CH4 uptake to areas of strong emission of both greenhouse gases. Upon vegetation regrowth, high CH4 emissions remain but this is balanced by strong CO2 uptake. The speed of re-vegetation process is likely in the order of several years to decades. By contrast to ponds, thaw lakes in the same area show minor expansion. Our data suggest that a drastic increase in the number of small thaw ponds, rather than thaw lake expansion, represents a fast response of ice-rich permafrost soils to climate change and may contribute significantly to the increase of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon from permafrost soils. Moreover, the creation of similar ponds by anthropogenic vegetation disturbance suggests that increase of human activity in permafrost areas aggravates greenhouse gas emissions from permafrost soils.

  13. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.; Whicker, F.W.

    1991-12-05

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

  14. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  15. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture. PMID:23490108

  16. Effects of physical and morphometric factors on nutrient removal properties in agricultural ponds.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Onodera, S; Okubo, K; Takagi, S; Maruyama, Y; Jin, G; Shimizu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Effects of physical and morphometric factors on nutrient removal properties were studied in small agricultural ponds with different depths, volumes, and residence times in western Japan. Average residence time was estimated to be >15 days, and it tended to decrease from summer to winter because of the increase in water withdrawal for agricultural activity. Water temperature was clearly different between the surface and bottom layers; this indicates that thermal stratification occurred in summer. Chlorophyll-a was significantly high (>20 μg/L) in the surface layer (<0.5 m) and influenced by the thermal stratification. Removal ratios of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and dissolved total phosphorus in the ponds were estimated to be 53-98% and 39-98% in August and 10-92% and 36-57% in December, respectively. Residence time of the ponds was longer in August than in December, and DTN removal, in particular, was more significant in ponds with longer residence time. Our results suggest residence time is an important factor for nitrogen removal in small agricultural ponds as well as large lakes. PMID:26676006

  17. Characteristics of Nest Site of Ninespine Stickleback, Pungititus sp.2, in Preserved Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi, Takemura; Noriyuki, Koizumi; Hiroshi, Jinguji; Atsushi, Mori; Keiji, Watabe

    We set experimental circumstances controlled by aquatic plant mowing in the preserved pond, Komaba-Kita district. Aquatic plant mowing for a space of the pond had not been performed for over two years. For other space of the pond, eco-friendly type of aquatic plant mowing had been performed twice a year usually. There were many of small and medium scales of aquatic plant communities and only one large scale of aquatic plant community in the pond. Then we investigated characteristics of nest sites of the ninespine stickleback in the pond. We found total number of 20 nests. Almost all of those nests occurred at rim of these communities, whereas there were not any nests in central parts of medium and large scale of the communities. It was suggested that nest sites would concern deeply with aquatic plant mowing. To establish many of small and medium scales of aquatic plant communities owing to eco-friendly type of aquatic plant mowing appeared to increase a lot of rim of plant communities, indicating leading to increase in extent of rim areas of the suitable site for nesting.

  18. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

  19. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL POND CIRCULATION ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES IN CHANNEL CATFISH PONDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplankton are the primary producers and consumers of dissolved oxygen in earthen channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production ponds. In a pond with a dense plankton bloom, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration can become supersaturated during daylight hours and fall to 10% of saturation or les...

  20. POND-AGE WATER COLUMN TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS IN CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS PRODUCTION PONDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term temporal succession changes in nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton have not been previously investigated in aquaculture ponds. This study analyzed relationships of pond age with nutrients, zooplankton and phytoplankton populations, and incidence of off-flavor occurrence. Nutrient le...

  1. Sport fishery potential of power plant cooling ponds: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidinger, R.C.; Lewis, W.M.

    1986-10-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if cooling ponds could serve as habitat for several coolwater fish species and also to evaluate the potential use of cooling ponds as nursery areas for receiving waters. The work was conducted on two cooling ponds in northern Illinois. Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), striped bass (Morone saxatilis) fingerlings, and adult threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) were stocked into both cooling ponds. The hybrids between the striped bass and white bass (M. chrysops) had been previously stocked into Collins Pond. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) fingerlings and larval striped bass and walleye were stocked in Dresden Pond. Several sampling techniques including seining, electrofishing, and rotenoning were used to monitor growth and survival of stocked species. In addition, escapement of stocked and indigenous species was monitored at the Dresden Pond spillway. Walleye, muskellunge, striped bass and hybrid striped bass exhibited excellent growth in Collins Pond as did smallmouth bass in Dresden Pond. One of the primary differences between an open system (such as Dresden Pond) and a closed system (such as Collins Pond) is the potential that the open system has to serve as a fish nursery area for receiving waters. The stocking of ''coolwater'' species in a closed type system such as Collins Pond is an effective way to control and maintain selected sport species. Dresden Pond was not open to public fishing during this study, but Collins Pond developed an excellent sport fishery as a result of these stockings.

  2. A case study of enteric virus removal and insights into the associated risk of water reuse for two wastewater treatment pond systems in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Symonds, E M; Verbyla, M E; Lukasik, J O; Kafle, R C; Breitbart, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2014-11-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (WTP) are one of the most widespread treatment technologies in the world; however, the mechanisms and extent of enteric virus removal in these systems are poorly understood. Two WTP systems in Bolivia, with similar overall hydraulic retention times but different first stages of treatment, were analyzed for enteric virus removal. One system consisted of a facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds (three-pond system) and the other consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by two maturation (polishing) ponds (UASB-pond system). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was used to measure concentrations of norovirus, rotavirus, and pepper mild mottle virus, while cell culture methods were used to measure concentrations of culturable enteroviruses (EV). Limited virus removal was observed with RT-qPCR in either system; however, the three-pond system removed culturable EV with greater efficiency than the UASB-pond system. The majority of viruses were not associated with particles and only a small proportion was associated with particles larger than 180 ?m; thus, it is unlikely that sedimentation is a major mechanism of virus removal. High concentrations of viruses were associated with particles between 0.45 and 180 ?m in the UASB reactor effluent, but not in the facultative pond effluent. The association of viruses with this size class of particles may explain why only minimal virus removal was observed in the UASB-pond system. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of the treated effluent for reuse for restricted irrigation indicated that the three-pond system effluent requires an additional 1- to 2-log10 reduction of viruses to achieve the WHO health target of <10(-4) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per person per year; however, the UASB-pond system effluent may require an additional 2.5- to 4.5-log10 reduction of viruses. PMID:25129566

  3. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  4. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  5. Degradation, Fate and Bioavailability of Sulfamethazine in Pond Water and Sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics from animal agriculture are found in surface waters and stream sediments. We investigated the degradation and fate of sulfamethazine in small pond water and sediment microcosms. Sulfamethazine [14C-phenyl] was added to the water phase directly, or in a dilute swine manure solution that s...

  6. Developing Learning Identities in and through Music: A Case Study of the Outcomes of a Music Programme in an Australian Juvenile Detention Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.; Baker, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    The last decades have witnessed significant growth in music programmes targeted at various populations in detention, including those in male and female prisons and juvenile detention centres. The aspirations of such programmes have included a concern to improve detainees' mental and physical health and well-being, develop pro-social behaviours…

  7. Developing Learning Identities in and through Music: A Case Study of the Outcomes of a Music Programme in an Australian Juvenile Detention Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.; Baker, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    The last decades have witnessed significant growth in music programmes targeted at various populations in detention, including those in male and female prisons and juvenile detention centres. The aspirations of such programmes have included a concern to improve detainees' mental and physical health and well-being, develop pro-social behaviours

  8. Controlling Those Kids: Social Control and the Use of Pretrial Detention among Youth in the United States of America--National Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Patrick; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    This analysis will identify the theoretical basis associated with the use of pretrial detention among youth in the United Sates. This article is designed to offer a comprehensive description of the use of pre-trial detention of youth. In addition, a theoretical discussion of this "crime-control" measure is identified. Policy implications are

  9. A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

  10. Metal Cycling in Polymictic Suburban Retention Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, C. A.; Bushey, J. T.; Torgersen, T.

    2009-05-01

    Stratified conditions in lakes have been demonstrated to enhance metal species mobilization as well as the potential for mercury methylation. However, few studies have been conducted in shallow engineered systems. Although each system is relatively small in area, the overall number of such engineered systems is large (and increasing) and warrants consideration within overall landscape nutrient cycling. Previous research has documented strong diel stratification cycles and the frequent development of anoxia within the bottom waters of such polymictic systems compared with larger, dimictic lakes. We examined the impact of polymixis and the shorter hydraulic residence time on the bioavailability and the downstream transport of Hg species and other trace metals. Filtered and unfiltered lake water samples were collected at 15 and 50 cm above the sediment as well as the surface of the 1-m deep Mirror Lake retention pond on the University of Connecticut Storrs campus. Additional samples were collected from the lake outlet under baseflow and elevated discharge conditions, including the capture of initial mobilization during precipitation events. Samples were analyzed for Hg speciation as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total suspended solids, cations (including Cu, Zn and Pb) and anions. We measured stage height at the lake outlet to calculate flux. Lake total Hg (THg) concentrations were generally less than 4 ng/L with the majority in the particulate phase. Outlet THg increased to 32 ng/L and dissolved THg increased to 1.2 ng/L during high flow events likely due to enhanced mobilization of particulates from the sediment and runoff from impervious surfaces, respectively. In contrast, DOC concentrations decreased as runoff contributions increased and were not correlated with dissolved THg. In addition, THg concentrations increased following copper algaecide applications, possibly due to re- suspension in the water column of biotic material.

  11. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of flow and particulate contaminants sedimentation in an urban stormwater detention and settling basin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hexiang; Lipeme Kouyi, Gislain; Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Sebastian, Christel; Barraud, Sylvie; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    Sedimentation is a common but complex phenomenon in the urban drainage system. The settling mechanisms involved in detention basins are still not well understood. The lack of knowledge on sediment transport and settling processes in actual detention basins is still an obstacle to the optimization of the design and the management of the stormwater detention basins. In order to well understand the sedimentation processes, in this paper, a new boundary condition as an attempt to represent the sedimentation processes based on particle tracking approach is presented. The proposed boundary condition is based on the assumption that the flow turbulent kinetic energy near the bottom plays an important role on the sedimentation processes. The simulated results show that the proposed boundary condition appears as a potential capability to identify the preferential sediment zones and to predict the trapping efficiency of the basin during storm events. PMID:24390197

  13. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father’s incarceration might impact their children’s psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father’s imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old), and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children’s psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself. Methods Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old) children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn’t experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children’s psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father’s capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found. Conclusion This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members – in particular children – of detainees. PMID:26186687

  14. Effects of urbanization on three ponds in Middleton, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, Leo B.

    1984-01-01

    A digital hydrologic model was used to simulate the effects of future residential development on pond inflow volumes and resulting water levels of three ponds in Middleton, Wisconsin. The model computed the daily water budget and the resulting water level for each pond. The results of the model calibration are presented in the report, along with the existing watershed hydrologic conditions and runoff volumes for the 1982 study period. Data was collected during 1982 to claibrate the model; the data included pond stage, ground-water levels, precipitation and other meteorological characteristics. In addition, water-quality samples were collected at each pond to characterize the water quality. Simulation of pond levels with the 1982 rainfall and fully developed watersheds did not result in stages greater than those observed in 1982. Simulation of pond levels with rainfall having a 20-year recurrence interval (1978) and hypothetical, fully developed watersheds resulted in maximum pond stages above those observed in 1982. Peak stage of Tiedeman 's Pond would increase by 2.77 feet, Stricker 's Pond by 3.91 feet, and Esser 's Pond by 1.44 feet. Simulation of pond levels with an estimated 100-year rainfall and hyopthetical, fully developed watersheds would result in peak stage increases of 5.30, 5.32, and 1.97 feet above the peak 1982 observed stages for Tiedeman's, Stricker's, and Esser 's Ponds, respectively. (USGS)

  15. Development of guidelines for improved hydraulic design of waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Shilton, A; Harrison, J

    2003-01-01

    Pond hydraulic behaviour is influenced by the inlet/outlet configuration, baffles and wind, but design information relating to these factors is still very limited. This paper reviews the development of "Guidelines for the Improved Hydraulic Design of Waste Stabilisation Ponds" and summarises some of the key findings and recommendations. This work was based on review of previous research, laboratory experimentation, field studies and mathematical modelling using computational fluid dynamics. The inlet design can have a significant influence on the flow regime in a pond. Poorly considered positioning of the inlet and the outlet can create hydraulic short-circuiting problems. As an example of the nature of the work undertaken in this project, the use of a small horizontal inlet pipe was compared against a vertical inlet design. A practical method of assessing the relative significance of wind versus inlet power input was presented. The application of this analysis may allow engineers to size inlet pipes to help control the flow patterns in ponds for efficient performance. Extensive testing has been undertaken on a wide range of baffle configurations. An example of this research showed how short stub baffles could provide similar improvements to longer "traditional" baffle designs, potentially offering significant savings in construction costs. For traditional baffle designs a minimum of two baffles is recommended. For the pond modelled in this work, it was found that any more than four baffles gave only marginal improvements. PMID:14510208

  16. Sunlight, season, snowmelt, storm, and source affect E. coli populations in an artificially ponded stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), in streams is important for many downstream areas. E. coli concentrations within streams may be reduced by intervening ponds or wetlands through a number of physical and biological means. A section of Dunes Creek, a small coastal stream of southern Lake Michigan, was impounded and studied for 30??months from pre-through post-construction of the experimental pond. E. coli reduction became more predictable and effective with pond age. E. coli followed the hydrograph and increased several-fold during both rainfall and snowmelt events. Seasonally, the pond was more effective at reducing E. coli during summer than winter. Late summer, non-solar reduction or inactivation of E. coli in the pond was estimated at 72% and solar inactivation at 26%. E. coli DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that the winter population was genetically more homogeneous than the summer population. Detection of FRNA coliphages suggests that there was fecal contamination during heavy rain events. An understanding of how environmental factors interact with E. coli populations is important for assessing anticipated contaminant loading and the reduction of indicator bacteria in downstream reaches. ?? 2007.

  17. Limnological studies of Papnash pond, Bidar (Karnataka).

    PubMed

    Angadi, S B; Shiddamallayya, N; Patil, P C

    2005-04-01

    The Papnash pond is an oldest pond of Bidar, Kamataka state. It is situated at 77 degrees-32 longitude and 17 degrees-55 latitude, located 551 m above mean sea level. It has been used daily for bathing and washing of clothes by large number of pilgrims. The samples were collected fortnightly during October 1999 to September 2000 to analyze physico-chemical and biological status of water, such as temperature, pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, chloride, organic matter, nitrite, phosphate, sulphate and algal flora. Variations in physico-chemical parameters were noted. The results also revealed that the pond water was hard, alkaline and polluted. Totally 39 species of algae were reported from the four classes. PMID:16161975

  18. Human rights, dual loyalties, and clinical independence : challenges facing mental health professionals working in Australia's immigration detention network.

    PubMed

    Essex, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    Although Australia has comparatively few individuals seeking asylum, it has had a mandatory detention policy in place since 1992. This policy has been maintained by successive governments despite the overwhelmingly negative impact mandatory detention has on mental health. For mental health professionals working in this environment, a number of moral, ethical, and human rights issues are raised. These issues are discussed here, with a focus on dual loyalty conflicts and drawing on personal experience, the bioethics and human rights literature, and recent parliamentary inquiries. For those who continue to work in this environment, future directions are also discussed. PMID:24363197

  19. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  20. Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project - FY 1982 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Marsh, H. E.; Roschke, E. J.; Wu, Y. C.

    1984-01-01

    The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

  1. Site-specific research conducted in support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project. FY 1982 report

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.L.; Marsh, H.E.; Roschke, E.J.; Wu, Y.C.

    1984-09-01

    The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that have been built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. This document reports on the site-specific research conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of the plant design. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

  2. REUSE AND RENOVATION OF SEWAGE STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT THROUGH IRRIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this project was to explore the recycling of stabilized pond effluent to grow crops for municipal beautification. The research encompassed pond effluent quality, irrigation site parameters, crop responses, renovation qualities of site and crops, insects and ...

  3. Natural or Simulated Ponds: An Environmental Baseline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exline, Joseph D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents methods for analyzing soil and water samples in this classroom. Includes a classroom diagram, a listing of suggested materials, and the procedures for a classroom simulated pond. Relates classroom activities to work at a natural pond. (MA)

  4. Large Lava Pond Complex on the Juan de Fuca Ridge: an Effusive, Energetic Eruption that Drained Away

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Davis, A. S.; Chadwick, W.; Cousens, B. L.; Embley, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    We explored an unusually large, deep, drained lava lake complex on the south rift of Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge during three dives with the ROV Tiburon in August 2005. The complex of five large ponds, first identified from EM300 multibeam bathymetry, is 5 km long and more than 1 km wide. The ponds are separated from one another by narrow levees that rise about 90 meters above the pond floors. The levees are all about the same depth, which suggests that the ponds formed at the same time. The volume of the lake, prior to draining, was 0.2-0.4 km3, making it the largest lava lake known along the ridge system. The outer slopes of the pond levees are constructed of elongate pillows that flowed down the steep slopes. The rims are narrow, level plateaus of lobate flows with many collapses. The inner walls are vertical cliffs, overhanging in places, with horizontal shelves from the top of the levees down to the floors of the ponds. Left like bathtub rings, these shelves mark former surfaces of the lava pond as it drained away while the lava was still molten. In many places, this veneer has collapsed to reveal truncated lobate flows and pillows. The floor of one small pond was entirely talus blocks. However, the floors of the other, larger ponds had little talus and, instead, were vast expanses of thin broken crusts, lobate flows, and very fluid, chaotic, folded and jumbled sheet flows. The lavas from each pond have abundant large feldspar and rarer olivine crystals, suggesting that all were from the same eruption. This eruption apparently began with sheet flows whose advance was limited by topography. It then ponded and built up the levees that were left when the lava drained away. On the floor of one pond we found a deposit several meters tall that was delicate and difficult to sample, and turned out to be agglutinated spatter. Limu o Pele (lava bubble wall fragments) was abundant in all the sediment samples in and around the ponds. The spatter and limu demonstrate that the eruptions were magmatic-gas-rich and mildly explosive to the end, with strombolian-like bursts and even fire fountains, though such activity had been presumed to be impossible at 2300m depth. We did not find obvious signs where the lavas went that drained from the ponds. A delta-like fan of partially drained and collapsed lobate flows extended from breaches in two adjacent levees, but since the pond floors are considerably deeper than the breaches and delta surface, the lake must have drained elsewhere after it breached the levees. The ridge axis outside the pond complex is severely tectonized, with numerous faults, gaping fissures, and shattered lavas of similar, unusually feldspar-rich composition, so there is no evidence that the ponds drained down-rift. We propose that the drained lava was recycled back into a crustal magma chamber below the ponds.

  5. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus budget in scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Adhikari, Subhendu; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2013-12-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in ten farmer's ponds (0.2-0.5 ha) in Orissa, India with a mean water depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were stocked in these ponds at stocking density of 3.75-5.0/m(2). The average initial body weight of scampi was 0.02 mg. The culture period was for 4 months. Feed was the main input. Total feed applied to these ponds ranged from 945 to 2261 kg pond/cycle (crop). The feed conversion ratio varied 1.65 to 1.78. In addition to feed, rice straw, urea, and single super phosphate were applied to these ponds in small amounts for plankton production. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi varied from 60-90 g. The budget showed that feed was the major input of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon in these ponds. The inorganic fertilizer (urea and single super phosphate), organic fertilizer (rice straw and yeast extract), and inlet water, either from the initial fills or from rainwater, were the source of all other N, P, and organic carbon (OC) to these ponds. Total N applied to these ponds through all these inputs ranged from 44.45 to 103.98 kg N per crop, 12.23 to 28.79 kg P per crop, and from 381.54 to 905.22 kg OC per crop, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 95.34 % N, 97.98 % P, and 94.27 % OC, respectively. Recovery of 16.34 to 38.66 kg N (average 29.27 kg), 1.28 to 3.02 kg P (average 2.29 kg), and 63.21 to 149.51 kg OC (average 113.20 kg), respectively, by the scampi harvest were observed in these ponds. Thus, harvest of scampi accounted for recovery of 35.18 to 39.01 (average 36.85%) of added N, 10.09 to 10.97 (average 10.44%) of added P, and 7.57 to 17.12 (average 16.34%) of added OC, respectively. PMID:23832231

  6. Response of shallow lakes and ponds to contemporary climate change in the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Macrae, M. L.; Parrott, J. A.; Brown, L.; Svacina, N.

    2009-12-01

    Ponds and shallow lakes are a ubiquitous feature of Arctic coastal plains. In Canada, they are particularly prevalent in the Hudson Bay Lowland and the Mackenzie River Delta region. Recent ground-based and remote sensing observations have shown a general decreasing trend in arctic lake/pond surface area over the past 50 years, suggesting that small water bodies at high latitudes are drying. However, the majority of the work that has been done on drying ponds and shallow lakes (with the exceptional cases of increases in areal extent in a few regions found in the continuous permafrost zone) has been conducted in Alaska and Siberia. The objectives of this work are twofold: (1) to examine trends and seasonal variability in pond and shallow lake water levels and surface area during the open water season; and (2) to examine trends and variability in the duration of ice cover in ponds and shallow lakes in this region, as open water season evaporation totals have been shown to be strongly influenced by ice cover duration. Preliminary results related to the first objective of this study reveal that annual precipitation (primarily summer rainfall) and evaporation have increased between 1955 and 2008; however, rainfall appears to be increasing at a faster rate than evaporation. There is still a moisture deficit over the summer months in this region because evaporation exceeds precipitation, although this deficit appears to be lessening. Thus, conditions in this region appear to be becoming more wet. A change detection study conducted on a subset of ponds for four years using air photographs and a SPOT image show that pond surface areas appear to have fluctuated over the study period but do not show a consistent trend. Different pond sizes appear to be showing different trends. Small ponds are showing opposing trends to medium and large sized ponds and lakes. The behaviour of the small ponds appears to strongly reflect seasonality in pond-atmosphere hydrologic exchange, and observed changes in pond surface area are synchronous with wet periods and dry periods. Regarding trends and variability in ice cover duration, results from simulations of pond ice thickness, break-up and freeze-up dates, and duration of open water season over the period 1955-2008 suggest that temperatures are warming in this region, and that these changes are seen across winter, spring and summer. Correspondingly, break-up appears to be occurring earlier and freeze-up appears to be occurring later, leading to a prolonged ice-free season; though none of these trends are statistically significant over the past 54 years. Radar images taken over the past 14 years are currently being processed to examine temporal changes and spatial patterns in pond/lake ice cover across the study area. Results from this analysis will also be presented. Finally, the approaches developed in this study could form the basis of a general methodology for investigating the contemporary status of ponds and shallow lakes in the Arctic.

  7. Water quality, phytoplankton and zooplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Volume 2. Phytoplankton. Final report, January 1984-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.; Starkel, W.M.

    1985-08-01

    This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B phytoplankton community. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the biological communities and environmental conditions in Par Pond and Pond B; (2) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of plankton at the Par Pond pumphouse; (3) assess the impact of heated discharge on the biotic communities throughout the reservoir; and (4) help determine if Par Pond maintains an indigenous balanced biological community as defined in state and federal regulations. A total of 368 phytoplankton taxa, representing all the major taxonomic groups characteristic of North American freshwaters, were identified from Par Pond and Pond B during this study (73 Bacillariophyta, 166 Chlorophyta, 30 Chrysophyta, 5 Cryptophyta, 47 Cyanophyta, 18 Euglenophyta, 11 phytoflaggelates and 18 Pyrrophyta).

  8. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117.598 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond...

  9. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117.598 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond...

  10. Analysis of seepage in an on-farm evaporation pond

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough-Sanden, B.L.; Gates, T.K.; Grismer, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    A nine-month field study has been conducted to assess the occurrence of seepage and potential groundwater contamination from a 90-acre drainwater evaporation pond. Pond water balances and point seepage measurements described the temporal and spatial variation of seepage. Pond seepage impacts on shallow groundwater elevations and salinity appeared to be negligible.

  11. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  12. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  13. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  14. Thermal Image of Pu'u 'Ō 'ō Pond

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This thermal image shows the lava pond within Pu`u `Ō `ō crater. The view is towards the southeast. The pond is fed from two upwelling sources, one on the south margin of the pond and one on the north margin....

  15. Costs and risks of catfish split-pond systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Split ponds are a recently developed, pond-based aquaculture system that allows intensification of catfish aquaculture. Successful industry-wide adoption of newly developing technologies like split-pond systems will depend upon their productivity and cost efficiencies. Costs and production performan...

  16. One year's experience with an operating saturated solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Day, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    While the saturated non-convecting solar pond concept is not new, the borax pond at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) is the first application of the concept to an operating solar pond. As with any new application there have been experimentally identified problem areas. Four of these problems are discussed: 1) departure from saturation, 2) contamination, 3) bottom crystalization, and 4) covers.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis Liquid Oxygen Prevalve Detent Roller Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David; Richard, James; Jacobs, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    During routine inspections of the Space Shuttle's Main Propulsion System (MPS) Liquid Oxygen (LO2) pre-valve, the mechanism provided to maintain the valve in the open position was found cracked. The mechanism is a Vespel roller held against the valve visor by a stack of Belleville springs. The roller has been found cracked 3 times. All three instances were in the same valve in the same location. There are 6 pre-valves on each orbiter, and only one has exhibited this problem. Every-flight inspections were instituted and the rollers were found to be cracked after only one flight. Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center worked together to determine a solution. There were several possible contributors to the failure: a mis-aligned visor, an out of specification edge with a sharp radius, an out of specification tolerance stack up of a Belleville spring stack that caused un-predicted loads on the Vespel SP-21 roller, and a dimple machined into the side of the roller to indicate LO2 compatibility that created a stress riser. The detent assembly was removed and replaced with parts that were on the low-side of the tolerance stack up to eliminate the potential for high loads on the detent roller. After one flight, the roller was inspected and showed fewer signs of wear and no cracks.

  18. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

  19. INFILTRATION LAND TREATMENT OF STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot rapid infiltration wastewater treatment system consisting of three 0.07 hectare basins was operated for four seasons at Brookings, South Dakota. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate that rapid infiltration land treatment could upgrade stabilization pond effluen...

  20. Excavations in Hanford ponds, cribs, or ditches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Unplanned Excavation/Drilling in Pond/Ditch/Crib. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  1. Plankton Management for Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a series of studies examining the fertilization practices used for channel catfish nursery ponds. The best fertilization protocol would be one that uses low-cost fertilizers, quickly establishes a desirable phytoplankton bloom, and produces the greatest number of large zooplankton. In...

  2. Contour Mapping for Pools and Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Noel

    1985-01-01

    Simple jigs (positioning devices) to make contour mapping tasks easier and more accurate are easily constructed from 5mm-thick acetate sheets. These plastic holders are used with meter sticks to provide scanning guides to measure pools and ponds. Instructions for making the jigs and sample results are included. (DH)

  3. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  4. Excavations in Hanford ponds, cribs, or ditches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Unplanned Excavation/Drilling in Pond/Ditch/Crib. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  5. ZOOPLANKTON NUTRITIONAL VALUE: NURSERY POND FERTILIZATION EFFECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on the utilization of natural productivity (i.e. zooplankton) by catfish fry. Although fry and fingerlings survive on prepared diets, many nutrients acquired by fry in ponds are most likely derived from natural food consumption. Experiments were conducted to answer ...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL PONDS FOR EVALUATING BIOASSAY PREDICTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental pond studies were used to demonstrate a means of assessing the accuracy of laboratory and in situ bioassays predicting the effects of chemical stress on phytoplankton. A short-term batch bioassay using changing carbon uptake in photosynthesis predicted an immediate (...

  7. Miller Pond, Lower Brule Indian Reservation, SD

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    View of inundated dugout berms at Miller Pond wetland area. A reconnaissance-level study of selected wetlands on and near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in South Dakota was completed in 2012-13 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe using ground surveys and...

  8. Pacific white shrimp culture in inland ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a tropical species grown throughout Latin America and now introduced into Asia, adapts to and grows well in low-salinity water. Pond culture of L. vannamei has expanded to inland regions across the southern US where low-salinity ground water is availa...

  9. Chemical treatment costs reduced with use of in-pond raceway systems compared to traditional pond aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split ponds are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish in several southeastern states. One advantage noted by farmers utilizing these systems is the reduced cost associated with the chemical treatment of ...

  10. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term "stabilization pond". PMID:1132387

  11. Linking the evolution of habitat choice to ecosystem functioning: direct and indirect effects of pond-reproducing fire salamanders on aquatic-terrestrial subsidies.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Timm; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Paetzold, Achim; Weitere, Markus

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in life history traits and in the behaviour of species can potentially alter ecosystem functioning. The reproduction of the central European fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), which usually deposits its larvae in first-order streams, in small pool and pond-like habitats, is an example of a recent local adaptation in this species. Here we aimed to quantify the direct and indirect effects of the predatory larvae on the aquatic food webs in the ponds and on the flux of matter between the ponds and adjacent terrestrial habitats. Our estimates are based on biomass data of the present pond fauna as well as on the analysis of stomach content data, growth rates and population dynamics of the salamander larvae in pond habitats. By their deposition of larvae in early spring, female fire salamanders import between 0.07 and 2.86 g dry mass m(-2) larval biomass into the ponds. Due to high mortality rates in the larval phase and the relatively small size at metamorphosis of the pond-adapted salamanders compared to stream-adapted ones, the biomass export of the metamorphosed salamanders clearly falls below the initial biomass import. Catastrophic events such as high water temperatures and low oxygen levels may even occasionally result in mass mortalities of salamander larvae and thus in a net 100 % import of the salamander biomass into the pond food webs. Indirect effects further accelerate this net import of matter into the aquatic habitat, e.g. the feeding of salamanders on aquatic insect larvae with the emergence of terrestrial adults-thus preventing export-and on terrestrial organisms that fall on the water surface (supporting import). This study demonstrates that the adaptation of salamanders to pond reproduction can alter food web linkages across ecosystem boundaries by enhancing the flux of materials and energy from terrestrial (i.e. forest) to the aquatic (i.e. pond) habitat. PMID:23358795

  12. Reframing Notions of Identity, Learning, and Culture through the Use of Performing and Visual Arts within a Detention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sean Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines a multimodal arts-based inquiry that took place within a secure detention center. The inquiry was inclusive of design, rehearsal, and production activities that culminated into a final theatre production. The methods for this study included pulling from multiple disciplines to develop multiple perspectives towards the data as

  13. The Mental and Physical Health Difficulties of Children Held within a British Immigration Detention Center: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorek, Ann; Ehntholt, Kimberly; Nesbitt, Anne; Wey, Emmanuel; Githinji, Chipo; Rossor, Eve; Wickramasinghe, Rush

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the mental and physical health of children held within a British immigration detention center. Method: A total of 24 detained children (aged 3 months to 17 years) were assessed with their parents or carer after being referred by a registered legal charity. Thirteen were seen by a pediatrician alone, 4…

  14. Evaluation Report of a Detention-Based Student Disciplinary Program in a Honduran/International Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Thomas J.

    The Escuela Internacional Sampedrana (EIS) in Honduras implemented a new discipline program in its Primary School during the 1996-97 school year. This paper contains findings from three evaluations of the program--an initial analysis, a midyear report, and a year-end report. The first report analyzed the number of suspensions and detentions, as

  15. Assessing the Sensitivity and Specificity of the MAYSI-2 for Detecting Trauma among Youth in Juvenile Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerig, Patricia K.; Moeddel, Melissa Arnzen; Becker, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the most widely used mental health screening instrument in juvenile detention, the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI-2), for detecting trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among detained youth. The MAYSI-2 scales measuring Substance Use,

  16. 31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. 585.215 Section 585.215 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL...

  17. Hydraulic conductivity of near-surface alluvium in the vicinity of Cattlemans Detention Basin, South Lake Tahoe, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M.; Henkelman, Katherine K.; Caskey, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Cattlemans detention basin, South Lake Tahoe, California is designed to capture and reduce urban runoff and pollutants originating from developed areas before entering Cold Creek, which is tributary to Trout Creek and to Lake Tahoe. The effectiveness of the basin in reducing sediment and nutrient loads currently is being assessed with a five-year study. Hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium near the detention basin is needed to estimate ground-water flow and subsurface nutrient transport. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated using slug tests in 27 monitoring wells that surround the detention basin. For each test, water was poured rapidly into a well, changes in water-level were monitored, and the observed changes were analyzed using the Bouwer and Rice method. Each well was tested one to four times. A total of 24 wells were tested more than once. Of the 24 wells, the differences among the tests were within 10 percent of the average. Estimated hydraulic conductivities of basin alluvium range from 0.5 to 70 feet per day with an average of 17.8 feet per day. This range is consistent with the sandy alluvial deposits observed in the area of Cattlemans detention basin.

  18. 76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... part 1, subpart K (21 CFR part 1, subpart K), (76 FR 25538), that pertain to the criteria for ordering... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About... entitled ``What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods.'' This guidance...

  19. A systematic review of ethnic variations in hospital admission and compulsory detention in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Farhana; Fisher, Helen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Marked ethnic variations in incidence, pathways to care and outcomes have been demonstrated in psychosis. Less research has focused specifically on first-episode psychosis (FEP), particularly adverse contacts such as compulsory detention and hospitalization. This is despite international initiatives to promote equity of care and active early intervention. Aim Systematically review current evidence for ethnic variations in rates of compulsory admission and hospitalization in FEP. Methods Relevant articles published before December 2012 were identified from PubMed, PSYCInfo, and CINAHL together with manual searching of reference lists. Studies providing quantitative data on compulsory detention rates and/or hospitalization, comparing ethnic groups in FEP, were included and quality rated by independent raters. Results All included studies (n?=?7) provided data on compulsory detention while fewer (n?=?3) focused on admission rates. Three studies reported increased detention in Black and minority ethnic groups, while one reported more hospitalization in White patients. Only two studies covered early intervention services (EIS). Conclusions There is a paucity of high quality, well powered studies addressing this important issue, especially in EIS settings. In order to best inform and evaluate fast-developing services, it will be essential to combine large methodologically robust studies with qualitative analysis of patient, carer, and staff experiences. PMID:25054369

  20. The Mental and Physical Health Difficulties of Children Held within a British Immigration Detention Center: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorek, Ann; Ehntholt, Kimberly; Nesbitt, Anne; Wey, Emmanuel; Githinji, Chipo; Rossor, Eve; Wickramasinghe, Rush

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the mental and physical health of children held within a British immigration detention center. Method: A total of 24 detained children (aged 3 months to 17 years) were assessed with their parents or carer after being referred by a registered legal charity. Thirteen were seen by a pediatrician alone, 4

  1. Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Atekwana, E.A. . Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. . Dept. of Plant Biology)

    1994-04-01

    A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

  2. First-year sea ice melt pond fraction estimation from dual-polarisation C-band SAR - Part 1: In situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharien, R. K.; Landy, J.; Barber, D. G.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the evolution of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice is important for climate model parameterisations, weather forecast models and process studies involving mass, energy and biogeochemical exchanges across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interface. A field campaign was conducted in a region of level first-year sea ice (FYI) in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), during the summer of 2012, to examine the potential for estimating melt pond fraction (fp) from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, 5.5 GHz (C-band) dual co- (HH + VV - horizontal transmit and horizontal receive + vertical transmit and vertical receive) and cross-polarisation (HV + HH - horizontal transmit and vertical receive + horizontal transmit and horizontal receive) radar scatterometer measurements of melt-pond-covered FYI are combined with ice and pond properties to analyse the effects of in situ physical and morphological changes on backscatter parameters. Surface roughness statistics of ice and ponds are characterised and compared to the validity domains of the Bragg and integral equation model (IEM) scattering models. Experimental and model results are used to outline the potential and limitations of the co-polarisation ratio (VV / HH) for retrieving melt pond information, including fp, at large incidence angles (?35). Despite high variability in cross-polarisation ratio (HV / HH) magnitudes, increases at small incidence angles (<30) are attributed to the formation of ice lids on ponds. Implications of the results for pond information retrievals from satellite C-, L- and P-band SARs are discussed.

  3. Diversity and spatiotemporal distribution of larval odonate assemblages in temperate neotropical farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mateus Marques; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Farm ponds help maintain diversity in altered landscapes. However, studies on the features that drive this type of property in the Neotropics are still lacking, especially for the insect fauna. We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of odonate larval assemblages in farm ponds. Odonates were sampled monthly at four farm ponds from March 2008 to February 2009 in a temperate montane region of southern Brazil. A small number of genera were frequent and accounted for most of the dominant fauna. The dominant genera composition differed among ponds. Local spatial drivers such as area, hydroperiod, and margin vegetation structure likely explain these results more than spatial predictors due to the small size of the study area. Circular analysis detected seasonal effect on assemblage abundance but not on richness. Seasonality in abundance was related to the life cycles of a few dominant genera. This result was explained by temperature and not rainfall due to the temperate climate of the region studied. The persistence of dominant genera and the sparse occurrence of many taxa over time probably led to a lack in a seasonal pattern in assemblage richness. PMID:25527585

  4. The Bag-Sampler: A Simple Device for Collecting Zooplankton in Shallow Vegetated Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Dagmar; Wohltmann, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    Zooplankton in temporary ponds is often collected with gear originally designed for lakes, and mostly unsuitable for sampling shallow habitats. We describe a new simple and inexpensive device for sampling zooplankton in very shallow, vegetated temporary ponds. We tested the sampling efficiency by comparing species composition and density of cyclopoid copepods, an important component of the zooplankton, by sampling with both the new bag sampler and a plastic beaker frequently employed for collections of zooplankton in small waterbodies. With the bag sampler we collected a larger number of species and higher densities of copepods due to its higher efficiency in vegetated areas and near the sediment. The beaker appeared to sample almost only the water surface. The samples collected with the bag sampler revealed a distinct distribution of copepod life cycle stages in a shallow pond, which differed between depths and microhabitats. Additional advantages of the bag sampler are its small size and weight, and the possibility of fast exchange of sample bags between sample locations, thus preventing accidental faunal exchange between sample locations. We conclude that the bag sampler is a device especially useful for sampling zooplankton of shallow ponds and wetlands rich in vegetation, for diversity studies as well as for quantitative sampling.

  5. Fate and Transport of 17β-Estradiol beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lori A; Tyner, John S; Buchanan, John R; Hawkins, Shawn A; Lee, Jaehoon

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations typically store livestock waste in clay-lined ponds. Although these ponds are regulated to include a liner with a small hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching, previous studies have traced surface and groundwater contamination from such regulated animal waste ponds. This research examined the transport of 17β-estradiol (E2) and its primary metabolite, estrone (E1), through soil liners using field- and laboratory-based studies. Additionally, a potential engineering solution to limit hormone transport-applying biochar to new pond liners to act as a retardant-was studied. Soil cores 80 cm in length were collected beneath a mature dairy waste pond and analyzed for moisture content and hormone concentrations. Unsaturated conditions and E2 concentrations of 4 to 250 ng g were detected beneath the waste pond. In the laboratory portion of the study, hand-packed columns of sand or clay were subjected to infiltration by a 2.3-m head of dairy waste. A subset of the hand-packed sand columns was amended with powdered biochar to test its ability to retard E2 and E1. For 3 mo, column leachate was analyzed for hormone concentrations, and at the conclusion of the study E2 and E1 concentrations in the soil were measured. In the 44 d after sealing, the clay, sand, sand with a thin layer of biochar, and sand mixed with a biochar amendment leached a total of 0.54, 1.3, 0.09, and 0.45 μg of E2, respectively. The biochar amendments to the hand-packed columns considerably minimized E2 in the leachate. PMID:26024278

  6. Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

  7. Waterfowl and the bacteriological quality of amenity ponds.

    PubMed

    Abulreesh, H H; Paget, T A; Goulder, R

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of waterfowl on the bacteriological quality of village ponds in East Yorkshire, north-east England. Water and sediment samples were collected from ponds with and without resident ducks and geese; faecal indicator and potentially pathogenic bacteria were assayed by membrane filtration and by selective enrichment. Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci and, to a degree, Clostridium perfringens were more abundant in ponds with waterfowl; Salmonella was isolated in June-August from the sediment of a pond with waterfowl. The results suggested that the bacteriological quality of village ponds might be adversely affected by waterfowl. All water samples from ponds with waterfowl had faecal indicators at higher concentrations than EU requirements for bathing waters. Although these ponds are not bathing waters we suggest skin contact and accidental ingestion of water should be avoided. PMID:15497814

  8. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from ponds and lakes of the Eastern Canadian Arctic (Bylot Island, Nunavut)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Prėskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission rate of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local conditions, hindering pan-Arctic generalizations. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems located on Bylot Island, in the continuous permafrost zone of the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes. The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, 1 or 2 orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (< 550 yr BP) GHG, even if trough ponds could contain much older carbon (> 2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on GHG emissions by permafrost aquatic systems and their potential positive feedback effect on climate.

  9. Characteristics of road sediment fractionated particles captured from paved surfaces, surface run-off and detention basins.

    PubMed

    Kayhanian, M; McKenzie, E R; Leatherbarrow, J E; Young, T M

    2012-11-15

    This study presents the results of evaluating changes in properties of road sediment fractionated particles at the source (dry pavement), during transport (highway runoff) and after deposition (dry detention basin). A total of 38 solid particle samples were collected from paved surface, highway runoff, and from three locations within detention basins. Each sample was size-fractionated ranging from 38 ?m to 1000 ?m. Key results were that: (i) less than 2% of total particle mass in four vacuumed solid samples was associated with the <38 ?m fraction compared to 47 to 82% in centrifuged highway runoff samples and 25% for detention basin sediments, (ii) based on number concentrations more than 90% of particles from all sources were smaller than 38 ?m, (iii) the densities of fractionated particles were generally within the range from 1.5 to 2.2g/cm(3); (iv) all collected particles were predicted to resist aggregation in solution with a typical measure of surface potential, the zeta potential, typically ranging from -15 to -30 mV, (v) metal concentrations increased with decreasing particle size for vacuumed samples from the highway shoulder and parking lot, however, size dependent trends in metal concentrations were less apparent in centrifuged highway runoff samples and detention basin sediment samples; (vi) the distributions of metal mass across sieved size fractions generally followed patterns of particle mass distribution in which less than 10% of the total Cu, Pb, and Zn mass was associated with particles <38 ?m; (vii) metal mass distributions tended toward increasing metal fractions in finer particle fractions along a gradient from the inlet to the outlet of the detention basins; and (viii) individual particle morphology (1 < d(p) < 10 ?m) showed that particles were not smooth or spherical, clearly deviating from the assumptions typically used in estimating particle settling velocities using Stokes' Law. PMID:23063923

  10. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22014093

  11. Prevalence and Persistence of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    2013-01-01

    Context Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Most juveniles eventually return to their communities, where they become the responsibility of the community mental health system. Yet, no large-scale study has examined psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. Objective To examine changes in prevalence and persistence of disorders during the 5 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design Prospective longitudinal study with up to 5 interviews (N = 1829). To ensure representation of key demographic subgroups, the randomly selected sample was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic), age, and legal status (juvenile or adult court). Setting The Northwestern Juvenile Project, sampling youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois. Participants Detained youth, 10 to 18 years at baseline interview. Main Outcome Measures At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (Child and Young Adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). Results Five years after baseline, more than 45% of males and nearly 30% of females had one or more psychiatric disorders with associated impairment. Substance use disorders were the most common disorders; males, however, had higher rates over time (5 years after baseline, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.61; 95% CI, 1.963.47). Non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics also had higher rates of substance use disorders compared with African Americans (respectively, AOR, 1.96, 95% CI, 1.542.49; AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.242.03). Females had higher rates of major depression over time (AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.222.08). Conclusions Although prevalence rates of most psychiatric disorders declined over time, a substantial proportion of delinquent youth continue to have disorders. There were notable sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and persistence of disorders. PMID:23026953

  12. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameter data from Par Pond and Pond B during the first six months of a study initiated in December 1983 and scheduled to continue through June 1985. A total of 195 phytoplankton taxa from Par Pond and 105 taxa from pond B were recorded during this study. A total of 89 zooplankton taxa from Par Pond and 58 taxa from Pond B were identified during this study.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Hydrogeologic maps of proposed flood detention area, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1978-01-01

    Information about the hydrogeology of that part of the Green Swamp area which has been designated by Southwest Florida Water Management District as the Flood Detention Area is given on seven maps. The maps show (1) core-hole numbers, (2) sand thickness, (3) clay thickness, (4) clay vertical hydraulic conductivity, (5) clay leakance, (6) depth to Floridan aquifer, and (7) altitude of top of Floridan aquifer. The data were obtained from 85 core holes drilled in 1977 and from 24 core hole drilled previously. The 127 square-mile study area is part of the headwaters of the Withlacooche River and the Little Wthlacoochee River. The data will be useful in future water-resources planning and in a concurrent interpretive study of the Green Swamp area. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Fitness Changes After an 8-Week Fitness Coaching Program at a Regional Youth Detention Facility.

    PubMed

    Amtmann, John; Kukay, Jake

    2016-01-01

    A Surgeon General's report states that there is a favorable relationship between exercise and chronic disease. Research suggests that exercise programs for elderly inmates may have a positive effect on the number of infirmary visits, which in turn may have a long-term effect on inmate health care costs. This exploratory descriptive double case study sought to add to the minimal information in peer-reviewed research journals by examining the effects of fitness coaching on two juveniles at a youth detention facility in Southwest Montana. The results showed that both participants made fitness improvements following the 8-week program and both perceived positive effects on self-concept and overall sense of well-being from participating in this program. PMID:26672121

  16. Energy program of requirements for a new detention center -- Energy design criteria for prisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.; Stanton-Hoyle, D.; Krout, R.

    1995-08-01

    Correctional facilities are typically ``energy hogs.`` Prison facilities normally have the highest energy costs and are the most energy-intensive building type for local and state jurisdictions. The 24-hour operation and continuous, year-round use of these facilities means very high maintenance and operating costs. To minimize future utility costs, an integrated energy planning approach for a new detention facility is highly desirable at the earliest stages of programming. When energy-efficiency criteria are integrated early in a planning and design process, significant energy and operating cost savings can be achieved with little or no additional construction costs. A planning document in the form of an energy program of requirements (EPOR) can be incorporated into the solicitation of design proposals and can be very effective in ensuring energy-efficient design for a new facility.

  17. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  18. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

  19. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  20. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

  1. Holocene Closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18′ 48.99″ N, 167 22′ 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

  2. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    PubMed

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (< 10 years old) and those located in coniferous watersheds had the highest MeHg concentrations (range, 0.10-4.53 ng L(-1)) and greatest methylation efficiencies (% THg as MeHg; range, 10-74%). High heterotrophic activity likely occurred in the beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies. PMID:19731651

  3. Water quality and restoration in a coastal subdivision stormwater pond.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Lorimar; DeLorenzo, Marie E

    2008-07-01

    Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to a number of water quality problems including high nutrient, chemical contaminant, and bacterial levels. This study examined the interaction between land use and coastal pond water quality in a South Carolina residential subdivision pond. Eutrophic levels of chlorophyll and phosphorus were present in all seasons. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms were prevalent during the summer months. Microcystin toxin and fecal coliform bacteria levels were measured that exceeded health and safety standards. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D) were also detected during summer months. Drainage from the stormwater pond may transport contaminants into the adjacent tidal creek and estuary. A survey of residents within the pond's watershed indicated poor pet waste management and frequent use of fertilizers and pesticides as possible contamination sources. Educational and outreach activities were provided to community members to create an awareness of the water quality conditions in the pond. Pond management strategies were then recommended, and selected mitigation actions were implemented. Water quality problems identified in this study have been observed in other coastal stormwater ponds of varying size and salinity, leading this project to serve as a potential model for coastal stormwater pond management. PMID:17368919

  4. Local and landscape determinants of amphibian communities in urban ponds.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Andrew J; Parris, Kirsten M

    2011-03-01

    Urbanization is currently responsible for widespread declines of amphibian populations globally through the loss, isolation, and degradation of habitat. However, it is not clear how urbanization affects amphibian communities at both local (pond) and landscape scales. We assessed the breeding distribution of frogs in ponds along an urban-rural gradient in Greater Melbourne, Australia, and examined community relationships with habitat quality and landscape context. We sampled frog larvae at 65 ponds on four separate occasions and collected data on local pond and landscape variables. Using Bayesian Poisson regression modeling we found that species richness decreased at ponds surrounded by high densities of human residents and at ponds with high water conductivity, whereas species richness increased substantially at ponds surrounded by a high proportion of green open space. Ordination of individual species presence-absence data by canonical correspondence analysis largely confirmed these findings. Ordination also highlighted the negative influences of pond shading and density of predatory fish, and the positive influence of aquatic vegetation, on community composition. Individual species' responses to urbanization varied. Urbanization had strong negative effects on species that were associated with well-vegetated, sunny, fish-free ponds. Our study highlights the importance of strategic management actions in urban landscapes to improve terrestrial habitat and connectivity around ponds and other wetlands, and local management actions to improve water quality, remove predatory fish, and plant aquatic vegetation at breeding sites. PMID:21563570

  5. Performance of stormwater detention tanks for urban drainage systems in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Todeschini, Sara; Papiri, Sergio; Ciaponi, Carlo

    2012-06-30

    The performance of stormwater detention tanks with alternative design configurations (insertion in the storm sewer network; volume per impervious hectare) and operating conditions (continuous and intermittent emptying rules) have been evaluated according to an integrated approach. Various performance indices have been adopted to describe the mitigation of the pollution impact to the natural environment, the reduction of the management and maintenance charges for the urban drainage system, the preservation of the normal purification efficiency, and the limitation of the costs at the treatment plant. The US EPA Storm Water Management Model has been used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process and the pollutant dynamics on theoretical catchments and storm sewer networks for an individual event, as well as for a continuous run of events and inter event periods of one year recorded at the rain gauge of Cascina Scala (Pavia, northern Italy). Also the influence of the main characteristics of the urban catchment and the drainage system (area of the catchment and slope of the network) on the performance of alternative design and operating solutions has been examined. Stormwater detention tanks combined with flow regulators demonstrated good performance with respect to environmental pollution: satisfactory performance indicators can be obtained with fairly low flow rates of flow regulators (0.5-1L/s per hectare of impervious area) and tank volumes of about 35-50m(3) per impervious hectare. Continuous emptying guaranteed the lowest number and duration of overflows, while an intermittent operation minimised the volume sent for purification reducing the costs and the risks of impairment in the normal treatment efficiency of the plant. Overall, simulation outcomes revealed that the performance indexes are scarcely affected by the area of the catchment and the slope of the drainage network. Theresult of this study represents a key issue for the implementation of environmental policies in large urban areas. PMID:22387328

  6. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  7. Closing the Energy Budget: Advances in assessing heat fluxes into shallow lakes and ponds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, S. W.; Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.; Selker, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    While soil heat flux is traditionally directly measured in any land surface energy study, measuring heat flux into and out of lakes and ponds is complicated by water column mixing processes, differing radiation adsorption coefficients, turbidity variation and heat flux through the sediment-water interface. High resolution thermal profile, to assess heat storage changes in aquatic systems is both time consuming and challenging using traditional thermister or thermocouple strings or casts. Recent advances in Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) offer the opportunity to measure, at high spatial and temporal resolution, the thermal storage changes occurring in lakes and ponds. Measurements of thermal storage using DTS are presented from two distinct environments; a strongly density stratified solar pond and a deep cavern system (Devils Hole in Death Valley National Park), demonstrating the effectiveness of high resolution temperature measurements. In the solar pond environment, closure of the energy budget using direct measurements of evaporation and net radiation was greatly improved by incorporating transient thermal measurements, and the development of a cooling boundary layer easily shown. At Devils Hole, variations in shading of the water surface produced small but measureable horizontal gradients in water column temperature for short periods of the day, which impact both pool evaporation and the metabolism and behavior of aquatic organisms

  8. Comparing the performances of circular ponds with different impellers by CFD simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Huang, Jianke; Ye, Chunyu; Cheng, Wenchao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of circular ponds with three different impellers (hydrofoil, four-pitched-blade turbine, and grid plate). The reliability of the CFD model was validated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Hydrodynamic analyses were conducted to evaluate the average velocity magnitude along the light direction (Uz), turbulence properties, average shear stress, pressure loss and the volume percentage of dead zone inside circular ponds. The simulation results showed that Uz value of hydrofoil was 58.9, 40.3, and 28.8% higher than those of grid plate with single arm, grid plate with double arms and four-pitched blade turbines in small-scale circular ponds, respectively. In addition, hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation had outstanding mixing characteristics. Lastly, the results of Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation experiments indicated that the biomass concentration of hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation was 65.2 and 88.8% higher than those of grid plate with double arms and four-pitched-blade turbine, respectively. Therefore, the optimal circular pond mixing system for microalgae cultivation involved a hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation. PMID:25680396

  9. Preliminary measurement-based estimates of PAH emissions from oil sands tailings ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarneau, Elisabeth; Hollebone, Bruce P.; Yang, Zeyu; Schuster, Jasmin

    2014-11-01

    Tailings ponds in the oil sands region (OSR) of western Canada are suspected sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the atmosphere. In the absence of detailed characterization or direct flux measurements, we present preliminary measurement-based estimates of the emissions of thirteen priority PAHs from the ponds. Using air concentrations measured under the Joint Canada-Alberta Oil Sands Monitoring Plan and water concentrations from a small sampling campaign in 2013, the total flux of 13 US EPA priority PAHs (fluorene to benzo[ghi]perylene) was estimated to be upward from water to air and to total 1069 kg y-1 for the region as a whole. By comparison, the most recent air emissions reported to Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) from oil sands facilities totalled 231 kg y-1. Exchange fluxes for the three remaining priority PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene) could not be quantified but evidence suggests that they are also upward from water to air. These results indicate that tailings ponds may be an important PAH source to the atmosphere that is missing from current inventories in the OSR. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses lend confidence to the estimated direction of air-water exchange being upward from water to air. However, more detailed characterization of ponds at other facilities and direct flux measurements are needed to confirm the quantitative results presented herein.

  10. Heavy metal contents in the sediments of astatic ponds: Influence of geomorphology, hydroperiod, water chemistry and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Celewicz-Gołdyn, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were analysed in the bottom sediments of 30 small, astatic ponds located in the agricultural landscape of Western Poland. The samples were collected from 118 stations located in patches of four vegetation types. Relationships between the contents of particular elements and four groups of factors (geomorphology, hydroperiod, water quality and vegetation) were tested using Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The most important factors influencing the heavy metal contents were the maximum depth and area of the pond, its hydroperiod, water pH and conductivity values. In general, low quantities of heavy metals were recorded in the sediments of kettle-like ponds (small but located in deep depressions) and high in water bodies of the shore-bursting type (large but shallow). Moreover, quantities of particular elements were influenced by the structure of the vegetation covering the pond. Based on the results, we show which types of astatic ponds are most exposed to contamination and suggest some conservation practices that may reduce the influx of heavy metals. PMID:25919341

  11. A framework model for the dimensioning and allocation of a detention basin system: The case of a flood-prone mountainous watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellu, Annalisa; Sanches Fernandes, Luís F.; Cortes, Rui M. V.; Pacheco, Fernando A. L.

    2016-02-01

    A straightforward approach in flood management is the attenuation of peak discharges through an appropriate detention system. In this study, a flexible framework model was developed to optimize the dimensioning and site selection of a flood mitigation system based on detention basins. The general workflow can be summarized by three separate but interrelated modules: (i) the hydrologic module, which back tracks the detention basin contributing area based on the application of engineering formulae to historical information on local river floods and associated hydrometric data; (ii) the geomorphologic module, implemented in a Geographic Information System, which indicates all the potential locations with adequate contributing area as required for the detention system, by analyzing the flow accumulation within the river basin; and (iii) the environmental module, which comprises the implementation of a multi-criteria decision analysis for the selection of best location(s) for the detention basin system, addressing three different objectives: to minimize diffuse pollution; to minimize point-source pollution; to optimize landscape integration (by minimizing the dam height). The framework model was applied to the flood-prone Vez River, which is the main tributary of the Lima River in Northwestern Portugal. Although the expectations as regards diffuse and point-source pollution are optimistic, results show that detention of the largest flood in this river could only be accomplished with one very large dam or a number of decentralized large dams. Decentralizing the detention system with multiple basins installed in various branches of the Vez River did not reduce the mean dam height, because the catchment is located in a region of craggy topography and high annual rainfall. An extensive reforestation of the basin headwaters would increase evapotranspiration reducing runoff. Eventually, this would expand the alternatives for flood mitigation, namely through the construction of sustainable flood detention basins.

  12. Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11.4 µGy/hr; birds - 6.3 µGy/hr; mammals - 15.1 µGy/hr; reptilians - 10.3 µGy/hr, with the recommended maximum allowable limit of 40 µGy/hr. The conservative risk coefficient ranged from 0.51 for birds to 1.82 for amphibians. In spite of a high contamination level of the shoreline areas, the current total doses received by the animals do not reach the recommended maximum allowable doses. However, drainage of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is likely to increase the dose rates as follows: amphibians - 94.5, birds - 95.2, mammals - 284.0, reptilians - 847.0 µGy/hr, which will significantly exceed the maximum allowable values. These predictions are conservative and prior to making the final decision on the fate of the ChNPP Cooling Pond, a detailed radio-ecological assessment of its drainage will have to be performed.

  13. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1997-02-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  14. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, C.; Alali, B.; Steffen, K. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Golden, K. M.

    2012-06-01

    During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate projections. By analyzing area-perimeter data from hundreds of thousands of melt ponds, we find here an unexpected separation of scales, where pond fractal dimension D transitions from 1 to 2 around a critical length scale of 100 m2 in area. Pond complexity increases rapidly through the transition as smaller ponds coalesce to form large connected regions, and reaches a maximum for ponds larger than 1000 m2 whose boundaries resemble space filling curves with D ? 2. These universal features of Arctic melt pond evolution are similar to phase transitions in statistical physics. The results impact sea ice albedo, the transmitted radiation fields under melting sea ice, the heat balance of sea ice and the upper ocean, and biological productivity such as under ice phytoplankton blooms.

  15. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, C.; Alali, B.; Steffen, K. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Golden, K. M.

    2012-10-01

    During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate projections. By analyzing area-perimeter data from hundreds of thousands of melt ponds, we find here an unexpected separation of scales, where pond fractal dimension D transitions from 1 to 2 around a critical length scale of 100 m2 in area. Pond complexity increases rapidly through the transition as smaller ponds coalesce to form large connected regions, and reaches a maximum for ponds larger than 1000 m2, whose boundaries resemble space-filling curves, with D ? 2. These universal features of Arctic melt pond evolution are similar to phase transitions in statistical physics. The results impact sea ice albedo, the transmitted radiation fields under melting sea ice, the heat balance of sea ice and the upper ocean, and biological productivity such as under ice phytoplankton blooms.

  16. Uranium studies in the Tims Branch and Steed Pond system

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.W.

    1984-11-01

    During the weekend of September 2--3, 1984, a part of the wooden spillway for Steed Pond gave way and the pond slowly drained. Consideration is being given to leaving Steed Pond dry. Steed Pond has accumulated some of the uranium discharged from 300 Area operations and past surveys have shown that the uranium concentration in the sediments ranges between 20 and 531 pCi/gm. The recently completed aerial survey of the exposed area of Steed Pond showed that the uranium was widely spread in the sediments of Steed Pond. Until ground cover is established over the exposed pond sediments, they will be subject to erosion. As much as 90 tons of sediment could be eroded from the exposed sediments in Steed Pond the first year, but the erosion could be reduced to 5--15 tons by establishing a ground cover such as rye grass. Only about 40% of the eroded sediment would be delivered to Upper Three Runs Creek, because most of the eroded sediment deposited before it reaches Upper Three Runs Creek. Less than 20 mCi of uranium would be transported downstream the first year from erosion of Steed Pond sediments, and this could be reduced to 2-- 5 mCi/year if ground cover is established.

  17. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  18. Windpowered irrigation system for small farm applications

    SciTech Connect

    England, B.

    1982-01-01

    The overall purpose of the project was to conserve water on a small-scale truck patch vegetable gardening operation. The main thrust centered on improving water usage in the already-existing windmill/storage tank/house/farm pond setup. Most of the funds were spent on a trickle (drip) irrigation system linked into the existing wetup. Other areas improved were the farm pond itself, backup pumping for windmill and farm pond, and greywater reclamation. In spite of problems which had to be restudied and corrected, the project was an overall success both in terms of results and budget.

  19. Tree-regeneration and mortality patterns and hydrologic change in a forested karst wetland--Sinking Pond, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, William J.; Evans, Jonathan P.; McCarthy, Sarah; Gain, W. Scott; Bryan, Bradley A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence point to climate change as the driving factor suppressing tree regeneration since 1970 in Sinking Pond, a 35-hectare seasonally flooded karst depression located on Arnold Air Force Base near Manchester, Tennessee. Annual censuses of 162-193 seedling plots from 1997 through 2001 demonstrate that the critical stage for tree survival is the transition from seedling to sapling and that this transition is limited to shallow (less than 0.5 meters) ponding depths. Recruitment of saplings to the small adult class also was restricted to shallow areas. Analysis of the spatial and elevation distribution of tree-size classes in a representative 2.3-hectare area of Sinking Pond showed a general absence of overcup oak saplings and young adults in deep (ponding depth greater than 1 meter) and intermediate (ponding depth 0.5-1 meter) areas, even though overcup oak seedlings and mature trees are concentrated in these areas. Analysis of tree rings from 45 trees sampled in a 2.3-hectare spatial-analysis plot showed an even distribution of tree ages across ponding-depth classes from the 1800s through 1970, followed by complete suppression of recruitment in deep and intermediate areas after 1970. Trees younger than 30 years were spatially and vertically concentrated in a small area with shallow ponding depth, about 0.5 meter below the spillway elevation. Results of hydrologic modeling, based on rainfall and temperature records covering the period January 1854 through September 2002, show ponding durations after 1970 considerably longer than historical norms, across ponding-depth classes. This increase in ponding duration corresponds closely with similar increases documented in published analyses of streamflow and precipitation in the eastern United States and with the suppression of tree regeneration at ponding depths greater than 0.5 meter indicated by tree-ring analysis. Comparison of the simulated stage record for Sinking Pond with the ages and elevations of sampled trees shows that prolonged (200 days or more per year) inundation in more than 2 of the first 5 years after germination is inversely related to successful tree recruitment and that such inundation was rare before 1970 and common afterwards.

  20. Examining Water Quality Variations of Tidal Pond System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Cui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Brackish tidal shrimp ponds, traditionally referred to as gei wais, have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world. The regular exchange of pond water with the surrounding coastal environment is important as it brings shrimp larvae and nutrients, etc. into and out of the pond. Such a water exchange can reduce the quality of the receiving waters; though there are opposing views recently because farming practices are becoming more sustainable while other sources of pollutions in the surroundings are increasing. This project monitors the water quality of a tidal shrimp pond and its receiving water at high temporal resolution. The pond is located within the wetland complex of Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong, China. Water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water depth and chlorophyll) were recorded at 15-minute interval from December 2013 to March 2014 within the pond and also at its receiving water which is a water channel within a mangrove forest. Data reveals both daily and fortnightly fluctuations. Daily variations in mangrove correspond to both tidal flushing and insolation, whereas those within the pond correspond mainly to insolation. For example, dissolved oxygen in mangrove shows two peaks daily which correlate with tidal elevation, and that within the pond shows only one peak which correlates with sunlight. Dissolved oxygen within the pond also shows a fortnightly pattern that corresponds to the schedule of water exchange. Such high temporal resolution of monitoring reveals the two-way water quality influences between the pond and the mangrove. It sheds insights that can possibly lead to refinement of water exchange practice and water sampling schedule given the temporal variations of the water quality both inside and outside the pond. It thus enables us to take a step closer in adopting more sustainable farming practices despite increasing pollution in the surrounding areas.

  1. Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians.

    PubMed

    Skelly, David K; Bolden, Susan R; Freidenburg, L Kealoha

    2014-03-01

    Vernal ponds are often treated as protected environments receiving special regulation and management. Within the landscapes where they are found, forest vegetation frequently dominates surrounding uplands and can grow to overtop and shade pond basins. Two bodies of research offer differing views of the role of forest canopy for vernal pond systems. Studies of landscape conversion suggest that removing forest overstory within uplands can cause local extinctions of amphibians by altering terrestrial habitat or hindering movement. Studies of canopy above pond basins imply an opposite relationship; encroachment of overstory vegetation can be associated with local extinctions potentially via changes in light, thermal, and food resource environments. Unresolved uncertainties about the role of forest canopy reveal significant gaps in our understanding of wetland species distributions and dynamics. Any misunderstanding of canopy influences is simultaneously important to managers because current practices emphasize promoting or conserving vegetation growth particularly within buffers immediately adjacent to ponds. We evaluated this apparent contradiction by conducting a landscape-scale, long-term experiment using 14 natural vernal ponds. Tree felling at six manipulated ponds was limited in spatial scope but was nevertheless effective in increasing water temperature. Compared with eight control ponds, manipulated ponds maintained more amphibian species during five years post-manipulation. There was little evidence that any species was negatively influenced, and the reproductive effort of species for which we estimated egg inputs maintained pretreatment population densities in manipulated compared with control ponds. Overall, our experiment shows that a carefully circumscribed reduction of overhead forest canopy can enhance the capacity of vernal ponds to support wildlife diversity and suggests a scale dependence of canopy influences on amphibians. These findings have implications for the connection between current wetland management practices and the goals of wetland stewardship and conservation of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24689145

  2. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds.

    PubMed

    Desjonquères, Camille; Rybak, Fanny; Depraetere, Marion; Gasc, Amandine; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pavoine, Sandrine; Sueur, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats' soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds. PMID:26587351

  3. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Fanny; Depraetere, Marion; Gasc, Amandine; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pavoine, Sandrine; Sueur, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds. PMID:26587351

  4. Simulation of the melt season using a resolved sea ice model with snow cover and melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyllingstad, Eric D.; Shell, Karen M.; Collins, Lee; Polashenski, Chris

    2015-07-01

    A three-dimensional sea ice model is presented with resolved snow thickness variations and melt ponds. The model calculates heating from solar radiative transfer and simulates the formation and movement of brine/melt water through the ice system. Initialization for the model is based on observations of snow topography made during the summer melt seasons of 2009, 2010, and 2012 from a location off the coast of Barrow, AK. Experiments are conducted to examine the importance of snow properties and snow and ice thickness by comparing observed and modeled pond fraction and albedo. One key process simulated by the model is the formation of frozen layers in the ice as relatively warm fresh water grid cells freeze when cooled by adjacent, cold brine-filled grid cells. These layers prevent vertical drainage and lead to flooding of melt water commonly observed at the beginning of the melt season. Flooding persists until enough heat is absorbed to melt through the frozen layer. The resulting long-term melt pond coverage is sensitive to both the spatial variability of snow cover and the minimum snow depth. For thin snow cover, initial melting results in earlier, reduced flooding with a small change in pond fraction after drainage of the melt water. Deeper snow tends to generate a delayed, larger peak pond fraction before drainage.

  5. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 5090 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  6. Smooth pond-like deposits on asteroid 4 Vesta: First results from the Dawn mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Ruesch, O.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-04-01

    The Dawn spacecraft arrived at Vesta on July 16, 2011 to study the asteroid with a Framing Camera (FC), a Visible & Infrared Spectrometer (VIR), and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1]. Dawn provides the first high-resolution data from its survey orbit, high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO), and low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO). FC data revealed smooth pond-like deposits of ambiguous origin, similar to deposits on other asteroids, including Eros and Itokawa [2,3]. Several scenarios for the origin of these deposits can be tested with Dawn data, including volcanism, impact sedimentation, impact melt deposition, dust levitation and transport, seismic shaking, or landslides. We measured 83 small (~7 km2 average size) smooth deposits distributed across the surface of Vesta. Most ponds on Vesta occur on the floors of impact craters and in irregular depressions. We did not observe inflow of material into the depressions. Most of these deposits have well-defined geological contacts, indicating that they are younger than the surrounding terrain. However, lunar impact melt pools that formed contemporaneously with surrounding ejecta blankets show similar stratigraphic relationships. Sometimes the albedo of these ponds is lower than the surrounding terrain, in other cases the ponds are indistinguishable from the adjacent terrain. The ponds preferentially occur in a band between -10 and 30 degrees latitude with fewer ponds north of ~30 degrees and even fewer ponds in the southern hemisphere, i.e., the Rheasilvia region. The largest cluster of ponds occurs in the vicinity of the Marcia impact crater, which is part of the so-called snowman craters. Similar, but smaller (<230 m diameter) smooth ponds were also reported from the surface of asteroid Eros [2]. Robinson et al. [2] found that most smooth ponds on Eros occur in equatorial regions and concluded that the most likely process for their formation is electrostatic levitation and redistribution of the finest regolith components (<100 m). Sierks et al. [4] argued that along the terminator, particularly strong electric fields can develop between the sun-lit and shaded areas, e.g., within craters, resulting in particle motion from sun-lit to dark regions. Dust levitation and transport was also discussed for asteroid 25143 Itokawa [3]. [1] Russell et al., (2007), Earth Moon Planets, 101; [2] Robinson et al., (2002), Met. Planet. Sci., 37; [3] Yano et al., (2006), Science, 312; [4] Sierks et al., (2011), Space Sci. Rev., doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9745-4. This research has been supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) and NASA. We would like to thank the Dawn Operations Team for their success-ful planning and acquisition of high-quality Vesta data.

  7. Effect of Detention Basin Release Rates on Flood Flows - Application of a Model to the Blackberry Creek Watershed in Kane County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Straub, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of stormwater detention basins with specified release rates are examined on the watershed scale with a Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) continuous-simulation model. Modeling procedures for specifying release rates from detention basins with orifice and weir discharge configurations are discussed in this report. To facilitate future detention modeling as a tool for watershed management, a chart relating watershed impervious area to detention volume is presented. The report also presents a case study of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kane County, Ill., a rapidly urbanizing area seeking to avoid future flood damages from increased urbanization, to illustrate the effects of various detention basin release rates on flood peaks and volumes and flood frequencies. The case study compares flows simulated with a 1996 land-use HSPF model to those simulated with four different 2020 projected land-use HSPF model scenarios - no detention, and detention basins with release rates of 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 cubic feet per second per acre (ft3/s-acre), respectively. Results of the simulations for 15 locations, which included the downstream ends of all tributaries and various locations along the main stem, showed that a release rate of 0.10 ft3/s-acre, in general, can maintain postdevelopment 100-year peak-flood discharge at a similar magnitude to that of 1996 land-use conditions. Although the release rate is designed to reduce the 100-year peak flow, reduction of the 2-year peak flow is also achieved for a smaller proportion of the peak. Results also showed that the 0.10 ft3/s-acre release rate was less effective in watersheds with relatively high percentages of preexisting (1996) development than in watersheds with less preexisting development.

  8. Development of sub-daily erosion and sediment transport algorithms in SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) algorithms for simulation of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as detention basins, wet ponds, sedimentation filtration ponds, and retention irrigation systems are under development for modeling small/urban watersheds. Modeling stormwater BMPs...

  9. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  10. Liming acid ponds in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Cost-benefit ratios are considered. Application of hydrated lime in New York State is limited to open-water periods for economic reasons. Hydrated lime is superior to the less potent agricultural lime, calcium carbonate, although the latter permits a longer time between treatments. No matter which type of lime is used, the lime is dumped from bags from a slowly moving boat. More lime is spread in shallow water areas than over deep water areas so that the lime is placed where the fish live and it is exposed more effectively to wave action and currents. The use of lime in remote areas is more difficult due to the high cost of transport. Possible increases in mercury content of fish after lime treatment were studied. Mercury levels were determined in brook trout from selected lakes, limed and unlimed. No increase in mercury levels was apparent in either limed or unlimed control waters. Costs for liming remote ponds range as high as $297 per acre. Experience with the dry dispersal method has shown that lime can be moved at a rate of 5 tons per hour. The average cost of this method should be about $100 per acre. It was concluded that for both accessible and remote ponds, liming is an effective and economically feasible tool which can be used to counteract the adverse impact of acid precipitation and maintain selected fisheries. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Fate of permethrin in model outdoor ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Rawn, G.P.; Webster, G.R.; Muir, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 and 1980, outdoor artificial ponds were treated with /sup 14/C-permethrin (labelled at either the cyclopropyl or methylene position) at 0.028 kg/ha (15 ug/L). Uptake of permethrin by duckweed and hydrosoil was monitored by direct combustion, TLC-autoradiography, HPLC, and liquid scintillation counting. Rapid loss of permethrin from the water coincided with the detection of five degradation products in the water at concentrations below 2.0 ug/L. The products were cis- and trans-cyclopropyl acid, phenoxybenzoic acid, and phenoxybenzyl alcohol, and an unknown non-cleaved product of permethrin. Permethrin was readily sorbed by duckweed but was not persistent. Permethrin residues in the hydrosoil, which was the major sink for permethrin added to the ponds, were persistent and were detected at 420 days post-treatment. Cis-permethrin was more persistent in the hydrosoil than the trans-permethrin. The results indicated that permethrin in water was short-lived at an application rate of 15 ug/L because of the rapid degradation of permethrin in the water and sorption of permethrin by the hydrosoil and vegetation. However, at one year post-treatment, permethrin residues were still detected in the hydrosoil at 1.0 ug/kg.

  12. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. A Pond Project for Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jim

    1977-01-01

    Described is how a neglected pond was transformed into a useful study area through the efforts of local junior high school students and the community. A chronology of events in the restoration of the pond is included, along with the names of resource personnel and organizations. (MA)

  14. Effects of acidification on algal assemblages in temporary ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Glackin, M.E.; Pratt, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric deposition monitoring in Pennsylvania has characterized a steep gradient of acidic ion depositions across the north-central portion of the state. This study evaluated acidification effects on the composition of algal assemblages in temporary ponds in two forested areas exposed to atmospheric deposition that varied in degree of acidity. Artificial substrates were used to sample and compare the algal assemblages in the two areas. Colonized communities were also transplanted to lower pH ponds to observe changes in species composition. A laboratory microcosm experiment manipulating pH was conducted to reduce the variables that differed between the two areas. Fewer algal taxa were present in lower pH ponds, on colonized substrates after transplant to lower pH ponds, and in lower pH laboratory treatments. Species composition was altered in the lower pH conditions. Most taxa that were excluded from the lower pH ponds naturally also did not survive when experimentally introduced to those conditions. These results suggest that acidification of temporary ponds can alter the structure of algal communities. There is interest in a possible link between acid deposition and reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Algae are an important food source for larval amphibians, such as the wood frog, which require temporary ponds to breed. Changes in algal species composition could potentially impact the temporary pond and forest ecosystem.

  15. Operation of salt-gradient solar ponds in humid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.D.; Namvargolian, R.; Robbins, J.W.D.; Stevens, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Heat loss to the soil beneath a salt-gradient solar pond located in Louisiana was studied. The effect of high soil moisture conditions was evaluated via computer modeling. The presence of ground water and high soil moisture was found to cause significant heat loss from the pond.

  16. Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond

  17. Effect of pond ash on pen surface properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining adequate feedlot pen surfaces is expensive. Pond ash (PA), a coal-fired electrical generation by-product, has good support qualities. A study was conducted comparing the performance of pond ash (PA) surfaced pens with soil surface (SS) pens. Four pens of an eight pen series with dimensio...

  18. Delayed feeding of channel catfish fry stocked in ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared production variables between channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds fed according to industry standards, that is feeding immediately at stocking, to an alternative practice of delaying feeding for 6 wk after stocking in an effort to utilize natural pond productivity and red...

  19. Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  20. Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through

  1. Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

  2. AERIALLY APPLIED COTTON HERBICIDES-THEIR EFFECT ON FISH PONDS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two aerially-applied cotton herbicides containing diuron were tested along with six others for possible adverse impacts from drift on fish pond plankton and water quality. Four treatments in triplicate 145-gallon outdoor tank mesocosms filled with fish pond water evaluated 1) simulated overspraying...

  3. STORMWATER TREATMENT: WET/DRY PONDS VS. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extant data were used to assess the relative effectiveness of ponds vs. wetland-type BMPs. Compared to wet ponds, wetlands tended toward higher constituent concentrations in effluent, were inefficient at nitrogen removal, and appeared to preferentially retain phosphorous. These d...

  4. Laboratory tests of immiscible solar pond concepts for Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Bathen, K.H.

    1983-12-01

    A series of four solar pond tests, conducted from September 1982 to August 1983, were completed to observe the ability of several immiscible fluids to absorb and store solar energy. The tests were conducted in two adjacent laboratory insulated ponds, approximately one cubic yard in size. The change in the fluid characteristics, i.e. spectral transmittance, vertical stability, biocide impact and clarity, were also examined following prolonged exposure to sunlight, wind and the additional of ambient dust and debris. The simultaneous and comparable performance of heat storage in the immiscible ponds versus the conventional salt gradient solar pond was also briefly compared. Candidate fluids considered were pearl kerosene, transformer oil, mineral oil, water, salt water (up to 20% salt by weight), methylsalicylate, and glycerin. These choices were selected based upon readily available materials vs. costs and the range of fluid properties they presented. Both convective and non-convective three-layered ponds were considered. The results indicated a more rapid warm-up behavior by the immiscible fluid ponds versus the salt gradient test pond. Higher bottom temperature were also reached (i.e. 184/sup 0/F in 45 days) and a faster recovery and continued warm-up rate observed for the immiscible ponds following intentional, mild, disruption of the vertical stratification.

  5. Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    2001-01-29

    Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

  6. Disposal of hypergolic propellants, phase 6 task 4. Disposal pond products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohenour, B. C.; Wiederhold, C. N.

    1977-01-01

    Waste monomethyl hydrazine scrubber liquor, consisting of aqueous solutions containing small amounts of CH4, Cl2, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, and CHCl3 as well as large amounts of CH3OH is scheduled to be dumped in stabilization ponds along with nitrate and nitrite salt solutions obtained as waste liquors from the N2O4 scrubbers. The wastes are investigated as to the hazardous materials generated by such combinations of items as described as well as the finite lifetime of such materials in the stabilization ponds. The gas liquid chromatograph was used in the investigation. A series of experiments designed to convert nitrate and nitrite salts to the environmentally innocuous N2O and N2 using solar energy is reported. Results indicate that this solar conversion is feasible.

  7. Crossing the final ecological threshold in high Arctic ponds

    PubMed Central

    Smol, John P.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.

    2007-01-01

    A characteristic feature of most Arctic regions is the many shallow ponds that dot the landscape. These surface waters are often hotspots of biodiversity and production for microorganisms, plants, and animals in this otherwise extreme terrestrial environment. However, shallow ponds are also especially susceptible to the effects of climatic changes because of their relatively low water volumes and high surface area to depth ratios. Here, we describe our findings that some high Arctic ponds, which paleolimnological data indicate have been permanent water bodies for millennia, are now completely drying during the polar summer. By comparing recent pond water specific conductance values to similar measurements made in the 1980s, we link the disappearance of the ponds to increased evaporation/precipitation ratios, probably associated with climatic warming. The final ecological threshold for these aquatic ecosystems has now been crossed: complete desiccation. PMID:17606917

  8. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  9. Phytoremediation efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash pond.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The present study was focused on field research to examine the phytoremediation potential of naturally grown Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash (FA) pond. Field results indicate the efficiency of E. crassipes for remediation of heavy metals from FA pond. The bioconcentration factor trend was Cr (3.75) > Cu (2.62) > Cd (1.05), and Cu (1.35) in root and stem, respectively. The survival and abundance growth of E. crassipes in the circumstance of heavy metal enriched FA pond is another highlight of the present research that reveals its toxitolerant characteristics. Thus, this lesson on phytoremediation proved that E. crassipes is a potential accumulator of Cu, Cr, and Cd from FA ponds and is a promising species for FA pond's remediation globally. PMID:26595413

  10. The expected psychiatric impact of detention in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and related considerations.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Grant Hilary

    2010-01-01

    What are the likely mental and related physical health consequences of prolonged exposure to common stressors to detainees at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba? Significant distress leads to high rates of psychiatric disorders, medical problems, and functional impairments. The consequences are severe, physically and psychologically, affecting the individual, his or her family, and the culture at large. Damaging conditions endured by detainees are multiple and severe and are reviewed here in detail. The author identifies parallels between Guantanamo detainees and similarly mistreated populations (e.g., prisoners of war, asylum seekers, prisoners) to draw inferences from existing research regarding likely outcomes for Guantanamo detainees. Protective factors normally present are systematically disrupted at Guantanamo. Overall, it is likely that detainees and their families are experiencing significant mental and physical health problems as a result of overlapping severe and chronic stressors related to detention and that this will worsen over time, particularly in the absence of appropriate assessment and treatment. The author addresses political and ethical factors, as well as basic implications for assessment, treatment, and advocacy, although these are not the focus of the article. Researchers and clinicians will face challenges in providing care for this population and understanding the long-term effects of such mistreatment. Sources reviewed are current up to September 2009. PMID:20938870

  11. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories. This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public. PMID:18726007

  12. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Claudia; di Cagno, Alessandra; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT) (n = 25; mean age 30.9 8.9 years),the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST) (n = 25; mean age 33.9 6.8 years), and a control group (C) (n = 25; mean age 32.9 8.9 years) receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01) and group-training interaction (p < 0.05). CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease) of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people. PMID:24185842

  13. Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, D.; Charles, E.G.; Baehr, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

  14. Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples.

    PubMed

    Waajen, Guido W A M; Faassen, Elisabeth J; Lrling, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a survey on cyanobacterial blooms and studied three ponds in detail. Among 3,500 urban ponds in the urbanized Dutch province of North Brabant, 125 showed cyanobacterial blooms in the period 2009-2012. This covered 79% of all locations registered for cyanobacterial blooms, despite the fact that urban ponds comprise only 11% of the area of surface water in North Brabant. Dominant bloom-forming genera in urban ponds were Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix. In the three ponds selected for further study, the microcystin concentration of the water peaked at 77 ?g l(-1) and in scums at 64,000 ?g l(-1), which is considered highly toxic. Microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR were the most prevalent variants in these waters and in scums. Cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a peaked in August with concentrations up to 962 ?g l(-1) outside of scums. The ponds were highly eutrophic with mean total phosphorus concentrations between 0.16 and 0.44 mg l(-1), and the sediments were rich in potential releasable phosphorus. High fish stocks dominated by carp lead to bioturbation, which also favours blooms. As urban ponds in North Brabant, and likely in other regions, regularly suffer from cyanobacterial blooms and citizens may easily have contact with the water and may ingest cyanobacterial material during recreational activities, particularly swimming, control of health risk is of importance. Monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in urban ponds is a first step to control health risks. Mitigation strategies should focus on external sources of eutrophication and consider the effect of sediment P release and bioturbation by fish. PMID:24798921

  15. Impact of permafrost thaw on Arctic tundra pond geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Lougheed, V.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the arctic tundra is changing physically, biologically, and chemically due to climate warming. With a warmer climate, permafrost is expected to thaw and influence the chemistry of arctic aquatic ecosystems. However, knowledge is limited on how geochemistry of arctic tundra pond ecosystems will respond. By re-sampling historical IBP ponds in Barrow, AK first sampled in the 1970s, previous studies have shown an increase in water temperature, nutrients and algal biomass through time. Results from this study indicate an increase of Ca, Mg, and Na in the water column, and a decrease in pH relative to the 1970s, suggesting an increased rate and magnitude of carbonate and Mg release. Seasonal trends were also examined to understand what processes, such as mineral weathering, peat decomposition and evaporation, were currently most influential in determining pond geochemistry. An increase in Ca/Na molar ratios, and carbonate and magnesium concentrations indicates that these tundra ponds are experiencing greater carbonate weathering compared to the 1970s and the rate of carbonate weathering increases in ponds as the summer progresses. However, increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations originating from peat decomposition are likely neutralizing additional inputs of carbonate, causing pond pH to decrease and exacerbating mineral weathering. A strong positive relationship between element concentrations and active layer pond thaw depth suggests that the origin of these additional solutes is likely from permafrost thaw. Active layer thaw depth has increased substantially over the past 40 years in the IBP ponds. Chloride/Bromide molar ratios and Deuterium/ 18-Oxygen isotope ratios will be used to determine the degree of evaporation occurring in tundra ponds. Ultimately, this study provides evidence for how geochemistry can identify the sources of chemical inputs to Arctic ponds affected by climate change and permafrost thaw.

  16. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  17. Biological productivity in small impoundments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most ponds and small impoundments are built or used with a principal use in mind. That use may be recreational fishing, commercial aquaculture, waterfowl hunting, potable water storage, irrigation water supply, livestock watering, stormwater retention, landscaping, swimming, or others. In practice, ...

  18. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

  19. Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to allow the fuel to be reprocessed or conditioned for long term storage. - Sludge Retrieval: In excess of 300 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated in the pond over many years and is made up of debris arising from fuel and metallic corrosion, wind blown debris and bio-organic materials. The Sludge Retrieval Project has provided the equipment necessary to retrieve the sludge, including skip washer and tipper machines for clearing sludge from the pond skips, equipment for clearing sludge from the pond floor and bays, along with an 'in pond' corral for interim storage of retrieved sludge. Two further projects are providing new plant processing routes, which will initially store and eventually passivate the sludge. - Metal Fuel Retrieval: Metal Fuel from early Windscale Pile operations and various other sources is stored within the pond; the fuel varies considerably in both form and condition. A retrieval project is planned which will provide fuel handling, conditioning, sentencing and export equipment required to remove the metal fuel from the pond for export to on site facilities for interim storage and disposal. - Solid Waste Retrieval: A final retrieval project will provide methods for handling, retrieval, packaging and export of the remaining solid Intermediate Level Waste within the pond. This includes residual metal fuel pieces, fuel cladding (Magnox, aluminium and zircaloy), isotope cartridges, reactor furniture, and miscellaneous activated and contaminated items. Each of the waste streams requires conditioning to allow it to be and disposed of via one of the site treatment plants. - Pond Dewatering and Dismantling: Delivery of the above projects will allow operations to progressively remove the radiological inventory, thereby reducing the hazard/risk posed by the plant. This will then allow subsequent dewatering of the pond and dismantling of the structure. (authors)

  20. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.