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1

Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond - Wetlands system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Suspended-phase efficiencies for solids, lead, and zinc ranged between 42 and 66%. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72%. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. Total (dissolved + suspended) solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 41 and 73%. Efficiencies for total nitrogen and phosphorus were 21 and 17%, respectively. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond of wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents. Total solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 55 and 83%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies were 36 and 43%, respectively.The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72 percent. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond and wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents.

Martin, E.H.

1988-01-01

2

Load-detention efficiencies in a dry-pond basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inflow and outflow to a dry-pond detention basin in Topeka, Kansas, were monitored for 19 storms during a 14-month period. Samples of runoff were collected automatically at two inflow and one outflow locations. Inflow and outflow constituent loads were computed with subsequent computation of load-detention efficiencies. Three constituents (dissolved solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, and total organic carbon) had negative (larger loads out than in) median detention efficiencies (-78.5 percent, -9.0 percent, and -3.0 percent, respectively). Median detention efficiencies for the other constituents were: suspended solids (2.5 percent), chemical oxygen demand (15.5 percent), nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen (20.0 percent), ammonia nitrogen (69.0 percent), total phosphorus (18.5 percent), dissolved phosphorus (0.0 percent), total lead (66.0 percent), and total zinc (65.0 percent).

Pope, Larry M.; Hess, Larry G.

1989-01-01

3

Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented here increased the pond's TSS (and associated pollution) removal efficiency from 46% (current state) to between 70 and 90%, depending on the pond's capacity considered. The RTC strategies allow simultaneously maximizing the detention time of water, while minimizing the hydraulic shocks induced to the receiving water bodies and preventing overflow. A constraint relative to a maximum time of 4 days with water accumulated in the pond was thus respected to avoid mosquito breeding issues. The predictive control schemes (taking rainfall forecasts into consideration) can further reinforce the safety of the management strategies, even if meteorological forecasts are, of course, not error-free. With RTC, the studied pond capacity could thus have been limited to 1250 m3 instead of the 4000 m3 capacity currently used under static control. References Marsalek, J. 2005. Evolution of urban drainage: from cloaca maxima to environmental sustainability. Paper presented at Acqua e Citta, I Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica Urbana, Cent. Stud. Idraul. Urbana, Sant'Agnello di Sorrento, Italy, 28- 30 Sept. Middleton, J.R. and Barrett, M.E. 2008. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin. Water Environment Research, 80 (2): 172-178. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143007X220842 Muschalla, D., Pelletier, G., Berrouard, É., Carpenter, J.-F., Vallet, B., and Vanrolleghem, P.A. 2009. Ecohydraulic-driven real-time control of stormwater basins. In: Proceedings 8th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling (8UDM), Tokyo, Japan, September 7-11. National Research Council, 1993. Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shammaa, Y., Zhu, D.Z., Gyürék, L.L., and Labatiuk C.W. 2002. Effectiveness of dry ponds for stormwater total suspended solids removal. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29 (2): 316-324 (9). Doi: 10.1139/l02-008

Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

2013-04-01

4

Detention basins, also known as dry ponds, or dry detention basins, are  

E-print Network

permanent standing pools of water. The pur- pose is to provide basic flood protec- tion and potentially decrease ero- sion. Detention basins provide flood control measures during storm events by capturing has only moderate pollutant removal. Modern stormwater detention ba- Detention Basin Retrofits By Mike

Goodman, Robert M.

5

Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater wet detention ponds.  

PubMed

The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of sigmaPAH in the sediments varied between 6 +/- 5 and 2,222 +/- 603 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean +/- standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect different activities in the catchments. In general, the concentrations of PAHS in the sediments decreased from inlet to outlet, especially in the systems with good conditions for sedimentation such as systems with flow perpendicular sand dikes and extensive submerged vegetation. High molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the sediments indicating the pyrogenic origin of the PAHS. There was no correlation between PAH species concentrations in water or sediments and their hydrophobicity (log K(ow)). PAH concentrations in water fluctuated in response to intensity and frequency of rain events, whereas concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHS in the effluents below the detection level. PMID:22097066

Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Matamoros, Víctor; Vollertsen, Jess; Brix, Hans

2011-01-01

6

Improved urban stormwater treatment and pollutant removal pathways in amended wet detention ponds.  

PubMed

Dissolved and colloidal bound pollutants are generally poorly removed from stormwater in wet detention ponds. These fractions are, however, the most bio-available, and therefore three wet detention ponds were amended with planted sand filters, sorption filters and addition of precipitation chemicals to enhance the removal of dissolved pollutants and pollutants associated with fine particles and colloids. The three systems treated runoff from industrial, residential and combined (residential and highway) catchments and had permanent volumes of 1,990, 6,900 and 2,680 m(3), respectively. The treatment performance of the ponds for elimination of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (Tot-N), total phosphorous (Tot-P), PO(4)-P, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, Hg were within the range typically reported for wet detention ponds, but the concentrations of most of the pollutants were efficiently reduced by the planted sand filters at the outlets. The sorption filters contributed to further decrease the concentration of PO(4)-P from 0.04 ± 0.05 to 0.01 ± 0.01 mg L(-1) and were also efficient in removing heavy metals. Dosing of iron sulphate to enrich the bottom sediment with iron and dosing of aluminium salts to the inlet water resulted in less growth of phytoplankton, but treatment performance was not significantly affected. Heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr and Cu) accumulated in the sediment of the ponds. The concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb in the roots of the wetland plants were generally correlated to the concentrations in the sediments. Among 13 plant species investigated, Rumex hydrolapathum accumulated the highest concentrations of heavy metals in the roots (Concentration Factor (CF) of 4.5 and 5.9 for Zn and Ni, respectively) and Iris pseudacorus the lowest (CF < 1). The translocation of heavy metals from roots to the aboveground tissues of plants was low. Therefore the potential transfer of heavy metals from the metal-enriched sediment to the surrounding ecosystem via plant uptake and translocation is negligible. PMID:22571535

Isteni?, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn H; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Brix, Hans

2012-01-01

7

Comparison of the heavy metal content of motorway stormwater following discharge into wet biofiltration and dry detention ponds along the London Orbital (M25) motorway  

PubMed

The Surrey section of the London Orbital M25 motorway uses mainly detention pond facilities for the treatment of stormwater runoff. A majority of these implement the use of dry detention basins. However, in a few locations biofiltration facilities operate through the use of reed bed systems. An assessment of the removal efficiencies for both wet biofiltration and dry pond treatment facilities was undertaken. Motorway-derived contaminants, including V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb and Pb, were measured in unfiltered stormwater collected during the initial stages of a storm event using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results suggest that a higher level of motorway-derived heavy metal contamination exists in stormwater runoff from a road section with a higher average daily traffic density. In addition, a comparison of both sites shows a higher percentage removal efficiency of heavy metals in stormwater from the biofiltration facility. PMID:10535117

Hares; Ward

1999-09-01

8

PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL BY URBAN RUNOFF DETENTION BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical model previously developed for predicting phosphorus retention in reservoirs is tested against the urban lake\\/detention pond data set. Detention pond design criteria developed under the EPA's Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) are ovaluated using the model. For summer precipitation and runoff quality typical of St. Paul, Minnesota, a basin designed according to NURP criteria is estimated to have

William W. Walker Jr

1987-01-01

9

Ammonium sulfate solar pond: Observations from small-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

Using the fertilizer salt (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the authors established a salinity gradient solar pond in a small outdoor tank. The hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of the pond was similar to that observed in the past for solar ponds containing NaCl. For temperature gradients between 50 and 300 K/m and salinity gradients between 200 and 1400 kg/m{sup 4}, data relating the gradients to erosion and growth of the gradient zone were generally consistent with the Nielsen boundary criterion for NaCl. With a salinity difference of 20% between the upper and lower zones and a maximum lower-zone temperature of 83{degree}C, no instabilities were observed in the interior of the gradient zone. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in controlling algal populations and maintaining good brine transparency.

Hull, J.R. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA)); Bushnell, D.L.; Sempsrote, D.G. (Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb (USA)); Pena, A. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso (USA))

1989-01-01

10

Sizing storm-water detention basins for pollutant removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical formulation for estimating the average time of detention within a pond for a captured runoff volume is presented. For a conservative estimator, it is assumed that mixing takes place during an event and that settling occurs over a period to empty the captured volume or the time between successive events, which ever is smaller. This analytically determined detention

G. V. Loganathan; D. F. Kibler; E. W. Watkins

2009-01-01

11

Evaluation of detention-basin performance in the Piedmont region of North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Results are summarized of a stormwater sampling program conducted on three existing urban wet detention ponds in the Piedmont region of North Carolina in the city of Charlotte. These ponds were not originally designed for water-quality control. A total of eleven storm events was monitored. Runoff samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total and ortho phosphorus, total Kjeldahl and ammonia nitrogen, and metals of iron, zinc, copper, and lead. The removal efficiency of pollutants for each detention pond was computed as the percent difference of the total pollutant mass entering and leaving the detention pond. A U.S. EPA model was employed to derive a relationship for estimating the size of detention ponds to achieve targeted levels of water-quality improvement.

Wu, J.S.

1989-07-01

12

Thermal behavior of a small salinity-gradient solar pond with wall shading effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal behavior of a small-scale salinity-gradient solar pond has been studied in this paper. The model of heat conduction equation for the non-convective zone has been solved numerically with the boundary conditions of the upper and lower convective zones. The variation of the solar radiation, during a year, and its attenuation in the depth of the pond has been

M. R. Jaefarzadeh

2004-01-01

13

Nogales flood detention study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

2010-01-01

14

Modelling the long-term sediment trap efficiency of small ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model (sediment trap efficiency for small ponds - STEP) is developed to simulate sediment deposition in small ponds (i.e. <1 ha) and to calculate the sediment trap efficiency (STE). The algorithms are kept simple to allow the model to simulate larger time periods (i.e. several years). Eight runs with an experimental pond were executed to test the model. The STEP model produces reasonable predictions of STE as well as the shape and magnitude of the effluent sediment concentration graph. The model efficiency of STEP for the prediction of STE equals 0·38 and the root mean square error equals 4·7%. Similar models, such as DEPOSITS and CSTRS, were inefficient in predicting the experimental results. The STEP model was used to simulate the long-term (33 years) STE of small retention ponds in central Belgium using 10-min rainfall data. For a typical pond (1000 m2) with a catchment area of 25 ha, annual STE can vary from 58 to 100%, with a long-term STE of only 68%.

Verstraeten, Gert; Poesen, Jean

2001-10-01

15

Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of water for fish production using small ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of water in fish ponds were investigated with a view to optimise the conditions for fish productivity using small ponds. Five fish ponds were used in the study. The water samples were collected in each pond at a depth of 10-15 cm from the surface over a period of six months and analysed for pH, temperature, DO, alkalinity. The fish activity and growth rates were also assessed. The results showed that the ponds were slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.69-7.66). The mean lowest and highest values of DO were 9.05 and 9.93 mg/L while the values for alkalinity were 67.86 and 90.57 mg/L respectively. The bacterial counts were in the order of 10 6 and the populations comprised Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Azotobacter, Arthrobacter species and Escherichia coli. It was also observed that the fish activity increased as the temperature of the water varied from April to September as given by the activity ranges of 55-95, 40-80, 55-80, 70-95 and 55-95/m 2 for ponds P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, respectively. The lowest values were in the months of April, May and June and highest values were in the months of July, August and September. The optimum conditions for increased fish productivity were found to be the warm temperatures (20 < t < 30 °C), adequate DO level (>4 mg/L) and appropriate pH (6 < pH < 9) and alkalinity (Alk) (80 < Alk < 200 mg/L). The correlations between characteristics were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels (2 tailed). Therefore, the fish productivity can be enhanced if the conditions in the ponds were maintained at optimum levels.

Ntengwe, Felix W.; Edema, Mojisola O.

16

Replicating Detention Reform: Lessons from the Florida Detention Initiative. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes lessons learned from the Broward Detention Initiative (BDI) in Broward County, Florida, a successful detention reform effort that led to attempts at replication. Chapter 1, "The Predecessor Program: The Broward Detention Initiative," explains key factors in BDI's success (e.g., the site was ready, problems were effectively…

Bishop, Donna M.; Griset, Pamala L.

17

Carbon and oxygen fluxes from a small pond to the atmosphere: Temporal variability and the CO2\\/O2 imbalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the relative strength of sediment processes compared to water column processes, natural and anthropogenic ponds represent an important component of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle and a site for recycling carbon to the atmosphere. Over 250 d of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured on the 0.5 h timescale in a small Connecticut pond. Using approximately 8000

T. Torgersen; B. Branco

2008-01-01

18

Design of a detention reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution contains the reasons for and the methods of flood protection for villages in small valleys attacked by flash floods, which cause high economic, cultural and social damage. One of the possible solutions is to build a detention reservoir, which has to retain the flood wave and prevent an odd amount of water from flowing out of the river bed. In this paper a model example is given. The aim of the example is to show (according to hydrological data) how to design the dimension parameters of the dam, i.e. the height of the dam, the outlet structure capacity, the spillway capacity, the stilling basin and the necessary river bed lining. Attention is paid to stability problems, as well.

Cipovová, K.

2011-03-01

19

Small thaw ponds: an unaccounted source of methane in the Canadian high Arctic.  

PubMed

Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, ¹?C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate. PMID:24236014

Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J; Galand, Pierre E; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

2013-01-01

20

Small Thaw Ponds: An Unaccounted Source of Methane in the Canadian High Arctic  

PubMed Central

Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, 14C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate. PMID:24236014

Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J.; Galand, Pierre E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

2013-01-01

21

Water-quality effectiveness of a detention\\/wetland treatment system and its effect on an urban lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly installed combined detention\\/wetland stormwater treatment facility upstream from Lake McCarrons, Roseville, Minnesota, was monitored for 21 months to evaluate its effectiveness and the response of the lake to decreased phosphorus loads. The treatment facility consists of a 1.0-ha detention pond that discharges into a series of six constructed wetland ``chambers.'' Data from snowmelt and rainfall events are presented

Gary L. Oberts; Richard A. Osgood

1991-01-01

22

Water-quality effectiveness of a detention\\/wetland treatment system and its effect on an urban lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly installed combined detention\\/wetland stormwater treatment facility upstream from Lake McCarrons, Roseville, Minnesota,\\u000a was monitored for 21 months to evaluate its effectiveness and the response of the lake to decreased phosphorus loads. The\\u000a treatment facility consists of a 1.0-ha detention pond that discharges into a series of six constructed wetland “chambers.”\\u000a Data from snowmelt and rainfall events are presented

Gary L. Oberts; Richard A. Osgood

1991-01-01

23

Methodology for analysis of detention basins for control of urban runoff quality. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes an analysis methodology and presents graphs and example computations to guide planning-level evaluations and design decisions on two techniques for urban runoff quality control. The control techniques addressed, recharge or infiltration devices, and wet pond detention devices, were shown to be the most consistently effective methods of pollutant reduction of any of the Best Management Practices (BMP)

E. D. Driscoll; D. DiToro; D. Gaboury; P. Shelley

1986-01-01

24

Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

25

Stormwater ponds and biofilters for large urban sites: Modeled arrangements that achieve the phosphorus reduction target for Boston's Charles River, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban rivers daily receive tons of phosphorus and other pollutants from stormwater generated by impervious surfaces. Constructed detention ponds and biofiltration cells (biofilters) are often effective for localized stormwater treatment, yet less is known about their effectiveness for large built areas. Our goals were to assess stormwater phosphorus-removal relative to total percent cover, number, size, and configuration of detention ponds

Stephanie E. Hurley; Richard T. T. Forman

2011-01-01

26

Maintenance of Water Quality for Healthy Fish As with any aquarium (small home aquarium or large public aquarium) or pond (indoor or  

E-print Network

1 Maintenance of Water Quality for Healthy Fish As with any aquarium (small home aquarium or large public aquarium) or pond (indoor or outdoor), a number of water quality parameters must be addressed. Each system in the public aquarium or facility with multiple ponds must be evaluated as a separate

27

(15)N tracer application to evaluate nitrogen dynamics of food webs in two subtropical small-scale aquaculture ponds under different managements.  

PubMed

Small, semi-intensively managed aquaculture ponds contribute significantly to the food security of small-scale farmers around the world. However, little is known about nutrient flows within natural food webs in such ponds in which fish production depends on the productivity of natural food resources. (15)N was applied as ammonium at 1.1 and 0.4 % of total nitrogen in a traditionally managed flow-through pond and a semi-intensively managed stagnant pond belonging to small-scale farmers in Northern Vietnam and traced through the natural food resources over 7 days. Small-sized plankton (1-60 ? m) was the dominant pelagic biomass in both ponds with higher biomass in the stagnant pond. This plankton assimilated major portions of the applied tracer and showed a high sedimentation and turnover rate. High re-activation of settled nutrients into the pelagic food web was observed. The tracer was removed more quickly from the flow-through pond than from the stagnant pond. A steady nutrient supply could increase fish production. PMID:24995524

Pucher, Johannes; Mayrhofer, Richard; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Focken, Ulfert

2014-12-01

28

Valley pond and ignimbrite veneer deposits in the small-volume phreatomagmatic ‘Peperino Albano’ basic ignimbrite, Lago Albano maar, Colli Albani volcano, Italy: influence of topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ca. 23-ka, small-volume, basic phreatomagmatic Peperino Albano ignimbrite, from the polygenetic Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, central Italy) shows valley pond facies as well as veneer deposits along the maar rim and along topographic ridges. Valley pond facies is characterised mainly by massive structure and chaotic texture and can be up to 30 m thick. Veneer deposit facies is

G. Giordano; D De Rita; R. Cas; S. Rodani

2002-01-01

29

Processing data streams from an instrumented small pond: visualizing processes and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is estimated that there are 0.5 million man-made ponds and 277 million natural ponds (order 100mx100m) worldwide. These ponds offer stock watering and irrigation opportunities, stormwater runoff mitigation, suspended sediment control and some degree of contaminant sequestration. Such ponds are also typically associated with first and second order streams and thus represent a primary biogeochemical and hydrologic control on uplands watersheds. We have developed an in situ instrument (BORIS) that profiles ponds (six levels) on the half-hour timescale using off the shelf components to investigate the fundamental variability and controls on pond biogeochemical processes. The instrument provides standard measures of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and specific conduction, etc. and data are streamed directly to a website with as little as 0.5hr delay. Standard data stream presentation indicates that daily stratification/destratification, random rainfall events and variable weather contribute to significant changes in water quality measures and exert strong controls on the pond processing of terrestrial organic material and (primarily) recycled nutrients. However, the data stream can also be presented as gas-exchange-corrected total CO2 and total O2 that quantify net ecosystem productivity, minimum microbial carbon metabolism and process vectors that reflect in situ redox controls and microbial decomposition pathways. Because of their high temporal and spatial sampling capability, instrumented shallow aquatic systems, even at a simple level, can be used to fundamentally change the means by which we view process geochemistry of hydrologic systems and can provide near real time (<0.5hr) indicators to guide specific water column sampling and collection strategies.

Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.

2006-12-01

30

8 CFR 241.11 - Detention and removal of stowaways.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.11 Detention and removal of...stowaway, whether the stowaway is a female or a juvenile, loss of insurance coverage on account of the stowaway...

2010-01-01

31

Does biodiversity of macroinvertebrates and genome response of Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) reflect heavy metal pollution in a small pond?  

PubMed

The investigation was carried out on a small pond situated on a recent mine spoil at Boles?aw in the Olkusz region with Zn-Pb ore deposits. Water of the pond had pH 7.2-8.5 and low concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of Pb (487 ?g g(?-?1)) and Zn (1,991 ?g g(?-?1)) in the sediment were very high and potentially could lead to toxicological effects. In the pond, 48 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to Oligochaeta and water stages of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Diptera (mainly Chironomidae family) were found. The influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrates diversity was not found. Effect of heavy metal pollution was observed on the appearance of chromosome aberrations in the polytene chromosomes of Chironomidae larvae. It was manifested by two ways: (1) in Kiefferulus tendipediformis and Chironomus sp. chromosome rearrangements in fixed state (tandem fusion and homozygous inversions), indicated intensive process of speciation; (2) in Chironomus sp., K. tendipediformis, Glyptotendipes gripekoveni (Chironomidae) somatic chromosome rearrangements (inversions, deficiencies, specific puffs, polyploidy) affected few cells of every individual. The somatic functional and structural alterations in Chironomidae species are particular suitable as biomarkers-they can be easily identified and used for detecting toxic agents in the environment. PMID:21404014

Michailova, Paraskeva; Warcha?owska-?liwa, Elzbieta; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Kownacki, Andrzej

2012-01-01

32

Methodology for analysis of detention basins for control of urban runoff quality. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report describes an analysis methodology and presents graphs and example computations to guide planning-level evaluations and design decisions on two techniques for urban runoff quality control. The control techniques addressed, recharge or infiltration devices, and wet pond detention devices, were shown to be the most consistently effective methods of pollutant reduction of any of the Best Management Practices (BMP) approaches evaluated in the recent Nationwide Urban Runoff Program study.

Driscoll, E.D.; DiToro, D.; Gaboury, D.; Shelley, P.

1986-09-01

33

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

1993-01-01

34

Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and avoiding the introduction of fish.

Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

2004-01-01

35

Pond Scum  

E-print Network

, insects, crustacean), larval amphibians, fish, and turtles. ?The ponds not only provide a new research area, but also encourage cooperation among faculty,? DeWitt said. ?These ponds have the potential to provide priceless training and learning...

Crawford, Amanda

2005-01-01

36

Design of water hyacinth ponds for removing algal particles from waste stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

In this study it was demonstrated that when water hyacinth ponds (WHPs) are used for polishing the effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), suspended solids (mostly algal particles) are efficiently separated, which also resulted in the reduction of insoluble forms of COD and nutrients. The high pH of the WSPs effluent was easily adjusted to 6-7 as it passed through the WHPs. However, the use of water hyacinth rapidly reduced dissolved oxygen at the first cell to less than three mg/L or very frequently to a level of anaerobic state. Reduction of suspended solids at the WHPs mainly depends on the detention time and pH. An empirical separation model incorporating the detention time and pH dependence was developed. PMID:14753526

Kim, Y; Giokas, D L; Chung, P G; Lee, D R

2003-01-01

37

Freshwater ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter summarizes aquaculture pond ecology. The underlying theme is how ponds supply essential life-support functions (food, oxygen, and waste treatment) and how those functions are subsidized by external resources as culture intensity increases. Ponds are confined bodies of standing wate...

38

Solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

1980-04-01

39

Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

2007-01-01

40

Peace without Detente: Living with the Russians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1970s, Soviet positions have hardened and detente has failed. Despite this, the United States must seek arms control agreements with the Soviet Union to prevent nuclear war. Arms control proposals offered by the Reagan administration are reviewed. (IS)

Bresler, Robert J.

1983-01-01

41

Turtle Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet provides opportunities for creative problem solving while encouraging young students to estimate length and angle measure. Using the Turtle Pond Applet, students enter a sequence of commands to help the turtle get to the pond. Children can write their own solutions using LOGO commands and input them into the computer. The turtle will then move and leave a trail or path according to the instructions given. (N.B. the applet is an upgrade of one that supported the Lesson "Get the Turtle to the Pond," cataloged separately.)

L.O. Cannon, et. al. (Utah State U.)

1999-01-01

42

Water-quality effectiveness of a detention/wetland treatment system and its effect on an urban lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly installed combined detention/wetland stormwater treatment facility upstream from Lake McCarrons, Roseville, Minnesota, was monitored for 21 months to evaluate its effectiveness and the response of the lake to decreased phosphorus loads. The treatment facility consists of a 1.0-ha detention pond that discharges into a series of six constructed wetland “chambers.” Data from snowmelt and rainfall events are presented for several pollutants. Results show good reductions for most pollutants. Discussion on the facets of the system's operation are presented. Data from the lake show very little change in its water quality from three years prior to restoration (1984 1986) to three years following restoration (1987 1989): the lake's phosphorus and chlorophyll has actually increased.

Oberts, Gary L.; Osgood, Richard A.

1991-01-01

43

19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35...Report of loss, detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a vehicle or lighter while...

2010-04-01

44

The Little School Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

1973-01-01

45

21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01... Who approves a detention order? 1.391 Section 1.391 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2011-04-01

46

21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... Who approves a detention order? 1.391 Section 1.391 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2010-04-01

47

21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... Who approves a detention order? 1.391 Section 1.391 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2013-04-01

48

21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01... Who approves a detention order? 1.391 Section 1.391 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2012-04-01

49

21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01... Who approves a detention order? 1.391 Section 1.391 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2014-04-01

50

Medical care for people under detention.  

PubMed

Human Rights traditionally refer to rights and freedom that are inherent to every human being. They are based on Human Rights Law and concern the respect for dignity and worth of a person. These rights are universal, inalienable, indivisible, inter-related and interdependent. Members of Societies are detained for varied reasons and are made up of different age groups and gender. The United Nations through its numerous agencies, associated Conventions, Treaties and Resolutions have laid down guidelines that govern the rights of those under detention. Article 5 of General Assembly Resolution 45/111 clearly stipulates that except for those limitations that are demonstrably necessitated by the fact of incarceration, all prisoners shall retain the human rights and fundamental freedom set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. As such, the Medical and Health Care of People under Detention should not be any different from the other members of societies. The Right to Health and Medical Care is stipulated under various Articles contained in the UN Bill of Human Rights (UDHR, ICCPCR and ICESCR) as well as other Conventions, e.g. Convention against Torture (CAT), Convention on Rights of the Child (CRC) and Convention for the Extinction of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The United Nations have also developed specific guidelines and instruments for Treatment of People under Detention. These include the General Assembly Resolution 45/111 December 1990 elucidating the Basic Principles for Treatment of Prisoners, ECOSOG resolution 663C and 2076 regarding the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners which covers rules pertaining to accommodation and Medical Services, General Assembly Resolution 37/194 on Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the role of health personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. PMID:14556353

Ritom, M H

2003-03-01

51

[Primary care in a detention environment].  

PubMed

Detention is a severe and psychologically traumatising form of withdrawal from society of people who, often, are already jeopardized or suffering from psychical or somatic diseases. Yet, the individual deprived of freedom has fundamental rights to obtain medical care that should be of equal quality than the general population. One of the numerous missions of the penitentiary practitioner is to fulfil his practice with total independence within a repressive environment, with multiple constraints of order, respecting both security and judiciary requirements and the fundamental ethical principles of penitentiary medicine. PMID:17265809

Beer, Daniel; Gravier, Bruno

2006-11-22

52

Continued detention involvement and adolescent marijuana use trajectories.  

PubMed

Justice-involved youth have high rates of marijuana use. Less is known about what may drive these rates, particularly when justice-involved youth return to the community. One factor that has been implicated is continued detention involvement. Yet, it is unknown how this factor may influence marijuana use trajectories. Using longitudinal growth curve modeling, the researchers evaluated the association between continued detention involvement and marijuana use trajectories in two large, ethnically diverse samples of community-based, justice-involved youth. Across both samples, marijuana use decreased over time for youth with continued detention involvement but did not change for youth without continued detention involvement. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the influence of detention involvement in community-based, justice-involved adolescents' marijuana use trajectories. This study also highlights the importance of coordinating prevention/intervention programming for justice-involved youth once they are in the community. PMID:24272742

Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Schmiege, Sarah J; Bryan, Angela D

2014-01-01

53

Valley pond and ignimbrite veneer deposits in the small-volume phreatomagmatic `Peperino Albano' basic ignimbrite, Lago Albano maar, Colli Albani volcano, Italy: influence of topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ca. 23-ka, small-volume, basic phreatomagmatic Peperino Albano ignimbrite, from the polygenetic Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, central Italy) shows valley pond facies as well as veneer deposits along the maar rim and along topographic ridges. Valley pond facies is characterised mainly by massive structure and chaotic texture and can be up to 30 m thick. Veneer deposit facies is characterised by parallel to low-angle cross-stratified bedforms alternating fines-depleted lapilli-sized layers, and massive, matrix-supported beds. Occurrence of uncharred wood remains and accretionary lapilli suggests temperature of emplacement comprised between 246° and 100°C. We have interpreted the lateral facies variations in terms of temporal and spatial variations of the sediment supply from the transport system to the depositional system of the pyroclastic flow. Ignimbrite veneer facies at the maar rim may reflect pulsatory eruption dynamics, whereas valley pond facies may reflect the bulking of the pyroclastic flow inside the valleys and consequent high sedimentation rates. Ignimbrite veneer facies at topographic ridges has been interpreted to reflect detachment processes of more concentrated undercurrents draining within valleys from the more dilute upper part of the pyroclastic flow that climbs the ridges. The present interpretation suggests that processes of pyroclastic flow transformation downcurrent and induced by topography are not necessarily peculiar of hot, high-mobility pyroclastic density currents. The more likely source of water interacting with magma is interpreted to be groundwater contained within the karstic aquifer located at approximately 1 km below the ground level. This is inferred by both the large amount of limestone xenoliths present in the Peperino Albano and the absence of vesicular juvenile clasts, the latter implying that magma-water interaction occurred before gas exolution processes were significant.

Giordano, G.; De Rita, D.; Cas, R.; Rodani, S.

2002-11-01

54

HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed. PMID:21595957

2011-01-01

55

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Metals in Florida Stormwater Ponds and Assessment as Alternative Water Supplies for Irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclaimed water treated to achieve public access irrigation water quality is currently used and regulated as a water resource management technique to supplement potable water. It is believed that stormwater from detention ponds can also be used for irrigation at public access areas such as golf courses, parks, schools, and residences in the State of Florida. To date little work

Theresa R. Slifko; Marty Wanielista

56

9 CFR 118.2 - Method of detention; Notifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS...Administrator shall detain any biological product subject to detention...notification to the owner of the biological product if such owner can...immediate custodian of the biological product; and...

2010-01-01

57

Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.  

PubMed

Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics. PMID:24135095

Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jörg; Vesuviano, Gianni

2013-01-01

58

[The mission of caregivers in an administrative detention centre].  

PubMed

Working as a nurse in a medical unit of an administrative detention centre is a choice. The work is made all the more complex by the context of confinement, the diversity of the languages and cultures and the undetermined duration of the detention. It is with a humanitarian approach that the nursing team of the Geispolsheim centre in Alsace deals every day with the health problems of vulnerable migrants confronted with insecurity and uncertainty. PMID:24881238

Boeckel, Martine; Durand, Elisabeth; Hifi, Cherifa; Lahmar, Saliha

2014-04-01

59

Habitats of the Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners locate and study plants and animals in several freshwater pond habitats. Learners take various samples from the pond, identify organisms using a pond guide, and collaborate to create a pond map. Includes background information, but it is recommended that learners do the activity What Lives Here?, also by OBIS, before this activity.

Science, Lawrence H.

1981-01-01

60

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition...MERCHANDISE Merchandise Subject to Economic Sanctions § 12.150 Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other...

2010-04-01

61

78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21...Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and...Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that...

2013-02-05

62

42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and detention of persons with specific diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public...and detention of persons with specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this...transmission, and spread of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order...

2014-10-01

63

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2011-04-01

64

49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453...subject to detention or control. (a) Any container used in or offered for movement in international transport...subject to detention or other control by a District...

2010-10-01

65

49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453...subject to detention or control. (a) Any container used in or offered for movement in international transport...subject to detention or other control by a District...

2011-10-01

66

Corrosive places, inhuman spaces: mental health in Australian immigration detention.  

PubMed

Since their establishment in 1992, Australian Immigration Detention Centres have been the focus of increasing concern due to allegations of their serious impact on the mental health of asylum seekers. Informed by Foucault's treatise on surveillance and the phenomenological work of Casey, this paper extends the current clinical data by examining the architecture and location of detention centres, and the complex relationships between space, place and mental health. In spatialising these relationships, we argue that Immigration Detention Centres operate not only as Panopticons, but are embodied by asylum seekers as 'anti-places': as places that mediate and constitute thinned out and liminal experiences. In particular, it is the embodied effects of surveillance and suspended liminality that impact on mental health. An approach which locates the embodiment of place and space as central to the poor mental health of asylum seekers adds an important dimension to our understandings of (dis)placement and mental health in the lives of the exiled. PMID:17693119

McLoughlin, Pauline; Warin, Megan

2008-06-01

67

Mental Health Screenings in Juvenile Detention Centers: Predictors of Mental Health Service Utilization and Recidivism  

E-print Network

Mental Health Screenings in Juvenile Detention Centers: Predictors of Mental Health Service provide mental health services for juveniles in need. As a result, juvenile adolescents have low rates months post-detention. Methods: 2089 adolescents held in a detention center completed a mental health

Zhou, Yaoqi

68

Purification of Solar Ponds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flocculatory agents added to solar saltponds remove turbidity to increase solar-energy collection efficiency. Flocculating agent or bacteriocide used to remove micro-organisms sprayed onto pond from airplane and allowed to settle to bottom of pond.

Carpenter, S.

1985-01-01

69

Brackish Pond Community  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Looking from an observation deck, at Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, onto a flock of birds resting in a brackish (somewhat salty) pond community. Mangrove islands grow inside and along the edges of the pond....

70

Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

O'Brien, W. J.

1978-01-01

71

Pond Liner Replacement  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This pond liner replacement process will be used to replace 9 deteriorated clay pond liners with polyethylene liners that help hatchery employees at Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery produce more fish at a larger size with less effort. Related to the R6PC ? Replace 9 Clay Pond Liners ?...

2009-07-15

72

Jail Pedagogy: Liberatory Education inside a California Juvenile Detention Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 2 million juveniles are arrested each year. Half are sentenced to serve terms of incarceration. Although many scholars have written about teaching in detention facilities, few directly address how prisoners are being taught. This research explores the experiences, teaching philosophy, and practices of correctional educators. To learn…

Flores, Jerry

2012-01-01

73

Vocational Training in Juvenile Detention: A Call for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given high recidivism rates and the vulnerability of detained youth, the authors posit that juvenile detention centers may be most efficacious by serving as both place and process to create career opportunity through vocational training. The authors review the psychosocial factors contributing to delinquency and the primary theories of…

Ameen, Edward J.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

2012-01-01

74

COTTAGE FARM COMBINED SEWER DETENTION AND CHLORINATION STATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Cottage Farm Detention and Chlorination Station was placed in operation by the Metropolitan District Commission on April 29, 1971. The station, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, diverts and treats combined sewage flows from the Charles River Valley sewer system (15,600 acr...

75

ExplorA-Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ExplorA-Pond is an online opportunity for collaborative science among classrooms from around the world. Classrooms that register with the site can adopt a local pond and submit the results of one or more of the Pond Activities/ Lesson Plans. Regardless of whether your classroom chooses to register, the activities and lesson plans designed for K-6th graders provide a hands-on approach to science and math lessons. A virtual pond option is even provided in the event that it is impractical for classrooms to visit and survey a real local pond.

2008-09-10

76

Solar ponds: a selected bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-11-01

77

31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. 585.215...THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585...being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking....

2010-07-01

78

Use of aquatic vegetation to improve sediment pond efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting research in Poland aimed at improving the efficiency of surface mine sedimentation ponds. Mine water from large, open-pit lignite mines in Poland requires treatment for suspended solids removal prior to discharge. One technique being investigated for suspended solids removal involves the use of vegetation growing in the sediment ponds. This paper describes the results of research at two, small sedimentation ponds and the operating characteristics of three, full-scale sediment removal ponds at the newly developed Belchatow Mine. Topics investigated during the project include: selection of grasses; growth characteristics of grasses; sediment removal efficiency; and design criteria for full-scale installations.

Martin, J.F.; Janiak, H.

1982-12-01

79

The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds  

E-print Network

the production pond was 1. 3 m in depth All of the ponds used the same well as a water source, and all water inlets and pond drains were independent. The production pond was artificially aerated, while the research ponds were not. Of the nine research ponds..., depending upon the tlange skirt position (Fig. 4), Water was recirculated within the chamber at 1 9 1 min ' by a small valve-regulated 12-volt pump. The water current was channeled to maintain rapid flow past the oxygen electrode, and return flow re...

Suplee, Michael Wayne

2012-06-07

80

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...FDA include in the detention order? 1.393 Section 1.393 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2012-04-01

81

21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...receives a copy of the detention order? 1.392 Section 1.392 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2013-04-01

82

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...FDA include in the detention order? 1.393 Section 1.393 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2011-04-01

83

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...FDA include in the detention order? 1.393 Section 1.393 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2010-04-01

84

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...FDA include in the detention order? 1.393 Section 1.393 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2013-04-01

85

21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...receives a copy of the detention order? 1.392 Section 1.392 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2014-04-01

86

21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...receives a copy of the detention order? 1.392 Section 1.392 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2011-04-01

87

21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...FDA include in the detention order? 1.393 Section 1.393 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2014-04-01

88

21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...receives a copy of the detention order? 1.392 Section 1.392 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? §...

2010-04-01

89

The Woods and Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

90

Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-pond aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system (PAS). The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon ...

91

Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system. The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon by two...

92

The short-term effects of three molluscicides on the microflora and microfauna of small, biologically stable ponds in Southern Rhodesia*  

PubMed Central

Where large-scale molluscicide applications are anticipated, it is important to investigate the effects of the chemicals to be used on the freshwater microflora and fauna existing in the bodies of water to be treated. The food chains of which these organisms form basic parts are important in the general ecology leading up to fish and even to man. Some observations on the direct short-term effect of three molluscicides—copper sulfate, sodium pentachlorophenate and Bayer 73—on the populations of certain plankton organisms, carried out in biologically stable ponds in Southern Rhodesia, are reported on in this paper. It appears that copper sulfate has the most drastic and long-lasting effects on these organisms. The authors stress that snail control measures involving molluscicides should be so designed as to effect the minimum alteration to the ecological balance of the freshwater habitat. PMID:13911863

Shiff, C. J.; Garnett, Bridget

1961-01-01

93

Catfish Ponds for Recreation  

E-print Network

closely mowed around the pond to help eliminate the habitat for snakes and muskrats. Turtles are another common pond inhabitant. Snapping turtles occa- sionally eat fish, but most other turtle species do not threaten catfish. Turtles eat catfish feed... and often are a nuisance to anglers who fish with bait. You can build or buy traps to catch turtles. Remember: Some turtle species are protected because of their threatened or endangered status. Check with Texas Parks and Wildlife Department biologists...

Masser, Michael P.; Steinbach, Don W.; Higginbotham, Billy

1999-08-02

94

Animals in a Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by faculty members of the University of Southampton, explains the importance of combining biology and statistics together to lead to understanding of both. It suggests bringing pond life in to the classroom to illustrate a wide range of concepts and methods. Some of the concepts that can be studied using the classroom pond include descriptive statistics, sample size, sums of random variables, central limit theorem, hypothesis testing, and the Poisson distribution.

Meacock, S. E.; Parsons, P. S.; Shahani, A. K.

2009-03-11

95

Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

96

Falling head ponded infiltration in the nonlinear limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green and Ampt infiltration solution represents only an extreme example of behavior within a larger class of very nonlinear, delta function diffusivity soils. The mathematical analysis of these soils is greatly simplified by the existence of a sharp wetting front below the soil surface. Solutions for more realistic delta function soil models have recently been presented for infiltration under surface saturation without ponding. After general formulation of the problem, solutions for a full suite of delta function soils are derived for ponded surface water depleted by infiltration. Exact expressions for the cumulative infiltration as a function of time, or the drainage time as a function of the initial ponded depth may take implicit or parametric forms, and are supplemented by simple asymptotic expressions valid for small times, and small and large initial ponded depths. As with surface saturation without ponding, the Green-Ampt model overestimates the effect of the soil hydraulic conductivity. At the opposing extreme, a low-conductivity model is identified that also takes a very simple mathematical form and appears to be more accurate than the Green-Ampt model for larger ponded depths. Between these two, the nonlinear limit of Gardner's soil is recommended as a physically valid first approximation. Relative discrepancies between different soil models are observed to reach a maximum for intermediate values of the dimensionless initial ponded depth, and in general are smaller than for surface saturation without ponding.

Triadis, D.

2014-12-01

97

Salt-gradient Solar Ponds: Summary of US Department of Energy Sponsored Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar pond research program conducted by the United States Department of Energy was discontinued after 1983. This document summarizes the results of the program, reviews the state of the art, and identifies the remaining outstanding issues. Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond. Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed. Theories and models were developed and verified. The major remaining unknowns or issues involve the physical behavior of large ponds; i.e., wind mixing of the surface, lateral range or reach of horizontally injected fluids, ground thermal losses, and gradient zone boundary erosion caused by pumping fluid for heat extraction. These issues cannot be scaled and must be studied in a large outdoor solar pond.

French, R. L.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.; Zangrando, F.

1984-01-01

98

[Preventive detention: empirical findings concerning the detainees and the quality of forensic-psychiatric reports].  

PubMed

Expert testimonies and judges of 224 lawsuits of the years 1991 to 2001, who lead to the order of Preventive Detention in the German federal states of Bavaria, Brandenburg, Northrhine Westfalia and Saxony were analysed. Offenders with the order of Preventive Detention have mostly committed violent and/or sexual offences. Nearly two third of the inmates show personality traits with relevance for psychiatry or even personality disorders. Thus the discrimination between forensic psychiatric measurements and preventive detention is difficult. The quality of forensic psychiatric reports does not reflect the complexity of this task. They show diagnostic and prognostic weaknesses. PMID:18988149

Habermeyer, E; Passow, D; Puhlmann, P; Vohs, K

2008-11-01

99

View of Managed Pond, Fields  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

 A Tree plantation and Native Woods in Maryland. The trees between the pond and the field are trees along a running creek. The pond had mixed vegetation (native and nonnative) restored along its edge as a runoff buffer....

100

Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.

Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-02-01

101

Texas Catfish Production in Ponds  

E-print Network

. Where the soil of the proposed pond bottom Figure 7. Completed levee ponds. 6 could result in a leaky pond, soils should be bored to check for quality. Approximately four borings per acre are sufficient unless there are variations in soil type...

Masser, Michael P.; Woods, Peter; Clary, Gregory M.

2005-03-31

102

48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Contracting Activity (HCA), without delegation, may enter into contracts of up to fifteen years' duration for detention or incarceration space or facilities, including related services. [71 FR 25770, May 2,...

2011-10-01

103

48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contracting Activity (HCA), without delegation, may enter into contracts of up to fifteen years' duration for detention or incarceration space or facilities, including related services. [71 FR 25770, May 2,...

2010-10-01

104

48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Contracting Activity (HCA), without delegation, may enter into contracts of up to fifteen years' duration for detention or incarceration space or facilities, including related services. [71 FR 25770, May 2,...

2012-10-01

105

48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Contracting Activity (HCA), without delegation, may enter into contracts of up to fifteen years' duration for detention or incarceration space or facilities, including related services. [71 FR 25770, May 2,...

2014-10-01

106

78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2013 Part IV Department of Health and Human Services...Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use; Draft Guidance for Industry...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...

2013-07-15

107

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...design and construction or renovation of detention facilities, community residential, or holding facilities are supporting constitutional rights and are complying with the Indian Law Enforcement Reform Act of 1990. Self-governance tribes and tribes...

2010-04-01

108

Why Bivens Won't Die: The Legacy of Peoples V. CCA Detention Centers  

E-print Network

Interpreting recent Supreme Court precedent, the Tenth Circuit, in Peoples v. CCA Detention Centers, held that a federal prisoner confined in a privately run prison may not bring a Bivens suit against the employees of the ...

Mulligan, Lumen N.

2006-01-01

109

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures for...

2013-04-01

110

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures for...

2014-04-01

111

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures for...

2012-04-01

112

25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manuals and handbooks. The provision for funding tribes for detention programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570, (25 U.S.C. 2453) requires standards and procedures for...

2011-04-01

113

Fate of copper in ponds.  

PubMed

Treatments of 3 ppm copper sulfate (CuSO4-5H2O) were applied to two small aquatic systems in Michigan in 1971. To study the pathways of the added copper, samples of water, sediment, aquatic macrophytes, filamentous algae, and fish were collected and analyzed by atomic absorption. Sampling was initiated before treatment and continued up to 4 months in one of the ponds. Dissolved copper concentrations in water decreased rapidly immediately after treatment and then gradually to background levels. Reduction of dissolved copper may have involved initial precipitation of an insoluble compound, such as malachite, followed by sediment adsorption of soluble copper complexes and copper released from aquatic plants. Levels of copper in sediment increased rapidly at first and gradually later in the study. Aquatic plants and filamentous algae accumulated very high levels of copper. Uptake rates were apparently affected by water temperature and growth stages of the plants. Data indicate that aquatic macrophytes developing in one pond 10 weeks after treatment took up copper from the sediment. Although green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) accumulated copper soon after treatment, levels returned to background later in the study. PMID:1161446

McIntosh, A W

1975-03-01

114

Partitioned pond aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World aquaculture is dominated by the use of simple earthen ponds in which suitable water quality is maintained by photosynthetic processes. Relying upon sunlight to maintain water quality offers the lowest cost and most sustainable approach to fish or shellfish production, which explains the popula...

115

Homing and movement of yellow-phase American eels in freshwater ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ten yellow-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata, were captured from Hammond Pond, a small freshwater pond located in central Maine, U.S.A. The eels were implanted with radio transmitters and released into nearby Hermon Pond. At the same time, 10 eels were captured from Hermon Pond, implanted with radio transmitters and returned to Hermon Pond to serve as a control group. The two ponds are connected by a 1.6km section of Souadabscook Stream. We tracked the 20 eels over the 90-day duration of the experiment. Four of the ten displaced eels returned to their home pond. None of the control fish were located outside of their home pond during the study. Three of the four eels that successfully returned to their home pond did so under the darkness of the new moon and the fourth made the journey during the first quarter moon phase. Location data showed that translocated and native eels tended to occupy different areas of Hermon Pond. This study provides evidence of homing behavior in American eels living in small freshwater ponds and indications that homing activity may be linked to lunar cycle.

Lamothe, P.J.; Gallagher, M.; Chivers, D.P.; Moring, J.R.

2000-01-01

116

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted?  

E-print Network

Awakening Seed Pond Water ChemistryAwakening Seed Pond Water Chemistry Our Question: Is our pond polluted?Our Question: Is our pond polluted? Our InvestigationOur Investigation We discussed what kinds of pollutants we should look for. We narrowed down the aspects of pond chemistry that we would investigate

Hall, Sharon J.

117

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

118

Best Management Practices for Freshwater Pond Aquaculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter in the book “Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture” describes freshwater pond aquaculture systems and management practices to reduce environmental impacts of pond aquaculture. Pond aquaculture systems for channel catfish, crawfish, baitfish, hybrid striped bass, and o...

119

TOWARD EFFECTIVE URBAN BMPS FOR STORMWATER TREATMENT: WET PONDS VS. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND-TYPE RETENTION/DETENTION STRUCTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

A goal of the Urban Watershed Management Branch of USEPA's NRMRL, Edison, NJ is to develop and demonstrate technologies and methods to manage the ecological risks posed by stormwate runoff from highly developed watersheds. This study, in particular, uses extant data and controlle...

120

[Environmental effects of combined sewage detention tank in central Shanghai].  

PubMed

Through measuring the processes of precipitation, discharge and pollutant concentration over 20 times from 2006 to 2008 in Chendulu combined sewerage system (CSS) along Suzhou Creek in central Shanghai, the environmental effects of Chendulu combined sewage detention tank (CSDT), the first running CSDT in China, were studied. The results show that CSDT could improve CSS discharge capacity effectively with promoted interception ratio from 3.87 to 6.90-9.92. The mean annual combined sewer overflow (CSO) reduction and reduction rate are 9.10 x 10(4) m3 and 9.00%, respectively, and those of sanitary waste discharged directly to Suzhou Creek in non-rain-weather are 8.37 x 10(4) m(3) and 100% , respectively. The mean annual pollutants decrease rate of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N and TP of CSO are 13.76%, 19.69%, 15.29%, 18.24% and 15.10%, respectively, and those CSO pollutants decrease 41.21 t, 12.37 t, 50.10 t, 2.12 t and 0.29 t annually, respectively. The CSDT also could decrease sanitary waste discharged to Suzhou Creek totally, and those decreased pollutants are 20.75 t, 4.87 t, 14.90 t, 4.49 t and 0.30 t annually, respectively. The analysis shows that the CSDT design standard, running models and rainfall characteristics are the important influencing factors to realize the environmental effects of CSDT. PMID:19799280

Cheng, Jiang; Lü, Yong-peng; Huang, Xiao-fang; Guo, Sheng

2009-08-15

121

Atmospheric Dispersion about a Heavy Gas Vapor Detention System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the event of an accidental spill is a major concern in LNG storage and transport safety planning, hazard response, and facility siting. Falcon Series large scale LNG spill experiments were planned by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) as part of a joint government/industry study in 1987 to evaluate the effectiveness of vapor fences as a mitigating technique for accidental release of LNG and to assist in validating wind tunnel and numerical methods for vapor dispersion simulation. Post-field-spill wind-tunnel experiments were performed in Environmental Wind Tunnel (EWT) (1988, 1989) to augment the LNG Vapor Fence Program data obtained during the Falcon Test Series. The program included four different model length scales and two different simulant gases. The purpose of this program is to provide a basis for the analysis of the simulation of physical modeling tests using proper physical modeling techniques and to assist in the development and verification of analytical models. Field data and model data were compared and analyzed by surface pattern comparisons and statistical methods. A layer-averaged slab model developed by Meroney et al. (1988) (FENC23) was expanded to evaluate an enhanced entrainment model proposed for dense gas dispersion including the effect of vapor barriers, and the numerical model was simulated for Falcon tests without the fence and with the vapor fence to examine the effectiveness of vapor detention system on heavy gas dispersion. Model data and the field data were compared with the numerical model data, and degree of similarity between data were assessed.

Shin, Seong-Hee

122

76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2011-D-0643] Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention...of a guidance for industry entitled ``What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention...of a guidance for industry entitled ``What You Need to Know About Administrative...

2011-10-25

123

Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a meta-analysis of all existing surveys on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in order to assess the prevalence of mental disorders. Findings indicate adolescents in detention are 10 times more likely to suffer from psychosis than the general adolescent…

Fazel, Seena; Doll, Helen; Langstrom, Niklas

2008-01-01

124

Exploring Trees and Ponds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees and Ponds is a collection of activities to be implemented with middle school youth in out-of-school environments. The website provides a rationale and goal of the activities, curriculum activities and resources such as relevant digital photos. Available for free as downloadable PDFs, these activities provide a structure for youth in out-of-school programs to carry out long-term observations of natural objects. This project uses a qualitative approach, where changes over time are studied, recorded (by youth through writing, drawing, and digital photography), and discussed.

125

Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

2013-01-01

126

Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.  

PubMed

Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population. PMID:24773008

Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

2014-04-01

127

Effects of urban flood-detention reservoirs on peak discharges and flood discharges and flood frequencies, and simulation of flood-detention reservoir outflow hydrographs in two watersheds in Albany, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the effects of flood-detention reservoirs on downstream peak discharges of two urban tributaries to Kinchafoonee Creek (tributaries 1 and 2) in Albany, Georgia and presents simulated flood-detention reservoir outflow hydrographs. Rainfall-runoff data were collected for six years at two stations in these two urban watersheds. Tributary number 1 basin has a drainage area of 0.12 square miles, contains 23.8 percent impervious area, and contains two detention reservoirs. Tributary number 2 basin has a drainage area of 0.09 square miles, contains 12.9 percent impervious area, and has one detention reservoir. The Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M) was calibrated using rainfall-runoff data collected during 1987- 92 at each station. DR3M was then used to simulate long-term (1906-33, 1941-73) peak discharges for these stations for conditions ranging from the existing condition with all detention reservoirs in place to the condition of no detention reservoirs. Flood-frequency relations based on the long-term peak discharges were developed for each simulation by fitting the logarithms of the annual peak discharge data to a Pearson type III distri- bution curve. The effect of detention reservoirs on peak discharge data to a Pearson type III distributio curve. The effect of detention reservoirs on peak discharges was determined by comparison of simulated flood-frequency peak discharges for conditions with and without the detention reservoirs. The comparisons indicated that the removal of flood-detention reservoirs from the tributary number 1 basin would increase the 10-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges by 164 to 204 percent. Removal of the reservoir from tributary number 2 basin would increase these discharges by about 145 percent.

Hess, G.W.; Inman, E.J.

1994-01-01

128

Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

Danks, Sharon Gamson

2001-01-01

129

POND CULTURE fishery leaflet 311  

E-print Network

TEXTBOOK OF POND CULTURE fishery leaflet 311 Ifish and wildlife service UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR #12;#12;TEXTBOOK OF POND CULTURE REARING AND KEEPING OF CARP , TROUT AND ALLIED FISHES by Vr Experiment Station for Fisheries in Berlin-Friedrichsliagen. Translated from the German by Frederick Hund W

130

Treatment of solids and petroleum hydrocarbons in storm runoff with an on-site detention basin  

SciTech Connect

Storm generated runoff pollution in urban areas is a significant problem for water quality planners. Previous studies have characterized the inorganic and organic constituents in urban runoff, and it was shown that many of these pollutants are susceptible to quiescent settling and removal from the water column. Detention basins, either natural or manmade, are comparatively inexpensive management practices for the control of urban runoff pollution. The present study assessed a detention basin for its effectiveness in treating petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and suspended solids from runoff at a shopping center parking lot.

Latimer, J.S.; Mills, G.L.; Hoffman, E.J.; Quinn, J.G.

1986-04-01

131

Water treatment plant sludge disposal into stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

Researchers have paid particular attention to the disposal of sludge produced in water treatment plants (WTPs) into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for further processing, mainly because it is considered an attractive alternative for the treatment of waste generated in water production processes. This study evaluated the effects of flow equalization and disposal of sludge, from a conventional WTP, into a WWTP system that includes an anaerobic stabilization pond followed by a facultative pond. During the period of sludge discharge from the WTP into the wastewater system, the influent to the WWTP presented an increase of 17% (from 171 to 200 mg L(-1)) of total suspended solids (TSS) and a 7.0% flow rate increase, without showing adverse effects on the organic load, TSS and nutrients removal. The most significant impact observed in the WWTP was the increase of solids accumulation rate in the anaerobic pond, with a value of 141 mm/year during the sludge discharge period. The operating time, before the dredging and desludging cycles required for this specific anaerobic pond, decreased from 12.7 to 10.4 years, which is consistent with previous studies in literature. Thus, based on the observed parameters of this study, it is viable to release solids from a WTP effluent into a WWTP that includes anaerobic stabilization ponds followed by a facultative pond. Indeed, this process scheme becomes a viable technical, environmental, and economical alternative for small to medium WWTPs. PMID:23416593

Filho, Sidney Seckler Ferreira; Piveli, Roque Passos; Cutolo, Silvana Audrá; de Oliveira, Alexandre Alves

2013-01-01

132

Experimental study of the salt gradient solar pond stability  

SciTech Connect

Many natural systems such as oceans, lakes, etc.., are influenced by the effect of double-diffusive convection. This phenomenon, which is a combination of heat and mass transfer, can destroy the stability of system-flows. In the case of solar ponds the middle layer, that is linearly stratified, acts as a thermal and mass insulator for the lower layer. This middle layer, called the Non-Convective Zone (NCZ), needs special care to avoid convection and to maintain its stability. In fact, due to an excess of heat stored, a thermal gradient occurs within the NCZ. A convective movement appears at the bottom of the stratified-layers and then grows to a double-diffusive convection movement. This movement transforms the stratified-layers into a well mixed layer, reducing the storage capacity of the pond. Laboratory small-scale pond and middle-scale outdoor solar ponds were designed and built to provide both quantitative data and to study the dynamic processes in solar ponds, including the behavior of the gradient zone. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualization-experiments carried out in the mechanical and energetic laboratory in the engineering school of Tunisia and experiments in the field showed that the instability of solar ponds could be limited by using porous media placed in the lower layer of the stratification. (author)

Karim, Choubani; Slim, Zitouni; Kais, Charfi; Jomaa, Safi Mohamed [Ecole National d'Ingenieurs de Tunis, Unite de Recherche Mecanique-Energetique, 1002 El Belvedere, BP 37 (Tunisia); Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy CARE Group, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, P.O. Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Melbourne (Australia)

2010-01-15

133

Hilton Pond Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History is a nonprofit education and research organization based in York, South Carolina whose mission is to "conserve plants, animals, birds, and other natural components of the Piedmont Region of the eastern United States through observation, scientific study, and education for students of all ages." This colorful site provides a range of information on all sorts of nature topics and consists of sections like plant inventory, animal inventory, and ecological investigations. It also contains a link to the Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project Web site, which is a cross-disciplinary project in which participants in the US, Canada, Mexico, and Central America collaborate to study behavior and distribution of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Both sites are excellent resources for science teachers, students, parents, bird lovers, and conservationists interested in Piedmont natural history.

2002-01-01

134

The onset of thermohaline convection in the advanced solar pond (ASP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript concerns the onset of thermohaline convection in a solar pond subject to field conditions as well as a small scale laboratory test section simulating the solar pond performance. The onset of thermohaline convection is analyzed in this study by means of a linear stability analysis in which the flow field perturbations are expended in sets of complete orthonormal

G. A. Bemporad; H. Rubin

1992-01-01

135

US EPA WINTER FLOUNDER PROJECTS AND OTHER WORK IN RHODE ISLAND SALT PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

We will briefly summarize selected EPA research in Rhode Island's salt ponds from 2000 through 2003. In one project, during the summer of 2000, we used a 1.75 m2 drop sampler to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond. Mean abundance ...

136

Waterbird use of high saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management (mosquito control)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The excavation of small (1 ha) natural ponds or pannes or adjacent tidal creeks. Recent modifications in pond construction in Delaware and New Jersey allow for shallower, more sloping basins which should enhance use by waterfowl and shorebirds while still ensuring a water reservoir to support fish populations.

Erwin, R.M.; Howe, M.A.; Dawson, D.K.

1988-01-01

137

Artistry in Lockdown: Transformative Music Experiences for Students in Juvenile Detention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2009, there were approximately 137,000 court-involved minor children in residential detention and rehabilitation facilities in the United States as a result of committing a crime. Most of these children have no opportunity to participate in music education while serving long-term sentences in residential lockdown. A program in Austin, Texas,…

Marcum, Travis

2014-01-01

138

Race and the Impact of Detention on Juvenile Justice Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the growing number of minority youth disproportionately confined in secure detention facilities has led to a search for a better understanding of this occurrence. Explanations vary but tend to center on either differential offending or selection bias. The present study examines the extent both may explain decision making by…

Leiber, Michael J.; Fox, Kristan C.

2005-01-01

139

Deportation, detention and foreign-national prisoners in England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the detention and deportation of time-served foreign-national prisoners in England and Wales. Drawing on penal policy and interviews with staff and detainees in prisons and immigration removal centres, it critically assesses the growing interdependence of the UK Border Agency and HM Prison Service. While the removal of failed asylum seekers has generated widespread concern and activism, the

Mary Bosworth

2011-01-01

140

Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Youth in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practice parameter presents recommendations for the mental health assessment and treatment of youths in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Mental and substance-related disorders are significant public health problems affecting youths in juvenile justice settings. Sufficient time is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnostic…

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

2005-01-01

141

Migratory Waterfowl at Coulson Pond  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Migratory waterfowl congregate at Coulson Pond in Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. Blackwater serves as an important habitat for these waterfowl, and was established in 1933 as a waterfowl sanctuary for birds migrating along the Atlantic Flyway....

142

Environmental Services from Agricultural Stormwater Detention Systems in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural Stormwater Detention Areas (ADAs) commonly exist for the purpose of downstream flood protection in high water table regions of Florida. In addition to flood protection, they are also considered an important Best Management Practice due to their presumed effectiveness in reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades (KLE) ecosystem. The KLE ecosystem has been adversely impacted due to excessive P loads. Despite their presumed water quality effectiveness, limited data exist on actual N and P treatment efficiencies. A study was conducted at two ADAs (ADA 1 and ADA 2) located in two row crop farms to quantify the total N and P treatment efficiencies. Water, N, and P inflow and outflows at both ADAs were monitored for a year. Results from ADA 1 suggested that P treatment efficiency was below zero indicating that the ADA was a source of P rather than a sink. On the other hand, N treatment efficiency was found to be 20%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 1 were 1.6 and 1.4 mg/l respectively, indicating a 9% reduction. Mean inflow and outflow P concentrations were 0.04 and 0.06 mg/l respectively, showing an increase of 67%. Although ADA 1 was effective in retaining N it was not for P. In contrast to ADA 1, the P treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was positive (20%). Nitrogen treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was 22%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 2 were 4.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively, indicating 50% reduction. A reduction of 32% was observed for P concentrations with mean inflow and outflow P concentrations of 0.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively. No P retention at ADA 1 was mainly due to low P adsorption capacity of the soil. Analysis of surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) soil P retention characteristics suggested that ADA 1 had no remaining P storage capacity which resulted in it being a source of P. At ADA 2, a large fraction of the area still had P storage capacity which resulted in positive treatment efficiency. Several modifications were identified for the two ADAs to increase N and P treatment efficiencies. These modifications include increasing the travel time, available water storage, changing inflow locations, modifying outlet control structure and biomass harvesting. Biomass harvesting has the potential to make these systems play an important role in providing environmental services. The harvested biomass can not only remove N and P from the system but also acts as a source of bioenergy feedstock. Biomass N and P storage at ADA 2 suggested that harvesting of easily accessible biomass could account for removal of 157 kg from the ADA which accounts for 76% of the annual P retention. Biomass harvesting can become a potential source of additional income for producers for providing the environmental services of not only additional nutrient treatment but also bioenergy. The comparison between these two ADAs suggested that the P treatment by these systems can vary considerably depending on hydraulic, hydrologic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. Future research needs for making these systems provide additional environmental services such as increased P treatment, bioenergy, and carbon sequestration were identified.

Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Knowles, J. M.

2011-12-01

143

Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds  

SciTech Connect

Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic How do rates of organic production vary temporally Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of {sup 14}C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two.

Weisburd, R.S.J.

1988-01-01

144

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

145

Pond leaks are a very common pond management problem in Pennsylvania. Some leaks may be barely  

E-print Network

of the pond, providing a clue to the location of the leak. Wet areas and growth of water-loving plants (like a leaking pond by properly constructing the pond from the beginning. Areas of sand or gravel or fractures

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

146

Waterbird use of saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Open Marsh Water Management (OMWM) as an alternative to pesticides for mosquito control in saltmarshes along the Atlantic Coast has created debate among biologists. We designed an experiment to determine waterbird (American black duck (Anas rubripes) and other waterfowl, wading birds, shorebirds, gulls, and terns) use (during daylight) of ponds created for mosquito control compared with use of pre-existing water bodies (i.e., natural tidal ponds, creeks, old ditches) and refuge impoundments. We also evaluated the influence of pond size and depth on waterbird use of wetlands. We documented bird use of different habitats for 1 year. The highest densities of waterfowl, in autumn, occurred in 0.030.06ha ponds (P lt 0.05) versus ponds either lt 0.02 ha or gt 0.08 ha; highest shorebird densities occurred in summer in ponds gt 0.10 ha (P lt 0.05). Pond depth affected shorebird and other waterfowl use in some seasons. Comparisons of mean number of birds using created (OMWM) ponds with mean number of birds using other water bodies revealed that most species showed no pattern (P gt 0.05) of disproportionate use versus availability. At high tidal levels, most species groups used OMWM ponds in the marsh more often (P lt 0.05) than other water bodies. Black ducks and other waterfowl used nearby refuge impoundments in higher densities than they did OMWM ponds, for nesting and during autumn-winter (all Ps lt 0.05). Creating small ( lt 0.1 ha) ponds for mosquito control does not enhance waterbird habitat, at least not where large impoundments are in close proximity. We recommend that in areas where OMWM practices seem appropriate, fewer large ( gt 0.10 ha) ponds be constructed with shallow ( lt 15 cm) basins and sloping sides.

Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Howe, M.A.; Klugman, S.K.

1994-01-01

147

Biomanipulation: A Classic Example in a Shallow Eutrophic Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moe Pond, Otsego County, New York, is an artificial impoundment created by the damming of a natural wetland in 1939. It was dominated by blue-green algal blooms between at least 1970–1998. During that time a few scattered clones of sedges (Cyperaceae) along the shoreline were the only vascular plants present. The zooplankton community was dominated by small individuals, primarily rotifers,

Matthew F. Albright; Willard N. Harman; Wesley T. Tibbits; Michael S. Gray; David M. Warner; Rebecca J. Hamway

2004-01-01

148

Is psychopathy elevated among criminal offenders who are under preventive detention pursuant to Section 66 of the German Penal Code?  

PubMed

In Germany, preventive detention can be imposed if a repeat offender shows a proclivity to commit further significant criminal acts. The courts require expert opinion to provide information about personality traits relevant for this disposition. However, currently, consensus about this topic is lacking. On the basis of a standardized examination, the relevance of Hare's concept of "psychopathy" for expert opinion is discussed in the context of preventive detention. PMID:20422649

Habermeyer, Elmar; Passow, Daniel; Vohs, Knut

2010-01-01

149

The limnology, primary production, and fish production in a tropical pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The productivity of a small tropical temple pond was studied by the light-and-dark bottle method and by following the natural changes in carbon dioxicle and oxygen. Pro- duction varied from 6.0 g C\\/m\\

A. SREENIVASAN

1964-01-01

150

Sexual offenders in preventive detention: data concerning the inmates and expert witness practice.  

PubMed

In the last decade, preventive detention-especially that relating to sexual offenders- has gained relevance for the German legal system. However, data are lacking concerning the inmates and the modus operandi of the psychiatric experts. Court orders and psychiatric statements of 114 offenders with orders of preventive detention were examined, 57 of whom were incarcerated because of sexual offences. Sexual offenders mostly show antisocial personality traits or even disorders, with a history of poly-trophic delinquency. In only four cases, the diagnosis of a sexual disorder was given. The analysis showed a high rate of psychiatric expert testimonies' lacking basic information, with incomplete assessment of sexual history. None of the experts used standardized prognostic instruments, meaning that most of the risk factors included in the Sexual Violence Risk-20 and the Static-99 were not considered. Further work needs to be done to improve the quality of psychiatric statements concerning sexual offenders. PMID:18378629

Habermeyer, Elmar; Passow, Daniel; Puhlmann, Peter; Vohs, Knut; Herpertz, Sabine

2009-08-01

151

Administrative detention of drugs intended for human or animal use. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is implementing administrative detention authority with respect to drugs intended for human or animal use as authorized by amendments made to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). FDA's administrative detention authority with respect to drugs allows FDA to better protect the integrity of the drug supply chain. Specifically, FDA is able to administratively detain drugs encountered during an inspection that an authorized FDA representative conducting an inspection has reason to believe are adulterated or misbranded. This authority is intended to protect the public by preventing distribution or subsequent use of drugs encountered during inspections that are believed to be adulterated or misbranded, until FDA has had time to consider what action it should take concerning the drugs, and to initiate legal action, if appropriate. PMID:24873018

2014-05-29

152

Academic potential among African American adolescents in juvenile detention centers: Implications for reentry to school  

PubMed Central

The study explores Black adolescent detainees academic potential and motivation to return to school to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from one male and one female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed post-detention educational plans, as well as social and emotional characteristics, and criminal history. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to compare factors across race and gender, and plot linear relationships between key indicators of academic potential with associate factors. Findings revealed that youth were more likely to evince academic potential when they had a healthy level of self-esteem, adequate future goal orientation, positive mood, family and community involvement, fewer traumatic events, and less delinquent activity. PMID:21654936

Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.

2010-01-01

153

Macrophyte diversity and physico-chemical characteristics of Tyrrhenian coast ponds in central Italy: implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Awareness of pond conservation value is growing all over Europe. Ponds are recognized as important ecosystems supporting large\\u000a numbers of species and several rare and threatened aquatic plants, macroinvertebrates and amphibians. Notwithstanding ponds,\\u000a particularly temporary ones, are still neglected in Italy. There are some gaps in our understanding of the macrophyte ecology\\u000a and the conservation value of Mediterranean small still

Valentina Della Bella; Marcello Bazzanti; Maria Giuseppina Dowgiallo; Mauro Iberite

2008-01-01

154

Macrophyte diversity and physico-chemical characteristics of Tyrrhenian coast ponds in central Italy: implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Awareness of pond conservation value is growing all over Europe. Ponds are recognized as important ecosystems supporting large\\u000a numbers of species and several rare and threatened aquatic plants, macroinvertebrates and amphibians. Notwithstanding ponds,\\u000a particularly temporary ones, are still neglected in Italy. There are some gaps in our understanding of the macrophyte ecology\\u000a and the conservation value of Mediterranean small still

Valentina Della Bella; Marcello Bazzanti; Maria Giuseppina Dowgiallo; Mauro Iberite

155

Psychometric Status and Clinical Utility of the MAYSI-2 with Girls and Boys in Juvenile Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study replicates and extends studies of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in a sample of 479 urban, rural, and suburban 12–16 year old youths (68% boys; 41% African American, 23% Latino)\\u000a consecutively admitted to juvenile detention centers. Six principal components replicated the MAYSI-2 factor-analytically-derived\\u000a subscales except for Depression\\/Anxiety, and suggested modifications of specific items in each sub-scale.

Julian D. Ford; John F. Chapman; Geraldine Pearson; Randy Borum; Jennifer Meltzer Wolpaw

2008-01-01

156

Reaffirming Rights: Human Rights Protections of Migrants, Asylum Seekers, and Refugees in Immigration Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR) addresses migrants’ rights in a variety of contexts, and this paper looks closely at some of the most crucial rights that apply to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers who are held in immigration detention.\\u000aMigrants, refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to a broad range of rights protections. These protections are spelled out

Eleanor Acer; Jake Goodman

2010-01-01

157

Flood detention area modelling based on nationwide topographic data: ALS-DTMs vs. conventional DTMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic depressions have an important role in hydrology. These effects on hydrological processes are caused by changes in the water balance and runoff response of a watershed. Nevertheless, research has focused in detail neither on the effects of acquisition and processing methods nor on the effects of resolution of nationwide grid digital terrain models (DTMs) on topographic depressions. Recently, many countries have conducted nationwide ALS (Airborne laser scanning) surveys for DTM purposes. Thus, detailed comparison between nationwide ALS-DTMs with different grid sizes and DTMs that represent more conventional acquisition methods, such as photogrammetric methods, is needed for different study fields. In here, the objective is to delineate the difference of depression variables between nationwide DTMs with different acquisition methods, processing methods and grid sizes. Our depression detection is based on nationwide 25x25 m and 10x10 m DTMs and 2x2 m ALS-DTM produced by NLS of Finland. ALS-DTM2 was resampled to 10x10 and 25x25 m DTMs. Thus, it was possible to compare DTMs that represent the same grid size but different acquisition and processing methods. The variables considered are the mean depth of the depression, the number of its pixels, and its area and volume. Shallow and single-pixel depressions and the impact of mean filtering on ALS-DTM were also examined. Quantitative methods and error models were applied. According to our study, the depression variables were dependent on the scale, area and acquisition method. When the depths of depression pixels were compared with the most accurate DTM based on accurate VRNS-GNSS (Virtual Reference Stations, Global Navigation Satellite Systems) field survey data, the maximum errors created the largest differences between DTMs and hence represented the amount of the depth error. The mean filtering of ALS-DTM2 focuses on the small and shallow depressions, and is thus suitable for using in flood risk management. According to our results, the decision about the suitability of the available DTMs for a specific purpose is good to make on the demands of the problem settings. In studies with a relatively low demand for accuracy, awareness of the error, its level and effects on analyses in general is sufficient. In more accurate studies, the awareness of the varying spatial accuracy and the knowledge about certain typical characteristics of available DTMs to represent a studied terrain variables is essential. On the whole, the ability of a DTM to accurately represent depressions varied uniquely according to each depression, although DTMs also displayed certain typical characteristics. Thus, a DTM's higher resolution is no guarantee of a more accurate representation of topography in flood detention studies.

Vesakoski, Jenni-Mari; Alho, Petteri; Hyyppä, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Flener, Claude; Hyyppä, Hannu

2014-05-01

158

ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS  

E-print Network

ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS A Review of the Literature SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT., John L. Farley, Director ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS A Review of the Literature By John fertilization. ......... 2 Physical considerations ................... 2 Biological considerations

159

Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83%) was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity) and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality). Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention), although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention. PMID:17683633

Hamerlynck, Sannie MJJ; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres MC; Bezemer, Pieter D; Doreleijers, Theo AH

2007-01-01

160

Preliminary design of sedimentation ponds  

SciTech Connect

Almost one-hundred sedimentation ponds were conceptually designed for a large surface mining study are in northeast Texas. An approximate procedure was developed to economically estimate construction quantities in order to predict surface water control costs. This procedure utilized site-specific empirical relationships developed from detailed analyses on a representative number of proposed sedimentation ponds. Use of these equations provided earthwork volumes, and spillway pipe lengths. The procedure developed for this study is presented along with the results of a verification analysis.

Wilson, L.C.; Wayland, L.D.

1982-12-01

161

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

162

Spatial variability of methane ebullition from permafrost thaw ponds in a subarctic mire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) has an important role in the energy budget of the atmosphere. Warming due to radiative forcing by this and other greenhouse gases is amplified at high latitudes. Rising soil and air temperatures in these regions lead to permafrost thaw and the potential release of large amounts of CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere. Where permafrost thaw is occurring, a changing landscape may lead to new CH4 sources. Small ponds are key features of these landscapes. Forming in depressions of previously frozen ground, thaw ponds may release large quantities of CH4 through ebullition (bubbling), yet little has been done to assess their potential contribution to carbon emissions from ecosystems with thawing permafrost. We have made summer measurements of CH4 ebullition from thaw ponds located within the Stordalen Mire, a subarctic permafrost complex in northern Sweden. Our findings suggest that small water bodies can be a substantial local CH4 source. Ebullition occurred episodically and varied spatially, both within and among the ponds. Over a three-week period in July 2013, average bubble CH4 concentration varied from 2 ppm to 1.6% and total bubble flux from 0 to 5456 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Fluxes were highest from deeper ponds while shallower, and presumably younger, ponds produced significantly less gas with a much lower CH4 concentration. Temperatures and physical characterization of the ponds suggest that substrate type may be as important as heat in influencing the rate of ebullitive flux. Although spatial and temporal variability make CH4 flux from thaw ponds difficult to quantify, these findings suggest that continued warming may drive a positive feedback for CH4 emission and permafrost degradation in the Arctic. Future data on thaw pond cover across Stordalen Mire will allow us to better understand the changing contribution of these ponds to the local total CH4 emission.

Lang, A.; Varner, R. K.; Osman, M.; Burke, S. A.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.

2013-12-01

163

How Healthy Is Our Pond?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With crosscutting concepts such as stability and change in the "Next Generation Science Standards," this article was written for those who have wondered how to teach these concepts in a way that is relevant to students. In this investigation, students ask the question, "Why is the pond dirty?" As students investigate the health…

Sterling, Donna R.; Hargrove, Dori L.

2014-01-01

164

Electric Trees and Pond Creatures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two learning activities are presented to develop observation and classification skills at the elementary level. The first is an electric box that associates tree names with leaf and bark specimens, and the second is a pond water observation and slide preparation activity. (BB)

Weaver, Helen; Hounshell, Paul B.

1978-01-01

165

From Salt Ponds to Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biologists are working to restore the San Francisco Bay Area salt ponds to healthy wetlands for wildlife in one of the largest restoration projects on the West Coast. In this video from QUEST produced by KQED, students learn why wetlands are important to wildlife.

KQED

2012-08-08

166

Picnic at the Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is competition for water among organisms along a river during the dry season in Kruger National Park in South Africa. Narrated video footage shows how a number of African animals share a small watering hole and acquire water necessary for survival while avoiding predation.

167

The Use of Lime in Fish Ponds1 Andy M. Lazur, Charles E. Cichra and Craig Watson2  

E-print Network

they are located. In acid soils, ponds typically have low total alkalinity, total hardness, and pH. Total hardness and to Increase and Buffer pH The application of limestone (calcite or dolomite) to fish ponds with acid soils small fish are being reared. Calcite and dolomite increase the total hardness, total alkalinity, and p

Watson, Craig A.

168

Preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 for determining numbers and distribution of prairie ponds and lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 and aircraft multispectral data collected over a North Dakota test site during July 1972, are compared to evaluate the capability of the satellite sensors to detect numbers and distribution of prairie ponds and lakes. Recognition maps using ERTS-1, MSS 7 data are generated using a level slicing technique. Surface water areas larger than two acres are recognized, but ponds in the one-to two-acre range are detected only at random. The proportion estimation technique will improve the accuracy of area determination and small pond detection.

Work, E. A., Jr.; Gilmer, D. S.; Klett, A. T.

1973-01-01

169

POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

1984-01-01

170

Computational fluid dynamics modelling of flow and particulate contaminants sedimentation in an urban stormwater detention and settling basin.  

PubMed

Sedimentation is a common but complex phenomenon in the urban drainage system. The settling mechanisms involved in detention basins are still not well understood. The lack of knowledge on sediment transport and settling processes in actual detention basins is still an obstacle to the optimization of the design and the management of the stormwater detention basins. In order to well understand the sedimentation processes, in this paper, a new boundary condition as an attempt to represent the sedimentation processes based on particle tracking approach is presented. The proposed boundary condition is based on the assumption that the flow turbulent kinetic energy near the bottom plays an important role on the sedimentation processes. The simulated results show that the proposed boundary condition appears as a potential capability to identify the preferential sediment zones and to predict the trapping efficiency of the basin during storm events. PMID:24390197

Yan, Hexiang; Lipeme Kouyi, Gislain; Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Sebastian, Christel; Barraud, Sylvie; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

2014-04-01

171

The Fresh Pond School Institute  

NSF Publications Database

THE FRESH POND RESEARCH INSTITUTE TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Report Summary and Highlights: 1 Purpose and Scope of Audit 2 Summary of Audit Results 3 Background 5 Exit Conference 7 Independent Auditors' Report on Compliance and Internal Control 9 Findings and Recommendations on Compliance 11 Follow-Up of Prior Audit Findings 14 Financial Schedules: 15 Independent Auditors' Report 16 Schedules A-1 to A-3 - Schedules of Award Costs 18 Schedule B - Schedule of Questioned Costs 21 Schedules C-1 to ...

172

Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.  

PubMed

Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. PMID:23869702

Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

2013-12-01

173

Rabies death attributed to exposure in Central America with symptom onset in a U.S. detention facility - Texas, 2013.  

PubMed

On June 7, 2013, a man was diagnosed in a Texas hospital with rabies. He had been detained in a U.S. detention facility during his infectious period. To identify persons exposed to rabies who might require rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), CDC and the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) conducted investigations at four detention facilities, one medical clinic, and two hospitals. In all, 25 of 742 persons assessed for rabies exposure were advised to receive PEP. Early diagnosis of rabies is essential for implementation of appropriate hospital infection control measures and for rapid assessment of potential contacts for PEP recommendations. PMID:24848216

Wallace, Ryan M; Bhavnani, Darlene; Russell, John; Zaki, Sherif; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Hayden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Aplícano, Ricardo Mena; Peruski, Leonard; Vora, Neil M; Balter, Sharon; Elson, Diana; Lederman, Edith; Leeson, Ben; McLaughlin, Thomas; Waterman, Steve; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Blanton, Jesse; Franka, Richard; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Niezgoda, Michael; Orciari, Lillian; Recuenco, Sergio; Damon, Inger; Hanlon, Cathleen; Jackson, Felix; Dyer, Jessie; Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Robinson, Laura

2014-05-23

174

Parametric study of salt gradient solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for efficiency of a salt gradient solar pond is described. Heat losses from the bottom of the pond have been calculated, and the results for the effective thermal conductivity with the thicknesses of various insulating materials have been presented. The effect of the ground thermal resistance on the efficiency of the pond for different values of ..delta..T/S/sup 0/ are also shown.

Beniwal, R.S.; Saxena, N.S.; Bhandari, R.C.

1986-02-01

175

Review of SERI Solar Pond Work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

1984-01-01

176

Fitness for detention in police custody: a practical proposal for improving the format of medical opinion.  

PubMed

Health issues among arrestees are a worldwide concern for which only local policies have been established. Physicians attending detainees in police custody are expected to decide whether the detainee's health status is compatible with detention in a police station and make any useful observations. A high degree of heterogeneity in the information collected by the physician and transmitted to the police has been observed. We analyzed the content and limitations of available documents and developed a model that could serve as a guide for any attending physician. The document presented here has been used in France on over 50,000 occasions since June 2010. We developed a two-page template consisting of (1) a standard medical certificate to be sent to the authority who requested the doctor's attendance and (2) a confidential medical record, not sent to the requesting authority. We evaluated perceived health by the three global health indicators of the Minimum European Health Module and used DSM IV criteria for the evaluation of addictive disorders. In the case of recent traumatic injuries, the certificate has also included the collection of data on traumatic injuries and the contexts of their occurrence. The proposed certificate achieved several goals, by protecting the interests of the person examined, in case of poor conditions of arrest or detention, protecting doctors in cases of legal proceedings, and allowing epidemiological data to be collected. The certificate may also contribute to an international awareness of medical care for detainees in police custody. PMID:24237804

Chariot, Patrick; Briffa, Hugo; Lepresle, Aude; Lefèvre, Thomas; Boraud, Cyril

2013-11-01

177

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

2012-07-01

178

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

2010-07-01

179

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

2011-07-01

180

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

2013-07-01

181

33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section 117...Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at...

2014-07-01

182

From Pond Scum to Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated slideshow introduces biodiesel as a fuel alternative. With concern about the use of petroleum-based fuels at an all-time high, biodiesel is experiencing a popularity surge. And algaeâotherwise known to some as pond scumâ are grabbing headlines as the next potential biodiesel superstar. But how and why do algae make oil? And why do they make so much of it? In this audio slide show, U.C. Berkeley's Kris Niyogi describes the process and its potential.

Salpietra, Melissa; Sciencenow, Nova

183

The Mental and Physical Health Difficulties of Children Held within a British Immigration Detention Center: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study aimed to assess the mental and physical health of children held within a British immigration detention center. Method: A total of 24 detained children (aged 3 months to 17 years) were assessed with their parents or carer after being referred by a registered legal charity. Thirteen were seen by a pediatrician alone, 4…

Lorek, Ann; Ehntholt, Kimberly; Nesbitt, Anne; Wey, Emmanuel; Githinji, Chipo; Rossor, Eve; Wickramasinghe, Rush

2009-01-01

184

Hydraulic conductivity of near-surface alluvium in the vicinity of Cattlemans Detention Basin, South Lake Tahoe, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cattlemans detention basin, South Lake Tahoe, California is designed to capture and reduce urban runoff and pollutants originating from developed areas before entering Cold Creek, which is tributary to Trout Creek and to Lake Tahoe. The effectiveness of the basin in reducing sediment and nutrient loads currently is being assessed with a five-year study. Hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium near the detention basin is needed to estimate ground-water flow and subsurface nutrient transport. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated using slug tests in 27 monitoring wells that surround the detention basin. For each test, water was poured rapidly into a well, changes in water-level were monitored, and the observed changes were analyzed using the Bouwer and Rice method. Each well was tested one to four times. A total of 24 wells were tested more than once. Of the 24 wells, the differences among the tests were within 10 percent of the average. Estimated hydraulic conductivities of basin alluvium range from 0.5 to 70 feet per day with an average of 17.8 feet per day. This range is consistent with the sandy alluvial deposits observed in the area of Cattlemans detention basin.

Green, Jena M.; Henkelman, Katherine K.; Caskey, Rachel M.

2004-01-01

185

Multi-platform observations on melt pond in Arctic summer 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt ponds play an important role in sea ice surface albedo and further affect the heat budget between ice-air interface. The overall reductions of Arctic sea ice extend and thickness especially in recent years is considered to be enhanced partly by the melt ponds, and understanding of melt ponds on how they change the heat and mass balance of sea ice through the ice surface albedo decrease is urgently required. Although satellite remote sensing is a general tool to observe sea ice surface features on a large scale, the small scale information with higher spatial and temporal resolution is more helpful to understand the physical mechanism in the evolution of melt ponds. Arctic summer in 2010 is special because of an obvious trans-polar melting, during which the multi-year ice in the central Arctic was seriously melted, and formed a trans-polar zone with ice concentration less than 80% stretching from the Chukchi Sea to the Greenland Sea. It provided a fantastic opportunity to observe melt ponds especially at the high latitude. The Fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2010 (CHINARE-2010) was carried out from July 1 to September 20, 2010. As R/V Xuelong sailing in the ice-infested seas, a multi-platform observation was conducted to investigate the evolution of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice. Among which, aerial photography provided a downward-looking snapshot of the ice surface by using the camera installed on a helicopter, and melt pond information on a 100-meter scale can be obtained. Shipboard photography gave an inclined inspection on the ice conditions beside the ship using the camera installed on the vessel, and melt pond information on a 10-meter scale can be determined. Ground-based photography was similar to the shipboard photography, but the camera with tilt angle was installed on the top of a vertical lifting device fixed on the ice, and melt pond information on a 1-meter scale can be observed. Over 10,000 sea ice images from different platforms were collected during the cruise, and the survey area covered the regions 140°W-180°W, 70°N-88°N. An image processing technique based on difference in colors of the surface features was used to divide each image into three components: snow-covered ice floes, melt ponds and leads. And then geometric features of melt ponds, such as area, perimeter, and roundness, could be extracted from the aerial images. These data can enrich our knowledge on the distribution of melt pond on different spatial scale, especially those in the high latitude regions where summer melting was never so serious in previous years.

Wang, Y.; Huang, W.; Lu, P.; Li, Z.

2011-12-01

186

The role of microorganisms in aquaculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms have major roles in pond culture, particularly with respect to productivity, nutrient cycling, the nutrition of the cultured animals, water quality, disease control and environmental impact of the effluent. Management of the activities of microorganisms in food webs and nutrient cycling in ponds is necessary for optimising production, but the objectives will differ with the type of aquaculture, the

David J. W. Moriarty

1997-01-01

187

Thermal Image of Pu'u '? '? Pond  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

"Rootless" lava shields are those built over a lava tube, as opposed to those which develop over the vent. This rootless shield was built over the past week, and hosted a lava pond at its summit. Overflows from the pond cascaded down the steep flanks. A short lava flow, in the lower right portion of...

2010-06-18

188

100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

Petersen, S.W.

1997-09-01

189

Bacterial Bioaugmentation of Channel Catfish Ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve, 0.1-ha earthen ponds at Stoneville, Mississippi were used in a 2-year, double-blind study of the effects of a Bacillus-based bacterial bioaugmentation product on water quality and production of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Each year, six ponds were treated weekly with the microbial p...

190

EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE MINE SEDIMENTATION PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

An in-field evaluation of the effectiveness of sediment ponds in reducing suspended solids in the runoff from surface mining activities was performed. Nine selected sedimentation ponds in the three eastern coal-mining States of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky were sampl...

191

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

192

Thermal analysis of three zone solar pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A periodic analysis of a three zone solar pond as a solar collector and a heat storage medium is presented. The pond is modelled as having an upper convective zone, a middle nonconvective layer, and a lower convective zone. The walls are insulated, and the bottom is blackened, and salt concentrates in the middle zone, with increasing density downwards. Solar

M. S. Sodha; N. D. Kaushik; S. K. Rao

1981-01-01

193

Saturated solar ponds: 1. Simulation procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass and energy balances on the upper convective zone, nonconvective zone, and lower convective zone of a saturated solar pond are written to yield a set of nonlinear partial differential equations. These are solved numerically to predict the thermal performance of the pond over a long period of time for various initial and boundary conditions. This model considers external

D. Subhakar; S. S. Murthy

1993-01-01

194

Partitioned solar pond collector\\/storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the performance of a partitioned solar pond as a large-scale solar energy collection and long-term storage system for power production, as well as other applications. The absorption of solar radiation as it passes through the pond water is considered and an evaluation is made of the resulting temperature and heat fluxes at various levels

N. D. Kaushik; P. K. Bansal; M. S. Sodha

1980-01-01

195

Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22014093

2011-01-01

196

Involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill: China's 2012 Mental Health Law.  

PubMed

The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law. PMID:24630738

Ding, Chunyan

2014-01-01

197

Ecology of tundra ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

The Arctic Coastal Plain is a flat or gently rolling area of tundra which covers the entire coastal region of northern Alaska. This profile synthesizes data on the ecology of the thousands of small shallow ponds that form an important wetland community on the tundra. These polygonal ponds are formed by the freezing, thawing, and cracking of the perma-frost. Nutrient concentrations and rates of supply to the water column are controlled by interactions with the iron-rich peat sediments. Iron concentrations control phosphorus concentrations and these in turn control the growth of algae. Two fringing emergent vascular plants, Carex and Arctophila, are often the most important primary producers in the ponds. Most algae and higher plant biomass is decomposed by microbes in a detrital food web concentrated in the pond sediments. Chironomid larvae, oligochaete worms and other insects are the dominant benthic animals. Because the ponds freeze to the bottom each winter they contain no fish; however, the community is important for many species of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds that use the ponds for feeding and breeding. Activities associated with oil production, including spills, roads, and off-road vehicles, are the major issues facing managers of this wetland community. 63 references.

Hobbie, J.E.

1984-06-01

198

CO? efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO?) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO? efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO? efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO? emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO? emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO? released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

2013-01-01

199

Stable density stratification solar pond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

Lansing, F. L. (inventor)

1985-01-01

200

Photosynthesis and fish production in culture ponds  

SciTech Connect

The widely-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, has been the major species used in standardized experiments by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/ACRSP). Yields of Nile Tilapia from fertilized, unfed ponds have served as a bioassay for effectiveness of pond management protocols developed during worldwide tropical experiments. Yield rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates of primary production. Fish production is related to daytime net photosynthetic production, but it is not clear whether production of food materials or oxygen is the more direct influence. Excessively high standing stocks of phytoplankton are not the best net producers, and increase and risk of nighttime oxygen depletion. Fish readily grow to individual sizes of 200-300 g/fish in fertilized ponds, which is sufficient market size in many locations. Supplemental feeding of caged or free-ranging fish greatly accelerates growth beyond 300 g and potentiates high areal yields; the PD/A CRSP has also developed efficient feeding regimes and shown that supplemental feeding need not begin before fish reach 200 g weight. High standing stocks of phytoplankton and high photosynthetic rates in eutrophic ponds make study of photosynthesis possible without radioisotopes. Such ponds also exhibit complete extinction of incident solar radiation within shallow depths, and vertical temperature structure resembling that of deeper bodies of water. These characteristics make ponds useful as microcosms for study of some aspects of photosynthesis in natural waters.

Szyper, J.P.

1995-12-31

201

9 CFR 381.212 - Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's agent, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notification of detention to the owner of the poultry or other article, or the owner's...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2010-01-01

202

Rapid thaw pond formation in Northeast Siberia transfers permafrost carbon to the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of small ponds by shallow thawing of ice-rich permafrost may represent an immediate reaction of permafrost soils to climate change, contrasting with thaw lakes which take a longer development and may be inherited from the past. We studied thaw ponds in arctic tundra on ice-rich continuous permafrost in the Indigirka lowlands of Northeast Siberia, an area that has experienced modest warming. Dominating landforms are thaw lakes, drained lake basins, thaw lakes and remnants of Pleistocene ice complex deposits ('yedoma'). With increasing age, the soils in drained lake basin accumulate more ice in ice wedges and mineral palsas. Thaw ponds in the area result from melting of ice wedges (ice wedge ponds, IWP) or from degradation of mineral palsas (palsa thaw ponds, PP). The PP's have a diameter of a few meters, a depth up to 0.5 m and may be intermittently dry. The IWP's are deeper, and have an elongate ditch-like shape. IWP and PP can be discriminated from ice wedge polygon centre ponds (PCP) which show a regular polygonal pattern and do not show die-back of dry tundra vegetation by paludification as in IWP and PP. PP's show more rapid vegetation succession than the IP's, leading to the (partial) recovery of vegetation. Most of the PP's appear to have formed spontaneously. However, pond formation was also induced by accidental or experimental disturbance of the tundra vegetation cover. Comparison of a Keyhole satellite image from 1977 with a GeoEye image from 2010 shows that the number of PP's increased significantly. This indicates a 2.9 × 0.9 times increase in the number of ponds in 33 years. The ponds are significant sources of CH4 and CO2, derived from decomposition of dead vegetation and soil organic matter. Averaged CO2 fluxes measured with static chambers amount for PP's +106×29 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1, for PCP ponds -77×30 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1, for dry palsa surface with Betula nana -180×22 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1. When PP's re-vegetate, a sedge vegetation develops, with an uptake flux of -224×42 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1. CH4 fluxes for the same areas are 3.60×1.2 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1 (PP), 3.69×0.56 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1 (PCP), -0.38×0.15 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1 (dry palsa), 3.97×0.25 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1 (re-vegetated pond). IWP's show the highest CH4 fluxes, 4.42×3.60 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1. The thaw ponds therefore transfer areas of dry tundra vegetation with CO2 and CH4 uptake to areas of strong emission of both greenhouse gases. Upon vegetation regrowth, high CH4 emissions remain but this is balanced by strong CO2 uptake. The speed of re-vegetation process is likely in the order of several years to decades. By contrast to ponds, thaw lakes in the same area show minor expansion. Our data suggest that a drastic increase in the number of small thaw ponds, rather than thaw lake expansion, represents a fast response of ice-rich permafrost soils to climate change and may contribute significantly to the increase of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon from permafrost soils. Moreover, the creation of similar ponds by anthropogenic vegetation disturbance suggests that increase of human activity in permafrost areas aggravates greenhouse gas emissions from permafrost soils.

van Huissteden, K. J.; Gallagher, A.; Budishchev, A.; van Kester, B.; Belelli-Marchesini, L.

2013-12-01

203

Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-08-01

204

Ecologic simulation of warm water aquaculture ponds  

SciTech Connect

A generalized ecologic model of a fertilized warm-water aquaculture pond is under development. The model is intended to represent the pond ecosystem and its response to external stimuli. The major physical, chemical and biological processes and parameters are included in the model. A total of 19 state variables are included in the model (dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, ammonia, phytoplankton, etc.). The model is formulated as a system of mass balance equations. The equations include stimulatory and inhibitory effects of environmental parameters on processes taking place in the pond. The equations may be solved for the entire growth period and diurnal as well as seasonal fluctuations may be identified. The ultimate objective of the model is to predict the fish biomass that can be produced in a pond under a given set of environmental conditions.

Piedrahitu, R.H.; Brune, D.E.; Orlob, G.T.; Tchobanoglous, G.

1983-06-01

205

Sealing Ponds and Lakes with Bentonite  

E-print Network

Some Texas subsoils allow rapid seepage of water from ponds, lakes or reservoirs. Bentonite can be applied to stop seepage. This leaflet explains the blanket, mixed blanket and sprinkle methods of bentonite application and includes methods...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2003-04-01

206

Interdisciplinary Field Investigations of a Campus Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The primary activity described here is measurement of sub-surface water properties in a local pond (e.g., temperature and dissolved oxygen). This activity combines concepts and skills from Geology, Biology and Chemistry.

Don Barber

207

This Pond Is Not for Ducks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest development in solar energy is a four-acre pond planned for Clark College in Vancouver (Washington). Filled with brine, it will serve both as collector and heat storage tank for the entire campus. (Author)

American School and University, 1980

1980-01-01

208

Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond surfaces. These compounds are highly reactive and, because of their relatively high water solubility, tend to concentrate in produced water. The average methanol emission rate from unfrozen pond surfaces was more than 100 mg m-2 h-1. Methanol, used as an antifreeze and anti-scaler in the oil and gas industry, is abundant during winter inversions in the Uintah Basin and may also be a significant precursor to ozone production. Total VOC and methanol emissions from produced water ponds during winter were estimated to be 178 and 83 tons month-1, respectively, for the entire Uintah Basin.

Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

2013-12-01

209

LilyPond 2.11  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you want to add a touch of elegance to your chaconne, gavotte, or just a plain old ditty, LilyPond 2.11 is an application worth taking an interest in. Visitors can use the application to typeset popular music, or also have the program convert existing music notation into a format that is both crisp and elegant. The LilyPond site contains an introduction, a FAQ section, and a few testimonials. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2008-09-25

210

30 CFR 817.56 - Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments, and treatment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...56 Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...reclaimed, and that all permanent sedimentation ponds, diversions,...

2010-07-01

211

30 CFR 816.56 - Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments, and treatment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...56 Postmining rehabilitation of sedimentation ponds, diversions, impoundments...reclaimed, and that all permanent sedimentation ponds, diversions,...

2010-07-01

212

A case study of enteric virus removal and insights into the associated risk of water reuse for two wastewater treatment pond systems in Bolivia.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment ponds (WTP) are one of the most widespread treatment technologies in the world; however, the mechanisms and extent of enteric virus removal in these systems are poorly understood. Two WTP systems in Bolivia, with similar overall hydraulic retention times but different first stages of treatment, were analyzed for enteric virus removal. One system consisted of a facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds (three-pond system) and the other consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by two maturation (polishing) ponds (UASB-pond system). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was used to measure concentrations of norovirus, rotavirus, and pepper mild mottle virus, while cell culture methods were used to measure concentrations of culturable enteroviruses (EV). Limited virus removal was observed with RT-qPCR in either system; however, the three-pond system removed culturable EV with greater efficiency than the UASB-pond system. The majority of viruses were not associated with particles and only a small proportion was associated with particles larger than 180 ?m; thus, it is unlikely that sedimentation is a major mechanism of virus removal. High concentrations of viruses were associated with particles between 0.45 and 180 ?m in the UASB reactor effluent, but not in the facultative pond effluent. The association of viruses with this size class of particles may explain why only minimal virus removal was observed in the UASB-pond system. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of the treated effluent for reuse for restricted irrigation indicated that the three-pond system effluent requires an additional 1- to 2-log10 reduction of viruses to achieve the WHO health target of <10(-4) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per person per year; however, the UASB-pond system effluent may require an additional 2.5- to 4.5-log10 reduction of viruses. PMID:25129566

Symonds, E M; Verbyla, M E; Lukasik, J O; Kafle, R C; Breitbart, M; Mihelcic, J R

2014-11-15

213

Degradation, Fate and Bioavailability of Sulfamethazine in Pond Water and Sediment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antibiotics from animal agriculture are found in surface waters and stream sediments. We investigated the degradation and fate of sulfamethazine in small pond water and sediment microcosms. Sulfamethazine [14C-phenyl] was added to the water phase directly, or in a dilute swine manure solution that s...

214

Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

1977-01-01

215

ALLOCHTHONOUS SUBSIDY OF PERIODICAL CICADAS AFFECTS THE DYNAMICS AND STABILITY OF POND COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodical cicadas emerge from below ground every 13 or 17 years in North American forests, with individual broods representing the synchronous movement of trillions of individuals across geographic regions. Due to predator satiation, most individuals escape predation, die, and become deposited as detritus. Some of this emergent biomass falls into woodland aquatic habitats (small streams and woodland ponds) and serves

Weston H. Nowlin; María J. González; Michael J. Vanni; M. Henry H. Stevens; Matthew W. Fields; Jonathon J. Valente

2007-01-01

216

Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

2013-04-01

217

Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

Hull, J.R.

1982-09-29

218

Effect of Detention Basin Release Rates on Flood Flows - Application of a Model to the Blackberry Creek Watershed in Kane County, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of stormwater detention basins with specified release rates are examined on the watershed scale with a Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) continuous-simulation model. Modeling procedures for specifying release rates from detention basins with orifice and weir discharge configurations are discussed in this report. To facilitate future detention modeling as a tool for watershed management, a chart relating watershed impervious area to detention volume is presented. The report also presents a case study of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kane County, Ill., a rapidly urbanizing area seeking to avoid future flood damages from increased urbanization, to illustrate the effects of various detention basin release rates on flood peaks and volumes and flood frequencies. The case study compares flows simulated with a 1996 land-use HSPF model to those simulated with four different 2020 projected land-use HSPF model scenarios - no detention, and detention basins with release rates of 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 cubic feet per second per acre (ft3/s-acre), respectively. Results of the simulations for 15 locations, which included the downstream ends of all tributaries and various locations along the main stem, showed that a release rate of 0.10 ft3/s-acre, in general, can maintain postdevelopment 100-year peak-flood discharge at a similar magnitude to that of 1996 land-use conditions. Although the release rate is designed to reduce the 100-year peak flow, reduction of the 2-year peak flow is also achieved for a smaller proportion of the peak. Results also showed that the 0.10 ft3/s-acre release rate was less effective in watersheds with relatively high percentages of preexisting (1996) development than in watersheds with less preexisting development.

Soong, David T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Straub, Timothy D.

2009-01-01

219

Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT) (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years),the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST) (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years), and a control group (C) (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years) receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01) and group-training interaction (p < 0.05). CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease) of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people. PMID:24185842

Battaglia, Claudia; di Cagno, Alessandra; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco; Pigozzi, Fabio

2013-01-01

220

Accumulated sediments in a detention basin: chemical and microbial hazard assessment linked to hydrological processes.  

PubMed

Accumulated sediments in a 32,000-m(3) detention basin linked to a separate stormwater system were characterized in order to infer their health hazards. A sampling scheme of 15 points was defined according to the hydrological behaviour of the basin. Physical parameters (particle size and volatile organic matter content) were in the range of those previously reported for stormwater sediments. Chemical analyses on hydrocarbons, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals showed high pollutant concentrations. Microbiological analyses of these points highlighted the presence of faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci) and actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. These are indicative of the presence of human pathogens. E. coli and enterococcal numbers in the sediments were higher at the proximity of the low-flow gutter receiving waters from the catchment. These bacteria appeared to persist over time among urban sediments. Samples highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were also shown to be heavily contaminated by these bacteria. These results demonstrated for the first time the presence of Nocardial actinomycetes in such an urban context with concentrations as high as 11,400 cfu g(-1). PMID:24337992

Sébastian, C; Barraud, S; Ribun, S; Zoropogui, A; Blaha, D; Becouze-Lareure, C; Kouyi, G Lipeme; Cournoyer, B

2014-04-01

221

Benefits of selected physical exercise programs in detention: a randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT) (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years),the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST) (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years), and a control group (C) (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years) receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01) and group-training interaction (p < 0.05). CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease) of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people. PMID:24185842

Battaglia, Claudia; di Cagno, Alessandra; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco; Pigozzi, Fabio

2013-11-01

222

An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy  

PubMed Central

During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories. This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public. PMID:18726007

Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

223

Site-specific research conducted in support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project. FY 1982 report  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that have been built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. This document reports on the site-specific research conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of the plant design. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

French, R.L.; Marsh, H.E.; Roschke, E.J.; Wu, Y.C.

1984-09-01

224

Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project - FY 1982 Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

French, R. L.; Marsh, H. E.; Roschke, E. J.; Wu, Y. C.

1984-01-01

225

The Transient Response of Cooling Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling ponds are a form of closed cycle cooling used for steam-electric power plants. Because of their thermal inertia they provide an advantage over cooling towers in filtering fluctuations in intake temperature, which results in improved plant efficiency. By using linear systems theory, the transient behavior of various types of ponds is analyzed in response to periodic meteorological conditions (characterized by equilibrium temperature) and plant operational conditions (characterized by condenser temperature rise). Frequency response is expressed in terms of dimensionless ratios involving frequency of input forcing, characteristic hydraulic residence and surface response times, and appropriate mixing parameters. Results are also interpreted with respect to physical design variables, such as pond area, depth, degree of stratification, intake submergence, discharge entrance mixing, condenser flow rate, and temperature rise.

Adams, E. Eric

1982-10-01

226

REUSE AND RENOVATION OF SEWAGE STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT THROUGH IRRIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The main objective of this project was to explore the recycling of stabilized pond effluent to grow crops for municipal beautification. The research encompassed pond effluent quality, irrigation site parameters, crop responses, renovation qualities of site and crops, insects and ...

227

Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

2002-01-01

228

Computer simulation model of salt-gradient solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass and energy transfer processes of salt-gradient solar pond were developed into a finite element of computer model. The system represented by the model can be: (1) a non-convective salt-gradient solar pond for which the energy transfer takes place by conduction through the brine and the round beneath the pond; (2) a stratified three-zone solar pond consisting of upper

Panahi

1981-01-01

229

Transformation of chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline in aquaculture pond sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation processes of two antibiotics, chloramphenicol (CM) and oxytetracycline (OTC), in aquaculture pond sediments collected from a freshwater eel pond and a marine shrimp pond were investigated. The sorption rates of CM in the freshwater and marine sediment slurries (10%, wt\\/vol) were 4% and 2%, respectively. In contrast, the sorption rates of OTC in the freshwater and marine sediment slurries

1995-01-01

230

Optimization of solar pond electrical power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the potential of using a solar pond for the generation of electricity in Jordan. A solar pond power plant model is presented to simulate and optimize such a system under the Jordanian climatic conditions. A Rankine cycle analysis is carried out using an environmentally friendly working fluid, Refrigerant 134a.It was found that using a solar pond for

R. A. Haj Khalil; B. A. Jubran; N. M. Faqir

1997-01-01

231

Aquaculture pond fertilization impacts of nutrient input on production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ponds are a primary production system to a wide variety of freshwater fish species. Each species have specific and unique nutrient needs and successful pond fertilization is critical to a successful aquaculture enterprise. Aquaculture Pond Fertilization: Impacts of Nutrient Input on Production pro...

232

Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles  

E-print Network

Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles www.oregonwildlife.org #12;2 Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles Final Report August 2010 Daniel K. Rosenberg Oregon Wildlife: Rosenberg, D. K. and R. Swift. 2010. Post-emergence behavior of hatchling western pond turtles. Oregon

Rosenberg, Daniel K.

233

Protecting and Restoring Ponds Following a Wildfire Quick facts....  

E-print Network

of ash and sediment is the greatest concern for pond health following wildfire. Ash is mainly composed in the forest. High-alkalinity runoff from burned areas may increase pond pH temporarily but tends to become contaminants that reach your pond or stream. Contour log terraces can be constructed using dead trees placed

234

Simulation of melt pond evolution on level ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A melt pond model is presented that predicts pond size and depth changes, given an initial ice thickness field and representative surface fluxes. The model is based on the assumption that as sea ice melts, fresh water builds up in the ice pore space and eventually saturates the ice. Under these conditions, a water table is defined equal to the draft of the ice or sea level, and ponds are produced in ice surface depressions, much like lakes in a watershed. Pond evolution is forced by applying fluxes of heat at the pond surface and a radiative transfer model for solar radiation that penetrates the pond. Results from the model using forcing data from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment and representative pond parameters indicate that the model accurately simulates pond depth and fractional area over the summer melt season, with fractional area increasing linearly. Overall, ice albedo is affected primarily by the increase in pond coverage. Decrease in pond albedo from pond deepening has a much lower influence on the total albedo. Cases with predominately sunny conditions are shown to produce more rapid pond expansion than overcast cases. In both sunny and cloudy cases the fractional area increases linearly.

Skyllingstad, Eric D.; Paulson, Clayton A.; Perovich, Donald K.

2009-12-01

235

Fate and Transport of Copper Applied in Channel Catfish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale study and field measurements at commercial ponds were conducted to investigate the environmental fate of copper (Cu) applied as an algaecide in commercial catfish ponds. In the pilot study, a total of 774 g Cu(II) was applied to an experimental catfish pond over a period of 16 summer weeks. More than 90% of Cu applied became associated with

Ruiqiang Liu; Dongye Zhao; Mark O. Barnett

2006-01-01

236

Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from

J. Shi; R. A. Hart; S. J. Kleis; R. B. Bannerot

1997-01-01

237

First-year sea ice melt pond fraction estimation from dual-polarisation C-band SAR - Part 1: In situ observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the evolution of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice is important for climate model parameterisations, weather forecast models and process studies involving mass, energy and biogeochemical exchanges across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interface. A field campaign was conducted in a region of level first-year sea ice (FYI) in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), during the summer of 2012, to examine the potential for estimating melt pond fraction (fp) from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, 5.5 GHz (C-band) dual co- (HH + VV - horizontal transmit and horizontal receive + vertical transmit and vertical receive) and cross-polarisation (HV + HH - horizontal transmit and vertical receive + horizontal transmit and horizontal receive) radar scatterometer measurements of melt-pond-covered FYI are combined with ice and pond properties to analyse the effects of in situ physical and morphological changes on backscatter parameters. Surface roughness statistics of ice and ponds are characterised and compared to the validity domains of the Bragg and integral equation model (IEM) scattering models. Experimental and model results are used to outline the potential and limitations of the co-polarisation ratio (VV / HH) for retrieving melt pond information, including fp, at large incidence angles (?35°). Despite high variability in cross-polarisation ratio (HV / HH) magnitudes, increases at small incidence angles (<30°) are attributed to the formation of ice lids on ponds. Implications of the results for pond information retrievals from satellite C-, L- and P-band SARs are discussed.

Scharien, R. K.; Landy, J.; Barber, D. G.

2014-11-01

238

The role of an Indigenous Health Worker in contributing to equity of access to a mental health and substance abuse service for Indigenous young people in a youth detention centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous youth in detention have been identified as a priority category in national and state policies in relation to their mental health and drug and alcohol service needs. This article describes the development of the role of Indigenous Health Worker in the Mental Health Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drugs Service (MHATODS) at a youth detention centre. It provides an account

Stephen Stathis; Eva Dacre; Ivan Doolan; Karla Heath; Bec Litchfield

2007-01-01

239

Ser9 phosphorylation causes cytoplasmic detention of I2PP2A/SET in Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

The nuclear protein I2(PP2A)/SET, an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A), is increased and translocated to the cytoplasm in the neurons of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, and PP2A activity in cytoplasm is compromised. However, it is not fully understood how SET is retained in the cytoplasm. By generating a phosphorylation site-specific antibody, we found in the present study that SET is phosphorylated at Ser9, by which it is accumulated in the cytoplasm of the AD brains. Further studies demonstrate that both the phosphor-mimic and casein kinase (CK)II-mediated phosphorylation at Ser9 interferes with the formation of the SET/importin-?/importin-? complex, and thus inhibits SET nuclear import and induces the cytoplasmic detention of SET. Interestingly, Ser9 is nested in the center of the sequence (6)AKVSKK(11) of SET, which is consistent with a classical nuclear localization signal (NLS). To test whether (6)AKVSKK(11) is a new NLS of SET, we mutated SET lysine 7, lysine 10, and lysine 11 to alanine acid (K7A, K10A, K11A) respectively, and expressed these mutants in HEK293/tau cells. We found that expression of SET (K11A) led to a nuclear import defect of SET, and application of a synthesized peptide Tat-AAKVSKKE that can competitively bind to importin ?/? resulted in cytoplasmic detention of SET. Finally, phosphorylation of SET aggravates PP2A inhibition and leads to tau hyperphosphorylation. In conclusion, the current study has identified a novel mechanism that causes cytoplasmic detention of SET with a new NLS-dependent CKII-associated phosphorylation of Ser9, suggesting that inhibition of CKII arrests cytoplasmic accumulation of SET and thus preserves PP2A activity in AD brains. PMID:23374587

Yu, Guang; Yan, Tonghai; Feng, Ye; Liu, Xinghua; Xia, Yiyuan; Luo, Hongbin; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Wang, Xiaochuan

2013-07-01

240

Effects on water quality due to flood-water detention by Barker and Addicks Reservoirs, Houston, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Barker and Addicks Reservoirs, located about 16 mi west of Houston, Texas, provide flood detention storage for storm runoff. Of interest are the water quality characteristics in the study area and changes in water quality during detention. Study area sampling sites were selected upstream along Buffalo Bayou for Barker Reservoir and on Bear Creek and Langham Creek for Addicks Reservoir, within the reservoirs, near the reservoir outflows, and below the confluence of each reservoir outflow at the streamflow station Buffalo Bayou near Addicks. Flow data were available at all sites except in the reservoirs. Analyses of samples collected during both low flow and storm runoff show that in general, the water of the study areas was low in mineralization, but the aesthetics of the water was a problem. The inorganic constituents, trace metals, and pesticides rarely exceeded maximum contaminant levels recommended by the EPA for public supply using 1976 and 1977 criteria for primary and secondary standards. All species of nutrients, except ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus, almost always were below the recommended maximum contaminant levels. Large values of suspended solids, turbidity, and color were common. Possible bacterial problems are indicated because coliform bacteria densities exceeded recommended levels in about 25% of the samples. The effects of the reservoirs on the water quality characteristics of storm runoff were analyzed using three approaches: (1) a comparison of the discharge weighted average values of nine selected constituents at each streamflow-gaging station during four storms (biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, turbidity, color, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, dissolved solids and total phosphorus); (2) an analysis of the means of the discharge weighted average values computed for the four hydrologic events using the Student t-test, indicating that reservoir detention significantly reduced suspended solids; and (3) a comparison at each site of the mean, maximum, and minimum values computed for seven constituents that did not correlate with discharge. The only consistent water quality changes observed were with the three bacteria groups, which were decreased by flood water detention. (Lantz-PTT)

Liscum, Fred; Paul, E.M.; Goss, R.L.

1987-01-01

241

Enhancing Nitrification at Low Temperature with Zeolite in a Mining Operations Retention Pond  

PubMed Central

Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9?months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July–September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10?g) was added to retention pond water (100?mL) amended with 5?mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1–20?mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y.

2012-01-01

242

Alabama's Hatter's Pond called a classic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineation of the combination (structural-stratigraphic) hydrocarbon traps in southern Alabama's Hatter's Pond field demands a thorough understanding of the facies distribution, diagenesis, and structural relations of the area. The field's trapping mechanism is highly complex. In addition to the salt movement associated with normal faulting, the porosity distribution - and hence reservoir development - is facies-selective and is significantly altered

McCaslin

1981-01-01

243

Western Pond Turtle Recovery Columbia Gorge  

E-print Network

;Western Pond Turtle Recovery Current Efforts · Head Start · Population Reintroduction · Predator Control · Habitat Management · Population Monitoring #12;Head Start · Increases turtle population through capture Total Releases #12;Population Reintroduction Pierce NWR - 2000 #12;Reintroduction Beacon Rock State Park

244

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial

1985-01-01

245

TWO TYPES OF JOURNALING BEFORE POND STUDY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a two part journaling activity prior to an existing week long biology field lab. The journaling activities described here have been added to the beginning of the Pond Study Lab to enhance student learning of observation and quality journaling skills.

246

MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP currently being monitored, a retention pond with wetland plantings, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed part of New Yor...

247

INFILTRATION LAND TREATMENT OF STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot rapid infiltration wastewater treatment system consisting of three 0.07 hectare basins was operated for four seasons at Brookings, South Dakota. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate that rapid infiltration land treatment could upgrade stabilization pond effluen...

248

Pacific white shrimp culture in inland ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a tropical species grown throughout Latin America and now introduced into Asia, adapts to and grows well in low-salinity water. Pond culture of L. vannamei has expanded to inland regions across the southern US where low-salinity ground water is availa...

249

EXPERIMENTAL PONDS FOR EVALUATING BIOASSAY PREDICTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental pond studies were used to demonstrate a means of assessing the accuracy of laboratory and in situ bioassays predicting the effects of chemical stress on phytoplankton. A short-term batch bioassay using changing carbon uptake in photosynthesis predicted an immediate (...

250

Building a Pond on the School Grounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the efforts of two teachers to construct a pond and woods on school grounds. The teachers used specialized student teams for working on a wetland study and the building project. An advisory committee including teachers, the principal, and the custodian worked through maintenance issues. Relates teaching surprises associated with the…

Pope, Jonathan

1998-01-01

251

Application of Azotobacter enhances pond productivity and fish biomass in still water ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains (derepressed-nitrogen fixing, Mac-27 and phosphate solubilizing, PS-21) of Azotobacter chroococcum were inoculated in fish culture ponds, singly and in combination with inorganic fertilizers (urea, single superphosphate–SSP). Physico-chemical parameters of pond waters, plankton production and fish biomass were studied. Inoculation of A. chroococcum (Mac-27) enhanced nitrogenase activity and rate of nitrogen fixation. A slight reduction in nitrogen fixation and

S. K. Garg; Anita Bhatnagar; Neeru Narula

1998-01-01

252

Dead fish in a pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These fish died because of excessive pollution in the lake. The pollution is the result of runoff and chemical pollution dumped directly into the water. Acid rain can also cause fish and other organisms to die is small bodies of water because it raises water temperatures and makes the water more acidic.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

253

Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1990-05-01

254

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021  

SciTech Connect

The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2006-08-25

255

Anxiety, depression, impulsivity and substance misuse in violent and non-violent adolescent boys in detention in China.  

PubMed

The present investigation aims to identify the factors which differentiate violent from non-violent juvenile offenders, with a particular emphasis on the association between internalizing psychiatric morbidity (i.e. anxiety and depression), impulsivity, substance misuse, and violence. A total of 323 incarcerated male juvenile offenders from one of three Youth Detention Centers (YDCs) in China were recruited between August 2007 and November 2008. Interviews were conducted by trained psychiatrists using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), and the Birleson Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) to assess impulsivity, anxiety and depression, respectively. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was also used to assess psychiatric diagnoses. Violent offenders had significantly higher BIS-11 total scores, and attention and nonplanning subscale scores (p<0.05). In the multiple logistic regression model, substance use disorders (SUD) and BIS-11 total scores independently predicted violence. Prison-based treatment services designed to reduce impulsivity and substance misuse in juvenile detention facilities should be prioritized. PMID:24612970

Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Zhang, Yingdong; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Changjian; Cao, Liping; Wang, Xiaoping

2014-05-30

256

Effect of a behavioural health and specialty care telemedicine programme on goal attainment for youths in juvenile detention.  

PubMed

We conducted a pre-post study of the effect of a telepsychiatry counselling service on youths housed in three juvenile detention facilities. In the first year of the telemedicine programme, 321 psychiatry consultations were conducted via telemedicine; in the second year of the programme, 573 psychiatry consultations were conducted. Records for 190 students were then examined by two raters. The total number of behavioural goals for each adolescent increased from 8.2 in the pre-telemedicine year to 8.7 in the first year of telemedicine and then to 10.0 in the second year (P < 0.05). In Year 2 of the study, subjects also had a significantly higher number of goals in four of the five categories: education, family, health and social skills (P < 0.05). Although other changes at the youth detention facilities or in the juvenile justice system may have been partly responsible for the effects observed, the study suggests that telemedicine may be useful for improving the rate of attainment of goals associated with family relations and personality/behaviour. PMID:18632995

Fox, Karen C; Connor, Pamela; McCullers, Elizabeth; Waters, Teresa

2008-01-01

257

Biogas production, sludge accumulation and mass balance of carbon in anaerobic ponds.  

PubMed

This work concerned the application of anaerobic ponds for the primary treatment of urban wastewater in a Mediterranean climate. It was carried out on anaerobic ponds at large scale in Mèze (France). The anaerobic ponds constitute a good primary treatment with the removal of 55% of SS and 30% of BOD5, with a small surface area. The accumulation rate of sludge was only 0.017 m3/capita.year, due to their intensive anaerobic degradation. The anaerobic digestion reached equilibrium after one year of operation. The accumulation of sludge then showed seasonal variations with a substantial accumulation in winter and the digestion of the stock in summer. This change can be related to the influence of the temperature on methanogenesis. The production of biogas (83% CH4) was measured by gas collectors especially developed for this study and was also strongly dependent on temperature. The mass balance of carbon showed that 74% of the removed organic carbon was converted into CH4, 13% into dissolved inorganic carbon and 15% was stored in sludge. However, the anaerobic ponds presented a risk of creating odor nuisances with the emission of H2S. PMID:14510217

Picot, B; Paing, J; Sambuco, J P; Costa, R H R; Rambaud, A

2003-01-01

258

Preliminary measurement-based estimates of PAH emissions from oil sands tailings ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailings ponds in the oil sands region (OSR) of western Canada are suspected sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the atmosphere. In the absence of detailed characterization or direct flux measurements, we present preliminary measurement-based estimates of the emissions of thirteen priority PAHs from the ponds. Using air concentrations measured under the Joint Canada-Alberta Oil Sands Monitoring Plan and water concentrations from a small sampling campaign in 2013, the total flux of 13 US EPA priority PAHs (fluorene to benzo[ghi]perylene) was estimated to be upward from water to air and to total 1069 kg y-1 for the region as a whole. By comparison, the most recent air emissions reported to Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) from oil sands facilities totalled 231 kg y-1. Exchange fluxes for the three remaining priority PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene) could not be quantified but evidence suggests that they are also upward from water to air. These results indicate that tailings ponds may be an important PAH source to the atmosphere that is missing from current inventories in the OSR. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses lend confidence to the estimated direction of air-water exchange being upward from water to air. However, more detailed characterization of ponds at other facilities and direct flux measurements are needed to confirm the quantitative results presented herein.

Galarneau, Elisabeth; Hollebone, Bruce P.; Yang, Zeyu; Schuster, Jasmin

2014-11-01

259

Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

2005-01-01

260

Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

1978-01-01

261

Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11.4 µGy/hr; birds - 6.3 µGy/hr; mammals - 15.1 µGy/hr; reptilians - 10.3 µGy/hr, with the recommended maximum allowable limit of 40 µGy/hr. The conservative risk coefficient ranged from 0.51 for birds to 1.82 for amphibians. In spite of a high contamination level of the shoreline areas, the current total doses received by the animals do not reach the recommended maximum allowable doses. However, drainage of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is likely to increase the dose rates as follows: amphibians - 94.5, birds - 95.2, mammals - 284.0, reptilians - 847.0 µGy/hr, which will significantly exceed the maximum allowable values. These predictions are conservative and prior to making the final decision on the fate of the ChNPP Cooling Pond, a detailed radio-ecological assessment of its drainage will have to be performed.

Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

2009-12-01

262

Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the many unexpected observations of asteroid 433 Eros by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission was the many ponds of fine-grained materials [1-3]. The ponds have smooth surfaces, and define equipotential surfaces up to 10's of meters in diameter [4]. The ponds have a uniformly sub-cm grain size and appear to be cohesive or indurated to some degree, as revealed by slumping. The ponds appear to be concentrated within 30 degrees of the equator of Eros, where gravity is lowest. There is some insight into the mineralogy and composition of the ponds surfaces from NEAR spectroscopy [2,4,5,6]. Compared to the bulk asteroid, ponds: (1) are distinctly bluer (high 550/760 nm ratio), (2) have a deeper 1um mafic band, (3) have reflectance elevated by 5%.

Zolensky, M. E.; Lee, R.; Le, L.

2004-01-01

263

Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida  

E-print Network

Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida JEFFREY E. HILL* AND CRAIG A. WATSON Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Institute of Food eels on the aquaculture industry by analyzing the diets of Asian swamp eels that have invaded small

Watson, Craig A.

264

Flax Pond ecosystem study: exchanges of carbon in water between a salt marsh and Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flax Pond, a tidal marsh on the north shore of Long Island, New York, was used to examine the exchanges of carbon in its various forms between a salt marsh and the coastal waters. The marsh removed fine particulate carbon from the tidal water throughout the year; it tended to be a small source of C as total COâ and

G. M. Woodwell; D. E. Whitney; C. A. S. Hall; R. A. Houghton

1977-01-01

265

Classification of ponds from high-spatial resolution remote sensing: Application to Rift Valley Fever epidemics in Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the rainy season the abundance of mosquitoes over the Ferlo region (Senegal) is linked to dynamic, vegetation cover and turbidity of temporary and relatively small ponds. The latter create a variable environment where mosquitoes can thrive and thus contribute to diffusion and transmission of diseases such as the Rift Valley Fever (RVF, with Aedes vexans arabiensis and Culex poicilipes

J. P. Lacaux; Y. M. Tourre; C. Vignolles; J. A. Ndione; M. Lafaye

2007-01-01

266

A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-02-01

267

Classification and waterfowl use of ponds in south Texas  

E-print Network

/km2. Pond size averaged 2. 0 ha, and over 82/o were 2. 0 ha or smaller. Of 222 sample ponds, 79%%d were alkaline with con- ductivity lower than 8, 000 uMhos. 38/ of total pond area (35, 979 ha) was covered with emergent vegetation. Eleocharis spp... rostratus E' hh Eleocharis albida Eleocharis caribaea Eleocharis cellulosa El** h ' ~th Eleocharis montevidensis Eleocharis uadran ulata Eleocharis spp. purple ammannia Mosquito fern Coastal waterhyssop Maritime saltwort Jointed flatsedge Finger...

McAdams, Matthew Stephen

2012-06-07

268

An environmental simulation of a shrimp mariculture pond  

E-print Network

Zooplankton O IO CL Ill Qp ir Shrimp O (0 O n. E Ll dl C3 Settling Feces & Mortalities Grazing Cll f4 EO I L3 Detritus Pool Benthic Fauna Intr oduc ed Feed Figure 1. Pond Model Biomass Flows Photosynthesis Dissolved Oxygen... the fluctuations of oxygen in the pond in response to photosynthesis and metabolism. Primary Producers (Phytoplankton) Primary producers include all photosynthetic organisms in a pond. While this ignores the competition i' or nutrients within phytoplankton...

Whitson, John Lee

2012-06-07

269

Emissions of greenhouse gases from ponds constructed for nitrogen removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane and carbon dioxide emission from three constructed ponds were monitored during an annual cycle. Water temperature was a good predictor of methane emission in all three ponds. In the most intensively studied pond, nitrate concentration in the bottom water could further explain the amount of methane emitted. When water temperature exceeded 15°C between 1 and 54mg, CH4m?2h?1 was emitted

Johanna Stadmark; Lars Leonardson

2005-01-01

270

Tree-regeneration and mortality patterns and hydrologic change in a forested karst wetland--Sinking Pond, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple lines of evidence point to climate change as the driving factor suppressing tree regeneration since 1970 in Sinking Pond, a 35-hectare seasonally flooded karst depression located on Arnold Air Force Base near Manchester, Tennessee. Annual censuses of 162-193 seedling plots from 1997 through 2001 demonstrate that the critical stage for tree survival is the transition from seedling to sapling and that this transition is limited to shallow (less than 0.5 meters) ponding depths. Recruitment of saplings to the small adult class also was restricted to shallow areas. Analysis of the spatial and elevation distribution of tree-size classes in a representative 2.3-hectare area of Sinking Pond showed a general absence of overcup oak saplings and young adults in deep (ponding depth greater than 1 meter) and intermediate (ponding depth 0.5-1 meter) areas, even though overcup oak seedlings and mature trees are concentrated in these areas. Analysis of tree rings from 45 trees sampled in a 2.3-hectare spatial-analysis plot showed an even distribution of tree ages across ponding-depth classes from the 1800s through 1970, followed by complete suppression of recruitment in deep and intermediate areas after 1970. Trees younger than 30 years were spatially and vertically concentrated in a small area with shallow ponding depth, about 0.5 meter below the spillway elevation. Results of hydrologic modeling, based on rainfall and temperature records covering the period January 1854 through September 2002, show ponding durations after 1970 considerably longer than historical norms, across ponding-depth classes. This increase in ponding duration corresponds closely with similar increases documented in published analyses of streamflow and precipitation in the eastern United States and with the suppression of tree regeneration at ponding depths greater than 0.5 meter indicated by tree-ring analysis. Comparison of the simulated stage record for Sinking Pond with the ages and elevations of sampled trees shows that prolonged (200 days or more per year) inundation in more than 2 of the first 5 years after germination is inversely related to successful tree recruitment and that such inundation was rare before 1970 and common afterwards.

Wolfe, William J.; Evans, Jonathan P.; McCarthy, Sarah; Gain, W. Scott; Bryan, Bradley A.

2004-01-01

271

Mercury Contamination of Macroinvertebrates in Ephemeral Grassland Ponds.  

E-print Network

??This study surveyed mercury concentrations of aquatic macroinvertebrates collected from ephemeral ponds on the Lyndon B. Johnson National Grassland, Texas. Macroinvertebrates representing eight taxonomic groups… (more)

Blackwell, Bradley Douglas

2008-01-01

272

Diverting Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation From Juvenile Detention: Development of the InterCSECt Screening Protocol.  

PubMed

Identifying victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the juvenile justice system is a challenging complexity requiring concerted organizational commitment. Using a three-tiered, trauma-informed screening process, a 3½-month pilot intervention was implemented in Clark County Juvenile Court (Washington) to identify victims in an effort to connect them to community youth advocates and sexual assault resources. A total of 535 boys and girls ages 9 to 19 were screened during intake; 47 of these youth reported risk factors associated with commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and were subsequently referred to community advocates. Six youth (all girls) were confirmed CSEC victims and were successfully diverted from juvenile detention. Study results suggest that despite the lack of reliable data surrounding the prevalence of CSEC, juvenile justice agencies need to become educated on the risk factors to triage victims to services. PMID:25038222

Salisbury, Emily J; Dabney, Jonathan D; Russell, Kelli

2015-04-01

273

CHANGES IN MOLLUSC SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE MINING LANDSCAPE ON THE EXEMPLE OF THE EXTINCT POND SYSTEM TERRITORY  

E-print Network

The development of the industry in last two centuries, and especially intensive coal mining activities definitely changed the local landscape character. It led to the destruction of indigenous biotopes with natural flora and fauna communities. Many ecological studies use a group of molluscs as indicators of changes in the landscape. The advantage of this group is a relatively small number of taxa, relatively simple determination and very good knowledge of ecological requirements and distribution of individual species. The territory of Loucké ponds represents an interesting area in the industrial landscape of Karvinsko, where based on the above aspects of malacocenosis, it is possible to use and compare historical data of their incidence as well as to compare the data with current research. The pond system affected by the declension has an important function in the landscape today. The first malacological researches in the Loucké ponds territory were conducted in 1954 and

Zm?ny V Druhovém; Složení M?kkýš?; V Hornické Krajin?; Na P?íkladu; Území Zaniklého; Rybni?ního Systému; Ji?í Kupka; Hana Švehláková; Kamila Kašovská

274

Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France: comparison of  

E-print Network

13 Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France In France, vertical flow constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds are both extensive treatment Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands, Waste Stabilization Ponds, operation and maintenance, sludge management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Salt-Pond Box Model (SPOOM) and Its Application to the Napa-Sonoma Salt Ponds, San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A box model to simulate water volume and salinity of a salt pond has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to obtain water and salinity budgets. The model, SPOOM, uses the principle of conservation of mass to calculate daily pond volume and salinity and includes a salt crystallization and dissolution algorithm. Model inputs include precipitation, evaporation, infiltration, and water transfers. Salinity and water-surface-elevation data were collected monthly in the Napa-Sonoma Salt-Pond Complex from February 1999 through September 2001 and were used to calibrate and validate the model. The months when water transfers occurred were known but the magnitudes were unknown, so the magnitudes of water transfers were adjusted in the model to calibrate simulated pond volumes to measured pond volumes for three ponds. Modeled salinity was then compared with measured salinity, which remained a free parameter, in order to validate the model. Comparison showed good correlation between modeled and measured salinity. Deviations can be attributed to lack of water-transfer information. Water and salinity budgets obtained through modeling will be used to help interpret ecological data from the ponds. This model has been formulated to be applicable to the Napa-Sonoma salt ponds, but can be applied to other salt ponds.

Lionberger, Megan L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Buchanan, Paul A.; Meyer, Scott

2004-01-01

276

The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

2014-01-01

277

Smooth pond-like deposits on asteroid 4 Vesta: First results from the Dawn mission.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft arrived at Vesta on July 16, 2011 to study the asteroid with a Framing Camera (FC), a Visible & Infrared Spectrometer (VIR), and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1]. Dawn provides the first high-resolution data from its survey orbit, high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO), and low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO). FC data revealed smooth pond-like deposits of ambiguous origin, similar to deposits on other asteroids, including Eros and Itokawa [2,3]. Several scenarios for the origin of these deposits can be tested with Dawn data, including volcanism, impact sedimentation, impact melt deposition, dust levitation and transport, seismic shaking, or landslides. We measured 83 small (~7 km2 average size) smooth deposits distributed across the surface of Vesta. Most ponds on Vesta occur on the floors of impact craters and in irregular depressions. We did not observe inflow of material into the depressions. Most of these deposits have well-defined geological contacts, indicating that they are younger than the surrounding terrain. However, lunar impact melt pools that formed contemporaneously with surrounding ejecta blankets show similar stratigraphic relationships. Sometimes the albedo of these ponds is lower than the surrounding terrain, in other cases the ponds are indistinguishable from the adjacent terrain. The ponds preferentially occur in a band between -10 and 30 degrees latitude with fewer ponds north of ~30 degrees and even fewer ponds in the southern hemisphere, i.e., the Rheasilvia region. The largest cluster of ponds occurs in the vicinity of the Marcia impact crater, which is part of the so-called snowman craters. Similar, but smaller (<230 m diameter) smooth ponds were also reported from the surface of asteroid Eros [2]. Robinson et al. [2] found that most smooth ponds on Eros occur in equatorial regions and concluded that the most likely process for their formation is electrostatic levitation and redistribution of the finest regolith components (<100 µm). Sierks et al. [4] argued that along the terminator, particularly strong electric fields can develop between the sun-lit and shaded areas, e.g., within craters, resulting in particle motion from sun-lit to dark regions. Dust levitation and transport was also discussed for asteroid 25143 Itokawa [3]. [1] Russell et al., (2007), Earth Moon Planets, 101; [2] Robinson et al., (2002), Met. Planet. Sci., 37; [3] Yano et al., (2006), Science, 312; [4] Sierks et al., (2011), Space Sci. Rev., doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9745-4. This research has been supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) and NASA. We would like to thank the Dawn Operations Team for their success-ful planning and acquisition of high-quality Vesta data.

Hiesinger, H.; Ruesch, O.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

2012-04-01

278

Biological productivity in small impoundments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most ponds and small impoundments are built or used with a principal use in mind. That use may be recreational fishing, commercial aquaculture, waterfowl hunting, potable water storage, irrigation water supply, livestock watering, stormwater retention, landscaping, swimming, or others. In practice, ...

279

Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

2007-01-01

280

BIOGEOCHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF AQUACULTURE PONDS A DISSERTATION SUBMITIED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE  

E-print Network

BIOGEOCHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF AQUACULTURE PONDS A DISSERTATION SUBMITIED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds which served as convenient model systems

Luther, Douglas S.

281

Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000  

SciTech Connect

Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

Dunn, D.L.

2001-01-29

282

Sarah Berry Page 1 The Role of Pond Sediments in  

E-print Network

them with a residence time of up to one week. Over 80% removal is observed in all core bioreactorsSarah Berry Page 1 The Role of Pond Sediments in the Removal of DOC and Tannin Compounds Through from three Cape Cod area glacial kettle ponds demonstrate up to 98% removal of DOC that pass through

Vallino, Joseph J.

283

Habitat Matrix Effects on Pond Occupancy in Newts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In farmlands, the population viability of many amphibians is suspected to depend on the resis- tance the matrix of crop fields presents to movements between ponds and terrestrial sites and movements among ponds. Over recent decades the increase in cereal growing at the expense of cattle breeding has caused a drastic change in habitat matrix in many European regions. We

Pierre Joly; Claude Miaud; Anthony Lehmann; Odile Grolet

2001-01-01

284

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily

H. E. Jr. Mackey; R. S. Riley

1995-01-01

285

Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond

Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

2011-01-01

286

Mangroves and brackishwater pond culture in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 50% of mangrove loss in the Philippines can be traced to brackishwater pond construction. The decrease in mangroves from 450 000 ha in 1920 to 132 500 ha in 1990 has been accompanied by expansion of culture ponds to 223 000 ha in 1990. The history of fishpond development in the country includes a government-sponsored fishpond boom in the

J. Honculada Primavera

1995-01-01

287

ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN DIVERSITY OF SPONGE FAUNA IN MANGROVE PONDS,  

E-print Network

ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN NO. 476 DIVERSITY OF SPONGE FAUNA IN MANGROVE PONDS, PELICAN CAYS, BELIZE;DIVERSITY OF SPONGE FAUNA IN MANGROVE PONDS, PELICAN CAYS, BELIZE KLAUS RUTZLER,' MARIA CRISTINA DIAZ; ROB W. M. VAN SOEST: SVEN ZEA,4KATHLEEN P. SMITH,' BELINDA ALVAREZ,' and JANIE WULFF6 ABSTRACT Mangrove

Ronquist, Fredrik

288

Use of aquatic vegetation to improve sediment pond efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting research in Poland aimed at improving the efficiency of surface mine sedimentation ponds. Mine water from large, open-pit lignite mines in Poland requires treatment for suspended solids removal prior to discharge. One technique being investigated for suspended solids removal involves the use of vegetation growing in the sediment ponds. This paper describes

J. F. Martin; H. Janiak

1982-01-01

289

Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

1996-01-01

290

Conductive heat transfer in salt gradient stabilized solar ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with heat transfer in salt gradient solar ponds. Spatial variations in thermal properties have been considered and the resulting one-dimensional heat conduction equation with a source term is solved explicitly to obtain a closed form mathematical expression for temperature distribution in the non-convecting zone of the solar pond. The present analysis is not restricted to any one

Thakus

1983-01-01

291

400 m² solar pond: one year of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported from one year's operation of a 400 m² solar pond. Data on solar input, heat gain by the pond, heat loss to the earth, and heat conducted upward through the gradient zone have been analyzed, yielding an energy balance for the year. Loss to the earth is large because of unexpectedly large thermal conductivity. Accurate specific gravity

C. E. Nielsen; J. Kamal

1981-01-01

292

Modeling and simulation of solar pond floor heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of modeling, simulation and analysis of a solar pond floor heating system. The developed computer simulation has been used to study the potential of using such a system under climatic conditions in Jordan. It was found that the solar pond heating system could meet most of the winter season in Jordan with Solar fraction in

M. T. Alkhalaileh; K. a. Atieh; N. G. Nasser; B. a. Jubran

1999-01-01

293

Some basic considerations and possible improvements on the solar pond  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results were compared to theoretical stability criteria of a salt gradient solar pond. Cellular motion in the non-convective layer is expected. Innovative concepts on friction stabilization using stabilizing barriers and longitudinal stratification to improve pond heat extraction efficiency are presented.

Sha, W.T.; Cha, Y.S.; Liu, K.V.; Soo, S.L.

1980-06-01

294

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

Grace, J.B.

1985-08-01

295

2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

1990-09-01

296

Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

Peelgren, M. L.

1982-01-01

297

Crossing the final ecological threshold in high Arctic ponds  

PubMed Central

A characteristic feature of most Arctic regions is the many shallow ponds that dot the landscape. These surface waters are often hotspots of biodiversity and production for microorganisms, plants, and animals in this otherwise extreme terrestrial environment. However, shallow ponds are also especially susceptible to the effects of climatic changes because of their relatively low water volumes and high surface area to depth ratios. Here, we describe our findings that some high Arctic ponds, which paleolimnological data indicate have been permanent water bodies for millennia, are now completely drying during the polar summer. By comparing recent pond water specific conductance values to similar measurements made in the 1980s, we link the disappearance of the ponds to increased evaporation/precipitation ratios, probably associated with climatic warming. The final ecological threshold for these aquatic ecosystems has now been crossed: complete desiccation. PMID:17606917

Smol, John P.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.

2007-01-01

298

Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

2010-12-01

299

Preventive Detention of Juveniles. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session. Oversight Hearing to Review the Recent Supreme Court Decision Relating to the Pretrial Detention of Juvenile Offenders. Serial No. J-98-145.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains prepared statements and witness testimony from the Congressional hearing on the pretrial detention of juveniles. The opening statement of Senator Arlen Specter, subcommittee chairman, is presented, focusing on the concerns arising from the Supreme Court decision in the case of Schall versus Martin (New York) which supports…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

300

Chemistry of runoff and shallow ground water at the Cattlemans Detention basin site, South Lake Tahoe, California, August 2000-November 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study at the Cattlemans detention basin site began in November 2000. The site is adjacent to Cold Creek in South Lake Tahoe, California. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of the detention basin on ground-water discharge and changes in nutrient loads to Cold Creek, a tributary to Trout Creek and Lake Tahoe. The study is being done in cooperation with the Tahoe Engineering Division of the El Dorado County Department of Transportation. This report summarizes data collected prior to and during construction of the detention basin and includes: (1) nutrient and total suspended solid concentrations of urban runoff; (2) distribution of unconsolidated deposits; (3) direction of ground-water flow; and (4) chemistry of shallow ground water and Cold Creek. Unconsolidated deposits in the area of the detention basin were categorized into three classes: fill material consisting of a red-brown loamy sand with some gravel and an occasional cobble that was placed on top of the meadow; meadow deposits consisting of gray silt and sand with stringers of coarse sand and fine gravel; and a deeper brown to yellow-brown sand and gravel with lenses of silt and sand. Prior to construction of the detention basin, ground water flowed west-northwest across the area of the detention basin toward Cold Creek. The direction of ground-water flow did not change during construction of the detention basin. Median concentrations of dissolved iron and chloride were 500 and 30 times higher, respectively, in ground water from the meadow deposits than dissolved concentrations in Cold Creek. Median concentration of sulfate in ground water from the meadow deposits was 0.4 milligrams per liter and dissolved oxygen was below the detection level of 0.3 milligrams per liter. The relatively high concentrations of iron and the lack of sulfate in the shallow ground water likely are caused by chemical reactions and biological microbial oxidation of organic matter in the unconsolidated deposits that result in little to no dissolved oxygen in the ground water. The higher chloride concentrations in ground water compared with Cold Creek likely are caused from the application of salt on Pioneer Trail and streets in Montgomery Estates subdivision during the winter. Runoff from these roads contributes to the recharge of the shallow ground water. The range of dissolved constituents generally was greater in the meadow deposits than in the deeper sand and gravel. Ammonia plus organic nitrogen were the dominant forms of dissolved nitrogen and concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 18 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Highest concentration was beneath the middle of the detention basin. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were low (<0.33 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) throughout the area and dissolved phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.001 to 0.34 milligrams per liter. Nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon showed no consistent pattern in the direction of ground-water flow, which suggests that, similar to iron and sulfate, local variations in the chemical and biological reactions within the meadow deposits controlled the variation in nitrogen concentrations. The gradual increase in dissolved phosphorus along the direction of ground-water flow suggest that phosphorus may be slowly dissolving into ground water. Dissolved phosphorus was consistently low in July, which may be the result of greater microbial activity in the unconsolidated deposits or from uptake by roots during the summer.

Prudic, David E.; Sager, Sienna J.; Wood, James L.; Henkelman, Katherine K.; Caskey, Rachel M.

2005-01-01

301

Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066  

SciTech Connect

The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to allow the fuel to be reprocessed or conditioned for long term storage. - Sludge Retrieval: In excess of 300 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated in the pond over many years and is made up of debris arising from fuel and metallic corrosion, wind blown debris and bio-organic materials. The Sludge Retrieval Project has provided the equipment necessary to retrieve the sludge, including skip washer and tipper machines for clearing sludge from the pond skips, equipment for clearing sludge from the pond floor and bays, along with an 'in pond' corral for interim storage of retrieved sludge. Two further projects are providing new plant processing routes, which will initially store and eventually passivate the sludge. - Metal Fuel Retrieval: Metal Fuel from early Windscale Pile operations and various other sources is stored within the pond; the fuel varies considerably in both form and condition. A retrieval project is planned which will provide fuel handling, conditioning, sentencing and export equipment required to remove the metal fuel from the pond for export to on site facilities for interim storage and disposal. - Solid Waste Retrieval: A final retrieval project will provide methods for handling, retrieval, packaging and export of the remaining solid Intermediate Level Waste within the pond. This includes residual metal fuel pieces, fuel cladding (Magnox, aluminium and zircaloy), isotope cartridges, reactor furniture, and miscellaneous activated and contaminated items. Each of the waste streams requires conditioning to allow it to be and disposed of via one of the site treatment plants. - Pond Dewatering and Dismantling: Delivery of the above projects will allow operations to progressively remove the radiological inventory, thereby reducing the hazard/risk posed by the plant. This will then allow subsequent dewatering of the pond and dismantling of the structure. (authors)

Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01

302

Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995  

SciTech Connect

Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

1996-06-01

303

Heavy metal composition in stormwater and retention in ponds dependent on pond age, design and catchment type.  

PubMed

Heavy metals have toxic effects on flora and fauna in the aquatic environments and are of great concern in stormwater. Heavy metal runoff was studied in 37 stormwater ponds in Denmark with varying heavy metal load, catchment type and pond design. The studied metals were Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn. The concentrations varied considerably depending on the catchment type, with the highest concentrations coming from industrial areas and the lowest from uncultivated and rural areas. Ponds can effectively remove heavy metals in particulate forms through sedimentation processes, but the dissolved forms are more difficult to retain. The removal efficiency in the ponds varied considerably, with the highest retention of Pb, Ni and Zn due to higher particulate fraction. The retention increased with increased pond volume-to-reduced catchment area ratio. In addition, the pond age affected the efficiency; whereas ponds less than 1-2 years efficiently removed all metals, 30-40-year-old ponds only removed Pb, Ni and Zn, but steeply decreasing over the years. Physical parameters such as pond size, age and sedimentation patterns were found to play a more significant role in the removal compared with chemical parameters such as pH, oxygen and organic matter. Input of metals to the ponds was reflected in the sediment content, but not significantly for all heavy metals probably due to low or varying retention caused by mineralization and re-suspension. The heavy metal concentration in the outlets was reduced to non-toxic levels, except for Cu and Cr at a few study sites. PMID:25262998

Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J; Grudinina, Anna; Hansen, Anders S; Flindt, Mogens R

2015-04-01

304

Efficacy of an HIV/STI sexual risk-reduction intervention for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention centers: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N = 188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment, and counseling. At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention), Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p < 0.001), HIV/STI knowledge (p < 0.001), and condom use skills (p < 0.001) compared to control participants. No significant differences were observed between trial conditions in incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains. PMID:25190056

DiClemente, Ralph J; Davis, Teaniese L; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Staples-Horne, Michelle

2014-01-01

305

Data validation report for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit: 100-D ponds sampling  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that 100 percent of the Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit Sampling Investigation. Therefore the data from the chemical analysis of all 30 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site.

Stankovich, M.T.

1994-01-04

306

CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

307

Solar pond research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A description of solar pond research at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. The main issues in the theory of solar ponds are discussed. Among these are the interfacial-boundary-layer model, models for interface motion and pond performance, heat extraction, and ground heat loss. The core of the research effort at Los Alamos was the development of a one-dimensional computer program to accurately predict dynamic performance of a solar pond. The computer model and the experiments that were designed and performed to validate it are described. The experiments include two laboratory tanks wherein temperature, salinity, and flow visualization data were obtained and a 232 m/sup 2/ outdoor solar pond. Results from preliminary validation show good agreement between the pond's predicted dynamic behavior and that which actually occurred in the experiments. More validation using data from full-sized solar ponds is needed. A new correlation for the ratio of interfacial salt-flux to heat-flux is proposed which agrees well with our data. Recommendations for future research are given.

Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Grimmer, D.P.

1984-01-01

308

Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

2009-11-09

309

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

Farfan, E.

2009-09-30

310

Aerobic Bacterial Microbiota Isolated from the Cloaca of the European Pond Turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Poland.  

PubMed

Abstract We conducted a comparative analysis of the aerobic cloacal bacteria of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) living in their natural environment and juvenile turtles reared under controlled conditions in a breeding center. We included 130 turtles in the study. The aerobic bacteria isolated from the cloaca of the juvenile turtles were less diverse and more prevalent than the bacteria isolated from free-living adults. We isolated 17 bacterial species from juvenile captive turtles, among which the dominant species were Cellulomonas flavigena (77/96), Enterococcus faecalis (96/96), Escherichia coli (58/96), and Proteus mirabilis (41/96). From the adult, free-living turtles, we isolated 36 bacterial species, some of which are a potential threat to public health (e.g., Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Daytona, and Braenderup; Listeria monocytogenes; Yersinia enterocolitica; Yersinia ruckeri; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Vibrio fluvialis; and Serratia marcescens), and pathogens that are etiologic agents of diseases of ectothermic animals (e.g., Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae, Hafnia alvei, Edwardsiella tarda, and Citrobacter braakii; the last two species were isolated from both groups of animals). The cloacal bacterial biota of the European pond turtle was characterized by numerous species of bacteria, and its composition varied with turtle age and environmental conditions. The small number of isolated bacteria that are potential human pathogens may indicate that the European pond turtle is of relatively minor importance as a threat to public health. PMID:25380369

Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Zió?kowska, Gra?yna; Zi?ba, Przemys?aw; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer; Gnat, Sebastian; Wójcik, Mariusz; Dziedzic, Roman; Kostruba, Anna

2015-01-01

311

Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds  

SciTech Connect

The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

Alexander, D.J.

1993-07-01

312

SODIUM BICARBONATE, INORGANIC FERTILIZER AND PH IN SUNSHINE BASS FINGERLING CULTURE PONDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High pH levels in ponds are often the result of low buffering capacity and high photosynthesis rates. In sunshine bass fingerling production ponds high pH levels occur during the first phytoplankton bloom after ponds are filled and fertilized. That is when its optimal for stocking fry into ponds: ...

313

Predation and the distribution and abundance of a pulmonate pond snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundances of a freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea elodes were studied in a temporary pond and a permanent, more productive pond in northeastern Indiana, USA. When snails from both populations were reared in each of the ponds in containers excluding predators, snails grew to be 1.3 to 2 times as large in the more productive pond, and laid 9 times

Kenneth M. Brown; Dennis R. DeVries

1985-01-01

314

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m{sup 2} and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E). Heat was successfully extracted from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond by using a heat pipe heat exchanger made from 60 copper tubes with 21 mm inside diameter and 22 mm outside diameter. The length of the evaporator and condenser section was 800 mm and 200 mm respectively. R134a was used as the heat transfer fluid in the experiment. The theoretical model was formulated for the solar pond heat extraction on the basis of the energy conservation equations and by using the solar radiation data for the above location. Numerical methods were used to solve the modeling equations. In the analysis, the performance of heat exchanger is investigated by varying the velocity of inlet air used to extract heat from the condenser end of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). Air velocity was found to have a significant influence on the effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger. In the present investigation, there was an increase in effectiveness by 43% as the air velocity was decreased from 5 m/s to 1 m/s. The results obtained from the theoretical model showed good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

Tundee, Sura; Terdtoon, Pradit; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Singh, Randeep; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Bundoora East Campus, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

2010-09-15

315

Changing the Rules on Fuel Export at Sellafield's First Fuel Storage Pond - 12065  

SciTech Connect

The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1949/50 to receive, store and de-can fuel and isotopes from the Windscale Piles. Following closure of the Piles in 1957, plant operations were scaled down until fuel processing eventually ceased in 1962. The facility has held an inventory of metal fuel both from the Piles and from other programmes since that time. The pond is currently undergoing remediation and removal of the fuel is a key step in that process, unfortunately the fuel export infrastructure on the plant is no longer functional and due to the size and limited lifting capability, the plant is not compatible with today's large volume heavy export flasks. The baseline scheme for the plant is to package fuel into a small capacity flask and transfer it to another facility for treatment and repackaging into a flask compatible with other facilities on site. Due to programme priorities the repackaging facility is not available to do this work for several years causing a delay to the work. In an effort accelerate the programme the Metal Fuel Pilot Project (MFPP) was initiated to challenge the norms for fuel transfer and develop a new methodology for transferring the fuel. In developing a transfer scheme the team had to overcome challenges associated with unknown fuel condition, transfers outside of bulk containment, pyro-phoricity and oxidisation hazards as well as developing remote control and recovery systems for equipment not designed for this purpose. A combination of novel engineering and enhanced operational controls were developed which resulted in the successful export of the first fuel to leave the Pile Fuel Storage Pond in over 40 years. The learning from the pilot project is now being considered by the main project team to see how the new methodology can be applied to the full inventory of the pond. (author)

Carlisle, Derek [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01

316

Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds.  

PubMed

Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) consist of emergent macrophytes that are placed on a floating mat in a pond for water treatment and aesthetic purposes. FTWs may have unique advantages with respect to treating urban runoff within existing retention ponds for excess nutrients. However, research is lacking in providing guidance on performance of specific species for treating urban runoff, and on timing of harvest. Harvesting is needed to remove nutrients permanently from the retention pond. We investigated vegetation effects on FTWs on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal performance and storage in above-ground FTW macrophyte tissues. The study evaluated pickerelweed (PW, Pontederia cordata L.) and softstem bulrush (SB, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) over time in microcosms flushed with water obtained from a nearby urban retention pond in northern Virginia near Washington, DC. While the literature exhibits a wide range of experimental sizes, using the term mesocosm, we have chosen the term microcosm to reflect the small size of our vessel; and do not include effects of sediment. The experiment demonstrated PW outperformed SB for P and N removal. Based upon analysis of the accumulated nutrient removal over time, a harvest of the whole PW and SB plants in September or October is recommended. However, when harvesting only the aerial parts, we recommend harvesting above-ground PW tissues in July or August to maximize nutrient removal. This is because PW translocates most of its nutrients to below-ground storage organs in the fall, resulting in less nutrient mass in the above-ground tissue compared to the case in the summer (vegetative stage). Further research is suggested to investigate whether vegetation can be overly damaged from multiple harvests on an annual basis in temperate regions. PMID:25214393

Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J; Bell, Cameron

2014-11-15

317

Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The trophic ecology and ground-water contributing area of Walden Pond, in Concord and Lincoln, Mass., were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management from April 1997 to July 2000. Bathymetric investigation indicated that Walden Pond (24.88 hectares), a glacial kettle-hole lake with no surface inlet or outlet, has three deep areas. The maximum depth (30.5 meters) essentially was unchanged from measurements made by Henry David Thoreau in 1846. The groundwater contributing area (621,000 square meters) to Walden Pond was determined from water-table contours in areas of stratified glacial deposits and from land-surface contours in areas of bedrock highs. Walden Pond is a flow-through lake: Walden Pond gains water from the aquifer along its eastern perimeter and loses water to the aquifer along its western perimeter. Walden Pond contributing area also includes Goose Pond and its contributing area. A water budget calculated for Walden Pond, expressed as depth of water over the lake surface, indicated that 45 percent of the inflow to the lake was from precipitation (1.215 meters per year) and 55 percent from ground water (1.47 meters per year). The groundwater inflow estimate was based on the average of two different approaches including an isotope mass-balance approach. Evaporation accounted for 26 percent of the outflow from the lake (0.71 meters per year) whereas lake-water seepage to the groundwater system contributed 74 percent of the outflow (1.97 meters per year). The water-residence time of Walden Pond is approximately 5 years. Potential point sources of nutrients to ground water, the Concord municipal landfill and a trailer park, were determined to be outside the Walden Pond groundwater contributing area. A third source, the septic leach field for the Walden Pond State Reservation facilities, was within the groundwater contributing area. Nutrient budgets for the lake indicated that nitrogen inputs (858 kilograms per year) were dominated (30 percent) by plume water from the septic leach field and, possibly, by swimmers (34 percent). Phosphorus inputs (32 kilograms per year) were dominated by atmospheric dry deposition, background ground water, and estimated swimmer inputs. Swimmer inputs may represent more than 50 percent of the phosphorus load during the summer. The septic-system plume did not contribute phosphorus, but increased the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio for inputs from 41 to 59, on an atom-to-atom basis. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in input loads and within the lake indicated algal growth would be strongly phosphorus limited. Nitrogen supply in excess of plant requirements may mitigate against nitrogen fixing organisms including undesirable blooms of cyanobacteria. Based on areal nutrient loading, Walden Pond is a mesotrophic lake. Hypolimnetic oxygen demand of Walden Pond has increased since a profile was measured in 1939. Currently (1999), the entire hypolimnion of Walden Pond becomes devoid of dissolved oxygen before fall turnover in late November; whereas historical data indicated dissolved oxygen likely remained in the hypolimnion during 1939. The complete depletion of dissolved oxygen likely causes release of phosphorus from the sediments. Walden Pond contains a large population of the deep-growing benthic macro alga Nitella, which has been hypothesized to promote water clarity in other clear-water lakes by sequestering nutrients and keeping large areas of the sediment surface oxygenated. Loss of Nitella populations in other lakes has correlated with a decline in water quality. Although the Nitella standing crop is large in Walden Pond, Nitella still appears to be controlled by nutrient availability. Decreasing phosphorus inputs to Walden Pond, by amounts under anthropogenic control would likely contribute to the stability of the Nitella population in the metalimnion, may reverse oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion, and decreas

Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

2001-01-01

318

Management and conservation of San Francisco Bay salt ponds: Effects of pond salinity, area, tide, and season on pacific flyway waterbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the world, coastal salt ponds provide habitat for large numbers and diversities of waterbirds. San Francisco Bay contains the most important coastal salt pond complexes for waterbirds in the United States, supporting more than a million waterbirds through the year. As an initial step in attempting to understand how the anticipated conversion of salt ponds to tidal marsh might affect the Bay's bird populations, the number of birds using salt ponds on high and low tides was counted during the winter months of 1999/00 and 2000/01. Behavior and habitat use of birds in these ponds were assessed, and the effects of tide cycle, pond salinity, and pond area on bird use were examined. We recorded 75 species of waterbirds in surveys of salt ponds in the South Bay from September 1999 to February 2001, totaling over a million bird use days on high tide. Shorebirds and dabbling ducks were the most abundant groups of birds using the salt ponds. Waterbird numbers and diversity were significantly affected by the salinity of ponds in a non-linear fashion with lower numbers and diversity on the highest salinity ponds. With the exception of ducks and Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), tide height at the Bay significantly affected bird numbers in the salt ponds with ponds at high tides having higher numbers of birds than the same ponds on low tides. Considerable numbers of birds fed in the salt ponds on high and low tides, although this varied greatly by species. Habitat use varied by tide. Management recommendations include maintaining ponds of varying salinities and depths. Restoring salt ponds to tidal marsh should proceed with caution to avoid loss of waterbird diversity and numbers in San Francisco Bay.

Warnock, N.; Page, G.W.; Ruhlen, T.D.; Nur, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Hanson, J.T.

2002-01-01

319

Impact of urbanization on sediment chemistry in small-scale watersheds, southeast Virginia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of Virginia contains only two natural bodies of water with the rest being comprised of mill ponds, farm ponds and impoundment lakes. These man made water bodies are ubiquitous along the eastern seaboard. Southeast Virginia (Williamsburg, Jamestown and surrounding counties) was the locus of early European settlement and many of the local ponds date back to the early colonial period. As such, the sediment record in these ponds provides a unique historical record of the impact human activity can have on small watersheds. Two small man-made ponds (Lake Matoaka and Jolly Pond) were studied. Both ponds lie within the James River basin, a major feeder to the Chesapeake Bay. Both drainage basins cover ~600 ha but differ significantly in the level of development. Lake Matoaka was originally dammed ca. 1720. The Matoaka drainage is currently experiencing rapid development (~22% high population residential/commercial) and includes the College of William & Mary's campus. Jolly Pond and the two dams that created it first appear on maps dating back to 1863. The Jolly Pond basin is largely dominated by forests and agricultural land. Sediment cores were taken from both ponds using a Russian peat corer, Matoaka to 1.5m depth and Jolly Pond to 0.9m dpeth. Sediment splits were analyzed for total exchangeable lead concentration and lead isotopes (207Pb/206Pb & 208Pb/206Pb), as well total carbon and nitrogen. Carbon/Nitrogen ratios were used to indicate changes in water level and dam height increases. Lead concentrations in both cores show a peak associated with leaded gasoline use. [Pb] in Matoaka are significant (~320 ppm) and show a clear anthropogenic isotopic signature. Jolly Pond [Pb] are surprisingly low and are close to background values. These data indicate that even minimal development has significant impact on sediment chemistry. Likely lead sources for Lake Matoaka include road and building runoff and lead aerosols.

Evans, M. J.; Packard, H.

2007-12-01

320

53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" looking from the southwest (similar to HALS no. LA-1-23) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

321

54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from the east (similar to HALS no. LA-1-24) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

322

52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in background looking from the northeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-22) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

323

INVESTIGATIONS AND MANIPULATIONS OF TROPHIC LEVELS IN A POND ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of a four week investigation in Drew University's Long Pond in the Zuck Arboretum, the dynamics of trophic levels were explored through controlled manipulation. Leading concerns dealt with aspects of the \\

Dan Currie; Mario DeFranco; Laura Fong; Rashi Grewal; Andrew Herman; Jane Hur; Rachel Kolesnikov-Lindsey; Linda Karas; Lea Pope; Max Wiedmann

324

WATERFOWL USE OF WASTEWATER PONDS ON THE IDAHO NATIONAL  

E-print Network

including ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), redheads (Aythya americana), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata-winged teal (A. crecca) nested and reared or attempted to rear broods on the INEL ponds. Logistic regression

325

10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF THE SEDIMENT DAM AND POND, FACING SOUTH. PHOTO TAKEN FROM WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25). - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

326

THE POTAMOGETONS IN RELATION TO POND CULTURE By Emmeline Moore  

E-print Network

THE POTAMOGETONS IN RELATION TO POND CULTURE By Emmeline Moore Contribution from the Department , '" . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ...· .. .....·....·....···..... 255 Historical , .. .......·......... 255 Species of Potamogeton investigated. .. .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . 265 P. pectinatus. . 265 P. Robbinsii ',' , . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . 267 Summary

327

MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

328

Science From the Pond Up: Using Measurement to Introduce Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors engaged nonscience majors enrolled in an integrated science course with a prototype activity designed to change their mindset from cookbook to inquiry science. This article describes the activity, the Warm Little Pond, which helped students de

Abdulkadir Demir

2010-03-01

329

ALGAL METABOLITE INFLUENCE ON BLOOM SEQUENCE IN EUTROPHIED FRESHWATER PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The extracellular metabolites of planktonic bloom dominant algae play a most significant role in the determination of bloom sequence in a eutrophied freshwater pond. Certain extracellular metabolites of planktonic blue-green algae substantially inhibit the growth of planktonic di...

330

Big Sagebrush: A Sea Fragmented into Lakes, Ponds, and Puddles  

E-print Network

Distribution of big sagebrush in the State of Washington before settlement. Distribution of big sagebrush in the State of Washington after settlementAbstract ______________________________________ Welch, Bruce L. 2005. Big sagebrush: A sea fragmented into lakes, ponds, and puddles.

United States; Forest Service; Bruce L. Welch

2005-01-01

331

On the red coloration of saltern crystallizer ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess, respectively, the contribution of red bacteria of theHalobacterium-Haloferax-Haloarcula group and of the ?-carotene-rich green algaDunaliella salina to the red colour of saltern crystallizer ponds, we studied the optical properties of the brines of NaCl-saturated saltern\\u000a ponds in Eilat, Israel, and quantified the pigments present in their biota. The absorption spectrum of the brines, as measured\\u000a using the opal

Aharon Oren; Noga Stambler; Zvy Dubinsky

1992-01-01

332

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails.\\u000a In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish\\u000a but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an

Andrew M. Turner; Michael F. Chislock

2007-01-01

333

Comparative physical limnology of farm ponds in Southcentral Texas  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGY OF FARM PONDS IN SOUTHCENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by DEWEY GREGORY MEYERS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1973 Ma)or Subject: Biology COMPARATIVE PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGY OF FARM PONDS IN SOUTHCENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by DEWEY GREGORY MEYERS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairma of Committee) / i/y'/ /', . nf (Head 'of Depart'ment) (Member...

Meyers, Dewey Gregory

2012-06-07

334

Status report - Salton Sea solar pond power plant  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar pond commercial power plants in the Salton Sea has been confirmed by a study completed in May 1981. The Salton Sea is an inland salt lake located in the Imperial Valley of Southern California. 600 MW/sub e/ of base load power can be generated if 15% of the sea's 932-km/sup 2/ (360-square mile) surface area is converted to solar ponds. 3 refs.

French, R.L.; Lin, E.I.H.

1981-01-01

335

The prediction of macrophyte species occurrence in Swiss ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempted to model the abundance of aquatic plant species recorded in a range of ponds in Switzerland. A stratified\\u000a sample of 80 ponds, distributed all over the country, provided input data for model development. Of the 154 species recorded,\\u000a 45 were selected for modelling. A total of 14 environmental parameters were preselected as candidate explanatory variables.\\u000a Two types

D. Auderset Joye; B. Oertli; A. Lehmann; R. Juge; J.-B. Lachavanne

336

Level 1 remedial investigation work plan, 300 Area Process Ponds  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the objectives of the site characterization for the 300 Area Process Ponds which are to identify and quantify contamination at the ponds and to estimate their potential impact on human health and the environment. The results of the site characterization will be used to identify any future actions related to contamination at the site and to identify any additional data requirements needed to support selection of a remedial action. 9 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1987-06-01

337

Influence of benzene on the phytoplankton and on Daphnia pulex in compartments of an experimental pond  

SciTech Connect

Benzene, with initial concentrations of 100 and 50 mg per liter, was dosed in duplicates into four compartments of a small pond. The decrease of chemical concentration in the water was exponential with a mean half-life of 4.7 +/- 0.9 days. Following benzene application, the phytoplankton density and diversity slightly increased relative to the controls. Both concentrations were lethal for the daphnids present. During 24-hr in vitro tests with Daphnia pulex (initial benzene concentrations less than 50 mg per liter), a direct correlation between mobility and decreasing chemical concentration was observed.

Lay, J.P.; Schauerte, W.; Peichl, L.; Klein, W.; Korte, F.

1985-10-01

338

Acidification as environmental pollution: effects on fish-pond ecology  

SciTech Connect

To establish the impact of acidity on fish production in ponds, experiments were conducted in fertilized sunfish (Lepomis spp.) ponds and fed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds. The alkalinity and pH of pond water were lowered by additions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Total alkalinity levels were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 mg/liter in sunfish ponds and 0, 5, and 20 in catfish production ponds. Water quality and phytoplankton density were monitored. The decrease in alkalinity caused changes in fish production and phytoplankton communities. Production of sunfish decreased with decreasing alkalinity below 20 mg/liter. Channel catfish yields were not affected significantly at a total alkalinity of 5 mg/liter and above (P > 0.05). No sign of fish stress of aluminum accumulation in the tissue were detected in catfish. There was no relation between alkalinity level and off-flavor in catfish. Chlorophyll a concentration increased as alkalinity and pH decreased, although total number of phytoplankters, gross photosynthesis, and turbidity decreased with decreases in total alkalinity. Phosphorus was more available at low alkalinity levels. Total hardness increased as alkalinity decreased.

Murad, H.A.

1987-01-01

339

Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R. [Foothill Engineering, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

1994-12-31

340

Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

Koch, J. II

1996-12-01

341

Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond  

SciTech Connect

Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Scott, T.G.

1983-01-01

342

Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

Francis, M.; Gukert, D. [Novacor Research and Technology Corporation, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); [Novacor Chemicals, Red Deer, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

343

Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

2008-01-01

344

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

345

An ecosystem service approach to support integrated pond management: a case study using Bayesian belief networks--highlighting opportunities and risks.  

PubMed

Freshwater ponds deliver a broad range of ecosystem services (ESS). Taking into account this broad range of services to attain cost-effective ESS delivery is an important challenge facing integrated pond management. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of an ESS approach to support decisions in integrated pond management, we applied it on a small case study in Flanders, Belgium. A Bayesian belief network model was developed to assess ESS delivery under three alternative pond management scenarios: intensive fish farming (IFF), extensive fish farming (EFF) and nature conservation management (NCM). A probabilistic cost-benefit analysis was performed that includes both costs associated with pond management practices and benefits associated with ESS delivery. Whether or not a particular ESS is included in the analysis affects the identification of the most preferable management scenario by the model. Assessing the delivery of a more complete set of ecosystem services tends to shift the results away from intensive management to more biodiversity-oriented management scenarios. The proposed methodology illustrates the potential of Bayesian belief networks. BBNs facilitate knowledge integration and their modular nature encourages future model expansion to more encompassing sets of services. Yet, we also illustrate the key weaknesses of such exercises, being that the choice whether or not to include a particular ecosystem service may determine the suggested optimal management practice. PMID:25005053

Landuyt, Dries; Lemmens, Pieter; D'hondt, Rob; Broekx, Steven; Liekens, Inge; De Bie, Tom; Declerck, Steven A J; De Meester, Luc; Goethals, Peter L M

2014-12-01

346

Role of rainwater induced subsurface flow in water-level dynamics and thermoerosion of shallow thermokarst ponds on the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding hydrological and thermal regimes of thermokarst lakes is of great importance for predicting their responses to climate change. However, mechanism of water-level dynamics and associated thermal effects on thermoerosion of thermokarst lakes are still not well understood on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). In this study, we investigate two typical shallow thermokarst ponds (namely small lakes) in a warm permafrost region with thick active layer on the northeastern QTP through quantifying water budget. Results demonstrate that, rainfall induced subsurface lateral flow dominates pond water-level regime. Annual variation of pond water-level relies on areal water budget of surrounding active layer, particularly the high variable of precipitation. Besides, it is worth noting the extraordinary warming during the late ice-cover period, because marked air gap between upper ice-cover and underlying water, led by the upward thawing of thick ice-cover, might result in greenhouse-like condition due to the unique weather that strong solar radiation and little snowpack. This hydrological mechanism also exerts evident impacts on thermal regime and thermoerosion of the shallow thermokarst ponds, and they are closely related to retreat of thermokarst pondshore and underlying permafrost degradation. These findings imply a localized model addressing the unique hydrological and thermal regimes of thermokarst lakes would be essential to study the evolution of these shallow rainwater dominated thermokarst ponds on the QTP.

Pan, X.; Yu, Q.; You, Y.

2014-12-01

347

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-09-01

348

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-11-01

349

[Effects of probiotics on Penaeus vannamei pond sediments].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of probiotics on the sediment of Penaeus vannamei pond during 117 days of culture period. The results showed that probiotics application significantly decreased the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and sulfide in sediment, but no significant difference was observed in total plate count (TPC) of microbes between treated and control ponds. The final average presumptive vibrio count (PVC) of treated pond sediment (3.65 x 10(3) cfu x g(-1)) was significantly lower than that of the control (1.16 x 10(5) cfu x g(-1)), while the average number of BS (Bacillus), AB (ammonifying bacteria), PSOB (presumptive sulphur oxidizing bacteria) and SRB (sulphur reducing bacteria) in treated pond sediment was higher than that of the control. These data showed that probiotics could decrease the nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur) accumulation and improve the composition of bacterial populations in pond sediment, and thus, supply a good sediment environment for the healthily culture of the shrimp. PMID:17147196

Wang, Yanbo; Zha, Longying; Xu, Zirong

2006-09-01

350

Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

Hurick, M. G.

1982-01-01

351

Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

Marsh, H. E.

1983-01-01

352

Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation in the Arctic is unclear and the sources of MeHg to arctic freshwater ecosystems are still largely unidentified. Our research is demonstrating that some shallow and warm wetland ponds on the Arctic landscape contain high MeHg concentrations compared to nearby deep and cold lakes. We used a mass-balance approach to measure the net in-pond production of MeHg in two warm wetland ponds (Ponds 1 and 2) near Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (81° N latitude). We quantified external inputs and outputs of MeHg to and from the ponds, as well as the accumulation of MeHg in the water column during the summers of 2005 and 2008. Any changes in water column MeHg concentrations that could not be accounted for by external inputs or sinks were attributed to in-pond production. The principal external input and sink of MeHg was, respectively, wet atmospheric deposition and water-column MeHg photodemethylation. For 2005, we estimate that the net flux of MeHg from sediments into the water column was 0.015 ?g m-2 d-1 in Pond 1 and 0.0016 ?g m-2 d-1 in Pond 2. Compared to sediment-water MeHg fluxes measured in Alaskan tundra lakes (0.0015-0.0045 ?g m-2 d-1), Pond 1 sediments are a greater source of MeHg while Pond 2 is similar to the Alaskan lakes. Furthermore, the accumulation of MeHg in the water column of Pond 1 (0.0061 ?g m-2 d-1) was similar to the net yield of MeHg from temperate boreal wetlands (0.0005-0.006 ?g m-2 d-1), demonstrating that these Arctic wetlands are important sites of MeHg production. In addition, we used mercury stable-isotope tracers to quantify methylation and demethylation rates in intact sediment cores collected in 2007 from 8 sites encompassing a range of physico-chemical parameters to investigate why concentrations of MeHg measured in wetland ponds vary greatly among sites, despite superficial similarities in site characteristics. Our presentation will explore spatial and temporal variability in MeHg dynamics in Arctic wetlands in an attempt to determine the biogeochemical factors controlling MeHg cycling and abundance in Arctic freshwater systems.

Lehnherr, I.; St. Louis, V. L.

2010-12-01

353

Salt gradient solar pond technology in the US  

SciTech Connect

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has concluded that a potential exists for salt-gradient solar ponds. In a solar pond, there are three layers of salinity. The top layer absorbs sunlight, the middle serves as an insulator, while allowing radiation to pass through to the bottom layer, of the thickest salinity, which stores the energy. Selection of a site of adequate insolation, inexpensive land, free from aquifer interference, is discussed. The pond is filled by the injection procedure, as outlined. Costs vary dramatically based on site parameter limitations of insolation, water, salt, and aquifer. DOE has initiated RandD programs to address the problem of gradient zone erosion, characterize the parameters of heat extraction, and investigate the interactions of soil and brine. A feasibility study has been made at Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley. Other sites are being studied.

Macaleer, B.S.; Rannels, J.E.

1982-06-01

354

Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brinesoil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development are described.

Marsh, H.E.

1983-08-01

355

Ammonia volatilisation in waste stabilisation ponds: a cascade of misinterpretations?  

PubMed

Ammonia volatilisation has generally been reported as, or assumed to be, the main nitrogen removal mechanism in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Nitrogen removal via ammonia volatilisation is based on two observations: (a) in-pond pH values can reach high values (>9, even >10), so increasing the proportion of the total ammonia present as the un-ionized form or free ammonia (NH(3)); and (b) in-pond temperatures can also be high, so improving the mass transfer rate of free ammonia to the atmosphere. Consequently, one of the most widely accepted models for ammonia removal in WSP is that reported by Pano & Middlebrooks in 1982, which was developed to reflect the occurrence of these two observations. This work reports how simple mathematical models for ammonia volatilisation in WSP, in spite of the possibility of their giving good predictions, may not accurately describe the main pathways and mechanisms involved in ammonia removal in WSP. PMID:20150690

Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D

2010-01-01

356

EFFECT OF FISH AQUACULTURE ON WATER QUALITY IN RESTORED, HISTORICAL FISH PONDS ON MOLOKAI ISLAND, HAWAII  

EPA Science Inventory

The Molokoi Fish Pond Project is designed to determine effects on water quality of commercial fish production within several different historical fish ponds and immediately offshore in order to establish appropriate water quality standards and discharge permit conditions for the ...

357

NUTRIENT-BASED ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT BASINS: PONDS AND WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of stormwater pond and wetland best management practice (BMP) designs on phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in effluent were considered using extant data and experimental observations from pond and wetland mesocosms. Relative difference between BMP types were eva...

358

NUTRIENT-BASED ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT BASINS: PONDS AND WETLANDS (PRESENTATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of stormwater pond and wetland best management practice (BMP) designs on phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in effluent were considered using extant data and experimental observations from pond and wetland mesocosms. Relative difference between BMP types were eva...

359

Benthic resources are the key to Daphnia middendorffiana survival in a high arctic pond  

E-print Network

Benthic resources are the key to Daphnia middendorffiana survival in a high arctic pond MATTEO food sources for zooplankton. 2. The cladoceran Daphnia middendorffiana responded to the 13 C. Keywords: arctic pond, benthic algae, Daphnia middendorffiana, terrestrial carbon, zooplankton Introduction

Vincent, Warwick F.

360

An Internet survey of private pond owners and managers in Texas  

E-print Network

amphibians, frogs and salamanders, and reptiles, turtles, lizards, and snakes valuable habitat. Many types of mammals visit ponds for water, including deer, rabbits, and raccoons. Some, including beavers and muskrats, make ponds their homes. All provide...

Schonrock, April Elizabeth

2005-11-01

361

78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NRC-2011-0143] License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works, Honeywell International...Federal Regulations (10 CFR) to approve the closure of the calcium fluoride ponds in-place, by stabilization of the...

2013-09-27

362

Distribution of Arsenic in Presque Isle, PA, Pond Sediments Jason Murnock, Master of Science Candidate,  

E-print Network

Distribution of Arsenic in Presque Isle, PA, Pond Sediments Jason Murnock, Master of Science Geology of Presque Isle State Park, Erie, PA ............................................... 8 Pond and Lagoon Background Analyses, Presque Isle State Park .............. 8 Methods

Short, Daniel

363

Comparative growth of six strains of largemouth bass in Texas ponds  

E-print Network

ponds which previously had been treated with rotenone to eliminate existing fish populations. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were introduced into these holding ponds to serve as prey. ' The progeny groups were kept separate until they were about 1...

Rudd, Alan Eugene

2012-06-07

364

Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Breeding amphibians were found in 21 of 24 ponds examined on the Ollis Creek Surface Mine in Campbell County, Tennessee. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that range from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. Findings indicated high biological productivity in the surface mine ponds examined. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species.

Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

1981-06-01

365

An Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life in a Male Prison Population in Greece Associations with Health Related Characteristics and Characteristics of Detention  

PubMed Central

Background. Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population are limited. Aim. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. Results. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population. PMID:25093161

Togas, Constantinos

2014-01-01

366

Bioaccumulation and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in an experimental freshwater pond  

SciTech Connect

An acute release of /sup 95m/Tc was made to a small experimental freshwater pond to determine the behavior of technetium in a freshwater ecosystem. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in the components of the ecosystem and (2) to determine the concentration in freshwater biota. Prior to the release of /sup 95m/Tc, the pond was stocked with aquatic macrophytes, fish, and invertebrates. All components of the pond were sampled for a period of 37 d. Analyses of filtered and unfiltered water samples showed that /sup 95m/Tc did not sorb significantly to particulates suspended in the water but remained dissolved. Sediments accumulated /sup 95m/Tc slowly as the experiment progressed. In the biota, periphyton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, reaching the highest concentration (3482 dpm/g dry wt) 4 h after the release and maintaining a relatively high concentration throughout the experiment. Fish and invertebrates accumulated /sup 95m/Tc gradually. Elimination studies and tissue analyses showed that a large percentage of the body burden was in the digestive system of all fish, suggesting that fish were accumulating /sup 95m/Tc through the food chain. Biological half-lives determined from elimination studies for carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 2.5, 4.3, and 21.3 d, respectively. Calculated concentration factors for the same species were 11 for carp, 75 for mosquito fish, and 121 for snails. The estimated size of the biomass components in the ecosystem in descending order were: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and algae. Based on biomass estimates and concentrations of the /sup 95m/Tc in the aquatic biota, approximately 1% of the /sup 95m/Tc accumulated in the biota.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

1981-01-01

367

Stocking and Management Recommendations for Texas Farm Ponds.  

E-print Network

of the traits which the pondowner needs to know--not only "what'i but "why". Pros and cons of certain fish species are necessary. Crappie should not be stocked in ponds. Why? Fathead minnows are better forage for channel catfish than golden shiners. Why... pon d and ca ref ully protec ted . One cannot af f ord to lose the original fish as they are present i n very 1 imited numbers . CON CLUSION Proper management ' of fish in a pond is more of an art than a science. As research seeks to answer...

Anonymous,

1983-01-01

368

Arctic melt ponds and bifurcations in the climate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how sea ice melts is critical to climate projections. In the Arctic, melt ponds that develop on the surface of sea ice floes during the late spring and summer largely determine their albedo - a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a conceptual sea ice climate model passing through a bifurcation point - an irreversible critical threshold as the system warms, by incorporating geometric information about melt pond evolution. This study is based on a bifurcation analysis of the energy balance climate model with ice-albedo feedback as the key mechanism driving the system to bifurcation points.

Sudakov, I.; Vakulenko, S. A.; Golden, K. M.

2015-05-01

369

Physical and hydrodynamic characteristics of a dairy shed waste stabilisation pond system.  

PubMed

Waste stabilization pond systems are widely used to treat animal wastes under highly variable hydraulic loading regimes. These systems have received limited research attention with regard to their hydrodynamic behaviour and the potential impact of shock hydraulic loading on their performance. In this study a two-stage dairy shed waste stabilisation pond system was topographically surveyed to determine the physical shape and the theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each pond, as well as the extent of sludge accumulation in the primary pond. The primary pond was then subjected to a series of drogue tracking runs whereby weighted floating survey targets with submerged 'sails' were tracked during their movement through the pond at times of peak flow in order to characterise the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pond. The full capacity volumes of the primary and secondary ponds were calculated to be 1285 m3 and 2391 m3, respectively. Sludge had been accumulating in the primary pond at a rate of 0.73 m3/d over a period of 2.4 years and this has reduced the active treatment volume of the pond to 657 m3. Based on mean outflow, the HRTs of the ponds were 40 d and 137 d, respectively. The drogue runs revealed a vortex-like mixing pattern within the pond with higher velocities around the perimeter of the pond between the inlet and outlet, and lower velocities in the centre of the pond. In-pond velocities seemed relatively high in comparison with those from other drogue studies of larger ponds and the surging inflow caused the formation of a flow 'jet' that potentially contributed to significant short-circuiting. The range of influence of this flow jet, however, was limited to within 15 m of the inlet, suggesting that short-circuiting would be likely to occur only under certain high inflow conditions. PMID:17591191

Fyfe, J; Smalley, J; Hagare, D; Sivakumar, M

2007-01-01

370

Dissolved oxygen requirements for hatching success of two ambystomatid salamanders in restored ephemeral ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess feasibility of reintroduction of extirpated spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in restored flatwoods wetlands, hatching rates were monitored using pond enclosures.Ambystoma maculatum hatching success was compared to that of conspecifics in source ponds and to blue-spotted salamanders (Ambystoma laterale) that had persisted in restored ponds despite habitat degradation. Restored ephemeral ponds with hypoxic conditions had consistent\\u000a hatching failure forA.

Allison B. Sacerdote; Richard B. King

2009-01-01

371

Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50 ponds during spring and early summer showed strong variability in fluxes of carbon dioxide (-0.01-2.09 g C m-2 d-1), methane (0.02-13.95 mg C m-2 d-1), and nitrous oxide (-0.15-3.94 mg N m-2 d-1). These differences in GHG fluxes are primarily related to hydrological settings of ponds at PBP. These ponds are strong GHG sources in comparison to ponds in other circumpolar environments. Our findings highlight the importance of water budget dynamics in understanding nutrient and carbon fluxes in Canadian High Arctic ponds and indicate the need for long-term monitoring studies.

Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

2012-12-01

372

An alternate lining scheme for solar ponds - Results of a liner test rig  

SciTech Connect

Solar pond lining schemes consisting of combinations of clays and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) films have been experimentally evaluated by means of a Solar Pond Liner Test Rig. Results indicate that LDPE film sandwiched between two layers of clay can be effectively used for lining solar ponds.

Raman, P.; Kishore, V.V.N. (Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India))

1990-01-01

373

Design and fish culture considerations for catfish farming in split ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Split ponds are simple, pond-based aquaculture systems constructed by dividing an existing catfish pond into two unequal basins with an earthen levee. Fish are confined in the smaller basin (usually about 15-20% of total water area) while the larger basin serves as a waste-treatment lagoon. A high-v...

374

First-Year Growth and Survival of Largemouth Bass Fingerlings Stocked into Western South Dakota Ponds  

E-print Network

ponds had Secchi transparencies of 1.1-2.2 m, which allowed substantial growth of submergent aquatic seine with 6-mm bar mesh was used to sample all seven ponds. Three quarter-arc seine hauls were covered by submergent aquatic vegetation was visually estimated for each pond after viewing from a boat

375

Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary estimates of the ratio of mangrove forest: shrimp pond area necessary to remove nutrients from shrimp pond effluent are made using budgets of nitrogen and phosphorus output for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds combined with estimates of total net primary production in Rhizophora-dominated mangrove forests in tropical coastal areas. If effluent is delivered directly to mangrove forest plots, it

A. I. Robertson; M. J. Phillips

1995-01-01

376

Evaluation of an Electric Fence System for excluding Wading Birds at Catfish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated a two-strand electric fence barrier to determine its utility in excluding great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and great egrets (Casmerodius albus) from ponds containing channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fencing at five ponds resulted in at least a 91% reduction in pond use by herons and egrets. Labor to install the fences ranged from 2 to 6 person-hours per

Donald E. Mott; Richard D. Flynt

1995-01-01

377

Enrichment of aquaculture earthen ponds with Hediste diversicolor: Consequences for benthic dynamics and natural productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work analysed the potential impacts of the enrichment of semi-intensive production earthen ponds with the ragworm Hediste diversicolor in the benthic dynamics and natural productivity. The macrobenthos and sediment characteristics were analysed in two enriched ponds and two control ponds in May, June and September 2005. The number of species, Margalef species richness and biomass (AFDW) were generally

Susana Carvalho; Marisa Barata; Miguel B. Gaspar; Pedro Pousão-Ferreira; Luís Cancela da Fonseca

2007-01-01

378

Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians  

SciTech Connect

Of 24 ponds examined on Ollis Creek Surface Mine, Campbell County, Tennessee, 21 contained breeding amphibians. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that ranged from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. The average pH of ponds occupied by each amphibian species varied. Spring peepers (Hyla crucifer) occupied ponds with the lowest average pH (5.22) while upland chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata feriarum) utilized ponds with the highest average pH (6.33). Findings indicated high biological productivity in surface mine ponds. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Large mammals (3 species), waterbirds (17 species), and snakes (2 species) were among those species observed. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species and therefore improve the quality of wildlife habitat on the surface mines. In some areas, mine ponds are the only source of surface water available for wildlife use. 23 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

1981-06-01

379

Effects of porous media on thermal and salt diffusion of solar pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field experiments were carried out along with numerical simulations in this paper to study the effects of porous media on thermal and salt diffusion of the solar ponds. From our laboratory experiments simulating heat transfer inside a solar pond, it is shown that the addition of porous media to the bottom of a solar pond could help enhance

Yufeng Shi; Fang Yin; Lihua Shi; Sun Wence; Nan Li; Hong Liu

2011-01-01

380

Transport of trace elements in runoff from unamended and pond-ash amended feedlot surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides a drier environment for livestock and furnishes economic benefits. However, pond ash is known to have high concentrations of trace elements and the runoff wate...

381

Fate of carbofuran and its effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in Canadian prairie parkland ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multipond study was conducted in 1986 to determine the fate of carbofuran and its effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in alkaline, Canadian prairie parkland ponds. Four ponds were sprayed with carbofuran in late July; four other ponds served as controls. Sixteen hours after spraying, concentrations of carbofuran in the water column ranged from 9–32 µg l-1. After 124 h, concentrations

Mark Wayland; David A. Boag

1995-01-01

382

Phytoplankton succession in sunshine bass fry ponds and the effect of Aquashade®  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytoplankton management in aquaculture ponds is very critical in maintaining good quality water for culturing fish especially during the fry and fingerling stages. Though much is known about succession in catfish ponds, that is not the case for sunshine bass ponds. This study was designed to look a...

383

Implications of Fecal Bacteria Input from Latrine-Polluted Ponds for Wells in Sandy Aquifers  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Ponds receiving latrine effluents may serve as sources of fecal contamination to shallow aquifers countries, where there are abundant sources of fecal contamination, the depth of the water table varies a pond was excavated influence the how much fecal contamination ponds receiving latrine effluents

van Geen, Alexander

384

Oxygen transfer in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) constructed wetlands have been used to treat wastewater from swine anaerobic lagoons. To mitigate undesired ammonia emission from M-P-M, ponds were covered with floating wetlands (M-FB-M). The pond sections of the M-FB-M were covered with floating wetlands consisted of recyc...

385

Origin and flatness of ponds on asteroid 433 Eros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 300 landforms have been identified on asteroid 433 Eros, consisting of flat, smooth deposits typically located at the bottoms of craters or other topographic lows [1-2]. These landforms are tens of meters across, and their surfaces appear to lie on a geopotential [2]. They are clearly delineated from the surrounding terrain by sharp embayments of the bounding depressions in which they lie. Where these depressions are emplaced on a local slope, the deposits are located downslope of the geometric center of the crater [1]. The deposits are slightly bluer in color than the surroundings [1] and are interpreted to consist of fine-grained material [2]. Because of their morphological resemblance to the terrestrial lacustrine features of similar size, these deposits have been called "ponds". A database of the locations and sizes of 334 ponds observed with the Multi-spectral Imager (MSI) on the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR)-Shoemaker spacecraft has been archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS) [3]. These ponds are largely concentrated near the equator at the ends of the long-axis of the asteroid [2]. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the origin of the ponds including electrostatic levitation of dust [2], seismic shaking due to impacts [1] and disaggregation of central boulders observed within several of the ponds [4]. Here, we further investigate the topography of ponds on Eros using a new shape model derived from stereophotoclinometric (SPC) analysis [5], which we have tied to altimetry measurements made by the NEAR Laser Rangefinder (NLR). We update the locations of 55 pond candidates identified in images registered to the new shape model. We classify the flatness of these features according to the behavior of the first and second derivatives of the topography. We find that a significant fraction (55% - 75%) of pond candidates do not have flat floors. On the basis of these results, we favor an origin for the ponds deposits from a source external to the ponds themselves. We suggest that fine dust may be transported into bounding depressions by electrostatic levitation [2], but may adhere to slopes, and that seismic shaking [1] may not be sufficient to bring the deposits to an equipotential surface. Disaggregation of a central boulder [3] should result in a more obvious break in slope than is seen in roughly half the observed pond candidates. In addition, we demonstrate a technique to correct the locations of NLR altimetry measurements arising from spacecraft pointing errors. We find agreement between NLR and SPC topography on the order of a few meters, approaching the resolution of the NLR discretization. [1] Cheng, A.F., et al. (2002). MAPS 37, 1095-1105. [2] Robinson, M.S. et al. (2001) Nature 413, 396-400. [3] Thomas, P.C. et al. (2002). Icarus 155, 18-37. [4] Dombard, A.J. et al. (2010). Icarus 210, 713-721 [5] Gaskell, R.W. et al., (2008). MAPS 43, 1049-1061.

Roberts, J. H.; Prockter, L. M.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.; Kahn, E.; Gaskell, R. W.

2013-12-01

386

Pond culture of seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum in southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum is widely distributed throughout the coastal waters of Asia and has high commercial value. In recent years, its natural biomass has declined due to over-exploitation and environmental pollution. To seek for a feasible way to culture this seaweed efficiently, we designed a simple long-line system in a shrimp pond for the culture during winter, and the growth and nutritional composition of the seaweed were examined. Results show that the culture system was durable and flexible allowing S. hemiphyllum to grow vertically off the muddy bottom of the pond. Although the length of pondcultured S. hemiphyllum was inhibited by water depth, the weight-specific growth rate ((1.65±0.17)%/d) was nearly three times higher than that of wild plants ((0.62±0.19)%/d). The crude protein (6.92%±0.88%) and ash content (21.52%±0.07%) of the pond-cultured seaweed were significantly lower than those of the wild plants (9.38%±0.43% and 26.93%±0.07%, respectively); however, crude fat (1.01%±0.04%) was significantly higher than that of the wild plants (0.87%±0.02%). In addition, the nutritional composition of both pond-cultured and wild S. hemiphyllum was comparable to or even higher than those of other common seaweeds being used as food and/or aquaculture fodder. Future studies shall be focused on the impact of environmental parameters on its growth and nutritional composition.

Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun; Sun, Hongyan; Li, Haipeng; Peng, Pengfei

2013-03-01

387

Multiple Contaminant and Predatory Stressors in Experimental Pond Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic contaminants, such as agricultural pesticides found in aquatic systems, have the potential to negatively impact organisms via direct and indirect pathways. The magnitude of these indirect effects depends on the strength of the interactions through which they are propagated. We sought to determine how environmentally realistic levels of the insecticides endosulfan and malathion and the herbicide atrazine impact pond

K. Keeley; P. W. Crumrine; P. F. Barlow

2005-01-01

388

The characterization of microorganisms in dairy wastewater storage ponds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy wastewaters from storage ponds are commonly land applied to irrigate silage crops. Given that diverse microbial populations are associated with cattle feces, the objective of this study was to use a culture-independent approach to characterize Bacteria and Archaea in dairy wastewaters. Using d...

389

DESIGN OF A MONITORING PROGRAM FOR ASH POND EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a procedure for designing an effective monitoring program for fossil-fueled power plant ash pond effluents. Factors that influence effluent characteristics and are important in designing such a monitoring program were determined following a review of plant op...

390

Basic experiments related to the advanced solar pond (ASP) performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns an experimental evaluation of the basic aspects of operation of the advanced solar pond (ASP). Experiments wee carried out in a laboratory test section in order to assess the feasibility of the density gradient maintenance in stratified flowing layers. The density stratification was caused by a non uniform distribution of temperatures in the flow field. Results of

Y. Keren; G. A. Bemporad; H. Rubin

1991-01-01

391

Ecological aspects of fish species interactions in polyculture ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between cultivated fish species and their environment is largely dependent on the biological characteristics of the fish and the degree of intensification of the culture. In extensive and semi-intensive systems, based on natural production, stocking fish species of different feeding habits together enables a more efficient utilization of pond resources. In polyculture systems only a proper combination of

Ana Milstein

1992-01-01

392

Short communication Controlling nitrogen release from farm ponds with a  

E-print Network

Short communication Controlling nitrogen release from farm ponds with a subsurface outflow device deposition are all major sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to aquatic ecosystems (Carpenter et al and implementation of best management practices (BMPs) such as controlled drainage, riparian buffers and land a g r i

Cope, W. Gregory

393

How Circulation of Water Affects Freezing in Ponds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One means of preventing the top of a pond from freezing involves running a circulating pump near the bottom to agitate the surface and expose it to air throughout the winter months. This phenomenon is similar to that of the flowing of streams in subzero temperatures and to the running of taps to prevent pipe bursts in winter. All of these cases…

Moreau, Theresa; Lamontagne, Robert; Letzring, Daniel

2007-01-01

394

Bioclogging and Biocementation in Construction of Water Pond in Sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventionally, compacted bentonite, geosynthetic clay liner or plastic liners are used to seal ponds, channels, and reservoirs in sand. Recently, a new approach to form a low permeability layer of several centimetres thick through the microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process has been developed (Chu et al., 2012). This method has been adopted to build a laboratory scale water pond model in sand. Calcium solution for bioclogging and biocementation was supplied initially by spaying to form a layer of the clogged sand by precipitation in the pores and then by slow percolation from solution above sand surface, which formed a crust of calcite. This combination of bioclogging and biocementation formed a sand layer of 1 - 3 cm depth with low permeability. The permeability of sand after this treatment was reduced from the order of 10^-4 m/s to 10^-7 m/s when an average 2.1 kg of Ca per m^2 of sand surface was precipitated. The bending strengths of the walls and the base of the model pond were in the range of 90 to 256 kPa. The unconfined compressive strengths obtained from samples from the walls and the base were in the range of 215 to 932 kPa. The graded sand and uniform supply of calcium solution were used for the model pond construction but it was significant spatial three-dimensional heterogeneity of sand bioclogging and biocementation.

Chu, J.; Ivanov, V.; Stabnikov, V.; Li, B.

2012-12-01

395

Chemical bird repellents: Possible use in cyanide ponds  

SciTech Connect

Regulatory agencies are pressuring the mining industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of dump leachate pond water containing cyanide. Using European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) as an avian model, we tested the effectiveness of 5 chemical bird repellents at reducing consumption of pond water containing cyanide. The repellents, which were previously shown to be good bird repellents, were: o-aminoacetophenone (OAP), 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxyacetophenone (2A45DAP), methyl anthranilate (MA), 4-ketobenztriazine (4KBT), and veratryl amine (VA). Despite the high pH (10.6) and presence of chelating metals, conditions which we hypothesized might destroy the activity of repellents, each of the additives reduced pond water intake relative to controls for up to 5 weeks. The rank order (from best to worst) of repellents was: OAP, 2A45DAP, VA, MA and 4KBT, although only OAP and 4KBT differed at the P < 0.05 level. These candidate repellents hold promise as a strategy to reduce bird losses at cyanide ponds and should be tested in the field.

Clark, L. (Denver Wildlife Research Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Shah, P.S. (Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-07-01

396

57. View of the lily pond in the northern portion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. View of the lily pond in the northern portion of the hillside garden, from the southeast. The view includes stone footbridges, a directed fall of water through rocks at center, and a tariki stoneware bench by Eric O'Leary (1992) at the top of the waterfall. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

397

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-07-01

398

How Universal Is the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the article by Marsh and Hau (see record 2003-06802-005), who tested the negative effects of attending academically selective schools; that is, a student will have lowered academic self-concept in a selective school than in a nonselective school, a big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). The current author suggests that a major problem of…

Dai, David Yun

2004-01-01

399

MONITORING OF A RETENTION POND BEFORE AND AFTER MAINTENANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA?s Urban Watershed Management Branch monitored a retention pond with wetland plantings in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed. This BMP, designated RC-5, is owned and operated by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection?s (DEP) as part of the Bluebelt progr...

400

Science from the Pond up: Using Measurement to Introduce Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors engaged nonscience majors enrolled in an integrated science course with a prototype activity designed to change their mindset from cookbook to inquiry science. This article describes the activity, the Warm Little Pond, which helped students develop essential understanding of basic statistics, significant figures, and the idea that…

Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Frank; Abell, Sandra K.

2010-01-01

401

Catfish production guidelines for in-pond raceway systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fish have been cultured in raceways for over 150 years in the United States. Most of these raceways have been flow-through systems for production of cold water species such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), although many other species have been produced. The development of In-Pond Raceways Sys...

402

9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and Clenny Run, with intersection of State Routes 92 and 100 beyond, Brandywine Creek State Park in background, mixed deciduous trees along top of hill - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

403

Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution

P. S. Knappett; V. Escamilla; A. Layton; L. D. McKay; M. Emch; B. J. Mailloux; D. E. Williams; M. R. Huq; M. Alam; L. Farhana; A. S. Ferguson; G. S. Sayler; K. Ahmed; M. L. Serre; Y. Akita; M. Yunus; A. van Geen

2010-01-01

404

78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FXRS282108E8PD0-134-F2013227943] South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds...proposed project is Phase 2 of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of...Ecological Reserve. The overall south bay salt pond restoration area includes...

2013-09-16

405

One-dimensional transient finite difference model of an operational salinity gradient solar pond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the modeling approach used to simulate the transient behavior of a salinity gradient solar pond. A system of finite difference equations are used to generate the time dependent temperature and salinity profiles within the pond. The stability of the pond, as determined by the capacity of the resulting salinity profile to suppress thermal convection within the primary gradient region of the pond, is continually monitored and when necessary adjustments are made to the thickness of the gradient zone. Results of the model are then compared to measurements taken during two representative seasonal periods at the University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP's) research solar pond.

Hicks, Michael C.; Golding, Peter

1992-01-01

406

Widespread occurrence of ranavirus in pond-breeding amphibian populations.  

PubMed

Ranaviruses are an emerging threat for many amphibian populations, yet their distribution in amphibian communities and the association of infection with possible stressors and species is not fully understood due to historically sparse surveillance. Agricultural practices that reduce the water quality of amphibian breeding habitats (e.g., cattle access to wetlands) and environmental stressors (e.g., lower temperatures) may contribute to ranavirus emergence. We tested larval amphibians for ranavirus infection across four seasons in farm ponds (n = 40) located in Tennessee, USA. Cattle at various densities were allowed access to half of the sampled ponds. Ranavirus infections were detected in nine species and in 33 of the sampled ponds (83%), illustrating widespread occurrence of the pathogen. Species within the family Ranidae were the most frequently infected. In 13 of the ponds containing infected individuals, prevalence exceeded 40% during at least one season. Infections were detected in multiple seasons in 20 of the sampled ponds containing infections, suggesting that ranaviruses are relatively persistent in these systems. Cattle had negative effects on water quality (turbidity and ammonia) and there was a positive association between cattle abundance and ranavirus prevalence in the summer. Counter to previous field studies in North America, we found a significant positive association between water temperature and ranavirus prevalence in the fall sampling events. Despite these findings, the influences of cattle and temperature on ranavirus prevalence were not consistent across seasons. As such, the mechanisms driving high ranavirus prevalence across the landscape and over time remain unclear. Given the widespread occurrence of ranaviruses in wild amphibians, we encourage the implementation of surveillance programs to help identify potential drivers of emergence. Sites with high ranavirus prevalence should be monitored annually for outbreaks, and the long-term effects on population size determined. PMID:22173292

Hoverman, Jason T; Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L; Haislip, Nathan A

2012-03-01

407

Biomarker and Stable Isotope Characterization of Coastal Pond-Derived Organic Matter, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small coastal ponds that contain photosynthetic microbial mat communities represent an extreme environment where a potentially significant source of labile organic carbon can be found within the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. To distinguish coastal pond-derived organic matter from other sources of organic matter in the Dry Valleys, bulk organic carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope signatures and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of benthic microbial mats located at two sites-Hjorth Hill coast and Garwood Valley-were investigated. The average isotope values at Hjorth Hill coast and Garwood Valley are, respectively, -10.9‰ and -10.2‰ for ?13 C, 3.7‰ and -1.3‰ for ?15N, and 8.1‰ and 16.7‰ for ?34S. Microbial mats from all ponds are dominated by monounsaturated PLFAs (indicative of Gramnegative bacteria) and polyunsaturated PLFAs (indicative of microeukaryotes). Biomarkers specific to aerobic prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and photoautotrophic microeukaryotes, as well as sulfur-reducing bacteria, are present in all samples. Benthic mats at Garwood Valley are thicker and more laminated, have a higher biomass, and have a greater carbon and nitrogen content, which suggests greater productivity than mats at Hjorth Hill coast. Greater productivity is supported, as well, by higher dissolved oxygen contents likely derived from heightened photosynthetic productivity. More productivity at Garwood Valley likely results from a larger influx of terrestrial surface waters together with a concomitant nutrient loading.

Hage, Melissa M.; Uhle, Maria E.; Macko, Stephen

2007-08-01

408

Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata ?-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata ?-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the ?-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata ?-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

2014-08-01

409

Surface and subsurface soils at the Pond B dam: July 1998  

SciTech Connect

Pond B, 685-13G, is an inactive reactor cooling impoundment built in 1961 on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Between 1961 and 1964, Pond B received R-Reactor cooling water discharges that were contaminated with {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium. Though the pond has not been used since 1964, radionuclides from the contaminated cooling water remain in the water and in the surface sediments of the pond. The current proposal to fix and repair the Pond B dam structure includes installing a new drain system and monitoring equipment. The dam will be reinforced with additional previous material on the downstream face of the dam. The objectives of this report are to describe the sampling methodology used during the July 1998 sampling event at the downstream face of the Pond B dam and in Pond B, present the results of the sampling event, and compare, where possible, these results to related risk-based standards.

Halverson, N.V.

1999-12-03

410

Arsenic, metals, and nutrients in runoff from two detention basins to Raccoon Creek, New Jersey Coastal Plain, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic (As) concentrations in the waters of Raccoon Creek in southern New Jersey commonly exceed the State\\'s Surface Water Quality Standard (SWQS) for freshwater of 0.017 microgram per liter (mu or ug/L). In order to assess contributions of As from residential runoff to the creek, samples of runoff water were collected from a detention basin in each of two residential developments underlain by different geologic formations and at the outlets of those basins. Samples of streamwater also were collected from Raccoon Creek adjacent to the developments. The samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of As, selected metals, organic carbon, and nutrients. Soil samples in and downgradient from the basins also were collected and analyzed. Concentrations of As in unfiltered water samples of runoff from the basin underlain by glauconitic clays generally were higher (up to 4.35 mu or ug/L) than in runoff from the basin underlain by predominantly quartz sands and silts (up to 2.68 mu or ug/L). Chromium (Cr) concentrations also were higher in runoff from the basin underlain by glauconitic clays than in runoff from the basin underlain by quartz sand and silt. In addition, Cr concentrations were higher in the glauconitic soils than in the quartz-rich soils. Metals such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn) in the runoff and in the streamwater were mostly in particulate form. Arsenic, most metals, and phosphorus (P) however, were mostly in dissolved form in runoff but in particulate form in the streamwater. Total organic carbon concentrations in the runoff ranged from about 10 to nearly 16 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Given such levels of organic carbon and strong correlations between concentrations of some metals and organic carbon, it may be that many of the metals were complexed with dissolved organic carbon and transported in that form in the runoff. Although underlying geologic materials and soils appear to be major contributors of As to the streamwater, As also could have been contributed from lead arsenate pesticide residues. The residential development underlain by quartz-rich sediments formerly had been an orchard where such pesticides may have been used. The substantial inputs of As to runoff at this site may be attributable to this former land use, although Pb concentrations were about the same in runoff from both sites. The streamwater at both sites, however, contained Pb concentrations well above those in runoff, indicating that there are additional inputs of Pb, perhaps from roadside soils, upstream from the two sampling sites in this study. Positive relations between concentrations of As and some metals with dissolved organic carbon in runoff and streamwater indicate that complexation with organic carbon may provide a mechanism by which these constituents can be transported. Sorption of As, Pb, and P to Fe hydroxides may be indicated by the observed positive relation of particulate As, Pb, and P to particulate Fe, however, representing an additional mechanism for transport of these constituents.

Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Bonin, Jennifer L.; McGee, Craig K.

2011-01-01

411

Frozen ponds: production and storage of methane during the Arctic winter in a lowland tundra landscape in northern Siberia, Lena River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes and ponds play a key role in the carbon cycle of permafrost ecosystems, where they are considered to be hotspots of carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 emission. The strength of these emissions is, however, controlled by a variety of physical and biogeochemical processes whose responses to a warming climate are complex and only poorly understood. Small waterbodies have been attracting an increasing amount of attention since recent studies demonstrated that ponds can make a significant contribution to the CO2 and CH4 emissions of tundra ecosystems. Waterbodies also have a marked effect on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition. This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape in northern Siberia. Rate estimations were based on CH4 concentrations measured in surface lake ice from a variety of waterbody types. Vertical profiles along ice blocks showed an exponential increase in CH4 concentration with depth. These CH4 profiles were reproduced by a 1-D mass balance model and the net CH4 production rates then inferred through inverse modeling. Results revealed marked differences in early winter net CH4 production among various ponds. Initial state ponds underlain by stable permafrost with little or no signs of degradation yielded low net production rates, of the order of 10-11 to 10-10 mol m-2 s-1 (0.01 to 0.14 mgCH4 m-2 d-1). In contrast, advanced state ponds exhibiting clear signs of thermal erosion yielded net CH4 production rates of the order of 10-7 mol m-2 s-1 (140 mgCH4 m-2 d-1). The net production rate per square meter of advanced state ponds exceeded the maximum summer CH4 emission rates per square meter which was measured for the average tundra landscape at the study site. Our results therefore indicate that, once a particular threshold in thermal erosion has been crossed, ponds can develop into major CH4 sources. This implies that any future warming of the climate may result in non-linear CH4 emission behavior in tundra ecosystems.

Langer, M.; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Wischnewski, K.; Boike, J.

2014-07-01

412

Implications of fecal bacteria input from latrine-polluted ponds for wells in sandy aquifers.  

PubMed

Ponds receiving latrine effluents may serve as sources of fecal contamination to shallow aquifers tapped by millions of tube-wells in Bangladesh. To test this hypothesis, transects of monitoring wells radiating away from four ponds were installed in a shallow sandy aquifer underlying a densely populated village and monitored for 14 months. Two of the ponds extended to medium sand. Another pond was sited within silty sand and the last in silt. The fecal indicator bacterium E. coli was rarely detected along the transects during the dry season and was only detected near the ponds extending to medium sand up to 7 m away during the monsoon. A log-linear decline in E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations with distance along the transects in the early monsoon indicates that ponds excavated in medium sand were the likely source of contamination. Spatial removal rates ranged from 0.5 to 1.3 log(10)/m. After the ponds were artificially filled with groundwater to simulate the impact of a rain storm, E. coli levels increased near a pond recently excavated in medium sand, but no others. These observations show that adjacent sediment grain-size and how recently a pond was excavated influence the how much fecal contamination ponds receiving latrine effluents contribute to neighboring groundwater. PMID:22191430

Knappett, Peter S K; McKay, Larry D; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E; Alam, Md J; Huq, Md R; Mey, Jacob; Feighery, John E; Culligan, Patricia J; Mailloux, Brian J; Zhuang, Jie; Escamilla, Veronica; Emch, Michael; Perfect, Edmund; Sayler, Gary S; Ahmed, Kazi M; van Geen, Alexander

2012-02-01

413

Implications of Fecal Bacteria Input from Latrine-Polluted Ponds for Wells in Sandy Aquifers  

PubMed Central

Ponds receiving latrine effluents may serve as sources of fecal contamination to shallow aquifers tapped by millions of tube-wells in Bangladesh. To test this hypothesis, transects of monitoring wells radiating away from four ponds were installed in a shallow sandy aquifer underlying a densely populated village and monitored for 14 months. Two of the ponds extended to medium sand. Another pond was sited within silty sand and the last in silt. The fecal indicator bacterium E. coli was rarely detected along the transects during the dry season and was only detected near the ponds extending to medium sand up to 7 m away during the monsoon. A log-linear decline in E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations with distance along the transects in the early monsoon indicates that ponds excavated in medium sand were the likely source of contamination. Spatial removal rates ranged from 0.5-1.3 log10/m. After the ponds were artificially filled with groundwater to simulate the impact of a rain storm, E. coli levels increased near a pond recently excavated in medium sand, but no others. These observations show that adjacent sediment grain-size and how recently a pond was excavated influence how much fecal contamination ponds receiving latrine effluents contribute to neighboring groundwater. PMID:22191430

Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Huq, Md. R.; Mey, Jacob; Feighery, John E.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Zhuang, Jie; Escamilla, Veronica; Emch, Michael; Perfect, Edmund; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

2012-01-01

414

Chryse basin channels - Low-gradients and ponded flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis and construction of approximate channel floor longitudinal gradients from 26 radar elevation profiles at four latitudinal channel crossings show that the outflow channels of the Lunae Planum and Chryse Basin have much lower values than those of the U.S. Geological Survey's topographic map. In order to account for the movement of fluids to the north, it is proposed that ponding from local runoff occurred before channel transition along the course of Simud and Tiu Valles. The lakes eventually overflowed, drainages became integrated, and headward erosion reached interfluves, thereby forming the present channel configurations. The ponding and the flooding following it, which had sufficient head to move fluids across nearly level gradients, would have occurred during a period when the climate allowed the surface runoff of fluids and standing bodies of water.

Lucchitta, B. K.; Ferguson, H. M.

1983-01-01

415

Production of arthropod pests and vectors in coal-strip-mine ponds  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to determine the species of aquatic arthropod pests, mainly mosquitoes, that were breeding in abandoned coal strip mine ponds, their population densities, and whether these breeding sites would serve as foci for annoyance to surrounding human populations. Nine study ponds were selected in Marion County, Alabama, on the basis of age since formation, with a total of three test ponds in each of three age categories: 1 year old, 5 years old, and 10 years old. These ponds were observed for five successive years; thus, data obtained from surveys depict successional changes in aquatic insect and plant species composition over a period of 14 successive years. Mosquito larvae of four genera including eight species were collected from the strip ponds. Mosquito production was not detected until ponds were at least two years old, and ponds five years old and older were the most productive for mosquitoes. Mosquito production in all ponds was sparse and restricted to narrow vegetated areas along shallow marginal shelves, and the level of mosquito activity was not sufficient to cause severe annoyance to surrounding communities. There was a paucity of insects of medical importance in benthic samples in the nine study ponds; only three genera of public health importance were collected, which consisted of Palpomyia, Chrysops, and Tabanus. Water chemistry of all ponds studied provided very favorable conditions for supporting various fauna and flora. Data obtained during the 5-year study showed no significant change in the pH of the water in the nine study ponds as they increased in age. The dissolved oxygen content of the water in the ponds varied widely with pond age and seasonal changes, ranging from 9.1 to 14.1 ppM.

Pickard, E.

1982-01-01

416

Inquiry-based Investigations into Pond Water Microorganisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lessons are part of a unit investigating the abundant life found in pond water and is used to develop scientific, technological, and critical thinking skills in biology students. The nature of the activities focuses on exploration, invention, and application and provides students with attitudes of discovery and curiosity into their natural, physical world. Much attention is given to scientific process skills and higher-order thinking as students learn problem-solving, graph construction, graphical analysis, and application.

Marie Doucet (Lake Charles Boston High School REV)

1994-07-30

417

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails.  

PubMed

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails. In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an outdoor mesocosm experiment, testing the hypothesis that insects are important predators of pulmonate snails. In laboratory foraging trials, conducted with ten species of insects, most insect taxa consumed snails, and larval dragonflies were especially effective predators. The field surveys showed that dragonflies constitute the majority of the insect biomass in fishless ponds. More focused foraging trials evaluated the ability of the dragonflies Anax junius and Pantala hymenaea to prey upon different sizes and species of pulmonate snails (Helisoma trivolvis, Physa acuta, and Stagnicola elodes). Anax junius consumed all three species up to the maximum size tested. Pantala hymenaea consumed snails with a shell height of 3 mm and smaller, but did not kill larger snails. P. acuta were more vulnerable to predators than were H. trivolvis or S. elodes. In the mesocosm experiment, conducted with predator treatments of A. junius, P. hymenaea, and the hemipteran Belostoma flumineum, insect predators had a pronounced negative effect on snail biomass and density. A. junius and B. flumineum reduced biomass and density to a similar degree, and both reduced biomass more than did P. hymenaea. Predators did not have a strong effect on species composition. A model suggested that A. junius and P. hymenaea have the largest effects on snail biomass in the field. Given that both pulmonate snails and dragonfly nymphs are widespread and abundant in marshes and ponds, snail assemblages in these water bodies are likely regulated in large part by odonate predation. PMID:17457617

Turner, Andrew M; Chislock, Michael F

2007-08-01

418

Conservation of Protists: The Krauthügel Pond in Austria  

PubMed Central

Although constituting more than 100,000 described species, protists are virtually ignored within the arena of biodiversity conservation. One reason is the widespread belief that the majority of protists have cosmopolitan distributions, in contrast to the highly hetereogenous biogeography of the “mega-Metazoa”. However, modern research reveals that about one third of the known protists have restricted distributions, which endorses their conservation, at least in special cases. Here, we report what probably ranks as the first successful conservation intervention focused directly on known protist diversity. It is justified by unique species, type localities, and landscape maintenance as evidence for legislation. The protected habitat comprises an ephemeral pond, which is now a “Natural Monument” for ciliated protozoa. This wetland occupies a natural depression on the Krauthügel (“cabbage hill”) south of the fortress of Salzburg City. When filled, the claviform pond has a size of ~30 × 15 m and a depth rarely surpassing 30 cm. Water is present only for some days or weeks, depending on heavy and/or prolonged rain. The pond occupied an agricultural field where root and leafy vegetables were cultivated for possibly more than 200 years. In the 1960s, this area became a grassland utilized as an autumn pasture, but was abandoned in the 1990s. Repeated sampling between 1982 and 2012 recovered a total of at least 150 ciliate taxa, of which 121 were identified to species level. Eight species were new to science, and an additional 10 poorly known species were reinvestigated and neotypified with populations from the Krauthügel pond. Both endemism and type localities justify the argument that the “integrative approach” in biodiversity and conservation issues should include protists and micro-metazoans. We argue that Krauthügel holds a unique reference node for biodiversity inventories to obtain the baseline knowledge—which is the prerequisite to monitor ecosystem integrity—and detect and evaluate impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:24072980

Cotterill, Fenton P.D.; Augustin, Hannes; Medicus, Reinhard; Foissner, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

419

18. View of the lily pond in the northern portion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. View of the lily pond in the northern portion of the hillside garden, from the southeast (less distant view). The view includes stone footbridges, a directed fall of water through rocks at center, and a tariki stoneware bench by Eric O'Leary (1992) at the top of the waterfall. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

420

165. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

165. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ON LEFT WITH ELEVATOR/CRUSHED ORE BIN TOWER TO RIGHT. MAIN MILL BUILDING IN CENTER WITH THICKENER ADDITION TO RIGHT. MACHINE SHOP ON CRUDE ORE BIN TERRACE ABOVE ROASTER. THE LOCATION OF THE 100,000 GALLON MILL WATER TANK CAN BE SEEN AT THE CENTER RIGHT NEAR THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

421

24. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ON LEFT WITH ELEVATOR/CRUSHED ORE BIN TOWER TO RIGHT. MAIN MILL BUILDING IN CENTER WITH THICKENER ADDITION TO RIGHT. MACHINE SHOP ON CRUDE ORE BIN TERRACE ABOVE ROASTER. THE LOCATION OF THE 100,000 GALLON MILL WATER TANK CAN BE SEEN AT THE CENTER RIGHT NEAR THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

422

3. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, LOOKING ACROSS SETTLING POND. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, LOOKING ACROSS SETTLING POND. ON RIGHT IS TIPPLE FOR LOADING ORE INTO TRAIN CARS; IN CENTER IS FORMER BOILER HOUSE; ON LEFT IS PORTAL OF SNOWSHED FOR MINE CARS USED TO CARRY WASTE ROCK. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

423

Predator size and phenology shape prey survival in temporary ponds.  

PubMed

Theoretical efforts suggest that the relative sizes of predators and their prey can shape community dynamics, the structure of food webs, and the evolution of life histories. However, much of this work has assumed static predator and prey body sizes. The timing of recruitment and the growth patterns of both predator and prey have the potential to modify the strength of predator-prey interactions. In this study, I examined how predator size dynamics in 40 temporary ponds over a 3-year period affected the survival of spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) larvae. Across communities, gape-limited predator richness, but not size, was correlated with habitat duration (pond permanence). Within communities, mean gape-limited predator size diminished as the growing season progressed. This size reduction occurred because prey individuals grew into a body size refuge and because the largest of the predators left ponds by mid-season. Elevated gape-limited predation risk across time and space was predicted by the occurrence of two large predatory salamanders: marbled salamander larvae (Ambystoma opacum) and red-spotted newt adults (Notophthalmus viridescens). The presence of the largest gape-limited predator, A. opacum, predicted A. maculatum larval survival in the field. The distribution of large predatory salamanders among ponds and across time is expected to lead to differing community dynamics and to generate divergent natural selection on early growth and body size in A. maculatum. In general, a dynamic perspective on predator size often will be necessary to understand the ecology and evolution of species interactions. This will be especially true in frequently disturbed or seasonal habitats where phenology and ontogeny interact to determine body size asymmetries. PMID:17891545

Urban, Mark C

2007-12-01

424

Turbidity study of solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were conducted to study the turbidity reduction in solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source. The experiment on the turbidity reduction efficiency with chemicals indicates that alum (KAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O) has a better turbidity control property because of its strongly flocculating and also well depressing the growing of algae and bacteria in the seawater. In comparison with bittern and seawater, our experiment shows that the residual brine after desalination can keep limpidity for a long time even without any chemical in it. Experiments were also conducted on the diffusion of turbidity and salinity, which show that the turbidity did not diffuse upwards in the solution. In the experiment on subsidence of soil in the bittern and saline with the same salinity, it was found that soil subsided quite quickly in the pure saline water, but very slowly in the bittern. In this paper we also proposed an economical method to protect the solar pond from the damage of rain. Finally, thermal performance of a solar pond was simulated in the conditions of different turbidities using a thermal diffusion model. (author)

Li, Nan; Sun, Wence; Shi, Yufeng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Yin, Fang [YLab, 358 South 700 East, Suit B-139, Salt Lake City, UT 84102 (United States); Zhang, Caihong [Dalian Thermoelectric Group Co. Ltd., Dalian 116001 (China)

2010-02-15

425

Avian botulism epizootiology from sewage oxidation ponds in Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

n the microenvironment concept of avian botulism epizootiology, it is hypothesized that invertebrate carcasses may serve both as a substrate for toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type C and as a vehicle for toxin transmission to water birds. We field-tested that hypothesis by attempting to induce botulism in wing-clipped mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) on sewage oxidation ponds in Utah. The experimental ponds were inoculated with C. botulinum spores in June 1974. Aquatic insect populations were monitored throughout the summer. Rotenone was used in August to kill insects in two ponds (one served as control), thereby providing potential substrate for clostridial growth and toxin production. Botulism was not detected among the birds even though they routinely ingested invertebrate carcasses. Samples of dead invertebrates contained no botulinum toxin. We concluded that the microenvironment concept, as it now stands, cannot always be a sufficient explanation of how type C botulism epizootics are initiated in nature. Other microbes may inhibit the growth of clostridial cells or destroy botulinum toxin.

Moulton, D.W.; Jensen, W.I.; Low, J.B.

1976-01-01

426

Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.  

PubMed

This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (?10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (?30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ?60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest. PMID:21330711

Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

2011-01-01

427

Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

2005-09-21

428

Groundwater fluxes in a shallow seasonal wetland pond: The effect of bathymetric uncertainty on predicted water and solute balances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful management of groundwater dependent shallow seasonal wetlands requires a sound understanding of groundwater fluxes. However, such fluxes are hard to quantify. Water volume and solute mass balance models can be used in order to derive an estimate of groundwater fluxes within such systems. This approach is particularly attractive, as it can be undertaken using measurable environmental variables, such as; rainfall, evaporation, pond level and salinity. Groundwater fluxes estimated from such an approach are subject to uncertainty in the measured variables as well as in the process representation and in parameters within the model. However, the shallow nature of seasonal wetland ponds means water volume and surface area can change rapidly and non-linearly with depth, requiring an accurate representation of the wetland pond bathymetry. Unfortunately, detailed bathymetry is rarely available and simplifying assumptions regarding the bathymetry have to be made. However, the implications of these assumptions are typically not quantified. We systematically quantify the uncertainty implications for eight different representations of wetland bathymetry for a shallow seasonal wetland pond in South Australia. The predictive uncertainty estimation methods provided in the Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis software (PEST) are used to quantify the effect of bathymetric uncertainty on the modelled fluxes. We demonstrate that bathymetry can be successfully represented within the model in a simple parametric form using a cubic Bézier curve, allowing an assessment of bathymetric uncertainty due to measurement error and survey detail on the derived groundwater fluxes compared with the fixed bathymetry models. Findings show that different bathymetry conceptualisations can result in very different mass balance components and hence process conceptualisations, despite equally good fits to observed data, potentially leading to poor management decisions for the wetlands. Model predictive uncertainty increases with the crudity of the bathymetry representation, however, approximations that capture the general shape of the wetland pond such as a power law or Bézier curve show only a small increase in prediction uncertainty compared to the full dGPS surveyed bathymetry, implying these may be sufficient for most modelling purposes.

Trigg, Mark A.; Cook, Peter G.; Brunner, Philip

2014-09-01

429

Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used particle size analysis to investigate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of radiocesium (137Cs) in four irrigation ponds, ~4-5 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Trap efficiency, represented by the inventory of 137Cs in pond sediment to the inventory of radiocesium in soil surrounding the pond (i.e., total 137Cs inventory), was less than 100% for all but one pond. Trap efficiency decreased as sediment particle size increased, indicating that sediments with a smaller particle size accumulate more 137Cs. In ponds showing low trap efficiency, fine sediment containing high concentrations of 137Cs appeared to be removed from the system by hydraulic flushing, leaving behind mostly coarse sediment. The results of this study suggest that sediment particle size can be used to estimate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of 137Cs in pond sediment, as well as the amount lost through hydraulic flushing.

Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Fukushima, Takehiko

2014-03-01

430

Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident.  

PubMed

This study used particle size analysis to investigate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four irrigation ponds, ~4-5 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Trap efficiency, represented by the inventory of (137)Cs in pond sediment to the inventory of radiocesium in soil surrounding the pond (i.e., total (137)Cs inventory), was less than 100% for all but one pond. Trap efficiency decreased as sediment particle size increased, indicating that sediments with a smaller particle size accumulate more (137)Cs. In ponds showing low trap efficiency, fine sediment containing high concentrations of (137)Cs appeared to be removed from the system by hydraulic flushing, leaving behind mostly coarse sediment. The results of this study suggest that sediment particle size can be used to estimate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of (137)Cs in pond sediment, as well as the amount lost through hydraulic flushing. PMID:24682011

Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Fukushima, Takehiko

2014-01-01

431

Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident  

PubMed Central

This study used particle size analysis to investigate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of radiocesium (137Cs) in four irrigation ponds, ~4–5 months after the Fukushima Dai–ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Trap efficiency, represented by the inventory of 137Cs in pond sediment to the inventory of radiocesium in soil surrounding the pond (i.e., total 137Cs inventory), was less than 100% for all but one pond. Trap efficiency decreased as sediment particle size increased, indicating that sediments with a smaller particle size accumulate more 137Cs. In ponds showing low trap efficiency, fine sediment containing high concentrations of 137Cs appeared to be removed from the system by hydraulic flushing, leaving behind mostly coarse sediment. The results of this study suggest that sediment particle size can be used to estimate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of 137Cs in pond sediment, as well as the amount lost through hydraulic flushing. PMID:24682011

Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Fukushima, Takehiko

2014-01-01

432

Preliminary evaluation of a sediment pond draining a surface mined watershed  

SciTech Connect

Runoff and sediment data for a reclaimed surface mined watershed and its sediment pond were analyzed to determine the pond trap efficiency and influent/effluent sediment and flow relationships. Reclamation practices on the watershed included topsoiling, a good vegetative cover, a rock chute, diversions, and dry dams. Relationships were developed to predict the total pond flow and the sediment concentration when the flow rate on the hydrograph recession was one-half the storm peak rate, and to predict the peak pond influent sediment concentration as a function of the same recession concentration. The trap efficiency for the study sediment pond averaged 93.7 percent as determined by storm influent/effluent sediment masses. The average storm influent sediment concentration was 23 times larger than the average effluent pond sediment concentration of 372 mg/1, and the average peak storm effluent sediment concentration was 1.55 times greater than the average effluent sediment concentration.

Bonta, J.V.; Hamon, W.R.

1980-12-01

433

The Western Pond Turtle; Habitat and History, 1993-1994 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

The western pond turtle is known from many areas of Oregon. The majority of sightings and other records occur in the major drainages of the Klamath, Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette and Columbia River systems. A brief overview is presented of the evolution of the Willamette-Puget Sound hydrographic basin. A synopsis is also presented of the natural history of the western pond turtle, as well as, the status of this turtle in the Willamette drainage basin. The reproductive ecology and molecular genetics of the western pond turtle are discussed. Aquatic movements and overwintering of the western pond turtle are evaluated. The effect of introduced turtle species on the status of the western pond turtle was investigated in a central California Pond. Experiments were performed to determine if this turtle could be translocated as a mitigation strategy.

Holland, Dan C. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Diversity Program, Portland, OR)

1994-08-01

434

Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature. PMID:21878760

Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

2011-10-01

435

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

436

Survival dynamics of fecal bacteria in ponds in agricultural watersheds of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Georgia.  

PubMed

Animal agriculture in watersheds produces manure bacteria that may contaminate surface waters and put public health at risk. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (commensal Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci) and manure pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7), and physical-chemical parameters in pond inflow, within pond, pond outflow, and pond sediments in three ponds in agricultural watersheds. Bishop Pond with perennial inflow and outflow is located in the Piedmont, and Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Bromide and chloride tracer experiments at Bishop Pond reflected a residence time much greater than that estimated by two models, and indicated that complete mixing within Bishop Pond was never obtained. The long residence time meant that fecal bacteria were exposed to solar UV-radiation and microbial predation. At Bishop Pond outflow concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were significantly less than inflow concentrations; such was not observed at Ponds A and C. Both Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 were measured when concomitant concentrations of commensal E. coli were below the criterion for surface water impairment indicating problems with the effectiveness of indicator organisms. Bishop Pond improved down stream water quality; whereas, Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow and possibly greater nutrient concentrations within the two ponds appeared to be less effective in improving down stream water quality. PMID:22088271

Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Fisher, Dwight S; Adams, M Paige; Lowrance, Richard; Newton, G Larry; Vellidis, George

2012-01-01

437

Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Pond Use and Recruitment in Florida Gopher Frogs (Rana Capito aesopus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined spatio-temporal dynamics of the Florida Gopher frog breeding and juvenile recruitment. Ponds were situated in a hardwood or pine-savanna matrix of upland forest. Movement was monitored from 1994-1999. Adult pond use was low but relatively constant. Juvenile recruitment was higher in the upland savanna matrix. Body size was negatively correlated with the number of juveniles exiting the pond

CATHRYN H. GREENBERG

2000-01-01

438

A Comparison of Water Quality between Natural, Modified, and Manmade Ponds within Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is located in the center of the Long Island Pine Barrens. Within BNL's 5,265-acre site there are 26 wetlands. Included are coastal plain ponds, vernal ponds, recharge basins, and streams, making it an ideal ecological site to study water chemistry. We tested water samples from seven coastal plain ponds on BNL: four natural (BP1, BP2, BP6,

Priscilla D. Randolph; Roy J. Coomans; Tim Green

439

Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

1982-01-01

440

Little Fish in a Big Pond--Time to Get Schooled!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One technique used by many who fish is to catch a fish in a creek or pond and then release it in a different pond. This satisfies the desire for sport, and it also serves to stock a pond that may need replenishment. Of course this restocking can be a traumatic experience for the new fish. To survive in the new environment, the fish must find its…

Moye, Johnny J.

2011-01-01

441

Bathymetry mapping using a GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat: Application in waste stabilisation ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, bathymetry mapping of ponds, lakes and rivers have used techniques which are low in spatial resolution, sometimes subjective in terms of precision and accuracy, labour intensive, and that require a high level of safety precautions. In waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) in particular, sludge heights, and thus sludge volume, are commonly measured using a sludge judge (a clear plastic pipe with length markings). A remote control boat fitted with a GPS-equipped sonar unit can improve the resolution of depth measurements, and reduce safety and labour requirements. Sonar devices equipped with GPS technology, also known as fish finders, are readily available and widely used by people in boating. Through the use of GPS technology in conjunction with sonar, the location and depth can be recorded electronically onto a memory card. However, despite its high applicability to the field, this technology has so far been underutilised. In the case of WSP, the sonar can measure the water depth to the top of the sludge layer, which can then be used to develop contour maps of sludge distribution and to determine sludge volume. The coupling of sonar technology with a remotely operative vehicle has several advantages of traditional measurement techniques, particularly in removing human subjectivity of readings, and the sonar being able to collect more data points in a shorter period of time, and continuously, with a much higher spatial resolution. The GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat has been tested on in excess of 50 WSP within Western Australia, and has shown a very strong correlation (R2 = 0.98) between spot readings taken with the sonar compared to a sludge judge. This has shown that the remote control boat with GPS-sonar device is capable of providing sludge bathymetry with greatly increased spatial resolution, while greatly reducing profiling time. Remotely operated vehicles, such as the one built in this study, are useful for not only determining sludge distribution, but also in calculating sludge accumulation rates, and in evaluating pond hydraulic efficiency (e.g., as input bathymetry for computational fluid dynamics models). This technology is not limited to application for wastewater management, and could potentially have a wider application in the monitoring of other small to medium water bodies, including reservoirs, channels, recreational water bodies, river beds, mine tailings dams and commercial ports.

Coggins, Liah; Ghadouani, Anas; Ghisalberti, Marco

2014-05-01

442

Habitat segregation of two ambystomatids in mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park.  

E-print Network

??Ambystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander) and A. gracile (northwestern salamander) are two common salamander species occupying key trophic positions in mountain ponds of Mount Rainier National… (more)

Brokes, Brendan J.

1999-01-01

443

A numerical flow analysis using the concept of inflow age for oxidation pond design.  

PubMed

A numerical flow analysis for the design of an oxidation pond was conducted to investigate the optimal flow characteristics. This analysis includes the inflow rate and the shape and depth of the oxidation pond. The total area and maximum depth of the pond were 500 m(2) and 3 m, respectively. We defined the retention time, retention time ratio, homogeneity index, and inflow exchange efficiency in order to choose the optimal conditions. The optimum width to length ratio and depth of the pond were found to be 1:5 and 2 m, respectively. PMID:24434087

Lee, Dong-kil; Cheong, Young-wook

2014-01-15

444

New factors in the design, operation and performance of waste-stabilization ponds  

PubMed Central

In the developing countries, the unit costs of waste-stabilization ponds are generally low. Moreover, in the tropics and subtropics, the environmental conditions are conducive to a high level of pond performance. In view of this, the theory, operation and performance of such ponds under these conditions have been studied. It is shown that the Hermann & Gloyna and Marais & Shaw theories of the degradation action in oxidation ponds can be integrated, and that account can be taken of the effect of the sludge layer. In Lusaka, Zambia, anaerobic conditions are much more likely to occur in summer than in winter, because of intense stratification. It is confirmed that a series of maturation or oxidation ponds is more efficient than a single pond of equivalent volume. When aqua privies and septic tanks are used as anaerobic pretreatment units, the area of the primary oxidation ponds can be reduced and there is less likelihood that anaerobic conditions will develop in them in summer. The use of self-topping aqua privies, discharging through sewers to oxidation ponds, has made possible the economic installation of water-carriage systems of waste disposal in low-cost high-density housing areas. In the oxidation ponds, typhoid bacteria appear to be more resistant than indicator organisms; helminths, cysts and ova settle out; there are no snails and, if peripheral vegetation is removed, mosquitos will not breed. PMID:5296235

Marais, G. v. R.

1966-01-01

445

Sorption and transport of radionuclides by tumbleweeds from two plastic-lined radioactive waste ponds.  

PubMed

Previous research has examined the uptake of radionuclides by tumbleweeds growing in contaminated soils, but none has heretofore examined the sorption of radionuclides to tumbleweeds blowing into radioactively contaminated water. Three tumbleweed species; Russian thistle (Salsola kali), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum) and summer cypress (Kochia scoparia) blow in, and out of, two plastic-lined radioactive wastewater ponds, constructed in 1993 on the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeast Idaho. This research quantified radionuclide sorption to tumbleweeds, tumbleweed movement from the ponds, and determined radionuclide transport from the ponds. Average plant/water concentration factors associated with tumbleweeds taken from the ponds ranged from 5 for 152Eu to over 9000 for 54Mn. Based on changes in tumbleweed numbers and average concentrations associated with them, 66.2 MBq were estimated to have been transported from the ponds via tumbleweeds between 18 October 1994 and 8 November 1996. This amounts to about 0.01% of the non-tritium and 0.0002% of the tritium activity released to the ponds through 8 November 1996. A power function best described the radionuclide buildup curve for tumbleweeds submerged in the ponds. Visually marked tumbleweeds traveled from the ponds in the predominant wind direction a maximum of 737 m. Management practices which may reduce the number of tumbleweeds blowing both into and out of contaminated ponds are discussed. PMID:11381943

Warren, R W

2001-01-01

446

Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.  

PubMed

Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services. PMID:24781304

Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

2014-08-01

447

Water-quality data from shallow pond-bottom groundwater in the Fishermans Cove area of Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2001–2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected water-quality data between 2001 and 2010 in the Fishermans Cove area of Ashumet Pond, Falmouth, Massachusetts, where the eastern portion of a treated-wastewater plume, created by more than 60 years of overland disposal, discharges to the pond. Temporary drive points were installed, and shallow pond-bottom groundwater was sampled, at 167 locations in 2001, 150 locations in 2003, and 120 locations in 2004 to delineate the distribution of wastewater-related constituents. In 2004, the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) installed a pond-bottom permeable reactive barrier (PRB) to intercept phosphate in the plume at its discharge point to the pond. The USGS monitored the performance of the PRB by collecting samples from temporary drive points at multiple depth intervals in 2006 (200 samples at 76 locations) and 2009 (150 samples at 90 locations). During the first 5 years after installation of the PRB, water samples were collected periodically from five types of pore-water samplers that had been permanently installed in and near the PRB during the barrier's emplacement. The distribution of wastewater-related constituents in the pond-bottom groundwater and changes in the geochemistry of the pond-bottom groundwater after installation of the PRB have been documented in several published reports that are listed in the references.

McCobb, Timothy D.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

2011-01-01

448

Level-ice melt ponds in the Los Alamos sea ice model, CICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new meltpond parameterization has been developed for the CICE sea ice model, taking advantage of the level ice tracer available in the model. The ponds evolve according to physically based process descriptions, assuming a depth-area ratio for changes in pond volume. A novel aspect of the new scheme is that the ponds are carried as tracers on the level ice area of each thickness category, thus limiting their spatial extent based on the simulated sea ice topography. This limiting is meant to approximate the horizontal drainage of melt water into depressions in ice floes. Simulated melt pond processes include collection of liquid melt water and rain into ponds, drainage through permeable sea ice or over the edges of floes, infiltration of snow by pond water, and refreezing of ponds. Furthermore, snow that falls on top of ponds whose top surface has refrozen blocks radiation from penetrating into the ponds and sea ice below. Along with a control simulation, we present a range of sensitivity tests to parameters related to each subprocess described by the parameterization. With the exception of one parameter that alters the albedo of snow-covered pond ice, results are not highly sensitive to these parameters unless an entire process is removed. The snow simulation itself is critical, because the volume of snow deposition and rate of snow melt largely determine the timing and extent of the simulated melt ponds. Nevertheless, compensating effects moderate the model's sensitivity to precipitation changes. For instance, infiltration of the snow by melt water postpones the appearance of ponds and the subsequent acceleration of melting through albedo feedback, while snow on top of refrozen pond ice also reduces the ponds' effect on the radiation budget. By construction, the model simulation of level and ridged ice is also important for this parameterization. We find that as sea ice thins, either through time or when comparing sensitivity tests, the area of level ice increases. This leads to an enhanced thinning feedback in the model, because a greater ice area may be exposed to ponding and further thinning due to lowered albedo.

Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Hebert, David A.; Lecomte, Olivier

2013-11-01

449

Ex Vivo Pathomechanics of the Canine Pond-Nuki Model  

PubMed Central

Background Transection of the canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) is a well-established osteoarthritis (OA) model. The effect of CCL loss on contact pressure and joint alignment has not been quantified for stifle loading in standing. The purposes of the study were to measure femorotibial contact areas and stresses and joint alignment following transection of the CCL in an ex vivo model. We hypothesized that transection of the CCL would lead to abnormal kinematics, as well as alterations in contact mechanics of the femorotibial joint. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight canine hindlimbs were tested in a servo-hydraulic materials testing machine using a custom made femoral jig. Contact area and pressure measurements, and femorotibial rotations and translations were measured in the normal and the CCL–deficient stifle in both standing and deep flexion angles. We found that at standing angle, transection of the CCL caused cranial translation and internal rotation of the tibia with a concurrent caudal shift of the contact area, an increase in peak pressure and a decrease in contact area. These changes were not noted in deep flexion. At standing, loss of CCL caused a redistribution of the joint pressure, with the caudal region of the compartment being overloaded and the rest of the joint being underloaded. Conclusion In the Pond-Nuki model alterations in joint alignment are correlated with shifting of the contact points to infrequently loaded areas of the tibial plateau. The results of this study suggest that this cadaveric Pond-Nuki model simulates the biomechanical changes previously reported in the in-vivo Pond-Nuki model. PMID:24349061

Pozzi, Antonio; Kim, Stanley E.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Banks, Scott A.

2013-01-01

450

Impact of Population and Latrines on Fecal Contamination of Ponds in Rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and E. coli, Bacteroidales and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation spatial data were collected and measured against pond fecal contamination. Humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds according to Bacteroidales measurements. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (up to 106 Most Probable Number (MPN) of culturable E. coli per 100 mL). Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.05) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines (visible effluent or open pits) within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). Water in the vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination attributable primarily to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is derived from human waste, continued use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural South Asia. PMID:21632095

Knappett, Peter S. K.; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D.; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E.; Huq, Md. R.; Alam, Md. J.; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

2011-01-01

451

Metabolic acceleration in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under constant environmental conditions, most animals tend to grow following the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Deviations from this curve can point to changes in the environment that the animals experience, such as food limitation when the available food is not sufficient or suitable. However, such deviations can also point to a phenomenon called metabolic acceleration, which is receiving increasing attention in the field of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) modeling. Reasons for such an acceleration are usually changes in shape during ontogeny, which cause changes in the surface area to volume ratio of the organism. Those changes, in turn, lead to changes in some of the model parameters that have length in their dimension. The life-history consequences of metabolic acceleration as implemented in the DEB theory are an s-shaped growth curve (when body size is expressed as a length measure) and a prolongation of the hatching time. The great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was earlier found to be food limited during the juvenile phase in laboratory experiments conducted under classical ecotoxicity test protocols. The pond snail has isomorphic shell growth but yet does not exhibit the expected von Bertalanffy growth curve under food limitation. When applying the standard DEB model to data from such life-cycle experiments, we also found that the hatching time is consistently underestimated, which could be a sign of metabolic acceleration. We here present an application of the DEB model including metabolic acceleration to the great pond snail. We account for the simultaneous hermaphroditism of the snail by including a model extension that describes the relative investment into the male and female function. This model allowed us to adequately predict the life history of the snail over the entire life cycle. However, the pond snail does not change in shape substantially after birth, so the original explanation for the metabolic acceleration does not hold. Since the change in shape is not the only explanation for metabolic acceleration in animals, we discuss the possible other explanations for this pattern in L. stagnalis.

Zimmer, Elke I.; Ducrot, V.; Jager, T.; Koene, J.; Lagadic, L.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

2014-11-01

452

ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

E. James Davis

1999-12-18

453

Simulation of The Formation of Regolith Ponds On Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Ponded deposits", regions of relatively flat and smooth terrain, were noted in the bot- toms of some craters on the asteroid Eros by the NEAR spacecraft [1]. These deposits are sharply delineated, occur at low latitudes, and are interpreted to be finer-grained than other units. Based on their form, they have been interpreted to form as fluid deposits, becoming more cohesive later, such that subsequent craters on the ponds ex- hibit sharp features. Proposed mechanisms to form such deposits include electrostatic levitation of fine grains [2] and seismic-shaking mobilization [3]. We suggest that pond deposits could form as a result of out-gassing of water (or ice), resulting in fluidization and grain-size sorting of unconsolidated regolith. We have previously shown that this process could account for sorting of chondrules and metal grains in meteorites [4], and have assessed the influence of gravity on this process [5]. In this report, we discuss simulations of the out-gassing process using the Andromeda environmental chamber. Experiments were conducted using beds of soil simulant, using ice or water as a volatile source. The beds were pumped to 0.1 mbar at various rates and the effects monitored by video cameras. Structure and grain sizes of regolith were examined at the completion of each experiment. JSC-1 Mars soil simulant and mixtures of sand grains and iron grains were used as regolith simulants. During JSC-1 simulant experiments, out-gassing resulted in extensive SboilingT of & cedil;the regolith, producing a 1-5 mm thick layer of fine-grained material on the surface. This layer had behaved as a fluid, preferentially filling pre-existing depressions. These experiments indicate that sudden release of volatiles from the interior of an asteroid, by heating or by opening of channels by impacts, could result in formation of fluidized fine-grained ponds. References: [1] A.F. Cheng et al. (2001) Science 292, 488-491. [2] M.S. Robinson et al. (2001) Nature 413, 396-400. [3] A.F. Cheng et al. (2002) Meteor. Planet. Sci. (submitted). [4] S. Huang et al. (1996) JGR 101, 29,373-29,385; D.G. Akridge et al. (1998) Icarus 132, 185-195. [5] P.H. Benoit et al. (2002) Lunar Planet. Sci. 33.

Sears, D. W. G.; Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.; Kareev, M. S.; Benoit, P. H.

454

Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extraordinary lava pond complex is located on Axial Volcano's distal south rift. It was discovered in EM300 multibeam bathymetry collected in 1998, and explored and sampled with ROVs Tiburon in 2005 and Doc Ricketts in 2013. It was surveyed with the MBARI Mapping AUV D. Allan B. in 2011, in a complicated mission first flying above the levees at constant depth, then skimming ~5 m over the levees at a different constant depth to survey the floors, then twice switching to constant altitude mode to map outside the ponds. The AUV navigation was adjusted using the MB-System tool mbnavadjust so that bathymetric features match in overlapping and crossing swaths. The ~1-m resolution AUV bathymetry reveals extremely rough terrain, where low-resolution EM300 data had averaged acoustic returns and obscured details of walls, floors, a breach and surrounding flows, and gives context to the ROV observations and samples. The 6 x 1.5 km pond complex has 4 large and several smaller drained ponds with rims 67 to 106 m above the floors. The combined volume before draining was 0.56 km3. The ponds overflowed to build lobate-flow levees with elongate pillows draping outer flanks, then drained, leaving lava veneer on vertical inner walls. Levee rim depths vary by only 10 m and are deeper around the southern ponds. Deep collapse-pits in the levees suggest porosity of pond walls. The eastern levee of the northeastern pond breached, draining the interconnected ponds, and fed thick, rapidly-emplaced, sheet-flows along the complex's east side. These flows travelled at least 5.5 km down-rift and have 19-33 m deep drained ponds. They extended up-rift as well, forming a 10 x 2.5 km ponded flow with level 'bathtub rings' as high as 35 m above the floor marking that flow's high-stand. Despite the breach, at least 0.066 km3 of the molten interior of the large ponds also drained back down the eruptive fissures, as the pond floors are deeper than the sill and sea floor outside the complex. Tumulus-like structures and jumbled sheet flows on the floors suggest the eruption was on-going when the ponds emptied. 14C-dating of foraminifera from basal sediments on the pond floors gives a minimum age for the ponds of ~1500 years, which is older than any of the surface flows in Axial's summit caldera. Limu o Pele was abundant. Glass contents of the recovered lavas are 7.6 to 8.0 wt% MgO with few exceptions, and other than being plagioclase-phyric, the chemistry is similar to the majority of lavas at the summit. Lava samples from the floors of several ponds have a few tenths of a weight percent lower MgO than the nearby levees, suggesting the pond's molten interior or resupplied lavas had some time to cool. The varying levee rim heights and abundance of ponds in the vicinity suggest this type of activity occurred many times in this area, but it is an unusual eruption style for mid-ocean ridges. Another lava pond complex with even higher levees occurs on the north rift of Axial Volcano. Formation of these ponds requires long-lived, steady, moderate-eruption-rate lava effusion on nearly horizontal seafloor and may occur only on deep distal rift zones of central volcanoes.

Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

2013-12-01

455

Experimental evaluation of the effect of winter feeding on channel catfish growout pond plankton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ten, 0.25 acre ponds at the UAPB Aquaculture Station were sampled weekly from Dec. 7-Feb. 22 (n=90) for phytoplankton and zooplankton. Five of the ponds were randomly assigned to each of two treatments: no feeding and feeding based on recommended rates. Channel catfish sizes and numbers approximated...

456

Evaluation of sup 137 Cs in pond sediment with an underwater HPGe detector  

SciTech Connect

The amount of 137Cs was measured in the PAR pond on the Savannah River Site. An underwater HPGe detector was used to inventory the gamma-emitting radionuclides in the sediment of the pond. The description and process of the equipment was given in this report. From the analysis of the compiled data, the drawdown can proceed in radiological guide lines.

Winn, W.G.

1992-01-01

457

Effects of fish barrier screening material on water flow in split-pond aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ponds serve two functions as fish-culture units. They hold water and fish, much like the walls of an aquarium, and they produce oxygen and treat wastes produced during culture. Split-ponds separate those two functions to make management easier. A large lagoon that provides the ecological services is...

458

Effects of the mosquito larvicides temephos and methoprene on insect populations in experimental ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nontarget effects of Abate 4E ? (44.6% temephos) at 0.054 kg of active ingredient (a.i.) per 1 ha and of Altosid Liquid Larvicide ? (5% methoprene) at 0.011 kg a.i./ha were investigated in 18 experimental ponds (average area, 202 m2; maximum depth, 0.7 m) at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. Ponds were sprayed three times at 3-week intervals. Six ponds were sprayed with Abate, six with Altosid, and six with distilled water. Two insect-emergence traps per pond collected for 7 d and were then harvested 1 d before each spray and 13 to 14 days afterward. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant reductions in Shannon diversity, equatability, and numbers of individuals, species, and families in the Abate ponds relative to controls. Significant reductions also occurred in Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Diptera, Chironomidae, and Chaoborus sp. Hester-Dendy samplers were installed before spray one and harvested 16 d after spray three. Based on one-way ANOVA, Shannon diversity, equatability, and number of Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae were significantly reduced in the Abate ponds. Emergence data indicate only isolated cases with significant reductions in the Altosid ponds relative to controls, and the Hester-Dendy data indicate no significant differences between the Altosid and control ponds.

Pinkney, A.E.; McGowan, P.C.; Murphy, D.R.; Lowe, T.P.; Sparling, D.W.; Ferrington, L.C.

2000-01-01

459

PLANKTON DYNAMICS IN CHANNEL CATFISH PRODUCTION PONDS COSTOCKED WITH THREADFIN SHAD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Catfish farmers have stocked production ponds with threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) in an effort to control the biomass of algae responsible for off-flavor. We report on the impact of threadfin shad on phytoplankton and zooplankton populations in ponds where channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ...

460

Variations in Growth of Tautog in Nursery Areas in Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Coastal Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the growth of juvenile tautogs Tautoga onitis in Narragansett Bay (Gaspee Point, Mount Hope Bay, and Rose Island) and Rhode Island coastal ponds (Point Judith and Charleston ponds) was evaluated by means of otolith microstructure. The widths of the daily increments in otoliths in the region that represents the postsettlement period (20–50 d) of tautogs collected

Ivan Mateo; Edward G. Durbin; David A. Bengtson; Daisy Durant

2011-01-01

461

How to Maximally Support Local and Regional Biodiversity in Applied Conservation? Insights from Pond Management  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe. PMID:23951328

Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

2013-01-01

462

Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.  

PubMed

Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge. PMID:25051480

Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

463

Hydrogeophysical investigations of the former S-3 ponds contaminant plumes, Oak Ridge Integrated Field  

E-print Network

Hydrogeophysical investigations of the former S-3 ponds contaminant plumes, Oak Ridge Integrated. Hubbard4 , T. L. Mehlhorn5 , and D. B. Watson5 ABSTRACT At the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site, near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contaminants from the former S-3 ponds have infiltrated

Hubbard, Susan

464

Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification of Genetic Loci from Diseased Channel Catfish Found Dead in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a selective breeding program for farm-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, we screened diseased fish to identify genetic markers linked to disease resistance or susceptibility. Because many diseased fish in ponds are not detected until after death, we investigated the utility of DNA isolated from diseased channel catfish found dead in ponds. Channel catfish (4–25 g) diagnosed with

Geoffrey C. Waldbieser

1996-01-01

465

Aquatic vegetation and trophic condition of Cape Cod (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) kettle ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition and relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was evaluated in five Cape Cod, Massachusetts, freshwater kettle ponds, representing a range of trophic conditions from oligotrophic to eutrophic. At each pond, aquatic vegetation and environmental variables (slope, water depth, sediment bulk density, sediment grain size, sediment organic content and porewater inorganic nutrients) were measured along five transects extending perpendicular

Charles T. Roman; Nels E. Barrett; John W. Portnoy

2001-01-01

466

A model of the threedimensional evolution of Arctic melt ponds on firstyear and multiyear sea ice  

E-print Network

A model of the threedimensional evolution of Arctic melt ponds on firstyear and multiyear sea ice F ice. In the summer the upper layers of sea ice and snow melts producing meltwater that accumulates in Arctic melt ponds on the surface of sea ice. An accurate estimate of the fraction of the sea ice surface

Feltham, Daniel

467

Aerial radiological surveys of Steed Pond, Savannah River Site: Dates of surveys, 1984--1989  

SciTech Connect

From June 1984 to August 1985, three aerial radiological surveys were conducted over Steed Pond at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In addition, Steed Pond was included in larger-area surveys of the Savannah River Site in subsequent years. The surveys were conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, Nevada, for the US Department of Energy. Airborne measurements were obtained for both natural and man-made gamma radiation over Steed Pond and surrounding areas. The first survey was conducted when the pond was filled to normal capacity for the time of the year. On September 1, 1984, the Steed Pond dam spillway failed causing the pond to drain. The four subsequent surveys were conducted with the pond drained. The second survey and the third were conducted to study silt deposits exposed by the drop in water level after the spillway`s opening. Steed Pond data from the February 1987 and April 1989 Savannah River Site surveys have been included to bring this study up to date.

Fritzsche, A.E.; Jobst, J.E.

1993-09-01

468

THE ROLE OF CERTAIN ARTHROPODS IN REDUCING MOSQUITO POPULATIONS OF PERMANENT PONDS IN OHIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the literature shows that transient rather than permanent bodies of water are most favorable to the production of mosquitoes, and further that there is little data explaining why this is so. Part of the answer may lie in (1) the fact that the mosquito fauna of permanent ponds is different from that of temporary ponds and pools,

HOWARD W. HINTZ

469

Flow cytometry used to assess genetic damage in frogs from farm ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow cytometry (FC) is a laboratory method used to detect genetic damage induced by environmental contaminants and other stressors in animals, including amphibians. We tested FC methods on three species of ranid frogs collected from farm ponds and natural wetlands in southeastern Minnesota. We compared FC metrics for Rana clamitans between ponds with direct exposure to agricultural contaminants and reference (unexposed) ponds. Concentrations of atrazine in water from our farm ponds ranged from 0.04 to 0.55 ppb. We found that R. clamitans from exposed ponds had DNA content similar to frogs from unexposed ponds. Pond-averaged C-values (a measure of DNA content) ranged from 6.53 to 7.08 for R. pipiens (n . 13), 6.55 to 6.60 for R. clamitans (n . 40) and 6.74 for R. palustris (n . 5). Among all species, the mean sample CVs ranged from 1.91 (R. palustris) to 6.31 (R. pipiens). Deformities were observed in only 2 of 796 individuals among all species and occurred in both reference and exposed ponds. Although we did not detect evidence of DNA damage associated with agriculture in our study, we demonstrated the potential of FC for screening amphibian populations for genetic damage. Metrics from a variety of amphibian species and locations as well as laboratory studies are needed to further assess the value of FC for monitoring amphibian genetic integrity in contaminated sites.

Bly, B.L.; Knutson, M.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.; Gray, B.R.; Jobe, D.A.

2004-01-01

470

Response of Salt Marsh Ponds to Eutropication Austin N. Ritter1,3  

E-print Network

Response of Salt Marsh Ponds to Eutropication Austin N. Ritter1,3 , David Dodge1 , Linda A. Deegan2 examined the response of New England salt marsh ponds to nutrient loading via flooding tidal water as part of nutrient (70 uM nitrate and 4uM phosphate). Our results indicate that gross nitrate processing in salt

Vallino, Joseph J.

471

Commercial-scale in-pond raceway system piques catfish farmers interest in west Alabama  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Construction of a commercial-scale fixed floor In-pond Raceway System (IPRS) began in December 2006 on a 430-water acre farm in Dallas County, AL. The initial IPRS was installed in a traditional 6-acre earthen pond (since the construction of this initial unit, several other farmers have built simila...

472

An Instructional Design Using the Virtual Ecological Pond for Science Education in Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecological ponds can be a good teaching tool for science teachers, but they must be built and maintained properly to provide students with a safe and suitable learning environment. However, many schools do not have the ability to build and maintain an ecological pond. This study used virtual reality technology to develop a web-based virtual…

Tarng, Wernhuar; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Tsai, Wen-Shin; Lin, Yu-Si; Hsu, Chen-Kai

2010-01-01

473

Nuisance chironomids in waste water stabilization ponds: monitoring and action threshold assessment based on public complaints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large populations of non-biting midges (Chironomidae) that emerged from waste water stabilization ponds in central Israel created severe nuisance to nearby residents in 1998. A study was begun in summer 1998 to examine the dynamics and phenology of the population as a basis for a successful control strategy. The extensive waste pond area required the development of efficient, reliable and

M. Broza; M. Halpern; L. Gahanma; M. Inbar

2003-01-01

474

REVIEW OF REFLECTIONS IN BULLOUGH'S POND: ECONOMY AND ECOSYSTEM IN NEW ENGLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Reflections in Bullough's Pond is a fascinating and eye opening chronicle of New England from pre-European settlement to present times. Author Diana Muir uses the history of the pond in her backyard to individualize the story she tells. It's a powerful device that makes her arg...

475

Investigating ponding depth and soil detachability for a mechanistic erosion model using a simple experiment  

E-print Network

Investigating ponding depth and soil detachability for a mechanistic erosion model using a simple soil erosion model (the Rose model) that were not addressed in earlier studies. Specifically, we investigated the impacts of ponding water depth and soil detachability on erosion. The Rose model describes

Walter, M.Todd

476